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Sample records for achieve rapid modulation

  1. Achieving modulated oscillations by feedback control.

    PubMed

    Ge, Tian; Tian, Xiaoying; Kurths, Jürgen; Feng, Jianfeng; Lin, Wei

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to achieve either frequency or amplitude modulation of an oscillator merely through feedback control. We present and implement a unified theory of our approach for any finite-dimensional continuous dynamical system that exhibits oscillatory behavior. The approach is illustrated not only for the normal forms of dynamical systems but also for representative biological models, such as the isolated and coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of our approach to uncover the mechanisms of frequency and amplitude modulations experimentally observed in a wide range of real systems.

  2. Achieving modulated oscillations by feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Tian; Tian, Xiaoying; Kurths, Jürgen; Feng, Jianfeng; Lin, Wei

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we develop an approach to achieve either frequency or amplitude modulation of an oscillator merely through feedback control. We present and implement a unified theory of our approach for any finite-dimensional continuous dynamical system that exhibits oscillatory behavior. The approach is illustrated not only for the normal forms of dynamical systems but also for representative biological models, such as the isolated and coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo model. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of our approach to uncover the mechanisms of frequency and amplitude modulations experimentally observed in a wide range of real systems.

  3. Insights into Rapid Modulation of Neuroplasticity by Brain Estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Woolfrey, Kevin M.; Penzes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence from cellular, electrophysiological, anatomic, and behavioral studies suggests that the remodeling of synapse structure and function is a critical component of cognition. This modulation of neuroplasticity can be achieved through the actions of numerous extracellular signals. Moreover, it is thought that it is the integration of different extracellular signals regulation of neuroplasticity that greatly influences cognitive function. One group of signals that exerts powerful effects on multiple neurologic processes is estrogens. Classically, estrogens have been described to exert their effects over a period of hours to days. However, there is now increasing evidence that estrogens can rapidly influence multiple behaviors, including those that require forebrain neural circuitry. Moreover, these effects are found in both sexes. Critically, it is now emerging that the modulation of cognition by rapid estrogenic signaling is achieved by activation of specific signaling cascades and regulation of synapse structure and function, cumulating in the rewiring of neural circuits. The importance of understanding the rapid effects of estrogens on forebrain function and circuitry is further emphasized as investigations continue to consider the potential of estrogenic-based therapies for neuropathologies. This review focuses on how estrogens can rapidly influence cognition and the emerging mechanisms that underlie these effects. We discuss the potential sources and the biosynthesis of estrogens within the brain and the consequences of rapid estrogenic-signaling on the remodeling of neural circuits. Furthermore, we argue that estrogens act via distinct signaling pathways to modulate synapse structure and function in a manner that may vary with cell type, developmental stage, and sex. Finally, we present a model in which the coordination of rapid estrogenic-signaling and activity-dependent stimuli can result in long-lasting changes in neural circuits

  4. Local modulation of steroid action: rapid control of enzymatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Thierry D.; Cornil, Charlotte A.; Patte-Mensah, Christine; Meyer, Laurence; Mensah-Nyagan, A. Guy; Balthazart, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Estrogens can induce rapid, short-lived physiological and behavioral responses, in addition to their slow, but long-term, effects at the transcriptional level. To be functionally relevant, these effects should be associated with rapid modulations of estrogens concentrations. 17β-estradiol is synthesized by the enzyme aromatase, using testosterone as a substrate, but can also be degraded into catechol-estrogens via hydroxylation by the same enzyme, leading to an increase or decrease in estrogens concentration, respectively. The first evidence that aromatase activity (AA) can be rapidly modulated came from experiments performed in Japanese quail hypothalamus homogenates. This rapid modulation is triggered by calcium-dependent phosphorylations and was confirmed in other tissues and species. The mechanisms controlling the phosphorylation status, the targeted amino acid residues and the reversibility seem to vary depending of the tissues and is discussed in this review. We currently do not know whether the phosphorylation of the same amino acid affects both aromatase and/or hydroxylase activities or whether these residues are different. These processes provide a new general mechanism by which local estrogen concentration can be rapidly altered in the brain and other tissues. PMID:25852459

  5. Sensory detection of food rapidly modulates arcuate feeding circuits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Kuo, Tzu-Wei; Knight, Zachary A

    2015-02-26

    Hunger is controlled by specialized neural circuits that translate homeostatic needs into motivated behaviors. These circuits are under chronic control by circulating signals of nutritional state, but their rapid dynamics on the timescale of behavior remain unknown. Here, we report optical recording of the natural activity of two key cell types that control food intake, AgRP and POMC neurons, in awake behaving mice. We find unexpectedly that the sensory detection of food is sufficient to rapidly reverse the activation state of these neurons induced by energy deficit. This rapid regulation is cell-type specific, modulated by food palatability and nutritional state, and occurs before any food is consumed. These data reveal that AgRP and POMC neurons receive real-time information about the availability of food in the external world, suggesting a primary role for these neurons in controlling appetitive behaviors such as foraging that promote the discovery of food.

  6. Waking State: Rapid Variations Modulate Neural and Behavioral Responses

    PubMed Central

    McGinley, Matthew J.; Vinck, Martin; Reimer, Jacob; Batista-Brito, Renata; Zagha, Edward; Cadwell, Cathryn R.

    2015-01-01

    The state of the brain and body constantly varies on rapid and slow time scales. These variations contribute to the apparent noisiness of sensory responses at both the neural and behavioral level. Recent investigations of rapid state changes in awake, behaving animals have provided insight into the mechanisms by which optimal sensory encoding and behavioral performance are achieved. Fluctuations in state, as indexed by pupillometry, impact both the “signal” (sensory evoked response) and the “noise” (spontaneous activity) of cortical responses. By taking these fluctuations into account, neural response (co-)variability is significantly reduced, revealing the brain to be more reliable and predictable than previously thought. PMID:26402600

  7. Rapid modulation of sensory processing induced by stimulus conflict

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, L.G.; Smith, D.V.; Boehler, C.N.; Chen, W.D.; Woldorff, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Humans are constantly confronted with environmental stimuli that conflict with task goals and can interfere with successful behavior. Prevailing theories propose the existence of cognitive control mechanisms that can suppress the processing of conflicting input and enhance that of the relevant input. However, the temporal cascade of brain processes invoked in response to conflicting stimuli remains poorly understood. By examining evoked electrical brain responses in a novel, hemifield-specific, visual-flanker task, we demonstrate that task-irrelevant conflicting stimulus input is quickly detected in higher-level executive regions while simultaneously inducing rapid, recurrent modulation of sensory processing in the visual cortex. Importantly, however, both of these effects are larger for individuals with greater incongruency-related reaction time slowing. The combination of neural activation patterns and behavioral interference effects suggest that this initial sensory modulation induced by conflicting stimulus inputs reflects performance-degrading attentional distraction due to their incompatibility, rather than any rapid task-enhancing cognitive control mechanisms. The present findings thus provide neural evidence for a model in which attentional distraction is the key initial trigger for the temporal cascade of processes by which the human brain responds to conflicting stimulus input in the environment. PMID:20849233

  8. Rapid, Time-Division Multiplexed, Direct Absorption- and Wavelength Modulation-Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Alexander; Witzel, Oliver; Ebert, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We present a tunable diode laser spectrometer with a novel, rapid time multiplexed direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy operation mode. The new technique allows enhancing the precision and dynamic range of a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer without sacrificing accuracy. The spectroscopic technique combines the benefits of absolute concentration measurements using calibration-free direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (dTDLAS) with the enhanced noise rejection of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). In this work we demonstrate for the first time a 125 Hz time division multiplexed (TDM-dTDLAS-WMS) spectroscopic scheme by alternating the modulation of a DFB-laser between a triangle-ramp (dTDLAS) and an additional 20 kHz sinusoidal modulation (WMS). The absolute concentration measurement via the dTDLAS-technique allows one to simultaneously calibrate the normalized 2f/1f-signal of the WMS-technique. A dTDLAS/WMS-spectrometer at 1.37 μm for H2O detection was built for experimental validation of the multiplexing scheme over a concentration range from 50 to 3000 ppmV (0.1 MPa, 293 K). A precision of 190 ppbV was achieved with an absorption length of 12.7 cm and an averaging time of two seconds. Our results show a five-fold improvement in precision over the entire concentration range and a significantly decreased averaging time of the spectrometer. PMID:25405508

  9. Rapid Mars transits with exhaust-modulated plasma propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Braden, Ellen; Johnson, Ivan; Hsu, Michael M.; Yang, Tien Fang

    1995-01-01

    The operational characteristics of the Exhaust-Modulated Plasma Rocket are described. Four basic human and robotic mission scenarios to Mars are analyzed using numerical optimization techniques at variable specific impulse and constant power. The device is well suited for 'split-sprint' missions, allowing fast, one-way low-payload human transits of 90 to 104 days, as well as slower, 180-day, high-payload robotic precursor flights. Abort capabilities, essential for human missions, are also explored.

  10. Rapid modulation of droplet composition with pincer microvalves.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Christopher J; Abate, Adam R

    2015-01-07

    Single-layer membrane valves are simple to fabricate and to integrate into microfluidic devices. However, due to their rectangular flow channel geometry, they do not fully seal. Here, we show that liquid flow can be reduced by over 3 orders of magnitude, enabling the contents of forming droplets to be dynamically modulated. We use this precision control to perform combinatorial DNA synthesis in the droplets.

  11. ESTRADIOL RAPIDLY MODULATES ODOR RESPONSES IN MOUSE VOMERONASAL SENSORY NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    CHERIAN, S.; LAM, Y. WAI; MCDANIELS, I.; STRUZIAK, M.; DELAY, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    In rodents, many social behaviors are driven by the sense of smell. The vomeronasal organ (VNO), part of the accessory olfactory system mediates many of these chemically driven behaviors. The VNO is heavily vascularized, and is readily accessible to circulating peptide or steroid hormones. Potentially, this allows circulating hormones to alter behavior through modulating the output of the primary sensory neurons in the VNO, the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Based on this, we hypothesized that steroid hormones, in particular 17β-estradiol, would modulate activity of VSNs. In this paper, we show that the estrogen receptors, GPR30 and ERα, were present in VSNs and that estradiol may be synthesized locally in the VNO. Our results also showed that 17β-estradiol decreased responses of isolated VSNs to dilute urine, a potent natural stimulus, with respect to current amplitudes and depolarization. Further, 17β-estradiol increased the latency of the first action potential (AP) and the AP amplitude. Additionally, calcium responses to sulfated steroids (present in the low molecular weight fraction of urine) that act as ligands for apical vomeronasal receptors were decreased by 17β-estradiol. In conclusion, we show that estradiol modulates odorant responses mediated by VSNs and hence paves the way for future studies to better understand the mechanisms by which odorant mediated behavior is altered by endocrine status of the animal. PMID:24680884

  12. Experiments in DIII-D toward achieving rapid shutdown with runaway electron suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Hollmann, E. M.; Commaux, Nicolas JC; Eidietis, N. W.; Evans, T. E.; Humphreys, D. A.; James, A. N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Parks, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Wesley, J. C.; Yu, J.H.; Austin, M. E.; Baylor, Larry R; Brooks, N. H.; Izzo, V. A.; Jackson, G. L.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Wu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments have been performed in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] toward understanding runaway electron formation and amplification during rapid discharge shutdown, as well as toward achieving complete collisional suppression of these runaway electrons via massive delivery of impurities. Runaway acceleration and amplification appear to be well explained using the zero-dimensional (0D) current quench toroidal electric field. 0D or even one-dimensional modeling using a Dreicer seed term, however, appears to be too small to explain the initial runaway seed formation. Up to 15% of the line-average electron density required for complete runaway suppression has been achieved in the middle of the current quench using optimized massive gas injection with multiple small gas valves firing simultaneously. The novel rapid shutdown techniques of massive shattered pellet injection and shell pellet injection have been demonstrated for the first time. Experiments using external magnetic perturbations to deconfine runaways have shown promising preliminary results. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3309426

  13. Experiments in DIII-D toward achieving rapid shutdown with runaway electron suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Hollmann, E. M.; James, A. N.; Yu, J. H.; Izzo, V. A.; Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. C.; Baylor, L. R.; Eidietis, N. W.; Parks, P. B.; Wesley, J. C.; Brooks, N. H.; Jackson, G. L.; Zeeland, M. A. van; Wu, W.; Evans, T. E.; Humphreys, D. A.; Strait, E. J.; Austin, M. E.

    2010-05-15

    Experiments have been performed in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] toward understanding runaway electron formation and amplification during rapid discharge shutdown, as well as toward achieving complete collisional suppression of these runaway electrons via massive delivery of impurities. Runaway acceleration and amplification appear to be well explained using the zero-dimensional (0D) current quench toroidal electric field. 0D or even one-dimensional modeling using a Dreicer seed term, however, appears to be too small to explain the initial runaway seed formation. Up to 15% of the line-average electron density required for complete runaway suppression has been achieved in the middle of the current quench using optimized massive gas injection with multiple small gas valves firing simultaneously. The novel rapid shutdown techniques of massive shattered pellet injection and shell pellet injection have been demonstrated for the first time. Experiments using external magnetic perturbations to deconfine runaways have shown promising preliminary results.

  14. A method to achieve rapid localised deep heating in a laser irradiated solid density target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, H.; Robinson, A. P. L.

    2016-09-01

    Rapid heating of small buried regions by laser generated fast electrons may be useful for applications such as extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation sources or as drivers for shock experiments. In non-structured targets, the heating profile possesses a global maximum near the front surface. This paper presents a new target design that uses resistive guiding to concentrate the fast electron current density at a finite depth inside the target. The choice of geometry uses principles of non-imaging optics. A global temperature maximum at depths up to 50 μ m into the target is achieved. Although theoretical calculations suggest that small source sizes should perform better than large ones, simulations show that a large angular spread at high intensities results in significant losses of the fast electrons to the sides. A systematic parameter scan suggests an optimal laser intensity. A ratio of 1.6 is demonstrated between the maximum ion temperature and the ion temperature at the front surface.

  15. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  16. Solvent induced rapid modulation of micro/nano structures of metal carboxylates coordination polymers: mechanism and morphology dependent magnetism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Shen, Zhu-Rui; Li, Yue; Han, Song-De; Hu, Tong-Liang; Zhang, Da-Shuai; Bu, Xian-He; Ruan, Wen-Juan

    2014-01-01

    Rational modulation of morphology is very important for functional coordination polymers (CPs) micro/nanostructures, and new strategies are still desired to achieve this challenging target. Herein, organic solvents have been established as the capping agents for rapid modulating the growth of metal-carboxylates CPs in organic solvent/water mixtures at ambient conditions. Co-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (pydc) CPs was studied here as the example. During the reaction, the organic solvents exhibited three types of modulation effect: anisotropic growth, anisotropic growth/formation of new crystalline phase and the formation of new crystalline phase solely, which was due to the variation of their binding ability with metal cations. The following study revealed that the binding ability was critically affected by their functional groups and molecular size. Moreover, their modulation effect could be finely tuned by changing volume ratios of solvent mixtures. Furthermore, they could be applied for modulating other metal-carboxylates CPs: Co-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic (BTC), Zn-pydc and Eu-pydc etc. Additionally, the as-prepared Co-pydc CPs showed a fascinating morphology-dependent antiferromagnetic behavior. PMID:25113225

  17. Rapid effects of estrogens on behavior: environmental modulation and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Laredo, Sarah A.; Landeros, Rosalina Villalon; Trainor, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    Estradiol can modulate neural activity and behavior via both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Environmental cues have a major impact on the relative importance of these signaling pathways with significant consequences for behavior. First we consider how photoperiod modulates nongenomic estrogen signaling on behavior. Intriguingly, short days permit rapid effects of estrogens on aggression in both rodents and song sparrows. This highlights the importance of considering photoperiod as a variable in laboratory research. Next we review evidence for rapid effects of estradiol on ecologically-relevant behaviors including aggression, copulation, communication, and learning. We also address the impact of endocrine disruptors on estrogen signaling, such as those found in corncob bedding used in rodent research. Finally, we examine the biochemical mechanisms that may mediate rapid estrogen action on behavior in males and females. A common theme across these topics is that the effects of estrogens on social behaviors vary across different environmental conditions. PMID:24685383

  18. Rapid effects of estrogens on behavior: environmental modulation and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Laredo, Sarah A; Villalon Landeros, Rosalina; Trainor, Brian C

    2014-10-01

    Estradiol can modulate neural activity and behavior via both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Environmental cues have a major impact on the relative importance of these signaling pathways with significant consequences for behavior. First we consider how photoperiod modulates nongenomic estrogen signaling on behavior. Intriguingly, short days permit rapid effects of estrogens on aggression in both rodents and song sparrows. This highlights the importance of considering photoperiod as a variable in laboratory research. Next we review evidence for rapid effects of estradiol on ecologically-relevant behaviors including aggression, copulation, communication, and learning. We also address the impact of endocrine disruptors on estrogen signaling, such as those found in corncob bedding used in rodent research. Finally, we examine the biochemical mechanisms that may mediate rapid estrogen action on behavior in males and females. A common theme across these topics is that the effects of estrogens on social behaviors vary across different environmental conditions.

  19. Low (Sub-1-volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape

    PubMed

    Shi; Zhang; Zhang; Bechtel; Dalton; Robinson; Steier

    2000-04-07

    Electro-optic (EO) modulators encode electrical signals onto fiber optic transmissions. High drive voltages limit gain and noise levels. Typical polymeric and lithium niobate modulators operate with halfwave voltages of 5 volts. Sterically modified organic chromophores have been used to reduce the attenuation of electric field poling-induced electro-optic activity caused by strong intermolecular electrostatic interactions. Such modified chromophores, incorporated into polymer hosts, were used to fabricate EO modulators with halfwave voltages of 0.8 volts (at a telecommunications wavelength of 1318 nanometers) and to achieve a halfwave voltage-interaction length product of 2.2 volt-centimeters. Optical push-pull poling and driving were also used to reduce halfwave voltage. This study, together with recent demonstrations of exceptional bandwidths (more than 110 gigahertz) and ease of integration (with very large scale integration semiconductor circuitry and ultra-low-loss passive optical circuitry) demonstrates the potential of polymeric materials for next generation telecommunications, information processing, and radio frequency distribution.

  20. Feeding status and serotonin rapidly and reversibly modulate a Caenorhabditis elegans chemosensory circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Michael Y.; Komatsu, Hidetoshi; Fukuto, Hana S.; Dionne, Heather M.; Hart, Anne C.

    2004-10-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates synaptic efficacy in the nervous system of vertebrates and invertebrates. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, many behaviors are regulated by 5-HT levels, which are in turn regulated by the presence or absence of food. Here, we show that both food and 5-HT signaling modulate chemosensory avoidance response of octanol in C. elegans, and that this modulation is both rapid and reversible. Sensitivity to octanol is decreased when animals are off food or when 5-HT levels are decreased; conversely, sensitivity is increased when animals are on food or have increased 5-HT signaling. Laser microsurgery and behavioral experiments reveal that sensory input from different subsets of octanol-sensing neurons is selectively used, depending on stimulus strength, feeding status, and 5-HT levels. 5-HT directly targets at least one pair of sensory neurons, and 5-HT signaling requires the G protein GPA-11. Glutamatergic signaling is required for response to octanol, and the GLR-1 glutamate receptor plays an important role in behavioral response off food but not on food. Our results demonstrate that 5-HT modulation of neuronal activity via G protein signaling underlies behavioral plasticity by rapidly altering the functional circuitry of a chemosensory circuit.

  1. Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME): Using a Multiplexed Miniature Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Solution for Rapid Process Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunn, Griffin; Wheeler, Raymond; Hummerick, Mary; Birmele, Michele; Richards, Jeffrey; Coutts, Janelle; Koss, Lawrence; Spencer, Lashelle.; Johnsey, Marissa; Ellis, Ronald

    Bioreactor research, even today, is mostly limited to continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs). These are not an option for microgravity applications due to the lack of a gravity gradient to drive aeration as described by the Archimedes principle. This has led to testing of Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactors (HFMBs) for microgravity applications, including possible use for wastewater treatment systems for the International Space Station (ISS). Bioreactors and filtration systems for treating wastewater could avoid the need for harsh pretreatment chemicals and improve overall water recovery. However, the construction of these reactors is difficult and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) versions do not exist in small sizes. We have used 1-L modular HFMBs in the past, but the need to perform rapid testing has led us to consider even smaller systems. To address this, we designed and built 125-mL, rectangular reactors, which we have called the Fiber Attachment Module Experiment (FAME) system. A polycarbonate rack of four square modules was developed with each module containing removable hollow fibers. Each FAME reactor is self-contained and can be easily plumbed with peristaltic and syringe pumps for continuous recycling of fluids and feeding, as well as fitted with sensors for monitoring pH, dissolved oxygen, and gas measurements similar to their larger counterparts. The first application tested in the FAME racks allowed analysis of over a dozen fiber surface treatments and three inoculation sources to achieve rapid reactor startup and biofilm attachment (based on carbon oxidation and nitrification of wastewater). With these miniature FAME reactors, data for this multi-factorial test were collected in duplicate over a six-month period; this greatly compressed time period required for gathering data needed to study and improve bioreactor performance.

  2. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  3. Nanocomposite Architecture for Rapid, Spectrally-Selective Electrochromic Modulation of Solar Transmittance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwook; Ong, Gary K; Wang, Yang; LeBlanc, Gabriel; Williams, Teresa E; Mattox, Tracy M; Helms, Brett A; Milliron, Delia J

    2015-08-12

    Two active electrochromic materials, vacancy-doped tungsten oxide (WO(3-x)) nanocrystals and amorphous niobium oxide (NbOx) glass are arranged into a mesostructured architecture. In a strategy applicable across electrochemical applications, the critical dimensions and interfacial connections in the nanocomposite are designed to optimize pathways for electrochemical charging and discharging. The result is an unprecedented optical range for modulation of visible and near-infrared solar radiation with rapid switching kinetics that indicate the WO(3-x) nanocrystal framework effectively pumps charge out of the normally sluggish NbOx glass. The material is durable for at least 2000 electrochemical cycles.

  4. A rapid method to achieve aero-engine blade form detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Li, Bing

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces.

  5. Rapid, simple, and cost-effective treatments to achieve long-term hydrophilic PDMS surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmilä, Samu; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V.; Kreutzer, Joose; Kallio, Pasi

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes rapid, simple, and cost-effective treatments for producing biocompatible and long-term hydrophilic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces identified in an experimental study investigating 39 treatments in all. The wetting of the surfaces was monitored during six months. Changes in surface morphology and chemical composition were also analyzed. Some of the treatments are presented here for the first time, while for earlier presented treatments the selection of investigated parameters was wider and the observation period for the surface wetting longer. The PDMS surfaces were modified by surface activation, physisorption, and synthesis of both “grafting to” and “grafting from” polymer brushes. In surface activation, the PDMS sample was exposed to oxygen plasma, with several combinations of exposure time and RF power. In the physisorption and synthesis of polymer brushes, three commercially available and biocompatible chemicals were used: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Thirty-three of the 39 treatments rendered the PDMS hydrophilic, and in 12 cases the hydrophilicity lasted at least six months. Seven of these long-term hydrophilic coatings supported a contact angle of 30° or less. Three of the long-lasting hydrophilic coatings required only minutes to prepare.

  6. A Rapid Method to Achieve Aero-Engine Blade Form Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bin; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a rapid method to detect aero-engine blade form, according to the characteristics of an aero-engine blade surface. This method first deduces an inclination error model in free-form surface measurements based on the non-contact laser triangulation principle. Then a four-coordinate measuring system was independently developed, a special fixture was designed according to the blade shape features, and a fast measurement of the blade features path was planned. Finally, by using the inclination error model for correction of acquired data, the measurement error that was caused by tilt form is compensated. As a result the measurement accuracy of the Laser Displacement Sensor was less than 10 μm. After the experimental verification, this method makes full use of optical non-contact measurement fast speed, high precision and wide measuring range of features. Using a standard gauge block as a measurement reference, the coordinate system conversion data is simple and practical. It not only improves the measurement accuracy of the blade surface, but also its measurement efficiency. Therefore, this method increases the value of the measurement of complex surfaces. PMID:26039420

  7. Rapid Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging based on four photoelastic modulators with no moving parts (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribble, Adam; Alali, Sanaz; Vitkin, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Polarized light has many applications in biomedical imaging. The interaction of a biological sample with polarized light reveals information about its composition, both structural and functional. For example, the polarimetry-derived metric of linear retardance (birefringence) is dependent on tissue structural organization (anisotropy) and can be used to diagnose myocardial infarct; circular birefringence (optical rotation) can measure glucose concentrations. The most comprehensive type of polarimetry analysis is to measure the Mueller matrix, a polarization transfer function that completely describes how a sample interacts with polarized light. To derive this 4x4 matrix it is necessary to observe how a tissue interacts with different polarizations. A well-suited approach for tissue polarimetry is to use photoelastic modulators (PEMs), which dynamically modulate the polarization of light. Previously, we have demonstrated a rapid time-gated Stokes imaging system that is capable of characterizing the state of polarized light (the Stokes vector) over a large field, after interacting with any turbid media. This was accomplished by synchronizing CCD camera acquisition times relative to two PEMs using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Here, we extend this technology to four PEMs, yielding a polarimetry system that is capable of rapidly measuring the complete sample Mueller matrix over a large field of view, with no moving parts and no beam steering. We describe the calibration procedure and evaluate the accuracy of the measurements. Results are shown for tissue-mimicking phantoms, as well as initial biological samples.

  8. [Complete response achieved after rituximab plus CHOP therapy in a patient with rapidly progressing Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia].

    PubMed

    Ise, Mikiko; Sakai, Chikara; Kumagai, Kyoya

    2009-01-01

    A 62-year-old man presented with lymphocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, abdominal lymphadenopathies, and gross splenomegaly. He had a high serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) of 1,150 mg/dl and IgM-kappa type monoclonal protein was detected. Bone marrow examination demonstrated massive infiltration of CD19+CD20+CD5-CD10-CD23-lymphoplasmacytic cells, and the diagnosis of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) was made. The serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and beta2-microglobulin were also elevated to 14,300 U/ml and 6.2 mg/l, respectively. The high tumor burden and aggressive clinical features prompted the initiation of CHOP therapy. After three courses of CHOP, the patient recovered from anemia and the serum IgM level decreased to 615 mg/dl. Then we administered rituximab in combination with CHOP (R-CHOP therapy). After an additional five courses of R-CHOP, bone marrow tumor cells, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathies entirely disappeared and IgM-type monoclonal protein also became negative on immunofixation studies. Thus, a complete response (CR) was achieved and the patient has remained in CR for 12 months. Although new therapeutic options for WM including combination chemotherapy have recently been explored, complete response rates defined by immunofixation remain low. Our case indicates that R-CHOP therapy is fully effective and tolerable for aggressive type WM.

  9. Innovations in motoneuron synchrony drive rapid temporal modulations in vertebrate acoustic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chagnaud, Boris P.; Zee, Michele C.; Baker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Rapid temporal modulation of acoustic signals among several vertebrate lineages has recently been shown to depend on the actions of superfast muscles. We hypothesized that such fast events, known to require synchronous activation of muscle fibers, would rely on motoneuronal properties adapted to generating a highly synchronous output to sonic muscles. Using intracellular in vivo recordings, we identified a suite of premotor network inputs and intrinsic motoneuronal properties synchronizing the oscillatory-like, simultaneous activation of superfast muscles at high gamma frequencies in fish. Motoneurons lacked spontaneous activity, firing synchronously only at the frequency of premotor excitatory input. Population-level motoneuronal output generated a spike-like, vocal nerve volley that directly determines muscle contraction rate and, in turn, natural call frequency. In the absence of vocal output, motoneurons showed low excitability and a weak afterhyperpolarization, leading to rapid accommodation in firing rate. By contrast, vocal activity was accompanied by a prominent afterhyperpolarization, indicating a dependency on network activity. Local injection of a GABAA receptor antagonist demonstrated the necessity of electrophysiologically and immunohistochemically confirmed inhibitory GABAergic input for motoneuronal synchrony and vocalization. Numerous transneuronally labeled motoneurons following single-cell neurobiotin injection together with electrophysiological collision experiments confirmed gap junctional coupling, known to contribute to synchronous activity in other neural networks. Motoneuronal synchrony at the premotor input frequency was maintained during differential recruitment of variably sized motoneurons. Differential motoneuron recruitment led, however, to amplitude modulation (AM) of vocal output and, hence, natural call AM. In summary, motoneuronal intrinsic properties, in particular low excitability, predisposed vocal motoneurons to the

  10. Pharmacological modulations of cardiac ultra-rapid and slowly activating delayed rectifier currents: potential antiarrhythmic approaches.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed A

    2010-01-01

    Despite the emerging new insights into our understandings of the cellular mechanisms underlying cardiac arrhythmia, medical therapy for this disease remains unsatisfactory. Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most prevalent arrhythmia, is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, ventricular fibrillation results in sudden cardiac deaths in many instances. Prolongation of cardiac action potential (AP) is a proven principle of antiarrhythmic therapy. Class III antiarrhythmic agents prolong AP and QT interval by blocking rapidly activating delayed rectifier current (I(Kr)). However, I(Kr) blocking drugs carry the risk of life-threatening proarrhythmia. Recently, modulation of atrial-selective ultra-rapid delayed rectifier current (I(Kur)), has emerged as a novel therapeutic approach to treat AF. A number of I(Kur) blockers are being evaluated for the treatment of AF. The inhibition of slowly activating delayed rectifier current (I(Ks)) has also been proposed as an effective and safer antiarrhythmic approach because of its distinguishing characteristics that differ in remarkable ways from other selective class III agents. Selective I(Ks) block may prolong AP duration (APD) at rapid rates without leading to proarrhythmia. This article reviews the pathophysiological roles of I(Kur) and I(Ks) in cardiac repolarization and the implications of newly developed I(Kur) and I(Ks) blocking agents as promising antiarrhythmic approaches. Several recent patents pertinent to antiarrhythmic drug development have been discussed. Further research will be required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these agents in the clinical setting.

  11. Application of frequency modulated chirp stimuli for rapid and sensitive ABR measurements in the rat.

    PubMed

    Spankovich, Christopher; Hood, Linda J; Wesley Grantham, D; Polley, Daniel B

    2008-11-01

    Rodents have proven to be a useful model system to screen genes, ototoxic compounds and sound exposure protocols that may play a role in hearing loss. High-throughput screening depends upon a rapid and reliable functional assay for hearing loss. This study describes the use of a frequency modulated (FM) chirp stimulus as an alternative to the click to derive a rapid assessment of auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold in the rodent. We designed a rising frequency A-chirp based upon the spatial mapping of preferred frequency along the rat basilar membrane to provide a more synchronous and equipotent input across the length of the cochlea. We observed that the ABR wave I and wave IV amplitudes evoked by the A-chirp were significantly greater than the click and that A-chirp minimum response thresholds were lower than the click. Subsequent analyses compared the efficacy of the A-chirp to linear, time-reversed and amplitude-reversed chirps and confirmed that the A-chirp was most effective chirp configuration. These data suggest that the A-chirp may be optimally suited as a single screening broad-frequency stimulus for rapid ABR threshold estimations in the rodent and could serve to complement more detailed frequency-specific physiologic and behavioral estimates of hearing threshold.

  12. Rapid Modulation of Axon Initial Segment Length Influences Repetitive Spike Firing

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Mark D.; Dumitrescu, Adna S.; Kruijssen, Dennis L.H.; Taylor, Samuel E.; Grubb, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neurons implement a variety of plasticity mechanisms to alter their function over timescales ranging from seconds to days. One powerful means of controlling excitability is to directly modulate the site of spike initiation, the axon initial segment (AIS). However, all plastic structural AIS changes reported thus far have been slow, involving days of neuronal activity perturbation. Here, we show that AIS plasticity can be induced much more rapidly. Just 3 hr of elevated activity significantly shortened the AIS of dentate granule cells in a calcineurin-dependent manner. The functional effects of rapid AIS shortening were offset by dephosphorylation of voltage-gated sodium channels, another calcineurin-dependent mechanism. However, pharmacological separation of these phenomena revealed a significant relationship between AIS length and repetitive firing. The AIS can therefore undergo a rapid form of structural change over timescales that enable interactions with other forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the dynamic control of neuronal excitability. PMID:26526995

  13. Rapid modulation of synaptogenesis and spinogenesis by 17β-estradiol in primary cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Katherine J.; Erli, Filippo; Raval, Pooja; Watson, Iain A.; Chen, Ding; Srivastava, Deepak P.

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian forebrain, the majority of excitatory synapses occur on dendritic spines. Changes in the number of these structures is important for brain development, plasticity and the refinement of neuronal circuits. The formation of excitatory synapses involves the coordinated formation of dendritic spines and targeting of multi-protein complexes to nascent connections. Recent studies have demonstrated that the estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) can rapidly increase the number of dendritic spines, an effect consistent with the ability of E2 to rapidly influence cognitive function. However, the molecular composition of E2-induced spines and whether these protrusions form synaptic connections has not been fully elucidated. Moreover, which estrogen receptor(s) (ER) mediate these spine-morphogenic responses are not clear. Here, we report that acute E2 treatment results in the recruitment of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) to novel dendritic spines. In addition neuroligin 1 (Nlg-1) and the NMDA receptor subunit GluN1 are recruited to nascent synapses in cortical neurons. The presence of these synaptic proteins at nascent synapses suggests that the machinery to allow pre- and post-synapses to form connections are present in E2-induced spines. We further demonstrate that E2 treatment results in the rapid and transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. However, only ERK1/2 and Akt are required for E2-mediated spinogenesis. Using synthetic receptor modulators, we further demonstrate that activation of the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) but not alpha (ERα) mimics rapid E2-induced spinogenesis and synaptogenesis. Taken together these findings suggest that in primary cortical neurons, E2 signaling via ERβ, but not through ERα, is capable of remodeling neuronal circuits by increasing the number of excitatory synapses. PMID:25926772

  14. Social context rapidly modulates the influence of auditory feedback on avian vocal motor control.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Jon T; Brainard, Michael S

    2009-10-01

    Sensory feedback is important for the learning and control of a variety of behaviors. Vocal motor production in songbirds is a powerful model system to study sensory influences on behavior because the learning, maintenance, and control of song are critically dependent on auditory feedback. Based on previous behavioral and neural experiments, it has been hypothesized that songs produced in isolation [undirected (UD) song] represent a form of vocal practice, whereas songs produced to females during courtship interactions [female-directed (FD) song] represent a form of vocal performance. According to this "practice versus performance" framework, auditory feedback should be more influential when birds engage in vocal practice than when they engage in vocal performance. To directly test this hypothesis, we used a computerized system to perturb auditory feedback at precise locations during the songs of Bengalese finches and compared the degree to which feedback perturbations caused song interruptions as well as changes to the sequencing and timing of syllables between interleaved renditions of UD and FD song. We found that feedback perturbation caused fewer song interruptions and smaller changes to syllable timing during FD song than during UD song. These data show that changes in the social context in which song is produced rapidly modulate the influence of auditory feedback on song control in a manner consistent with the practice versus performance framework. More generally, they indicate that, for song, as for other motor skills including human speech, the influence of sensory feedback on activity within vocal premotor circuitry can be dynamically modulated.

  15. Positive AMPA receptor modulation rapidly stimulates BDNF release and increases dendritic mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Jourdi, Hussam; Hsu, Yu-Tien; Zhou, Miou; Qin, Qingyu; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2009-07-08

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulates local dendritic mRNA translation and is involved in formation and consolidation of memory. 2H,3H,6aH-pyrrolidino[2'',1''-3',2']1,3-oxazino[6',5'-5,4]-benzo[e]1,4-dioxan-10-one (CX614), one of the best-studied positive AMPA receptor modulators (also known as ampakines), increases BDNF mRNA and protein and facilitates long-term potentiation (LTP) induction. Several other ampakines also improve performance in various behavioral and learning tasks. Since local dendritic protein synthesis has been implicated in LTP stabilization and in memory consolidation, this study investigated whether CX614 could influence synaptic plasticity by upregulating dendritic protein translation. CX614 treatment of primary neuronal cultures and acute hippocampal slices rapidly activated the translation machinery and increased local dendritic protein synthesis. CX614-induced activation of translation was blocked by K252a [(9S,10R,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i][1,6]benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid methyl ester], CNQX, APV, and TTX, and was inhibited in the presence of an extracellular BDNF scavenger, TrkB-Fc. The acute effect of CX614 on translation was mediated by increased BDNF release as demonstrated with a BDNF scavenging assay using TrkB-Fc during CX614 treatment of cultured primary neurons and was blocked by nifedipine, ryanodine, and lack of extracellular Ca(2+) in acute hippocampal slices. Finally, CX614, like BDNF, rapidly increased dendritic translation of an exogenous translation reporter. Together, our results demonstrate that positive modulation of AMPA receptors rapidly stimulates dendritic translation, an effect mediated by BDNF secretion and TrkB receptor activation. They also suggest that increased BDNF secretion and stimulation of local protein synthesis contribute to the effects of ampakines on synaptic plasticity.

  16. Energy-Level Modulation of Small-Molecule Electron Acceptors to Achieve over 12% Efficiency in Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sunsun; Ye, Long; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Shaoqing; Mukherjee, Subhrangsu; Ade, Harald; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-11-01

    Fine energy-level modulations of small-molecule acceptors (SMAs) are realized via subtle chemical modifications on strong electron-withdrawing end-groups. The two new SMAs (IT-M and IT-DM) end-capped by methyl-modified dicycanovinylindan-1-one exhibit upshifted lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels, and hence higher open-circuit voltages can be observed in the corresponding devices. Finally, a top power conversion efficiency of 12.05% is achieved.

  17. Cacna1c (Cav1.2) Modulates Electroencephalographic Rhythm and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deependra; Dedic, Nina; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Voulé, Stephanie; Deussing, Jan M.; Kimura, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The CACNA1C gene encodes the alpha 1C (α1C) subunit of the Cav1.2 voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel (LTCC). Some of the other voltage-dependent calcium channels, e.g., P-/Q-type, Cav2.1; N-type, Cav2.2; E-/R-type, Cav2.3; and T-type, Cav3.3 have been implicated in sleep modulation. However, the contribution of LTCCs to sleep remains largely unknown. Based on recent genome-wide association studies, CACNA1C emerged as one of potential candidate genes associated with both sleep and psychiatric disorders. Indeed, most patients with mental illnesses have sleep problems and vice versa. Design: To investigate an impact of Cav1.2 on sleep-wake behavior and electroencephalogram (EEG) activity, polysomnography was performed in heterozygous Cacna1c (HET) knockout mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates under baseline and challenging conditions (acute sleep deprivation and restraint stress). Measurements and Results: HET mice displayed significantly lower EEG spectral power than WT mice across high frequency ranges (beta to gamma) during wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Although HET mice spent slightly more time asleep in the dark period, daily amounts of sleep did not differ between the two genotypes. However, recovery sleep after exposure to both types of challenging stress conditions differed markedly; HET mice exhibited reduced REM sleep recovery responses compared to WT mice. Conclusions: These results suggest the involvement of Cacna1c (Cav1.2) in fast electroencephalogram oscillations and REM sleep regulatory processes. Lower spectral gamma activity, slightly increased sleep demands, and altered REM sleep responses found in heterozygous Cacna1c knockout mice may rather resemble a sleep phenotype observed in schizophrenia patients. Citation: Kumar D, Dedic N, FLachskamm C, Voulé S, Deussing JM, Kimura M. Cacna1c (Cav1.2) modulates electroencephalographic rhythm and rapid eye movement sleep recovery. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1371–1380. PMID

  18. Injection-insensitive lateral divergence in broad-area diode lasers achieved by spatial current modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Tong, Cunzhu; Wang, Lijie; Zeng, Yugang; Tian, Sicong; Shu, Shili; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Lijun

    2016-11-01

    High-power broad-area (BA) diode lasers often suffer from low beam quality, broad linewidth, and a widened slow-axis far field with increasing current. In this paper, a two-dimensional current-modulated structure is proposed and it is demonstrated that it can reduce not only the far-field sensitivity to the injection current but also the linewidth of the lasing spectra. Injection-insensitive lateral divergence was realized, and the beam parameter product (BPP) was improved by 36.5%. At the same time, the linewidth was decreased by about 45% without significant degradations of emission power and conversion efficiency.

  19. Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. N.; Goodrich, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 (+ or -) 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 (+ or -) 0.7, -0.4 (+ or -) 0.3, and 76 (+ or -) 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on (Delta)p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc.

  20. Rapid Curtailing of the Stringent Response by Toxin-Antitoxin Module-Encoded mRNases

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chengzhe; Roghanian, Mohammad; Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke; Sneppen, Kim; Sørensen, Michael Askvad; Gerdes, Kenn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli regulates its metabolism to adapt to changes in the environment, in particular to stressful downshifts in nutrient quality. Such shifts elicit the so-called stringent response, coordinated by the alarmone guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate [(p)ppGpp]. On sudden amino acid (aa) starvation, RelA [(p)ppGpp synthetase I] activity is stimulated by binding of uncharged tRNAs to a vacant ribosomal site; the (p)ppGpp level increases dramatically and peaks within the time scale of a few minutes. The decrease of the (p)ppGpp level after the peak is mediated by the decreased production of mRNA by (p)ppGpp-associated transcriptional regulation, which reduces the vacant ribosomal A site and thus constitutes negative feedback to the RelA-dependent (p)ppGpp synthesis. Here we showed that on sudden isoleucine starvation, this peak was higher in an E. coli strain that lacks the 10 known mRNase-encoding toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules present in the wild-type (wt) strain. This observation suggested that toxins are part of the negative-feedback mechanism to control the (p)ppGpp level during the early stringent response. We built a ribosome trafficking model to evaluate the fold increase in RelA activity just after the onset of aa starvation. Combining this with a feedback model between the (p)ppGpp level and the mRNA level, we obtained reasonable fits to the experimental data for both strains. The analysis revealed that toxins are activated rapidly, within a minute after the onset of starvation, reducing the mRNA half-life by ∼30%. IMPORTANCE The early stringent response elicited by amino acid starvation is controlled by a sharp increase of the cellular (p)ppGpp level. Toxin-antitoxin module-encoded mRNases are activated by (p)ppGpp through enhanced degradation of antitoxins. The present work shows that this activation happens over a very short time scale and that the activated mRNases negatively affect the (p)ppGpp level. The proposed mathematical model of

  1. Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for space station freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W. )

    1991-03-01

    A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 {plus minus} 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 {plus minus} 0.7, {minus}0.4 {plus minus} 0.3, and 76 {plus minus} 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on {Delta}p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc. 13 refs.

  2. Demonstration of rapid and sensitive module leak certification for space station freedom. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    A leak detection and quantification demonstration using perflurocarbon tracer (PFT) technology was successfully performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center on January 25, 1991. The real-time Dual Trap Analyzer (DTA) at one-half hour after the start of the first run gave an estimated leak rate of 0.7 mL/min. This has since been refined to be 1.15 {plus_minus} 0.09 mL/min. The leak rates in the next three runs were determined to be 9.8 {plus_minus} 0.7, {minus}0.4 {plus_minus} 0.3, and 76 {plus_minus} 6 mL/min, respectively. The theory on leak quantification in the steady-state and time-dependent modes for a single zone test facility was developed and applied to the above determinations. The laboratory PFT analysis system gave a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 0.05 fL for ocPDCH. This is the tracer of choice and is about 100-fold better than that for the DTA. Applied to leak certification, the LOD is about 0.00002 mL/s (0.000075 L/h), a 5 order-of-magnitude improvement over the original leak certification specification. Furthermore, this limit can be attained in a measurement period of 3 to 4 hours instead of days, weeks, or months. A new Leak Certification Facility is also proposed to provide for zonal (three zones) determination of leak rates. The appropriate multizone equations, their solutions, and error analysis have already been derived. A new concept of seal-integrity certification has been demonstrated for a variety of controlled leaks in the range of module leak testing. High structural integrity leaks were shown to have a linear dependence of flow on {Delta}p. The rapid determination of leak rates at different pressures is proposed and is to be determined while subjecting the module to other external force-generating parameters such as vibration, torque, solar intensity, etc. 13 refs.

  3. Design options for achieving a rapidly variable heat-to-power ratio in a combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell system (FCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colella, Whitney

    This article calls for a change in paradigm within the fuel cells industry such that it focuses less on solely maximizing a fuel cell's electrical efficiency, and more on a fuel cell system's (FCS) overall combined thermal and electrical efficiency, as defined in relation to the instantaneous demand for heat and electricity. Based on market needs in the power generation sector, it emphasizes the need to develop FCSs such that they can achieve a heat-to-power ratio that can be rapidly varied. This article then delineates engineering methods to achieve a rapidly variable heat-to-power ratio for a combined heat and power (CHP) FCS.

  4. Creation of a Rapid High-Fidelity Aerodynamics Module for a Multidisciplinary Design Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Muktha; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2012-01-01

    surrogate model, which captures the relationships between input variables and responses into regression equations. Depending on the dimensionality of the problem and the fidelity of the code for which a surrogate model is being created, the initial DOE can itself be computationally prohibitive to run. Cokriging, a modeling approach from the field of geostatistics, provides a desirable compromise between computational expense and fidelity. To do this, cokriging leverages a large body of data generated by a low fidelity analysis, combines it with a smaller set of data from a higher fidelity analysis, and creates a kriging surrogate model with prediction fidelity approaching that of the higher fidelity analysis. When integrated into a multidisciplinary environment, a disciplinary analysis module employing cokriging can raise the analysis fidelity without drastically impacting the expense of design iterations. This is demonstrated through the creation of an aerodynamics analysis module in NASA s OpenMDAO framework. Aerodynamic analyses including Missile DATCOM, APAS, and USM3D are leveraged to create high fidelity aerodynamics decks for parametric vehicle geometries, which are created in NASA s Vehicle Sketch Pad (VSP). Several trade studies are performed to examine the achieved level of model fidelity, and the overall impact to vehicle design is quantified.

  5. Achievable capacity improvement by using multi-level modulation format in trench-assisted multi-core fiber system.

    PubMed

    Chang, J H; Choi, H G; Chung, Y C

    2013-06-17

    We evaluate the impacts of using multi-level modulation formats on the transmission capacity of the multi-core fiber (MCF) having trench-assisted index profile and hexagonal layout. For this evaluation, we utilize the spectral efficiency per unit area, defined as the spatial spectral efficiency (SSE). The results show that the SSE improvement achievable by using the higher-level modulation format can be reduced due to its lower tolerance to the inter-core crosstalk. We also evaluate the effects of using large effective area on the transmission capacity of the trench-assisted MCF. The results show that the use of large effective area can decrease this capacity due to the increased inter-core crosstalk and lengthened cable cutoff wavelength, although it can help increase the transmission distance. Thus, it is necessary to optimize the effective area of MCF by considering both the SSE and transmission distance. However, the results indicate that the effect of using different effective areas on the SSE-distance product is not significant, and it is not useful to increase the effective area of the trench-assisted MCF to be larger than ~110 μm(2).

  6. A high frequency resonance in the responses of retinal ganglion cells to rapidly modulated stimuli: A computer model

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, J.A.; DENNING, K.S.; GEORGE, J.S.; MARSHAK, D.W.; KENYON, G.T.

    2012-01-01

    Brisk Y-type ganglion cells in the cat retina exhibit a high frequency resonance (HFR) in their responses to large, rapidly modulated stimuli. We used a computer model to test whether negative feedback mediated by axon-bearing amacrine cells onto ganglion cells could account for the experimentally observed properties of HFRs. Temporal modulation transfer functions (tMTFs) recorded from model ganglion cells exhibited HFR peaks whose amplitude, width, and locations were qualitatively consistent with experimental data. Moreover, the wide spatial distribution of axon-mediated feedback accounted for the observed increase in HFR amplitude with stimulus size. Model phase plots were qualitatively similar to those recorded from Y ganglion cells, including an anomalous phase advance that in our model coincided with the amplification of low-order harmonics that overlapped the HFR peak. When axon-mediated feedback in the model was directed primarily to bipolar cells, whose synaptic output was graded, or else when the model was replaced with a simple cascade of linear filters, it was possible to produce large HFR peaks but the region of anomalous phase advance was always eliminated, suggesting the critical involvement of strongly non-linear feedback loops. To investigate whether HFRs might contribute to visual processing, we simulated high frequency ocular tremor by rapidly modulating a naturalistic image. Visual signals riding on top of the imposed jitter conveyed an enhanced representation of large objects. We conclude that by amplifying responses to ocular tremor, HFRs may selectively enhance the processing of large image features. PMID:17020633

  7. Are rapid changes in gonadal testosterone release involved in the fast modulation of brain estrogen effects?

    PubMed Central

    Cornil, Charlotte A.; Stevenson, Tyler J.; Ball, Gregory F.

    2009-01-01

    Estradiol facilitates the expression of male sexual behavior in Japanese quail within a few minutes. These rapid behavioral effects of estradiol could result from rapid changes in its local production in the preoptic area by aromatase, the enzyme converting testosterone into estradiol. Alternatively, aromatase activity may remain constant but fluctuations of local estradiol production could arise from rapid changes in the concentration of the enzymatic substrate, namely testosterone. Rapid increases of circulating testosterone levels have been observed in males of various species following social encounters. Surprisingly, in quail, the interaction with a female seems to result in a decrease in circulating testosterone levels. However, in that study conducted in quail, the samples were collected at intervals longer than the recently observed rapid effects of estradiol on sexual behavior. In the present study we investigated whether plasma testosterone concentrations fluctuate on a shorter time-frame. Eleven male were tested 5 min before and 5, 15 or 30 min after being allowed to have visual access to a female or to copulate with a female for 5 min. Both types of interactions resulted in a significant decline in circulating testosterone levels at latencies as short as 5 min. These data demonstrate that the decrease in testosterone levels is initiated shortly after sexual encounters. Because visual interactions with a female did not result in a rapid increase in testosterone concentrations, these findings rule out the possibility that a rapid rise in circulating testosterone levels participates in the rapid increase in brain estrogen synthesis and its facilitatory effects on copulatory behavior. PMID:19416729

  8. A Mixed-Methods Study of the Transformation Model for Rapid Improvement of Low Achieving Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson Duina, Angela

    2013-01-01

    New regulations attached to ARRA funding of federal School Improvement Fund grants aimed at producing rapid turnaround of low performing schools were highly criticized as unsuitable for rural schools. This mixed-methods study looked at the implementation of the School Improvement Fund Transformation Model in two rural Maine high schools during the…

  9. Rapid micro-optical prototyping technology for fabricating optical interconnection modules at the MCM and PCB level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaes, C.; Vervaeke, M.; Van Erps, J.; Desmet, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Gomez, V.; Vynck, P.; Van Overmeire, S.; Ishii, Y.; Hermanne, A.; Thienpont, H.

    2006-10-01

    One of the remaining challenges to solve the interconnection bottlenecks at the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Multi-Chip-Module (MCM) level, is to adequately replace the galvanic interconnects with high-performance, low-cost, compact and reliable micro-photonic alternatives. At our labs of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel we are therefore optimizing and deploying a rapid micro-optical prototyping technology for micro-optical interconnect modules, which we call Deep Proton Writing (DPW). An advantage of the DPW process is that it can create steep micro-optical surfaces, micro-holes, micro-lenses and alignment features in one irradation step. Hence, relative accuracies are very well controlled. In this report, we will address more specifically the following components, made each with the DPW technology: 1) out-of-plane couplers for optical wave-guides embedded in PCB, 2) peripheral fiber ribbons and two dimensional single- and multimode fiber connectors for high-speed parallel optical connections, and 3) intra-MCM level optical interconnections via free-space optical modules. We will give special attention to the optical tolerancing and the opto-mechanical integration of components in their packages. We use both a sensitivity analysis to misalignment errors and Monte-Carlo simulations. It is our aim to investigate the whole component integration chain from the optoelectronic device packaging to the micro-opto-mechanical assembly of the interconnect module.

  10. A rapidly modulated multifocal detection scheme for parallel acquisition of Raman spectra from a 2-D focal array.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingbo; Chan, James

    2014-07-01

    We report the development of a rapidly modulated multifocal detection scheme that enables full Raman spectra (~500-2000 cm(-1)) from a 2-D focal array to be acquired simultaneously. A spatial light modulator splits a laser beam to generate an m × n multifocal array. Raman signals generated within each focus are projected simultaneously into a spectrometer and imaged onto a TE-cooled CCD camera. A shuttering system using different masks is constructed to collect the superimposed Raman spectra of different multifocal patterns. The individual Raman spectrum from each focus is then retrieved from the superimposed spectra with no crosstalk using a postacquisition data processing algorithm. This system is expected to significantly improve the speed of current Raman-based instruments such as laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy and hyperspectral Raman imaging.

  11. A Survey of Hardware and Software Technologies for the Rapid Development of Multimedia Instructional Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganesan, Nanda

    2008-01-01

    A survey of hardware and software technologies was conducted to identify suitable technologies for the development of instructional modules representing various instructional approaches. The approaches modeled were short PowerPoint presentations, chalk-and-talk type of lectures and software tutorials. The survey focused on identifying application…

  12. Rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging system using an interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Zhilie; Wu, Yongbo; Wang, Yi

    2015-04-15

    We designed, fabricated, and tested a rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique. Such a rapid and noncontact probing system can greatly decrease the time of imaging. The proposed PAT imaging system is experimentally verified by capturing images of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within the ear flap of a mouse (pinna) in vivo. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are evaluated at 45 and ∼15 μm, respectively. The imaging depth of the system is 1 mm in a special phantom. Our results show that the proposed system opens a promising way to realize noncontact, real-time PAT.

  13. Rapid determination of Faraday rotation in optical glasses by means of secondary Faraday modulator.

    PubMed

    Sofronie, M; Elisa, M; Sava, B A; Boroica, L; Valeanu, M; Kuncser, V

    2015-05-01

    A rapid high sensitive method for determining the Faraday rotation of optical glasses is proposed. Starting from an experimental setup based on a Faraday rod coupled to a lock-in amplifier in the detection chain, two methodologies were developed for providing reliable results on samples presenting low and large Faraday rotations. The proposed methodologies were critically discussed and compared, via results obtained in transmission geometry, on a new series of aluminophosphate glasses with or without rare-earth doping ions. An example on how the method can be used for a rapid examination of the optical homogeneity of the sample with respect to magneto-optical effects is also provided.

  14. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy.

  15. Priming from Distractors in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Is Modulated by Image Properties and Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Irina M.; Benito, Claire T.; Dux, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated distractor processing in a dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task containing familiar objects, by measuring repetition priming from a priming distractor (PD) to Target 2 (T2). Priming from a visually identical PD was contrasted with priming from a PD in a different orientation from T2. We also tested the effect of…

  16. A Module For Employing Human Systems Integration into the Rapid Equipping Force (REF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Analysis questions tended to compare equipment specifications to HSI domain standards while Product Evaluation Questions tended to query the usability ...Equipping Force, and the United States Marine Corps’ Operational Test and Evaluation Activity. During each demonstration, a complete walkthrough of ABRAHAM...authors developed an Assessment Based Rapid Acquisition HSI Analysis Tool (ABRAHAM) capable of generating tailored surveys and evaluating these surveys

  17. Dosimetric difference amongst 3 techniques: TomoTherapy, sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and RapidArc radiotherapy in the treatment of late-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Francis Kar-ho Yip, Celia Wai-yi; Cheung, Frankie Chun-hung; Leung, Alex Kwok-cheung; Chau, Ricky Ming-chun; Ngan, Roger Kai-cheong

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the dosimetric difference amongst TomoTherapy, sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and RapidArc radiotherapy in the treatment of late-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten patients with late-stage (Stage III or IV) NPC treated with TomoTherapy or IMRT were selected for the study. Treatment plans with these 3 techniques were devised according to departmental protocol. Dosimetric parameters for organ at risk and treatment targets were compared between TomoTherapy and IMRT, TomoTherapy and RapidArc, and IMRT and RapidArc. Comparison amongst the techniques was done by statistical tests on the dosimetric parameters, total monitor unit (MU), and expected delivery time. All 3 techniques achieved similar target dose coverage. TomoTherapy achieved significantly lower doses in lens and mandible amongst the techniques. It also achieved significantly better dose conformity to the treatment targets. RapidArc achieved significantly lower dose to the eye and normal tissue, lower total MU, and less delivery time. The dosimetric advantages of the 3 techniques were identified in the treatment of late-stage NPC. This may serve as a guideline for selection of the proper technique for different clinical cases.

  18. System design of programmable 4f phase modulation techniques for rapid intensity shaping: a conceptual comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Matthias; Heber, Jörg; Janschek, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The present study analyses three beam shaping approaches with respect to a light-efficient generation of i) patterns and ii) multiple spots by means of a generic optical 4f-setup. 4f approaches share the property that due to the one-to-one relationship between output intensity and input phase, the need for time-consuming, iterative calculation can be avoided. The resulting low computational complexity offers a particular advantage compared to the widely used holographic principles and makes them potential candidates for real-time applications. The increasing availability of high-speed phase modulators, e.g. on the basis of MEMS, calls for an evaluation of the performances of these concepts. Our second interest is the applicability of 4f methods to high-power applications. We discuss the variants of 4f intensity shaping by phase modulation from a system-level point of view which requires the consideration of application relevant boundary conditions. The discussion includes i) the micro mirror based phase manipulation combined with amplitude masking in the Fourier plane, ii) the Generalized Phase Contrast, and iii) matched phase-only correlation filtering combined with GPC. The conceptual comparison relies on comparative figures of merit for energy efficiency, pattern homogeneity, pattern image quality, maximum output intensity and flexibility with respect to the displayable pattern. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings.

  19. Rapid full Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry based on the hybrid phase modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chien-Yuan; Du, Cheng-You; Jhou, Jhe-Yi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel method of Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry, which comprises dual liquid crystal variable retarders at the polarization generation portion and a photoelastic modulator at the polarization analysis portion. The light source can be operated either in the continuous mode, which provides an in-situ calibration process for the liquid crystal variable retarders, or in the pulse mode to deduce the full two-dimensional Mueller matrix with 16 images from the camera. We measured the Mueller matrix images of air as a standard test, as well as a quarter wave plate to determine its azimuthal angle and phase retardation by the polar decomposition technique. Finally, the decomposed Mueller matrix images of a biopolymer specimen with the conformational change produced by heat treatment are presented.

  20. Cutting Edge: Murine Mast Cells Rapidly Modulate Metabolic Pathways Essential for Distinct Effector Functions.

    PubMed

    Phong, Binh; Avery, Lyndsay; Menk, Ashley V; Delgoffe, Greg M; Kane, Lawrence P

    2017-01-15

    There is growing appreciation that cellular metabolic and bioenergetic pathways do not play merely passive roles in activated leukocytes. Rather, metabolism has important roles in controlling cellular activation, differentiation, survival, and effector function. Much of this work has been performed in T cells; however, there is still very little information regarding mast cell metabolic reprogramming and its effect on cellular function. Mast cells perform important barrier functions and help control type 2 immune responses. In this study we show that murine bone marrow-derived mast cells rapidly alter their metabolism in response to stimulation through the FcεRI. We also demonstrate that specific metabolic pathways appear to be differentially required for the control of mast cell function. Manipulation of metabolic pathways may represent a novel point for the manipulation of mast cell activation.

  1. Early cytokine modulation after the rapid induction phase of sublingual immunotherapy with mite monomeric allergoids.

    PubMed

    Di Gioacchino, M; Perrone, A; Petrarca, C; Di Claudio, F; Mistrello, G; Falagiani, P; Dadorante, V; Verna, N; Braga, M; Ballone, E; Cavallucci, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different treatment schedules of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in activating IL-10-producing T-cells, crucial in inducing allergen-specific tolerance, is not completely understood. The present work was designed to evaluate allergen driven interleukin release by mononuclear cells in the early phase of SLIT, after application of different induction schemes. Twenty mite-allergic patients were enrolled, 10 (group A) treated with a traditional 98 day induction scheme and 10 (group B) with a 16 day scheme with monomeric allergoid vaccine. At the end of the induction phase, the cumulative doses taken by group A and group B patients were equivalent to 50.5 and 50.3 microg of mite group 1 allergens, respectively. The release of Th1-, Th2- and Treg-related interleukins was assessed in culture supernatants of 5 microg/ml Der-p1-stimulated mononuclear cells, isolated before and after the induction phases. No relevant treatment-related side effects were observed. Interleukin release was similar in the two groups at the enrolment. Non-stimulated and Der p 1 stimulated release of studied cytokines was similar in the two groups at enrolment. Der p 1 stimulation significantly increased IL-10 release (p<0.0002) after treatment in group B patients, and this effect was higher (p=0.05) compared to group A patients. Furthermore, at the end of SLIT induction TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IFN-gamma production were reduced in group B patients (p<0.05, p=0.062 and p=0.060, respectively). The rapid induction scheme of sublingual immunotherapy induces an early immune suppression more effectively than the slower one. The rapid induction scheme should be the preferential way to start sublingual immunotherapy, particularly when monomeric allergoids are utilized.

  2. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the spine treated with RapidArc volumetric-modulated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Chargari, Cyrus; Falk, Alexander Tuan; Khodri, Mustapha; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    Radiotherapy for epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) using volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT). A 48-year-old woman was referred for curative irradiation of a vertebral EHE after failure of surgery. A comparison between VMAT and conventional conformal tridimensional (3D) dosimetry was performed and potential advantage of VMAT for sparing critical organs from irradiation's side effects was discussed. The total delivered dose on the planning target volume was 54 Gy in 27 fractions. The patient was finally treated with VMAT. The tolerance was excellent. There was no acute toxicity, including no increase in pain. With a follow-up of 18 months, no delayed toxicity was reported. The clinical response consisted of a decrease in the dorsal pain. The D{sub max} for the spinal cord was reduced from 55 Gy (3D-radiotherapy [RT]) (which would be an unacceptable dose to the spine because of the risk of myelopathy) to 42.8 Gy (VMAT), which remains below the recommended dose threshold (45 Gy). The dose delivered to 20% of organ volume (D{sub 20}) was reduced from 47 Gy (3D-RT) to 3 Gy (VMAT) for the spinal cord. The study shows that VMAT allows the delivery of curative treatment for vertebral EHEs because of critical organ sparing.

  3. The pulse-train auditory aftereffect and the perception of rapid amplitude modulations.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2008-02-01

    Prolonged listening to a pulse train with repetition rates around 100 Hz induces a striking aftereffect, whereby subsequently presented sounds are heard with an unusually "metallic" timbre [Rosenblith et al., Science 106, 333-335 (1947)]. The mechanisms responsible for this auditory aftereffect are currently unknown. Whether the aftereffect is related to an alteration of the perception of temporal envelope fluctuations was evaluated. Detection thresholds for sinusoidal amplitude modulation (AM) imposed onto noise-burst carriers were measured for different AM frequencies (50-500 Hz), following the continuous presentation of a periodic pulse train, a temporally jittered pulse train, or an unmodulated noise. AM detection thresholds for AM frequencies of 100 Hz and above were significantly elevated compared to thresholds in quiet, following the presentation of the pulse-train inducers, and both induced a subjective auditory aftereffect. Unmodulated noise, which produced no audible aftereffect, left AM detection thresholds unchanged. Additional experiments revealed that, like the Rosenblith et al. aftereffect, the effect on AM thresholds does not transfer across ears, is not eliminated by protracted training, and can last several tens of seconds. The results suggest that the Rosenblith et al. aftereffect is related to a temporary alteration in the perception of fast temporal envelope fluctuations in sounds.

  4. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words.

    PubMed

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-07-22

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain's capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon.

  5. Individual language experience modulates rapid formation of cortical memory circuits for novel words

    PubMed Central

    Kimppa, Lilli; Kujala, Teija; Shtyrov, Yury

    2016-01-01

    Mastering multiple languages is an increasingly important ability in the modern world; furthermore, multilingualism may affect human learning abilities. Here, we test how the brain’s capacity to rapidly form new representations for spoken words is affected by prior individual experience in non-native language acquisition. Formation of new word memory traces is reflected in a neurophysiological response increase during a short exposure to novel lexicon. Therefore, we recorded changes in electrophysiological responses to phonologically native and non-native novel word-forms during a perceptual learning session, in which novel stimuli were repetitively presented to healthy adults in either ignore or attend conditions. We found that larger number of previously acquired languages and earlier average age of acquisition (AoA) predicted greater response increase to novel non-native word-forms. This suggests that early and extensive language experience is associated with greater neural flexibility for acquiring novel words with unfamiliar phonology. Conversely, later AoA was associated with a stronger response increase for phonologically native novel word-forms, indicating better tuning of neural linguistic circuits to native phonology. The results suggest that individual language experience has a strong effect on the neural mechanisms of word learning, and that it interacts with the phonological familiarity of the novel lexicon. PMID:27444206

  6. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation modulates synapsinI expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhuman; Amar, Megha; Mallick, Birendra N

    2012-06-27

    Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) deprivation (REMSD) has been reported to elevate neurotransmitter level in the brain; however, intracellular mechanism of its increased release was not studied. Phosphorylation of synapsinI, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein, is involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. In this study, rats were REMS deprived by classical flowerpot method; free moving control (FMC), large platform control (LPC) and recovery control (REC) was carried out. In another set REMS deprived rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (PRZ). Effects of REMSD on Na-K ATPase activity and on the total synapsinI as well as phosphorylated synapsinI levels were estimated in synaptosomes prepared from whole brain. It was observed that REMSD significantly increased synaptosomal Na-K ATPase activity, which was prevented by PRZ. Western blotting of the same samples by anti-synapsinI and anti-synapsinI-phosphoSer603 showed that REMSD increased both the total as well as phospho-form of synapsinI as compared to respective levels in FMC and LPC samples. These findings suggest a functional link between REMSD and synaptic vesicular mobilization at the presynaptic terminal, a process that is essential for neurotransmitter release. The findings help explaining the intracellular mechanism of elevated neurotransmitter release associated to REMSD.

  7. Visual working memory modulates low-level saccade target selection: evidence from rapidly generated saccades in the global effect paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Matsukura, Michi; Luck, Steven J

    2013-11-04

    In three experiments, we examined the influence of visual working memory (VWM) on the metrics of saccade landing position in a global effect paradigm. Participants executed a saccade to the more eccentric object in an object pair appearing on the horizontal midline, to the left or right of central fixation. While completing the saccade task, participants maintained a color in VWM for an unrelated memory task. Either the color of the saccade target matched the memory color (target match), the color of the distractor matched the memory color (distractor match), or the colors of neither object matched the memory color (no match). In the no-match condition, saccades tended to land at the midpoint between the two objects: the global, or averaging, effect. However, when one of the two objects matched VWM, the distribution of landing position shifted toward the matching object, both for target match and for distractor match. VWM modulation of landing position was observed even for the fastest quartile of saccades, with a mean latency as low as 112 ms. Effects of VWM on such rapidly generated saccades, with latencies in the express-saccade range, indicate that VWM interacts with the initial sweep of visual sensory processing, modulating perceptual input to oculomotor systems and thereby biasing oculomotor selection. As a result, differences in memory match produce effects on landing position similar to the effects generated by differences in physical salience.

  8. Context is quick, knowledge is slow: rapid time-course of contextual modulations in the horizontal-vertical illusion.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Russell E; Cook, T C; Seitz, Aaron R

    2013-04-01

    One of the oldest visual illusions consists of observers' tendency to estimate vertical lines as longer than equal horizontal lines. This Horizontal-Vertical Illusion has been studied widely; however, most studies may not generalize to natural contexts because they have not addressed the low-level processes that occur rapidly and in response to context-free lines vs the possibility for high-level processes that arise over time in response to context. These issues were investigated via a novel design: rapid time-sequencing embedded within the context of natural images. Participants saw different levels of context and the Horizontal-Vertical Illusion was measured. In traditional Horizontal-Vertical Illusion displays without natural context, there was a robust invariance of the illusion to stimulus duration. Within context, however, there was strong modulation: the magnitude of the illusion decreased by over 50% or increased over 30%, depending upon placement within context. Knowledge of object properties such as size or line length did not account for this effect. It appears that previous domain-general investigations of the Horizontal-Vertical Illusion did not address the specific higher-order processes that produce the illusion in natural contexts.

  9. A Rapid, Semi-Quantitative Assay to Screen for Modulators of Alpha-Synuclein Oligomerization Ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Delenclos, Marion; Trendafilova, Teodora; Jones, Daryl R.; Moussaud, Simon; Baine, Ann-Marie; Yue, Mei; Hirst, Warren D.; McLean, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha synuclein (αsyn) aggregates are associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and others related disorders. Although modulation of αsyn aggregation is an attractive therapeutic target, new powerful methodologies are desperately needed to facilitate in vivo screening of novel therapeutics. Here, we describe an in vivo rodent model with the unique ability to rapidly track αsyn-αsyn interactions and thus oligomerization using a bioluminescent protein complementation strategy that monitors spatial and temporal αsyn oligomerization ex vivo. We find that αsyn forms oligomers in vivo as early as 1 week after stereotactic AAV injection into rat substantia nigra. Strikingly, although abundant αsyn expression is also detected in striatum at 1 week, no αsyn oligomers are detected at this time point. By 4 weeks, oligomerization of αsyn is detected in both striatum and substantia nigra homogenates. Moreover, in a proof-of-principle experiment, the effect of a previously described Hsp90 inhibitor known to prevent αsyn oligomer formation, demonstrates the utility of this rapid and sensitive animal model to monitor αsyn oligomerization status in the rat brain. PMID:26834539

  10. A Rapid, Semi-Quantitative Assay to Screen for Modulators of Alpha-Synuclein Oligomerization Ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Delenclos, Marion; Trendafilova, Teodora; Jones, Daryl R; Moussaud, Simon; Baine, Ann-Marie; Yue, Mei; Hirst, Warren D; McLean, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Alpha synuclein (αsyn) aggregates are associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and others related disorders. Although modulation of αsyn aggregation is an attractive therapeutic target, new powerful methodologies are desperately needed to facilitate in vivo screening of novel therapeutics. Here, we describe an in vivo rodent model with the unique ability to rapidly track αsyn-αsyn interactions and thus oligomerization using a bioluminescent protein complementation strategy that monitors spatial and temporal αsyn oligomerization ex vivo. We find that αsyn forms oligomers in vivo as early as 1 week after stereotactic AAV injection into rat substantia nigra. Strikingly, although abundant αsyn expression is also detected in striatum at 1 week, no αsyn oligomers are detected at this time point. By 4 weeks, oligomerization of αsyn is detected in both striatum and substantia nigra homogenates. Moreover, in a proof-of-principle experiment, the effect of a previously described Hsp90 inhibitor known to prevent αsyn oligomer formation, demonstrates the utility of this rapid and sensitive animal model to monitor αsyn oligomerization status in the rat brain.

  11. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8–14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  12. Age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity modulate rapid auditory processing in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cantiani, Chiara; Molteni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The nature of Rapid Auditory Processing (RAP) deficits in dyslexia remains debated, together with the specificity of the problem to certain types of stimuli and/or restricted subgroups of individuals. Following the hypothesis that the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population may have led to contrasting results, the aim of the study was to define the effect of age, dyslexia subtype and comorbidity on the discrimination and reproduction of non-verbal tone sequences. Participants were 46 children aged 8-14 (26 with dyslexia, subdivided according to age, presence of a previous language delay, and type of dyslexia). Experimental tasks were a Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ) (manipulating tone length, ISI and sequence length), and a Pattern Discrimination Task. Dyslexic children showed general RAP deficits. Tone length and ISI influenced dyslexic and control children's performance in a similar way, but dyslexic children were more affected by an increase from 2 to 5 sounds. As to age, older dyslexic children's difficulty in reproducing sequences of 4 and 5 tones was similar to that of normally reading younger (but not older) children. In the analysis of subgroup profiles, the crucial variable appears to be the advantage, or lack thereof, in processing long vs. short sounds. Dyslexic children with a previous language delay obtained the lowest scores in RAP measures, but they performed worse with shorter stimuli, similar to control children, while dyslexic-only children showed no advantage for longer stimuli. As to dyslexia subtype, only surface dyslexics improved their performance with longer stimuli, while phonological dyslexics did not. Differential scores for short vs. long tones and for long vs. short ISIs predict non-word and word reading, respectively, and the former correlate with phonemic awareness. In conclusion, the relationship between non-verbal RAP, phonemic skills and reading abilities appears to be characterized by complex interactions with subgroup

  13. Increased nociceptive input rapidly modulates spinal GABAergic transmission through endogenously released glutamate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2007-01-01

    Stimulation of nociceptive primary afferents elicits pain by promoting glutamatergic transmission in the spinal cord. Little is known about how increased nociceptive input controls GABAergic tone in the spinal dorsal horn. In this study, we determined how increased nociceptive inflow affects GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) of lamina II neurons by using whole cell recordings in rat spinal cord slices. Bath application of capsaicin for 3 min induced a long-lasting inhibition of sIPSCs in 50% of the neurons tested. In the other half of the neurons, capsaicin either increased the frequency of sIPSCs (34.6%) or had no effect on sIPSCs (15.4%). The GABA(A) current elicited by puff application of GABA was not altered by capsaicin. Capsaicin did not inhibit sIPSCs in rats treated with intrathecal pertussis toxin. Also, capsaicin failed to inhibit sIPSCs in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists or in the presence of both LY341495 and CPPG (group II and group III metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, respectively). However, when LY341495 or CPPG was used alone, capsaicin still decreased the frequency of sIPSCs in some neurons. Additionally, bradykinin significantly inhibited sIPSCs in a population of lamina II neurons and this inhibitory effect was also abolished by LY341495 and CPPG. Our study provides novel information that stimulation of nociceptive primary afferents rapidly suppresses GABAergic input to many dorsal horn neurons through endogenous glutamate and activation of presynaptic group II and group III metabotropic glutamate receptors. These findings extend our understanding of the microcircuitry of the spinal dorsal horn involved in nociception.

  14. Data-Driven Approach to Generating Achievable Dose-Volume Histogram Objectives in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Binbin; Ricchetti, Francesco; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Kazhdan, Michael; Simari, Patricio; Jacques, Robert; Taylor, Russell; McNutt, Todd

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To propose a method of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning that generates achievable dose-volume histogram (DVH) objectives using a database containing geometric and dosimetric information of previous patients. Methods and Materials: The overlap volume histogram (OVH) is used to compare the spatial relationships between the organs at risk and targets of a new patient with those of previous patients in a database. From the OVH analysis, the DVH objectives of the new patient were generated from the database and used as the initial planning goals. In a retrospective OVH-assisted planning demonstration, 15 patients were randomly selected from a database containing clinical plans (CPs) of 91 previous head-and-neck patients treated by a three-level IMRT-simultaneous integrated boost technique. OVH-assisted plans (OPs) were planned in a leave-one-out manner by a planner who had no knowledge of CPs. Thus, DVH objectives of an OP were generated from a subdatabase containing the information of the other 90 patients. Those DVH objectives were then used as the initial planning goals in IMRT optimization. Planning efficiency was evaluated by the number of clicks of the 'Start Optimization' button in the course of planning. Although the Pinnacle{sup 3} treatment planning system allows planners to interactively adjust the DVH parameters during optimization, planners in our institution have never used this function in planning. Results: The average clicks required for completing the CP and OP was 27.6 and 1.9, respectively (p <.00001); three OPs were finished within a single click. Ten more patient's cord + 4 mm reached the sparing goal D{sub 0.1cc} <44 Gy (p <.0001), where D{sub 0.1cc} represents the dose corresponding to 0.1 cc. For planning target volume uniformity, conformity, and other organ at risk sparing, the OPs were at least comparable with the CPs. Additionally, the averages of D{sub 0.1cc} to the cord + 4 mm decreased by 6.9 Gy (p <.0001

  15. A rapidly activating sustained K+ current modulates repolarization and excitation-contraction coupling in adult mouse ventricle.

    PubMed Central

    Fiset, C; Clark, R B; Larsen, T S; Giles, W R

    1997-01-01

    1. The K+ currents which control repolarization in adult mouse ventricle, and the effects of changes in action potential duration on excitation-contraction coupling in this tissue, have been studied with electrophysiological methods using single cell preparations and by recording mechanical parameters from an in vitro working heart preparation. 2. Under conditions where Ca(2+)-dependent currents were eliminated by buffering intracellular Ca2+ with EGTA, depolarizing voltage steps elicited two rapidly activating outward K+ currents: (i) a transient outward current, and (ii) a slowly inactivating or 'sustained' delayed rectifier. 3. These two currents were separated pharmacologically by the K+ channel blocker 4-amino-pyridine (4-AP). 4-AP at concentrations between 3 and 200 microM resulted in (i) a marked increase in action potential duration and a large decrease in the sustained K+ current at plateau potentials, as well as (ii) a significant increase in left ventricular systolic pressure in the working heart preparation. 4. The current-voltage (I-V) relation, kinetics, and block by low concentrations of 4-AP strongly suggest that the rapid delayed rectifier in adult mouse ventricles is the same K+ current (Kv1.5) that has been characterized in detail in human and canine atria. 5. These results show that the 4-AP-sensitive rapid delayed rectifier is a very important repolarizing current in mouse ventricle. The enhanced contractility produced by 4-AP (50 microM) in the working heart preparation demonstrates that modulation of the action potential duration, by blocking a K+ current, is a very significant inotropic variable. PMID:9401964

  16. Birc1e/Naip5 rapidly antagonizes modulation of phagosome maturation by Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Anne; de Chastellier, Chantal; Balor, Stéphanie; Gros, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Legionella survives intracellularly by preventing fusion with lysosomes, due to phagosome escape from the endocytic pathway at an early stage of phagosome maturation, and by creating a replicative organelle that acquires endoplasmic reticulum (ER) characteristics through sustained interactions and fusion with the ER. Intracellular replication of Legionella pneumophila in mouse macrophages is controlled by the Lgn1 locus. Functional complementation in vivo has identified the Birc1e/Naip5 gene as being responsible for the Lgn1 effect. To understand the function and temporal site of action of Birc1e/Naip5 in susceptibility to L. pneumophila, we examined the biogenesis of Legionella-containing vacuoles (LCVs) formed in permissive A/J macrophages and in their Birc1e/Naip5 transgenic non-permissive counterpart. Birc1e/Naip5 effects on acquisition of lysosomal and ER markers were evident within 1-2 h following infection. A significantly higher proportion of LCVs formed in Birc1e/Naip5 transgenic macrophages had acquired the lysosomal markers cathepsin D and Lamp1 by 2 h post infection, whereas a significantly higher proportion of LCVs formed in permissive macrophages were positively stained for the ER markers BAP31 and calnexin, 6 h post infection. Likewise, studies by electron microscopy showed acquisition of lysosomal contents (horseradish peroxidase), within the first hour following phagocytic uptake, by LCVs formed in Birc1e/Naip5 transgenic macrophages and delivery of the ER marker glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) only to the lumen of LCVs formed in A/J macrophages. Finally, a larger proportion of LCVs formed in A/J macrophages were studded with ribosomes 24 h post infection, compared with LCVs formed in Birc1e/Naip5 transgenic macrophages. These results suggest that sensing of L. pneumophila products by Birc1e/Naip5 in macrophages occurs rapidly following phagocytosis, a process that antagonizes the ability of L. pneumophila to remodel its phagosome into a specialized

  17. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a

    PubMed Central

    Seredynski, Aurore L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER–mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  18. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a.

    PubMed

    Seredynski, Aurore L; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A

    2015-09-23

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER-mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. Significance statement: The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  19. Estrous cycle variations in GABAA receptor phosphorylation enable rapid modulation by anabolic androgenic steroids in the medial preoptic area

    PubMed Central

    Oberlander, JG; Porter, DM; Onakomaiya, MM; Penatti, CAA; Vithlani, M; Moss, SJ; Clark, AS; Henderson, LP

    2012-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic testosterone derivatives that are used for ergogenic purposes, alter neurotransmission and behaviors mediated by GABAA receptors. Some of these effects may reflect direct and rapid action of these synthetic steroids at the receptor. The ability of other natural allosteric steroid modulators to alter GABAA receptor-mediated currents is dependent upon the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex. Here we show that phosphorylation of the GABAA receptor complex immunoprecipitated by β2/β3 subunit-specific antibodies from the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the mouse varies across the estrous cycle; with levels being significantly lower in estrus. Acute exposure to the AAS, 17α-testosterone (17α-MeT), had no effect on the amplitude or kinetics of inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the mPOA of estrous mice when phosphorylation was low, but increased the amplitude of these currents from mice in diestrus, when it was high. Inclusion of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin, in the recording pipette eliminated the ability of 17α-MeT to enhance currents from diestrous animals, suggesting that PKC-receptor phosphorylation is critical for the allosteric modulation elicited by AAS during this phase. In addition, a single injection of 17α-MeT was found to impair an mPOA-mediated behavior (nest-building) in diestrus, but not in estrus. PKC is known to target specific serine residues in the β3 subunit of the GABAA receptor. Although phosphorylation of these β3 serine residues showed a similar profile across the cycle, as did phosphoserine in mPOA lysates immunoprecipitated with β2/β3 antibody (lower in estrus than in diestrus or proestrus), the differences were not significant. These data suggest that the phosphorylation state of the receptor complex regulates both the ability of AAS to modulate receptor function in the mPOA and the expression of a simple mPOA-dependent behavior through PKC-dependent mechanism

  20. Rapid modulation of ultraviolet shielding in plants is influenced by solar ultraviolet radiation and linked to alterations in flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Tobler, Mark A; Keefover-Ring, Ken; Flint, Stephan D; Barkley, Anne E; Ryel, Ronald J; Lindroth, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) and the resultant decrease in epidermal UV transmittance (TUV ) are primary protective mechanisms employed by plants against potentially damaging solar UV radiation and are critical components of the overall acclimation response of plants to changing solar UV environments. Whether plants can adjust this UV sunscreen protection in response to rapid changes in UV, as occurs on a diurnal basis, is largely unexplored. Here, we use a combination of approaches to demonstrate that plants can modulate their UV-screening properties within minutes to hours, and these changes are driven, in part, by UV radiation. For the cultivated species Abelmoschus esculentus, large (30-50%) and reversible changes in TUV occurred on a diurnal basis, and these adjustments were associated with changes in the concentrations of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds and several quercetin glycosides. Similar results were found for two other species (Vicia faba and Solanum lycopersicum), but no such changes were detected in Zea mays. These findings reveal a much more dynamic UV-protection mechanism than previously recognized, raise important questions concerning the costs and benefits of UV-protection strategies in plants and have practical implications for employing UV to enhance crop vigor and quality in controlled environments.

  1. Rapid Copper Metallization of Textile Materials: a Controlled Two-Step Route to Achieve User-Defined Patterns under Ambient Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang-Yuan; Guan, Guijian; Jiang, Shan; Guo, Hongchen; Xia, Jing; Regulacio, Michelle D; Wu, Mingda; Shah, Kwok Wei; Dong, Zhili; Zhang, Jie; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-09-30

    Throughout history earth-abundant copper has been incorporated into textiles and it still caters to various needs in modern society. In this paper, we present a two-step copper metallization strategy to realize sequentially nondiffusive copper(II) patterning and rapid copper deposition on various textile materials, including cotton, polyester, nylon, and their mixtures. A new, cost-effective formulation is designed to minimize the copper pattern migration on textiles and to achieve user-defined copper patterns. The metallized copper is found to be very adhesive and stable against washing and oxidation. Furthermore, the copper-metallized textile exhibits excellent electrical conductivity that is ~3 times better than that of stainless steel and also inhibits the growth of bacteria effectively. This new copper metallization approach holds great promise as a commercially viable method to metallize an insulating textile, opening up research avenues for wearable electronics and functional garments.

  2. A temperature control method for shortening thermal cycling time to achieve rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Sørensen, Karen S.; Skov, Julia; Sun, Yi; Duong Bang, Dang; Pedersen, Michael E.; Hansen, Mikkel F.; Wolff, Anders

    2013-07-01

    We present a temperature control method capable of effectively shortening the thermal cycling time of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a disposable polymer microfluidic device with an external heater and a temperature sensor. The method employs optimized temperature overshooting and undershooting steps to achieve a rapid ramping between the temperature steps for DNA denaturation, annealing and extension. The temperature dynamics within the microfluidic PCR chamber was characterized and the overshooting and undershooting parameters were optimized using the temperature-dependent fluorescence signal from Rhodamine B. The method was validated with the PCR amplification of mecA gene (162 bp) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacterium (MRSA), where the time for 30 cycles was reduced from 50 min (without over- and undershooting) to 20 min.

  3. Cue-Evoked Dopamine Release Rapidly Modulates D2 Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens During Motivated Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Owesson-White, Catarina; Belle, Anna M.; Herr, Natalie R.; Peele, Jessica L.; Gowrishankar, Preethi; Carelli, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons that project from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) fire in response to unpredicted rewards or to cues that predict reward delivery. Although it is well established that reward-related events elicit dopamine release in the NAc, the role of rapid dopamine signaling in modulating NAc neurons that respond to these events remains unclear. Here, we examined dopamine's actions in the NAc in the rat brain during an intracranial self-stimulation task in which a cue predicted lever availability for electrical stimulation of the VTA. To distinguish actions of dopamine at select receptors on NAc neurons during the task, we used a multimodal sensor that probes three aspects of neuronal communication simultaneously: neurotransmitter release, cell firing, and identification of dopamine receptor type. Consistent with prior studies, we first show dopamine release events in the NAc both at cue presentation and after lever press (LP). Distinct populations of NAc neurons encode these behavioral events at these same locations selectively. Using our multimodal sensor, we found that dopamine-mediated responses after the cue involve exclusively a subset of D2-like receptors (D2Rs), whereas dopamine-mediated responses proximal to the LP are mediated by both D1-like receptors (D1R) and D2Rs. These results demonstrate for the first time that dopamine-mediated responses after cues that predict reward availability are specifically linked to its actions at a subset of neurons in the NAc containing D2Rs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Successful reward procurement typically involves the completion of a goal-directed behavior in response to appropriate environmental cues. Although numerous studies link the mesolimbic dopamine system with these processes, how dopamine's effects are mediated on the receptor level within a key neural substrate, the nucleus accumbens, remains elusive. Here, we used a unique multimodal sensor that reveals three aspects of

  4. Novel immune-modulator identified by a rapid, functional screen of the parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus) genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We present a method to functionally mine genomes for useful activities in vivo, using an unusual property of a member of the poxvirus family to demonstrate this screening approach. Results The genome of Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus) was sequenced, annotated, and then used to PCR-amplify its open-reading-frames. Employing a cloning-independent protocol, a viral expression-library was rapidly built and arrayed into sub-library pools. These were directly delivered into mice as expressible cassettes and assayed for an immune-modulating activity associated with parapoxvirus infection. The product of the B2L gene, a homolog of vaccinia F13L, was identified as the factor eliciting immune cell accumulation at sites of skin inoculation. Administration of purified B2 protein also elicited immune cell accumulation activity, and additionally was found to serve as an adjuvant for antigen-specific responses. Co-delivery of the B2L gene with an influenza gene-vaccine significantly improved protection in mice. Furthermore, delivery of the B2L expression construct, without antigen, non-specifically reduced tumor growth in murine models of cancer. Conclusion A streamlined, functional approach to genome-wide screening of a biological activity in vivo is presented. Its application to screening in mice for an immune activity elicited by the pathogen genome of Parapoxvirus ovis yielded a novel immunomodulator. In this inverted discovery method, it was possible to identify the adjuvant responsible for a function of interest prior to a mechanistic study of the adjuvant. The non-specific immune activity of this modulator, B2, is similar to that associated with administration of inactivated particles to a host or to a live viral infection. Administration of B2 may provide the

  5. An NCME Instructional Module on Booklet Designs in Large-Scale Assessments of Student Achievement: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andreas; Hartig, Johannes; Rupp, Andre A.

    2009-01-01

    In most large-scale assessments of student achievement, several broad content domains are tested. Because more items are needed to cover the content domains than can be presented in the limited testing time to each individual student, multiple test forms or booklets are utilized to distribute the items to the students. The construction of an…

  6. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Stockslager, Max A.; Samuels, Brian C.; Allingham, R. Rand; Klesmith, Zoe A.; Schwaner, Stephen A.; Forest, Craig R.; Ethier, C. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP) and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation. PMID:26771837

  7. A comparative study of standard intensity-modulated radiotherapy and RapidArc planning techniques for ipsilateral and bilateral head and neck irradiation.

    PubMed

    Pursley, Jennifer; Damato, Antonio L; Czerminska, Maria A; Margalit, Danielle N; Sher, David J; Tishler, Roy B

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate class solutions using RapidArc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning for ipsilateral and bilateral head and neck (H&N) irradiation, and to compare dosimetric results with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. A total of 14 patients who received ipsilateral and 10 patients who received bilateral head and neck irradiation were retrospectively replanned with several volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques. For ipsilateral neck irradiation, the volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques included two 360° arcs, two 360° arcs with avoidance sectors around the contralateral parotid, two 260° or 270° arcs, and two 210° arcs. For bilateral neck irradiation, the volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques included two 360° arcs, two 360° arcs with avoidance sectors around the shoulders, and 3 arcs. All patients had a sliding-window-delivery intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan that was used as the benchmark for dosimetric comparison. For ipsilateral neck irradiation, a volumetric-modulated arc therapy technique using two 360° arcs with avoidance sectors around the contralateral parotid was dosimetrically comparable to intensity-modulated radiotherapy, with improved conformity (conformity index = 1.22 vs 1.36, p < 0.04) and lower contralateral parotid mean dose (5.6 vs 6.8Gy, p < 0.03). For bilateral neck irradiation, 3-arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques were dosimetrically comparable to intensity-modulated radiotherapy while also avoiding irradiation through the shoulders. All volumetric-modulated arc therapy techniques required fewer monitor units than sliding-window intensity-modulated radiotherapy to deliver treatment, with an average reduction of 35% for ipsilateral plans and 67% for bilateral plans. Thus, for ipsilateral head and neck irradiation a volumetric-modulated arc therapy technique using two 360° arcs with avoidance sectors around the contralateral parotid is

  8. Identifying the relationship between feedback provided in computer-assisted instructional modules, science self-efficacy, and academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazingo, Diann Etsuko

    Feedback has been identified as a key variable in developing academic self-efficacy. The types of feedback can vary from a traditional, objectivist approach that focuses on minimizing learner errors to a more constructivist approach, focusing on facilitating understanding. The influx of computer-based courses, whether online or through a series of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) modules require that the current research of effective feedback techniques in the classroom be extended to computer environments in order to impact their instructional design. In this study, exposure to different types of feedback during a chemistry CAI module was studied in relation to science self-efficacy (SSE) and performance on an objective-driven assessment (ODA) of the chemistry concepts covered in the unit. The quantitative analysis consisted of two separate ANCOVAs on the dependent variables, using pretest as the covariate and group as the fixed factor. No significant differences were found for either variable between the three groups on adjusted posttest means for the ODA and SSE measures (.95F(2, 106) = 1.311, p = 0.274 and .95F(2, 106) = 1.080, p = 0.344, respectively). However, a mixed methods approach yielded valuable qualitative insights into why only one overall quantitative effect was observed. These findings are discussed in relation to the need to further refine the instruments and methods used in order to more fully explore the possibility that type of feedback might play a role in developing SSE, and consequently, improve academic performance in science. Future research building on this study may reveal significance that could impact instructional design practices for developing online and computer-based instruction.

  9. Modulation of Crystal Surface and Lattice by Doping: Achieving Ultrafast Metal-Ion Insertion in Anatase TiO2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Han-Yi; Hsu, Ying-Ya; Stimming, Ulrich; Chen, Hao Ming; Liu, Bin

    2016-10-11

    We report that an ultrafast kinetics of reversible metal-ion insertion can be realized in anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2). Niobium ions (Nb5+) were carefully chosen to dope and drive anatase TiO2 into very thin nanosheets standing perpendicularly onto transparent conductive electrode (TCE) and simultaneously construct TiO2 with an ion-conducting surface together with expanded ion diffusion channels, which enabled ultrafast metal ions diffusion across the electrolyte/solid interface and into the bulk of TiO2. To demonstrate the superior metal-ion insertion rate, the electrochromic features induced by ion intercalation were examined, which exhibited the best color switching speed of 4.82 s for coloration and 0.91 s for bleaching among all reported nano-sized TiO2 devices. When performed as the anode for the secondary battery, the modified TiO2 was capable to deliver a highly reversible capacity of 61.2 mAh g-1 at an ultrahigh specific current rate of 60 C (10.2 A g-1). This fast metal-ion insertion behavior was systematically investigated by the well-controlled electrochemical approaches, which quantitatively revealed both the enhanced surface kinetics and bulk ion diffusion rate. Our study could provide a facile methodology to modulate the ion diffusion kinetics for metal oxides.

  10. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  11. Achievements in the development of the Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module of Japan to the milestones for installation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, Daigo; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Mohri, Kensuke; Seki, Yohji; Enoeda, Mikio; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masato

    2009-06-01

    As the primary candidate of ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested under the leadership of Japan, a water cooled solid breeder (WCSB) TBM is being developed. This paper shows the recent achievements towards the milestones of ITER TBMs prior to the installation, which consist of design integration in ITER, module qualification and safety assessment. With respect to the design integration, targeting the detailed design final report in 2012, structure designs of the WCSB TBM and the interfacing components (common frame and backside shielding) that are placed in a test port of ITER and the layout of the cooling system are presented. As for the module qualification, a real-scale first wall mock-up fabricated by using the hot isostatic pressing method by structural material of reduced activation martensitic ferritic steel, F82H, and flow and irradiation test of the mock-up are presented. As for safety milestones, the contents of the preliminary safety report in 2008 consisting of source term identification, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and identification of postulated initiating events (PIEs) and safety analyses are presented.

  12. Modulation of conotoxin structure and function is achieved through a multienzyme complex in the venom glands of cone snails.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Gorasia, Dhana G; Steiner, Andrew M; Williamson, Nicholas A; Karas, John A; Gajewiak, Joanna; Olivera, Baldomero M; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Purcell, Anthony W

    2012-10-05

    The oxidative folding of large polypeptides has been investigated in detail; however, comparatively little is known about the enzyme-assisted folding of small, disulfide-containing peptide substrates. To investigate the concerted effect of multiple enzymes on the folding of small disulfide-rich peptides, we sequenced and expressed protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) from Conus venom glands. Conus PDI was shown to catalyze the oxidation and reduction of disulfide bonds in two conotoxins, α-GI and α-ImI. Oxidative folding rates were further increased in the presence of Conus PPI with the maximum effect observed in the presence of both enzymes. In contrast, Conus BiP was only observed to assist folding in the presence of microsomes, suggesting that additional co-factors were involved. The identification of a complex between BiP, PDI, and nascent conotoxins further suggests that the folding and assembly of conotoxins is a highly regulated multienzyme-assisted process. Unexpectedly, all three enzymes contributed to the folding of the ribbon isomer of α-ImI. Here, we identify this alternative disulfide-linked species in the venom of Conus imperialis, providing the first evidence for the existence of a "non-native" peptide isomer in the venom of cone snails. Thus, ER-resident enzymes act in concert to accelerate the oxidative folding of conotoxins and modulate their conformation and function by reconfiguring disulfide connectivities. This study has evaluated the role of a number of ER-resident enzymes in the folding of conotoxins, providing novel insights into the enzyme-guided assembly of these small, disulfide-rich peptides.

  13. Modulation of Conotoxin Structure and Function Is Achieved through a Multienzyme Complex in the Venom Glands of Cone Snails*

    PubMed Central

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Gorasia, Dhana G.; Steiner, Andrew M.; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Karas, John A.; Gajewiak, Joanna; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Bulaj, Grzegorz; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2012-01-01

    The oxidative folding of large polypeptides has been investigated in detail; however, comparatively little is known about the enzyme-assisted folding of small, disulfide-containing peptide substrates. To investigate the concerted effect of multiple enzymes on the folding of small disulfide-rich peptides, we sequenced and expressed protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, and immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) from Conus venom glands. Conus PDI was shown to catalyze the oxidation and reduction of disulfide bonds in two conotoxins, α-GI and α-ImI. Oxidative folding rates were further increased in the presence of Conus PPI with the maximum effect observed in the presence of both enzymes. In contrast, Conus BiP was only observed to assist folding in the presence of microsomes, suggesting that additional co-factors were involved. The identification of a complex between BiP, PDI, and nascent conotoxins further suggests that the folding and assembly of conotoxins is a highly regulated multienzyme-assisted process. Unexpectedly, all three enzymes contributed to the folding of the ribbon isomer of α-ImI. Here, we identify this alternative disulfide-linked species in the venom of Conus imperialis, providing the first evidence for the existence of a “non-native” peptide isomer in the venom of cone snails. Thus, ER-resident enzymes act in concert to accelerate the oxidative folding of conotoxins and modulate their conformation and function by reconfiguring disulfide connectivities. This study has evaluated the role of a number of ER-resident enzymes in the folding of conotoxins, providing novel insights into the enzyme-guided assembly of these small, disulfide-rich peptides. PMID:22891240

  14. Simple combination of oxidants with zero-valent-iron (ZVI) achieved very rapid and highly efficient removal of heavy metals from water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Yang, Zhe; Dong, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaohong; Ren, Qidong; Lv, Xiaofang; Jin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    This study, for the first time, demonstrated a continuously accelerated Fe(0) corrosion driven by common oxidants (i.e., NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2) and thereby the rapid and efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) under the experimental conditions of jar tests and column running. ZVI simply coupled with NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2 (0.5 mM) resulted in almost complete As(V) removal within only 10 min with 1000 μg/L of initial As(V) at initial pH of 7.5(±0.1) and liquid solid ratio of 200:1. Simultaneous removal of 200 μg/L of initial Cd(II) and Hg(II) to 2.4-4.4 μg/L for Cd(II) and to 4.0-5.0 μg/L for Hg(II) were achieved within 30 min. No deterioration of HM removal was observed during the ten recycles of jar tests. The ZVI columns activated by 0.1 mM of oxidants had stably treated 40,200 (NaClO), 20,295 (KMnO4) and 40,200 (H2O2) bed volumes (BV) of HM-contaminated drinking water, but with no any indication of As breakthrough (<10 μg/L) even at short empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 8.0 min. The high efficiency of HMs removal from both the jar tests and column running implied a continuous and stable activation (overcoming of iron passivation) of Fe(0) surface by the oxidants. Via the proper increase in oxidant dosing, the ZVI/oxidant combination was applicable to treat highly As(V)-contaminated wastewater. During Fe(0) surface corrosion accelerated by oxidants, a large amount of fresh and reactive iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were continuously generated, which were responsible for the rapid and efficient removal of HMs through multiple mechanisms including adsorption and co-precipitation. A steady state of Fe(0) surface activation and HM removal enabled this simply coupled system to remove HMs with high speed, efficiency and perdurability.

  15. Toward Infection-Resistant Surfaces: Achieving High Antimicrobial Peptide Potency by Modulating the Functionality of Polymer Brush and Peptide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Lo, Joey C Y; Mei, Yan; Haney, Evan F; Siren, Erika; Kalathottukaren, Manu Thomas; Hancock, Robert E W; Lange, Dirk; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2015-12-30

    Bacterial infection associated with indwelling medical devices and implants is a major clinical issue, and the prevention or treatment of such infections is challenging. Antimicrobial coatings offer a significant step toward addressing this important clinical problem. Antimicrobial coatings based on tethered antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on hydrophilic polymer brushes have been shown to be one of the most promising strategies to avoid bacterial colonization and have demonstrated broad spectrum activity. Optimal combinations of the functionality of the polymer-brush-tethered AMPs are essential to maintaining long-term AMP activity on the surface. However, there is limited knowledge currently available on this topic. Here we report the development of potent antimicrobial coatings on implant surfaces by elucidating the roles of polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure on the overall antimicrobial activity of the coatings. We screened several combinations of polymer brush coatings and AMPs constructed on nanoparticles, titanium surfaces, and quartz slides on their antimicrobial activity and bacterial adhesion against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Highly efficient killing of planktonic bacteria by the antimicrobial coatings on nanoparticle surfaces, as well as potent killing of adhered bacteria in the case of coatings on titanium surfaces, was observed. Remarkably, the antimicrobial activity of AMP-conjugated brush coatings demonstrated a clear dependence on the polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure, and optimization of these parameters is critical to achieving infection-resistant surfaces. By analyzing the interaction of polymer-brush-tethered AMPs with model lipid membranes using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we determined that the polymer brush chemistry has an influence on the extent of secondary structure change of tethered peptides before and after interaction with biomembranes. The peptide structure also has an influence on the density

  16. Limits on Achievable Dimensional and Photon Efficiencies with Intensity-Modulation and Photon-Counting Due to Non-Ideal Photon-Counter Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.; Farr, William; Dolinar, Samuel J.; Birnbaum, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    An ideal intensity-modulated photon-counting channel can achieve unbounded photon information efficiencies (PIEs). However, a number of limitations of a physical system limit the practically achievable PIE. In this paper, we discuss several of these limitations and illustrate their impact on the channel. We show that, for the Poisson channel, noise does not strictly bound PIE, although there is an effective limit, as the dimensional information efficiency goes as e[overline] e PIE beyond a threshold PIE. Since the Holevo limit is bounded in the presence of noise, this illustrates that the Poisson approximation is invalid at large PIE for any number of noise modes. We show that a finite transmitter extinction ratio bounds the achievable PIE to a maximum that is logarithmic in the extinction ratio. We show how detector jitter limits the ability to mitigate noise in the PPM signaling framework. We illustrate a method to model detector blocking when the number of detectors is large, and illustrate mitigation of blocking with spatial spreading and altering. Finally, we illustrate the design of a high photon efficiency system using state-of-the-art photo-detectors and taking all these effects into account.

  17. Comparison of Rapid Arc and Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy Plans Using Unified Dosimetry Index and the Impact of Conformity Index on Unified Dosimetry Index Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Jayapalan; Shetty, Jayarama; Rao, Suresh; Hegde, Sanath; Shambhavi, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of conformity index in the unified dosimetry index (UDI) score for two different planning techniques namely intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and Rapid Arc. Rapid Arc and IMRT plans of 57 patients were evaluated and compared using UDI score which incorporates four indices. To determine the impact of conformity index on the IMRT and Rapid Arc plans, UDI at conformity index one of all plan (UDIunit_CI) score was calculated by assuming conformity index is equal to one. Mean and standard deviations of all indices were calculated. Rapid Arc technique plans of different treatment sites of all patients scored lesser UDI than IMRT plans, and the conformity index of Rapid Arc plan was significantly better than IMRT plan. The average dose gradient, homogeneity, coverage, and conformity index of all sites with Rapid Arc plans were 0.212 ± 0.05, 1.123 ± 0.03, 0.959 ± 0.03, and 1.056 ± 0.09; with IMRT plans were 0.190 ± 0.05, 1.113 ± 0.04, 0.950 ± 0.04, and 1.172 ± 0.16, respectively. UDI score value with actual conformity index of Rapid Arc and IMRT plans differed significantly (P < 0.001). However, UDIunit_CI score values with assumed conformity index equal to one did not differ significantly (P = 0.528). In the comparison of IMRT and Rapid Arc plans using the UDI score, the impact of conformity index was significant.

  18. Comparison of Rapid Arc and Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy Plans Using Unified Dosimetry Index and the Impact of Conformity Index on Unified Dosimetry Index Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Jayapalan; Shetty, Jayarama; Rao, Suresh; Hegde, Sanath; Shambhavi, C

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of conformity index in the unified dosimetry index (UDI) score for two different planning techniques namely intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and Rapid Arc. Rapid Arc and IMRT plans of 57 patients were evaluated and compared using UDI score which incorporates four indices. To determine the impact of conformity index on the IMRT and Rapid Arc plans, UDI at conformity index one of all plan (UDIunit_CI) score was calculated by assuming conformity index is equal to one. Mean and standard deviations of all indices were calculated. Rapid Arc technique plans of different treatment sites of all patients scored lesser UDI than IMRT plans, and the conformity index of Rapid Arc plan was significantly better than IMRT plan. The average dose gradient, homogeneity, coverage, and conformity index of all sites with Rapid Arc plans were 0.212 ± 0.05, 1.123 ± 0.03, 0.959 ± 0.03, and 1.056 ± 0.09; with IMRT plans were 0.190 ± 0.05, 1.113 ± 0.04, 0.950 ± 0.04, and 1.172 ± 0.16, respectively. UDI score value with actual conformity index of Rapid Arc and IMRT plans differed significantly (P < 0.001). However, UDIunit_CI score values with assumed conformity index equal to one did not differ significantly (P = 0.528). In the comparison of IMRT and Rapid Arc plans using the UDI score, the impact of conformity index was significant.

  19. A screen for modulators reveals that orexin-A rapidly stimulates thyrotropin releasing hormone expression and release in hypothalamic cell culture.

    PubMed

    Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Martínez Báez, Anabel; Lezama, Leticia; Uribe, Rosa María; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2017-02-02

    In the paraventricular nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus, hypophysiotropic thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) neurons integrate metabolic information and control the activity of the thyroid axis. Additional populations of TRH neurons reside in various hypothalamic areas, with poorly defined connections and functions, albeit there is evidence that some may be related to energy balance. To establish extracellular modulators of TRH hypothalamic neurons activity, we performed a screen of neurotransmitters effects in hypothalamic cultures. Cell culture conditions were chosen to facilitate the full differentiation of the TRH neurons; these conditions had permitted the characterization of the effects of known modulators of hypophysiotropic TRH neurons. The major end-point of the screen was Trh mRNA levels, since they are generally rapidly (0.5-3h) modified by synaptic inputs onto TRH neurons; in some experiments, TRH cell content or release was also analyzed. Various modulators, including histamine, serotonin, β-endorphin, met-enkephalin, and melanin concentrating hormone, had no effect. Glutamate, as well as ionotropic agonists (kainate and N-Methyl-d-aspartic acid), increased Trh mRNA levels. Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, and dopamine enhanced Trh mRNA levels. An endocannabinoid receptor 1 inverse agonist promoted TRH release. Somatostatin increased Trh mRNA levels and TRH cell content. Orexin-A rapidly increased Trh mRNA levels, TRH cell content and release, while orexin-B decreased Trh mRNA levels. These data reveal unaccounted regulators, which exert potent effects on hypothalamic TRH neurons in vitro.

  20. Achieving High Current Density of Perovskite Solar Cells by Modulating the Dominated Facets of Room-Temperature DC Magnetron Sputtered TiO2 Electron Extraction Layer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aibin; Lei, Lei; Zhu, Jingting; Yu, Yu; Liu, Yan; Yang, Songwang; Bao, Shanhu; Cao, Xun; Jin, Ping

    2017-01-25

    The short circuit current density of perovskite solar cell (PSC) was boosted by modulating the dominated plane facets of TiO2 electron transport layer (ETL). Under optimized condition, TiO2 with dominant {001} facets showed (i) low incident light loss, (ii) highly smooth surface and excellent wettability for precursor solution, (iii) efficient electron extraction, and (iv) high conductivity in perovskite photovoltaic application. A current density of 24.19 mA cm(-2) was achieved as a value near the maximum limit. The power conversion efficiency was improved to 17.25%, which was the record value of PSCs with DC magnetron sputtered carrier transport layer. What is more, the room-temperature process had a great significance for the cost reduction and flexible application of PSCs.

  1. Rapid Cerebral Hemodynamic Modulation during Set Shifting: Evidence of Time-Locked Associations with Cognitive Control in Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuepbach, Daniel; Huizinga, Mariette; Duschek, Stefan; Grimm, Simone; Boeker, Heinz; Hell, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Set shifting provokes specific alterations of cerebral hemodynamics in basal cerebral arteries. However, no gender differences have been reported. In the following functional transcranial Doppler study, we introduced cerebral hemodynamic modulation to the aspects of set shifting during Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Twenty-one subjects…

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef-induced down-modulation of CD4 is due to rapid internalization and degradation of surface CD4.

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, S S; Marsh, J W

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef is a myristylated protein with a relative molecular mass of 27 kDa, is localized to the cytoplasmic surfaces of cellular membranes, and has been reported to down-modulate CD4 in human T cells. To understand the mechanism of HIV-1 Nef-mediated down-modulation of cell surface CD4, we expressed Nef protein in human T-cell line VB. Expression of HIV-1 Nef protein down-modulated surface CD4 molecules. In pulse-chase experiments, CD4 molecules in Nef-expressing cells were synthesized at normal levels. However, the bulk of newly synthesized CD4 protein was degraded with a half-life of approximately 6 h, compared with the 24-h half-life in control cells. This Nef-induced acceleration of CD4 turnover was inhibited by lysosomotropic agents NH4Cl and chloroquine as well as by the protease inhibitor leupeptin. Surface CD4 biotinylation experiments demonstrated that CD4 molecules in Nef-expressing T cells are transported to the plasma membrane with normal kinetics but are then rapidly internalized. Therefore, HIV-1 Nef-induced down-modulation of CD4 is due to rapid internalization of surface CD4 and subsequent degradation by an acid-dependent process, potentially lysosomal. Additionally, in a Nef-expressing cell, we find accelerated dissociation of the T-cell tyrosine kinase p56lck and CD4 but only after the complex reaches the plasma membrane. This implies that HIV-1 Nef protein might play a role in triggering a series of T-cell activation-like events, which contribute to p56lck dissociation and internalization of surface CD4 molecules. Images PMID:8035515

  3. Sub-Doppler spectra of infrared hyperfine transitions of nitric oxide using a pulse modulated quantum cascade laser: rapid passage, free induction decay, and the ac Stark effect.

    PubMed

    Duxbury, Geoffrey; Kelly, James F; Blake, Thomas A; Langford, Nigel

    2012-05-07

    Using a low power, rapid (nsec) pulse-modulated quantum cascade (QC) laser, collective coherent effects in the 5 μm spectrum of nitric oxide have been demonstrated by the observation of sub-Doppler hyperfine splitting and also Autler-Townes splitting of Doppler broadened lines. For nitrous oxide, experiments and model calculations have demonstrated that two main effects occur with pulse-modulated (chirped) quantum cascade lasers: free induction decay signals, and signals induced by rapid passage during the laser chirp. In the open shell molecule, NO, in which both Λ-doubling splitting and hyperfine structure occur, laser field-induced coupling between the hyperfine levels of the two Λ-doublet components can induce a large ac Stark effect. This may be observed as sub-Doppler structure, field-induced splittings, or Autler-Townes splitting of a Doppler broadened line. These represent an extension of the types of behaviour observed in the closed shell molecule nitrous oxide, using the same apparatus, when probed with an 8 μm QC laser.

  4. A search for rapidly modulated emission in bright X-ray sources using the HEAO A-1 data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbank, William M.

    1987-01-01

    A search was performed in the HEAO A-1 Data Base (located at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C.) for evidence of rapidly-rotating neutron stars that could be sources of coherent gravitational radiation. A new data analysis algorithm, which was developed, is described. The algorithm was applied to data from observations of Cyg X-2, Cyg X-3, and 1820-30. Upper limits on pulse fraction were derived and reported.

  5. Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP): The User Interface for the Fabrication Module of the Rapid Design System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    CUMENTATION PAGE ,r, Ap.,ov’AD-A250 095 . o"k . .’.-, es .’ . CS ip,:. j . ".s.... ,n uomC t" P FtVCe to .. v CePn- flns.’ rI ?n Se." -~ er sC " ’ o...8217 C. ~ ~ ~ ~ an t, a~. U0Q- v .’.Aoer or 01 ~. r P , ’e 1c (0 G4-0 B1 O .S r~~ 2. REPORT DATE 3 REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 191...INTERFACE ,,,f -- jl ~ oo Name: Cartaya, Christine Marie .... A, and/or University of Dayton, 1991 fi pecl.al, Advisor: Dr. John P . Eimermachert3" - The Rapid

  6. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate-induced cytotoxicity is accompanied by a rapid and drastic modulation of glutathione metabolism.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Mami; Xu, Shenghui; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Kennedy, David Opare; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2009-01-01

    The effect of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), an anticarcinogenic compound naturally obtained from rhizomes and seeds of South East Asia plants, on the intracellular concentration of glutathione and the activities of enzymes related to glutathione metabolism was studied in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. We showed in a previous study that ACA induced apoptosis in tumor cells and the cell death was reversed by the addition of N-acetlycysteine or glutathione ethylester. Here we found that ACA caused a rapid decrease in glutathione level in less than 10 min after ACA exposure. At the time, glutathione reductase activity was significantly inhibited and gamma-glutamyl cysteine increased by ACA exposure. These results show that ACA caused the decrease in the intracellular GSH levels in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, suggesting that ACA-induced decrease of the cellular GSH levels can lead to growth arrest of cancer and enhancement of the efficacy other anticancer drugs.

  7. Top-down modulation in the infant brain: Learning-induced expectations rapidly affect the sensory cortex at 6 months

    PubMed Central

    Emberson, Lauren L.; Richards, John E.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent theoretical work emphasizes the role of expectation in neural processing, shifting the focus from feed-forward cortical hierarchies to models that include extensive feedback (e.g., predictive coding). Empirical support for expectation-related feedback is compelling but restricted to adult humans and nonhuman animals. Given the considerable differences in neural organization, connectivity, and efficiency between infant and adult brains, it is a crucial yet open question whether expectation-related feedback is an inherent property of the cortex (i.e., operational early in development) or whether expectation-related feedback develops with extensive experience and neural maturation. To determine whether infants’ expectations about future sensory input modulate their sensory cortices without the confounds of stimulus novelty or repetition suppression, we used a cross-modal (audiovisual) omission paradigm and used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to record hemodynamic responses in the infant cortex. We show that the occipital cortex of 6-month-old infants exhibits the signature of expectation-based feedback. Crucially, we found that this region does not respond to auditory stimuli if they are not predictive of a visual event. Overall, these findings suggest that the young infant’s brain is already capable of some rudimentary form of expectation-based feedback. PMID:26195772

  8. Rapid comprehensive characterization of crude oils by thermogravimetry coupled to fast modulated gas chromatography-single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, S; Fischer, M; Saraji-Bozorgzad, M; Matuschek, G; Streibel, T; Post, E; Denner, T; Zimmermann, R

    2013-09-01

    Comprehensive multi-dimensional hyphenation of a thermogravimetry device (i.e. a thermobalance) to gas chromatography and single photon ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TG-GC×SPI-MS) has been used to investigate two crude oil samples of different geographical origin. The source of the applied vacuum ultraviolet radiation is an electron beam pumped rare gas excimer lamp (EBEL). The soft photoionization favors the formation of molecular ions. Introduction of a fast, rapidly modulated gas chromatographic separation step in comparison with solely TG-SPI-MS enables strongly enhanced detection especially with such highly complex organic matrices as crude oil. In contrast with former TG-SPI-MS measurements, separation and identification of overlying substances is possible because of different GC retention times. The specific contribution of isobaric compounds to one mass signal is determined for alkanes, naphthalenes, alkylated benzenes, and other compounds.

  9. Achieving high-resolution soft-tissue imaging with cone-beam CT: a two-pronged approach for modulation of x-ray fluence and detector gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, S. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Moseley, D. J.; Keller, H.; Shkumat, N. A.; Jaffray, D. A.

    2005-04-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) presents a highly promising and challenging advanced application of flat-panel detectors (FPDs). The great advantage of this adaptable technology is in the potential for sub-mm 3D spatial resolution in combination with soft-tissue detectability. While the former is achieved naturally by CBCT systems incorporating modern FPD designs (e.g., 200 - 400 um pixel pitch), the latter presents a significant challenge due to limitations in FPD dynamic range, large field of view, and elevated levels of x-ray scatter in typical CBCT configurations. We are investigating a two-pronged strategy to maximizing soft-tissue detectability in CBCT: 1) front-end solutions, including novel beam modulation designs (viz., spatially varying compensators) that alleviate detector dynamic range requirements, reduce x-ray scatter, and better distribute imaging dose in a manner suited to soft-tissue visualization throughout the field of view; and 2) back-end solutions, including implementation of an advanced FPD design (Varian PaxScan 4030CB) that features dual-gain and dynamic gain switching that effectively extends detector dynamic range to 18 bits. These strategies are explored quantitatively on CBCT imaging platforms developed in our laboratory, including a dedicated CBCT bench and a mobile isocentric C-arm (Siemens PowerMobil). Pre-clinical evaluation of improved soft-tissue visibility was carried out in phantom and patient imaging with the C-arm device. Incorporation of these strategies begin to reveal the full potential of CBCT for soft-tissue visualization, an essential step in realizing broad utility of this adaptable technology for diagnostic and image-guided procedures.

  10. Chondrogenesis of embryonic limb bud cells in micromass culture progresses rapidly to hypertrophy and is modulated by hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Saha, Anurati; Rolfe, Rebecca; Carroll, Simon; Kelly, Daniel J; Murphy, Paula

    2017-04-01

    Chondrogenesis in vivo is precisely controlled in time and space. The entire limb skeleton forms from cells at the core of the early limb bud that condense and undergo chondrogenic differentiation. Whether they form stable cartilage at the articular surface of the joint or transient cartilage that progresses to hypertrophy as endochondral bone, replacing the cartilage template of the skeletal rudiment, is spatially controlled over several days in the embryo. Here, we follow the differentiation of cells taken from the early limb bud (embryonic day 11.5), grown in high-density micromass culture and show that a self-organising pattern of evenly spaced cartilage nodules occurs spontaneously in growth medium. Although chondrogenesis is enhanced by addition of BMP6 to the medium, the spatial pattern of nodule formation is disrupted. We show rapid progression of the entire nodule to hypertrophy in culture and therefore loss of the local signals required to direct formation of stable cartilage. Dynamic hydrostatic pressure, which we have previously predicted to be a feature of the forming embryonic joint region, had a stabilising effect on chondrogenesis, reducing expression of hypertrophic marker genes. This demonstrates the use of micromass culture as a relatively simple assay to compare the effect of both biophysical and molecular signals on spatial and temporal control of chondrogenesis that could be used to examine the response of different types of progenitor cell, both adult- and embryo-derived.

  11. Sub-Doppler Spectra of Infrared Hyperfine Transitions of Nitric Oxide Using a Pulse Modulated Quantum Cascade Laser: Rapid Passage, Free Induction Decay and the AC Stark Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Duxbury, Geoffrey; Kelly, James F.; Blake, Thomas A.; Langford, Nigel

    2012-05-07

    Using a low power, rapid (nsec) pulse-modulated quantum cascade (QC) laser, collective coherent effects in the 5 {micro}m spectrum of nitric oxide have been demonstrated by the observation of sub-Doppler hyperfine splitting and also Autler-Townes splitting of Doppler broadened lines. For nitrous oxide, experiments and model calculations have demonstrated that two main effects occur with ulsemodulated (chirped) quantum cascade lasers: free induction decay signals, and signals induced by rapid passage during the laser chirp. In the open shell molecule, NO, in which both {Lambda}-doubling splitting and hyperfine structure occur, laser field-induced coupling between the hyperfine levels of the two {Lambda}-doublet components can induce a large AC Stark effect. This may be observed as sub-Doppler structure, field-induced splittings, or Autler-Townes splitting of a Doppler broadened line. These represent an extension of the types of behaviour observed in the closed shell molecule nitrous oxide, using the same apparatus, when probed with an 8 {micro}m QC laser.

  12. Mechanisms of rapid induction of interleukin-22 in activated T cells and its modulation by cyclosporin a.

    PubMed

    Rudloff, Ina; Bachmann, Malte; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2012-02-10

    IL-22 is an immunoregulatory cytokine displaying pathological functions in models of autoimmunity like experimental psoriasis. Understanding molecular mechanisms driving IL-22, together with knowledge on the capacity of current immunosuppressive drugs to target this process, may open an avenue to novel therapeutic options. Here, we sought to characterize regulation of human IL22 gene expression with focus on the established model of Jurkat T cells. Moreover, effects of the prototypic immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) were investigated. We report that IL-22 induction by TPA/A23187 (T/A) or αCD3 is inhibited by CsA or related FK506. Similar data were obtained with peripheral blood mononuclear cells or purified CD3(+) T cells. IL22 promoter analysis (-1074 to +156 bp) revealed a role of an NF-AT (-95/-91 nt) and a CREB (-194/-190 nt) binding site for gene induction. Indeed, binding of CREB and NF-ATc2, but not c-Rel, under the influence of T/A to those elements could be proven by ChIP. Because CsA has the capability to impair IκB kinase (IKK) complex activation, the IKKα/β inhibitor IKKVII was evaluated. IKKVII likewise reduced IL-22 induction in Jurkat cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Interestingly, transfection of Jurkat cells with siRNA directed against IKKα impaired IL22 gene expression. Data presented suggest that NF-AT, CREB, and IKKα contribute to rapid IL22 gene induction. In particular the crucial role of NF-AT detected herein may form the basis of direct action of CsA on IL-22 expression by T cells, which may contribute to therapeutic efficacy of the drug in autoimmunity.

  13. Noradrenergic modulation of masseter muscle activity during natural rapid eye movement sleep requires glutamatergic signalling at the trigeminal motor nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Peter B; Mir, Saba; Peever, John H

    2014-08-15

    Noradrenergic neurotransmission in the brainstem is closely coupled to changes in muscle activity across the sleep-wake cycle, and noradrenaline is considered to be a key excitatory neuromodulator that reinforces the arousal-related stimulus on motoneurons to drive movement. However, it is unknown if α-1 noradrenoceptor activation increases motoneuron responsiveness to excitatory glutamate (AMPA) receptor-mediated inputs during natural behaviour. We studied the effects of noradrenaline on AMPA receptor-mediated motor activity at the motoneuron level in freely behaving rats, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a period during which both AMPA receptor-triggered muscle twitches and periods of muscle quiescence in which AMPA drive is silent are exhibited. Male rats were subjected to electromyography and electroencephalography recording to monitor sleep and waking behaviour. The implantation of a cannula into the trigeminal motor nucleus of the brainstem allowed us to perfuse noradrenergic and glutamatergic drugs by reverse microdialysis, and thus to use masseter muscle activity as an index of motoneuronal output. We found that endogenous excitation of both α-1 noradrenoceptor and AMPA receptors during waking are coupled to motor activity; however, REM sleep exhibits an absence of endogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor activity. Importantly, exogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor stimulation cannot reverse the muscle twitch suppression induced by AMPA receptor blockade and nor can it elevate muscle activity during quiet REM, a phase when endogenous AMPA receptor activity is subthreshold. We conclude that the presence of an endogenous glutamatergic drive is necessary for noradrenaline to trigger muscle activity at the level of the motoneuron in an animal behaving naturally.

  14. Dependence of Achievable Plan Quality on Treatment Technique and Planning Goal Refinement: A Head-and-Neck Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Application

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, X. Sharon Ruan, Dan; Lee, Steve P.; Pham, Andrew; Kupelian, Patrick; Low, Daniel A.; Steinberg, Michael; Demarco, John

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To develop a practical workflow for retrospectively analyzing target and normal tissue dose–volume endpoints for various intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivery techniques; to develop technique-specific planning goals to improve plan consistency and quality when feasible. Methods and Materials: A total of 165 consecutive head-and-neck patients from our patient registry were selected and retrospectively analyzed. All IMRT plans were generated using the same dose–volume guidelines for TomoTherapy (Tomo, Accuray), TrueBeam (TB, Varian) using fixed-field IMRT (TB-IMRT) or RAPIDARC (TB-RAPIDARC), or Siemens Oncor (Siemens-IMRT, Siemens). A MATLAB-based dose–volume extraction and analysis tool was developed to export dosimetric endpoints for each patient. With a fair stratification of patient cohort, the variation of achieved dosimetric endpoints was analyzed among different treatment techniques. Upon identification of statistically significant variations, technique-specific planning goals were derived from dynamically accumulated institutional data. Results: Retrospective analysis showed that although all techniques yielded comparable target coverage, the doses to the critical structures differed. The maximum cord doses were 34.1 ± 2.6, 42.7 ± 2.1, 43.3 ± 2.0, and 45.1 ± 1.6 Gy for Tomo, TB-IMRT, TB-RAPIDARC, and Siemens-IMRT plans, respectively. Analyses of variance showed significant differences for the maximum cord doses but no significant differences for other selected structures among the investigated IMRT delivery techniques. Subsequently, a refined technique-specific dose–volume guideline for maximum cord dose was derived at a confidence level of 95%. The dosimetric plans that failed the refined technique-specific planning goals were reoptimized according to the refined constraints. We observed better cord sparing with minimal variations for the target coverage and other organ at risk sparing for the Tomo cases, and higher

  15. Rapid Fermentable Substance Modulates Interactions between Ruminal Commensals and Toll-Like Receptors in Promotion of Immune Tolerance of Goat Rumen

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hong; Lu, Zhongyan; Chen, Zhan; Wu, Yufeng; Shen, Zanming

    2016-01-01

    Whether dietary non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC), a rapid fermentable substance, affects immune homeostasis of rumen through the modulation of interactions of ruminal microbiota and epithelial toll-like receptors (TLRs) remains unclear. A combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCRs was applied to study the synergetic responses of ruminal microbiota and epithelial TLRs to the dietary NFC switch from 15 to 31% in the goat model. The results showed that the 31% NFC diet caused the radical increases on the richness and diversity of rumen microbiota. The phylum Verrucomicrobia was most significantly expanded, whereas opportunistic pathogens, namely Rikenella, Anaeroplasma, and Olsenella, were significantly decreased. In rumen epithelium, the significantly increased expressions of TLR1, 6, 10 were associated with the significantly decreased expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß), IL-6, and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Constrained correlation analysis indicated that the increased abundance of commensal bacteria in Verrucomicrobia subdivision 5 contributed to the upregulation of TLR10 expression. Finally, the significantly increased concentrations of rumen short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), coupled with the significantly upregulated expressions of epithelial genes related to SCFA absorption were observed in goats fed with 31% NFC diet. Thus, the NFC-induced expansion of rumen microbiota promoted epithelium tolerance by enhancement of the intensity of TLR10 signaling. The newly established equilibrium benefited to the transport of ruminal energy substances into the blood. PMID:27909428

  16. Rapid Assembly Module for Traypacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    quantities to fulfill the order. Lot numbers of all incoming materials should be documented to provide traceability of finished goods should there be a...recall. Each production day will represents an assembled lot. Associated component lot numbers should be cross-referenced to the day’s production run

  17. A Comparison of Course Completion, Satisfaction, Achievement, and Performance among Non-Profit Professionals Who Complete Andragogical or Pedagogical Online Learning Modules on Grant Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Joe Bernard, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes among staff members of nonprofit social service agencies who participated in or completed an andragogically-facilitated or a pedagogically-conducted online learning module on foundation grant writing. The efficacy of andragogical methods is unknown and often debated due to scarce empirical…

  18. Shock and Awe. Achieving Rapid Dominance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    37 Chapter Four: An Outline for System Innovation and Technological Integration...required. Advocates, all along the spectrum from a military technical revolution to a revolution in military affairs to a revolution in security... affairs , are making their cases. Military institutions are by their very nature somewhat conservative. History has shown that success has often sown

  19. Experienced registered nurses' satisfaction with using self-learning modules versus traditional lecture/discussion to achieve competency goals during hospital orientation.

    PubMed

    Carcich, Grace M; Rafti, Karen R

    2007-01-01

    Staff development educators are challenged with various levels of experience and learning styles among newly hired registered nurses in a hospital orientation group. This diversity forces the educator to use various teaching strategies to meet the learning needs of the group. This study investigated the experienced registered nurses' satisfaction with using self-learning modules versus traditional lecture/discussion methods during the nursing orientation process. The results revealed that experienced nurses prefer the more traditional method of learning by lecture/discussion.

  20. Free treatment, rapid malaria diagnostic tests and malaria village workers can hasten progress toward achieving the malaria related millennium development goals: the Médecins Sans Frontières experience from Chad, Sierra-Leone and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Tayler-Smith, Katie; Kociejowski, Alice; de Lamotte, Nadine; Gerard, Seco; Ponsar, Frederique; Philips, Mit; Zachariah, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Halving the burden of malaria by 2015 and ensuring that 80% of people with malaria receive treatment is among the health related targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite political momentum toward achieving this target, progress is slow and many with malaria (particularly in poor and rural communities in Africa) are still without access to effective treatment. Finding ways to improve access to anti-malarial treatment in Africa is essential to achieve the malaria related and other MDG targets. During its work in Chad, Sierra Leone and Mali in the period 2004 to 2008, Médecins Sans Frontières showed that it was possible to significantly improve access to effective malaria treatment through: i) the removal of health centre level user fees for essential healthcare for vulnerable population groups, ii) the introduction of free community based treatment for children using malaria village workers to diagnose and treat simple malaria in communities where geographical and financial barriers limited access to effective malaria care, iii) the improved diagnosis and treatment of malaria using rapid diagnosis tests and artemisinin based combination therapy, at both health facilities and in the community. This paper describes and discusses these strategies and their related impact.

  1. Dosimetric comparison between intensity-modulated radiotherapy and RapidArc with single arc and dual arc for malignant glioma involving the parietal lobe

    PubMed Central

    YUAN, JUN; LEI, MINGJUN; YANG, ZHEN; FU, JUN; HUO, LEI; HONG, JIDONG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the difference in treatment plan quality, monitor units (MUs) per fraction and dosimetric parameters between IMRT (intensity-modulated radiotherapy) and RapidArc with single arc (RA1) and dual arc (RA2) for malignant glioma involving the parietal lobe. Treatment plans for IMRT and RA1 and RA2 were prepared for 10 patients with malignant gliomas involving the parietal lobe. The Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test was used to compare the plan quality, monitor units and dosimetric parameters between IMRT and RA1 and RA2 through dose-volume histograms. Dnear-max (D2%) to the left lens, right lens and left optical nerve in RA1 were less compared with those in IMRT; D2% to the right lens and right optic nerve in RA2 were less compared with those in IMRT. D2% to the optic chiasma in RA2 was small compared with that in RA1. The median dose (D50%) to the right lens and right optic nerve in RA1 and RA2 was less compared with the identical parameters in IMRT, and D50% to the brain stem in RA2 was less compared with that in RA1. The volume receiving at least 45 Gy (V45) or V50 in normal brain tissue (whole brain minus the planning target volume 2; B-P) in RA1 was less compared with that in IMRT. V30, V35, V40, V45, or V50 in B-P in RA2 was less compared with that in IMRT. The MUs per fraction in RA1 and RA2 were significantly less compared with those in IMRT. All differences with a P-value<0.05 were considered to be significantly different. In conclusion, RA1 and RA2 markedly reduced the MUs per fraction, and spared partial organs at risk and B-P compared with IMRT. PMID:27330795

  2. Dosimetric comparison between intensity-modulated radiotherapy and RapidArc with single arc and dual arc for malignant glioma involving the parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Lei, Mingjun; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Jun; Huo, Lei; Hong, Jidong

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the difference in treatment plan quality, monitor units (MUs) per fraction and dosimetric parameters between IMRT (intensity-modulated radiotherapy) and RapidArc with single arc (RA1) and dual arc (RA2) for malignant glioma involving the parietal lobe. Treatment plans for IMRT and RA1 and RA2 were prepared for 10 patients with malignant gliomas involving the parietal lobe. The Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test was used to compare the plan quality, monitor units and dosimetric parameters between IMRT and RA1 and RA2 through dose-volume histograms. Dnear-max (D2%) to the left lens, right lens and left optical nerve in RA1 were less compared with those in IMRT; D2% to the right lens and right optic nerve in RA2 were less compared with those in IMRT. D2% to the optic chiasma in RA2 was small compared with that in RA1. The median dose (D50%) to the right lens and right optic nerve in RA1 and RA2 was less compared with the identical parameters in IMRT, and D50% to the brain stem in RA2 was less compared with that in RA1. The volume receiving at least 45 Gy (V45) or V50 in normal brain tissue (whole brain minus the planning target volume 2; B-P) in RA1 was less compared with that in IMRT. V30, V35, V40, V45, or V50 in B-P in RA2 was less compared with that in IMRT. The MUs per fraction in RA1 and RA2 were significantly less compared with those in IMRT. All differences with a P-value<0.05 were considered to be significantly different. In conclusion, RA1 and RA2 markedly reduced the MUs per fraction, and spared partial organs at risk and B-P compared with IMRT.

  3. A Co-blended Locust Bean Gum and Polymethacrylate-NaCMC Matrix to Achieve Zero-Order Release via Hydro-Erosive Modulation.

    PubMed

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi C; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Modi, Girish; Pillay, Viness

    2015-12-01

    Locust bean gum (LBG) was blended with a cellulose/methacrylate-based interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) to assess the hydro-erosive influence of addition of a polysaccharide on the disposition and drug delivery properties inherent to IPEC matrix. The addition of LBG modulated the drug (levodopa) release characteristics of the IPEC by reducing excessive swelling and preventing bulk erosion. After 8 h in pH 4.5 dissolution medium, gravimetric analysis established that IPEC tablet matrix eroded by 30% of the initial weight due to bulk erosion while LBG-blended IPEC (LBG-b-IPEC) demonstrated surface erosion accounting to 62% of initial weight (596→226.8 mg). Mathematical modeling of the drug release data depicted a transformation from non-Fickian mechanism (IPEC matrices) to zero-order drug release pattern (LBG-b-IPEC matrices) with the linearity of release profile being close to 1 (R (2) = 0.99). Physicochemical characterizations employing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) explicated that LBG interacted with IPEC by its hydrophilic groups associating with the existing water-holding bodies of IPEC to produce compact matrices. The lattice atomistic modeling elucidated that LBG acted as a linker with the formation of intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds generating a highly stabilized polysaccharide-polyelectrolytic structure which influenced the improved properties observed.

  4. Using a 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier with seeding light by 64-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency division multiplexing modulation to achieve a 10-gbits/s upstream rate in long-reach passive optical network access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Wu, Yu-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We use a commercially available 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)--based optical network unit (ONU) to achieve 10-gbits/s upstream traffic for an optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON). This is the first time the 64--quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM format has been applied to RSOA-ONU to achieve a 75 km fiber transmission length. In the proposed LR-PON, the upstream power penalty of 5.2 dB at the bit error rate of 3.8×10-3 is measured by using a 64-QAM OFDM modulation after the 75 km fiber transmission without dispersion compensation.

  5. Improved ground-state modulation characteristics in 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers by rapid thermal annealing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hanxue; Yoon, Soon Fatt; Ngo, Chun Yong; Wang, Rui

    2011-05-16

    We investigated the ground-state (GS) modulation characteristics of 1.3 μm InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) lasers that consist of either as-grown or annealed QDs. The choice of annealing conditions was determined from our recently reported results. With reference to the as-grown QD lasers, one obtains approximately 18% improvement in the modulation bandwidth from the annealed QD lasers. In addition, the modulation efficiency of the annealed QD lasers improves by approximately 45% as compared to the as-grown ones. The observed improvements are due to (1) the removal of defects which act as nonradiative recombination centers in the QD structure and (2) the reduction in the Auger-related recombination processes upon annealing.

  6. Dosimetric study of volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc and intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer and comparison with 3-dimensional conformal technique for definitive radiotherapy in patients with cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Falk, Alexander T.; Auberdiac, Pierre; Cartier, Lysian; Vallard, Alexis; Ollier, Edouard; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Khodri, Moustapha; Chargari, Cyrus; Magné, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: For patients with cervical cancer, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) improves target coverage and allows dose escalation while reducing the radiation dose to organs at risk (OARs). In this study, we compared dosimetric parameters among 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), “step-and-shoot” IMRT, and volumetric intensity-modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) in a series of patients with cervical cancer receiving definitive radiotherapy. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 10 patients with histologically proven cervical cancer treated with definitive radiation therapy (RT) from December 2008 to March 2010 at our department were selected for this study. The gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) were delineated following the guidelines of the Gyn IMRT consortium that included cervix, uterus, parametrial tissues, and the pelvic nodes including presacral. The median age was 57 years (range: 30 to 85 years). All 10 patients had squamous cell carcinoma with Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB-IIIB. All patients were treated by VMAT. OAR doses were significantly reduced for plans with intensity-modulated technique compared with 3D-CRT except for the dose to the vagina. Between the 2 intensity-modulated techniques, significant difference was observed for the mean dose to the small intestine, to the benefit of VMAT (p < 0.001). There was no improvement in terms of OARs sparing for VMAT although there was a tendency for a slightly decreased average dose to the rectum: − 0.65 Gy but not significant (p = 0.07). The intensity modulation techniques have many advantages in terms of quality indexes, and particularly OAR sparing, compared with 3D-CRT. Following the ongoing technologic developments in modern radiotherapy, it is essential to evaluate the intensity-modulated techniques on prospective studies of a larger scale.

  7. Addressing solar modulation and long-term uncertainties in scaling secondary cosmic rays for in situ cosmogenic nuclide applications [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifton, Nathaniel A.; Bieber, John W.; Clem, John M.; Duldig, Marc L.; Evenson, Paul; Humble, John E.; Pyle, Roger

    2005-10-01

    Solar modulation affects the secondary cosmic rays responsible for in situ cosmogenic nuclide (CN) production the most at the high geomagnetic latitudes to which CN production rates are traditionally referenced. While this has long been recognized (e.g., D. Lal, B. Peters, Cosmic ray produced radioactivity on the Earth, in: K. Sitte (Ed.), Handbuch Der Physik XLVI/2, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1967, pp. 551-612 and D. Lal, Theoretically expected variations in the terrestrial cosmic ray production rates of isotopes, in: G.C. Castagnoli (Ed.), Proceedings of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics 95, Italian Physical Society, Varenna 1988, pp. 216-233), these variations can lead to potentially significant scaling model uncertainties that have not been addressed in detail. These uncertainties include the long-term (millennial-scale) average solar modulation level to which secondary cosmic rays should be referenced, and short-term fluctuations in cosmic ray intensity measurements used to derive published secondary cosmic ray scaling models. We have developed new scaling models for spallogenic nucleons, slow-muon capture and fast-muon interactions that specifically address these uncertainties. Our spallogenic nucleon scaling model, which includes data from portions of 5 solar cycles, explicitly incorporates a measure of solar modulation ( S), and our fast- and slow-muon scaling models (based on more limited data) account for solar modulation effects through increased uncertainties. These models improve on previously published models by better sampling the observed variability in measured cosmic ray intensities as a function of geomagnetic latitude, altitude, and solar activity. Furthermore, placing the spallogenic nucleon data in a consistent time-space framework allows for a more realistic assessment of uncertainties in our model than in earlier ones. We demonstrate here that our models reasonably account for the effects of solar modulation on measured

  8. Highly efficient terahertz wave modulators by photo-excitation of organics/silicon bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Hyung Keun; Kang, Chul; Hwang, In-Wook; Yoon, Youngwoon; Lee, Kiejin; Kee, Chul-Sik; Lee, Joong Wook

    2014-07-07

    Using hybrid bilayer systems comprising a molecular organic semiconductor and silicon, we achieve optically controllable active terahertz (THz) modulators that exhibit extremely high modulation efficiencies. A modulation efficiency of 98% is achieved from thermally annealed C{sub 60}/silicon bilayers, due to the rapid photo-induced electron transfer from the excited states of the silicon onto the C{sub 60} layer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the broadband modulation of THz waves. The cut-off condition of the system that is determined by the formation of efficient charge separation by the photo-excitation is highly variable, changing the system from insulating to metallic. The phenomenon enables an extremely high modulation bandwidth and rates of electromagnetic waves of interest. The realization of near-perfect modulation efficiency in THz frequencies opens up the possibilities of utilizing active modulators for THz spectroscopy and communications.

  9. Comparative dosimetric and radiobiological assessment among a nonstandard RapidArc, standard RapidArc, classical intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 3D brachytherapy for the treatment of the vaginal vault in patients affected by gynecologic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pedicini, Piernicola; Caivano, Rocchina; Fiorentino, Alba; Strigari, Lidia; Califano, Giorgia; Barbieri, Viviana; Sanpaolo, Piero; Castaldo, Giovanni; Benassi, Marcello; Fusco, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a nonstandard RapidArc (RA) modality as alternative to high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BRT) or IMRT treatments of the vaginal vault in patients with gynecological cancer (GC). Nonstandard (with vaginal applicator) and standard (without vaginal applicator) RapidArc plans for 27 women with GC were developed to compare with HDR-BRT and IMRT. Dosimetric and radiobiological comparison were performed by means of dose-volume histogram and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) for planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs). In addition, the integral dose and the overall treatment times were evaluated. RA, as well as IMRT, results in a high uniform dose on PTV compared with HDR-BRT. However, the average of EUD for HDR-BRT was significantly higher than those with RA and IMRT. With respect to the OARs, standard RA was equivalent of IMRT but inferior to HDR-BRT. Furthermore, nonstandard RA was comparable with IMRT for bladder and sigmoid and better than HDR-BRT for the rectum because of a significant reduction of d{sub 2cc}, d{sub 1cc}, and d{sub max} (p < 0.01). Integral doses were always higher than HDR-BRT, although the values were very low. Delivery times were about the same and more than double for HDR-BRT compared with IMRT and RA, respectively. In conclusion, the boost of dose on vaginal vault in patients affected by GC delivered by a nonstandard RA technique was a reasonable alternative to the conventional HDR-BRT because of a reduction of delivery time and rectal dose at substantial comparable doses for the bladder and sigmoid. However HDR-BRT provides better performance in terms of PTV coverage as evidenced by a greater EUD.

  10. A Negative Allosteric Modulator for α5 Subunit-Containing GABA Receptors Exerts a Rapid and Persistent Antidepressant-Like Action without the Side Effects of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Mackenzie E.; Krimmel, Samuel R.; Georgiou, Polymnia; Gould, Todd D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract New antidepressant pharmacotherapies that provide rapid relief of depressive symptoms are needed. The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant actions in depressed patients but also side effects that complicate its clinical utility. Ketamine promotes excitatory synaptic strength, likely by producing high-frequency correlated activity in mood-relevant regions of the forebrain. Negative allosteric modulators of GABA-A receptors containing α5 subunits (α5 GABA-NAMs) should also promote high-frequency correlated electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and should therefore exert rapid antidepressant responses. Because α5 subunits display a restricted expression in the forebrain, we predicted that α5 GABA-NAMs would produce activation of principle neurons but exert fewer side effects than ketamine. We tested this hypothesis in male mice and observed that the α5 GABA-NAM MRK-016 exerted an antidepressant-like response in the forced swim test at 1 and 24 h after administration and an anti-anhedonic response after chronic stress in the female urine sniffing test (FUST). Like ketamine, MRK-016 produced a transient increase in EEG γ power, and both the increase in γ power and its antidepressant effects in the forced swim test were blocked by prior administration of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor antagonist 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX). Unlike ketamine, however, MRK-016 produced no impairment of rota-rod performance, no reduction of prepulse inhibition (PPI), no conditioned-place preference (CPP), and no change in locomotion. α5 GABA-NAMs, thus reproduce the rapid antidepressant-like actions of ketamine, perhaps via an AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-dependent increase in coherent neuronal activity, but display fewer potential negative side effects. These compounds thus demonstrate promise as clinically useful fast-acting antidepressants. PMID:28275719

  11. TGF-beta and vitamin D3 utilize distinct pathways to suppress IL-12 production and modulate rapid differentiation of human monocytes into CD83+ dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Lyakh, Lyudmila A; Sanford, Michael; Chekol, Sebel; Young, Howard A; Roberts, Anita B

    2005-02-15

    We previously demonstrated that agents known to signal infection or inflammation can rapidly and directly drive differentiation of human CD14+ monocytes into CD83+ dendritic cells (DCs) when introduced to cells under serum-free conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of TGF-beta and vitamin D3 (VitD3) on the proportion and function of monocytes that adopt DC characteristics. TGF-beta significantly decreased the proportion of cells that rapidly adopted stable DC characteristics in response to LPS, but had little or no effect on calcium ionophore-induced differentiation. In contrast, VitD3 showed no such pathway specificity and dramatically suppressed differentiation of monocytes into DCs in response to these agents. Both TGF-beta and VitD3 altered cytokine and chemokine production in LPS-treated monocytes, inhibited IL-12 and IL-10 secretion, and decreased the functional capacity of DCs. Despite the similar effects of TGF-beta and VitD3, there are significant differences in the signaling pathways used by these agents, as evidenced by their distinct effects on LPS- and calcium ionophore-induced DC differentiation, on LPS-induced secretion of IL-10, and on two members of the NF-kappaB family of transcription factors, RelB and cRel. These studies identify TGF-beta and VitD3 as potent regulatory factors that use distinct pathways to suppress both the differentiation of DCs as well as their capacity to secrete the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12. Because these agents are present in serum and negatively affect DC differentiation at physiological concentrations, our findings are likely to have significance regarding the in vivo role of TGF-beta and VitD3 in determining the type of immune responses.

  12. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  13. Rapid detection of ciprofloxacin effects on Fusarium graminearum and F. avenaceum cells in modulating environmental pH using a reactive, non-toxic food-dye indicator.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiakun; Goh, Yit Kheng; Low, Nicholas; Vujanovic, Vladimir

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of ciprofloxacin antibiotic on the physiological or phenotypic characteristics of food-borne toxigenic Fusarium graminearum and F. avenaceum molds under in vitro conditions. In the presence of ciprofloxacin, Fusarium mycelia growth and morphology were altered based on the antibiotic concentration range used. Results showed that ciprofloxacin in concentrations ≥40μg/mL induced chlamydospore formation in Fusaria and as such, this antibiotic should be considered as an important abiotic stress factor and growth inhibitor. A novel method was investigated to correlate chlamydospore formation with the colour changes observed in FD&C Green Number 3, a common water soluble food dye. The antibiotic-treated F. graminearum and F. avenaceum isolates produced chamydospores, which in turn altered environmental pH with concomitant changes in the colour and intensity of the dye. The colour changes observed as a function of environmental pH were supported by instrumental methods (pH meter and spectroscopy), and a commercial pH indicator (thymol blue) results. In conclusion, we propose that FD&C Green Number 3 can be used as an accurate indicator for the rapid assessment of Fusarium molds when grown on ciprofloxacin antibiotic-containing substrate. Special emphasis should be given to an indirect risk assessment of antibiotic effects on toxic molds.

  14. (Na,K)-ATPase-mediated cation pumping in cultured rat hepatocytes. Rapid modulation by alanine and taurocholate transport and characterization of its relationship to intracellular sodium concentration.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, R W; Scharschmidt, B F

    1983-11-10

    (Na,K)-ATPase is thought to maintain the transmembrane electrochemical sodium gradient which powers secondary active sodium-coupled transport of a variety of solutes including amino acids and bile acids. However, little is known regarding the effect of sodium-coupled solute transport on intracellular sodium concentration ( [Na]ic) and on (Na,K)-ATPase-mediated cation pumping in the intact cell. In order to address this question, we have measured 22Na uptake rate, steady state 22Na content, and ouabain-suppressible 86Rb uptake rate in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes under a variety of conditions. Compared with control conditions (sodium uptake rate = 6.00 +/- 0.40 nmol X min-1 X mg-1; [Na]ic = 11.96 +/- 0.54 mM; cation pumping = 2.53 +/- 0.18 nmol X min-1 X mg-1), cation pumping was increased by taurocholate (less than or equal to 158%), alanine (less than or equal to 246%), monensin (less than or equal to 400%), and cold exposure (less than or equal to 525%), and this increase was accompanied by increases in Na uptake and [Na]ic. In contrast, preincubation in low sodium medium decreased all three variables. These changes in cation pumping were blocked in the absence of extracellular sodium and were not accompanied by changes in ouabain-suppressible ATP hydrolysis measured in cell homogenate. An overall plot of cation pumping versus [Na]ic yielded a sigmoid-shaped curve. Values for KNa (17.8 +/- 1.4 mM) and Vmax (8.98 +/- 0.62 nmol X min-1 X mg-1) for cation pumping were estimated assuming three sodium sites per pump unit. These findings indicate that: 1) uptake of alanine and taurocholate is associated with a rapid increase in (Na,K)-ATPase cation pumping; 2) this increase probably results from an increase in pumping per pump unit rather than an increase in the total number of pump units, and it appears to be mediated via an increase in sodium influx and [Na]ic; 3) [Na]ic under control conditions is close to the apparent KNa of cation pumping, implying

  15. Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Modulates Basal and β-Adrenergic-Stimulated Contractility by Rapid and Reversible Redox-Dependent S-Nitrosylation of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Vielma, Alejandra Z.; León, Luisa; Fernández, Ignacio C.; González, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosylation of several Ca2+ regulating proteins in response to β-adrenergic stimulation was recently described in the heart; however the specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform and signaling pathways responsible for this modification have not been elucidated. NOS-1 activity increases inotropism, therefore, we tested whether β-adrenergic stimulation induces NOS-1-dependent S-nitrosylation of total proteins, the ryanodine receptor (RyR2), SERCA2 and the L-Type Ca2+ channel (LTCC). In the isolated rat heart, isoproterenol (10 nM, 3-min) increased S-nitrosylation of total cardiac proteins (+46±14%) and RyR2 (+146±77%), without affecting S-nitrosylation of SERCA2 and LTCC. Selective NOS-1 blockade with S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC) and Nω-propyl-l-arginine decreased basal contractility and relaxation (−25–30%) and basal S-nitrosylation of total proteins (−25–60%), RyR2, SERCA2 and LTCC (−60–75%). NOS-1 inhibition reduced (−25–40%) the inotropic response and protein S-nitrosylation induced by isoproterenol, particularly that of RyR2 (−85±7%). Tempol, a superoxide scavenger, mimicked the effects of NOS-1 inhibition on inotropism and protein S-nitrosylation; whereas selective NOS-3 inhibitor L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl)ornithine had no effect. Inhibition of NOS-1 did not affect phospholamban phosphorylation, but reduced its oligomerization. Attenuation of contractility was abolished by PKA blockade and unaffected by guanylate cyclase inhibition. Additionally, in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes, NOS-1 inhibition or removal reduced the Ca2+-transient amplitude and sarcomere shortening induced by isoproterenol or by direct PKA activation. We conclude that 1) normal cardiac performance requires basal NOS-1 activity and S-nitrosylation of the calcium-cycling machinery; 2) β-adrenergic stimulation induces rapid and reversible NOS-1 dependent, PKA and ROS-dependent, S-nitrosylation of RyR2 and other proteins, accounting for about one third of its

  16. Nitric Oxide Synthase 1 Modulates Basal and β-Adrenergic-Stimulated Contractility by Rapid and Reversible Redox-Dependent S-Nitrosylation of the Heart.

    PubMed

    Vielma, Alejandra Z; León, Luisa; Fernández, Ignacio C; González, Daniel R; Boric, Mauricio P

    2016-01-01

    S-nitrosylation of several Ca2+ regulating proteins in response to β-adrenergic stimulation was recently described in the heart; however the specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoform and signaling pathways responsible for this modification have not been elucidated. NOS-1 activity increases inotropism, therefore, we tested whether β-adrenergic stimulation induces NOS-1-dependent S-nitrosylation of total proteins, the ryanodine receptor (RyR2), SERCA2 and the L-Type Ca2+ channel (LTCC). In the isolated rat heart, isoproterenol (10 nM, 3-min) increased S-nitrosylation of total cardiac proteins (+46±14%) and RyR2 (+146±77%), without affecting S-nitrosylation of SERCA2 and LTCC. Selective NOS-1 blockade with S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC) and Nω-propyl-l-arginine decreased basal contractility and relaxation (-25-30%) and basal S-nitrosylation of total proteins (-25-60%), RyR2, SERCA2 and LTCC (-60-75%). NOS-1 inhibition reduced (-25-40%) the inotropic response and protein S-nitrosylation induced by isoproterenol, particularly that of RyR2 (-85±7%). Tempol, a superoxide scavenger, mimicked the effects of NOS-1 inhibition on inotropism and protein S-nitrosylation; whereas selective NOS-3 inhibitor L-N5-(1-Iminoethyl)ornithine had no effect. Inhibition of NOS-1 did not affect phospholamban phosphorylation, but reduced its oligomerization. Attenuation of contractility was abolished by PKA blockade and unaffected by guanylate cyclase inhibition. Additionally, in isolated mouse cardiomyocytes, NOS-1 inhibition or removal reduced the Ca2+-transient amplitude and sarcomere shortening induced by isoproterenol or by direct PKA activation. We conclude that 1) normal cardiac performance requires basal NOS-1 activity and S-nitrosylation of the calcium-cycling machinery; 2) β-adrenergic stimulation induces rapid and reversible NOS-1 dependent, PKA and ROS-dependent, S-nitrosylation of RyR2 and other proteins, accounting for about one third of its inotropic effect.

  17. NREL module energy rating methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B.

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  18. Optimized solar module design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santala, T.; Sabol, R.; Carbajal, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The minimum cost per unit of power output from flat plate solar modules can most likely be achieved through efficient packaging of higher efficiency solar cells. This paper outlines a module optimization method which is broadly applicable, and illustrates the potential results achievable from a specific high efficiency tandem junction (TJ) cell. A mathematical model is used to assess the impact of various factors influencing the encapsulated cell and packing efficiency. The optimization of the packing efficiency is demonstrated. The effect of encapsulated cell and packing efficiency on the module add-on cost is shown in a nomograph form.

  19. Use of a novel rapid and resource-efficient cassette dosing approach to determine the pharmacokinetics and CNS distribution of small molecule 7-transmembrane receptor allosteric modulators in rat

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Thomas M; Morrison, Ryan D; Byers, Frank W; Luo, Shuanghui; Scott Daniels, J

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to efficiently and accurately define the pharmacokinetics (PK) of large sets of small molecules in rodents have been previously described. Likewise, a variety of methods for determining brain tissue distribution (BTD) have been reported for use in the discovery of therapeutics targeting the central nervous system (CNS). Herein we describe a novel cassette approach to efficiently obtain concurrent PK and BTD data from a dose of up to five compounds in one rat over 24 h. In conjunction with fraction unbound (fu) data obtained in plasma and brain homogenate, this approach serves as an efficient means to determine compound unbound brain:unbound plasma partition coefficients (Kp,uu), thereby providing insight to compounds bearing poor permeability and/or active transporter activity impacting their permeation of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). This integrated approach was utilized in a lead optimization effort towards the discovery of CNS-penetrant allosteric modulators of a seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptor target. Rat PK and brain distribution was rapidly obtained for 70 compounds and correlated to data obtained from in vitro assessments. Two compounds that were evaluated in cassette and discrete studies, displayed agreement in PK (compound 1: cassette CLp = 1.6 mL min−1 kg−1, discrete CLp = 1.6 mL min−1 kg−1; compound 2: cassette CLp = 11 mL min−1 kg−1, discrete CLp = 8.1 mL min−1 kg−1) and BTD (compound 1: cassette Kp = 0.11, discrete Kp = 0.09; compound 2: cassette Kp < 0.05, discrete Kp = 0.04). The resulting data were used to guide medicinal chemistry efforts and to enable the progression of optimized compounds to in vivo pharmacodynamic assessments. PMID:25505618

  20. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  1. Rapid surface treatment of polyamide 12 by microwave plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnilica, J.; Potočňáková, L.; Stupavská, M.; Kudrle, V.

    2014-01-01

    Polyamide 12 (PA 12) films were plasma treated using a microwave surface wave jet at atmospheric pressure. The parameters were the treatment time and the gas composition (argon or argon with admixtures). Moreover, the influence of power modulation was studied. It was found that significant change in wettability is achieved very rapidly, after only 25 ms of treatment. Plasma-induced surface changes are discussed using AFM, ATR-FTIR and XPS results. It is concluded that the increase in wettability is caused by both chemical and morphological changes.

  2. Achieving the Space Vision through Government Incentives and Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gump, David P.

    2005-02-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle family must be developed and operated at much lower cost levels than current vehicles in order to win public support, while providing a higher level of safety. The Transformational Space Corporation (t/Space) is under contract to NASA show how this can be accomplished through government incentives for the development of privately-owned infrastructure that sells services to both government and commercial space customers. This markets-based approach rewards companies that focus on delivering affordable products quickly, rather than on following elaborate government-supervised processes. The architecture developed by t/Space also eliminates the need to develop heavy-lift vehicles and lunar landers, cutting in half NASA's projected cost for the first human return to the Moon.

  3. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  4. NOTE: Monte Carlo simulation of RapidArc radiotherapy delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, K.; Townson, R.; Zavgorodni, S.

    2008-10-01

    RapidArc radiotherapy technology from Varian Medical Systems is one of the most complex delivery systems currently available, and achieves an entire intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment in a single gantry rotation about the patient. Three dynamic parameters can be continuously varied to create IMRT dose distributions—the speed of rotation, beam shaping aperture and delivery dose rate. Modeling of RapidArc technology was incorporated within the existing Vancouver Island Monte Carlo (VIMC) system (Zavgorodni et al 2007 Radiother. Oncol. 84 S49, 2008 Proc. 16th Int. Conf. on Medical Physics). This process was named VIMC-Arc and has become an efficient framework for the verification of RapidArc treatment plans. VIMC-Arc is a fully automated system that constructs the Monte Carlo (MC) beam and patient models from a standard RapidArc DICOM dataset, simulates radiation transport, collects the resulting dose and converts the dose into DICOM format for import back into the treatment planning system (TPS). VIMC-Arc accommodates multiple arc IMRT deliveries and models gantry rotation as a series of segments with dynamic MLC motion within each segment. Several verification RapidArc plans were generated by the Eclipse TPS on a water-equivalent cylindrical phantom and re-calculated using VIMC-Arc. This includes one 'typical' RapidArc plan, one plan for dual arc treatment and one plan with 'avoidance' sectors. One RapidArc plan was also calculated on a DICOM patient CT dataset. Statistical uncertainty of MC simulations was kept within 1%. VIMC-Arc produced dose distributions that matched very closely to those calculated by the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) that is used in Eclipse. All plans also demonstrated better than 1% agreement of the dose at the isocenter. This demonstrates the capabilities of our new MC system to model all dosimetric features required for RapidArc dose calculations.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of RapidArc radiotherapy delivery.

    PubMed

    Bush, K; Townson, R; Zavgorodni, S

    2008-10-07

    RapidArc radiotherapy technology from Varian Medical Systems is one of the most complex delivery systems currently available, and achieves an entire intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment in a single gantry rotation about the patient. Three dynamic parameters can be continuously varied to create IMRT dose distributions-the speed of rotation, beam shaping aperture and delivery dose rate. Modeling of RapidArc technology was incorporated within the existing Vancouver Island Monte Carlo (VIMC) system (Zavgorodni et al 2007 Radiother. Oncol. 84 S49, 2008 Proc. 16th Int. Conf. on Medical Physics). This process was named VIMC-Arc and has become an efficient framework for the verification of RapidArc treatment plans. VIMC-Arc is a fully automated system that constructs the Monte Carlo (MC) beam and patient models from a standard RapidArc DICOM dataset, simulates radiation transport, collects the resulting dose and converts the dose into DICOM format for import back into the treatment planning system (TPS). VIMC-Arc accommodates multiple arc IMRT deliveries and models gantry rotation as a series of segments with dynamic MLC motion within each segment. Several verification RapidArc plans were generated by the Eclipse TPS on a water-equivalent cylindrical phantom and re-calculated using VIMC-Arc. This includes one 'typical' RapidArc plan, one plan for dual arc treatment and one plan with 'avoidance' sectors. One RapidArc plan was also calculated on a DICOM patient CT dataset. Statistical uncertainty of MC simulations was kept within 1%. VIMC-Arc produced dose distributions that matched very closely to those calculated by the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) that is used in Eclipse. All plans also demonstrated better than 1% agreement of the dose at the isocenter. This demonstrates the capabilities of our new MC system to model all dosimetric features required for RapidArc dose calculations.

  6. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  7. Modulation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schilling, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques, proposed for use on and/or applied to satellite channels, are reviewed. In a survey of recent works on digital modulation techniques, the performance of several schemes operating in various environments are compared. Topics covered include: (1) quadrature phase shift keying; (2) offset - QPSK and MSK; (3) combined modulation and coding; and (4) spectrally efficient modulation techniques.

  8. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  9. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  10. An Ultrafast Switchable Terahertz Polarization Modulator Based on III-V Semiconductor Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Baig, Sarwat A; Boland, Jessica L; Damry, Djamshid A; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Joyce, Hannah J; Johnston, Michael B

    2017-04-12

    Progress in the terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is undergoing major advances, with advanced THz sources and detectors being developed at a rapid pace. Yet, ultrafast THz communication is still to be realized, owing to the lack of practical and effective THz modulators. Here, we present a novel ultrafast active THz polarization modulator based on GaAs semiconductor nanowires arranged in a wire-grid configuration. We utilize an optical pump-terahertz probe spectroscopy system and vary the polarization of the optical pump beam to demonstrate ultrafast THz modulation with a switching time of less than 5 ps and a modulation depth of -8 dB. We achieve an extinction of over 13% and a dynamic range of -9 dB, comparable to microsecond-switchable graphene- and metamaterial-based THz modulators, and surpassing the performance of optically switchable carbon nanotube THz polarizers. We show a broad bandwidth for THz modulation between 0.1 and 4 THz. Thus, this work presents the first THz modulator which combines not only a large modulation depth but also a broad bandwidth and picosecond time resolution for THz intensity and phase modulation, making it an ideal candidate for ultrafast THz communication.

  11. Water-module interaction studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mon, G.; Wen, L.; Ross, R., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms by which moisture enters photovoltaic modules and techniques for reducing such interactions are reported. Results from a study of the effectiveness of various module sealants are given. Techniques for measuring the rate and quantity of moisture ingress are discussed. It is shown that scribe lines and porous frit bridging conductors provide preferential paths for moisture ingress and that moisture diffusion by surface/interfacial paths is considerably more rapid than diffusion by bulk paths, which implies that thin-film substrate and supersubstrate modules are much more vulnerable to moist environments than are bulk-encapsulated crystalline-silicon modules. Design approaches that reduce moisture entry are discussed.

  12. Exploiting total internal reflection geometry for efficient optical modulation of terahertz light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xudong; Parrott, Edward P. J.; Ung, Benjamin S.-Y.; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2016-10-01

    Efficient methods to modulate terahertz (THz) light are essential for realizing rapid THz imaging and communication applications. Here we report a novel THz modulator which utilizes the evanescent wave in a total internal reflection setup coupled with a conductive interface to enhance the attenuation efficiency of THz light. This approach makes it possible to achieve close to 100% modulation with a small interface conductivity of 12 mS. The frequency dependence of this technique is linked to the optical properties of the materials: a material with close to frequency independent conductivity that is also controllable will result in an achromatic modulation response, and the device performance can be optimized further by tuning the internal reflection angle. In this work, we focus on applying the technique in the terahertz frequency range. Using an LED array with a pump intensity of 475 mW/cm2 to produce carriers in a silicon wafer, we have achieved a modulation depth of up to 99.9% in a broad frequency range of 0.1 THz-0.8 THz. The required pumping power for the generation of the required free carriers is low because the sheet conductivity needed is far less than required for traditional transmission techniques. Consequently, the device can be modulated by an LED making it a very practical, low cost, and scalable solution for THz modulation.

  13. Silicon optical modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Mashanovich, G.; Gardes, F. Y.; Thomson, D. J.

    2010-08-01

    Optical technology is poised to revolutionize short-reach interconnects. The leading candidate technology is silicon photonics, and the workhorse of such an interconnect is the optical modulator. Modulators have been improved dramatically in recent years, with a notable increase in bandwidth from the megahertz to the multigigahertz regime in just over half a decade. However, the demands of optical interconnects are significant, and many questions remain unanswered as to whether silicon can meet the required performance metrics. Minimizing metrics such as the device footprint and energy requirement per bit, while also maximizing bandwidth and modulation depth, is non-trivial. All of this must be achieved within an acceptable thermal tolerance and optical spectral width using CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. This Review discusses the techniques that have been (and will continue to be) used to implement silicon optical modulators, as well as providing an outlook for these devices and the candidate solutions of the future.

  14. Module Configuration

    DOEpatents

    Oweis, Salah; D'Ussel, Louis; Chagnon, Guy; Zuhowski, Michael; Sack, Tim; Laucournet, Gaullume; Jackson, Edward J.

    2002-06-04

    A stand alone battery module including: (a) a mechanical configuration; (b) a thermal management configuration; (c) an electrical connection configuration; and (d) an electronics configuration. Such a module is fully interchangeable in a battery pack assembly, mechanically, from the thermal management point of view, and electrically. With the same hardware, the module can accommodate different cell sizes and, therefore, can easily have different capacities. The module structure is designed to accommodate the electronics monitoring, protection, and printed wiring assembly boards (PWAs), as well as to allow airflow through the module. A plurality of modules may easily be connected together to form a battery pack. The parts of the module are designed to facilitate their manufacture and assembly.

  15. Multisite light-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor PIF3 is necessary for both its rapid degradation and concomitant negative feedback modulation of photoreceptor phyB levels in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants constantly monitor informational light signals using sensory photoreceptors, which include the phytochrome (phy) family (phyA to phyE), and adjust their growth and development accordingly. Following light-induced nuclear translocation, photoactivated phy molecules bind to and induce rapid pho...

  16. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  17. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  18. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  19. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  20. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  1. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  2. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  3. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  4. Module Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    various testing methodologies for the evaluation and characterization of Transmit /Receive (T/R) modules for phased array radars. Discussed are techniques...for characterizing T/R modules in transmit and receive modes under ideal and emulated operation environments. Further, techniques for life testing...characteristics of T/R modules developed during the early and mid 1980’s. Data provided shows the performance in terms of gain and phase for both transmit

  5. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  6. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  7. Virtual environment architecture for rapid application development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstein, Georges G.; Southard, David A.; Lee, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the MITRE Virtual Environment Architecture (VEA), a product of nearly two years of investigations and prototypes of virtual environment technology. This paper discusses the requirements for rapid prototyping, and an architecture we are developing to support virtual environment construction. VEA supports rapid application development by providing a variety of pre-built modules that can be reconfigured for each application session. The modules supply interfaces for several types of interactive I/O devices, in addition to large-screen or head-mounted displays.

  8. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  9. THE RABIT: A RAPID AUTOMATED BIODOSIMETRY TOOL FOR RADIOLOGICAL TRIAGE

    PubMed Central

    Garty, Guy; Chen, Youhua; Salerno, Alessio; Turner, Helen; Zhang, Jian; Lyulko, Oleksandra; Bertucci, Antonella; Xu, Yanping; Wang, Hongliang; Simaan, Nabil; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Yao, Y. Lawrence; Amundson, Sally A.; Brenner, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to the recognized need for high throughput biodosimetry methods for use after large scale radiological events, a logical approach is complete automation of standard biodosimetric assays that are currently performed manually. We describe progress to date on the RABIT (Rapid Automated BIodosimetry Tool), designed to score micronuclei or γ-H2AX fluorescence in lymphocytes derived from a single drop of blood from a fingerstick. The RABIT system is designed to be completely automated, from the input of the capillary blood sample into the machine, to the output of a dose estimate. Improvements in throughput are achieved through use of a single drop of blood, optimization of the biological protocols for in-situ analysis in multi-well plates, implementation of robotic plate and liquid handling, and new developments in high-speed imaging. Automating well-established bioassays represents a promising approach to high-throughput radiation biodosimetry, both because high throughputs can be achieved, but also because the time to deployment is potentially much shorter than for a new biological assay. Here we describe the development of each of the individual modules of the RABIT system, and show preliminary data from key modules. Ongoing is system integration, followed by calibration and validation. PMID:20065685

  10. Human Physiology: Improving Students' Achievements through Intelligent Studyware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit J.; Yochim, Jerome M.

    1994-01-01

    A studyware comprising a set of interconnected modules on human physiology has been developed and used to improve undergraduate students' achievements. Study results show the scores of students who used the optional computer laboratory sessions were enhanced over those who did not use the studyware. Presents examples from the modules. (LZ)

  11. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  12. UGV application modeling and sensor simulation using a rapid prototyping testbed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falasco, James; O'Leary, Steve

    2009-05-01

    This paper reviews hardware and software solutions that allow for rapid prototyping of new or modified UGV sensor designs, mission payloads and functional sub assemblies. We define reconfigurable computing in the context of being able to place various PMC modules depending upon mission scenarios onto a base SBC (Single Board Computer) or multiprocessor architectures to achieve maximum scalability. Also addressed are the sensor and computing packaging aspects and how such payloads could be integrated with unattended acoustic sensor topologies providing a more complete fused "picture" to decision makers. We review how these modular payloads could be integrated with unattended ground sensors to collaborate on mission requirements

  13. Microchannel spatial light modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warde, C.

    1981-01-01

    The Microchannel Spatial Light Modulator (MSLM), a versatile, highly sensitive, and optically addressed device being developed for real time optical information processing is discussed. The MSLM operates by converting an input optical image into a charge distribution at the surface of an electro-optic crystal. The charge distribution generates an electric field which modulates the refractive index of the crystal and thereby the phase or intensity of an image readout beam. Prototype devices employing 250 micron thick crystals exhibited a spatial resolution of 5 cycles/mm at 50% contrast, an exposure sensitivity of 2.2 nJ/cu cm and framing rates of 40 Hz with full modulation depth. The image processing operations that have been achieved using the internal processing mode of the MSLM include contrast reversal, contrast enhancement, edge enhancement, image addition and subtraction, analog and digital intensity thresholding, and binary level logic operations such as AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, and NOR.

  14. Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Progress in identification of strengths and weaknesses of amorphous-silicon technology detailed. Report describes achievements in testing reliability of solar-power modules made of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic cells. Based on investigation of modules made by U.S. manufacturers. Modules subjected to field tests, to accelerated-aging tests in laboratory, and to standard sequence of qualification tests developed for modules of crystalline-silicon cells.

  15. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  16. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  17. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  18. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  19. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  20. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  1. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  2. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  3. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  4. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  5. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  6. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  7. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  8. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  9. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  10. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  11. RECOVERY OF LARGE ANGULAR SCALE CMB POLARIZATION FOR INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYING VARIABLE-DELAY POLARIZATION MODULATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N. J.; Marriage, T. A.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Harrington, K.; Rostem, K.; Watts, D. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Wollack, E. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Switzer, E. R.

    2016-02-20

    Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) are currently being implemented in experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales because of their capability for providing rapid, front-end polarization modulation and control over systematic errors. Despite the advantages provided by the VPM, it is important to identify and mitigate any time-varying effects that leak into the synchronously modulated component of the signal. In this paper, the effect of emission from a 300 K VPM on the system performance is considered and addressed. Though instrument design can greatly reduce the influence of modulated VPM emission, some residual modulated signal is expected. VPM emission is treated in the presence of rotational misalignments and temperature variation. Simulations of time-ordered data are used to evaluate the effect of these residual errors on the power spectrum. The analysis and modeling in this paper guides experimentalists on the critical aspects of observations using VPMs as front-end modulators. By implementing the characterizations and controls as described, front-end VPM modulation can be very powerful for mitigating 1/f noise in large angular scale polarimetric surveys. None of the systematic errors studied fundamentally limit the detection and characterization of B-modes on large scales for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r = 0.01. Indeed, r < 0.01 is achievable with commensurately improved characterizations and controls.

  12. Recovery of Large Angular Scale CMB Polarization for Instruments Employing Variable-Delay Polarization Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, N. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Marriage, T. A.; Wollack, E. J.; Appel, J. W.; Bennett, C. L.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fixsen, D. J.; Harrington, K.; Moseley, S. H.; Rostem, K.; Switzer, E. R.; Watts, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) are currently being implemented in experiments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large angular scales because of their capability for providing rapid, front-end polarization modulation and control over systematic errors. Despite the advantages provided by the VPM, it is important to identify and mitigate any time-varying effects that leak into the synchronously modulated component of the signal. In this paper, the effect of emission from a 300 K VPM on the system performance is considered and addressed. Though instrument design can greatly reduce the influence of modulated VPM emission, some residual modulated signal is expected. VPM emission is treated in the presence of rotational misalignments and temperature variation. Simulations of time-ordered data are used to evaluate the effect of these residual errors on the power spectrum. The analysis and modeling in this paper guides experimentalists on the critical aspects of observations using VPMs as front-end modulators. By implementing the characterizations and controls as described, front-end VPM modulation can be very powerful for mitigating 1/ f noise in large angular scale polarimetric surveys. None of the systematic errors studied fundamentally limit the detection and characterization of B-modes on large scales for a tensor-to-scalar ratio of r= 0.01. Indeed, r less than 0.01 is achievable with commensurately improved characterizations and controls.

  13. PyTrilinos Rapid Prototyping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.

    2005-03-01

    PyTrilinos provides access to selected Trilinos packages from the python scripting language. This allows interactive and dynamic creation of Trilinos objects, rapid prototyping that does not require compilation, and "gluing" Trilinos scripts to other python modules, such as plotting, etc. The currently supported packages are Epetra, EpetraExt, and NOX.

  14. Superconducting optical modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunt, Patricia S.; Ference, Thomas G.; Puzey, Kenneth A.; Tanner, David B.; Tache, Nacira; Varhue, Walter J.

    2000-12-01

    An optical modulator based on the physical properties of high temperature superconductors has been fabricated and tested. The modulator was constructed form a film of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO) grown on undoped silicon with a buffer layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia. Standard lithographic procedures were used to pattern the superconducting film into a micro bridge. Optical modulation was achieved by passing IR light through the composite structure normal to the micro bridge and switching the superconducting film in the bridge region between the superconducting and non-superconducting states. In the superconducting state, IR light reflects from the superconducting film surface. When a critical current is passed through the micro bridge, it causes the film in this region to switch to the non-superconducting state allowing IR light to pass through it. Superconducting materials have the potential to switch between these two states at speeds up to 1 picosecond using electrical current. Presently, fiber optic transmission capacity is limited by the rate at which optical data can be modulated. The superconducting modulator, when combined with other components, may have the potential to increase the transmission capacity of fiber optic lines.

  15. Modulated Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Frederick C.

    1960-01-01

    The technique of modulation, or variable coefficients, is discussed and the analytical formulation is reviewed. Representative numerical results of the use of modulation are shown for the lifting and nonlifting cases. These results include the effects of modulation on peak acceleration, entry corridor, and heat absorption. Results are given for entry at satellite speed and escape speed. The indications are that coefficient modulation on a vehicle with good lifting capability offers the possibility of sizable loading reductions or, alternatively, wider corridors; thus, steep entries become practical from the loading standpoint. The amount of steepness depends on the acceptable heating penalty. The price of sizable fractions of the possible gains does not appear to be excessive.

  16. Single-exposure multiphoton fabrication of polygonized structures by an SLM-modulated Fresnel zone lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chenchu; Hu, Yanlei; Li, Jiawen; Lao, Zhaoxin; Xu, Bing; Ni, Jincheng; Cai, Ze; Wu, Dong; Chu, Jiaru

    2016-03-01

    Recently, annular beams have been developed to rapidly fabricate microscope tubular structures via two-photon polymerization, but the distribution of the light field is limited to a ring pattern. Here a Fresnel lens is designed and applied to modulate the light field into a uniform quadrangle or hexagon shape with controllable diameters. By applying a spatial light modulator to load the phase information of the Fresnel lens, quadrangle and hexagon structures are achieved through single exposure of a femtosecond laser. A 3×6 array of structures is made within 9 s. Comparing with the conventional holographic processing, this method shows higher uniformity, high efficiency, better flexibility, and easy operation. The approach exhibited a promising prospect in rapidly fabricating structures such as tissue engineering scaffolds and variously shaped tubular arrays.

  17. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  18. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  19. Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerwaard, Frank J. Meijer, Otto W.M.; Hoorn, Elles A.P. van der; Verbakel, Wilko; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (RapidArc [RA]), a novel approach allowing for rapid treatment delivery, for the treatment of vestibular schwannoma (VS). Methods and Materials: The RA plans were generated for a small (0.5 cm{sup 3}), intermediate (2.8 cm{sup 3}), and large (14.8 cm{sup 3}) VS. The prescription dose was 12.5 Gy to the encompassing 80% isodose. The RA plans were compared with conventional radiosurgery plans using both a single dynamic conformal arc (1DCA) and five noncoplanar dynamic conformal arcs (5DCA). Conformity indices (CI) and dose-volume histograms of critical organs were compared. The RA plan for the medium-sized VS was measured in a phantom using Gafchromic EBT films and compared with calculated dose distributions. Results: The RA planning was completed within 30 min in all cases, and calculated treatment delivery time (after patient setup) was 5 min vs. 20 min for 5DCA. A superior CI was achieved with RA, with a substantial decrease in low-dose irradiation of the normal brain achieved relative to 5DCA plans. Maximum doses to critical organs were similar for RA and 5DCA but were higher for 1DCA. Film measurements showed the differences between calculated and measured doses to be smaller than 1.5% in the high-dose area and smaller than 3% in the low-dose area. Conclusion: The RA plans consistently achieved a higher CI and decrease in areas of low-dose irradiation. This, together with shorter treatment delivery times, has led to RA replacing our conventional five-arc radiosurgery technique for VS.

  20. PUBLISHER'S NOTE: Rapid Communications Rapid Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Tom

    2009-09-01

    As part of a general review of Superconductor Science and Technology, we have been examining the scope for Rapid Communications (RAPs). We recognize these articles make up an important part of the journal representing the latest state-of-the-art research in superconductivity. To reflect this, we have devised a new scope for this article type: 'Rapid Communications. The journal offers open access to outstanding short articles (no longer than 5 journal pages or 4500 words including figures) reporting new and timely developments in superconductivity and its applications. These articles should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity to the readers of Superconductor Science and Technology, but are not expected to meet any requirement of 'general interest'. RAPs will be processed quickly (average receipt to online publication for RAPs is around 60 days) and are permanently free to read in the electronic journal. Authors submitting a RAP should provide reasons why the work is urgent and requires rapid publication. Each RAP will be assessed for suitability by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor before full peer review takes place.' The essential points are: They should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity and its application; They must be no longer than 5 journal pages long (approx. 4500 words); Average publication time for a Rapid Communication is 60 days; They are free to read. As mentioned in the previous publisher's announcement (2009 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 010101), each submitted Rapid Communication must come with a letter justifying why it should be prioritized over regular papers and will be pre-assessed by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor. In addition, we will work with the authors of any Rapid Communication to promote and raise the visibility of the work presented in it. We will be making further changes to the journal in the near future and we write to you accordingly. Thank you for your kind

  1. Telescoping Space-Station Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    New telescoping-space-station design involves module within a module. After being carried to orbit within payload bay of Space Shuttle orbiter, outer module telescopically deployed to achieve nearly twice as much usable space-station volume per Space Shuttle launch. Closed-loop or "race-track" space-station configurations possible with this concept and provide additional benefits. One benefit involves making one of modules double-walled haven safe from debris, radiation, and like. Module accessible from either end, and readily available to all positions in space station. Concept also provides flexibility in methods in which Space Shuttle orbiter docked or berthed with space station and decrease chances of damage.

  2. Achievable Precision for Optical Ranging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moision, Bruce; Erkmen, Baris I.

    2012-01-01

    Achievable RMS errors in estimating the phase, frequency, and intensity of a direct-detected intensity-modulated optical pulse train are presented. For each parameter, the Cramer-Rao-Bound (CRB) is derived and the performance of the Maximum Likelihood estimator is illustrated. Approximations to the CRBs are provided, enabling an intuitive understanding of estimator behavior as a function of the signaling parameters. The results are compared to achievable RMS errors in estimating the same parameters from a sinusoidal waveform in additive white Gaussian noise. This establishes a framework for a performance comparison of radio frequency (RF) and optical science. Comparisons are made using parameters for state-of-the-art deep-space RF and optical links. Degradations to the achievable errors due to clock phase noise and detector jitter are illustrated.

  3. Photovoltaic Cz Silicon Module Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, T. L.

    1998-09-01

    Work focused on reducing the cost per watt of Cz silicon photovoltaic modules under Phase II of Siemens Solar Industries' DOE/NREL PVMaT 4A subcontract is described in this report. New module designs were deployed in this phase of the contract, improvements in yield of over 10% were realized, and further implementation of Statistical Process Control was achieved during this phase. Module configurations representing a 12% cost reduction per watt were implemented in small scale production under Phase II of this contract. Yield improvements are described in detail, yield sensitivity to wafer thickness is quantified, and the deployment of SPC in critical process steps is reported here.

  4. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  5. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are working jointly to develop a helicopter transportable firefighting module that can shave precious minutes in combating shipboard or harbor fires. The program was undertaken in 1975, after a series of disastrous fires on oil tankers indicated a need for a lightweight, self-contained system that could be moved quickly to the scene of a fire. A prototype module was delivered to the Coast Guard last year and service testing is under way. The compact module weighs little more than a ton but it contains everything needed to fight a fire. The key component is a high output pump, which delivers up to 2,000 gallons of sea water a minute; the pump can be brought up to maximum output in only one minute after turning on the power source, a small Allison gas turbine engine. The module also contains hose, a foam nozzle and a spray nozzle, three sets of protective clothing for firefighters, and fuel for three hours operation. Designed to be assembled without special tools, the module can be set up for operation in less than 20 minutes.

  6. Intensity modulated proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Grassberger, C

    2015-01-01

    Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) implies the electromagnetic spatial control of well-circumscribed “pencil beams” of protons of variable energy and intensity. Proton pencil beams take advantage of the charged-particle Bragg peak—the characteristic peak of dose at the end of range—combined with the modulation of pencil beam variables to create target-local modulations in dose that achieves the dose objectives. IMPT improves on X-ray intensity modulated beams (intensity modulated radiotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy) with dose modulation along the beam axis as well as lateral, in-field, dose modulation. The clinical practice of IMPT further improves the healthy tissue vs target dose differential in comparison with X-rays and thus allows increased target dose with dose reduction elsewhere. In addition, heavy-charged-particle beams allow for the modulation of biological effects, which is of active interest in combination with dose “painting” within a target. The clinical utilization of IMPT is actively pursued but technical, physical and clinical questions remain. Technical questions pertain to control processes for manipulating pencil beams from the creation of the proton beam to delivery within the patient within the accuracy requirement. Physical questions pertain to the interplay between the proton penetration and variations between planned and actual patient anatomical representation and the intrinsic uncertainty in tissue stopping powers (the measure of energy loss per unit distance). Clinical questions remain concerning the impact and management of the technical and physical questions within the context of the daily treatment delivery, the clinical benefit of IMPT and the biological response differential compared with X-rays against which clinical benefit will be judged. It is expected that IMPT will replace other modes of proton field delivery. Proton radiotherapy, since its first practice 50 years ago, always required the

  7. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  8. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation Power Supply's mobile firefighting module called Firefly II is mounted on a trailer pulled by a pickup truck. Trailer unit has two three- inch water cannons, and the pickup carries a six inch cannon. Completely self contained, module pumps 3,000 gallons of water a minute from hydrants or open bodies of water. Stream can go as far as 400 feet or can be employed in a high-loft mode to reach the tops of tall refinery towers. Compact Firefly II weighs only 2,500 pounds when fully fueled. Key component is a specially designed two stage pump. Power for the pump is generated by a gas turbine engine. Module also includes an electronic/pump controller, multiple hose connections, up to 1,500 feet of hose and fuel for four hours operation. Firefly trailer can be backed onto specially-built large fireboat.

  9. Thermionic modules

    DOEpatents

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-18

    Modules of assembled microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures manufactured using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices and modules can be fabricated at modest costs.

  10. Hollow-fiber membrane-based rapid pressure swing absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaumik, S.; Majumdar, S.; Sirkar, K.K.

    1996-02-01

    A novel gas purification technique called rapid pressure swing absorption (RAPSAB) was developed by integrating the best features of membrane contacting, gas-liquid absorption, and pressure swing adsorption (PSA). In this cyclic separation process, a well-packed microporous hydrophobic hollow-fiber module was used to achieve nondispersive gas absorption from a high-pressure feed gas into a stationary absorbent liquid on the module shell side during a certain part of the cycle followed by desorption of absorbed gases from the liquid in the rest of the cycle. The total cycle time varies between 20 s and upwards. Separation of mixtures of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} (around 10%) where CO{sub 2} is the impurity to be removed was studied using absorbent liquids such as pure water and a 19.5% aqueous solution of diethanolamine (DEA). Three RAPSAB cycles studied differ in the absorption part. Virtually pure N{sub 2} streams were obtained with DEA as absorbent demonstrating the capability of bulk separation to very high levels of purification. Numerical models developed predict the extent of purification for pure water and the DEA solution for one of the simpler cycles. Model simulations describe the observed behavior well.

  11. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  12. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and < 0.16″ in the near infrared leading to an increase of the infrared point-source sensitivity against the sky background by a factor of ~9, crucial for efficient near-infrared spectroscopy.RTS will allow us to map the dark matter distribution in the z < 0.1 local universe with ten times better accuracy and precision than previous experiments. ATLAS will discover several thousand SNIae per year, measuring SNIa peak brightness, and decline rates, while RTS will measure reddening by dust, confirm SN type and

  13. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  14. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  15. Acupuncture and immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2010-10-28

    Acupuncture is probably the most popular alternative therapy practiced in the United States, Europe and many Asian countries. It has been applied clinically for more than 5 thousand years according to the ancient oriental medical theory. A great deal of acupuncture research has been achieved, with particular efforts toward understanding the pain control effects. In addition to the analgesic effect of acupuncture, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that acupuncture treatment can control autonomic nerve system functions such as blood pressure regulation, sphincter Oddi relaxation, and immune modulation. Although only a limited number of controlled studies have assessed the efficacy of acupuncture, increasing clinical evidences support that EA treatment is effective for various immunological diseases including allergic disorders, infections, autoimmune diseases and immunodifficiency-syndromes. This review will address the mechanism of acupuncture in modulating various immune responses and the relationship between acupuncture mediated immune regulation and neurological involvement.

  16. Rapidly and continuously frequency-scanning opto-electronic oscillator.

    PubMed

    Cen, Qizhuang; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Zhou, Yue; Li, Jianqiang; Dai, Jian; Yu, Lan; Xu, Kun

    2017-01-23

    An opto-electronic oscillator (OEO) scheme which operates at "chirp oscillation" mode and generates low-phase-noise, frequency-swept microwave is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. This frequency-swept OEO is achieved by embedding a rapidly frequency-scanning microwave filter in an opto-electronic cavity. The filter has fixed passband while its center frequency scans rapidly and periodically at cavity round-trip time, covering a large frequency range (~GHz). Experimentally, the generated frequency-swept microwave is linear frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) which centers at 7 GHz with 1-GHz bandwidth. Its instantaneous frequency varies linearly from 6.5 GHz to 7.5 GHz, back and forth, in a period of 12.8 μs, resulting in a frequency scanning rate of ~156 MHz/μs. The single-side-band (SSB) noise of the generated FMCW is -104 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency, which is much lower than that from a commercial electronic arbitrary waveform generator (E-AWG). Improvement as large as 23 dB is experimentally reported.

  17. Botox induced muscle paralysis rapidly degrades bone

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Sarah E.; Sanford, David A.; Becker, Blair A.; Bain, Steven D.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Gross, Ted S.

    2006-01-01

    The means by which muscle function modulates bone homeostasis is poorly understood. To begin to address this issue, we have developed a novel murine model of unilateral transient hindlimb muscle paralysis using botulinum toxin A (Botox). Female C57BL/6 mice (16 weeks) received IM injections of either saline or Botox (n = 10 each) in both the quadriceps and calf muscles of the right hindleg. Gait dysfunction was assessed by multi-observer inventory, muscle alterations were determined by wet mass, and bone alterations were assessed by micro-CT imaging at the distal femur, proximal tibia, and tibia mid-diaphysis. Profound degradation of both muscle and bone was observed within 21 days despite significant restoration of weight bearing function by 14 days. The muscle mass of the injected quadriceps and calf muscles was diminished −47.3% and −59.7%, respectively, vs. saline mice (both P < 0.001). The ratio of bone volume to tissue volume (BV/TV) within the distal femoral epiphysis and proximal tibial metaphysis of Botox injected limbs was reduced −43.2% and −54.3%, respectively, while tibia cortical bone volume was reduced −14.6% (all P < 0.001). Comparison of the contralateral non-injected limbs indicated the presence of moderate systemic effects in the model that were most probably associated with diminished activity following muscle paralysis. Taken as a whole, the micro-CT data implied that trabecular and cortical bone loss was primarily achieved by bone resorption. These data confirm the decisive role of neuromuscular function in mediating bone homeostasis and establish a model with unique potential to explore the mechanisms underlying this relation. Given the rapidly expanding use of neuromuscular inhibitors for indications such as pain reduction, these data also raise the critical need to monitor bone loss in these patients. PMID:16185943

  18. An integrated microfluidic platform for rapid tumor cell isolation, counting and molecular diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hung, Lien-Yu; Chuang, Ying-Hsin; Kuo, Hsin-Tzu; Wang, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2013-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common of the gynecological cancers in Taiwan. It is challenging to diagnose at an early stage when proper treatment is the most effective. It is well recognized that the detection of tumor cells (TCs) is critical for determining cancer growth stages and may provide important information for accurate diagnosis and even prognosis. In this study, a new microfluidic platform integrated with a moving-wall micro-incubator, a micro flow cytometer and a molecular diagnosis module performed automated identification of ovarian cancer cells. By efficiently mixing the cells and immunomagnetic beads coated with specific antibodies, the target TCs were successfully isolated from the clinical samples. Then counting of the target cells was achieved by a combination of the micro flow cytometer and an optical detection module and showed a counting accuracy as high as 92.5 %. Finally, cancer-associated genes were amplified and detected by the downstream molecular diagnosis module. The fluorescence intensity of specific genes (CD24 and HE4) associated with ovarian cancer was amplified by the molecular diagnosis module and the results were comparable to traditional slab-gel electrophoresis analysis, with a limit of detection around 10 TCs. This integrated microfluidic platform realized the concept of a "lab-on-a-chip" and had advantages which included automation, disposability, lower cost and rapid diagnosis and, therefore, may provide a promising approach for the fast and accurate detection of cancer cells.

  19. Wavelength-modulated photocapacitance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamieniecki, E.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Derivative deep-level spectroscopy was achieved with wavelength-modulated photocapacitance employing MOS structures and Schottky barriers. The energy position and photoionization characteristics of deep levels of melt-grown GaAs and the Cr level in high-resistivity GaAs were determined. The advantages of this method over existing methods for deep-level spectroscopy are discussed.

  20. V-band integrated quadriphase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grote, A.; Chang, K.

    1983-01-01

    A V-band integrated circuit quadriphase shift keyed modulator/exciter for space communications systems was developed. Intersatellite communications systems require direct modulation at 60 GHz to enhance signal processing capability. For most systems, particularly space applications, small and lightweight components are essential to alleviate severe system design constraints. Thus to achieve wideband, high data rate systems, direct modulation techniques at millimeter waves using solid state integrated circuit technology are an integral part of the overall technology developments.

  1. Spatial light modulation in compound semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor); Gheen, Gregory O. (Inventor); Partovi, Afshin (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Spatial light modulation (22) in a III-V single crystal (12), e.g., gallium arsenide, is achieved using the photorefractive effect. Polarization rotation created by beam coupling is utilized in one embodiment. In particular, information (16)on a control beam (14) incident on the crystal is transferred to an input beam (10), also incident on the crystal. An output beam (18) modulated in intensity is obtained by passing the polarization-modulated input beam through a polarizer (20).

  2. Engaging Physics Students Using Environmental Lab Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratte, John M.

    2006-05-01

    This paper discusses multi-week activity modules that use civic engagement to increase student interest and learning in physics. The modules consist of a mixture of hands-on, field, and Internet-based activities that allow students to investigate their impact on the environment and to examine changes that they can make in their lifestyle to lessen this impact. Assessments of student learning and interest using the modules show that they achieved their goals.

  3. Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Firefly II pump module is NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's commercial offshoot of a NASA/US Coast Guard program involving development of a lightweight, helicopter-transportable firefighting module for a quick response in combating shipboard or harbor fires. Operable on land or water, the Amphib One is equipped with 3 water cannons. When all 3 are operating, unit pumps more than 3,000 gallons a minute. Newly developed model used by U.S. Coast Guard can pump 5,000 gallons per minute. It was designed for applications such as firefighting onboard ship fires, emergency dockside water pumping, dewatering ships in danger of sinking, flood control, and emergency water supply at remote locations.

  4. CONTROL SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION THROUGH MODEL MODULATION METHODS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    identification has been achieved by using model modulation techniques to drive dynamic models into correspondence with operating control systems. The system ... identification then proceeded from examination of the model and the adaptive loop. The model modulation techniques applied to adaptive control

  5. Integrating Oracle Human Resources with Other Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Karl; Shope, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of implementing an enterprise-wide business system is achieving integration of the different modules to the satisfaction of diverse customers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) implementation of the Oracle application suite demonstrates the need to coordinate Oracle Human Resources Management System (HRMS) decision across the Oracle modules.

  6. Thermoelectric module

    DOEpatents

    Kortier, William E.; Mueller, John J.; Eggers, Philip E.

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  7. Linear modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study of frequency division multiplexing (FDM) systems was made for the purpose of determining the system performance that can be obtained with available state of the art components. System performance was evaluated on the basis of past experience, system analysis, and component evaluation. The system study was specifically directed to the area of FDM systems using subcarrier channel frequencies from 4 kHz to 200 kHz and channel information bandwidths of dc to 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kHz. The evaluation also assumes that the demodulation will be from a tape recorder which produces frequency modulation of + or - 1% on the signal due to the tape recorder wow and flutter. For the modulation system it is assumed that the pilot and carrier channel frequencies are stable to within + or - .005% and that the FM on the channel carriers is negligible. The modulator system was evaluated for the temperature range of -20 degree to +85 degree while the demodulator system was evaluated for operation at room temperature.

  8. Rapid tooling by rapid prototyping: tools made by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macht, Michael; Breitinger, Frank

    1996-08-01

    In view of the competitive situation on the international market, companies are being forced to develop products more rapidly and with less likelihood of errors occurring. In the recent past, product development has been greatly speeded up, above all by computer-aided methods. However, these are not entirely sufficient to achieve a further reduction in product development times. New manufacturing methods such as 'rapid prototyping' (RP) now make it possible to obtain not only computer models but also actual physical patterns in a very early development stage. As RP technologies gained in strength, a demand arose for prototypes in the actual material which it was intended to use for the production article. Using suitable process chains, it is now possible to produce components from various near-series plastics (for example by vacuum casting) and also from metals (e.g. by lost-wax casting or sand casting). At the Augsburg User Center run by Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management of Munich Technical University, processes for the rapid production of prototype tools which unite machining methods, RP technologies and molding techniques have therefore been developed.

  9. RapidArc Planning and Delivery in Patients With Locally Advanced Head-and-Neck Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Doornaert, Patricia; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R.; Bieker, Michael; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc, Varian Medical Systems) permits the delivery of highly conformal dose distributions. We studied planning and delivery in patients who underwent RapidArc for locally advanced head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: A total of 35 consecutive patients who completed RapidArc with concurrent chemotherapy for Stages III-IV tumors of the oro- and hypopharynx/larynx in our center were identified. All underwent bilateral neck irradiation and 21 patients had at least N2 disease. A simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) delivered 70 Gy (in 2 Gy/fraction) to the planning target volume (PTV){sub boost} and elective nodal regions (PTV{sub elect}) received 57.75 Gy. A standard planning constraint set was used and constraints for parotid glands were individually adapted. Treatments were delivered using two arcs after all plans were verified in a solid water phantom using GafChromic External Beam Therapy films. Results: RapidArc planning generally took 1.5-2 h, which was faster than with our previous seven-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy sliding window technique. Film dosimetry revealed that 0.6% of films exceeded a combination of dose differences {>=}3% or distance to agreement {>=}2 mm. More than 99% of both PTVs received {>=}95% of the prescription dose. Average plan conformity index was 1.13 and mean dose to ipsilateral and contralateral parotid glands were 31.4 Gy and 26.1 Gy, respectively. The mean beam-on time was <3 min and mean number of monitor units was 426. Conclusions: RapidArc achieved excellent target coverage and normal tissue sparing, with delivery completed in less than 3 min. RA is currently our standard intensity-modulated radiotherapy approach for advanced HNC.

  10. Wideband phase-locked angular modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L.

    1989-01-01

    A phase-locked loop (PLL) angular modulator scheme has been proposed which has the characteristics of wideband modulation frequency response. The modulator design is independent of the PLL closed-loop transfer function H(s), thereby allowing independent optimization of the loop's parameters as well as the modulator's parameters. A phase modulator implementing the proposed scheme was built to phase modulate a low-noise phase-locked signal source at the output frequency of 2290 MHz. The measurement results validated the analysis by demonstrating that the resulting baseband modulation bandwidth exceeded that of the phase-locked loop by over an order of magnitude. However, it is expected to be able to achieve much wider response still.

  11. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Lenox, Carl J. S. [Oakland, CA; Culligan, Matthew [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  12. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2013-08-27

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame, The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  13. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  14. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  15. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  16. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  17. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  18. Diode Laser Velocity Measurements by Modulated Filtered Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, J. J.; Varghese, P. L.; Jagodzinski, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of solid-state lasers to be tuned in operating frequency at MHz rates by input current modulation, while maintaining a relatively narrow line-width, has made them useful for spectroscopic measurements. Their other advantages include low cost, reliability, durability, compact size, and modest power requirements, making them a good choice for a laser source in micro-gravity experiments in drop-towers and in flight. For their size, they are also very bright. In a filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) experiment, a diode laser can be used to scan across an atomic or molecular absorption line, generating large changes in transmission at the resonances for very small changes in frequency. The hyperfine structure components of atomic lines of alkali metal vapors are closely spaced and very strong, which makes such atomic filters excellent candidates for sensitive Doppler shift detection and therefore for high-resolution velocimetry. In the work we describe here we use a Rubidium vapor filter, and work with the strong D(sub 2) transitions at 780 nm that are conveniently accessed by near infrared diode lasers. The low power output of infrared laser diodes is their primary drawback relative to other laser systems commonly used for velocimetry. However, the capability to modulate the laser frequency rapidly and continuously helps mitigate this. Using modulation spectroscopy and a heterodyne detection scheme with a lock-in amplifier, one can extract sub-microvolt signals occurring at a specific frequency from a background that is orders of magnitude stronger. The diode laser modulation is simply achieved by adding a small current modulation to the laser bias current. It may also be swept repetitively in wavelength using an additional lower frequency current ramp.

  19. Rapid modulation of spoken word recognition by visual primes

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Kana; Grainger, Jonathan; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    In a masked cross-modal priming experiment with ERP recordings, spoken Japanese words were primed with words written in one of the two syllabary scripts of Japanese. An early priming effect, peaking at around 200ms after onset of the spoken word target, was seen in left lateral electrode sites for Katakana primes, and later effects were seen for both Hiragana and Katakana primes on the N400 ERP component. The early effect is thought to reflect the efficiency with which words in Katakana script make contact with sublexical phonological representations involved in spoken language comprehension, due to the particular way this script is used by Japanese readers. This demonstrates fast-acting influences of visual primes on the processing of auditory target words, and suggests that briefly presented visual primes can influence sublexical processing of auditory target words. The later N400 priming effects, on the other hand, most likely reflect cross-modal influences on activity at the level of whole-word phonology and semantics. PMID:26516296

  20. Manufacturing technology development for CuInGaSe sub 2 solar cell modules

    SciTech Connect

    Stanbery, B.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The report describes research performed by Boeing Aerospace and Electronics under the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology project. We anticipate that implementing advanced semiconductor device fabrication techniques to the production of large-area CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS)/Cd{sub 1-y}Zn{sub y}S/ZnO monolithically integrated thin-film solar cell modules will enable 15% median efficiencies to be achieved in high-volume manufacturing. We do not believe that CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) can achieve this efficiency in production without sufficient gallium to significantly increase the band gap, thereby matching it better to the solar spectrum (i.e., x{ge}0.2). Competing techniques for CIS film formation have not been successfully extended to CIGS devices with such high band gaps. The SERI-confirmed intrinsic stability of CIS-based photovoltaics renders them far superior to a-Si:H-based devices, making a 30-year module lifetime feasible. The minimal amounts of cadmium used in the structure we propose, compared to CdTe-based devices, makes them environmentally safer and more acceptable to both consumers and relevant regulatory agencies. Large-area integrated thin-film CIGS modules are the product most likely to supplant silicon modules by the end of this decade and enable the cost improvements which will lead to rapid market expansion.

  1. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  2. Total dural irradiation: RapidArc versus static-field IMRT: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Paul J.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional fixed-gantry angle intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with RapidArc for total dural irradiation. We also hypothesize that target volume-individualized collimator angles may produce substantial normal tissue sparing when planning with RapidArc. Five-, 7-, and 9-field fixed-gantry angle sliding-window IMRT plans were generated for comparison with RapidArc plans. Optimization and normal tissue constraints were constant for all plans. All plans were normalized so that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received at least 100% of the dose. RapidArc was delivered using 350 Degree-Sign clockwise and counterclockwise arcs. Conventional collimator angles of 45 Degree-Sign and 315 Degree-Sign were compared with 90 Degree-Sign on both arcs. Dose prescription was 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions. PTV metrics used for comparison were coverage, V{sub 107}%, D1%, conformality index (CI{sub 95}%), and heterogeneity index (D{sub 5}%-D{sub 95}%). Brain dose, the main challenge of this case, was compared using D{sub 1}%, Dmean, and V{sub 5} Gy. Dose to optic chiasm, optic nerves, globes, and lenses was also compared. The use of unconventional collimator angles (90 Degree-Sign on both arcs) substantially reduced dose to normal brain. All plans achieved acceptable target coverage. Homogeneity was similar for RapidArc and 9-field IMRT plans. However, heterogeneity increased with decreasing number of IMRT fields, resulting in unacceptable hotspots within the brain. Conformality was marginally better with RapidArc relative to IMRT. Low dose to brain, as indicated by V5Gy, was comparable in all plans. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) showed no clinically meaningful differences. The number of monitor units was lower and delivery time was reduced with RapidArc. The case-individualized RapidArc plan compared favorably with the 9-field conventional IMRT plan. In view of lower monitor unit requirements and shorter delivery time, Rapid

  3. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  4. Rapid solidification of Nb-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokhale, A. B.; Javed, K. R.; Abbaschian, G. J.; Lewis, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    New Nb-base alloys are of interest for aerospace structural applications at high temperatures, viz, 800 to 1650 C. Fundamental information regarding the effects of rapid solidification in achieving greatly refined microstructures, extended solid solubility, suppression of embrittling equilibrium phases, and formation of new phases is desired in a number of Nb-X alloys. The microstructures and selected properties of Nb-Si and other Nb-base alloys are presented for materials both rapidly quenched from the equilibrium liquidus and rapidly solidified following deep supercooling. Electromagnetic levitation was used to achieve melting and supercooling in a containerless inert gas environment. A variety of solidification conditions were employed including splatting or drop casting of supercooled samples. The morphology and composition of phases formed are discussed in terms of both solidification history and bulk composition.

  5. Achieving acoustical performance with fire safe products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Recent serious fires in North and South America have pointed out potential problems with attempts to improve acoustical performance in building spaces at the expense of using acoustical treatments that may have poor performance in fire situations. Foam plastic products, sometimes not designed for exposed use in buildings, can ignite quickly and spread fire rapidly throughout a building space, resulting in fire victims being trapped within the building or not being afforded the needed safe egress time. There are ways of achieving equivalent and even superior acoustical performance without sacrificing fire safety. Acoustical products are available which can add comparable or superior acoustical treatment without the fire hazard associated with exposed foam plastic materials. This presentation is a review of the U.S. code requirements of interior finish materials, the various types of fire tests that are applied to these products, and a discussion of the achievable fire and acoustical performance.

  6. Dense optical-electrical interface module

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Chang

    2000-12-21

    The DOIM (Dense Optical-electrical Interface Modules) is a custom-designed optical data transmission module employed in the upgrade of Silicon Vertex Detector of CDF experiment at Fermilab. Each DOIM module consists of a transmitter (TX) converting electrical differential input signals to optical outputs, a middle segment of jacketed fiber ribbon cable, and a receiver (RX) which senses the light inputs and converts them back to electrical signals. The targeted operational frequency is 53 MHz, and higher rate is achievable. This article outlines the design goals, implementation methods, production test results, and radiation hardness tests of these modules.

  7. Electro-optic resonant phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung (Inventor); Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor); Robinson, Deborah L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An electro-optic resonant cavity is used to achieve phase modulation with lower driving voltages. Laser damage thresholds are inherently higher than with previously used integrated optics due to the utilization of bulk optics. Phase modulation is achieved at higher speeds with lower driving voltages than previously obtained with non-resonant electro-optic phase modulators. The instant scheme uses a data locking dither approach as opposed to the conventional sinusoidal locking schemes. In accordance with a disclosed embodiment, a resonant cavity modulator has been designed to operate at a data rate in excess of 100 megabits per sec. By carefully choosing the cavity finesse and its dimension, it is possible to control the pulse switching time to within 4 nano-sec. and to limit the required switching voltage to within 10 V. This cavity locking scheme can be applied by using only the random data sequence, and without the need of dithering of the cavity. Compared to waveguide modulators, the resonant cavity has a comparable modulating voltage requirement. Because of its bulk geometry, the resonant cavity modulator has the potential of accommodating higher throughput power. Mode matching into the bulk device is easier and typically can be achieved with higher efficiency. An additional control loop is incorporated into the modulator to maintain the cavity on resonance.

  8. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  9. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  10. Rapid-scan EPR of immobilized nitroxides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Tseitlin, Mark; Elajaili, Hanan; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Clouston, Laura J; Boratyński, Przemysław J; Rajca, Andrzej; Stein, Richard; Mchaourab, Hassane; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-10-01

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of immobilized nitroxides were obtained by rapid scan at 293 K. Scan widths were 155 G with 13.4 kHz scan frequency for (14)N-perdeuterated tempone and for T4 lysozyme doubly spin labeled with an iodoacetamide spirocyclohexyl nitroxide and 100 G with 20.9 kHz scan frequency for (15)N-perdeuterated tempone. These wide scans were made possible by modifications to our rapid-scan driver, scan coils made of Litz wire, and the placement of highly conducting aluminum plates on the poles of a Bruker 10″ magnet to reduce resistive losses in the magnet pole faces. For the same data acquisition time, the signal-to-noise for the rapid-scan absorption spectra was about an order of magnitude higher than for continuous wave first-derivative spectra recorded with modulation amplitudes that do not broaden the lineshapes.

  11. Rapid-Scan EPR of Immobilized Nitroxides

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Tseitlin, Mark; Elajaili, Hanan; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Clouston, Laura J.; Boratyński, Przemysław J.; Rajca, Andrzej; Stein, Richard; Mchaourab, Hassane; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-01-01

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of immobilized nitroxides were obtained by rapid scan at 293 K. Scan widths were 155 G with 13.4 kHz scan frequency for 14N-perdeuterated tempone and for T4 lysozyme doubly spin labeled with an iodoacetamide spirocyclohexyl nitroxide and 100 G with 20.9 kHz scan frequency for 15N-perdeuterated tempone. These wide scans were made possible by modifications to our rapid-scan driver, scan coils made of Litz wire, and the placement of highly conducting aluminum plates on the poles of a Bruker 10" magnet to reduce resistive losses in the magnet pole faces. For the same data acquisition time, the signal-to-noise for the rapid-scan absorption spectra was about an order of magnitude higher than for continuous wave first-derivative spectra recorded with modulation amplitudes that do not broaden the lineshapes. PMID:25240151

  12. Subcortical amygdala pathways enable rapid face processing.

    PubMed

    Garvert, Mona M; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J; Garrido, Marta I

    2014-11-15

    Human faces may signal relevant information and are therefore analysed rapidly and effectively by the brain. However, the precise mechanisms and pathways involved in rapid face processing are unclear. One view posits a role for a subcortical connection between early visual sensory regions and the amygdala, while an alternative account emphasises cortical mediation. To adjudicate between these functional architectures, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) evoked fields in human subjects to presentation of faces with varying emotional valence. Early brain activity was better explained by dynamic causal models containing a direct subcortical connection to the amygdala irrespective of emotional modulation. At longer latencies, models without a subcortical connection had comparable evidence. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that a subcortical pathway to the amygdala plays a role in rapid sensory processing of faces, in particular during early stimulus processing. This finding contributes to an understanding of the amygdala as a behavioural relevance detector.

  13. Rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christian; Wolff, Martin; Weitz, Michael; Bartlau, Thomas; Korth, Carsten; Zerr, Inga

    2011-09-01

    Different rates of progression have been observed among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk factors that accelerate deterioration have been identified and some are being discussed, such as genetics, comorbidity, and the early appearance of Alzheimer disease motor signs. Progressive forms of Alzheimer disease have been reported with rapid cognitive decline and disease duration of only a few years. This short review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, we suggest that rapid, in this context, should be defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score decrease of 6 points per year.

  14. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Shu, Huidy; Haman, Aissa; Sejvar, James J.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with more common dementing conditions that typically develop over years, rapidly progressive dementias can develop subacutely over months, weeks, or even days and be quickly fatal. Because many rapidly progressive dementias are treatable, it is paramount to evaluate and diagnose these patients quickly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the major categories of RPD and outlines efficient approaches to the diagnosis of the various neurodegenerative, toxic-metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and other conditions that may progress rapidly. PMID:18668637

  15. Optical interconnection of optical modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamschula, Marius P.; Caulfield, H. J.; Shamir, Joseph

    1990-12-01

    The most plausible possible uses of nonlinear optics as the bases for interconnections among complex optical modules are evaluated, with a view to such applications as neural networks that entail large numbers of interconnections and numerous stages. Optical interconnection allows such a system to be composed of many modules as well as to incorporate switching- and amplification-function optical nonlinearities. While it is possible to achieve a pixel-by-pixel, diffraction-limited flat-field relay with nonlinearity, where the interconnect allows for cascadability, the wave-particle duality is destroyed between stages.

  16. Deconstruction Rapid Assessment Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Deconstruction Rapid Assessment Tool (EPA 905-F-15-001) instructions, form and spreadsheet for assessing and triaging structures being considered for deconstruction. Promote environmental stewardship and economic revitalization through deconstruction.

  17. RAPID and DDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    This talk gives an overview of the the Robot Applications Programmers Interface Delegate (RAPID) as well as the distributed systems middleware Data Distribution Service (DDS). DDS is an open software standard, RAPID is cleared for open-source release under NOSA. RAPID specifies data-structures and semantics for high-level telemetry published by NASA robotic software. These data-structures are supported by multiple robotic platforms at Johnson Space Center (JSC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Ames Research Center (ARC), providing high-level interoperability between those platforms. DDS is used as the middleware for data transfer. The feature set of the middleware heavily influences the design decision made in the RAPID specification. So it is appropriate to discuss both in this introductory talk.

  18. Hydropower RAPID Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    2016-12-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit including its capabilities, features, and benefits.

  19. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-08-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites.

  20. Externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Cordula; Urban, Alexander S.; Charron, Heather; Joshi, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Externally modulated nanoparticles comprise a rapidly advancing class of cancer nanotherapeutics, which combine the favorable tumor accumulation of nanoparticles, with external spatio-temporal control on therapy delivery via optical, magnetic, or ultrasound modalities. The local control on therapy enables higher tumor treatment efficacy, while simultaneously reducing off-target effects. The nanoparticle interactions with external fields have an additional advantage of frequently generating an imaging signal, and thus such agents provide theranostic (both diagnostic and therapeutic) capabilities. In this review, we classify the emerging externally modulated theranostic nanoparticles according to the mode of external control and describe the physiochemical mechanisms underlying the external control of therapy, and illustrate the major embodiments of nanoparticles in each class with proven biological efficacy: (I) electromagnetic radiation in visible and near-infrared range is being exploited for gold based and carbon nanostructures with tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of cancer, photochemistry based manipulations are employed for light sensitive liposomes and porphyrin based nanoparticles; (II) Magnetic field based manipulations are being developed for iron-oxide based nanostructures for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetothermal therapy; (III) ultrasound based methods are primarily being employed to increase delivery of conventional drugs and nanotherapeutics to tumor sites. PMID:24834381

  1. A New OEO Design Using Optical Phase Modulation and Modulation Suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Yu, Nan

    2006-01-01

    We present the design for a phase-modulated Opto-Electronic Oscillator (OEO) that incorporates asymmetric Mach- Zehnder (AMZ) interferometers as phase demodulators together with PM modulation suppression. The new design promises to obtain in the electro-optical domain the low-noise advantages previously achieved in RF and microwave oscillators by the use of carrier suppression but which have been achieved only to a limited extent in OEO's.

  2. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  3. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  4. Grain Refinement of Freeform Fabricated Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Using Beam/Arc Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitzner, Scott; Liu, Stephen; Domack, Marcia S.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Grain refinement can significantly improve the mechanical properties of freeform-fabricated Ti-6Al-4V alloy, promoting increased strength and enhanced isotropy compared with coarser grained material. Large beta-grains can lead to a segregated microstructure, in regard to both alpha-phase morphology and alpha-lath orientation. Beam modulation, which has been used in conventional fusion welding to promote grain refinement, is explored in this study for use in additive manufacturing processes including electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF(sup 3)) and gas-tungsten arc (GTA) deposition to alter solidification behavior and produce a refined microstructure. The dynamic molten pool size induced by beam modulation causes rapid heat flow variance and results in a more competitive grain growth environment, reducing grain size. Consequently, improved isotropy and strength can be achieved with relatively small adjustments to deposition parameters.

  5. Modulated Raman Spectroscopy for Enhanced Cancer Diagnosis at the Cellular Level.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Anna Chiara; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael

    2015-06-11

    Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a promising and novel biophotonics tool for non-invasive, real-time diagnosis of tissue and cell abnormalities. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background is a key issue that can detract from the use of Raman spectroscopy in routine clinical care. The review summarizes the state-of-the-art methods to remove the fluorescence background and explores recent achievements to address this issue obtained with modulated Raman spectroscopy. This innovative approach can be used to extract the Raman spectral component from the fluorescence background and improve the quality of the Raman signal. We describe the potential of modulated Raman spectroscopy as a rapid, inexpensive and accurate clinical tool to detect the presence of bladder cancer cells. Finally, in a broader context, we show how this approach can greatly enhance the sensitivity of integrated Raman spectroscopy and microfluidic systems, opening new prospects for portable higher throughput Raman cell sorting.

  6. Modulated Raman Spectroscopy for Enhanced Cancer Diagnosis at the Cellular Level

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Anna Chiara; Dholakia, Kishan; Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is emerging as a promising and novel biophotonics tool for non-invasive, real-time diagnosis of tissue and cell abnormalities. However, the presence of a strong fluorescence background is a key issue that can detract from the use of Raman spectroscopy in routine clinical care. The review summarizes the state-of-the-art methods to remove the fluorescence background and explores recent achievements to address this issue obtained with modulated Raman spectroscopy. This innovative approach can be used to extract the Raman spectral component from the fluorescence background and improve the quality of the Raman signal. We describe the potential of modulated Raman spectroscopy as a rapid, inexpensive and accurate clinical tool to detect the presence of bladder cancer cells. Finally, in a broader context, we show how this approach can greatly enhance the sensitivity of integrated Raman spectroscopy and microfluidic systems, opening new prospects for portable higher throughput Raman cell sorting. PMID:26110401

  7. Supported PV module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  8. Advanced infrared laser modulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheo, P. K.; Wagner, R.; Gilden, M.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to develop an electrooptic waveguide modulator for generating continuous tunable sideband power from an infrared CO2 laser. Parameters included were the waveguide configurations, microstrip dimensions device impedance, and effective dielectric constants. An optimum infrared laser modulator was established and was fabricated. This modulator represents the state-of-the-art integrated optical device, which has a three-dimensional topology to accommodate three lambda/4 step transformers for microwave impedance matching at both the input and output terminals. A flat frequency response of the device over 20 HGz or = 3 dB) was achieved. Maximum single sideband to carrier power greater than 1.2% for 20 W microwave input power at optical carrier wavelength of 10.6 microns was obtained.

  9. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  10. Rapid prototyping of reflectors for vehicle lighting using laser activated remote phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Wolf, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class vehicles mainly use HID or LED as light source. As a further step in this development laser diode based systems offer high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new styling concepts and new dynamic lighting functions. These white laser diode systems can either be realized by mixing different spectral sources or by combining diodes with specific phosphors. Based on the approach of generating light using a laser and remote phosphor, lighting modules are manufactured. Four blue laser diodes (450 nm) are used to activate a phosphor coating and thus to achieve white light. A segmented paraboloid reflector generates the desired light distribution for an additional car headlamp. We use high speed milling and selective laser melting to build the reflector system for this lighting module. We compare the spectral reflection grade of these materials. Furthermore the generated modules are analyzed regarding their efficiency and light distribution. The use of Rapid Prototyping technologies allows an early validation of the chosen concept and is supposed to reduce cost and time in the product development process significantly. Therefor we discuss costs and times of the applied manufacturing technologies.

  11. Electrochemically Modulated Separation for Plutonium Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Sandra H.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-12-31

    Accurate and timely analysis of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel is critical in nuclear safeguards for detection of both protracted and rapid plutonium diversions. Gamma spectroscopy is a viable method for accurate and timely measurements of plutonium provided that the plutonium is well separated from the interfering fission and activation products present in spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemically modulated separation (EMS) is a method that has been used successfully to isolate picogram amounts of Pu from nitric acid matrices. With EMS, Pu adsorption may be turned "on" and "off" depending on the applied voltage, allowing for collection and stripping of Pu without the addition of chemical reagents. In this work, we have scaled up the EMS process to isolate microgram quantities of Pu from matrices encountered in spent nuclear fuel during reprocessing. Several challenges have been addressed including surface area limitations, radiolysis effects, electrochemical cell performance stability, and chemical interferences. After these challenges were resolved, 6 µg Pu was deposited in the electrochemical cell with approximately an 800-fold reduction of fission and activation product levels from a spent nuclear fuel sample. Modeling showed that these levels of Pu collection and interference reduction may not be sufficient for Pu detection by gamma spectroscopy. The main remaining challenges are to achieve a more complete Pu isolation and to deposit larger quantities of Pu for successful gamma analysis of Pu. If gamma analyses of Pu are successful, EMS will allow for accurate and timely on-site analysis for enhanced Pu safeguards.

  12. Decoupling of excitation and receive coils in pulsed magnetic resonance using sinusoidal magnetic field modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseytlin, Mark; Epel, Boris; Sundramoorthy, Subramanian; Tipikin, Dmitriy; Halpern, Howard J.

    2016-11-01

    In pulsed magnetic resonance, the excitation power is many orders of magnitude larger than that induced by the spin system in the receiving coil or resonator. The receiver must be protected during and immediately after the excitation pulse to allow for the energy stored in the resonator to dissipate to a safe level. The time during which the signal is not detected, the instrumental dead-time, can be shortened by using magnetically decoupled excitation and receive coils. Such coils are oriented, with respect to each other, in a way that minimizes the total magnetic flux produced by one coil in the other. We suggest that magnetically decoupled coils can be isolated to a larger degree by tuning them to separate frequencies. Spins are excited at one frequency, and the echo signal is detected at another. Sinusoidal magnetic field modulation that rapidly changes the Larmor frequency of the spins between the excitation and detection events is used to ensure the resonance conditions for both coils. In this study, the relaxation times of trityl-CD3 were measured in a field-modulated pulsed EPR experiment and compared to results obtained using a standard spin echo method. The excitation and receive coils were tuned to 245 and 256.7 MHz, respectively. Using an available rapid-scan, cross-loop EPR resonator, we demonstrated an isolation improvement of approximately 20-30 dB due to frequency decoupling. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations, and proof-of-concept experiments demonstrated that substantial excitation-detection decoupling can be achieved. A pulsed L-band system, including a small volume bi-modal resonator equipped with modulation coils, was constructed to demonstrate fivefold dead-time reduction in comparison with the standard EPR experiment. This was achieved by detuning of the excitation and receive coils by 26 MHz and using sinusoidal modulation at 480 kHz.

  13. Dosimetric evaluation of the interplay effect in respiratory-gated RapidArc radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Craig; Yang, Yong Li, Tianfang; Zhang, Yongqian; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with gating capability has had increasing adoption in many clinics in the United States. In this new technique, dose rate, gantry rotation speed, and the leaf motion speed of multileaf collimators (MLCs) are modulated dynamically during gated beam delivery to achieve highly conformal dose coverage of the target and normal tissue sparing. Compared with the traditional gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique, this complicated beam delivery technique may result in larger dose errors due to the intrafraction tumor motion. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dosimetric influence of the interplay effect for the respiration-gated VMAT technique (RapidArc, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Our work consisted of two parts: (1) Investigate the interplay effect for different target residual errors during gated RapidArc delivery using a one-dimensional moving phantom capable of producing stable sinusoidal movement; (2) Evaluate the dosimetric influence in ten clinical patients’ treatment plans using a moving phantom driven with a patient-specific respiratory curve. Methods: For the first part of this study, four plans were created with a spherical target for varying residual motion of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 cm. Appropriate gating windows were applied for each. The dosimetric effect was evaluated using EDR2 film by comparing the gated delivery with static delivery. For the second part of the project, ten gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy cases were selected and reoptimized to be delivered by the gated RapidArc technique. These plans were delivered to a phantom, and again the gated treatments were compared to static deliveries by the same methods. Results: For regular sinusoidal motion, the dose delivered to the target was not substantially affected by the gating windows when evaluated with the gamma statistics, suggesting the interplay effect has a small role in respiratory-gated Rapid

  14. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT AND THE NAVAJO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAAS, JOHN; MELVILLE, ROBERT

    A STUDY WAS DEVISED TO APPRAISE THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF NAVAJO STUDENTS LIVING IN DORMITORIES AWAY FROM THE INDIAN RESERVATION. THE FOLLOWING SEVEN FACTORS WERE CHOSEN TO BE INVESTIGATED AS BEING DIRECTLY RELATED TO ACHIEVEMENT--(1) INTELLIGENCE, (2) READING ABILITY, (3) ANXIETY, (4) SELF-CONCEPT, (5) MOTIVATION, (6) VERBAL DEVELOPMENT, (7)…

  15. Sociocultural Origins of Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theoretical review of work on sociocultural influences on achievement, focusing on a critical evaluation of the work of David McClellan. Offers an alternative conception of achievement motivation which stresses the role of contextual and situational factors in addition to personality factors. Available from: Transaction Periodicals…

  16. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do…

  17. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  18. Early Intervention and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hormes, Mridula T.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Education has been rigorous in holding all states accountable with regard to student achievement. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 clearly laid out federal mandates for all schools to follow. K-12 leaders of public schools are very aware of the fact that results in terms of student achievement need to improve…

  19. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  20. Asperger Syndrome and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…

  1. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  2. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  3. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  4. RAPID REMOVAL OF A GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT PLUME.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefkoff, L. Jeff; Gorelick, Steven M.; ,

    1985-01-01

    A groundwater management model is used to design an aquifer restoration system that removes a contaminant plume from a hypothetical aquifer in four years. The design model utilizes groundwater flow simulation and mathematical optimization. Optimal pumping and injection strategies achieve rapid restoration for a minimum total pumping cost. Rapid restoration is accomplished by maintaining specified groundwater velocities around the plume perimeter towards a group of pumping wells located near the plume center. The model does not account for hydrodynamic dispersion. Results show that pumping costs are particularly sensitive to injection capacity. An 8 percent decrease in the maximum allowable injection rate may lead to a 29 percent increase in total pumping costs.

  5. Electric-optic resonant phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Chien-Chung (Inventor); Robinson, Deborah L. (Inventor); Hemmati, Hamid (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electro-optic resonant cavity is used to achieve phase modulation with lower driving voltages. Laser damage thresholds are inherently higher than with previously used integrated optics due to the utilization of bulk optics. Phase modulation is achieved at higher speeds with lower driving voltages than previously obtained with non-resonant electro-optic phase modulators. The instant scheme uses a data locking dither approach as opposed to the conventional sinusoidal locking schemes. In accordance with a disclosed embodiment, a resonant cavity modulator has been designed to operate at a data rate in excess of 100 Mbps. By carefully choosing the cavity finesse and its dimension, it is possible to control the pulse switching time to within 4 ns and to limit the required switching voltage to within 10 V. Experimentally, the resonant cavity can be maintained on resonance with respect to the input laser signal by monitoring the fluctuation of output intensity as the cavity is switched. This cavity locking scheme can be applied by using only the random data sequence, and without the need of additional dithering of the cavity. Compared to waveguide modulators, the resonant cavity has a comparable modulating voltage requirement. Because of its bulk geometry, resonant cavity modulator has the potential of accommodating higher throughput power. Furthermore, mode matching into a bulk device is easier and typically can be achieved with higher efficiency. On the other hand, unlike waveguide modulators which are essentially traveling wave devices, the resonant cavity modulator requires that the cavity be maintained in resonance with respect to the incoming laser signal. An additional control loop is incorporated into the modulator to maintain the cavity on resonance.

  6. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  7. Wide deviation phase modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couch, R. H.; Hearn, C. P.; Wilson, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Modulator produces phase-modulated waveform having high modulating linearity. Technique is inherently wideband with respect to carrier frequency and can operate over decade carrier frequency range without adjustments. Circuit performance is both mathematically predictable and highly reproducible.

  8. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  9. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  10. Integrated organic photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potscavage, William J.; Yoo, Seunghyup; Domercq, Benoit; Kim, Jungbae; Holt, Joe; Kippelen, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    Methods for scalable output voltage and encapsulation of organic photovoltaic cells are addressed in this paper. To obtain scalable output voltages, integrated photovoltaic modules comprised of a bulk heterojunction of poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a soluble C 70 derivative, [6,6]-phenyl C 71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM-70), were fabricated. Power conversion efficiency of individual P3HT/PCBM-70 cells was estimated to be 4.1 % for AM1.5 G illumination. Modules of one to four cells connected in series produced open-circuit voltages V OC that linearly depend on the number of cells N as V OC = N × 0.621 V with a nearly constant short-circuit current of 1.4 +/- 0.1 mA. Separately, shelf lifetimes of more than one year were achieved for pentacene/C 60 solar cells by encapsulation with a 200-nm-thick layer of Al IIO 3 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In addition, the ALD process improved the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency of the solar cells by thermal annealing that occurs during the process.

  11. Silicon high speed modulator for advanced modulation: device structures and exemplary modulator performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milivojevic, Biljana; Wiese, Stefan; Whiteaway, James; Raabe, Christian; Shastri, Anujit; Webster, Mark; Metz, Peter; Sunder, Sanjay; Chattin, Bill; Anderson, Sean P.; Dama, Bipin; Shastri, Kal

    2014-03-01

    Fiber optics is well established today due to the high capacity and speed, unrivaled flexibility and quality of service. However, state of the art optical elements and components are hardly scalable in terms of cost and size required to achieve competitive port density and cost per bit. Next-generation high-speed coherent optical communication systems targeting a data rate of 100-Gb/s and beyond goes along with innovations in component and subsystem areas. Consequently, by leveraging the advanced silicon micro and nano-fabrication technologies, significant progress in developing CMOS platform-based silicon photonic devices has been made all over the world. These achievements include the demonstration of high-speed IQ modulators, which are important building blocks in coherent optical communication systems. In this paper, we demonstrate silicon photonic QPSK modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor structure, address different modulator configuration structures and report our progress and research associated with highspeed advanced optical modulation in silicon photonics

  12. Compact nanomechanical plasmonic phase modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B. S.; Haftel, M. I.; Czaplewski, D. A.; Lopez, D.; Blumberg, G.; Aksyuk, V. A.

    2015-03-30

    Highly confined optical energy in plasmonic devices is advancing miniaturization in photonics. However, for mode sizes approaching ≈10 nm, the energy increasingly shifts into the metal, raising losses and hindering active phase modulation. Here, we propose a nanoelectromechanical phase-modulation principle exploiting the extraordinarily strong dependence of the phase velocity of metal–insulator–metal gap plasmons on dynamically variable gap size. We experimentally demonstrate a 23-μm-long non-resonant modulator having a 1.5π rad range, with 1.7 dB excess loss at 780 nm. Analysis shows that by simultaneously decreasing the gap, length and width, an ultracompact-footprint π rad phase modulator can be realized. This is achieved without incurring the extra loss expected for plasmons confined in a decreasing gap, because the increasing phase-modulation strength from a narrowing gap offsets rising propagation losses. Such small, high-density electrically controllable components may find applications in optical switch fabrics and reconfigurable plasmonic optics.

  13. Rapid response deluge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mille, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    The development of a rapid response deluge system by the Ammunition Equipment Directorate (AED) for use in suppressing propellant fires during demilitarization shows great promise. Prototype systems have been tested and data acquired on their efficiencies. Present system vs previous generations and lessons learned are discussed.

  14. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  15. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  16. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  17. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  18. The Role of Online Education Preferences on Student's Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baturay, Meltem Huri; Yukselturk, Erman

    2015-01-01

    Online education has expanded and is expected to continue growing rapidly in time along with technological innovations. It is obvious that there is a movement toward online learning which necessitates the need of more empirical evidence on effective learning and learners' achievement. This study investigated effect of the variables: demographics…

  19. Early College High School: Closing the Latino Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Kristen Ann

    2016-01-01

    The population of United States Latino students is growing at a rapid rate but their academic achievement lags behind white and Asian students. This issue has significant consequences for the nation's economy, as the job market continues to demand more education and better skills. Early College High School programs have the potential to improve…

  20. The Cost Effectiveness of 22 Approaches for Raising Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2010-01-01

    Review of cost-effectiveness studies suggests that rapid assessment is more cost effective with regard to student achievement than comprehensive school reform (CSR), cross-age tutoring, computer-assisted instruction, a longer school day, increases in teacher education, teacher experience or teacher salaries, summer school, more rigorous math…

  1. YAM- A Framework for Rapid Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    YAM is a software development framework with tools for facilitating the rapid development and integration of software in a concurrent software development environment. YAM provides solutions for thorny development challenges associated with software reuse, managing multiple software configurations, the development of software product-lines, multiple platform development and build management. YAM uses release-early, release-often development cycles to allow developers to incrementally integrate their changes into the system on a continual basis. YAM facilitates the creation and merging of branches to support the isolated development of immature software to avoid impacting the stability of the development effort. YAM uses modules and packages to organize and share software across multiple software products. It uses the concepts of link and work modules to reduce sandbox setup times even when the code-base is large. One side-benefit is the enforcement of a strong module-level encapsulation of a module s functionality and interface. This increases design transparency, system stability as well as software reuse. YAM is in use by several mid-size software development teams including ones developing mission-critical software.

  2. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, John

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  3. Ballasted photovoltaic module and module arrays

    DOEpatents

    Botkin, Jonathan [El Cerrito, CA; Graves, Simon [Berkeley, CA; Danning, Matt [Oakland, CA

    2011-11-29

    A photovoltaic (PV) module assembly including a PV module and a ballast tray. The PV module includes a PV device and a frame. A PV laminate is assembled to the frame, and the frame includes an arm. The ballast tray is adapted for containing ballast and is removably associated with the PV module in a ballasting state where the tray is vertically under the PV laminate and vertically over the arm to impede overt displacement of the PV module. The PV module assembly can be installed to a flat commercial rooftop, with the PV module and the ballast tray both resting upon the rooftop. In some embodiments, the ballasting state includes corresponding surfaces of the arm and the tray being spaced from one another under normal (low or no wind) conditions, such that the frame is not continuously subjected to a weight of the tray.

  4. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  5. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  6. Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34" ’■■"■" 1 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Achieving Efficiencies in Army Installations by Richard Fliss Col. Richard M. Meinhart Project...government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT ACHIEVING EFFICIENCIES IN ARMY INSTALLATIONS BY RICHARD FLISS DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved...for public release. Distribution is unlimited. DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED & USAWC CLASS OF 1998 U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050

  7. Kranc: Cactus modules from Mathematica equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husa, Sascha; Hinder, Ian; Lechner, Christiane; Schnetter, Erik; Wardell, Barry

    2016-09-01

    Kranc turns a tensorial description of a time dependent partial differential equation into a module for the Cactus Computational Toolkit (ascl:1102.013). This Mathematica application takes a simple continuum description of a problem and generates highly efficient and portable code, and can be used both for rapid prototyping of evolution systems and for high performance supercomputing.

  8. Temporal coherence structure rapidly shapes neuronal interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Xu, Yanbo; Yin, Pingbo; Oxenham, Andrew J.; Fritz, Jonathan B.; Shamma, Shihab A.

    2017-01-01

    Perception of segregated sources is essential in navigating cluttered acoustic environments. A basic mechanism to implement this process is the temporal coherence principle. It postulates that a signal is perceived as emitted from a single source only when all of its features are temporally modulated coherently, causing them to bind perceptually. Here we report on neural correlates of this process as rapidly reshaped interactions in primary auditory cortex, measured in three different ways: as changes in response rates, as adaptations of spectrotemporal receptive fields following stimulation by temporally coherent and incoherent tone sequences, and as changes in spiking correlations during the tone sequences. Responses, sensitivity and presumed connectivity were rapidly enhanced by synchronous stimuli, and suppressed by alternating (asynchronous) sounds, but only when the animals engaged in task performance and were attentive to the stimuli. Temporal coherence and attention are therefore both important factors in auditory scene analysis. PMID:28054545

  9. Transient heliosheath modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenby, J. J.; Webber, W. R.

    2015-10-01

    Voyager 1 has explored the solar wind-interstellar medium interaction region between the terminal shock and heliopause, following the intensity distribution of Galactic cosmic ray protons above 200 MeV energy. Before this component reached the expected galactic flux level at 121.7 au from the Sun, four episodes of rapid intensity change occurred with a behaviour similar to that found in Forbush Decreases in the inner Solar system, rather than that expected from a mechanism related to models for the long-term modulation found closer to the Sun. Because the mean solar wind flow is both expected and observed to be perpendicular to the radial direction close to the heliopause, an explanation is suggested in terms of transient radial flows related to possible heliopause boundary flapping. It is necessary that the radial flows are of the order either of the sound speed found for conditions downstream of the terminal shock or of the fluctuations found near the boundary by the Voyager 1 Low Energy Charged Particle detector and that the relevant cosmic ray diffusion perpendicular to the mean field is controlled by `slab' fluctuations accounting for about 20 per cent of the total power in the field variance. However, additional radial drift motion related to possible north to south gradients in the magnetic field may allow the inclusion of some diffusion according to the predictions of a theory based upon the presence of 2D turbulence. The required field gradients may arise due to field variation in the field carried by solar plasma flow deflected away from the solar equatorial plane. Modulation amounting to a total 30 per cent drop in galactic intensity requires explanation by a combination of transient effects.

  10. Longitudinal associations between reading and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Kevin J

    2008-01-01

    The association between early reading skills and changes in mathematics was examined in a large, low-income sample to determine whether students who have a greater level of reading skills in early elementary school exhibit more rapid gains in tests of mathematics. The longitudinal associations between third grade reading comprehension and changes in three components of mathematics achievement (Problem Solving and Data Interpretation, Mathematical Concepts and Estimation, Mathematical Computation) from third through eighth grade were examined. Latent growth models were fit to the repeated assessments of each mathematics component and the students' third grade reading and global mathematics scores were included as predictors of the intercept and slope. Gender, poverty status, and ethnicity were included in the models as control variables. The results showed males and African-American students tended to have shallower rates of change than females and non-African-American/non-Hispanic students. In terms of the effect of reading on changes in mathematics, third grade reading comprehension was found to be a positive significant predictor of change for each component of mathematics, suggesting students with a greater level of reading achievement in early elementary school change more rapidly in mathematics skills controlling for prior mathematics skills and student characteristics. The largest effects were shown for the Problem Solving and Data Interpretation test, a test focused on the applications of mathematics knowledge, and the Mathematical Concepts and Estimation test. Negligible effects were found for changes in Mathematical Computation. Thus, early reading comprehension was shown to be related to a conceptual understanding of mathematics and the application of mathematics knowledge. These findings lend support for the notion that early reading skills are important for success in mathematics.

  11. Rapid climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Morantine, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    Interactions between insolation changes due to orbital parameter variations, carbon dioxide concentration variations, the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic and the evolution of the northern hemisphere ice sheets during the most recent glacial cycle will be investigated. In order to investigate this period, a climate model is being developed to evaluate the physical mechanisms thought to be most significant during this period. The description of the model sub-components will be presented. The more one knows about the interactions between the sub-components of the climate system during periods of documented rapid climate change, the better equipped one will be to make rational decisions on issues related to impacts on the environment. This will be an effort to gauge the feedback processes thought to be instrumental in rapid climate shifts documented in the past, and their potential to influence the current climate. 53 refs.

  12. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  13. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  14. Rapid wetting dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Bellani, Gabriele; Amberg, Gustav

    2010-11-01

    Contact lines between solids and liquid or gas interfaces appear in very many instances of fluid flows. This could be coffee stains, water-oil mixtures in oil recovery, hydrophobic feet of insects or leaves in nature. In the present work we elucidate some of the wetting physics governing the very rapid wetting. Experimental and numerical results of spontaneously spreading droplets are presented, where focus is directed towards understanding the very rapid flow regime and highly dynamic initial wetting phase, where the contact line speed is limited by dissipative processes on a molecular scale occurring at the contact line. In particular we show the influence of the surface wettability and the liquid viscosity on the spreading dynamics, such as the contact line motion and dynamic contact angle in time.

  15. Center punched solar cell module development effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. E.; Mortensen, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The results are given of an advanced module development program with the objective of providing a low cost solar cell mechanical interconnect design. The design approach, which avoids soldering or welding operations, lends itself to automated assembly techniques thus supporting the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project goals. The first group of six modules contained aluminum contact cells and the second group of six modules contained silver-titanium-palladium contact cells. Extensive component and environmental testing at the module level showed that reliable cell mechanical interconnection can be achieved when utilizing the proper electrical contact materials and pressures. A discussion is given of the module design, manufacturing procedure, test program, significant problem areas and solutions, and conclusions and recommendations as formulated and conducted by XEOS.

  16. Optically addressed asymmetric Fabry-Perot modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, A.; Maserjian, J.

    1991-01-01

    A low power, high contrast optically addressed modulator, operating with normal incidence, has been fabricated. Optically controlled reflection modulation is achieved through optically induced absorption modulation in a periodically delta-doped InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structure inserted in an integrated asymmetric Fabry-Perot resonator. A contrast ratio over 60:1 was measured using a spectrally matched low power InGaAs/GaAs quantum well laser to generate the write (control) signal. The insertion loss for the normally off modulator is 4.6 dB at the highest write signal power (30 mW) used. The device lends itself to the fabrication of arrays for optically addressed spatial light modulation.

  17. A 30 GHz monolithic receive module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondal, J.; Contolatis, T.; Geddes, J.; Bauhahn, P.; Sokolov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The technical achievements and deliveries made during the duration of the program to develop a 30 GHz monolithic receive module for communication feed array applications and to deliver submodules and 30 GHz monolithic receive modules for experimental evaluation are discussed. Key requirements include an overall receive module noise figure of 5 dB, a 30 dB RF-to-RF gain with six levels of intermediate gain control, a five bit phase shifter, and a maximum power consumption of 250 mW. In addition, the monolithic receive module design addresses a cost goal of less than one thousand dollars (1980 dollars) per module in unit buys of 5,000 or more, and a mechanical configuration that is applicable to a spaceborne phase array system. An additional task for the development and delivery of 32 GHz phase shifter integrated circuit (IC) for deep space communication is also described.

  18. Module utilization committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  19. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  20. Rapid Runway Repair Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report describes a series of tests to evaluate a system for rapidly repairing airfield pavement using polymer concrete (synthetic polymer plus...aggregate), thermally cured by microwave power. The technique, developed by the Syracuse University Research Corporation (SURC) for highway...maintenance, uses a truck-mounted 50-kilowatt microwave generator to irradiate areas patched with polymer concrete . Test results indicate that the polymer

  1. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Joy, R.W.

    1982-09-20

    A rapidly refuelable dual cell of an electrochemical type is described wherein a single anode cooperates with two cathodes and wherein the anode has a fixed position and the cathodes are urged toward opposite faces of the anodes at constant and uniform force. The associated cathodes are automatically retractable to permit the consumed anode remains to be removed from the housing and a new anode inserted between the two cathodes.

  2. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Recent Findings Prion diseases are the prototypical causes of RPD, but reversible causes of RPD might mimic prion disease and should always be considered in a differential diagnosis. Aside from prion diseases, the most common causes of RPD are atypical presentations of other neurodegenerative disorders, curable disorders including autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as some infections, and neoplasms. Numerous recent case reports suggest dural arterial venous fistulas sometimes cause RPDs. Summary RPDs, in which patients typically develop dementia over weeks to months, require an alternative differential than the slowly progressive dementias that occur over a few years. Because of their rapid decline, patients with RPDs necessitate urgent evaluation and often require an extensive workup, typically with multiple tests being sent or performed concurrently. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, perhaps the prototypical RPD, is often the first diagnosis many neurologists consider when treating a patient with rapid cognitive decline. Many conditions other than prion disease, however, including numerous reversible or curable conditions, can present as an RPD. This chapter discusses some of the major etiologies for RPDs and offers an algorithm for diagnosis. PMID:27042906

  3. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

  4. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  5. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  6. Modes and Modulations of Antibiotic Resistance Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Depardieu, Florence; Podglajen, Isabelle; Leclercq, Roland; Collatz, Ekkehard; Courvalin, Patrice

    2007-01-01

    Since antibiotic resistance usually affords a gain of function, there is an associated biological cost resulting in a loss of fitness of the bacterial host. Considering that antibiotic resistance is most often only transiently advantageous to bacteria, an efficient and elegant way for them to escape the lethal action of drugs is the alteration of resistance gene expression. It appears that expression of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is frequently regulated, which indicates that modulation of gene expression probably reflects a good compromise between energy saving and adjustment to a rapidly evolving environment. Modulation of gene expression can occur at the transcriptional or translational level following mutations or the movement of mobile genetic elements and may involve induction by the antibiotic. In the latter case, the antibiotic can have a triple activity: as an antibacterial agent, as an inducer of resistance to itself, and as an inducer of the dissemination of resistance determinants. We will review certain mechanisms, all reversible, that bacteria have elaborated to achieve antibiotic resistance by the fine-tuning of the expression of genetic information. PMID:17223624

  7. Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccia, David J.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Durkin, Anthony J.; Ayers, Frederick R.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2009-03-01

    We describe the development of a rapid, noncontact imaging method, modulated imaging (MI), for quantitative, wide-field characterization of optical absorption and scattering properties of turbid media. MI utilizes principles of frequency-domain sampling and model-based analysis of the spatial modulation transfer function (s-MTF). We present and compare analytic diffusion and probabilistic Monte Carlo models of diffuse reflectance in the spatial frequency domain. Next, we perform MI measurements on tissue-simulating phantoms exhibiting a wide range of l* values (0.5 mm to 3 mm) and (μs'/μa) ratios (8 to 500), reporting an overall accuracy of approximately 6% and 3% in absorption and reduced scattering parameters, respectively. Sampling of only two spatial frequencies, achieved with only three camera images, is found to be sufficient for accurate determination of the optical properties. We then perform MI measurements in an in vivo tissue system, demonstrating spatial mapping of the absorption and scattering optical contrast in a human forearm and dynamic measurements of a forearm during venous occlusion. Last, metrics of spatial resolution are assessed through both simulations and measurements of spatially heterogeneous phantoms.

  8. Energy-efficient WDM-OFDM-PON employing shared OFDM modulation modules in optical line terminal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Liang; Cao, Pan; Wang, Kongtao; Su, Yikai

    2012-03-26

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to improve the energy efficiency of wavelength division multiplexing - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - passive optical networks (WDM-OFDM-PONs). By using an N × M opto-mechanic switch in optical line terminal (OLT), an OFDM modulation module is shared by several channels to deliver data to multiple users with low traffic demands during non-peak hours of the day, thus greatly reducing the number of operating devices and minimizing the energy consumption of the OLT. An experiment utilizing one OFDM modulation module to serve three optical network units (ONUs) in a WDM-OFDM-PON is performed to verify the feasibility of our proposal. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation show that the proposed scheme can achieve a saving of 23.6% in the energy consumption of the OFDM modulation modules compared to conventional WDM-OFDM-PON.

  9. Almond brush module cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Zohns, M.A.; Jenkins, B.M.; Mehlschau, J.J.; Morrison, D.

    1983-06-01

    This paper addresses the design, construction, and evaluation of an almond brush module cutter. The module cutter is one link in a system which processes tree prunings for fuel and fiber. This system includes a modified cotton module builder, a module mover, the cutter, and a tub grinder. An economic analysis of the cutter is presented along with the problems involved in cutting brush modules.

  10. Childhood vaccination: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ndumbe, P

    1996-09-01

    As the goal of eradicating smallpox was being met, the World Health Organization created its Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in 1974 and reached its initial goal of achieving full vaccination of 80% of the world's children by 1990. This effort was aided by the creation of "cold chain" delivery systems and resulted in the annual saving of 3.5 million children in less-developed countries. Current EPI vaccination goals include 1) eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000, 2) elimination of neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, 3) control of measles and hepatitis B, and 4) immunization of 90% of the world's children 1 year or younger by the year 2000. Goals of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (formed in 1991) include 1) provision of an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and effective vaccines; 2) production of improved and new vaccines; and 3) simplification of the logistics of vaccine delivery. Future challenges are to sustain high vaccination coverage, reach the unreached, achieve proper storage of vaccines and reduce waste, integrate new vaccines into national programs, and achieve vaccine self-sufficiency. The fact that these challenges will be difficult to achieve is illustrated by the situation in Africa where the high immunization levels achieved in 1990 have dropped dramatically. Those who must act to implement immunization programs are health personnel, families, governments, and development partners. In order to achieve equity in health, every child must be reached, governments must be made accountable for programs, health workers must convince families of the importance of vaccination, delivery systems must be in place to take advantage of the new vaccines being delivered, and a multisectoral approach must be taken to assure sustainability.

  11. Graphene based All-Optical Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Qi-Ye; Tian, Wei; Mao, Qi; Chen, Zhi; Liu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Qing-Hui; Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Huai-Wu

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate an all-optical terahertz modulator based on single-layer graphene on germanium (GOG), which can be driven by a 1.55 μm CW laser with a low-level photodoping power. Both the static and dynamic THz transmission modulation experiments were carried out. A spectrally wide-band modulation of the THz transmission is obtained in a frequency range from 0.25 to 1 THz, and a modulation depth of 94% can be achieved if proper pump power is applied. The modulation speed of the modulator was measured to be ~200 KHz using a 340 GHz carrier. A theoretical model is proposed for the modulator and the calculation results indicate that the enhanced THz modulation is mainly due to the third order nonlinear effect in the optical conductivity of the graphene monolayer. PMID:25491194

  12. Models of Rapid Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, G. H.; Broughton, J. Q.

    1984-01-01

    Laser annealing studies provide much information on various consequences of rapid solidification, including the trapping of impurities in the crystal, the generation of vacancies and twins, and on the fundamental limits to the speed of the crystal-melt interface. Some results obtained by molecular dynamics methods of the solidification of a Lennard-Jones liquid are reviewed. An indication of the relationship of interface speed to undercooling for certain materials can be derived from this model. Ising model simulations of impurity trapping in silicon are compared with some of the laser annealing results. The consequences of interface segregation and atomic strain are discussed.

  13. Right-Rapid-Rough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  14. Pakistan RAPID III.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, M U

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the software called RAPID (Resources for the Awareness of Population Impact on Development), which was developed by the Futures Group, a U.S. company. The software is designed for IBM-PCs and compatibles, with a configuration that includes 640K RAM, a fixed disk drive, and DOS 2.0 or higher. The application in Pakistan of this software in an information, education, and communication program sponsored by the National Institute of Population Studies, including the translation of the software into Urdu, is briefly outlined.

  15. FFAGS for rapid acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Carol J. Johnstone and Shane Koscielniak

    2002-09-30

    When large transverse and longitudinal emittances are to be transported through a circular machine, extremely rapid acceleration holds the advantage that the beam becomes immune to nonlinear resonances because there is insufficient time for amplitudes to build up. Uncooled muon beams exhibit large emittances and require fast acceleration to avoid decay losses and would benefit from this style of acceleration. The approach here employs a fixed-field alternating gradient or FFAG magnet structure and a fixed frequency acceleration system. Acceptance is enhanced by the use only of linear lattice elements, and fixed-frequency rf enables the use of cavities with large shunt resistance and quality factor.

  16. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  17. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…

  18. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  19. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  20. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  1. Student Achievement, 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangino, Evangelina

    This report summarizes results of student achievement in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) on the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) tests in 1986-87. Major findings indicate the following: (1) 99.4% of AISD seniors to graduate in May 1987 passed the Exit-Level TEAMS tests, with only 17 denied diplomas in…

  2. Sociocultural Variation in Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Ludo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the variations in literacy achievement among native and non-native upper primary school children (grades three to six) in the Netherlands. Various measures of word decoding, reading literacy and writing skill were collected from 1091 native Dutch children, 753 children with a former Dutch colonial…

  3. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  4. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  5. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  6. Grouping Students for Increased Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews results of four recent studies exploring the effects of various student-grouping schemes on academic achievement. Grouping plans included multiage classrooms, full-time ability grouping, and within-classroom grouping. Two studies investigated administrator attitudes toward student grouping. Several studies found that grouping plans…

  7. Achievement, Hedonism and the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    The problem of poor school achievement is in part because students lack work and discipline values. The article suggests moral and ethical teachings inspire students to be better scholars and people; and teacher education must prepare teachers to be moral educators by reintroducing moral education into the curriculum. (SM)

  8. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  9. Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Richard C.

    This paper discusses ways that institutions can change the higher education system and environment to accommodate more minority students. The first section, "Institutional Climate and Minority Achievement," presents an overview of the problems facing colleges and universities with respect to recruiting and retaining minority students. In the…

  10. Faculty Development: Assessing Learner Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; Overfield, Karen

    This study addressed the challenges of developing a faculty professional development workshop on assessment, measurement, and evaluation of achievement in adult learners. The setting for the workshop was a system of postsecondary career colleges throughout the United States. The curriculum development model of D. Kirkpatrick (1994) was used as a…

  11. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  12. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  13. Teacher Dispositions and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Kathleen Adams

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to close the achievement gap between students of minority and majority populations and between students in higher and lower economic circumstances, the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) added instruction and evaluation of teacher dispositions to its requirements for credentialing prospective teachers.…

  14. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  15. Development Status of The ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2010-06-07

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-}0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  16. Development Status of the ILC Marx Modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, M.; Beukers, T.; Burkhart, C.; Larsen, R.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2008-06-16

    The ILC Marx Modulator is under development as a lower cost alternative to the 'Baseline Conceptual Design' (BCD) klystron modulator. Construction of a prototype Marx is complete and testing is underway at SLAC. The Marx employs solid state elements, IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the modules. The prototype is based on a stack of sixteen modules, each initially charged to {approx}11 kV, which are arranged in a Marx topology. Initially, eleven modules combine to produce the 120 kV output pulse. The remaining modules are switched in after appropriate delays to compensate for the voltage droop that results from the discharge of the energy storage capacitors. Additional elements will further regulate the output voltage to {+-} 0.5%. The Marx presents several advantages over the conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at these parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. This paper outlines the current developmental status of the prototype Marx. It presents a detailed electrical and mechanical description of the modulator and operational test results. It will discuss electrical efficiency measurements, fault testing, and output voltage regulation.

  17. Testing Protocol for Module Encapsulant Creep (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.; Moseley, J. M.; Shah, Q.; Tamizhmani, G.; Sakurai, K.; Inoue, M.; Doi, T.; Masuda, A.

    2012-02-01

    Recently there has been an interest in the use of thermoplastic encapsulant materials in photovoltaic modules to replace chemically crosslinked materials, e.g., ethylene-vinyl acetate. The related motivations include the desire to: reduce lamination time or temperature; use less moisture-permeable materials; or use materials with better corrosion characteristics. However, the use of any thermoplastic material in a high-temperature environment raises safety and performance concerns, as the standardized tests currently do not expose the modules to temperatures in excess of 85C, yet modules may experience temperatures above 100C in operation. Here we constructed eight pairs of crystalline-silicon modules and eight pairs of glass/encapsulation/glass mock modules using different encapsulation materials of which only two were designed to chemically crosslink. One module set was exposed outdoors with insulation on the back side in Arizona in the summer, and an identical set was exposed in environmental chambers. High precision creep measurements and performance measurements indicate that despite many of these polymeric materials being in the melt state at some of the highest outdoor temperatures achievable, very little creep was seen because of their high viscosity, temperature heterogeneity across the modules, and in the case of the crystalline-silicon modules, the physical restraint of the backsheet. These findings have very important implications for the development of IEC and UL qualification and safety standards, and in regards to the necessary level of cure during the processing of crosslinking encapsulants.

  18. Rapid Decisions From Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zeigenfuse, Matthew D.; Pleskac, Timothy J.; Liu, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    In many everyday decisions, people quickly integrate noisy samples of information to form a preference among alternatives that offer uncertain rewards. Here, we investigated this decision process using the Flash Gambling Task (FGT), in which participants made a series of choices between a certain payoff and an uncertain alternative that produced a normal distribution of payoffs. For each choice, participants experienced the distribution of payoffs via rapid samples updated every 50 ms. We show that people can make these rapid decisions from experience and that the decision process is consistent with a sequential sampling process. Results also reveal a dissociation between these preferential decisions and equivalent perceptual decisions where participants had to determine which alternatives contained more dots on average. To account for this dissociation, we developed a sequential sampling rank-dependent utility model, which showed that participants in the FGT attended more to larger potential payoffs than participants in the perceptual task despite being given equivalent information. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of computational models of preferential choice and a more complete understanding of experience-based decision making. PMID:24549141

  19. Advances in rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, C. L.; McCarty, G. D.; Pardo, B. T.; Bryce, E. A.

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System's QuickCast(trademark) resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast(trademark) resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable first article and small lot size production parts. They use the selective laser sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  20. Surface modulation of dental hard tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantbirojn, Daranee

    Tooth surfaces play a central role in the equilibrium of dental hard tissues, in which contrasting processes lead to loss or deposition of materials. The central interest of this Thesis was the modulation of tooth surfaces to control such equilibrium. Four specific studies were carried out to investigate different classes of surface modulating agents. These are: (1) Ionic modulation of the enamel surface to enhance stain removal . Dental stain is the most apparent form of tooth surface deposit. The nature of extrinsic stain in terms of spatial chemical composition was studied by using electron probe microanalysis. An ionic surface modulating agent, sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), was evaluated. Image analysis methodologies were developed and the ability of STPP in stain removal was proved. (2) Thin film modulation with substantive polymeric coating and the effect on in vitro enamel de/re-mineralization . A novel polymeric coating that formed a thin film on the tooth surface was investigated for its inhibitory effect on artificial enamel caries, without interfering with the remineralization process. The preventive effect was distinct, but the mineral redeposition was questionable. (3) Thick film modulation with fluoride containing sealants and the effect on in vitro enamel and root caries development. Fluoride incorporated into resin material is an example of combining different classes of surface modulating agents to achieve an optimal outcome. A proper combination, such as in resin modified glass ionomer, showed in vitro caries inhibitory effect beyond the material boundary in both enamel and dentin. (4) Thick film modulation with dental adhesives and the determination of adhesion to dentin. Dentin adhesives modulate intracoronal tooth surfaces by enhancing adhesion to restorative materials. Conventional nominal bond tests were inadequate to determine the performance of current high strength adhesives. It was shown that interfacial fracture toughness test was more

  1. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Sekar, Santhosh; Murugan, Thamaraiselvan

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11), omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb) inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α) are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties. PMID:23066265

  2. Photovoltaic module performance and durability following long-term field exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Ellibee, D.E.; Hansen, B.R.; King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Quintana, M.A.

    1998-09-08

    Our investigations of both new and field-aged photovoltaic modules have indicated that, in general, today's commercially available modules area highly reliable product. However, by using new test procedures, subtle failure mechanisms have also been identified that must be addressed in order to achieve 30-year module lifetimes. This paper summarizes diagnostic test procedures, results, and implications of in-depth investigations of the performance and durability characteristics of commercial modules after long-term field exposure. A collaborative effort with U.S. module manufacturers aimed at achieving 30-year module lifetimes is also described.

  3. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic separations with a microfabricated thermal modulator.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Gustavo; Paul, Dibyadeep; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Zellers, Edward T

    2012-08-21

    Rapid, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic (GC × GC) separations by use of a microfabricated midpoint thermal modulator (μTM) are demonstrated, and the effects of various μTM design and operating parameters on performance are characterized. The two-stage μTM chip consists of two interconnected spiral etched-Si microchannels (4.2 and 2.8 cm long) with a cross section of 250 × 140 μm(2), an anodically bonded Pyrex cap, and a cross-linked wall coating of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Integrated heaters provide rapid, sequential heating of each μTM stage, while a proximate, underlying thermoelectric cooler provides continual cooling. The first-dimension column used for GC × GC separations was a 6 m long, 250 μm i.d. capillary with a PDMS stationary phase, and the second-dimension column was a 0.5 m long, 100 μm i.d. capillary with a poly(ethylene glycol) phase. Using sets of five to seven volatile test compounds (boiling point ≤174 °C), the effects of the minimum (T(min)) and maximum (T(max)) modulation temperature, stage heating lag/offset (O(s)), modulation period (P(M)), and volumetric flow rate (F) on the quality of the separations were evaluated with respect to several performance metrics. Best results were obtained with a T(min) = -20 °C, T(max) = 210 °C, O(s) = 600 ms, P(M) = 6 s, and F = 0.9 mL/min. Replicate modulated peak areas and retention times were reproducible to <5%. A structured nine-component GC × GC chromatogram was produced, and a 21 component separation was achieved in <3 min. The potential for creating portable μGC × μGC systems is discussed.

  4. High-speed coherent silicon modulator module using photonic integrated circuits: from circuit design to packaged module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé, S.; Olivier, S.; Myko, A.; Fournier, M.; Blampey, B.; Abraham, A.; Menezo, S.; Hauden, J.; Mottet, A.; Frigui, K.; Ngoho, S.; Frigui, B.; Bila, S.; Marris-Morini, D.; Pérez-Galacho, D.; Brindel, P.; Charlet, G.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon photonics technology is an enabler for the integration of complex circuits on a single chip, for various optical link applications such as routing, optical networks on chip, short range links and long haul transmitters. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) transmitters is one of the typical circuits that can be achieved using silicon photonics integrated circuits. The achievement of 25GBd QPSK transmitter modules requires several building blocks to be optimized: the pn junction used to build a BPSK (Binary Shift Phase Keying) modulator, the RF access and the optical interconnect at the package level. In this paper, we describe the various design steps of a BPSK module and the related tests that are needed at every stage of the fabrication process.

  5. The Effect of General Objectives Defined by Behavioral Objectives on Achievement in a College Zoology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushin, John W.; Baller, William

    1981-01-01

    Tests the effect of developmental level objectives on student achievement and efficiency in a zoology course. These objectives were found to have no significant effect on achievement, but they did significantly increase student efficiency in learning the content material of the module. (Author)

  6. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  7. Earth System Science Education Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, C.; Kaufman, C.; Humphreys, R. R.; Colgan, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    The College of Charleston is developing several new geoscience-based education modules for integration into the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA). These three new modules provide opportunities for science and pre-service education students to participate in inquiry-based, data-driven experiences. The three new modules will be discussed in this session. Coastal Crisis is a module that analyzes rapidly changing coastlines and uses technology - remotely sensed data and geographic information systems (GIS) to delineate, understand and monitor changes in coastal environments. The beaches near Charleston, SC are undergoing erosion and therefore are used as examples of rapidly changing coastlines. Students will use real data from NASA, NOAA and other federal agencies in the classroom to study coastal change. Through this case study, learners will acquire remotely sensed images and GIS data sets from online sources, utilize those data sets within Google Earth or other visualization programs, and understand what the data is telling them. Analyzing the data will allow learners to contemplate and make predictions on the impact associated with changing environmental conditions, within the context of a coastal setting. To Drill or Not To Drill is a multidisciplinary problem based module to increase students’ knowledge of problems associated with nonrenewable resource extraction. The controversial topic of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) examines whether the economic benefit of the oil extracted from ANWR is worth the social cost of the environmental damage that such extraction may inflict. By attempting to answer this question, learners must balance the interests of preservation with the economic need for oil. The learners are exposed to the difficulties associated with a real world problem that requires trade-off between environmental trust and economic well-being. The Citizen Science module challenges students to translate scientific

  8. Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Michael W.

    1997-01-01

    In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

  9. The incongruous achiever in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kline, S A; Golombek, H

    1974-06-01

    The authors wished to study some of the internal psychological dynamics of achievement in a nonpatient identified high school population. Questionnaires were administered to the Grade 13 students and their parents in a large high school. A number of students whose achievement and educational plans were not congruous with their general background were selected for interview. The findings suggest that a wide variety of ages and developmental stages can be discerned as critical points in the development of a student's attitude toward higher education. These students have many values in common, and their values appear related to a positive or negative identification with parental values. The students themselves show a wide range of personality integration. They relate in a special way to a wide variety of teachers' personalities.

  10. High-efficiency backlight module with two guiding modes.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Yi; Pan, Jui-Wen

    2014-03-10

    We propose a design for a high-efficiency backlight module that does not require a brightness enhancement film (BEF). With the high-efficiency backlight module it is possible to achieve almost the same half-luminance angle as a conventional edge-lit backlight module can achieve. The backlight system is comprised of a crisscross light guide plate (LGP) and one diffuser sheet. The crisscross LGP is composed of a LGP and optically patterned film (OPF). The backlight module allows light to be extracted through the direct guiding mode and top guiding mode, respectively. We controlled arrangement of the microstructures to increase the optical efficiency and the uniformity by two modes. Compared to the conventional edge-lit backlight module, there is a two-fold improvement in both the total optical efficiency and on-axis luminance with the high-efficiency backlight module.

  11. Beam cooling: Principles and achievements

    SciTech Connect

    Mohl, Dieter; Sessler, Andrew M.

    2003-05-18

    After a discussion of Liouville's theorem, and its implications for beam cooling, a brief description is given of each of the various methods of beam cooling: stochastic, electron, radiation, laser, ionization, etc. For each, we present the type of particle for which it is appropriate, its range of applicability, and the currently achieved degree of cooling. For each method we also discuss the present applications and, also, possible future developments and further applications.

  12. Predicting educational achievement from DNA

    PubMed Central

    Selzam, S; Krapohl, E; von Stumm, S; O'Reilly, P F; Rimfeld, K; Kovas, Y; Dale, P S; Lee, J J; Plomin, R

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide polygenic score (GPS), derived from a 2013 genome-wide association study (N=127,000), explained 2% of the variance in total years of education (EduYears). In a follow-up study (N=329,000), a new EduYears GPS explains up to 4%. Here, we tested the association between this latest EduYears GPS and educational achievement scores at ages 7, 12 and 16 in an independent sample of 5825 UK individuals. We found that EduYears GPS explained greater amounts of variance in educational achievement over time, up to 9% at age 16, accounting for 15% of the heritable variance. This is the strongest GPS prediction to date for quantitative behavioral traits. Individuals in the highest and lowest GPS septiles differed by a whole school grade at age 16. Furthermore, EduYears GPS was associated with general cognitive ability (~3.5%) and family socioeconomic status (~7%). There was no evidence of an interaction between EduYears GPS and family socioeconomic status on educational achievement or on general cognitive ability. These results are a harbinger of future widespread use of GPS to predict genetic risk and resilience in the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27431296

  13. Rapid diagnosis of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bloos, Frank; Reinhart, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Fast and appropriate therapy is the cornerstone in the therapy of sepsis. However, the discrimination of sepsis from non-infectious causes of inflammation may be difficult. Biomarkers have been suggested to aid physicians in this decision. There is currently no biochemical technique available which alone allows a rapid and reliable discrimination between sepsis and non-infectious inflammation. Procalcitonin (PCT) is currently the most investigated biomarker for this purpose. C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 perform inferior to PCT in most studies and their value in diagnosing sepsis is not defined. All biomarkers including PCT are also released after various non-infectious inflammatory impacts. This shortcoming needs to be taken into account when biomarkers are used to aid the physician in the diagnosis of sepsis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based pathogen detection may improve time to adequate therapy but cannot rule out the presence of infection when negative. PMID:24335467

  14. rapidMCR

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-04

    rapidMCR is a user friendly software package that includes automatic preprocessing, analysis, and viewing of hyperspectral image data sets. Currently, this software package specifically preprocesses and analyzes hyperspectral fluorescence image data sets that have been created on Sandia hyperspectral imaging microscopes; however, this software can be modified to include spectroscopic image data sets from other (non-Sandia developed) instruments as well. This software relies on using prior information about the spectroscopic image data sets by conducting a rigorous characterization of the instrument. By characterizing the instrument for noise and artifacts, we can implement our algorithms to account for the effects specific to a particular instrument. This allows us to automate the data preprocessing while improving the analysis results.

  15. [Rapid diagnosis in serology].

    PubMed

    García-Bermejo, Isabel; de Ory, Fernando

    2017-02-06

    Serological diagnosis of acute phase infections implies the detection of IgM specific response, an effective marker of primary infection, but with less clinical significance in reactivations or reinfections. The aim of this article is to provide an updated view of the rapid diagnosis in serology by detecting the IgM isotype and reviewing its applications and limitations. Point-of-care (PoC) tests are analyzed. PoC tests are used in geographical areas where traditional tests are not available, as well as in other circumstances where their use brings the diagnosis directly to the target population. Likewise, their use reduces the response time between taking the sample and the diagnosis, making it easier to make clinical decisions. PoC assays have proven cost-effective, especially in preventing vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV infection.

  16. RAVE: Rapid Visualization Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Anderson, Kevin; Simoudis, Avangelos

    1994-01-01

    Visualization is used in the process of analyzing large, multidimensional data sets. However, the selection and creation of visualizations that are appropriate for the characteristics of a particular data set and the satisfaction of the analyst's goals is difficult. The process consists of three tasks that are performed iteratively: generate, test, and refine. The performance of these tasks requires the utilization of several types of domain knowledge that data analysts do not often have. Existing visualization systems and frameworks do not adequately support the performance of these tasks. In this paper we present the RApid Visualization Environment (RAVE), a knowledge-based system that interfaces with commercial visualization frameworks and assists a data analyst in quickly and easily generating, testing, and refining visualizations. RAVE was used for the visualization of in situ measurement data captured by spacecraft.

  17. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Mathew W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal or transverse direction at the tip, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip. Each measured change in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference signals, with each reference signal identified with a polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component. The tip preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  18. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  19. The rapid transient surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, C.; Lu, J. R.; Wright, S. A.; Tonry, J.; Tully, R. B.; Szapudi, I.; Takamiya, M.; Hunter, L.; Riddle, R.; Chen, S.; Chun, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of 4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z < 0.1 universe. RTS will comprise an upgraded version of the Robo-AO laser AO system and will respond quickly to target-of-opportunity events, minimizing the time between discovery and characterization. RTS will acquire simultaneous-multicolor images with an acuity of 0.07-0.10" across the entire visible spectrum (20% i'-band Strehl in median conditions) and <0.16" in the near infrared, and will detect companions at 0.5" at contrast ratio of 500. The system will include a high-efficiency prism integral field unit spectrograph: R = 70-140 over a total bandpass of 840-1830nm with an 8.7" by 6.0" field of view (0.15" spaxels). The AO correction boosts the infrared point-source sensitivity of the spectrograph against the sky background by a factor of seven for faint targets, giving the UH 2.2-m the H-band sensitivity of a 5.7-m telescope without AO.

  20. Advances in rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{trademark} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{trademark} resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable firs article and small lots size production parts. They use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  1. Modulating Concentration Of Hydrazine Vapor To Aid Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetter, Joseph R.; Maclay, G. Jordan

    1992-01-01

    Three techniques, flow modulation, filament modulation, and reactive-filter modulation developed to obtain selective response to hydrazine or to methyl hydrazines from photoionization detector. Implemented in portable selective hydrazine detectors, useful where continuous or rapid, repetitive quantitative measurements of concentrations of vapors of these toxic substances required. Measure concentration of gaseous hydrazines in presence of other gases like cyclohexane, chlorofluorocarbons, and ammonia. Produce modulated signal, amplitude and phase indicating amount of hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, or 1,1-dimethyl hydrazine present in mixture. Used with such other detectors as electrochemical cells.

  2. A paradigm shift in enteric coating: achieving rapid release in the proximal small intestine of man.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Basit, Abdul W

    2010-10-15

    The in vivo performance of a novel enteric double-coating technology designed to accelerate release in the proximal small intestine of humans was investigated. Tablet cores were coated with a double layer formulation consisting of an inner layer of EUDRAGIT L 30 D-55 neutralised to pH 6.0 in the presence of 10% citric acid, and an outer layer of standard EUDRAGIT L 30 D-55. A conventional single coating of EUDRAGIT L 30 D-55 was also applied to tablets for comparison purposes, with the identical coating formulation and thickness (5mg/cm(2)) as the outer layer of the double coating. Eight fasted volunteers received the double-coated and single-coated tablets in a two-way crossover study. The formulations were radiolabelled and followed by gamma scintigraphy; the disintegration times and positions were recorded. After leaving the stomach, tablets coated with the single-coating formulation showed a significant time delay before disintegration occurred in the mid to distal small intestine, with a mean disintegration time of 66 ± 22 min post gastric emptying. The double-coated tablets disintegrated earlier at 28 ± 6min post gastric emptying with consistent disintegration in the proximal small intestine. The accelerated in vivo disintegration of the double-coating system can overcome the limitations of conventional enteric coatings.

  3. The Rapid Integration and Test Environment: A Process for Achieving Software Test Acceptance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center...Command and Control System (GCCS) Maritime and Navy version of GCCS-Joint programs. An Engineering Duty Officer, he has served five tours at the Space...and Naval Warfare Systems Command (SPAWAR): Technical Director for the DoD’s Joint Simulation System – Maritime component; Flag Aide for Commander

  4. Wideband Linear Phase Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Mueller, Robert O.

    1994-01-01

    Phase modulator for transmission in X band provides large phase deviation that remains nearly linear with voltage over relatively wide range. Operates with low loss over wide frequency band and with stable characteristics over wide temperature range. Phase modulator contains two varactor-diode phase shifters coupled via circulators. Separate drive circuit applies modulating voltages to varactor diodes. Modulation voltages vary in accordance with input to drive circuit.

  5. The Lunar CELSS Test Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, Alexander; Gomez, Shawn; Luttges, Marvin W.

    1992-01-01

    The evolutionarily-developed Lunar Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Module presented can address questions concerning long-term human presence-related issues both at LEO and in the lunar environment. By achieving well-defined research goals at each of numerous developmental stages (each economically modest), easily justifiable operations can be undertaken. Attention is given to the possibility of maximizing non-NASA involvement in these CELSS developmental efforts via the careful definability and modest risk of each developmental stage.

  6. [Modulating marine ecosystem by marine viruses--a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Bai, Shijie; Cai, Wenwei; Zheng, Tianling

    2009-05-01

    Marine viruses play great roles in the marine ecological system such as modulating the biodiversity and species population, regulating the nutrient cycling, intervening gene transfer and influencing climate changes. Recent research achievements on marine viruses were reviewed in this paper. We focused on the modulating role of marine viruses in marine ecosystem and discussed future research perspectives.

  7. Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect based on dynamic modulation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kejie; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-04-13

    We show that when the refractive index of a photonic system is harmonically modulated, the phase of the modulation introduces an effective gauge potential for photons. This effective gauge potential can be used to create a photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. We show that the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect provides the optimal mechanism for achieving complete on-chip nonmagnetic optical isolation.

  8. Cross-Functional Globalization Modules: A Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Kathryn T.; Das, Jayoti; Synn, Wonhi J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-functional international teaching modules. The modules presented in this paper are intended to assist higher education institutions in initiating and implementing the first level of internationalization of the business school curriculum. Although the focus is on achieving a level of global awareness,…

  9. Modulating lignin in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  10. Temporal Aperture Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The two types of modulation techniques useful to X-ray imaging are reviewed. The use of optimum coded temporal aperature modulation is shown, in certain cases, to offer an advantage over a spatial aperture modulator. Example applications of a diffuse anisotropic X-ray background experiment and a wide field of view hard X-ray imager are discussed.

  11. Curriculum Development: Cultural Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John C.

    1978-01-01

    Language and cultural modules are multimedia in nature and non-sequential. Modules should be used in association with the themes and vocabulary found in the main course textbook. Reference is made to the "A-LM German Language Programs" and modules produced by Ontario German teachers in 1976 in West Germany. (SW)

  12. Rescue Manual. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The fifth of 10 modules contains information on hazardous materials. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, the module contains a Department of Transportation guide chart on…

  13. Integrating Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Provides an overview of the complete National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  14. The Use of Uas for Rapid 3d Mapping in Geomatics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tee-Ann; Tian-Yuan Shih, Peter; Yu, Sz-Cheng; Tsai, Fuan

    2016-06-01

    With the development of technology, UAS is an advance technology to support rapid mapping for disaster response. The aim of this study is to develop educational modules for UAS data processing in rapid 3D mapping. The designed modules for this study are focused on UAV data processing from available freeware or trial software for education purpose. The key modules include orientation modelling, 3D point clouds generation, image georeferencing and visualization. The orientation modelling modules adopts VisualSFM to determine the projection matrix for each image station. Besides, the approximate ground control points are measured from OpenStreetMap for absolute orientation. The second module uses SURE and the orientation files from previous module for 3D point clouds generation. Then, the ground point selection and digital terrain model generation can be archived by LAStools. The third module stitches individual rectified images into a mosaic image using Microsoft ICE (Image Composite Editor). The last module visualizes and measures the generated dense point clouds in CloudCompare. These comprehensive UAS processing modules allow the students to gain the skills to process and deliver UAS photogrammetric products in rapid 3D mapping. Moreover, they can also apply the photogrammetric products for analysis in practice.

  15. Automatic Production Planning System to Achieve Flexible Direct Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Keiichi; Shirase, Keiichi; Wakamatsu, Hidefumi; Tsumaya, Akira; Arai, Eiji

    For shortening of production lead-time, it is needed to eliminate time and efforts for process and operation planning after product design. However, a conventional NC machine tool has no autonomy and intelligence to achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing”. Because CL data and cutting parameters for machining operation have to be determined precisely in process and operation planning. In this study, in order to realize an autonomous and intelligent machine tool, the digital copy milling system which allows to generate tool paths during machining operation, and the trouble free machining strategy which allows to adapt cutting parameters, have been developed. And, an automatic process and operation planning system has been developed to integrate with the functions mentioned. This planning system works on commercial CAD software, and a prototype of autonomous and intelligent machine tool can achieve direct machining operation or “Rapid Manufacturing” which does not require any effort to prepare an NC program.

  16. Optimal design of reverse osmosis module networks

    SciTech Connect

    Maskan, F.; Wiley, D.E.; Johnston, L.P.M.; Clements, D.J.

    2000-05-01

    The structure of individual reverse osmosis modules, the configuration of the module network, and the operating conditions were optimized for seawater and brackish water desalination. The system model included simple mathematical equations to predict the performance of the reverse osmosis modules. The optimization problem was formulated as a constrained multivariable nonlinear optimization. The objective function was the annual profit for the system, consisting of the profit obtained from the permeate, capital cost for the process units, and operating costs associated with energy consumption and maintenance. Optimization of several dual-stage reverse osmosis systems were investigated and compared. It was found that optimal network designs are the ones that produce the most permeate. It may be possible to achieve economic improvements by refining current membrane module designs and their operating pressures.

  17. Neural bases of rapid word learning.

    PubMed

    Shtyrov, Yury

    2012-08-01

    Humans are unique in developing large lexicons as their communication tool; to achieve this, they are able to learn new words rapidly. However, neural bases of this rapid learning, which may be an expression of a more general cognitive mechanism likely rooted in plasticity at cellular and synaptic levels, are not yet understood. In this update, the author highlights a selection of recent studies that attempted to trace word learning in the human brain noninvasively. A number of brain areas, most notably in hippocampus and neocortex, appear to take part in word acquisition. Critically, the currently available data not only demonstrate the hippocampal role in rapid encoding followed by slow-rate consolidation of cortical word memory traces but also suggest immediate neocortical involvement in the word memory trace formation. Echoing early behavioral studies in ultra-rapid word learning, the reviewed neuroimaging experiments can be taken to suggest that our brain may effectively form new cortical circuits online, as it gets exposed to novel linguistic patterns in the sensory input.

  18. Observation of Infrared Free-Induction Decay and Optical Nutation Signals from Nitrous Oxide Using a Current Modulated Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Duxbury, Geoffrey; Kelly, James F.; Blake, Thomas A.; Langford, Nigel

    2012-05-07

    Free induction decay (FID), optical nutation and rapid passage induced (RP) signals in nitrous oxide, under both optically thin and optically thick conditions, have been observed using a rapid current pulse modulation, or chirp, applied to the slow current ramp of a quantum cascade (QC) laser. The variation in optical depth was achieved by increasing the pressure of nitrous oxide in a long pathlength multipass absorption cell. This allows the variation of optical depth to be achieved over a range of low gas pressures. Since, even at the highest gas pressure used in the cell, the chirp rate of the QC laser is faster than the collisional reorientation time of the molecules, there is minimal collisional damping, allowing a large macroscopic polarization of the molecular dipoles to develop. This is referred to as rapid passage induced gain. The resultant FID signals are enhanced due to the constructive interference between the field within the gas generated by the slow ramp of the laser (pump), and the fast chirp of the laser (probe) signal generated by pulse modulation of the continuously operating QC laser. The FID signals obtained at large 2 optical depth have not been observed previously in the mid-infrared regions, and unusual oscillatory signals have been observed at the highest gas pressures used.

  19. The Flexibility of Emotional Attention: Accessible Social Identities Guide Rapid Attentional Orienting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosch, Tobias; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2012-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that emotional--especially threatening--stimuli rapidly capture attention. These findings are often explained in terms of a hard-wired and relatively inflexible fear module. We propose an alternative, more flexible mechanism, arguing that motivational relevance is the crucial factor driving rapid attentional orienting.…

  20. Superconductivity and magnetism in rapidly solidified perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    O'Handley, R.C.; Kalonji, G.

    1991-01-01

    The report is divided into six parts, reflecting major thrusts of our work since 1987. The six areas are: molecular orbital theory of high {Tc} superconductivity; rapid solidification processing of oxide superconductors; time dependent magnetic and superconducting properties of these inhomogeneous materials; excess Gd in Gd{sub 1+x}Ba{sub 2-x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} perovskites; rapid solidification and directional annealing to achieve high Jc; and Mossbauer studies of T = Fe, Co and Ni site selection in YBa{sub 2}(CuT){sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} and GdBa{sub 2}(CuT){sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}.

  1. Building a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  2. Spatial Light Amplifier Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Sverre T.; Olsson, N. Anders

    1992-01-01

    Spatial light amplifier modulators (SLAM's) are conceptual devices that effect two-dimensional spatial modulation in optical computing and communication systems. Unlike current spatial light modulators, these provide gain. Optical processors incorporating SLAM's designed to operate in reflection or transmission mode. Each element of planar SLAM array is optical amplifier - surface-emitting diode laser. Array addressed electrically with ac modulating signals superimposed on dc bias currents supplied to lasers. SLAM device provides both desired modulation and enough optical gain to enable splitting of output signal into many optical fibers without excessive loss of power.

  3. Small modulation ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ducharme, Stephen P. (Inventor); El Hajj, Hassanayn M. (Inventor); Johs, Blaine D. (Inventor); Woollam, John A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In an ellipsometer, a phase-modulated, polarized light beam is applied to a sample, electrical signals are obtained representing the orthogonal planes of polarization of the light after it has interacted with the sample and the constants of the sample are calculated from the two resulting electrical signals. The phase modulation is sufficiently small so that the calibration errors are negligible. For this purpose, the phase modulator phase modulates the light within a range of no more than ten degrees modulations peak to peak. The two electrical signals are expanded by Fourier analysis and the coefficients thereof utilized to calculate psi and delta.

  4. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  5. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency.

  6. An automated robotic platform for rapid profiling oligosaccharide analysis of monoclonal antibodies directly from cell culture.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Margaret; Bones, Jonathan; McLoughlin, Niaobh; Telford, Jayne E; Harmon, Bryan; DeFelippis, Michael R; Rudd, Pauline M

    2013-11-01

    Oligosaccharides attached to Asn297 in each of the CH2 domains of monoclonal antibodies play an important role in antibody effector functions by modulating the affinity of interaction with Fc receptors displayed on cells of the innate immune system. Rapid, detailed, and quantitative N-glycan analysis is required at all stages of bioprocess development to ensure the safety and efficacy of the therapeutic. The high sample numbers generated during quality by design (QbD) and process analytical technology (PAT) create a demand for high-performance, high-throughput analytical technologies for comprehensive oligosaccharide analysis. We have developed an automated 96-well plate-based sample preparation platform for high-throughput N-glycan analysis using a liquid handling robotic system. Complete process automation includes monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification directly from bioreactor media, glycan release, fluorescent labeling, purification, and subsequent ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis. The entire sample preparation and commencement of analysis is achieved within a 5-h timeframe. The automated sample preparation platform can easily be interfaced with other downstream analytical technologies, including mass spectrometry (MS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE), for rapid characterization of oligosaccharides present on therapeutic antibodies.

  7. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  8. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  9. Rapid production of polymer microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Pratapkumar

    The goal of this research is to develop an integrated polymer embossing module, with which difficult-to-emboss polymer microstructures and microparts can be fabricated in a cost-effective manner. In particular, the research addresses three major limitations of the hot embossing process, namely, long cycle time, difficulty in producing shell patterns, and difficulty in building up a high embossing pressure on thick substrates. To overcome these limitations, three new technical approaches - two-station embossing, rubber-assisted embossing, and through-thickness embossing - were developed and investigated. Fundamental understanding of these new embossing techniques were achieved through extensive experimental and theoretical studies involving parametric experiments, rheological characterization, surface investigation, mathematical modeling, and computer simulation. A two-station embossing process was developed to reduce the hot embossing cycle time, accomplished by decoupling the heating and cooling stations. For this purpose, the standard hot embossing mold was replaced by a shell type mold, and separate hot and cold stations were used to selectively heat and cool the shell mold during the process. With this method, microlens arrays and micro channels were fabricated onto ABS and HDPE substrates with a cycle time of approximately 10 s. Numerical simulations were performed to study the effect of different design parameters, including thermal contact resistance, shell material and shell thickness, on the thermal response at the mold surface. Furthermore, the polymer flow during the two-station embossing process for the microlens was numerically studied. The simulated filling behavior agreed with the experimental observation, and the predicted thermal and deformation history of the polymer offers a good explanation on the experimentally observed process characteristics. The second technique, rubber-assisted embossing, involving a rubber pad as a soft counter tool, was

  10. Rapid DOTS expansion in India.

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, G. R.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Since late 1998 the coverage of the DOTS strategy in India has been expanded rapidly. In both 2000 and 2001 the country probably accounted for more than half the global increase in the number of patients treated under DOTS and by early 2002 more than a million patients were being treated in this way in India. As a result, nearly 200 000 lives were saved. The lessons learnt relate to the importance of the following elements of the programme: (1) getting the science right and ensuring technical excellence; (2) building commitment and ensuring the provision of funds and flexibility in their utilization; (3) maintaining focus and priorities; (4) systematically appraising each area before starting service delivery; (5) ensuring an uninterrupted drug supply; (6) strengthening the established infrastructure and providing support for staff; (7) supporting the infrastructure required in urban areas; (8) ensuring full-time independent technical support and supervision, particularly during the initial phases of implementation; (9) monitoring intensively and giving timely feedback; and (10) continuous supervision. Tuberculosis (TB) control still faces major challenges in India. To reach its potential, the control programme needs to: continue to expand so as to cover the remaining half of the country, much of which has a weaker health infrastructure than the areas already covered; increase its reach in the areas already covered so that a greater proportion of patients is treated; ensure sustainability; improve the patient-friendliness of services; confront TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is expected that HIV will increase the number of TB cases by at least 10% and by a considerably higher percentage if HIV becomes much more widespread. India's experience shows that DOTS can achieve high case-detection and cure rates even with imperfect technology and often with an inadequate public health infrastructure. However, this can only happen if the

  11. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  12. Hermetic diode laser transmitter module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollila, Jyrki; Kautio, Kari; Vahakangas, Jouko; Hannula, Tapio; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Jorma; Sivonen, Matti

    1999-04-01

    In very demanding optoelectronic sensor applications it is necessary to encapsulate semiconductor components hermetically in metal housings to ensure reliable operation of the sensor. In this paper we report on the development work to package a laser diode transmitter module for a time- off-light distance sensor application. The module consists of a lens, laser diode, electronic circuit and optomechanics. Specifications include high acceleration, -40....+75 degree(s)C temperature range, very low gas leakage and mass-production capability. We have applied solder glasses for sealing optical lenses and electrical leads hermetically into a metal case. The lens-metal case sealing has been made by using a special soldering glass preform preserving the optical quality of the lens. The metal housings are finally sealed in an inert atmosphere by welding. The assembly concept to retain excellent optical power and tight optical axis alignment specifications is described. The reliability of the laser modules manufactured has been extensively tested using different aging and environmental test procedures. Sealed packages achieve MIL- 883 standard requirements for gas leakage.

  13. Rapid laser prototyping of plasmonic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, C.; Kiyan, R.; Passinger, S.; Stepanov, A. L.; Ostendorf, A.; Chichkov, B. N.

    2007-11-01

    Renewed and growing interest in the field of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) comes from a rapid advance of nanostructuring technologies. In this paper, we will report on the application of two-photon polymerization (2PP) technique for the fabrication of dielectric SPP-structures, which can be used for localization, guiding, and manipulation of SPPs on a subwavelength scale. This technology is based on nonlinear absorption of near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses. Resolutions down to 100 nm (and even better) are already achievable. Characterization of these structures is performed by leakage radiation microscopy. 2PP allows the fabrication of dielectric waveguides, splitters, and couplers directly on metal surfaces. The dielectric structures on metal films are demonstrated to be very efficient for the excitation of SPPs. Using these structures, one can achieve excitation and focusing of the resulting plasmon field.

  14. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  15. Possibilities for intensity-modulated brachytherapy: technical limitations on the use of non-isotropic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, M. A.

    2002-07-01

    An investigation was undertaken into possible dose conformity advantages and technical limitations of utilizing radially asymmetric internally applied radiation sources for intensity-modulated brachytherapy (IMBT). A feasible form of a source for IMBT would be a linear source with a high-intensity angular region, with some fractional transmission through the remainder of the source, which inhibits the resolution achievable in intensity modulation. Indexed rotation of the source about its axis would provide radial intensity modulation, which could compensate for variations in the spatial relationship between the source position and location of the target edge. Two treatment situations were simulated - one two-dimensional and one three-dimensional - both utilizing a single source (single catheter). The optimal intensity distribution of the source was determined by simulated annealing optimization using a conformality-based objective. The parameters in the optimization included the angular size of the source high-intensity region, and the fractional transmission through the low-intensity part of the source. Results indicate that limitations in source design suggest an optimal high-intensity resolution of approximately π/4 to π/8. The advantages of IMBT are rapidly reduced when fractional transmission through the low-intensity side of the source is increased.

  16. The effects of chronic achievement motivation and achievement primes on the activation of achievement and fun goals.

    PubMed

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-12-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.

  17. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  18. Rapid Trimming of Cell Surface Polysialic Acid (PolySia) by Exovesicular Sialidase Triggers Release of Preexisting Surface Neurotrophin.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Mizuki; Hane, Masaya; Yabe, Uichiro; Shimoda, Yasushi; Pearce, Oliver M T; Kiso, Makoto; Miyagi, Taeko; Sawada, Makoto; Varki, Ajit; Kitajima, Ken; Sato, Chihiro

    2015-05-22

    As acidic glycocalyx on primary mouse microglial cells and a mouse microglial cell line Ra2, expression of polysialic acid (polySia/PSA), a polymer of the sialic acid Neu5Ac (N-acetylneuraminic acid), was demonstrated. PolySia is known to modulate cell adhesion, migration, and localization of neurotrophins mainly on neural cells. PolySia on Ra2 cells disappeared very rapidly after an inflammatory stimulus. Results of knockdown and inhibitor studies indicated that rapid surface clearance of polySia was achieved by secretion of endogenous sialidase Neu1 as an exovesicular component. Neu1-mediated polySia turnover was accompanied by the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor normally retained by polySia molecules. Introduction of a single oxygen atom change into polySia by exogenous feeding of the non-neural sialic acid Neu5Gc (N-glycolylneuraminic acid) caused resistance to Neu1-induced polySia turnover and also inhibited the associated release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. These results indicate the importance of rapid turnover of the polySia glycocalyx by exovesicular sialidases in neurotrophin regulation.

  19. Fabrication of metal mirror modules for snap-together VIS telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, Matthias; Hartung, Johannes; Kinast, Jan; Gebhardt, Andreas; Burmeister, Frank; Zeitner, Uwe D.; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The assembly effort of an optical system naturally relies on the degrees of freedom and the maximum allowable tolerances each optical surface introduces into the overall budget. Snap-together approaches traditionally can be regarded as attractive solutions for IR systems having moderate tolerances, where the required precision is achieved by simultaneously machining optical surfaces and mounting interfaces in a single machine setup. Recent improvements in manufacturing and metrology enable a transfer of the assembly approach to shorter wavelength applications, where sub-aperture figuring techniques are used in combination with suitable amorphous polishing layers to achieve the increased requirements on figure and finish. A further decrease of the assembly effort is gained by machining several optical surfaces on common mechanical substrates and fixing the relative position with uncertainties as low as the machine precision. The article presents the fabrication of large electroless nickel coated aluminum mirror modules having two functional freeform surfaces and references for metrology and system integration. The modules are part of an all metal anamorphic imaging telescope operating in the visual spectral range. Presented methods open up a rapid and reliable assembly of metal mirror based VIS telescopes to be used in ground and space based astronomy or remote sensing applications.

  20. Modulation of the partition coefficient between octanol and buffer at pH 7.4 and pKa to achieve the optimum balance of blood clearance and volume of distribution for a series of tetrahydropyran histamine type 3 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hay, Tanya; Jones, Rhys; Beaumont, Kevin; Kemp, Mark

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between rat pharmacokinetics and physicochemical parameters [the partition coefficient between octanol and buffer at pH 7.4 (log D((7.4))) and pK(a)] was studied for a series of tetrahydropyran compounds. Sixteen compounds ranging in log D((7.4)) 0.1 to 1.8 were administered intravenously to rats, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from blood concentration time curves. Across the series, a weak correlation was observed between log D((7.4)) and blood clearance, suggesting that log D((7.4)) values less than 0.5 were required to prevent clearance at hepatic blood flow. In terms of the volume of distribution (V(d)), the compounds fell into three distinct subseries characterized by the number of basic centers and differences in ionization of each basic center at physiological pH. These were referred to as the monobasic, weak second base, and strong second base subseries. All the compounds exhibited V(d) greater than body water, as would be expected from their lipophilic and basic nature. For a given clog P, the strong second base subseries showed higher V(d) than the weak second base subseries, which in turn exhibited higher values than the monobasic subseries. In addition, for the weak second base subseries, V(d) could be tuned by modulating the pK(a) of the second basic center. This relationship was rationalized in respect to the interactions of the ionizable centers with phospholipid heads in the cell membrane and/or lysosomal trapping. Compounds in the weak second base subseries showed optimal V(d), and when combined with a log D((7.4)) of 0.1, driving to moderate blood clearance, one compound showed the optimal pharmacokinetic profile.

  1. Rapid Measurement of Individual Cone Photoreceptor Pointing using Focus Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Hugh J.; Codona, Johanan L.; Blanco, Leonardo; Doble, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    A novel method is presented to rapidly measure the pointing direction of individual human cone photoreceptors using adaptive optics (AO) retinal imaging. For a fixed entrance pupil position, the focal plane is rapidly modulated to image the guided light in various axial planes. For cones with different pointing directions, this focus diversity will cause a shift in their apparent position, allowing for their relative pointing to be determined. For four normal human subjects, retinal images were acquired, registered and the positions of individual cones tracked throughout the dataset. Variation in cone tilt was 0.02 radians, agreeing with other objective measurements on the same subjects at the same retinal locations. PMID:26368692

  2. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  3. Rapid prototyping of an advanced motion controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. S.

    This paper illustrates how, using existing research material, an advanced motion control system was developed both rapidly and economically. The paper emphasizes the approach used to put the system together, rather than the results of the evaluation (which is still under way). The system consists of a field-oriented controlled (FOC) induction motor, along with a pulse-population modulated current motor drive. Specific areas addressed in this paper include: a thorough overview of the technologies involved in the project (with emphasis on FOC theory); use of advanced simulation tools and models to aid in system design and debug; use of existing systems wherever possible to help speed up development; and developing the system in an environment suited to true development work.

  4. Rapidly Moving Divertor Plates In A Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    S. Zweben

    2011-05-16

    It may be possible to replace conventional actively cooled tokamak divertor plates with a set of rapidly moving, passively cooled divertor plates on rails. These plates would absorb the plasma heat flux with their thermal inertia for ~10-30 sec, and would then be removed from the vessel for processing. When outside the tokamak, these plates could be cooled, cleaned, recoated, inspected, and then returned to the vessel in an automated loop. This scheme could provide nearoptimal divertor surfaces at all times, and avoid the need to stop machine operation for repair of damaged or eroded plates. We describe various possible divertor plate designs and access geometries, and discuss an initial design for a movable and removable divertor module for NSTX-U.

  5. WIST: toolkit for rapid, customized LIMS development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y. Wayne; Arkin, Adam P.; Chandonia, John-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Workflow Information Storage Toolkit (WIST) is a set of application programming interfaces and web applications that allow for the rapid development of customized laboratory information management systems (LIMS). WIST provides common LIMS input components, and allows them to be arranged and configured using a flexible language that specifies each component's visual and semantic characteristics. WIST includes a complete set of web applications for adding, editing and viewing data, as well as a powerful setup tool that can build new LIMS modules by analyzing existing database schema. Availability and implementation: WIST is implemented in Perl and may be obtained from http://vimss.sf.net under the BSD license. Contact: jmchandonia@lbl.gov Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21258060

  6. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, H.; Berg, J. S.

    2015-05-03

    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  7. Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Robinson, Ian K

    2016-11-18

    Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single-diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit wave. This coherent modulation imaging method removes inherent ambiguities of coherent diffraction imaging and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works for extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. Coherent modulation imaging provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers.

  8. Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-01-01

    Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single-diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit wave. This coherent modulation imaging method removes inherent ambiguities of coherent diffraction imaging and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works for extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. Coherent modulation imaging provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers. PMID:27857061

  9. Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-11-01

    Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single-diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit wave. This coherent modulation imaging method removes inherent ambiguities of coherent diffraction imaging and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works for extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. Coherent modulation imaging provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers.

  10. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  11. Rapid mimicry and emotional contagion in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Nicotra, Velia; Cordoni, Giada

    2015-12-01

    Emotional contagion is a basic form of empathy that makes individuals able to experience others' emotions. In human and non-human primates, emotional contagion can be linked to facial mimicry, an automatic and fast response (less than 1 s) in which individuals involuntary mimic others' expressions. Here, we tested whether body (play bow, PBOW) and facial (relaxed open-mouth, ROM) rapid mimicry is present in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) during dyadic intraspecific play. During their free playful interactions, dogs showed a stronger and rapid mimicry response (less than 1 s) after perceiving PBOW and ROM (two signals typical of play in dogs) than after perceiving JUMP and BITE (two play patterns resembling PBOW and ROM in motor performance). Playful sessions punctuated by rapid mimicry lasted longer that those sessions punctuated only by signals. Moreover, the distribution of rapid mimicry was strongly affected by the familiarity linking the subjects involved: the stronger the social bonding, the higher the level of rapid mimicry. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the presence of rapid mimicry in dogs, the involvement of mimicry in sharing playful motivation and the social modulation of the phenomenon. All these findings concur in supporting the idea that a possible linkage between rapid mimicry and emotional contagion (a building-block of empathy) exists in dogs.

  12. Rapid mimicry and emotional contagion in domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Nicotra, Velia; Cordoni, Giada

    2015-01-01

    Emotional contagion is a basic form of empathy that makes individuals able to experience others’ emotions. In human and non-human primates, emotional contagion can be linked to facial mimicry, an automatic and fast response (less than 1 s) in which individuals involuntary mimic others’ expressions. Here, we tested whether body (play bow, PBOW) and facial (relaxed open-mouth, ROM) rapid mimicry is present in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) during dyadic intraspecific play. During their free playful interactions, dogs showed a stronger and rapid mimicry response (less than 1 s) after perceiving PBOW and ROM (two signals typical of play in dogs) than after perceiving JUMP and BITE (two play patterns resembling PBOW and ROM in motor performance). Playful sessions punctuated by rapid mimicry lasted longer that those sessions punctuated only by signals. Moreover, the distribution of rapid mimicry was strongly affected by the familiarity linking the subjects involved: the stronger the social bonding, the higher the level of rapid mimicry. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the presence of rapid mimicry in dogs, the involvement of mimicry in sharing playful motivation and the social modulation of the phenomenon. All these findings concur in supporting the idea that a possible linkage between rapid mimicry and emotional contagion (a building-block of empathy) exists in dogs. PMID:27019737

  13. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  14. Flammability of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Lewis, K. J.; Arnett, J. C.

    A series of Class B burning-brand tests were performed on experimental modules using high-temperature, back-surface materials to develop the technology base required to construct fire-ratable modules. Results indicate the existence of synergistic relationships between hydrocarbon encapsulation materials and the experimental module configurations that provide increased fire resistance. These configurations use Kapton, fiberglass, neoprene rubber, stainless-steel foil or aluminum foil as the back surface. Successful test results occur when the structural integrity of the module back surface is maintained. Test failures of these modules always occur for one of three reasons: the outermost back cover melts, rips, or is too porous. In each case flammable molten encapsulant, its gaseous byproducts, or both, penetrates the back surface of the module and bursts into flame. Future efforts to complete the technology base will concentrate on the spread-of-flame test, focusing on the more promising configurations identified in the initial series of tests.

  15. Competency-Based Achievement System

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N.; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents’ competence in “soft” skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. Objective of program To develop a method to assess residents’ competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. Program description The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents’ knowledge of and competence in important skills. Conclusion By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence. PMID:21918129

  16. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees

    PubMed Central

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F.; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010–July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502

  17. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research.

  18. THERMOELECTRIC POWER MODULES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    During this reporting period the four thermo electric power modules which were put on life test completed 2000 hours of unattended operation. A hot...junction temperature of 800 C was main tained. During this time period satisfactory performance of the modules was observed and the test is continuing...Two additional modules were started on a cycled life test , one hour on and one and one half hours off for an eight hour period, and continuous

  19. Telemetry remote modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A fully operational engineering telemetry remote module is reported that forms the basis for a decentralized telemetry system which employs small low powered modules capable of distributing the multiplexer input gates around a spacecraft. The module operates mainly as a harness reducer, allowing data to be transmitted back to a central control core for inclusion in the telemetry bit stream. Each unit is capable of accepting 32 data points in various combinations.

  20. Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Born, N.; Scheller, M.; Moloney, J. V.; Koch, M.

    2014-03-10

    We present a versatile concept for all optical terahertz (THz) amplitude modulators based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor cavity design. Employing the high reflectivity of two parallel meta-surfaces allows for trapping selected THz photons within the cavity and thus only a weak optical modulation of the semiconductor absorbance is required to significantly damp the field within the cavity. The optical switching yields to modulation depths of more than 90% with insertion efficiencies of 80%.

  1. Optical isolator using two tandem phase modulators.

    PubMed

    Doerr, Christopher R; Dupuis, Nicolas; Zhang, Liming

    2011-11-01

    We propose and demonstrate an integrated optical isolator in InP using two phase modulators in series. The phase modulators are driven with a single-frequency signal in quadrature. Theoretically there is no effect on the forward signal, and the carrier of the backward signal can be eliminated, the energy distributed to other frequencies. We achieve a carrier isolation of 11 dB and an excess insertion loss of 2.3 dB. Such an isolator can be monolithically integrated with a laser without extra materials or magnetic fields.

  2. Stakeholder perceptions of thoracic rapid tissue donation: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Jessica; Pratt, Christie; Pentz, Rebecca D; Haura, Eric B; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2013-12-01

    Rapid autopsy or rapid tissue donation (RTD) is a novel method of tissue procurement in which 'fresh' tissue is collected within 2-6 h following the death of a patient. While the use of RTD offers many opportunities to develop new therapies for lung cancer patients, it raises ethical concerns. The purpose of this study was to examine knowledge, perceptions and ethical concerns about recruiting patients for an RTD program. To achieve research goals, we conducted six focus groups, each containing 5-10 participants (N = 38). Participants were cancer patients (n = 17) their caregivers (n = 6), physicians (n = 6) and clinic staff (n = 9) from the Thoracic Oncology Program at Moffitt Cancer Center, in Tampa, Florida, USA. All focus groups were audio-recorded and conducted using a semi-structured focus group guide. The transcripts were analyzed using hand-coding methods. Data were coded independently by at least two researchers, and an inter-rater reliability rate of ≥90% was achieved. Knowledge about RTD was low among all groups, with physicians having slightly higher knowledge; all groups agreed that RTD offered major benefits to cancer research; physicians and clinic staff were mainly concerned about making a patient feel uncomfortable and reducing hope, while, patients and family members were more concerned about logistics and how the family would be affected during tissue retrieval. All groups agreed the physician was the appropriate person to begin a discussion about RTD and that recruitment should be individualized. All groups reported that physician training is necessary, as well as an awareness campaign for patients and families to be more receptive about RTD. The results of this study suggested more education is needed for all stakeholders to learn about RTD prior to the initiation of a research program. Our approach of querying all stakeholders provides a firm foundation for future training modules regarding RTD programs in lung cancer.

  3. Rapid measurement of three-dimensional diffusion tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H.; Ren, X.-H.; Sigmund, E. E.; Song, Y.-Q.

    2007-04-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate a rapid NMR method to measure a full three-dimensional diffusion tensor. This method is based on a multiple modulation multiple echo sequence and utilizes static and pulsed magnetic field gradients to measure diffusion along multiple directions simultaneously. The pulse sequence was optimized using a well-known linear inversion metric (condition number) and successfully tested on both isotropic (water) and anisotropic (asparagus) diffusion systems.

  4. Bubble memory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohning, O. D.; Becker, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of partially populated prototype recorder using 100 kilobit serial chips is described. Electrical interface, operating modes, and mechanical design of several module configurations are discussed. Fabrication and test of the module demonstrated the practicality of multiplexing resulting in lower power, weight, and volume. This effort resulted in the completion of a module consisting of a fully engineered printed circuit storage board populated with 5 of 8 possible cells and a wire wrapped electronics board. Interface of the module is 16 bits parallel at a maximum of 1.33 megabits per second data rate on either of two interface buses.

  5. Bubble memory module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohning, O. D.; Becker, F. J.

    1980-12-01

    Design, fabrication and test of partially populated prototype recorder using 100 kilobit serial chips is described. Electrical interface, operating modes, and mechanical design of several module configurations are discussed. Fabrication and test of the module demonstrated the practicality of multiplexing resulting in lower power, weight, and volume. This effort resulted in the completion of a module consisting of a fully engineered printed circuit storage board populated with 5 of 8 possible cells and a wire wrapped electronics board. Interface of the module is 16 bits parallel at a maximum of 1.33 megabits per second data rate on either of two interface buses.

  6. Advanced module development overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smokler, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    Crystalline silicon solar power modules are examined for reliability and cost effectiveness. A goal of 12% solar energy conversion efficiency is considered feasible at a cost of 12/kWh, and a decision is made to limit consideration to float zone silicon wafer and dendritic web silicone modules. A preliminary module packaging configuration of glass/ethylene vinyl acetate/plastic film is selected. Anticipated module efficiency levels are 12.6% at 25 C and 11.5% at NOCT (Nominal Operating Cell Temperature).

  7. Bracket for photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason

    2014-06-24

    Brackets for photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. In one embodiment, a saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. The gusset can have a first leg and a second leg extending at an angle relative to the mounting surface. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets. The mounting feature can be coupled to the first gusset and configured to stand the one or more PV modules off the tube.

  8. Posture modulates implicit hand maps.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-11-01

    Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing.

  9. New Approach to Self Achievement (N.A.S.A.) Project Students are provided an overview of alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    New Approach to Self Achievement (N.A.S.A.) Project Students are provided an overview of alternative energy options for a lunar base at the Aerospace Education Center Return to the Moon Discovery Path Power and Light Module

  10. New Approach to Self Achievement (N.A.S.A.) Project Students are provided an overview of alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    New Approach to Self Achievement (N.A.S.A.) Project Students are provided an overview of alternative energy options for a lunar base at the Aerospace Education Center Return to the Moon Discovery Pat Power and Light Module

  11. Light-induced effects-impacts to module performance measurements and reliability testing: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wronski, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    The stability of solar cells is a key factor in determining the reliability of photovoltaic modules and is of great interest in the case of solar cells having a new technology which has not yet been fully developed. In particular this question arises with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells because a-Si exhibits reversible light induced changes in its electronic properties, commonly referred to as the Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE). Continuous progress is being made in the peak conversion efficiencies of a-Si solar cells and efficiencies in excess of 11% have been achieved. However, stability is still a problem. ARCO Solar reports results on solar cells which, after over a year's exposure to sunlight, under open circuit conditions, still have about 7% conversion efficiency. Other results show a region of fast degradation for about a month, after which the degradation diminishes rapidly.

  12. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  13. Closing the Achievement Gap: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robards, Shirley N.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap between low- and high-achieving public school students is an important goal of public education. This article explores background information and research and discusses examples of best practices to close the achievement gap. Several plans have been proposed as ways to enhance the achievement of under-represented…

  14. CMOS-controlled rapidly tunable photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ray

    With rapidly increasing data bandwidth demands, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical access networks seem unavoidable in the near future. To operate WDM optical networks in an efficient scheme, wavelength reconfigurability and scalability of the network are crucial. Unfortunately, most of the existing wavelength tunable technologies are neither rapidly tunable nor spectrally programmable. This dissertation presents a tunable photodetector that is designed for dynamic-wavelength allocation WDM network environments. The wavelength tuning mechanism is completely different from existing technologies. The spectrum of this detector is programmable through low-voltage digital patterns. Since the wavelength selection is achieved by electronic means, the device wavelength reconfiguration time is as fast as the electronic switching time. In this dissertation work, we have demonstrated a tunable detector that is hybridly integrated with its customized CMOS driver and receiver with nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time. In addition to its nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time, the spectrum of this detector is digitally programmable, which means that it can adapt to system changes without re-fabrication. We have theoretically developed and experimentally demonstrated two device operating algorithms based on the same orthogonal device-optics basis. Both the rapid wavelength tuning time and the scalability make this novel device very viable for new reconfigurable WDM networks. By taking advantage of CMOS circuit design, this detector concept can be further extended for simultaneous multiple wavelength detection. We have developed one possible chip architecture and have designed a CMOS tunable optical demux for simultaneous controllable two-wavelength detection.

  15. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2014-03-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used tomore » separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1–2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ~30–60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4–8 h with tracer yields of ~85–95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort.« less

  16. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  17. In-Space Rapid Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Kenneth G.

    1998-01-01

    In-space manufacturing objectives are: (1) Develop and demonstrate capability to directly fabricate components in space using rapid prototyping technology - ceramics (alumina, silicon nitride, zirconia), metallics (stainless, inconel, etc.), high strength/temperature plastics (PEEK). and ABS plastics (starting point). (2) Perform material science experiments on rapid prototyping candidate materials in microgravity.

  18. Quasi-periodic rapid motion of pulsating auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yoko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Nishiyama, Takanori; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Ebihara, Yusuke; Hampton, Donald; Iwagami, Naomoto

    2016-09-01

    We report rapid motion of pulsating auroras associated with so called ​3 ± 1 Hz modulations embedded in the main pulsations. During the pulsation ON phase, repetitive expansions are often observed around the edges of pulsating patches. Some events show a few detached expansions traveling away from the main deformed pulsating patch. Approximately 80% of all expansion speeds were found to be less than 70 km s-1 at ionospheric altitudes, which is less than the projected Alfvén speed from the magnetospheric equator to the ionosphere. The rapid motions with speeds of tens of km s-1 are unlikely to be explained by obliquely propagating chorus elements, which are known to cause the 3 ± 1 Hz modulation, because the perpendicular speed of the oblique chorus waves is higher than the Alfvén speed. We discuss the slow-mode Alfvén wave as a candidate modulation source to generate the rapid motions. A few non-repetitive expansion events with a speed of more than 150 km s-1 also appear at the onset of the ON phase. These non-repetitive expanding motions are characterized by a long displacement compared to the repetitive expanding motions. The differences in the expansion speeds indicate different formation mechanisms of the patch motions.

  19. Health Instruction Packages: Test-Taking Strategies for the N. L. N. (National League of Nursing) Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Leslie Miller

    As an informational aid for students who are planning to take NLN (National League of Nursing) Achievement Tests, the text and accompanying exercises in this module describe NLN testing procedures and fundamental test-taking skills. After introductory material discussing the importance of mastering test-taking skills, the module describes how to…

  20. Recent developments in lightweight solar cell modules. [with protective glass cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broder, J. D.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two types of lightweight solar cell modules were prepared. The goal is to achieve a module with a power to weight ratio of 350 watts per kilogram. Both structures use thin cells approximately 50 micrometers thick and glass covers approximately 75 micrometers thick. In one structure the glass is bonded to the module using 93-500 silicone adhesive; while the other relies on heat and pressure bonding using FEP as the adhesive. Specific powers of about 335 watts per kilogram were achieved.

  1. Graphene metamaterial modulator for free-space thermal radiation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kebin; Suen, Jonathan; Wu, Xueyuan; Padilla, Willie J

    2016-10-31

    We proposed and demonstrated a new metamaterial architecture capable of high speed modulation of free-space space thermal infrared radiation using graphene. Our design completely eliminates channel resistance, thereby maximizing the electrostatic modulation speed, while at the same time effectively modulating infrared radiation. Experiment results verify that our device with area of 100 × 120 µm2 can achieve a modulation speed as high as 2.6 GHz. We further highlight the utility of our graphene metamaterial modulator by reconstructing a fast infrared signal using an equivalent time sampling technique. The graphene metamaterial modulator demonstrated here is not only limited to the thermal infrared, but may be scaled to longer infrared and terahertz wavelengths. Our work provides a path forward for realization of frequency selective and all-electronic high speed devices for infrared applications.

  2. Dynamic phase-control of a rising sun magnetron using modulated and continuous current

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Gutierrez, Sulmer; Browning, Jim; Lin, Ming-Chieh; Smithe, David N.; Watrous, Jack

    2016-01-28

    Phase-control of a magnetron is studied via simulation using a combination of a continuous current source and a modulated current source. The addressable, modulated current source is turned ON and OFF at the magnetron operating frequency in order to control the electron injection and the spoke phase. Prior simulation work using a 2D model of a Rising Sun magnetron showed that the use of 100% modulated current controlled the magnetron phase and allowed for dynamic phase control. In this work, the minimum fraction of modulated current source needed to achieve a phase control is studied. The current fractions (modulated versus continuous) were varied from 10% modulated current to 100% modulated current to study the effects on phase control. Dynamic phase-control, stability, and start up time of the device were studied for all these cases showing that with 10% modulated current and 90% continuous current, a phase shift of 180° can be achieved demonstrating dynamic phase control.

  3. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  4. Lunar Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Apollo lunar module communications. It describes several changes in terminology from the Apollo era to more recent terms. It reviews: (1) Lunar Module Antennas and Functions (2). Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (3) No Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (4) Lunar Surface Communications Links (5) Signal-Processing Assembly (6) Instrumentation System (7) Some Communications Problems Encountered

  5. Modules in Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, K. Ann; And Others

    Designed for use with accompanying videotapes as single presentations or as a series for professionals or laypeople, or as supplementary modules in academic courses in psychology, marriage and family, health occupations, etc., these four learning modules focus on common phases of dying and grief as part of the normal cycle of living. The modules…

  6. Water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1971-01-01

    Module utilizes static water-feed electrolysis system and air-cooled fins to remove heat generated by cell inefficiencies. Module generates 0.15 pounds of oxygen and 0.0188 pounds of hydrogen at current density of 100 amps per square foot. Generator operates in aircraft, spacecraft, or submarine cabins.

  7. Logs Perl Module

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R. K.

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  8. Human Development Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This set of 61 student learning modules deals with various topics pertaining to human development. The modules, which are designed for use in performance-based vocational education programs, each contain the following components: an introduction for the student, a performance objective, a variety of learning activities, content information, a…

  9. Rescue Manual. Module 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The seventh of 10 modules contains information on extrication from vehicles. Key points, an introduction, and conclusion accompany substantive material in this module. In addition, suggested tools and equipment for extrication procedures are…

  10. Module Safety Issues (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.

    2012-02-01

    Description of how to make PV modules so that they are less likely to turn into safety hazards. Making modules inherently safer with minimum additional cost is the preferred approach for PV. Safety starts with module design to ensure redundancy within the electrical circuitry to minimize open circuits and proper mounting instructions to prevent installation related ground faults. Module manufacturers must control the raw materials and processes to ensure that that every module is built like those qualified through the safety tests. This is the reason behind the QA task force effort to develop a 'Guideline for PV Module Manufacturing QA'. Periodic accelerated stress testing of production products is critical to validate the safety of the product. Combining safer PV modules with better systems designs is the ultimate goal. This should be especially true for PV arrays on buildings. Use of lower voltage dc circuits - AC modules, DC-DC converters. Use of arc detectors and interrupters to detect arcs and open the circuits to extinguish the arcs.

  11. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  12. Applied Algebra Curriculum Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Marshall.

    This collection of 11 applied algebra curriculum modules can be used independently as supplemental modules for an existing algebra curriculum. They represent diverse curriculum styles that should stimulate the teacher's creativity to adapt them to other algebra concepts. The selected topics have been determined to be those most needed by students…

  13. Cosmetology. Computerized Learning Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnerty, Kathy, Ed.

    Intended to help reading-limited students meet course objectives, these 11 modules are based on instructional materials in cosmetology that have a higher readability equivalent. Modules cover bacteriology, chemical waving, scalp and hair massage, chemistry, hair shaping, hairstyling, chemical hair relaxing, hair coloring, skin and scalp,…

  14. Pertussis toxin promoter sequences involved in modulation.

    PubMed Central

    Gross, R; Rappuoli, R

    1989-01-01

    Previous analysis of the pertussis toxin (PT) promoter has shown that expression of PT requires a trans-activating factor encoded by the vir locus and a 170-base-pair DNA sequence upstream from the transcription start site containing a 21-base-pair direct repeat sequence crucial trans-activation (R. Gross and R. Rappuoli, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:3913-3917, 1988). In this paper we extend the analysis to the modulative response to environmental stimuli. We show that modulation acts at the transcriptional level and occurs only in phase I bacteria. Modulation also requires a functional vir locus and the same promoter region of 170 base pairs. We show that, in addition to the previously identified direct repeat, even the sequences downstream from position -117 are required for trans-activation and modulation and that the deletion of four cytosine residues at position -31 causes the inactivation of the promoter. The kinetics of the change in transcription show that the PT promoter can be shut off very rapidly by adding 50 mM MgSO4 to the medium, whereas resumption of transcription after removal of the modulative agents from the medium is slow. Images PMID:2544567

  15. All-solution-processed PbS quantum dot solar modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jihoon; Shim, Hyung Cheoul; Ju, Yeonkyeong; Song, Jung Hoon; An, Hyejin; Yu, Jong-Su; Kwak, Sun-Woo; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Sohee

    2015-05-01

    A rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies in colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been achieved recently with lead sulphide (PbS) QDs by adapting a heterojunction architecture, which consists of small-area devices associated with a vacuum-deposited buffer layer with metal electrodes. The preparation of QD solar modules by low-cost solution processes is required to further increase the power-to-cost ratio. Herein we demonstrate all-solution-processed flexible PbS QD solar modules with a layer-by-layer architecture comprising polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO)/titanium oxide (TiO2)/PbS QD/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Ag, with an active area of up to 30 cm2, exhibiting a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.3% under AM 1.5 conditions (PCE of 2.2% for a 1 cm2 unit cell). Our approach affords trade-offs between power and the active area of the photovoltaic devices, which results in a low-cost power source, and which is scalable to larger areas.A rapid increase in power conversion efficiencies in colloidal quantum dot (QD) solar cells has been achieved recently with lead sulphide (PbS) QDs by adapting a heterojunction architecture, which consists of small-area devices associated with a vacuum-deposited buffer layer with metal electrodes. The preparation of QD solar modules by low-cost solution processes is required to further increase the power-to-cost ratio. Herein we demonstrate all-solution-processed flexible PbS QD solar modules with a layer-by-layer architecture comprising polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO)/titanium oxide (TiO2)/PbS QD/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) : poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT : PSS)/Ag, with an active area of up to 30 cm2, exhibiting a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.3% under AM 1.5 conditions (PCE of 2.2% for a 1 cm2 unit cell). Our approach affords trade

  16. A Wire Crossed-Loop-Resonator for Rapid Scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Biller, Joshua R; Eaton, Gareth R

    2010-04-09

    A crossed-loop (orthogonal mode) resonator (CLR) was constructed of fine wire to achieve design goals for rapid scan in vivo EPR imaging at VHF frequencies (in practice, near 250 MHz). This application requires the resonator to have a very open design to facilitate access to the animal for physiological support during the image acquisition. The rapid scan experiment uses large amplitude magnetic field scans, and sufficiently large resonator and detection bandwidths to record the rapidly-changing signal response. Rapid-scan EPR is sensitive to RF/microwave source noise and to baseline changes that are coherent with the field scan. The sensitivity to source noise is a primary incentive for using a CLR to isolate the detected signal from the RF source noise. Isolation from source noise of 44 and 47 dB was achieved in two resonator designs. Prior results showed that eddy currents contribute to background problems in rapid scan EPR, so the CLR design had to minimize conducting metal components. Using fine (AWG 38) wire for the resonators decreased eddy currents and lowered the resonator Q, thus providing larger resonator bandwidth. Mechanical resonances at specific scan frequencies are a major contributor to rapid scan backgrounds.

  17. Solar energy modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  18. Japanese Experiment Module (JEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) pressure module is removed from its shipping crate and moved across the floor of the Space Station Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to a work stand. A research laboratory, the pressurized module is the first element of the JEM, named 'Kibo' (Hope) to arrive at KSC. Japan's primary contribution to the International Space Station, the module will enhance unique research capabilities of the orbiting complex by providing an additional environment in which astronauts will conduct experiments. The JEM also includes an exposed facility or platform for space environment experiments, a robotic manipulator system, and two logistics modules. The various JEM components will be assembled in space over the course of three Shuttle missions.

  19. Immune Modulation in Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Dhodapkar, Kavita M.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of the immune system in the context of hematologic malignancies has long been appreciated particularly due to the curative impact of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The role of immune system in shaping the biology and evolution of these tumors is now well recognized. While the contribution of the immune system in anti-tumor effects of certain therapies such as immune-modulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies active in hematologic malignancies is quite evident, the immune system has also been implicated in anti-tumor effects of other targeted therapies. The horizon of immune-based therapies in hematologic malignancies is rapidly expanding with promising results from immune-modulatory drugs, immune-checkpoint blockade and adoptive cellular therapies, including genetically-modified T cells. Hematologic malignancies present distinct issues (relative to solid tumors) for the application of immune therapies due to differences in cell of origin/developmental niche of tumor cells, and patterns of involvement such as common systemic involvement of secondary lymphoid tissues. This article discusses the rapidly changing landscape of immune modulation in hematologic malignancies and emphasizes areas wherein hematologic malignancies present distinct opportunities for immunologic approaches to prevent or treat cancer. PMID:26320065

  20. Towards high-order modulation using complex modulation of semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Che, Di; Yuan, Feng; Shieh, William

    2016-03-21

    Optical communication using high-speed on-off-keying signal by directly modulated semiconductor lasers (DML) was one of the most significant breakthroughs for telecommunication in 1960s. The wide deployment of 2.5-Gb/s per-channel transoceanic optical fiber links in 1990s drove the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the detrimental frequency chirp of DML prevents its application to the subsequent internet capacity evolution. Today, the state-of-the-art long-haul optical transponder uses external modulators to support high-order complex modulation. In contrast, this paper shows that the "detrimental" chirp effect can be exploited to generate complex modulation with a single DML, which achieves dramatic sensitivity gain of signal-to-noise-ratio compared to the conventional intensity modulation of DML. By using large chirp parameters, complex-modulated DML paves an attractive pathway towards high-order pulse-amplitude modulation with an ultra-low transmitter cost, which has great potential in future medium reach optical communications.

  1. A series connection architecture for large-area organic photovoltaic modules with a 7.5% module efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Soonil; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Seongyu; Kim, Seok; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Jinho; Yi, Minjin; Kim, Junghwan; Back, Hyungcheol; Kim, Jae-Ryoung; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication of organic photovoltaic modules via printing techniques has been the greatest challenge for their commercial manufacture. Current module architecture, which is based on a monolithic geometry consisting of serially interconnecting stripe-patterned subcells with finite widths, requires highly sophisticated patterning processes that significantly increase the complexity of printing production lines and cause serious reductions in module efficiency due to so-called aperture loss in series connection regions. Herein we demonstrate an innovative module structure that can simultaneously reduce both patterning processes and aperture loss. By using a charge recombination feature that occurs at contacts between electron- and hole-transport layers, we devise a series connection method that facilitates module fabrication without patterning the charge transport layers. With the successive deposition of component layers using slot-die and doctor-blade printing techniques, we achieve a high module efficiency reaching 7.5% with area of 4.15 cm2.

  2. ILC Marx Modulator Development Program Status

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, C.; Beukers, T.; Larsen, R.; Macken, K.; Nguyen, M.; Olsen, J.; Tang, T.; /SLAC

    2009-03-04

    Development of a first generation prototype (P1) Marx-topology klystron modulator for the International Linear Collider is nearing completion at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is envisioned as a smaller, lower cost, and higher reliability alternative to the present, bouncer-topology, 'Baseline Conceptual Design'. The Marx presents several advantages over conventional klystron modulator designs. It is physically smaller; there is no pulse transformer (quite massive at ILC parameters) and the energy storage capacitor bank is quite small, owing to the active droop compensation. It is oil-free; voltage hold-off is achieved using air insulation. It is air cooled; the secondary air-water heat exchanger is physically isolated from the electronic components. The P1-Marx employs all solid state elements; IGBTs and diodes, to control the charge, discharge and isolation of the cells. A general overview of the modulator design and the program status are presented.

  3. Plasma Heating and Ultrafast Semiconductor Laser Modulation Through a Terahertz Heating Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jian-Zhong; Ning, C. Z.

    2000-01-01

    Electron-hole plasma heating and ultrafast modulation in a semiconductor laser under a terahertz electrical field are investigated using a set of hydrodynamic equations derived from the semiconductor Bloch equations. The self-consistent treatment of lasing and heating processes leads to the prediction of a strong saturation and degradation of modulation depth even at moderate terahertz field intensity. This saturation places a severe limit to bandwidth achievable with such scheme in ultrafast modulation. Strategies for increasing modulation depth are discussed.

  4. Spin-Label CW Microwave Power Saturation and Rapid Passage with Triangular Non-Adiabatic Rapid Sweep (NARS) and Adiabatic Rapid Passage (ARP) EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Hyde, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell, A.W., Camenisch, T.G., Ratke, J.J. Sidabras, J.W., Hyde, J.S., 2011 as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions, and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra. In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10−3 to 10−7 s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy. PMID:25917132

  5. Spin-label CW microwave power saturation and rapid passage with triangular non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) and adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kittell, Aaron W; Hyde, James S

    2015-06-01

    Non-adiabatic rapid passage (NARS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was introduced by Kittell et al. (2011) as a general purpose technique to collect the pure absorption response. The technique has been used to improve sensitivity relative to sinusoidal magnetic field modulation, increase the range of inter-spin distances that can be measured under near physiological conditions (Kittell et al., 2012), and enhance spectral resolution in copper (II) spectra (Hyde et al., 2013). In the present work, the method is extended to CW microwave power saturation of spin-labeled T4 Lysozyme (T4L). As in the cited papers, rapid triangular sweep of the polarizing magnetic field was superimposed on slow sweep across the spectrum. Adiabatic rapid passage (ARP) effects were encountered in samples undergoing very slow rotational diffusion as the triangular magnetic field sweep rate was increased. The paper reports results of variation of experimental parameters at the interface of adiabatic and non-adiabatic rapid sweep conditions. Comparison of the forward (up) and reverse (down) triangular sweeps is shown to be a good indicator of the presence of rapid passage effects. Spectral turning points can be distinguished from spectral regions between turning points in two ways: differential microwave power saturation and differential passage effects. Oxygen accessibility data are shown under NARS conditions that appear similar to conventional field modulation data. However, the sensitivity is much higher, permitting, in principle, experiments at substantially lower protein concentrations. Spectral displays were obtained that appear sensitive to rotational diffusion in the range of rotational correlation times of 10(-3) to 10(-7) s in a manner that is analogous to saturation transfer spectroscopy.

  6. Rapid Mechanically Controlled Rewiring of Neuronal Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Magdesian, Margaret H.; Lopez-Ayon, G. Monserratt; Mori, Megumi; Boudreau, Dominic; Goulet-Hanssens, Alexis; Sanz, Ricardo; Miyahara, Yoichi; Barrett, Christopher J.; Fournier, Alyson E.; De Koninck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    CNS injury may lead to permanent functional deficits because it is still not possible to regenerate axons over long distances and accurately reconnect them with an appropriate target. Using rat neurons, microtools, and nanotools, we show that new, functional neurites can be created and precisely positioned to directly (re)wire neuronal networks. We show that an adhesive contact made onto an axon or dendrite can be pulled to initiate a new neurite that can be mechanically guided to form new synapses at up to 0.8 mm distance in <1 h. Our findings challenge current understanding of the limits of neuronal growth and have direct implications for the development of new therapies and surgical techniques to achieve functional regeneration. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brain and spinal cord injury may lead to permanent disability and death because it is still not possible to regenerate neurons over long distances and accurately reconnect them with an appropriate target. Using microtools and nanotools we have developed a new method to rapidly initiate, elongate, and precisely connect new functional neuronal circuits over long distances. The extension rates achieved are ≥60 times faster than previously reported. Our findings have direct implications for the development of new therapies and surgical techniques to achieve functional regeneration after trauma and in neurodegenerative diseases. It also opens the door for the direct wiring of robust brain–machine interfaces as well as for investigations of fundamental aspects of neuronal signal processing and neuronal function. PMID:26791225

  7. The Relationship among Achievement Motivation Orientations, Achievement Goals, and Academic Achievement and Interest: A Multiple Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; Patrick, Rosan R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships among achievement motivation orientations and academic achievement and interest and whether achievement goals mediate these relationships. A sample of 503 students aged 14-16 years from 8 secondary schools in two Australia cities responded to a questionnaire package, comprising measures…

  8. GPU-based parallel clustered differential pulse code modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiaji; Li, Wenze; Kong, Wanqiu

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology is widely used in marine remote sensing, geological exploration, atmospheric and environmental remote sensing. Owing to the rapid development of hyperspectral remote sensing technology, resolution of hyperspectral image has got a huge boost. Thus data size of hyperspectral image is becoming larger. In order to reduce their saving and transmission cost, lossless compression for hyperspectral image has become an important research topic. In recent years, large numbers of algorithms have been proposed to reduce the redundancy between different spectra. Among of them, the most classical and expansible algorithm is the Clustered Differential Pulse Code Modulation (CDPCM) algorithm. This algorithm contains three parts: first clusters all spectral lines, then trains linear predictors for each band. Secondly, use these predictors to predict pixels, and get the residual image by subtraction between original image and predicted image. Finally, encode the residual image. However, the process of calculating predictors is timecosting. In order to improve the processing speed, we propose a parallel C-DPCM based on CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) with GPU. Recently, general-purpose computing based on GPUs has been greatly developed. The capacity of GPU improves rapidly by increasing the number of processing units and storage control units. CUDA is a parallel computing platform and programming model created by NVIDIA. It gives developers direct access to the virtual instruction set and memory of the parallel computational elements in GPUs. Our core idea is to achieve the calculation of predictors in parallel. By respectively adopting global memory, shared memory and register memory, we finally get a decent speedup.

  9. Centrality properties of directed module members in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollner, Péter; Palla, Gergely; Ábel, Dániel; Vicsek, András; Farkas, Illés J.; Derényi, Imre; Vicsek, Tamás

    2008-08-01

    Several recent studies of complex networks have suggested algorithms for locating network communities, also called modules or clusters, which are mostly defined as groups of nodes with dense internal connections. Along with the rapid development of these clustering techniques, the ability of revealing overlaps between communities has become very important as well. An efficient search technique for locating overlapping modules is provided by the Clique Percolation Method (CPM) and its extension to directed graphs, the CPMd algorithm. Here we investigate the centrality properties of directed module members in social networks obtained from e-mail exchanges and from sociometric questionnaires. Our results indicate that nodes in the overlaps between modules play a central role in the studied systems. Furthermore, the two different types of networks show interesting differences in the relation between the centrality measures and the role of the nodes in the directed modules.

  10. Microwave frequency modulation for improving polarization transfer in DNP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Mallory; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is a driven process that transfers the inherently high electron polarization to surrounding nuclear spins via microwave irradiation at or near the electron Larmor frequency. In a typical DNP experiment, the amplitude and frequency of the applied microwaves are constant. However, by adding time dependence in the form of frequency modulation, the electron excitation bandwidth is increased, thereby increasing the number of electron spins active in the polarization transfer process and improving overall efficiency. Both triangular and sinusoidal modulation show a 3 fold improvement over monochromatic irradiation. In the present study, we compare the nuclear spin polarization after DNP experiments with no modulation of the applied microwaves, triangular and sinusoidal modulation, and modulation schemes derived from the sample's ESR spectrum. We characterize the polarization as a function of the modulation amplitude and frequency and compare the optimal results from each modulation scheme. Working at a field of 3.34 T and at a temperature of 4 K, we show that by using a modulation scheme tailored to the electronic environment of the sample, polarization transfer is improved over other modulation schemes. Small-scale simulations of the spin system are developed to gain further insight into the dynamics of this driven open system. This understanding could enable the design of modulation schemes to achieve even higher polarization transfer efficiencies. With support from NSF (CHE-1410504) and by NIH (U19-A1091173).

  11. Unstart Coupling Mechanism Analysis of Multiple-Modules Hypersonic Inlet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Cao, Shibin

    2013-01-01

    The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted. PMID:24348146

  12. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  13. Optical modulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, J.

    1972-01-01

    The fabrication, test, and delivery of an optical modulator system which will operate with a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser indicating at either 1.06 or 0.53 micrometers is discussed. The delivered hardware operates at data rates up to 400 Mbps and includes a 0.53 micrometer electrooptic modulator, a 1.06 micrometer electrooptic modulator with power supply and signal processing electronics with power supply. The modulators contain solid state drivers which accept digital signals with MECL logic levels, temperature controllers to maintain a stable thermal environment for the modulator crystals, and automatic electronic compensation to maximize the extinction ratio. The modulators use two lithium tantalate crystals cascaded in a double pass configuration. The signal processing electronics include encoding electronics which are capable of digitizing analog signals between the limit of + or - 0.75 volts at a maximum rate of 80 megasamples per second with 5 bit resolution. The digital samples are serialized and made available as a 400 Mbps serial NRZ data source for the modulators. A pseudorandom (PN) generator is also included in the signal processing electronics. This data source generates PN sequences with lengths between 31 bits and 32,767 bits in a serial NRZ format at rates up to 400 Mbps.

  14. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder, also ... episode Similar to a manic episode, except that it is less severe and there are no delusions ...

  15. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

    PubMed

    Visser, Theodoor; Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them.

  16. [Rapid PCR authentication Lonicera japanica].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Hou, Jing-Yi; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan

    2014-10-01

    To simply and rapid authenticate Lonicera japanica. Rapid allele-specific PCR primer was designed base on trnL-trnF 625 G/T Single nucleotide polymorphism and the PCR reaction systems including annealing temperature was optimized; optimized results were performed to authenticate L. japanica and its 9 adulterants. When 100 x SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product of 87 degrees C initial denatured 1 min; 87 degrees C denatured 5 s, 68 degrees C annealing 5 s, 30 cycle; L. japanica visualize strong green fluorescence under 365 nm UV lamp whereas adulterants without. The results indicate rapid allele-specific PCR could authenticate L. japanica and its adulterants rapidly and simply.

  17. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect.

    PubMed

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization.

  18. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    PubMed Central

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization. PMID:25999899

  19. Autonomous cotton module forming system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers often have difficulty finding adequate labor during harvest. Module builder operators are often inexperienced and may build poorly shaped modules. Equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities to reduce labor requirements; h...

  20. Amplitude Modulator Chassis

    SciTech Connect

    Erbert, G

    2009-09-01

    The Amplitude Modulator Chassis (AMC) is the final component in the MOR system and connects directly to the PAM input through a 100-meter fiber. The 48 AMCs temporally shape the 48 outputs of the MOR using an arbitrary waveform generator coupled to an amplitude modulator. The amplitude modulation element is a two stage, Lithium Niobate waveguide device, where the intensity of the light passing through the device is a function of the electrical drive applied. The first stage of the modulator is connected to a programmable high performance Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG) consisting of 140 impulse generators space 250 ps apart. An arbitrary waveform is generated by independently varying the amplitude of each impulse generator and then summing the impulses together. In addition to the AWG a short pulse generator is also connected to the first stage of the modulator to provide a sub 100-ps pulse used for timing experiments. The second stage of the modulator is connect to a square pulse generator used to further attenuate any pre or post pulse light passing through the first stage of the modulator. The fast rise and fall time of the square pulse generator is also used to produce fast rise and fall times of the AWG by clipping the AWG pulse. For maximum extinction, a pulse bias voltage is applied to each stage of the modulator. A pulse voltage is applied as opposed to a DC voltage to prevent charge buildup on the modulator. Each bias voltage is adjustable to provide a minimum of 50-dB extinction. The AMC is controlled through ICCS to generate the desired temporal pulse shape. This process involves a closed-loop control algorithm, which compares the desired temporal waveform to the produced optical pulse, and iterates the programming of the AWG until the two waveforms agree within an allowable tolerance.