Science.gov

Sample records for achieve reliable information

  1. Achieving Reliable Communication in Dynamic Emergency Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N.; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%. PMID:22195075

  2. Understanding the Elements of Operational Reliability: A Key for Achieving High Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews operational reliability and its role in achieving high reliability through design and process reliability. The topics include: 1) Reliability Engineering Major Areas and interfaces; 2) Design Reliability; 3) Process Reliability; and 4) Reliability Applications.

  3. Reliability achievement in high technology space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The production of failure-free hardware is discussed. The elements required to achieve such hardware are: technical expertise to design, analyze, and fully understand the design; use of high reliability parts and materials control in the manufacturing process; and testing to understand the system and weed out defects. The durability of the Hughes family of satellites is highlighted.

  4. Achieving Information Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    January 2000 a computer glitch deafened National Security Agency ( NSA ) satellites for three days, while in July a National Reconnaissance radar...the National Security Administration ( NSA ) is the Information Security (INFOSEC) Methodology. 25 This assessment helps document a baseline of security...gd.tuwien.ac.at/pc/ nsa -w2ksec/defenseindepth.pdf; Internet; accessed 15 February 2004. 5 Hemos, Slashdot, News for Nerds, Stuff that Matters. “H1B Tech Workers

  5. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  6. Health Information on the Web: Finding Reliable Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Health Information on the Web: Finding Reliable Information Health Information on the Web: Finding Reliable Information Prevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share ...

  7. Methods and Costs to Achieve Ultra Reliable Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A published Mars mission is used to explore the methods and costs to achieve ultra reliable life support. The Mars mission and its recycling life support design are described. The life support systems were made triply redundant, implying that each individual system will have fairly good reliability. Ultra reliable life support is needed for Mars and other long, distant missions. Current systems apparently have insufficient reliability. The life cycle cost of the Mars life support system is estimated. Reliability can be increased by improving the intrinsic system reliability, adding spare parts, or by providing technically diverse redundant systems. The costs of these approaches are estimated. Adding spares is least costly but may be defeated by common cause failures. Using two technically diverse systems is effective but doubles the life cycle cost. Achieving ultra reliability is worth its high cost because the penalty for failure is very high.

  8. Identifying key nursing and team behaviours to achieve high reliability.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristi; Riley, William; Davis, Stanley

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure markers of key nursing behaviours in interdisciplinary teams during critical events to assess the extent of high reliability. Technical and team competence are necessary to achieve high reliability to ensure safe patient care. Technical competence is generally assured because of professional training, licensure and practice standards. During critical events, team competence is difficult to observe, measure and evaluate in interdisciplinary teams. During critical events, in situ simulation was the method used to observe interdisciplinary interaction of nursing behaviours regarding communication. Seventeen trials were conducted and videotaped for evaluation at four hospital sites. Key nursing behavioural markers for interdisciplinary interaction were described: situational awareness, use of situation, background, assessment, recommendation-response (SBAR-R), closed-loop communication and shared mental model. Skills necessary for nurses to contribute to highly reliable, interdisciplinary teams are not consistently observed during critical events and constitute breaches in defensive barriers for ensuring patient safety. Nurses have a key role in assuring effective team performance through the transfer of critical information. Nurses need to recognize and identify important clinical and environmental cues, and act in order to ensure that the team progresses along the optimal course for patient safety.

  9. Information Assurance Reliability Model (IARM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    currently, it is common to measure the amount of time it takes a Red Team to attack a given system. However, metrics and observations related to the effect...of various Red Team or hacker actions on a system would contribute significantly to the growth of IA reliability and the ability to integrate IA

  10. How Reliable Are Informal Reading Inventories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Janet E.

    2005-01-01

    Informal Reading Inventories (IRI) are often recommended as instructionally relevant measures of reading. However, they have also been criticized for inattention to technical quality. Examination of reliability evidence in nine recently revised IRIs revealed that fewer than half report reliability. Several appear to have sufficient reliability for…

  11. Finding reliable information about vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Diego; Myers, Martin G

    2011-05-01

    Misinformation about vaccines confuses parents who may delay or refuse vaccines for their children, which places them and others at risk of vaccine-preventable diseases. Many parents do not understand the risks and severity of these diseases but also are unaware that they are uninformed. There are a number of favorable factors available for educating parents about these diseases, their prevention, and how to counter misinformation: most parents are seeking a trusting health care relationship; they want more information; they appreciate guidance; and they are looking for means to validate the information that they find. These factors represent opportunities to enhance confidence in immunization programs by providing parents with the tools that they need.

  12. Recent achievements in module reliability research. [amorphous Si solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    After 10 years of extensive research on crystalline-silicon flat-plate photovoltaic modules, the emphasis of recent reliability research has shifted to the emerging first-generation thin-film amorphous-silicon modules. These modules share much in common with their crystalline precursors, but also include many materials and processes that demand the development of reliability technologies. Key research thrusts include light-induced effects, cell corrosion, thermal diffusion, hot-spot heating, and electrical isolation of the cells from the module exterior. Research goals and recent achievements are described in each of these areas.

  13. Achieving High Reliability with People, Processes, and Technology.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Candice L; Brennan, John A

    2017-01-01

    High reliability as a corporate value in healthcare can be achieved by meeting the "Quadruple Aim" of improving population health, reducing per capita costs, enhancing the patient experience, and improving provider wellness. This drive starts with the board of trustees, CEO, and other senior leaders who ingrain high reliability throughout the organization. At WellStar Health System, the board developed an ambitious goal to become a top-decile health system in safety and quality metrics. To achieve this goal, WellStar has embarked on a journey toward high reliability and has committed to Lean management practices consistent with the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's definition of a high-reliability organization (HRO): one that is committed to the prevention of failure, early identification and mitigation of failure, and redesign of processes based on identifiable failures. In the end, a successful HRO can provide safe, effective, patient- and family-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable care through a convergence of people, processes, and technology.

  14. Achieving Information Dominance: Seven Imperatives for Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    ACHIEVING INFORMATION DOMINANCE : SEVEN IMPERATIVES FOR SUCCESS Topical Area: C4ISR and Space Dr. Tom Kaye and Mr. George Galdorisi Dr. Tom Kaye Mr...00-00-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Achieving Information Dominance : Seven Imperatives for Success 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...time. 3 ACHIEVING INFORMATION DOMINANCE : SEVEN IMPERATIVES FOR SUCCESS by Dr. Tom Kaye and Mr. George Galdorisi An integrated joint and combined C4ISR

  15. Information Technology Diffusion: Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gregory M.; Lind, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    For student achievement, the diffusion and adoption of information technology (IT) infrastructure enabled by special funding was posited to have a positive impact on student achievement. Four urban school districts provided the context for this study to assess the impact of IT adoption on standardized test scores.

  16. Reliability of dynamic systems under limited information.

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Richard V., Jr.; Grigoriu, Mircea

    2006-09-01

    A method is developed for reliability analysis of dynamic systems under limited information. The available information includes one or more samples of the system output; any known information on features of the output can be used if available. The method is based on the theory of non-Gaussian translation processes and is shown to be particularly suitable for problems of practical interest. For illustration, we apply the proposed method to a series of simple example problems and compare with results given by traditional statistical estimators in order to establish the accuracy of the method. It is demonstrated that the method delivers accurate results for the case of linear and nonlinear dynamic systems, and can be applied to analyze experimental data and/or mathematical model outputs. Two complex applications of direct interest to Sandia are also considered. First, we apply the proposed method to assess design reliability of a MEMS inertial switch. Second, we consider re-entry body (RB) component vibration response during normal re-entry, where the objective is to estimate the time-dependent probability of component failure. This last application is directly relevant to re-entry random vibration analysis at Sandia, and may provide insights on test-based and/or model-based qualification of weapon components for random vibration environments.

  17. Desert ants achieve reliable recruitment across noisy interactions

    PubMed Central

    Razin, Nitzan; Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Feinerman, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    We study how desert ants, Cataglyphis niger, a species that lacks pheromone-based recruitment mechanisms, inform each other about the presence of food. Our results are based on automated tracking that allows us to collect a large database of ant trajectories and interactions. We find that interactions affect an ant's speed within the nest. Fast ants tend to slow down, whereas slow ones increase their speed when encountering a faster ant. Faster ants tend to exit the nest more frequently than slower ones. So, if an ant gains enough speed through encounters with others, then she tends to leave the nest and look for food. On the other hand, we find that the probability for her to leave the nest depends only on her speed, but not on whether she had recently interacted with a recruiter that has found the food. This suggests a recruitment system in which ants communicate their state by very simple interactions. Based on this assumption, we estimate the information-theoretical channel capacity of the ants’ pairwise interactions. We find that the response to the speed of an interacting nest-mate is very noisy. The question is then how random interactions with ants within the nest can be distinguished from those interactions with a recruiter who has found food. Our measurements and model suggest that this distinction does not depend on reliable communication but on behavioural differences between ants that have found the food and those that have not. Recruiters retain high speeds throughout the experiment, regardless of the ants they interact with; non-recruiters communicate with a limited number of nest-mates and adjust their speed following these interactions. These simple rules lead to the formation of a bistable switch on the level of the group that allows the distinction between recruitment and random noise in the nest. A consequence of the mechanism we propose is a negative effect of ant density on exit rates and recruitment success. This is, indeed, confirmed by

  18. Desert ants achieve reliable recruitment across noisy interactions.

    PubMed

    Razin, Nitzan; Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Feinerman, Ofer

    2013-05-06

    We study how desert ants, Cataglyphis niger, a species that lacks pheromone-based recruitment mechanisms, inform each other about the presence of food. Our results are based on automated tracking that allows us to collect a large database of ant trajectories and interactions. We find that interactions affect an ant's speed within the nest. Fast ants tend to slow down, whereas slow ones increase their speed when encountering a faster ant. Faster ants tend to exit the nest more frequently than slower ones. So, if an ant gains enough speed through encounters with others, then she tends to leave the nest and look for food. On the other hand, we find that the probability for her to leave the nest depends only on her speed, but not on whether she had recently interacted with a recruiter that has found the food. This suggests a recruitment system in which ants communicate their state by very simple interactions. Based on this assumption, we estimate the information-theoretical channel capacity of the ants' pairwise interactions. We find that the response to the speed of an interacting nest-mate is very noisy. The question is then how random interactions with ants within the nest can be distinguished from those interactions with a recruiter who has found food. Our measurements and model suggest that this distinction does not depend on reliable communication but on behavioural differences between ants that have found the food and those that have not. Recruiters retain high speeds throughout the experiment, regardless of the ants they interact with; non-recruiters communicate with a limited number of nest-mates and adjust their speed following these interactions. These simple rules lead to the formation of a bistable switch on the level of the group that allows the distinction between recruitment and random noise in the nest. A consequence of the mechanism we propose is a negative effect of ant density on exit rates and recruitment success. This is, indeed, confirmed by our

  19. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  20. Validity and Reliability of Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2011-01-01

    The Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale was developed by Agbuga and Xiang (2008) by including selected items from the scales of Duda and Nicholls (1992), Elliot (1999), and Elliot and Church (1997) and adapting them into Turkish. The scale consists of 18 items, and students rated each item on a 7-point Likert scale. To ascertain the validity and…

  1. Validity and Reliability of Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2011-01-01

    The Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale was developed by Agbuga and Xiang (2008) by including selected items from the scales of Duda and Nicholls (1992), Elliot (1999), and Elliot and Church (1997) and adapting them into Turkish. The scale consists of 18 items, and students rated each item on a 7-point Likert scale. To ascertain the validity and…

  2. Framework for Relating Auditor Reliability to Information Uses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergquist, Constance C.

    A framework is presented that relates concepts of audit reliability to the uses of information gathered from a discrepancy program audit of Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title IV-C programs in Florida. Three issues are addressed: (1) the meaning of reliability in relation to the audit process; (2) the importance of reliability of auditor…

  3. Our Commitment to Reliable Health and Medical Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... to reliable health and medical information on the internet HON was founded to encourage the dissemination of quality health information for patients and professionals and the general public, and to facilitate access to the latest and most relevant medical data ...

  4. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  5. Questioning reliability assessments of health information on social media

    PubMed Central

    Dalmer, Nicole K.

    2017-01-01

    This narrative review examines assessments of the reliability of online health information retrieved through social media to ascertain whether health information accessed or disseminated through social media should be evaluated differently than other online health information. Several medical, library and information science, and interdisciplinary databases were searched using terms relating to social media, reliability, and health information. While social media’s increasing role in health information consumption is recognized, studies are dominated by investigations of traditional (i.e., non-social media) sites. To more richly assess constructions of reliability when using social media for health information, future research must focus on health consumers’ unique contexts, virtual relationships, and degrees of trust within their social networks. PMID:28096748

  6. Questioning reliability assessments of health information on social media.

    PubMed

    Dalmer, Nicole K

    2017-01-01

    This narrative review examines assessments of the reliability of online health information retrieved through social media to ascertain whether health information accessed or disseminated through social media should be evaluated differently than other online health information. Several medical, library and information science, and interdisciplinary databases were searched using terms relating to social media, reliability, and health information. While social media's increasing role in health information consumption is recognized, studies are dominated by investigations of traditional (i.e., non-social media) sites. To more richly assess constructions of reliability when using social media for health information, future research must focus on health consumers' unique contexts, virtual relationships, and degrees of trust within their social networks.

  7. By-product information can stabilize the reliability of communication.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, G D

    2012-12-01

    Although communication underpins many biological processes, its function and basic definition remain contentious. In particular, researchers have debated whether information should be an integral part of a definition of communication and how it remains reliable. So far the handicap principle, assuming signal costs to stabilize reliable communication, has been the predominant paradigm in the study of animal communication. The role of by-product information produced by mechanisms other than the communicative interaction has been neglected in the debate on signal reliability. We argue that by-product information is common and that it provides the starting point for ritualization as the process of the evolution of communication. Second, by-product information remains unchanged during ritualization and enforces reliable communication by restricting the options for manipulation and cheating. Third, this perspective changes the focus of research on communication from studying signal costs to studying the costs of cheating. It can thus explain the reliability of signalling in many communication systems that do not rely on handicaps. We emphasize that communication can often be informative but that the evolution of communication does not cause the evolution of information because by-product information often predates and stimulates the evolution of communication. Communication is thus a consequence but not a cause of reliability. Communication is the interplay of inadvertent, informative traits and evolved traits that increase the stimulation and perception of perceivers. Viewing communication as a complex of inadvertent and derived traits facilitates understanding of the selective pressures shaping communication and those shaping information and its reliability. This viewpoint further contributes to resolving the current controversy on the role of information in communication.

  8. Using Information from Operating Experience to Inform Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce P. Hallbert; David I. Gertman; Julie Marble; Erasmia Lois; Nathan Siu

    2004-06-01

    This paper reports on efforts being sponsored by the U.S. NRC and performed by INEEL to develop a technical basis and perform work to extract information from sources for use in HRA. The objectives of this work are to: 1) develop a method for conducting risk-informed event analysis of human performance information that stems from operating experience at nuclear power plants and for compiling and documenting the results in a structured manner; 2) provide information from these analyses for use in risk-informed and performance-based regulatory activities; 3) create methods for information extraction and a repository for this information that, likewise, support HRA methods and their applications.

  9. Modeling Achievement Trajectories when Attrition Is Informative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Betsy J.; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    In longitudinal education studies, assuming that dropout and missing data occur completely at random is often unrealistic. When the probability of dropout depends on covariates and observed responses (called "missing at random" [MAR]), or on values of responses that are missing (called "informative" or "not missing at random" [NMAR]),…

  10. Modeling Achievement Trajectories when Attrition Is Informative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Betsy J.; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    In longitudinal education studies, assuming that dropout and missing data occur completely at random is often unrealistic. When the probability of dropout depends on covariates and observed responses (called "missing at random" [MAR]), or on values of responses that are missing (called "informative" or "not missing at random" [NMAR]),…

  11. A strategy for achieving high reliability for reusable launch vehicles (RLVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.

    2002-01-01

    Expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) have been used since the early 1960s to put numerous payloads, including humans, into space. Yet, in spite of their widespread use since that time, ELV reliability has not improved much. Why has this been the case? And, more importantly, what might be done to substantially improve the reliability of future reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) to levels needed for commercial viability, i.e., approaching that of the U.S. commercial airline industry? This paper attempts to answer these questions-by reviewing the history of launch vehicles, identifying factors important to their reliability and safety, and in doing so, offering a potential strategy for achieving high RLV reliability. The conclusion reached is that there is every reason to believe that high reliability (~0.99999 per mission) is achievable for future RLVs, if key features to enhance their inherent robustness, forgiveness, and recoverability are considered and integrated into RLV design and operation at the outset. It is hoped that this paper will serve as a catalyst for further discussions intended to ensure that high reliability is realized for RLVs. .

  12. Validity, Reliability, and Utility of the Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Carolyn A.; Ciancio, Dennis J.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity, reliability, and utility of five of the six subtests of Clay's (2002) Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement (OS), including Letter Identification, Word Reading, Writing Vocabulary, Hearing and Recording Sounds in Words, and Text Reading. In addition to a review of studies providing assessment of the…

  13. Achieving Information Dominance: Unleashing the Ozone Widget Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    1 19 th ICCRTS “C2 Agility: Lessons Learned From Research and Operations” For the paper titled: Achieving Information Dominance : Unleashing...00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Achieving Information Dominance : Unleashing the Ozone Widget Framework 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Abstract for Achieving Information Dominance : Unleashing the Ozone Widget Framework One of the key lessons learned from analysis of Joint operations

  14. The Reliability of Informal Reading Inventories: What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Nina L.

    2013-01-01

    Over time, criticisms related to the technical rigor of informal reading inventories (IRIs) have led many to question using these assessment instruments for high- or low-stakes purposes. In this article, I examine reliability evidence reported in 11 new and updated IRIs and make comparisons with Spector's earlier analysis that revealed fewer than…

  15. The Reliability of Informal Reading Inventories: What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Nina L.

    2013-01-01

    Over time, criticisms related to the technical rigor of informal reading inventories (IRIs) have led many to question using these assessment instruments for high- or low-stakes purposes. In this article, I examine reliability evidence reported in 11 new and updated IRIs and make comparisons with Spector's earlier analysis that revealed fewer than…

  16. Reliability and Validity of Curriculum-Based Informal Reading Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn; And Others

    A study was conducted to explore the reliability and validity of three prominent procedures used in informal reading inventories (IRIs): (1) choosing a 95% word recognition accuracy standard for determining student instructional level, (2) arbitrarily selecting a passage to represent the difficulty level of a basal reader, and (3) employing…

  17. [Osteosarcoma: reliability and quality of the information in the internet].

    PubMed

    Schippinger, Michael; Ruckenstuhl, Paul; Friesenbichler, Jörg; Leithner, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    The World Wide Web has grown during the last years to a considerable source of medical information for experts as well as for laymen and patients. The quality of this information is subjected to some limitation linked with the structure of the Internet and the management of Internet pages. The cross- sectional study presented evaluates and compares quality and reliability of information with respect of osteosarcoma in the most common German-language Internet pages for medical information. As both, one of the most common primary malignant bone tumors and its peak of incidence at the age of childhood and youth, osteosarcoma is considered of significant importance in orthopedic oncology.

  18. Quantifying neurotransmission reliability through metrics-based information analysis.

    PubMed

    Brasselet, Romain; Johansson, Roland S; Arleo, Angelo

    2011-04-01

    We set forth an information-theoretical measure to quantify neurotransmission reliability while taking into full account the metrical properties of the spike train space. This parametric information analysis relies on similarity measures induced by the metrical relations between neural responses as spikes flow in. Thus, in order to assess the entropy, the conditional entropy, and the overall information transfer, this method does not require any a priori decoding algorithm to partition the space into equivalence classes. It therefore allows the optimal parameters of a class of distances to be determined with respect to information transmission. To validate the proposed information-theoretical approach, we study precise temporal decoding of human somatosensory signals recorded using microneurography experiments. For this analysis, we employ a similarity measure based on the Victor-Purpura spike train metrics. We show that with appropriate parameters of this distance, the relative spike times of the mechanoreceptors' responses convey enough information to perform optimal discrimination--defined as maximum metrical information and zero conditional entropy--of 81 distinct stimuli within 40 ms of the first afferent spike. The proposed information-theoretical measure proves to be a suitable generalization of Shannon mutual information in order to consider the metrics of temporal codes explicitly. It allows neurotransmission reliability to be assessed in the presence of large spike train spaces (e.g., neural population codes) with high temporal precision.

  19. Laboratory information management system chain of custody: reliability and security.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, J J; Elliott-Smith, W; Radosta, T

    2006-01-01

    A chain of custody (COC) is required in many laboratories that handle forensics, drugs of abuse, environmental, clinical, and DNA testing, as well as other laboratories that want to assure reliability of reported results. Maintaining a dependable COC can be laborious, but with the recent establishment of the criteria for electronic records and signatures by US regulatory agencies, laboratory information management systems (LIMSs) are now being developed to fully automate COCs. The extent of automation and of data reliability can vary, and FDA- and EPA-compliant electronic signatures and system security are rare.

  20. Laboratory Information Management System Chain of Custody: Reliability and Security

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, J. J.; Elliott-Smith, W.; Radosta, T.

    2006-01-01

    A chain of custody (COC) is required in many laboratories that handle forensics, drugs of abuse, environmental, clinical, and DNA testing, as well as other laboratories that want to assure reliability of reported results. Maintaining a dependable COC can be laborious, but with the recent establishment of the criteria for electronic records and signatures by US regulatory agencies, laboratory information management systems (LIMSs) are now being developed to fully automate COCs. The extent of automation and of data reliability can vary, and FDA- and EPA-compliant electronic signatures and system security are rare. PMID:17671623

  1. Reliability of the Blessed Telephone Information-Memory-Concentration Test.

    PubMed

    Kawas, C; Karagiozis, H; Resau, L; Corrada, M; Brookmeyer, R

    1995-10-01

    In-person cognitive evaluations can be costly and labor intensive in geographically widespread populations. Reliable telephone instruments that screen for cognitive status would greatly facilitate epidemiologic and other longitudinal studies. We evaluated the reliability of the Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration (IMC) test when administered by telephone. Eighty-four subjects with a wide range of cognitive abilities were administered the Blessed IMC twice over a 3-week interval. Forty-nine of the subjects were administered the test both by telephone and in-person, and 35 of the subjects were tested twice by telephone. Spearman's rank correlation was used to compare scores of the different administrations (.96; P < .001) and to examine test-retest reliability (.96; P < .001). The Blessed Telephone IMC (TIMC) test exhibits excellent reliability both when compared to in-person administration as well as in test-retest results. The Blessed TIMC appears to be a practical instrument for population and longitudinal studies when in-person assessment is not feasible.

  2. Windows on Achievement and Inequality. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.; Coley, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Shifting focus from typical data and information about the status of educational achievement in the United States and about gaps in achievement among the nation's students, this report undertakes investigation of less-frequently-asked questions. As required by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), educators are continuously monitoring whether more…

  3. Health On the Net's 20 Years of Transparent and Reliable Health Information.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Célia; Appel, Ron D; Ball, Marion J; van Bemmel, Jan H; Bergmans, Jean-Paul; Carpentier, Michel; Hochstrasser, Denis; Lindberg, Donald; Miller, Randolph; Peterschmitt, Jean-Claude; Safran, Charlie; Thonnet, Michèle; Geissbühler, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The Health On the Net Foundation (HON) was born in 1996, during the beginning of the World Wide Web, from a collective decision by health specialists, led by the late Jean-Raoul Scherrer, who anticipated the need for online trustworthy health information. Because the Internet is a free space that everyone shares, a search for quality information is like a shot in the dark: neither will reliably hit their target. Thus, HON was created to promote deployment of useful and reliable online health information, and to enable its appropriate and efficient use. Two decades on, HON is the oldest and most valued quality marker for online health information. The organization has maintained its reputation through dynamic measures, innovative endeavors and dedication to upholding key values and goals. This paper provides an overview of the HON Foundation, and its activities, challenges, and achievements over the years.

  4. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  5. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  6. [Toxoplasmosis and Pregnancy: Reliability of Internet Sources of Information].

    PubMed

    Bobić, Branko; Štajner, Tijana; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Klun, Ivana; Srbljanović, Jelena; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2015-01-01

    Health education of women of childbearing age has been shown to be an acceptable approach to the prevention of toxoplasmosis, the most frequent congenitally transmitted parasitic infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Internet as a source of health education on toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. A group of 100 pregnant women examined in the National Reference Laboratory for Toxoplasmosis was surveyed by a questionnaire on the source of their information on toxoplasmosis. We also analyzed information offered by websites in the Serbian and Croatian languages through the Google search engine, using "toxoplasmosis" as a keyword. The 23 top websites were evaluated for comprehensiveness and accuracy of information on the impact of toxoplasmosis on the course of pregnancy, diagnosis and prevention. Having knowledge on toxoplasmosis was confirmed by 64 (64.0%) examined women, 40.6% (26/64) of whom learned about toxoplasmosis through the Internet, 48.4% from physicians, and 10.9% from friends. Increase in the degree of education was found to be associated with the probability that pregnant women would be informed via the Internet (RR=3.15, 95% CI=1.27-7.82, p=0.013). Analysis of four interactive websites (allowing users to ask questions) showed that routes of infection were the most common concern, particularly the risk presented by pet cats and dogs, followed by the diagnosis of infection (who and when should be tested, and how should the results be interpreted). Of 20 sites containing educational articles, only seven were authorized and two listed sources. Evaluation confirmed that information relevant to pregnant women was significantly more accurate than comprehensive, but no site gave both comprehensive and completely accurate information. Only four sites (20%) were good sources of information for pregnant women. Internet has proved itself as an important source of information. However, despite numerous websites, only a few offer reliable information to the

  7. Enhanced reliable transmission control protocol for spatial information networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhihong; Zhang, Juan; Wang, Junfeng

    2009-12-01

    Satellites channels are generally featured by high bit error rate (BER), long propagation delay, large bandwidth-delay product (BDP) and so on. This tends to make the traditional TCP suffer from serious performance degradation in satellite networks. Therefore, a TCP-compatible reliable transmission protocol (i.e., TCP-AX) for spatial information networks is proposed in this paper. And a bandwidth probing mechanism is designed to distinguish network congestion and link error. Simulation results show that TCP-AX has better performance than some popular enhanced TCP protocols.

  8. Toward Obtaining Reliable Particulate Air Quality Information from Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawa, A. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Legg, M.; Esswein, R.; Justice, E.

    2009-12-01

    Air quality agencies use ground sites to monitor air quality, providing accurate information at particular points. Using measurements from satellite imagery has the potential to provide air quality information in a timely manner with better spatial resolution and at a lower cost that can also useful for model validation. While previous studies show acceptable correlations between Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived from MODIS and surface Particulate Matter (PM) measurements on the eastern US, the data do not correlate well in the western US (Al-Saadi et al., 2005; Engle-Cox et al., 2004) . This paper seeks to improve the AOD-PM correlations by using advanced statistical analysis techniques. Our study area is the San Joaquin Valley in California because air quality in this region has failed to meet state and federal attainment standards for PM for the past several years. A previous investigation found good correlation of the AOD values between MODIS, MISR and AERONET, but poor correlations (R2 ~ 0.02) between satellite-based AOD and surface PM2.5 measurements. PM2.5 measurements correlated somewhat better (R2 ~ 0.18) with MODIS-derived AOD using the Deep Blue surface reflectance algorithm (Hsu et al., 2006) rather than the standard MODIS algorithm. This level of correlation is not adequate for reliable air quality measurements. Pelletier et al. (2007) used generalized additive models (GAMs) and meteorological data to improve the correlation between PM and AERONET AOD in western Europe. Additive models are more flexible than linear models and the functional relationships can be plotted to give a sense of the relationship between the predictor and the response. In this paper we use GAMs to improve surface PM2.5 to MODIS-AOD correlations. For example, we achieve an R2 ~ 0.44 using a GAM that includes the Deep Blue AOD, and day of year as parameters. Including NOx observations, improves the R2 ~ 0.64. Surprisingly Ångström exponent did not prove to be a significant

  9. Fair and Just Culture, Team Behavior, and Leadership Engagement: The Tools to Achieve High Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Allan S; Leonard, Michael W; Denham, Charles R

    2006-01-01

    Background Disparate health care provider attitudes about autonomy, teamwork, and administrative operations have added to the complexity of health care delivery and are a central factor in medicine's unacceptably high rate of errors. Other industries have improved their reliability by applying innovative concepts to interpersonal relationships and administrative hierarchical structures (Chandler 1962). In the last 10 years the science of patient safety has become more sophisticated, with practical concepts identified and tested to improve the safety and reliability of care. Objective Three initiatives stand out as worthy regarding interpersonal relationships and the application of provider concerns to shape operational change: The development and implementation of Fair and Just Culture principles, the broad use of Teamwork Training and Communication, and tools like WalkRounds that promote the alignment of leadership and frontline provider perspectives through effective use of adverse event data and provider comments. Methods Fair and Just Culture, Teamwork Training, and WalkRounds are described, and implementation examples provided. The argument is made that they must be systematically and consistently implemented in an integrated fashion. Conclusions There are excellent examples of institutions applying Just Culture principles, Teamwork Training, and Leadership WalkRounds—but to date, they have not been comprehensively instituted in health care organizations in a cohesive and interdependent manner. To achieve reliability, organizations need to begin thinking about the relationship between these efforts and linking them conceptually. PMID:16898986

  10. A novel Medical Achievement Self-efficacy Scale (MASS): a valid and reliable tool.

    PubMed

    Turan, Sevgi; Valcke, Martin; De Maeseneer, Jan; Aper, Leen; Koole, Sebastiaan; De Wispelaere, Christine; Deketelaere, Ann; Derese, Anselme

    2013-07-01

    In search for an instrument to measure overall curriculum impact, we developed a Medical Achievement Self-efficacy Scale (MASS) and presented it to medical students enrolled in the different years of the integrated Ghent curriculum. The research aim was to study the validity and reliability of this new scale. MASS items were constructed based on the end terms of the Ghent curriculum, as it is related to the general competency frameworks of CanMEDs and the Five-star Doctor. The scale includes at least two items for each CanMEDS competency domain. Items were examined by seven experts in view of content and face validity. This resulted in an MASS version, containing 18 items, to be rated on a five-point Likert scale. This version was piloted on 94 undergraduate medical students enrolled at the Catholic University of Leuven. The final version was presented to 1066 undergraduate medical students enrolled at Ghent University. Reliability of the MASS scale was high (α=0.89). As expected, self-efficacy scores increased significantly over the years (F=39.11, p<0.001). In view of determining predictive validity, regression analysis was carried out to predict students' academic achievement from self-efficacy scores. As expected, MASS scores significantly predicted Maastricht Progress Test scores (F=108.18, p<0.001).

  11. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J.

    2017-06-01

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  12. Operationalizing the Joint Information Environment: Achieving Information Dominance with the Undersea Constellation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Approved for public release. OPERATIONALIZING THE JOINT INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT: ACHIEVING INFORMATION DOMINANCE WITH THE UNDERSEA CONSTELLATION* Captain...SUBTITLE Operationalizing the Joint Information Environment: Achieving Information Dominance with the Undersea Constellation (U) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...predict what is over the horizon, faster than the adversary. As noted in the U.S. Navy’s Vision for Information Dominance , “The Navy will create a

  13. Noise management to achieve superiority in quantum information systems.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Kae; Devitt, Simon; Munro, William J

    2017-08-06

    Quantum information systems are expected to exhibit superiority compared with their classical counterparts. This superiority arises from the quantum coherences present in these quantum systems, which are obviously absent in classical ones. To exploit such quantum coherences, it is essential to control the phase information in the quantum state. The phase is analogue in nature, rather than binary. This makes quantum information technology fundamentally different from our classical digital information technology. In this paper, we analyse error sources and illustrate how these errors must be managed for the system to achieve the required fidelity and a quantum superiority.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. The Stories Clinicians Tell: Achieving High Reliability and Improving Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel L; Stewart, Kevin O

    2016-01-01

    The patient safety movement has been deeply affected by the stories patients have shared that have identified numerous opportunities for improvements in safety. These stories have identified system and/or human inefficiencies or dysfunctions, possibly even failures, often resulting in patient harm. Although patients’ stories tell us much, less commonly heard are the stories of clinicians and how their personal observations regarding the environments they work in and the circumstances and pressures under which they work may degrade patient safety and lead to harm. If the health care industry is to function like a high-reliability industry, to improve its processes and achieve the outcomes that patients rightly deserve, then leaders and managers must seek and value input from those on the front lines—both clinicians and patients. Stories from clinicians provided in this article address themes that include incident identification, disclosure and transparency, just culture, the impact of clinical workload pressures, human factors liabilities, clinicians as secondary victims, the impact of disruptive and punitive behaviors, factors affecting professional morale, and personal failings. PMID:26580146

  15. Twenty Years of Health On the Net: Committed to Reliable Information.

    PubMed

    Ball, Marion J

    2016-01-01

    In 1996, at the beginning of the World Wide Web, a group of health specialists anticipated the need for trustworthy health information online. Thus the Health On the Net Foundation (HON) was born. HON was created to promote the deployment of useful and reliable health information online and to enable its appropriate and efficient use. Two decades on, HON is the oldest and most valued quality marker for health information online. For a number of years under the guidance of the late Jean-Raoul Scherrer, the foundation has established its reputation through dynamic measures, innovative endeavors and a dedication to upholding key values and goals. This panel discussion provides an overview of the HON Foundation, its activities, challenges and achievements over the years.

  16. Design principles for achieving integrated healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-03-01

    Achieving integrated healthcare information systems has become a common goal for many countries in their pursuit of obtaining coordinated and comprehensive healthcare services. This article focuses on how a small local project termed 'Standardized pull of patient data' expanded and is now used on a large scale providing a majority of hospitals, general practitioners and citizens across Denmark with the possibility of accessing healthcare data from different electronic patient record systems and other systems. I build on design theory for information infrastructures, as presented by Hanseth and Lyytinen, to examine the design principles that facilitated this smallscale project to expand and become widespread. As a result of my findings, I outline three lessons learned that emphasize: (i) principles of flexibility, (ii) expansion from the installed base through modular strategies and (iii) identification of key healthcare actors to provide them with immediate benefits.

  17. WEF/WERF study of BNR plants achieving very low N and P limits: evaluation of technology performance and process reliability.

    PubMed

    Bott, Charles B; Parker, Denny S; Jimenez, Jose; Miller, Mark W; Neethling, J B

    2012-01-01

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) funded a two-year comprehensive study of nutrient removal plants designed and operated to meet very low effluent total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations. WERF worked with the Water Environment Federation (WEF) to solicit participation of volunteers and provide a forum for information exchange at workshops at its annual conferences. Both existing and new technologies are being adapted to meet requirements that are as low as 3.0 mg/L TN and 0.1 mg/L TP, and there is a need to define their capabilities and reliabilities in the real world situation of wastewater treatment plants. A concern over very low daily permits for ammonia caused the work to be extended to include nitrification reliability. This effort focused on maximizing what can be learned from existing technologies in order to provide a database that will inform key decision makers about proper choices for both technologies and rationale bases for statistical permit writing. To this end, managers of 22 plants, 10 achieving low effluent TP, nine achieving low effluent TN, and three achieving low effluent NH(3)-N, provided three years of operational data that were analyzed using a consistent statistical approach. Technology Performance Statistics (TPSs) were developed as three separate values representing the ideal, median, and reliably achievable performance. Technological conclusions can be drawn from the study in terms of what can be learned by comparing the different nutrient removal and nitrification processes employed at these 22 plants.

  18. A locally-blazed ant trail achieves efficient collective navigation despite limited information.

    PubMed

    Fonio, Ehud; Heyman, Yael; Boczkowski, Lucas; Gelblum, Aviram; Kosowski, Adrian; Korman, Amos; Feinerman, Ofer

    2016-11-05

    Any organism faces sensory and cognitive limitations which may result in maladaptive decisions. Such limitations are prominent in the context of groups where the relevant information at the individual level may not coincide with collective requirements. Here, we study the navigational decisions exhibited by Paratrechina longicornis ants as they cooperatively transport a large food item. These decisions hinge on the perception of individuals which often restricts them from providing the group with reliable directional information. We find that, to achieve efficient navigation despite partial and even misleading information, these ants employ a locally-blazed trail. This trail significantly deviates from the classical notion of an ant trail: First, instead of systematically marking the full path, ants mark short segments originating at the load. Second, the carrying team constantly loses the guiding trail. We experimentally and theoretically show that the locally-blazed trail optimally and robustly exploits useful knowledge while avoiding the pitfalls of misleading information.

  19. Testing the reliability of information extracted from ancient zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielman, Ross; Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Studies combining zircon U-Pb chronology, trace element distribution as well as O and Hf isotope systematics are a powerful way to gain understanding of the processes shaping Earth's evolution, especially in detrital populations where constraints from the original host are missing. Such studies of the Hadean detrital zircon population abundant in sedimentary rocks in Western Australia have involved analysis of an unusually large number of individual grains, but also highlighted potential problems with the approach, only apparent when multiple analyses are obtained from individual grains. A common feature of the Hadean as well as many early Archaean zircon populations is their apparent inhomogeneity, which reduces confidence in conclusions based on studies combining chemistry and isotopic characteristics of zircon. In order to test the reliability of information extracted from early Earth zircon, we report results from one of the first in-depth multi-method study of zircon from a relatively simple early Archean magmatic rock, used as an analogue to ancient detrital zircon. The approach involves making multiple SIMS analyses in individual grains in order to be comparable to the most advanced studies of detrital zircon populations. The investigated sample is a relatively undeformed, non-migmatitic ca. 3.8 Ga tonalite collected a few kms south of the Isua Greenstone Belt, southwest Greenland. Extracted zircon grains can be combined into three different groups based on the behavior of their U-Pb systems: (i) grains that show internally consistent and concordant ages and define an average age of 3805±15 Ma, taken to be the age of the rock, (ii) grains that are distributed close to the concordia line, but with significant variability between multiple analyses, suggesting an ancient Pb loss and (iii) grains that have multiple analyses distributed along a discordia pointing towards a zero intercept, indicating geologically recent Pb-loss. This overall behavior has

  20. Reviewing Reliability and Validity of Information for University Educational Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Yusaku

    To better utilize evaluations in higher education, it is necessary to share the methods of reviewing reliability and validity of examination scores and grades, and to accumulate and share data for confirming results. Before the GPA system is first introduced into a university or college, the reliability of examination scores and grades, especially for essay examinations, must be assured. Validity is a complicated concept, so should be assured in various ways, including using professional audits, theoretical models, and statistical data analysis. Because individual students and teachers are continually improving, using evaluations to appraise their progress is not always compatible with using evaluations in appraising the implementation of accountability in various departments or the university overall. To better utilize evaluations and improve higher education, evaluations should be integrated into the current system by sharing the vision of an academic learning community and promoting interaction between students and teachers based on sufficiently reliable and validated evaluation tools.

  1. Technical information report: Plasma melter operation, reliability, and maintenance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1995-03-14

    This document provides a technical report of operability, reliability, and maintenance of a plasma melter for low-level waste vitrification, in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. A process description is provided that minimizes maintenance and downtime and includes material and energy balances, equipment sizes and arrangement, startup/operation/maintence/shutdown cycle descriptions, and basis for scale-up to a 200 metric ton/day production facility. Operational requirements are provided including utilities, feeds, labor, and maintenance. Equipment reliability estimates and maintenance requirements are provided which includes a list of failure modes, responses, and consequences.

  2. Resource reliability, accessibility and governance: pillars for managing water resources to achieve water security in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Duncan, J.; Atkinson, P.; Dash, J.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the world's most water-abundant countries, Nepal has plenty of water yet resources are both spatially and temporally unevenly distributed. With a population heavily engaged in subsistence farming, whereby livelihoods are entirely dependent on rain-fed agriculture, changes in freshwater resources can substantially impact upon survival. The two main sources of water in Nepal come from monsoon precipitation and glacial runoff. The former is essential for sustaining livelihoods where communities have little or no access to perennial water resources. Much of Nepal's population live in the southern Mid-Hills and Terai regions where dependency on the monsoon system is high and climate-environment interactions are intricate. Any fluctuations in precipitation can severely affect essential potable resources and food security. As the population continues to expand in Nepal, and pressures build on access to adequate and clean water resources, there is a need for institutions to cooperate and increase the effectiveness of water management policies. This research presents a framework detailing three fundamental pillars for managing water resources to achieve sustainable water security in Nepal. These are (i) resource reliability; (ii) adequate accessibility; and (iii) effective governance. Evidence is presented which indicates that water resources are adequate in Nepal to sustain the population. In addition, aspects of climate change are having less impact than previously perceived e.g. results from trend analysis of precipitation time-series indicate a decrease in monsoon extremes and interannual variation over the last half-century. However, accessibility to clean water resources and the potential for water storage is limiting the use of these resources. This issue is particularly prevalent given the heterogeneity in spatial and temporal distributions of water. Water governance is also ineffective due to government instability and a lack of continuity in policy

  3. Estimation of Reliability Coefficients Using the Test Information Function and Its Modifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    1994-01-01

    The reliability coefficient is predicted from the test information function (TIF) or two modified TIF formulas and a specific trait distribution. Examples illustrate the variability of the reliability coefficient across different trait distributions, and results are compared with empirical reliability coefficients. (SLD)

  4. Harnessing the Power of MHS Information Systems to Achieve Meaningful Use of Health Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    Use/ meaningful use going forward 2 2011 MHS Conference Background  On July 13, 2010, CMS issued final rule on EHR Medicare/Medicaid Incentive Payment...Information Systems to Achieve Meaningful Use of Health Information January 24, 2011 Forum Moderator: COL Ron Moody 1 Military Health System Conference... Meaningful Use of Health Information 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  5. Updating the reference population to achieve constant genomic prediction reliability across generations.

    PubMed

    Pszczola, M; Calus, M P L

    2016-06-01

    The reliability of genomic breeding values (DGV) decays over generations. To keep the DGV reliability at a constant level, the reference population (RP) has to be continuously updated with animals from new generations. Updating RP may be challenging due to economic reasons, especially for novel traits involving expensive phenotyping. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate a minimal RP update size to keep the reliability at a constant level across generations. We used a simulated dataset resembling a dairy cattle population. The trait of interest was not included itself in the selection index, but it was affected by selection pressure by being correlated with an index trait that represented the overall breeding goal. The heritability of the index trait was assumed to be 0.25 and for the novel trait the heritability equalled 0.2. The genetic correlation between the two traits was 0.25. The initial RP (n=2000) was composed of cows only with a single observation per animal. Reliability of DGV using the initial RP was computed by evaluating contemporary animals. Thereafter, the RP was used to evaluate animals which were one generation younger from the reference individuals. The drop in the reliability when evaluating younger animals was then assessed and the RP was updated to re-gain the initial reliability. The update animals were contemporaries of evaluated animals (EVA). The RP was updated in batches of 100 animals/update. First, the animals most closely related to the EVA were chosen to update RP. The results showed that, approximately, 600 animals were needed every generation to maintain the DGV reliability at a constant level across generations. The sum of squared relationships between RP and EVA and the sum of off-diagonal coefficients of the inverse of the genomic relationship matrix for RP, separately explained 31% and 34%, respectively, of the variation in the reliability across generations. Combined, these parameters explained 53% of the

  6. Children assess informant reliability using bystanders' non-verbal cues.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Maria; Harris, Paul L

    2008-09-01

    Recent findings show that preschool children are selective with respect to whom they ask for information and whose claims they endorse. In particular, they monitor an informant's record of past accuracy or inaccuracy and use that record to gauge future trustworthiness. We ask if preschoolers also monitor the non-verbal cues of assent or dissent that bystanders display toward an informant's claims and use that information to gauge an informant's trustworthiness. In familiarization trials, 4-year-olds watched as two adult informants made conflicting claims regarding the name of an unfamiliar object. Two adult bystanders consistently signaled assent - via nods and smiles - to the claims of one informant, and dissent - via head shakes and frowns - from the claims of the other informant. When invited to endorse one of the two claims, 4-year-olds mostly agreed with the informant who had received bystander assent. Thus, in the absence of background knowledge about an object's name, children use third-party non-verbal signals to assess the accuracy of conflicting labels. On subsequent test trials, the informants again made conflicting claims about novel object names, but in the absence of the two bystanders. Despite the lack of any informative bystander signals, children with more advanced understanding of mental states continued to display greater trust in the informant who had received bystander assent in the earlier trials.

  7. Is It Really Possible to Test All Educationally Significant Achievements with High Levels of Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PISA claims that it can extend its reach from its current core subjects of Reading, Science, Maths and problem-solving. Yet given the requirement for high levels of reliability for PISA, especially in the light of its current high stakes character, proposed widening of its subject coverage cannot embrace some important aspects of the social and…

  8. Reliability and Validity of the "Achievement Emotions Questionnaire": A Study of Argentinean University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paoloni, Paola Verónica; Vaja, Arabela Beatriz; Muñoz, Verónica Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims at describing the psychometric features of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ), focusing specifically on the section that measures class emotions. From a theoretical perspective, this instrument was designed based on the control-value theory of achievement emotions. Therefore, a description of the…

  9. Reliability and Validity of the "Achievement Emotions Questionnaire": A Study of Argentinean University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paoloni, Paola Verónica; Vaja, Arabela Beatriz; Muñoz, Verónica Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper aims at describing the psychometric features of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ), focusing specifically on the section that measures class emotions. From a theoretical perspective, this instrument was designed based on the control-value theory of achievement emotions. Therefore, a description of the…

  10. Children Assess Informant Reliability Using Bystanders' Non-Verbal Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusaro, Maria; Harris, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent findings show that preschool children are selective with respect to whom they ask for information and whose claims they endorse. In particular, they monitor an informant's record of past accuracy or inaccuracy and use that record to gauge future trustworthiness. We ask if preschoolers also monitor the non-verbal cues of assent or dissent…

  11. Laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys to achieve defect-free, structurally sound and reliable welds

    SciTech Connect

    DebRoy, T.

    2000-11-17

    The objective of this program was to seek improved process control and weldment reliability during laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys while retaining the high speed and accuracy of the laser beam welding process. The effects of various welding variables on the loss of alloying elements and the formation of porosity and other geometric weld defects such as underfill and overfill were studied both experimentally and theoretically.

  12. Foraging Bumble Bees Weigh the Reliability of Personal and Social Information.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Aimee S; Nielsen, Matthew E; Dornhaus, Anna; Papaj, Daniel R

    2016-05-09

    Many animals, including insects, make decisions using both personally gathered information and social information derived from the behavior of other, usually conspecific, individuals [1]. Moreover, animals adjust use of social versus personal information appropriately under a variety of experimental conditions [2-5]. An important factor in how information is used is the information's reliability, that is, how consistently the information is correlated with something of relevance in the environment [6]. The reliability of information determines which signals should be attended to during communication [6-9], which types of stimuli animals should learn about, and even whether learning should evolve [10, 11]. Here, we show that bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) account for the reliability of personally acquired information (which flower color was previously associated with reward) and social information (which flowers are chosen by other bees) in making foraging decisions; however, the two types of information are not treated equally. Bees prefer to use social information if it predicts a reward at all, but if social information becomes entirely unreliable, flower color will be used instead. This greater sensitivity to the reliability of social information, and avoidance of conspecifics in some cases, may reflect the specific ecological circumstances of bee foraging. Overall, the bees' ability to make decisions based on both personally acquired and socially derived information, and the relative reliability of both, demonstrates a new level of sophistication and flexibility in animal, particularly insect, decision-making.

  13. Scalability, Complexity and Reliability in Quantum Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Information and Quantum Computation, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, “Quantum algorithm for the hidden shift...Future (and Past) of Quantum Lower Bounds by Polynomials,” October 17, 2002 W. van Dam, Workshop on Quantum Information and Quantum Computation, Abdus ... Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, “Quantum algorithms: Fourier transforms and group theory,” October 21, 2002 K

  14. Using Student Achievement Data Effectively to Inform Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunns, Sandra D.

    2012-01-01

    The use of student achievement data to improve teaching and learning is a national concern driven by accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002. Research studies that examine how schools use student achievement data document the need for teachers to connect data to instructional practices. Bruner's social constructivist…

  15. Parsing the Achievement Gap II. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.; Coley, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Gaps in school achievement among racial/ethnic groups and between students from different socioeconomic circumstances are well documented. They are wide and persistent, well known and widely acknowledged. This report focuses on the conditions and experiences that create and perpetuate achievement gaps. It is the second edition of the report…

  16. Reliability and Validity Evidence for Achievement Goal Models in High School Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Jianmin; McBride, Ron; Xiang, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Although empirical research in academic areas provides support for both a 3-factor as well as a 4-factor achievement goal model, both models were proposed and tested with a collegiate sample. Little is known about the generalizability of either model with high school level samples. This study was designed to examine whether the 3-factor model…

  17. A Validity and Reliability Update on the Informal Reading Inventory with Suggestions for Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klesius, Janell P.; Homan, Susan P.

    1985-01-01

    The article reviews validity and reliability studies on the informal reading inventory, a diagnostic instrument to identify reading grade-level placement and strengths and weaknesses in work recognition and comprehension. Gives suggestions to improve the validity and reliability of existing inventories and to evaluate them in newly published…

  18. Sources of medicine information and their reliability evaluated by medicine users.

    PubMed

    Närhi, Ulla

    2007-12-01

    To study the medicine users' sources of medicine information and the perceived reliability of these sources in different age groups. A computer-aided telephone interview (CATI) to Finnish consumers (n = 1,004). Those respondents (n = 714) who reported using any prescription or self-medication medicines more than once a month were included in the study. The respondents were interviewed about their use of sources of medicine information during the previous 6 months. The reliability of sources in different age groups was estimated using a 4-point scale: very reliable, somewhat reliable, somewhat unreliable and very unreliable. The respondents also had the option of being unable to make an appraisal. A proportion of respondents reporting using the source, number of mentioned sources and their reliability evaluated by respondents. About half of the respondents in each age group mentioned two to four sources. The most common sources of information were Patient Information Leaflets (PILs) (74%), doctors (68%) and pharmacists (60%). Next came television (40%), newspapers and magazines (40%), drug advertisements (32%), nurses (28%), drug information leaflets (27%), relatives and friends (24%), medicine guides and books (22%) and the Internet (20%). There was a significant difference between age groups in reporting the Internet as a source of medicine information (15-34-year-old respondents reported the greatest Internet use). The three most reliable sources in every age group were reported to be PILs, doctors and pharmacists. Nurses, drug regulatory authorities, drug information leaflets and medicine guides and books were considered next most reliable. Relatives and friends, television, newspapers and magazines were considered the least reliable. The respondents were most uncertain about the reliability of the Internet, patient organisations and telephone services. There was a significant difference between age groups in evaluating the reliability of telephone services (15

  19. Reliability and information content of tests with cardioleader in cyclic types of sports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utkin, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    Tests with cardioleader to control the physical, technical and tactical preparedness of athletes in cyclic types of sports are discussed. Ways of increasing the reliability and information content of the tests were studied.

  20. Autonomous Information Fading and Provision to Achieve High Response Time in Distributed Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaodong; Arfaoui, Helene; Mori, Kinji

    In highly dynamic electronic commerce environment, the need for adaptability and rapid response time to information service systems has become increasingly important. In order to cope with the continuously changing conditions of service provision and utilization, Faded Information Field (FIF) has been proposed. FIF is a distributed information service system architecture, sustained by push/pull mobile agents to bring high-assurance of services through a recursive demand-oriented provision of the most popular information closer to the users to make a tradeoff between the cost of information service allocation and access. In this paper, based on the analysis of the relationship that exists among the users distribution, information provision and access time, we propose the technology for FIF design to resolve the competing requirements of users and providers to improve users' access time. In addition, to achieve dynamic load balancing with changing users preference, the autonomous information reallocation technology is proposed. We proved the effectiveness of the proposed technology through the simulation and comparison with the conventional system.

  1. Effects of lecture information density on medical student achievement.

    PubMed

    Russell, I J; Hendricson, W D; Herbert, R J

    1984-11-01

    With the virtual explosion of biomedical information, the medical educator regularly faces a quandary regarding how much to include in the medical curriculum. Opinions differ regarding how much of the available information on a particular topic should be presented in a medical school lecture. To understand better the effect of lecture information density on learning by medical students, one of the authors gave a basic clinical lecture only or clinical lectures with varying amounts of semirelated information. Tests which measured only retention of the basic material were given before lecture attendance, immediately after the lecture, and 15 days later. The results indicated that increasing the information density of a lecture reduced retention of the basic information. The memory loss apparently was due to information presented late in the lecture displacing facts learned by the students earlier in the same hour. The data suggest that lectures to medical students are more effective aids to learning when the information density is limited to a few main points that are "essential to know."

  2. Information Technology, Mathematics Achievement and Educational Equity in Developed Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong; Hew, Khe Foon

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined how access to home and school IT resources impacted student mathematics achievement. Data comprised 144,395 secondary school students from 7,308 schools in 22 developed economies who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012. Results of hierarchical linear modelling showed that after…

  3. Complementary Noise-Immune Logic: High-Speed Logic for Reliable Computing Achieved Through Designable, Near - Voltage Transfer Characteristics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravrok, Roger John

    Improvements in digit-logic reliability and throughput performance have been achieved with circuit-design innovations. The goal of this research has been to improve the reliability of digital-logic systems by exploring new avenues in logic gate design. This is not a "technology push". Novel circuit design concepts, at the transistor level, were developed that yield near-ideal digital-logic-gate performance, and hence, deliver a step-function improvement in operational reliability. The design innovation uses circuit elements that independently regulate current and voltage, and uses a push-pull output stage. The result is a sharp voltage -transfer characteristic featuring rail-to-rail logic swings and noise margins that are larger than 2 V. These results were verified experimentally with a prototype test chip fabricated on a commercial production line. Development work has continued yielding several generations of commercially viable CNIL^{rm TM} logic families. Because of the near-ideal logic performance that these design concepts deliver, it is possible to implement high-fanin gates, which place substantial "logic power" in a single gate, and with a minimal amount of hardware. For example, 16-input 4 x 4 OR/AND gates have been developed for all-NPN ECL technologies. Significantly, these large -logic-functionality gates deliver subnanosecond propagation delays (590 ps) approximately equalling those of the basic two-input OR gates (600 ps). This high-speed, uniform operation of large and small gates is a result of further design innovations that prevent BJT saturation. A summary of the technical benefits include improvements in: logic performance, operational reliability, design flexibility, fabrication simplicity, and yield advantages. The CNIL benefits in combination deliver improved reliability and enhanced data throughput for silicon and GaAs logic circuits.

  4. Community First Communication: Reversing Information Disparities to Achieve Environmental Justice

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Edward A.; Desai, Chintan

    2011-01-01

    We address how information developed and effectively communicated through community based participatory research (CBPR) can reverse long-standing information disparities, empower a community, and be an agent for sustained change. Substantial information and power disparities existed between the polluted community and both the pollution industry and governmental regulators. An environmental justice partnership between a local community organization, physicians, and university performed CBPR and then developed a novel communication strategy to address a series of information disparities around a local water pollution issue. The community established a set of principles to govern the communication of results as soon as they were determined to be scientifically valid, including informing study participants and the community before other interested parties. CBPR results combined with a community-first communication strategy reversed the preexisting information disparities. The novel communication flow reversed the preferential information flow to industry and government associated with the usual scientific publication process. The community was empowered, and industry and government agencies responded positively to study recommendations. The CBPR results together with community first communication led to adoption of both community-wide and individual solutions and provided powerful motivation for behavioral change by industry and residents. PMID:21546988

  5. Community First Communication: Reversing Information Disparities to Achieve Environmental Justice.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Edward A; Desai, Chintan

    2010-09-01

    We address how information developed and effectively communicated through community based participatory research (CBPR) can reverse long-standing information disparities, empower a community, and be an agent for sustained change. Substantial information and power disparities existed between the polluted community and both the pollution industry and governmental regulators. An environmental justice partnership between a local community organization, physicians, and university performed CBPR and then developed a novel communication strategy to address a series of information disparities around a local water pollution issue. The community established a set of principles to govern the communication of results as soon as they were determined to be scientifically valid, including informing study participants and the community before other interested parties. CBPR results combined with a community-first communication strategy reversed the preexisting information disparities. The novel communication flow reversed the preferential information flow to industry and government associated with the usual scientific publication process. The community was empowered, and industry and government agencies responded positively to study recommendations. The CBPR results together with community first communication led to adoption of both community-wide and individual solutions and provided powerful motivation for behavioral change by industry and residents.

  6. Reliability training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  7. A locally-blazed ant trail achieves efficient collective navigation despite limited information

    PubMed Central

    Fonio, Ehud; Heyman, Yael; Boczkowski, Lucas; Gelblum, Aviram; Kosowski, Adrian; Korman, Amos; Feinerman, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Any organism faces sensory and cognitive limitations which may result in maladaptive decisions. Such limitations are prominent in the context of groups where the relevant information at the individual level may not coincide with collective requirements. Here, we study the navigational decisions exhibited by Paratrechina longicornis ants as they cooperatively transport a large food item. These decisions hinge on the perception of individuals which often restricts them from providing the group with reliable directional information. We find that, to achieve efficient navigation despite partial and even misleading information, these ants employ a locally-blazed trail. This trail significantly deviates from the classical notion of an ant trail: First, instead of systematically marking the full path, ants mark short segments originating at the load. Second, the carrying team constantly loses the guiding trail. We experimentally and theoretically show that the locally-blazed trail optimally and robustly exploits useful knowledge while avoiding the pitfalls of misleading information. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20185.001 PMID:27815944

  8. On achieving high accuracy and reliability in the calculation of relative protein–ligand binding affinities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingle; Berne, B. J.; Friesner, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    We apply a free energy perturbation simulation method, free energy perturbation/replica exchange with solute tempering, to two modifications of protein–ligand complexes that lead to significant conformational changes, the first in the protein and the second in the ligand. The approach is shown to facilitate sampling in these challenging cases where high free energy barriers separate the initial and final conformations and leads to superior convergence of the free energy as demonstrated both by consistency of the results (independence from the starting conformation) and agreement with experimental binding affinity data. The second case, consisting of two neutral thrombin ligands that are taken from a recent medicinal chemistry program for this interesting pharmaceutical target, is of particular significance in that it demonstrates that good results can be obtained for large, complex ligands, as opposed to relatively simple model systems. To achieve quantitative agreement with experiment in the thrombin case, a next generation force field, Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations 2.0, is required, which provides superior charges and torsional parameters as compared to earlier alternatives. PMID:22308365

  9. Retino-cortical information transmission achievable with a retina implant.

    PubMed

    Eger, Marcus; Wilms, Marcus; Eckhorn, Reinhard; Schanze, Thomas; Hesse, Lutz

    2005-01-01

    Blind subjects with photoreceptor degeneration perceive phosphenes when their intact retinal ganglion cells are stimulated electrically. Is this approach suitable for transmitting enough information to the visual cortex for partially restoring vision? We stimulated the retina of anesthetized cats electrically and visually while recording the responses in the visual cortex. Transmission of retino-cortical information T was quantified by information theory. T was 20-160 bit/s (per stimulation and recording site) with random electrical or visual impulse stimulation at rates between 20 and 40 s-1. While increasing spatial density of independent electrical stimulation channels T did not saturate with 7 electrodes/mm2 retina. With seven electrodes up to 500 bit/s was transmitted to 15 cortical recording sites. Electrical stimulation basically employs temporal stimulus patterns. They are intimately linked with intensity/contrast information coded by the spike density of retinal ganglion cells. From the cortical information spread we estimated the spatial resolution as 0.5mm cortex corresponding to 0.5-1.0 degrees visual angle. If the human cortex can receive and decode the information transmitted by a retina implant, our quantitative results measured in cats suggest that visuo-motor coordination and object recognition in many in- and out-door situations will be possible.

  10. Beyond identity: incorporating system reliability information into an automated combat identification system.

    PubMed

    Neyedli, Heather F; Hollands, Justin G; Jamieson, Greg A

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate display formats for an automated combat identification (CID) aid. Verbally informing users of automation reliability improves reliance on automated CID systems. A display can provide reliability information in real time. We developed and tested four visual displays that showed both target identity and system reliability information. Display type (pie, random mesh) and display proximity (integrated, separated) of identity and reliability information were manipulated. In Experiment 1, participants used the displays while engaging targets in a simulated combat environment. In Experiment 2, participants briefly viewed still scenes from the simulation. Participants relied on the automation more appropriately with the integrated display than with the separated display. Participants using the random mesh display showed greater sensitivity than those using a pie chart. However, in Experiment 2, the sensitivity effects were limited to lower reliability levels. The integrated display format and the random mesh display were the most effective displays tested. We recommend the use of the integrated format and a random mesh display to indicate identity and reliability information with an automated CID system.

  11. The neural mechanisms of reliability weighted integration of shape information from vision and touch.

    PubMed

    Helbig, Hannah B; Ernst, Marc O; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro; Thielscher, Axel; Mayer, Katja M; Schultz, Johannes; Noppeney, Uta

    2012-04-02

    Behaviourally, humans have been shown to integrate multisensory information in a statistically-optimal fashion by averaging the individual unisensory estimates according to their relative reliabilities. This form of integration is optimal in that it yields the most reliable (i.e. least variable) multisensory percept. The present study investigates the neural mechanisms underlying integration of visual and tactile shape information at the macroscopic scale of the regional BOLD response. Observers discriminated the shapes of ellipses that were presented bimodally (visual-tactile) or visually alone. A 2 × 5 factorial design manipulated (i) the presence vs. absence of tactile shape information and (ii) the reliability of the visual shape information (five levels). We then investigated whether regional activations underlying tactile shape discrimination depended on the reliability of visual shape. Indeed, in primary somatosensory cortices (bilateral BA2) and the superior parietal lobe the responses to tactile shape input were increased when the reliability of visual shape information was reduced. Conversely, tactile inputs suppressed visual activations in the right posterior fusiform gyrus, when the visual signal was blurred and unreliable. Somatosensory and visual cortices may sustain integration of visual and tactile shape information either via direct connections from visual areas or top-down effects from higher order parietal areas.

  12. Social Information Is Integrated into Value and Confidence Judgments According to Its Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Bobadilla-Suarez, Sebastian; Nouguchi, Takao; Sharot, Tali

    2017-01-01

    How much we like something, whether it be a bottle of wine or a new film, is affected by the opinions of others. However, the social information that we receive can be contradictory and vary in its reliability. Here, we tested whether the brain incorporates these statistics when judging value and confidence. Participants provided value judgments about consumer goods in the presence of online reviews. We found that participants updated their initial value and confidence judgments in a Bayesian fashion, taking into account both the uncertainty of their initial beliefs and the reliability of the social information. Activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex tracked the degree of belief update. Analogous to how lower-level perceptual information is integrated, we found that the human brain integrates social information according to its reliability when judging value and confidence. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The field of perceptual decision making has shown that the sensory system integrates different sources of information according to their respective reliability, as predicted by a Bayesian inference scheme. In this work, we hypothesized that a similar coding scheme is implemented by the human brain to process social signals and guide complex, value-based decisions. We provide experimental evidence that the human prefrontal cortex's activity is consistent with a Bayesian computation that integrates social information that differs in reliability and that this integration affects the neural representation of value and confidence. PMID:28566360

  13. The poor quality and reliability of information on periacetabular osteotomy on the internet in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takegami, Yasuhiko; Seki, Taisuke; Amano, Takafumi; Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Komatsu, Daigo; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    Although many patients use the internet to access health-related information, the quality and the reliability of the information is highly inconsistent. Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is one of the surgical procedures for hip dysplasia. However, medical information on PAO is limited on the internet. This study aims to evaluate the quality and reliability of information available on PAO on the internet in Japan. A web search was conducted on two search engines for the following terms: "hip osteotomy," "pelvic osteotomy," and "osteotomy for hip preservation" in Japanese. In total, we found 120 websites. To determine the quality and reliability of information on each website, we used the Health on the Net Foundation (HON) score, the Brief DISCERN score, and an osteotomy-specific content (OSC) score. After eliminating duplicate websites, we reviewed 49 unique websites. Only three websites (6.1%) had good reliability, as indicated by their HON scores. Twelve websites (24.4%) had good-quality information, as measured by their Brief DISCERN scores. As evaluated by their OSC scores, physician websites were found to be biased toward etiology and surgical indication and did not provide information on the complications of procedures. Non-physician websites were generally insufficient. The information about PAO on the internet is, therefore, unreliable and of poor-quality for Japanese patients.

  14. Consultation and Reliability of Information Sources Pertaining to University Selection: Some Questions Answered?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloutsou, Cleopatra; Paton, Robert A.; Lewis, John

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the information sources used by school leavers when selecting a university at which they wish to study and the perceived reliability of these sources of information. Design/methodology/approach: Using data from 306 pupils studying at various schools in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland it was revealed that…

  15. Reading Information about a Scientific Phenomenon on Webpages Varying for Reliability: An Eye-Movement Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Ariasi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Students search the Web frequently for many purposes, one of which is to search information for academic assignments. Given the huge amount of easily accessible online information, they are required to develop new reading skills and become more able to effectively evaluate the reliability of web sources. This study investigates the distribution of…

  16. Reading Information about a Scientific Phenomenon on Webpages Varying for Reliability: An Eye-Movement Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Ariasi, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Students search the Web frequently for many purposes, one of which is to search information for academic assignments. Given the huge amount of easily accessible online information, they are required to develop new reading skills and become more able to effectively evaluate the reliability of web sources. This study investigates the distribution of…

  17. The poor quality and reliability of information on periacetabular osteotomy on the internet in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Takegami, Yasuhiko; Seki, Taisuke; Amano, Takafumi; Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Komatsu, Daigo; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although many patients use the internet to access health-related information, the quality and the reliability of the information is highly inconsistent. Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is one of the surgical procedures for hip dysplasia. However, medical information on PAO is limited on the internet. This study aims to evaluate the quality and reliability of information available on PAO on the internet in Japan. A web search was conducted on two search engines for the following terms: “hip osteotomy,” “pelvic osteotomy,” and “osteotomy for hip preservation” in Japanese. In total, we found 120 websites. To determine the quality and reliability of information on each website, we used the Health on the Net Foundation (HON) score, the Brief DISCERN score, and an osteotomy-specific content (OSC) score. After eliminating duplicate websites, we reviewed 49 unique websites. Only three websites (6.1%) had good reliability, as indicated by their HON scores. Twelve websites (24.4%) had good-quality information, as measured by their Brief DISCERN scores. As evaluated by their OSC scores, physician websites were found to be biased toward etiology and surgical indication and did not provide information on the complications of procedures. Non-physician websites were generally insufficient. The information about PAO on the internet is, therefore, unreliable and of poor-quality for Japanese patients.

  18. MyOcean Central Information System - Achievements and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claverie, Vincent; Loubrieu, Thomas; Jolibois, Tony; de Dianous, Rémi; Blower, Jon; Romero, Laia; Griffiths, Guy

    2013-04-01

    Since 2009, MyOcean (http://www.myocean.eu) is providing an operational service, for forecasts, analysis and expertise on ocean currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, primary ecosystems and ice coverage. The production of observation and forecasting data is done by 42 Production Units (PU). Product download and visualisation are hosted by 25 Dissemination Units (DU). All these products and associated services are gathered in a single catalogue hiding the intricate distributed organization of PUs and DUs. Besides applying INSPIRE directive and OGC recommendations, MyOcean overcomes technical choices and challenges. This presentation focuses on 3 specific issues met by MyOcean and relevant for many Spatial Data Infrastructures: user's transaction accounting, large volume download and stream line the catalogue maintenance. Transaction Accounting: Set up powerful means to get detailed knowledge of system usage in order to subsequently improve the products (ocean observations, analysis and forecast dataset) and services (view, download) offer. This subject drives the following ones: Central authentication management for the distributed web services implementations: add-on to THREDDS Data Server for WMS and NETCDF sub-setting service, specific FTP. Share user management with co-funding projects. In addition to MyOcean, alternate projects also need consolidated information about the use of the cofunded products. Provide a central facility for the user management. This central facility provides users' rights to geographically distributed services and gathers transaction accounting history from these distributed services. Propose a user-friendly web interface to download large volume of data (several GigaBytes) as robust as basic FTP but intuitive and file/directory independent. This should rely on a web service drafting the INSPIRE to-be specification and OGC recommendations for download taking into account that FTP server is not enough friendly (need to know

  19. MyOcean Central Information System - Achievements and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dianous, Rémi; Jolibois, Tony; Besnard, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    MyOcean (http://www.myocean.eu) is providing a pre-operational service, for forecasts, analysis and expertise on ocean currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, primary ecosystems and ice coverage. Since 2009, three successive projects (MyOcean-I, MyOcean-II and MyOcean-Follow-on) have been designed to prepare and to lead the demonstration phases of the future Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service. The main goal of these projects was to build a system of systems offering the users a unique access point to European oceanographic data. Reaching this goal at European level with 59 partners from 28 different countries was a real challenge: initially, each local system had its own human processes and methodology, its own interfaces for production and dissemination. At the end of MyOcean Follow-on, any user can connect to one web portal, browse an interactive catalogue of products and services, use one login to access all data disseminated through harmonized interfaces in a common format and contact a unique centralized service desk. In this organization the central information system plays a key role. The production of observation and forecasting data is done by 48 Production Units (PU). Product download and visualisation are hosted by 26 Dissemination Units (DU). All these products and associated services are gathered in a single system hiding the intricate distributed organization of PUs and DUs. This central system will be presented in detail, including notably the technical choices in architecture and technologies which have been made and why, and the lessons learned during these years of real life of the system, taking into account internal and external feedbacks. Then, perspectives will be presented to sketch the future of such system in the next Marine Copernicus Service which is meant to be fully operational from 2015 onwards.

  20. Navy Strategy for Achieving Information Dominance, 2013-2017. Optimizing Navy’s Primacy in the Maritime and Information Domains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    and resources to optimize decision making and maximize warfighting effects, Navy Information Dominance has become a leading Service priority. In 2009...This Strategy for Achieving Information Dominance provides the framework through which the Navy s information capabilities will be mainstreamed into...the Navy s culture as a distinct warfighting discipline. The strategy focuses on the three fundamental Information Dominance capabilities of Assured

  1. The Impact of Third-Party Information on Trust: Valence, Source, and Reliability

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Economic exchange between strangers happens extremely frequently due to the growing number of internet transactions. In trust situations like online transactions, a trustor usually does not know whether she encounters a trustworthy trustee. However, the trustor might form beliefs about the trustee's trustworthiness by relying on third-party information. Different kinds of third-party information can vary dramatically in their importance to the trustor. We ran a factorial design to study how the different characteristics of third-party information affect the trustor’s decision to trust. We systematically varied unregulated third-party information regarding the source (friend or a stranger), the reliability (gossip or experiences), and the valence (positive or negative) of the information. The results show that negative information is more salient for withholding trust than positive information is for placing trust. If third-party information is positive, experience of a friend has the strongest effect on trusting followed by friend’s gossip. Positive information from a stranger does not matter to the trustor. With respect to negative information, the data show that even the slightest hint of an untrustworthy trustee leads to significantly less placed trust irrespective of the source or the reliability of the information. PMID:26882013

  2. Trust in testimony about strangers: young children prefer reliable informants who make positive attributions.

    PubMed

    Boseovski, Janet J

    2012-03-01

    Young children have been described as critical consumers of information, particularly in the domain of language learning. Indeed, children are more likely to learn novel words from people with accurate histories of object labeling than with inaccurate ones. But what happens when informant testimony conflicts with a tendency to see the world in a particular way? In impression formation, children exhibit a positivity bias in personality judgments. This study examined whether 3- to 7-year-olds would accept reliable testimony about a stranger's personality that conflicted with a putative positivity bias (i.e., a negative trait attribution). Overall, participants accepted testimony from reliable informants more often than expected by chance, although they were significantly more likely to do so when the information was positive than when it was negative. These findings indicate that in addition to the reliability status of informants, information processing biases have a substantial impact on children's use of informant testimony to learn about the social world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Validity and Reliability of the Czech Version of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS).

    PubMed

    Zeleníková, Renáta; Homzová, Pavlína; Homza, Miroslav; Bužgová, Radka

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Czech version of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) in adult patients undergoing elective surgery. A cross-sectional study. Data were collected from July 2012 to January 2013. For reliability and validity testing, two instruments measuring preoperative anxiety were administered to the participants on the same occasion, (APAIS and the Spielberg State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S)). The sample consisted of 344 patients undergoing elective surgery. Reliability of APAIS anxiety subscale measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.91. Reliability of APAIS information subscale measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.78. The APAIS anxiety subscale correlated significantly with the STAI-S (0.69). Women scored significantly higher on anxiety scales than men. APAIS may be a useful tool to measure preoperative anxiety in Czech patients undergoing elective surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interrater Reliability of the Outcomes and Assessment Information Set: Results from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Elizabeth A.; Fortinsky, Richard H.

    2004-01-01

    The Outcomes and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) is now used extensively for regulatory, reimbursement, research, and clinical purposes in home health care. However, little is known about the interrater reliability of OASIS items based on assessments from home-health-agency clinicians. Therefore, we evaluated OASIS item interrater reliability…

  5. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Reliability and Maintainability Model. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    The reliability and maintainability (R&M) model described in this report represents an important portion of a larger effort called the Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS) Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Study. The R&M model is the first of three models that comprise a modeling system for use in LCC analysis of avionics systems. The total…

  6. Epistemic Trust and Education: Effects of Informant Reliability on Student Learning of Decimal Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kelley; Shafto, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The epistemic trust literature emphasizes that children's evaluations of informants' trustworthiness affects learning, but there is no evidence that epistemic trust affects learning in academic domains. The current study investigated how reliability affects decimal learning. Fourth and fifth graders (N = 122; M[subscript age] = 10.1 years)…

  7. Epistemic Trust and Education: Effects of Informant Reliability on Student Learning of Decimal Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kelley; Shafto, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The epistemic trust literature emphasizes that children's evaluations of informants' trustworthiness affects learning, but there is no evidence that epistemic trust affects learning in academic domains. The current study investigated how reliability affects decimal learning. Fourth and fifth graders (N = 122; M[subscript age] = 10.1 years)…

  8. The Effects of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…

  9. Teacher Feedback and Student Academic Achievement: Teacher Use of Student Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    In an era of professional standards for educators and teacher evaluations linked to measures of student achievement, researchers use data from student information systems to address research questions linking teacher feedback to student achievement. A quantitative study of teacher use of the Skyward student information system (SIS) was conducted…

  10. Validity of Assessment and Recognition of Non-Formal and Informal Learning Achievements in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Stasiunaitiene, Egle

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies the validity of assessment of non-formal and informal learning achievements (NILA) as one of the key factors for encouraging further development of the process of assessing and recognising non-formal and informal learning achievements in higher education. The authors analyse why the recognition of non-formal and informal…

  11. Operation Reliability Assessment for Cutting Tools by Applying a Proportional Covariate Model to Condition Monitoring Information

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia

    2012-01-01

    The reliability of cutting tools is critical to machining precision and production efficiency. The conventional statistic-based reliability assessment method aims at providing a general and overall estimation of reliability for a large population of identical units under given and fixed conditions. However, it has limited effectiveness in depicting the operational characteristics of a cutting tool. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to assess the operation reliability of cutting tools. A proportional covariate model is introduced to construct the relationship between operation reliability and condition monitoring information. The wavelet packet transform and an improved distance evaluation technique are used to extract sensitive features from vibration signals, and a covariate function is constructed based on the proportional covariate model. Ultimately, the failure rate function of the cutting tool being assessed is calculated using the baseline covariate function obtained from a small sample of historical data. Experimental results and a comparative study show that the proposed method is effective for assessing the operation reliability of cutting tools. PMID:23201980

  12. Operation reliability assessment for cutting tools by applying a proportional covariate model to condition monitoring information.

    PubMed

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Baojia; He, Zhengjia

    2012-09-25

    The reliability of cutting tools is critical to machining precision and production efficiency. The conventional statistic-based reliability assessment method aims at providing a general and overall estimation of reliability for a large population of identical units under given and fixed conditions. However, it has limited effectiveness in depicting the operational characteristics of a cutting tool. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an approach to assess the operation reliability of cutting tools. A proportional covariate model is introduced to construct the relationship between operation reliability and condition monitoring information. The wavelet packet transform and an improved distance evaluation technique are used to extract sensitive features from vibration signals, and a covariate function is constructed based on the proportional covariate model. Ultimately, the failure rate function of the cutting tool being assessed is calculated using the baseline covariate function obtained from a small sample of historical data. Experimental results and a comparative study show that the proposed method is effective for assessing the operation reliability of cutting tools.

  13. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  14. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  15. Creation of Reliable Relevance Judgments in Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Experimentation through Crowdsourcing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment. PMID:24977172

  16. Creation of reliable relevance judgments in information retrieval systems evaluation experimentation through crowdsourcing: a review.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment.

  17. Implementation of a combined algorithm designed to increase the reliability of information systems: simulation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A.; Zolotarev, V.; Bychkov, S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper examines the results of experimental studies of a previously submitted combined algorithm designed to increase the reliability of information systems. The data that illustrates the organization and conduct of the studies is provided. Within the framework of a comparison of As a part of the study conducted, the comparison of the experimental data of simulation modeling and the data of the functioning of the real information system was made. The hypothesis of the homogeneity of the logical structure of the information systems was formulated, thus enabling to reconfigure the algorithm presented, - more specifically, to transform it into the model for the analysis and prediction of arbitrary information systems. The results presented can be used for further research in this direction. The data of the opportunity to predict the functioning of the information systems can be used for strategic and economic planning. The algorithm can be used as a means for providing information security.

  18. Pre-Proposal Assessment of Reliability for Spacecraft Docking with Limited Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brall, Aron

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the reliability of a critical system function as well as its impact on the system reliability when limited information is available. The approach addresses the basic function reliability, and then the impact of multiple attempts to accomplish the function. The dependence of subsequent attempts on prior failure to accomplish the function is also addressed. The autonomous docking of two spacecraft was the specific example that generated the inquiry, and the resultant impact on total reliability generated substantial interest in presenting the results due to the relative insensitivity of overall performance to basic function reliability and moderate degradation given sufficient attempts to try and accomplish the required goal. The application of the methodology allows proper emphasis on the characteristics that can be estimated with some knowledge, and to insulate the integrity of the design from those characteristics that can't be properly estimated with any rational value of uncertainty. The nature of NASA's missions contains a great deal of uncertainty due to the pursuit of new science or operations. This approach can be applied to any function where multiple attempts at success, with or without degradation, are allowed.

  19. Achievement goals and interpersonal behavior: how mastery and performance goals shape information exchange.

    PubMed

    Poortvliet, P Marijn; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van de Vliert, Evert

    2007-10-01

    The present research examines the impact of achievement goals on task-related information exchange. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that relative to those with mastery goals or no goal, individuals pursuing performance goals were less open in their information giving to exchange partners. Study 2 further clarifies this effect of achievement goals by showing that performance goals generate an exploitation orientation toward information exchange. Furthermore, relative to individuals with mastery goals or no goal, people pursuing performance goals enhanced their task performance by utilizing more high-quality information obtained from their exchange partner (Study 1) and protected their task performance by more rigorously disregarding received low-quality information (Study 2).

  20. Reliability of information collected by proxy in family studies of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Demissie, S; Green, R C; Mucci, L; Tziavas, S; Martelli, K; Bang, K; Coons, L; Bourque, S; Buchillon, D; Johnson, K; Smith, T; Sharrow, N; Lautenschlager, N; Friedland, R; Cupples, L A; Farrer, L A

    2001-05-01

    The study evaluated the reliability of data obtained from proxy informants. The index subjects in this study were 81 nondemented participants in the Multi-Institutional Research in Alzheimer Genetic Epidemiology (MIRAGE) study. These index subjects and 159 proxy informants, identified by the index subjects, participated in the study. The kappa statistic with multiple raters per subject (for dichotomous variables) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (for continuous variables) were used to measure reliability. Among proxy respondents who provided answers, there was excellent agreement between proxy responses and the responses of the index subjects (0.7 < or = kappa < or =0.9), with the exception of questions about head injury (kappa = 0.4). A large proportion (>90%) of the proxy informants in this study were able to provide information on most items. Higher nonresponse rates (as high as 30%) were observed for medication history and women's health questions. This study supports the reliability of proxy responses for most categories of questions that are elicited in typical epidemiological studies, including the MIRAGE study. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Use and perceptions of information among family physicians: sources considered accessible, relevant, and reliable

    PubMed Central

    Kosteniuk, Julie G.; Morgan, Debra G.; D'Arcy, Carl K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The research determined (1) the information sources that family physicians (FPs) most commonly use to update their general medical knowledge and to make specific clinical decisions, and (2) the information sources FPs found to be most physically accessible, intellectually accessible (easy to understand), reliable (trustworthy), and relevant to their needs. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey of 792 FPs and locum tenens, in full-time or part-time medical practice, currently practicing or on leave of absence in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan was conducted during the period of January to April 2008. Results: Of 666 eligible physicians, 331 completed and returned surveys, resulting in a response rate of 49.7% (331/666). Medical textbooks and colleagues in the main patient care setting were the top 2 sources for the purpose of making specific clinical decisions. Medical textbooks were most frequently considered by FPs to be reliable (trustworthy), and colleagues in the main patient care setting were most physically accessible (easy to access). Conclusions: When making specific clinical decisions, FPs were most likely to use information from sources that they considered to be reliable and generally physically accessible, suggesting that FPs can best be supported by facilitating easy and convenient access to high-quality information. PMID:23405045

  2. Interventions to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery D; Emmerton, Lynne M

    2014-01-01

    Health information on the Internet is ubiquitous, and its use by health consumers prevalent. Finding and understanding relevant online health information, and determining content reliability, pose real challenges for many health consumers. To identify the types of interventions that have been implemented to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information, and where possible, describe and compare the types of outcomes studied. PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Cochrane Library databases; WorldCat and Scirus 'gray literature' search engines; and manual review of reference lists of selected publications. Publications were selected by firstly screening title, abstract, and then full text. Seven publications met the inclusion criteria, and were summarized in a data extraction form. The form incorporated the PICOS (Population Intervention Comparators Outcomes and Study Design) Model. Two eligible gray literature papers were also reported. Relevant data from included studies were tabulated to enable descriptive comparison. A brief critique of each study was included in the tables. This review was unable to follow systematic review methods due to the paucity of research and humanistic interventions reported. While extensive, the gray literature search may have had limited reach in some countries. The paucity of research on this topic limits conclusions that may be drawn. The few eligible studies predominantly adopted a didactic approach to assisting health consumers, whereby consumers were either taught how to find credible websites, or how to use the Internet. Common types of outcomes studied include knowledge and skills pertaining to Internet use and searching for reliable health information. These outcomes were predominantly self-assessed by participants. There is potential for further research to explore other avenues for assisting health consumers to find reliable online health information, and to assess outcomes via objective measures.

  3. Interventions to Assist Health Consumers to Find Reliable Online Health Information: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery D.; Emmerton, Lynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health information on the Internet is ubiquitous, and its use by health consumers prevalent. Finding and understanding relevant online health information, and determining content reliability, pose real challenges for many health consumers. Purpose To identify the types of interventions that have been implemented to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information, and where possible, describe and compare the types of outcomes studied. Data Sources PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Cochrane Library databases; WorldCat and Scirus ‘gray literature’ search engines; and manual review of reference lists of selected publications. Study Selection Publications were selected by firstly screening title, abstract, and then full text. Data Extraction Seven publications met the inclusion criteria, and were summarized in a data extraction form. The form incorporated the PICOS (Population Intervention Comparators Outcomes and Study Design) Model. Two eligible gray literature papers were also reported. Data Synthesis Relevant data from included studies were tabulated to enable descriptive comparison. A brief critique of each study was included in the tables. This review was unable to follow systematic review methods due to the paucity of research and humanistic interventions reported. Limitations While extensive, the gray literature search may have had limited reach in some countries. The paucity of research on this topic limits conclusions that may be drawn. Conclusions The few eligible studies predominantly adopted a didactic approach to assisting health consumers, whereby consumers were either taught how to find credible websites, or how to use the Internet. Common types of outcomes studied include knowledge and skills pertaining to Internet use and searching for reliable health information. These outcomes were predominantly self-assessed by participants. There is potential for further research to explore other avenues for assisting health

  4. Medical record review conduction model for improving interrater reliability of abstracting medical-related information.

    PubMed

    Engel, Lisa; Henderson, Courtney; Fergenbaum, Jennifer; Colantonio, Angela

    2009-09-01

    Medical record review (MRR) is often used in clinical research and evaluation, yet there is limited literature regarding best practices in conducting a MRR, and there are few studies reporting interrater reliability (IRR) from MRR data. The aim of this research was twofold: (a) to develop a MRR abstraction tool and standardize the MRR process and (b) to examine the IRR from MRR data. This study introduces the MRR-Conduction Model, which was used to implement a MRR, and examines the IRR between two abstractors who collected preinjury medical and psychiatric, incident-related medical and postinjury head symptom information from the medical records of 47 neurologically injured workers. Results showed that the percentage agreement was > or =85% and the unweighted kappa statistic was > or =.60 for most variables, indicating substantial IRR. An effective and reliable MRR to abstract medical-related information requires planning and time. The MRR-Conduction Model is proposed to guide the process of creating a MRR.

  5. [Reliability of self-reported information by farmers on pesticide use].

    PubMed

    Lee, Yo Han; Cha, Eun Shil; Moon, Eun Kyeong; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Koh, Sang Baek; Lee, Yun Keun; Lee, Won Jin

    2010-11-01

    Exposure assessment is a major challenge faced by studies that evaluate the association between pesticide exposure and adverse health outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of information that farmers self-report regarding their pesticide use. Twenty five items based upon existing questionnaires were designed to focus on pesticide exposure. In 2009 a self-administrated survey was conducted on two occasions four weeks apart among 205 farmers residing in Gyeonggi and Gangwon provinces. For a reliability measure, we calculated the percentage agreement, the kappa statistics and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the two reports according to the characteristics of the subjects. Agreement for ever-never use of any pesticide was 96.4% (kappa 0.61). For both 'years used' and 'age at the first use' of overall pesticides, high agreement was obtained (ICC: 0.88 and, 0.78, respectively), whereas those of 'days used' and 'hours used' were relatively low (ICC: 0.42 and, 0.66, respectively). The kappa value for the use of personal protective equipment ranged from 0.46 to 0.59, and hygiene activities came out at 0.19 to 0.37. The agreement for individual pesticide use ranged widely and there was relatively low agreement due to the low response rates. The reliability scores did not significantly vary according to gender, age, the education level, the types of crop or the years of farming. Our results support that carefully designed, self-reported information on ever-never pesticide use among farmers is reliable. However, the reliability of data on individual pesticide exposure may be unstable due to low response rates and needs to be refined.

  6. Finding Ways to Effectively Use Year 12 Achievement Data to Inform Practice in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italiano, Frank; Hine, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    This action research explored how Year 12 achievement data were used by school personnel to inform practice within seven Catholic secondary schools. Deputy Principals of Curriculum from participating schools were interviewed regarding their perceptions of the improvement of Year 12 student achievement outcomes, and their insights into how to…

  7. Factors Associated with Low Achievement among Students from Nairobi's Urban Informal Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejakait, Epari; Mutisya, Maurice; Ezeh, Alex; Oketch, Moses; Ngware, Moses

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes new evidence on factors associated with low achievement among pupils in urban informal neighborhoods in Nairobi, Kenya. The authors use three different data sets to examine the effect of residence in particular neighborhoods, pupil gender, primary school type, and household socioeconomic status on pupil achievement in the…

  8. Out-of-School Factors Affecting Academic Achievement. Information Capsule. Volume 1004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanik, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This Information Capsule is the third in a series of papers addressing factors contributing to low academic achievement. The two previous papers addressed issues relevant to class size reduction and teacher quality/preparation. The premise of this Information Capsule is that there is no single smoking gun relative to improving school performance.…

  9. The Effect of Creative Drama on Student Achievement in the Course of Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özek, Müzeyyen Bulut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of creative drama on student achievement in the Information Technologies course. The study was carried out for the unit "Tomorrow's Technology" which is the first unit of Information Technologies course. For this study, 89 sixth grade students were selected from primary school in…

  10. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire in a Sample of Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Castejon, Juan L.; Valle, Antonio; Delgado, Beatriz; Marzo, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ) using a sample of 2,022 (51.1% boys) Spanish students from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the correlated three-factor structure of the AGTQ in this sample: Learning…

  11. Reliability and Validity Evidence of Scores on the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire in a Sample of Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Castejon, Juan L.; Valle, Antonio; Delgado, Beatriz; Marzo, Juan C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ) using a sample of 2,022 (51.1% boys) Spanish students from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the correlated three-factor structure of the AGTQ in this sample: Learning…

  12. Engineering Principles for Information Technology Security (A Baseline for Achieving Security)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    C O M P U T E R S E C U R I T Y Engineering Principles for Information Technology Security (A...Documentation Page Report Date 01062001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Engineering Principles for Information...2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Engineering Principles for Information Technology Security (A Baseline for Achieving Security) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6

  13. Adapting the Content of Cancer Web Sites to the Information Needs of Patients: Reliability and Readability

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez-Tamayo, Clara; Pernett, Jaime Jiménez; Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Francisco; Cózar-Olmo, José Manuel; Valero-Aguilera, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: People who use the Internet to research health topics do not usually find all the information they need and do not trust what they read. This study was designed to assess the reliability, accessibility, readability, and popularity of cancer Web sites in Spanish and to analyze the suitability of Web site content in accordance with the specific information needs of cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This was a two-phase, cross-sectional, descriptive study. The first phase involved data gathering through online searches and direct observation. The second phase involved individual structured interviews with 169 patients with breast, prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. Spearman rank correlations were calculated between variables. Results: Most sites belonged to nonprofit organizations, followed by universities or medical centers (14%). Thirty-one percent of the Web sites had quality seals, 59% provided details of authorship, 62% provided references to bibliographic sources, 38% identified their funding sources, and 54% showed the date of their last update. Twenty-one percent of the Web sites did not meet the minimum accessibility criteria. With regard to readability, 24% of the texts were considered to be “quite difficult.” Patients' information needs vary depending on the type of cancer they have, although all patients want to know about the likelihood of a cure, survival rates, the side effects, and risks of treatment. Conclusions: The health information on cancer available on the Internet in Spanish is not very reliable, accessible, or readable and is not necessarily the information that breast, kidney, prostate, and bladder cancer patients require. The content of cancer Web sites needs to be assessed according to the information needs of patients. PMID:24073899

  14. The application of Plant Reliability Data Information System (PRINS) to CANDU reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, S. W.; Lim, Y. H.; Park, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    As risk-informed applications (RIAs) are actively implanted in the nuclear industry, an issue associated with technical adequacy of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) arises in its modeling and data sourcing. In Korea, PSA for all Korean NPPs has been completed and KHNP(Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Plant Company) developed the database called the Plant Reliability Data Information System (PRinS). It has several characteristics that distinguish it from other database system such as NPRDs (INPO,1994), PRIS (IAEA), and SRDF (EdF). This database has the function of systematic data management such as automatic data-gathering, periodic data deposition and updating, statistical analysis including Bayesian method, and trend analysis of failure rate or unavailability. In recent PSA for CANDU reactor, the component failure data of EPRI ALWR URD and Component Reliability Database were preferentially used as generic data set. The error factor for most component failure data was estimated by using the information NUREG/CR-4550 and NUREG/CR-4639. Also, annual trend analysis was performed for the functional losses of components using the statistical analysis and chart module of PRinS. Furthermore, the database has been updated regularly and maintained as a living program to reflect the current status. This paper presents the failure data analysis using PRinS which provides Bayesian analysis on main components in the CANDU reactor. (authors)

  15. The role of quality tools in assessing reliability of the internet for health information.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Faisal; Read, Janet C; Goodacre, John A; Chaudhry, Afzal; Gibbs, Paul

    2009-12-01

    The Internet has made it possible for patients and their families to access vast quantities of information that previously would have been difficult for anyone but a physician or librarian to obtain. Health information websites, however, are recognised to differ widely in quality and reliability of their content. This has led to the development of various codes of conduct or quality rating tools to assess the quality of health websites. However, the validity and reliability of these quality tools and their applicability to different health websites also varies. In principle, rating tools should be available to consumers, require a limited number of elements to be assessed, be assessable in all elements, be readable and be able to gauge the readability and consistency of information provided from a patient's view point. This article reviews the literature on the trends of the Internet use for health and analyses various codes of conduct/ethics or 'quality tools' available to monitor the quality of health websites from a patient perspective.

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Dutch Translation of the Filial Maturity Measure in Informal Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Van Bruggen, S; Bode, C; Ten Klooster, P M; Lenferink, L I M

    This study explored the reliability and validity of a Dutch translation of the 10-item Filial Maturity Measure (FMM) in a sample of Dutch informal caregivers. The FMM was translated with a forward-backward method and completed by 93 informal caregivers (62 % response rate) with a need dependent parent. Dimensionality of the Dutch FMM was examined by principal component and internal consistency analyses. Criterion validity was examined by assessing correlations with filial love, filial autonomy and level of closeness between parent and child. Construct validity was tested by examining associations with the traits openness and agreeableness. In addition, the relationship with state and trait affectivity was explored. After removal of the item "I worry about turning out like my parent", the original dimensional structure, internal consistency, criterion and construct validity were confirmed. Additional exploration of the relation between the FMM subscales and trait and state affectivity scales demonstrated that filial maturity is at most weakly associated with trait affectivity. Both FMM scales showed a positive partial correlation with negative state affectivity. The Dutch FMM appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring filial maturity of informal caregivers who provide care to their need dependent parent. The (non-)functioning of one item pointed to the necessity to validate the FMM, but also questionnaires in general in different populations.

  17. The Accessibility, Usability, and Reliability of Chinese Web-Based Information on HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lu; Luo, Dan; Liu, Ying; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to assess the quality of Chinese-language Internet-based information on HIV/AIDS. Methods: We entered the following search terms, in Chinese, into Baidu and Sogou: “HIV/AIDS”, “symptoms”, and “treatment”, and evaluated the first 50 hits of each query using the Minervation validation instrument (LIDA tool) and DISCERN instrument. Results: Of the 900 hits identified, 85 websites were included in this study. The overall score of the LIDA tool was 63.7%; the mean score of accessibility, usability, and reliability was 82.2%, 71.5%, and 27.3%, respectively. Of the top 15 sites according to the LIDA score, the mean DISCERN score was calculated at 43.1 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 37.7–49.5). Noncommercial websites showed higher DISCERN scores than commercial websites; whereas commercial websites were more likely to be found in the first 20 links obtained from each search engine than the noncommercial websites. Conclusions: In general, the HIV/AIDS related Chinese-language websites have poor reliability, although their accessibility and usability are fair. In addition, the treatment information presented on Chinese-language websites is far from sufficient. There is an imperative need for professionals and specialized institutes to improve the comprehensiveness of web-based information related to HIV/AIDS. PMID:27556475

  18. [The analytical reliability of clinical laboratory information and role of the standards in its support].

    PubMed

    Men'shikov, V V

    2012-12-01

    The article deals with the factors impacting the reliability of clinical laboratory information. The differences of qualities of laboratory analysis tools produced by various manufacturers are discussed. These characteristics are the causes of discrepancy of the results of laboratory analyses of the same analite. The role of the reference system in supporting the comparability of laboratory analysis results is demonstrated. The project of national standard is presented to regulate the requirements to standards and calibrators for analysis of qualitative and non-metrical characteristics of components of biomaterials.

  19. Based on Weibull Information Fusion Analysis Semiconductors Quality the Key Technology of Manufacturing Execution Systems Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Hui; Tang, Ying-Chun; Dai, Kai

    2016-05-01

    Semiconductor materials and Product qualified rate are directly related to the manufacturing costs and survival of the enterprise. Application a dynamic reliability growth analysis method studies manufacturing execution system reliability growth to improve product quality. Refer to classical Duane model assumptions and tracking growth forecasts the TGP programming model, through the failure data, established the Weibull distribution model. Combining with the median rank of average rank method, through linear regression and least squares estimation method, match respectively weibull information fusion reliability growth curve. This assumption model overcome Duane model a weakness which is MTBF point estimation accuracy is not high, through the analysis of the failure data show that the method is an instance of the test and evaluation modeling process are basically identical. Median rank in the statistics is used to determine the method of random variable distribution function, which is a good way to solve the problem of complex systems such as the limited sample size. Therefore this method has great engineering application value.

  20. Investigating the reliability of substance toxicity information found on the Internet in pediatric poisonings.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Thomas E; Lieu, Diane; Singer, Nathan; Tsutaoka, Ben; Ho, Raymond; Olson, Kent

    2013-12-01

    The Internet may be the first source of information used by parents during a suspected poisoning of their children. Our primary aim was to assess the reliability of the Internet as a resource for information for parents to initially manage a suspected poisoning involving their child without outside consultation. We distributed a self-administered survey to English-speaking parents to evaluate their Internet access behaviors so we could emulate their search strategies for a poisoning. A panel of clinical toxicologists performed an evaluation of Websites to determine the proportion that provided accurate and adequate information on common substances involved in poisonings. Of 21 parents surveyed, 15 (71%) used the Internet daily, with Google and Yahoo being the most commonly used search engines. Seven parents (39%) were somewhat to very likely to utilize the Internet during a poisoning scenario with prescription medications involving their child. Overall, only 27 (38%) of the Websites reviewed advised the user to call the poison center with the proper 800 telephone number, whereas no Website provided adequate information to manage the poisoning without outside consultation. Few Websites provided information on the toxic dose (13%), how to determine whether to manage the poisoning at home or in a hospital (22%), or first aid (28%). The information provided on the Internet for substances involved in poisonings is variable and often incomplete. Reliance on the Internet for poisonings could create needless delays and inappropriate assessments and actions to manage a pediatric poisoning incident.

  1. Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Biopsy of the Prostate: Is the Information Accessible, Usable, Reliable and Readable?

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Ciaran E.; Nason, Gregory J.; Kelly, Michael E.; McMahon, Colm; Cantwell, Colin P.; Quinlan, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the accessibility, usability, reliability and readability of Internet information regarding transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy of the prostate. Materials and Methods The terms “prostate biopsy”, “TRUS biopsy” and “transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate” were separately entered into the each of the top 5 most accessed Internet search engines. Websites were evaluated for accessibility, usability and reliability using the LIDA tool – a validated tool for the assessment of health related websites. Website readability was assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score and the Flesch Kincaid Grade Level. Results Following the application of exclusion criteria, 82 unique websites were analyzed. There was a significant difference in scores depending on authorship categories (p ≤ 0.001), with health related charity websites scoring highest (mean 122.29 ± 13.98) and non-academic affiliated institution websites scoring lowest (mean 87 ± 19.76). The presence of advertisements on a website was associated with a lower mean overall LIDA tool score (p = 0.024). Only a single website adhered to the National Institutes for Health recommendations on readability. Conclusions This study demonstrates variability in the quality of information available to Internet users regarding TRUS biopsies. Collaboration of website design and clinical acumen are necessary to develop appropriate websites for patient benefit. PMID:26195961

  2. [The external evaluation of study quality: the role in maintaining the reliability of laboratory information].

    PubMed

    Men'shikov, V V

    2013-08-01

    The external evaluation of quality of clinical laboratory examinations was gradually introduced in USSR medical laboratories since 1970s. In Russia, in the middle of 1990 a unified all-national system of external evaluation quality was organized known as the Federal center of external evaluation of quality at the basis of laboratory of the state research center of preventive medicine. The main positions of policy in this area were neatly formulated in the guidance documents of ministry of Health. Nowadays, the center of external evaluation of quality proposes 100 and more types of control studies and permanently extends their specter starting from interests of different disciplines of clinical medicine. The consistent participation of laboratories in the cycles of external evaluation of quality intrinsically promotes improvement of indicators of properness and precision of analysis results and increases reliability of laboratory information. However, a significant percentage of laboratories does not participate at all in external evaluation of quality or takes part in control process irregularly and in limited number of tests. The managers of a number of medical organizations disregard the application of the proposed possibilities to increase reliability of laboratory information and limit financing of studies in the field of quality control. The article proposes to adopt the national standard on the basis of ISO 17043 "Evaluation of compliance. The common requirements of professional competence testing".

  3. Chemical and Materials Information Management to Achieve Sustainable Engineering and Design for the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Approved for Public Release ; Distribution Unlimited Chemical and Materials Information Management to Achieve Sustainable Engineering and Design for...Data Sources Solution – Distributed Information System Logistics Sustainability Approved for Public Release ; Distribution Unlimited • Single point...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

  4. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictions of the Reliability Coefficients and Standard Errors of Measurement Using the Test Information Function and Its Modifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    Because the test information function and its two modified formulas provide useful information, the reliability coefficient of a test is no longer necessary in modern mental test theory. Yet it is interesting to know how to predict the coefficient using the test information function and its modifications, tailored for each separate population of…

  6. Assessing the Value of Course-Embedded Information Literacy on Student Learning and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squibb, Sara Davidson; Mikkelsen, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A team at the University of California, Merced, collaborated to evaluate the value of integrating information literacy into introductory composition courses through a curriculum developed by librarians and writing faculty. Using a mixed-methods approach, the team investigated the impact of the curriculum on students' learning and achievement at…

  7. Assessing the Value of Course-Embedded Information Literacy on Student Learning and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squibb, Sara Davidson; Mikkelsen, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A team at the University of California, Merced, collaborated to evaluate the value of integrating information literacy into introductory composition courses through a curriculum developed by librarians and writing faculty. Using a mixed-methods approach, the team investigated the impact of the curriculum on students' learning and achievement at…

  8. Students' Attitudes towards Information Technology and the Relationship with Their Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Zhwan Dalshad; Bit Abu Ziden, Azidah; Binti Chi Aman, Rahimi; Mustafa, Khalid Ismail

    2015-01-01

    The present quantitative study aims to find out the underlying factors of attitudes towards information technology and the relationship with academic achievement among students, through a self-developed questionnaire. The attitudes of the respondents were assessed in terms of three dimensions; namely affection, behavior, and belief. The results…

  9. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: interrater reliability and sensitivity to change in short-term dynamic psychotherapy and cognitive therapy.

    PubMed

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-12-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP, but further operational definitions have led to a theoretically neutral assessment device, making it applicable to other treatment modalities as well. Videotapes from a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of STDP and CT for patients with Cluster C personality disorders were rated by independent raters, typically at Sessions 6 and 36. The results indicated good to excellent interrater reliability, as well as adequate sensitivity to change in theoretically expected ways, in both STDP and CT. The results lend further support to the psychometric soundness of the ATOS and show promise for its use when comparing STDP and CT.

  10. Sensitivity to Prior and Reliability Measurements for Value of Geophysical Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trainor, W. J.; Caers, J.; Mukerji, T.

    2009-12-01

    To ensure the sustainability of groundwater resources, actions that require spatial decisions may need to be taken although much spatial uncertainty about the aquifer flow properties exists. Geophysical data may be critical to reduce this uncertainty but may be too expensive. Therefore, the value of information (VOI) of such data needs to be assessed before proceeding with the actual survey. We present an example where the decision is whether existing contaminant sources must be relocated by identifying critical surface recharge locations. Hence assessing the aquifer vulnerability is critical. From decision analysis theory, VOI equals value with information minus the prior value. Estimating VOI requires several components. The prior geological uncertainty and a measure for information reliability are two components crucial in the VOI metric. The goal of this work is to assess the sensitivity of VOI to these two components. To address the prior geological uncertainty realistically, multiple-point geostatistical algorithms (ie snesim) stochastically model the patterns of the interpreted geological depositional system (represented by the training image). For this example study, geological concepts for glacial buried valleys are used to develop training images of the valleys. Since properties such as valley width, length and direction are not well known, many possible alternative training images can be built. To assess the most important geological components impacting aquifer vulnerability, we apply a novel distance-based clustering technique to rank the various geological factors. Secondly, to compute VOI, a measure of reliability for the proposed geophysical measurement is needed. For this example, three types of datasets collected in Denmark (in a buried valley system) are used: transient electromagnetic (TEM), DC resistivity and driller’s log. Bayesian calibration is performed to obtain likelihood and posterior functions of electrical resistivity and lithology

  11. A highly reliable, autonomous data communication subsystem for an advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Masotto, Thomas; Alger, Linda

    1990-01-01

    The need to meet the stringent performance and reliability requirements of advanced avionics systems has frequently led to implementations which are tailored to a specific application and are therefore difficult to modify or extend. Furthermore, many integrated flight critical systems are input/output intensive. By using a design methodology which customizes the input/output mechanism for each new application, the cost of implementing new systems becomes prohibitively expensive. One solution to this dilemma is to design computer systems and input/output subsystems which are general purpose, but which can be easily configured to support the needs of a specific application. The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS), currently under development has these characteristics. The design and implementation of the prototype I/O communication system for AIPS is described. AIPS addresses reliability issues related to data communications by the use of reconfigurable I/O networks. When a fault or damage event occurs, communication is restored to functioning parts of the network and the failed or damage components are isolated. Performance issues are addressed by using a parallelized computer architecture which decouples Input/Output (I/O) redundancy management and I/O processing from the computational stream of an application. The autonomous nature of the system derives from the highly automated and independent manner in which I/O transactions are conducted for the application as well as from the fact that the hardware redundancy management is entirely transparent to the application.

  12. A highly reliable, autonomous data communication subsystem for an advanced information processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Masotto, Thomas; Alger, Linda

    1990-01-01

    The need to meet the stringent performance and reliability requirements of advanced avionics systems has frequently led to implementations which are tailored to a specific application and are therefore difficult to modify or extend. Furthermore, many integrated flight critical systems are input/output intensive. By using a design methodology which customizes the input/output mechanism for each new application, the cost of implementing new systems becomes prohibitively expensive. One solution to this dilemma is to design computer systems and input/output subsystems which are general purpose, but which can be easily configured to support the needs of a specific application. The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS), currently under development has these characteristics. The design and implementation of the prototype I/O communication system for AIPS is described. AIPS addresses reliability issues related to data communications by the use of reconfigurable I/O networks. When a fault or damage event occurs, communication is restored to functioning parts of the network and the failed or damage components are isolated. Performance issues are addressed by using a parallelized computer architecture which decouples Input/Output (I/O) redundancy management and I/O processing from the computational stream of an application. The autonomous nature of the system derives from the highly automated and independent manner in which I/O transactions are conducted for the application as well as from the fact that the hardware redundancy management is entirely transparent to the application.

  13. Extracting More Information from Passive Optical Tracking Observations for Reliable Orbit Element Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, J.; Gehly, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents results from a preliminary method for extracting more orbital information from low rate passive optical tracking data. An improvement in the accuracy of the observation data yields more accurate and reliable orbital elements. A comparison between the orbit propagations from the orbital element generated using the new data processing method is compared with the one generated from the raw observation data for several objects. Optical tracking data collected by EOS Space Systems, located on Mount Stromlo, Australia, is fitted to provide a new orbital element. The element accuracy is determined from a comparison between the predicted orbit and subsequent tracking data or reference orbit if available. The new method is shown to result in a better orbit prediction which has important implications in conjunction assessments and the Space Environment Research Centre space object catalogue. The focus is on obtaining reliable orbital solutions from sparse data. This work forms part of the collaborative effort of the Space Environment Management Cooperative Research Centre which is developing new technologies and strategies to preserve the space environment (www.serc.org.au).

  14. A Novel Evaluation Method for Building Construction Project Based on Integrated Information Entropy with Reliability Theory

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-ping; Zhang, Xi-wei

    2013-01-01

    Selecting construction schemes of the building engineering project is a complex multiobjective optimization decision process, in which many indexes need to be selected to find the optimum scheme. Aiming at this problem, this paper selects cost, progress, quality, and safety as the four first-order evaluation indexes, uses the quantitative method for the cost index, uses integrated qualitative and quantitative methodologies for progress, quality, and safety indexes, and integrates engineering economics, reliability theories, and information entropy theory to present a new evaluation method for building construction project. Combined with a practical case, this paper also presents detailed computing processes and steps, including selecting all order indexes, establishing the index matrix, computing score values of all order indexes, computing the synthesis score, sorting all selected schemes, and making analysis and decision. Presented method can offer valuable references for risk computing of building construction projects. PMID:23533352

  15. A novel evaluation method for building construction project based on integrated information entropy with reliability theory.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-ping; Zhang, Xi-wei

    2013-01-01

    Selecting construction schemes of the building engineering project is a complex multiobjective optimization decision process, in which many indexes need to be selected to find the optimum scheme. Aiming at this problem, this paper selects cost, progress, quality, and safety as the four first-order evaluation indexes, uses the quantitative method for the cost index, uses integrated qualitative and quantitative methodologies for progress, quality, and safety indexes, and integrates engineering economics, reliability theories, and information entropy theory to present a new evaluation method for building construction project. Combined with a practical case, this paper also presents detailed computing processes and steps, including selecting all order indexes, establishing the index matrix, computing score values of all order indexes, computing the synthesis score, sorting all selected schemes, and making analysis and decision. Presented method can offer valuable references for risk computing of building construction projects.

  16. Improving University Ranking to Achieve University Competitiveness by Management Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachyar, M.; Dewi, F.

    2015-05-01

    One way to increase university competitiveness is through information system management. A literature review was done to find information system factors that affect university performance in Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) University Ranking: Asia evaluation. Information system factors were then eliminated using Delphi method through consensus of 7 experts. Result from Delphi method was used as measured variables in PLS-SEM. Estimation with PLS-SEM method through 72 respondents shows that the latent variable academic reputation and citation per paper have significant correlation to university competitiveness. In University of Indonesia (UI) the priority to increase university competitiveness as follow: (i) network building in international conference, (ii) availability of research data to public, (iii) international conference information, (iv) information on achievements and accreditations of each major, (v) ease of employment for alumni.

  17. Writing for understanding: The effect of using informational writing on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parson, Atiya

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not informational writing in the science curriculum would impact fifth grade students' science achievement and conceptual understanding. The population of this study came from a metropolitan school district in the state of Georgia for school year 2012-2013. The quantitative data included students' pretest, posttest, and writing assessment scores. Examination approaches for this study included (a) examining theories and research on learning views for children, (b) determining how writing across the curriculum has worked, and (c) developing a research design for the present study that was based on findings from previous studies. The study was designed to find (a) whether there is a significant differences in science achievement between fifth-grade students who use informational writing weekly during science instruction and ones that do not, and (b) whether there is a significant differences in conceptual understanding of fifth-grade science content for students who use informational writing weekly and fifth-grade students who do not. To answer these questions, students pretest and posttest results were compared to determine if a statistical significance existed after informational writing was implemented in the experimental group for 10 weeks. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in test scores between students receiving the informational writing intervention and students without this intervention. However, this study found that students receiving informational writing intervention had better performance scores on conceptual writing assessment than the students without the intervention.

  18. Is the No Child Left Behind Act Working? The Reliability of How States Track Achievement. Working Paper 06-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Gesicki, Kathryn; Kang, Erin; Wright, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Debate is well under way regarding the efficacy of the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act," including whether this bundle of federal rules and resources is prompting gains in student achievement. Spirited conversation will intensify as the Congress discusses how to adjust and reauthorize this ambitious set of school reforms. Both state and…

  19. Acquisition of Information is achieved by the Measurement Process in Classical and Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocchi, Paolo; Panella, Orlando

    2007-12-01

    No consensus seems to exist as to what constitutes a measurement which is still considered somewhat mysterious in many respects in quantum mechanics. At successive stages mathematical theory of measure, metrology and measurement theory tried to systematize this field but significant questions remain open about the nature of measurement, about the characterization of the observer, about the reliability of measurement processes etc. The present paper attempts to talk about these questions through the information science. We start from the idea, rather common and intuitive, that the measurement process basically acquires information. Next we expand this idea through four formal definitions and infer some corollaries regarding the measurement process from those definitions. Relativity emerges as the basic property of measurement from the present logical framework and this rather surprising result collides with the feeling of physicists who take measurement as a myth. In the closing this paper shows how the measurement relativity wholly consists with some effects calculated in QM and in Einstein's theory.

  20. Promoting outcome achievement in child welfare: predictors of evidence-informed practice.

    PubMed

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Garstka, Teri A

    2014-01-01

    The use of data and evidence to inform practice in child welfare is the subject of increased discussion in the literature as well as in agencies striving to achieve child safety, permanency, and well-being. Survey data was collected from workers and supervisors in private agencies providing out-of-home care case management and residential treatment services to children and youth across three states. Hierarchical linear modeling tested the role of goal-oriented teamwork and supervisory practice involving the use of data to assess practice effectiveness in predicting evidence-informed practice. The partially mediated relationship showed that a more goal-oriented approach combined with supervisory practice led to increased use of evidence-informed practice. Implications for promoting evidence-informed practice in child welfare are discussed.

  1. A reliable facility location design model with site-dependent disruption in the imperfect information context.

    PubMed

    Yun, Lifen; Wang, Xifu; Fan, Hongqiang; Li, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a reliable facility location design model under imperfect information with site-dependent disruptions; i.e., each facility is subject to a unique disruption probability that varies across the space. In the imperfect information contexts, customers adopt a realistic "trial-and-error" strategy to visit facilities; i.e., they visit a number of pre-assigned facilities sequentially until they arrive at the first operational facility or give up looking for the service. This proposed model aims to balance initial facility investment and expected long-term operational cost by finding the optimal facility locations. A nonlinear integer programming model is proposed to describe this problem. We apply a linearization technique to reduce the difficulty of solving the proposed model. A number of problem instances are studied to illustrate the performance of the proposed model. The results indicate that our proposed model can reveal a number of interesting insights into the facility location design with site-dependent disruptions, including the benefit of backup facilities and system robustness against variation of the loss-of-service penalty.

  2. The reliability of dietary and lifestyle information obtained from spouses in an elderly chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenbin; Binns, Colin; Lee, Andy H; Huang, Rongsheng; Hu, Delong

    2008-01-01

    In many health studies of the elderly population, the subjects have cognitive or linguistic impairments, so data need to be collected from surrogates. This study compares dietary and lifestyle information reported by elderly Chinese with those provided by their spouses. Community couples 60 years and older were recruited to participate in an interview. One person from each couple was randomly chosen as the index person. Characteristics concerning the index person were then solicited from that person and separately from his or her spouse using validated questionnaires. For the 128 food items considered, the mean kappa was 0.73 for both frequency (SD 0.18) and amount (SD 0.22) of intake, and more than 70% of the couples had kappa statistics exceeding 0.61. Food items exhibiting high agreement between the spouses include rice, apples, tomatoes, and pork chops. The proportion of perfect agreement was higher than 80% for physical activity, smoking, and tea drinking behaviors. In conclusion, the spouse can serve as a proxy to provide reliable information when his or her partner is unavailable.

  3. A reliable facility location design model with site-dependent disruption in the imperfect information context

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Lifen; Wang, Xifu; Fan, Hongqiang; Li, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a reliable facility location design model under imperfect information with site-dependent disruptions; i.e., each facility is subject to a unique disruption probability that varies across the space. In the imperfect information contexts, customers adopt a realistic “trial-and-error” strategy to visit facilities; i.e., they visit a number of pre-assigned facilities sequentially until they arrive at the first operational facility or give up looking for the service. This proposed model aims to balance initial facility investment and expected long-term operational cost by finding the optimal facility locations. A nonlinear integer programming model is proposed to describe this problem. We apply a linearization technique to reduce the difficulty of solving the proposed model. A number of problem instances are studied to illustrate the performance of the proposed model. The results indicate that our proposed model can reveal a number of interesting insights into the facility location design with site-dependent disruptions, including the benefit of backup facilities and system robustness against variation of the loss-of-service penalty. PMID:28486564

  4. Achievable information rates estimates in optically amplified transmission systems using nonlinearity compensation and probabilistic shaping.

    PubMed

    Semrau, Daniel; Xu, Tianhua; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Paskov, Milen; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina

    2017-01-01

    Achievable information rates (AIRs) of wideband optical communication systems using a ∼40  nm (∼5  THz) erbium-doped fiber amplifier and ∼100  nm (∼12.5  THz) distributed Raman amplification are estimated based on a first-order perturbation analysis. The AIRs of each individual channel have been evaluated for DP-64QAM, DP-256QAM, and DP-1024QAM modulation formats. The impact of full-field nonlinear compensation (FF-NLC) and probabilistically shaped constellations using a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution were studied and compared to electronic dispersion compensation. It has been found that a probabilistically shaped DP-1024QAM constellation, combined with FF-NLC, yields achievable information rates of ∼75  Tbit/s for the EDFA scheme and ∼223  Tbit/s for the Raman amplification scheme over a 2000 km standard single-mode fiber transmission.

  5. Blending group and practice site scores to increase the reliability of physician quality information.

    PubMed

    Rogers, William H; Thornton, Kristy; von Glahn, Ted

    2014-02-01

    To use an empirical Bayesian approach, blending practice, and group quality data with physician results to increase the accuracy of quality of care measures. Performance data on diabetes glycemic screening for 8,357 physicians collected from multiple payers as part of a statewide physician performance reporting initiative. A variance components analysis assessed the strength of group, practice, and physician effects compared with random error. We derived formulas to describe reliability and measurement error variances and calculated the optimal blend of physician, practice, and group data. We constructed a simulation to show what various methods can achieve. The value of blending strategies was assessed by simulating a common pay-for-performance criterion-performance in the top 25 percent. We estimated the proportion of physicians whose true percentage would place them in the top 20 percent but who would not receive payment based on the observed success rate. Blending reduced the error rate from 29.7 to 22.7 percent. Simpler empirical Bayes estimates using shrinkage alone produced no gains over simple doctor percentages. When good structural data about physician groups and practices exist, gains from blending can be substantial. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Digital modulation and achievable information rates of thru-body haptic communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, Natalie; Pierobon, Massimiliano

    2017-05-01

    The ever increasing biocompatibility and pervasive nature of wearable and implantable devices demand novel sustainable solutions to realize their connectivity, which can impact broad application scenarios such as in the defense, biomedicine, and entertainment fields. Where wireless electromagnetic communications are facing challenges such as device miniaturization, energy scarcity, limited range, and possibility of interception, solutions not only inspired but also based on natural communication means might result into valid alternatives. In this paper, a communication paradigm where digital information is propagated through the nervous system is proposed and analyzed on the basis of achievable information rates. In particular, this paradigm is based on an analytical framework where the response of a system based on haptic (tactile) information transmission and ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG)-based reception is modeled and characterized. Computational neuroscience models of the somatosensory signal representation in the brain, coupled with models of the generation and propagation of somatosensory stimulation from skin mechanoreceptors, are employed in this paper to provide a proof-of-concept evaluation of achievable performance in encoding information bits into tactile stimulation, and decoding them from the recorded brain activity. Based on these models, the system is simulated and the resulting data are utilized to train a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier, which is finally used to provide a proof-of-concept validation of the system performance in terms of information rates against bit error probability at the reception.

  7. Regular Deployment of Wireless Sensors to Achieve Connectivity and Information Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Li, Yong; Jiang, Yi; Yin, Xipeng

    2016-01-01

    Coverage and connectivity are two of the most critical research subjects in WSNs, while regular deterministic deployment is an important deployment strategy and results in some pattern-based lattice WSNs. Some studies of optimal regular deployment for generic values of rc/rs were shown recently. However, most of these deployments are subject to a disk sensing model, and cannot take advantage of data fusion. Meanwhile some other studies adapt detection techniques and data fusion to sensing coverage to enhance the deployment scheme. In this paper, we provide some results on optimal regular deployment patterns to achieve information coverage and connectivity as a variety of rc/rs, which are all based on data fusion by sensor collaboration, and propose a novel data fusion strategy for deployment patterns. At first the relation between variety of rc/rs and density of sensors needed to achieve information coverage and connectivity is derived in closed form for regular pattern-based lattice WSNs. Then a dual triangular pattern deployment based on our novel data fusion strategy is proposed, which can utilize collaborative data fusion more efficiently. The strip-based deployment is also extended to a new pattern to achieve information coverage and connectivity, and its characteristics are deduced in closed form. Some discussions and simulations are given to show the efficiency of all deployment patterns, including previous patterns and the proposed patterns, to help developers make more impactful WSN deployment decisions. PMID:27529246

  8. Health information needs, sources, and barriers of primary care patients to achieve patient-centered care: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Martina A; Moore, Joi L; Steege, Linsey M; Koopman, Richelle J; Belden, Jeffery L; Canfield, Shannon M; Meadows, Susan E; Elliott, Susan G; Kim, Min Soon

    2016-12-01

    To synthesize findings from previous studies assessing information needs of primary care patients on the Internet and other information sources in a primary care setting. A systematic review of studies was conducted with a comprehensive search in multiple databases including OVID MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Scopus. The most common information needs among patients were information about an illness or medical condition and treatment methods, while the most common information sources were the Internet and patients' physicians. Overall, patients tend to prefer the Internet for the ease of access to information, while they trust their physicians more for their clinical expertise and experience. Barriers to information access via the Internet include the following: socio-demographic variables such as age, ethnicity, income, education, and occupation; information search skills; and reliability of health information. Further research is warranted to assess how to create accurate and reliable health information sources for both Internet and non-Internet users. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Forecast Informed Reservoir Operations - An Opportunity to Improve Water Supply Reliability Lake Mendocino Demonstration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasperse, J.; Ralph, F. M.

    2016-12-01

    Forecast Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) is a management strategy that is gaining interest in the western United States as a means to improve the performance of reservoirs to provide more reliable water supply for municipal, agricultural, and environmental water needs as well as enhancing the flood protection capacity of reservoirs. Many surface water reservoirs were built decades ago and are operated in accordance with rules that were developed based on the best information at the time of construction. Over time there have been increasing stressors that impact effective reservoir operations including: increasing water demand; providing in-stream flows for habitat of aquatic species; and climate change. Few new reservoirs are being constructed, therefore there is motivation by water managers to more effectively operate existing reservoirs by optimizing operational rules under a decision framework that considers forecasting. The viability of FIRO is being investigated at Lake Mendocino in northern California. This facility is managed for flood protection by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) while the Sonoma County Water Agency (SCWA) is responsible for the management of the water supply pool. Reductions of reservoir inflow due to recent operational license conditions of an upstream hydroelectric facility coupled with highly variable precipitation (due to the significance of atmospheric rivers in the region) has led to difficulties in maintaining reservoir storage to meet stream flows for agricultural and municipal water users and to meet in-stream flow requirements for three salmonid species listed under the Endangered Species Act. The reduced water supply reliability of the reservoir has motivated water managers and scientists from local, state, and federal agencies to investigate whether FIRO could help address this challenge. This effort is led by a Steering Committee comprised of members from SCWA, Scripps-UC San Diego, USACE, NOAA, California

  10. Achieving the College Dream? Examining Disparities in Access to College Information among High Achieving and Non-High Achieving Latina Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimura-Walsh, Erin; Yamamura, Erica K.; Griffin, Kimberly A.; Allen, Walter R.

    2009-01-01

    Using an Opportunity to Learn (OTL) framework, this study examines the college preparatory experiences of Latina high and non-high achievers at an urban Latina/o majority high school. Findings indicate that students relied almost exclusively on school resources to navigate their college preparation process. However, the school provided…

  11. A proteomic approach for the rapid, multi-informative and reliable identification of blood.

    PubMed

    Patel, E; Cicatiello, P; Deininger, L; Clench, M R; Marino, G; Giardina, P; Langenburg, G; West, A; Marshall, P; Sears, V; Francese, S

    2016-01-07

    Blood evidence is frequently encountered at the scene of violent crimes and can provide valuable intelligence in the forensic investigation of serious offences. Because many of the current enhancement methods used by crime scene investigators are presumptive, the visualisation of blood is not always reliable nor does it bear additional information. In the work presented here, two methods employing a shotgun bottom up proteomic approach for the detection of blood are reported; the developed protocols employ both an in solution digestion method and a recently proposed procedure involving immobilization of trypsin on hydrophobin Vmh2 coated MALDI sample plate. The methods are complementary as whilst one yields more identifiable proteins (as biomolecular signatures), the other is extremely rapid (5 minutes). Additionally, data demonstrate the opportunity to discriminate blood provenance even when two different blood sources are present in a mixture. This approach is also suitable for old bloodstains which had been previously chemically enhanced, as experiments conducted on a 9-year-old bloodstain deposited on a ceramic tile demonstrate.

  12. Librarians' Role in Development and Achievement of Central Library Users' Information Literacy (a Case Study: Iran).

    PubMed

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Siamian, Hasan; Shahrabi, Afsaneh

    2013-12-01

    Due to the development of technologies, communications, databases and information resource varieties in today's information age, our various social, economic, cultural and political needs cannot be fulfilled by relying merely on past knowledge and skills as done previously. Information literacy (IL) as a set of necessary skills for all of us is an effective way of treating new technologies and their effective application in our lives. The study aimed to survey the library users' views in the Central Library of Babol University of Medical Sciences (The Library), Iran, on the role and influences of librarians on their IL development and improvement. This analytical survey used a researcher-made questionnaire for data collection. Research population consisted of all users referring Information Unit of The Library during 22 September - 20 December 2010. Of them, 150 users participating in at least 5 workshops held by The Library were selected as the study sample. Based on the findings, 52.7 percent of the subjects rated the influence of the librarians on their IL development much and very much. 44.7 percent claimed that they more acquired IL skills from librarians rather than others. 100 (63.3%) subjects preferred workshops held by the librarian to other workshops. The users of Information Unit of The Library perceived the training IL skills by librarians as a main influencing factor in their IL development and achievement. This emphasized the necessity of teaching IL to users and training the librarians in better teaching IL skills to library user.

  13. The Effect of Incorrect Reliability Information on Expectations, Perceptions, and Use of Automation.

    PubMed

    Barg-Walkow, Laura H; Rogers, Wendy A

    2016-03-01

    We examined how providing artificially high or low statements about automation reliability affected expectations, perceptions, and use of automation over time. One common method of introducing automation is providing explicit statements about the automation's capabilities. Research is needed to understand how expectations from such introductions affect perceptions and use of automation. Explicit-statement introductions were manipulated to set higher-than (90%), same-as (75%), or lower-than (60%) levels of expectations in a dual-task scenario with 75% reliable automation. Two experiments were conducted to assess expectations, perceptions, compliance, reliance, and task performance over (a) 2 days and (b) 4 days. The baseline assessments showed initial expectations of automation reliability matched introduced levels of expectation. For the duration of each experiment, the lower-than groups' perceptions were lower than the actual automation reliability. However, the higher-than groups' perceptions were no different from actual automation reliability after Day 1 in either study. There were few differences between groups for automation use, which generally stayed the same or increased with experience using the system. Introductory statements describing artificially low automation reliability have a long-lasting impact on perceptions about automation performance. Statements including incorrect automation reliability do not appear to affect use of automation. Introductions should be designed according to desired outcomes for expectations, perceptions, and use of the automation. Low expectations have long-lasting effects. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Eco-label conveys reliable information on fish stock health to seafood consumers.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Nicolás L; Valencia, Sarah R; Branch, Trevor A; Agnew, David J; Baum, Julia K; Bianchi, Patricia L; Cornejo-Donoso, Jorge; Costello, Christopher; Defeo, Omar; Essington, Timothy E; Hilborn, Ray; Hoggarth, Daniel D; Larsen, Ashley E; Ninnes, Chris; Sainsbury, Keith; Selden, Rebecca L; Sistla, Seeta; Smith, Anthony D M; Stern-Pirlot, Amanda; Teck, Sarah J; Thorson, James T; Williams, Nicholas E

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over fishing impacts on marine populations and ecosystems have intensified the need to improve ocean management. One increasingly popular market-based instrument for ecological stewardship is the use of certification and eco-labeling programs to highlight sustainable fisheries with low environmental impacts. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is the most prominent of these programs. Despite widespread discussions about the rigor of the MSC standards, no comprehensive analysis of the performance of MSC-certified fish stocks has yet been conducted. We compared status and abundance trends of 45 certified stocks with those of 179 uncertified stocks, finding that 74% of certified fisheries were above biomass levels that would produce maximum sustainable yield, compared with only 44% of uncertified fisheries. On average, the biomass of certified stocks increased by 46% over the past 10 years, whereas uncertified fisheries increased by just 9%. As part of the MSC process, fisheries initially go through a confidential pre-assessment process. When certified fisheries are compared with those that decline to pursue full certification after pre-assessment, certified stocks had much lower mean exploitation rates (67% of the rate producing maximum sustainable yield vs. 92% for those declining to pursue certification), allowing for more sustainable harvesting and in many cases biomass rebuilding. From a consumer's point of view this means that MSC-certified seafood is 3-5 times less likely to be subject to harmful fishing than uncertified seafood. Thus, MSC-certification accurately identifies healthy fish stocks and conveys reliable information on stock status to seafood consumers.

  15. Eco-Label Conveys Reliable Information on Fish Stock Health to Seafood Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Nicolás L.; Valencia, Sarah R.; Branch, Trevor A.; Agnew, David J.; Baum, Julia K.; Bianchi, Patricia L.; Cornejo-Donoso, Jorge; Costello, Christopher; Defeo, Omar; Essington, Timothy E.; Hilborn, Ray; Hoggarth, Daniel D.; Larsen, Ashley E.; Ninnes, Chris; Sainsbury, Keith; Selden, Rebecca L.; Sistla, Seeta; Smith, Anthony D. M.; Stern-Pirlot, Amanda; Teck, Sarah J.; Thorson, James T.; Williams, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    Concerns over fishing impacts on marine populations and ecosystems have intensified the need to improve ocean management. One increasingly popular market-based instrument for ecological stewardship is the use of certification and eco-labeling programs to highlight sustainable fisheries with low environmental impacts. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is the most prominent of these programs. Despite widespread discussions about the rigor of the MSC standards, no comprehensive analysis of the performance of MSC-certified fish stocks has yet been conducted. We compared status and abundance trends of 45 certified stocks with those of 179 uncertified stocks, finding that 74% of certified fisheries were above biomass levels that would produce maximum sustainable yield, compared with only 44% of uncertified fisheries. On average, the biomass of certified stocks increased by 46% over the past 10 years, whereas uncertified fisheries increased by just 9%. As part of the MSC process, fisheries initially go through a confidential pre-assessment process. When certified fisheries are compared with those that decline to pursue full certification after pre-assessment, certified stocks had much lower mean exploitation rates (67% of the rate producing maximum sustainable yield vs. 92% for those declining to pursue certification), allowing for more sustainable harvesting and in many cases biomass rebuilding. From a consumer’s point of view this means that MSC-certified seafood is 3–5 times less likely to be subject to harmful fishing than uncertified seafood. Thus, MSC-certification accurately identifies healthy fish stocks and conveys reliable information on stock status to seafood consumers. PMID:22928029

  16. A Consensus Action Agenda for Achieving the National Health Information Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Yasnoff, William A.; Humphreys, Betsy L.; Overhage, J. Marc; Detmer, Don E.; Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Morris, Richard W.; Middleton, Blackford; Bates, David W.; Fanning, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Improving the safety, quality, and efficiency of health care will require immediate and ubiquitous access to complete patient information and decision support provided through a National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII). Methods: To help define the action steps needed to achieve an NHII, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services sponsored a national consensus conference in July 2003. Results: Attendees favored a public–private coordination group to guide NHII activities, provide education, share resources, and monitor relevant metrics to mark progress. They identified financial incentives, health information standards, and overcoming a few important legal obstacles as key NHII enablers. Community and regional implementation projects, including consumer access to a personal health record, were seen as necessary to demonstrate comprehensive functional systems that can serve as models for the entire nation. Finally, the participants identified the need for increased funding for research on the impact of health information technology on patient safety and quality of care. Individuals, organizations, and federal agencies are using these consensus recommendations to guide NHII efforts. PMID:15187075

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Clinical Dementia Rating for Community-Living Elderly Subjects without an Informant

    PubMed Central

    Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Chong, Mei Sian; Lim, Wee Shiong; Lee, Tih Shih; Yap, Philip; Ng, Tze Pin

    2013-01-01

    Background The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is widely used to assess cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. It requires collateral information from a reliable informant who is not available in many instances. We adapted the original CDR scale for use with elderly subjects without an informant (CDR-NI) and evaluated its reliability and validity for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among community-dwelling elderly subjects. Method At two consecutive visits 1 week apart, nurses trained in CDR assessment interviewed, observed and rated cognitive and functional performance according to a protocol in 90 elderly subjects with suboptimal cognitive performance [Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) <26 and/or Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) <26] and without informants according to a protocol. CDR domains and global scores were assigned after the second visit based upon corroborative information from the subjects' responses to questions, role-play, and observed performance in specifically assigned tasks at home and within the community. Results The CDR-NI scores (0, 0.5, 1) showed good internal consistency (Crohnbach's α 0.83-0.84), inter-rater reliability (κ 0.77-1.00 for six domains and 0.95 for global rating) and test-retest reliability (κ 0.75-1.00 for six domains and 0.80 for global rating), good agreement (κ 0.79) with the clinical assessment status of MCI (n = 37) and dementia (n = 4) and significant differences in the mean scores for MMSE, MOCA and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ANOVA global p < 0.001). Conclusion Owing to the protocol of the interviews, assessments and structured observations gathered during the two visits, CDR-NI provides valid and reliable assessment of MCI and dementia in community-living elderly subjects without an informant. PMID:24348502

  18. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Reliability and Maintainability Model Users Guide. Final Report, May 1975-July 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czuchry, Andrew J.; And Others

    This report provides a complete guide to the stand alone mode operation of the reliability and maintenance (R&M) model, which was developed to facilitate the performance of design versus cost trade-offs within the digital avionics information system (DAIS) acquisition process. The features and structure of the model, its input data…

  19. Librarians’ Role in Development and Achievement of Central Library Users’ Information Literacy (a Case Study: Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Yaminfirooz, Mousa; Siamian, Hasan; Shahrabi, Afsaneh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Due to the development of technologies, communications, databases and information resource varieties in today’s information age, our various social, economic, cultural and political needs cannot be fulfilled by relying merely on past knowledge and skills as done previously. Information literacy (IL) as a set of necessary skills for all of us is an effective way of treating new technologies and their effective application in our lives. The study aimed to survey the library users’ views in the Central Library of Babol University of Medical Sciences (The Library), Iran, on the role and influences of librarians on their IL development and improvement. Methods: This analytical survey used a researcher-made questionnaire for data collection. Research population consisted of all users referring Information Unit of The Library during 22 September - 20 December 2010. Of them, 150 users participating in at least 5 workshops held by The Library were selected as the study sample. Results: Based on the findings, 52.7 percent of the subjects rated the influence of the librarians on their IL development much and very much. 44.7 percent claimed that they more acquired IL skills from librarians rather than others. 100 (63.3%) subjects preferred workshops held by the librarian to other workshops. Conclusion: The users of Information Unit of The Library perceived the training IL skills by librarians as a main influencing factor in their IL development and achievement. This emphasized the necessity of teaching IL to users and training the librarians in better teaching IL skills to library user. PMID:24511265

  20. A Service Oriented Architecture Approach to Achieve Interoperability between Immunization Information Systems in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Masoud; Ahmadi, Maryam; Dixon, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems can support vaccine forecasting and immunization reminders; however, immunization decision-making requires data from fragmented, independent systems. Interoperability and accurate data exchange between immunization information systems (IIS) is an essential factor to utilize Immunization CDS systems. Service oriented architecture (SOA) and Health Level 7 (HL7) are dominant standards for web-based exchange of clinical information. We implemented a system based on SOA and HL7 v3 to support immunization CDS in Iran. We evaluated system performance by exchanging 1500 immunization records for roughly 400 infants between two IISs. System turnaround time is less than a minute for synchronous operation calls and the retrieved immunization history of infants were always identical in different systems. CDS generated reports were accordant to immunization guidelines and the calculations for next visit times were accurate. Interoperability is rare or nonexistent between IIS. Since inter-state data exchange is rare in United States, this approach could be a good prototype to achieve interoperability of immunization information.

  1. A Service Oriented Architecture Approach to Achieve Interoperability between Immunization Information Systems in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Masoud; Ahmadi, Maryam; Dixon, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems can support vaccine forecasting and immunization reminders; however, immunization decision-making requires data from fragmented, independent systems. Interoperability and accurate data exchange between immunization information systems (IIS) is an essential factor to utilize Immunization CDS systems. Service oriented architecture (SOA) and Health Level 7 (HL7) are dominant standards for web-based exchange of clinical information. We implemented a system based on SOA and HL7 v3 to support immunization CDS in Iran. We evaluated system performance by exchanging 1500 immunization records for roughly 400 infants between two IISs. System turnaround time is less than a minute for synchronous operation calls and the retrieved immunization history of infants were always identical in different systems. CDS generated reports were accordant to immunization guidelines and the calculations for next visit times were accurate. Interoperability is rare or nonexistent between IIS. Since inter-state data exchange is rare in United States, this approach could be a good prototype to achieve interoperability of immunization information. PMID:25954452

  2. Incorporation of local dependent reliability information into the Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) reconstruction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Vaegler, Sven; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Hesser, Jürgen; Sauer, Otto

    2015-12-01

    The reduction of dose in cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) arises from the decrease of the tube current for each projection as well as from the reduction of the number of projections. In order to maintain good image quality, sophisticated image reconstruction techniques are required. The Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) incorporates prior images into the reconstruction algorithm and outperforms the widespread used Feldkamp-Davis-Kress-algorithm (FDK) when the number of projections is reduced. However, prior images that contain major variations are not appropriately considered so far in PICCS. We therefore propose the partial-PICCS (pPICCS) algorithm. This framework is a problem-specific extension of PICCS and enables the incorporation of the reliability of the prior images additionally. We assumed that the prior images are composed of areas with large and small deviations. Accordingly, a weighting matrix considered the assigned areas in the objective function. We applied our algorithm to the problem of image reconstruction from few views by simulations with a computer phantom as well as on clinical CBCT projections from a head-and-neck case. All prior images contained large local variations. The reconstructed images were compared to the reconstruction results by the FDK-algorithm, by Compressed Sensing (CS) and by PICCS. To show the gain of image quality we compared image details with the reference image and used quantitative metrics (root-mean-square error (RMSE), contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR)). The pPICCS reconstruction framework yield images with substantially improved quality even when the number of projections was very small. The images contained less streaking, blurring and inaccurately reconstructed structures compared to the images reconstructed by FDK, CS and conventional PICCS. The increased image quality is also reflected in large RMSE differences. We proposed a modification of the original PICCS algorithm. The pPICCS algorithm

  3. Health Information Needs and Reliability of Sources Among Nondegree Health Sciences Students: A Prerequisite for Designing eHealth Literacy.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Hussein; Tshuma, Ndumiso; Hu, Xiao

    Understanding health information needs and health-seeking behavior is a prerequisite for developing an electronic health information literacy (EHIL) or eHealth literacy program for nondegree health sciences students. At present, interest in researching health information needs and reliable sources paradigms has gained momentum in many countries. However, most studies focus on health professionals and students in higher education institutions. The present study was aimed at providing new insight and filling the existing gap by examining health information needs and reliability of sources among nondegree health sciences students in Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 conveniently selected health training institutions, where 403 health sciences students were participated. Thirty health sciences students were both purposely and conveniently chosen from each health-training institution. The selected students were pursuing nursing and midwifery, clinical medicine, dentistry, environmental health sciences, pharmacy, and medical laboratory sciences courses. Involved students were either in their first year, second year, or third year of study. Health sciences students' health information needs focus on their educational requirements, clinical practice, and personal information. They use print, human, and electronic health information. They lack eHealth research skills in navigating health information resources and have insufficient facilities for accessing eHealth information, a lack of specialists in health information, high costs for subscription electronic information, and unawareness of the availability of free Internet and other online health-related databases. This study found that nondegree health sciences students have limited skills in EHIL. Thus, designing and incorporating EHIL skills programs into the curriculum of nondegree health sciences students is vital. EHIL is a requirement common to all health settings, learning environments, and

  4. The Reliability Sourcebook, How and Where to Get R and M Data Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-05

    periodicals, organizations, on-line databases, etc. covering both military and industrial /commerical arenas. This publication is intended to provide a ready...military, space, industrial and commercial applications. The scope of the reliability activities include the related disciplines of Maintainability...equipment users (government and industry ). Automatic distribution lists, voluntary data submittals and field failure reporting systems supplement an

  5. FP7 project MyWater - Merging hydrologic models and EO data for reliable information on Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Antonio; Chambel, Pedro; Silva, Adélio; Velickov, Slavco; van Andel, Schalk; Toth, Gergely; Almeida, Waldenio; Mako, Andras; Alexandridis, Thomas; Cugala, Domigos

    2013-04-01

    21st century reality already sees 2.5 billion people without adequate access to water, whilst climate changes lead to dramatically changing water resources availability and needs. These changes will influence all citizens, and authorities will need more reliable information to adapt to the new situation. The MyWater project responds to these challenges, implementing a new information platform which integrates data from three scientific research areas - earth observation, catchment modelling and meteorology - to better access hydrological processes. This platform will allow a quasi-automatic service chains which output user tailored results like: drinking water needs (quantity and quality), agriculture water needs, water health related indicators, flood scenarios, etc. Overall, MyWater will provide reliable information on water quantity, quality and usage for appropriate water management, improving knowledge and creating the forecasting capabilities necessary to catchment managers, and at the same time optimizing the ratio cost/benefit of water resources monitoring. The work presented regards to the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  6. Assembly and comparison of available solar hot water system reliability databases and information.

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, David F.

    2009-05-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed commercially for over 30 years, yet few quantitative details are known about their reliability. This report describes a comprehensive analysis of all of the known major previous research and data regarding the reliability of SHW systems and components. Some important conclusions emerged. First, based on a detailed inspection of ten-year-old systems in Florida, about half of active systems can be expected to fail within a ten-year period. Second, valves were identified as the probable cause of a majority of active SHW failures. Third, passive integral and thermosiphon SHW systems have much lower failure rates than active ones, probably due to their simple design that employs few mechanical parts. Fourth, it is probable that the existing data about reliability do not reveal the full extent of fielded system failures because most of the data were based on trouble calls. Often an SHW system owner is not aware of a failure because the backup system silently continues to produce hot water. Thus, a repair event may not be generated in a timely manner, if at all. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent details about this study, including the source of the data, the techniques to assure their quality before analysis, the organization of the data into perhaps the most comprehensive reliability database in existence, a detailed statistical analysis, and a list of recommendations for additional critical work. Important recommendations include the inclusion of an alarm on SHW systems to identify a failed system, the need for a scientifically designed study to collect high-quality reliability data that will lead to design improvements and lower costs, and accelerated testing of components that are identified as highly problematic.

  7. Using space and time to encode vibrotactile information: toward an estimate of the skin's achievable throughput.

    PubMed

    Novich, Scott D; Eagleman, David M

    2015-10-01

    Touch receptors in the skin can relay various forms of abstract information, such as words (Braille), haptic feedback (cell phones, game controllers, feedback for prosthetic control), and basic visual information such as edges and shape (sensory substitution devices). The skin can support such applications with ease: They are all low bandwidth and do not require a fine temporal acuity. But what of high-throughput applications? We use sound-to-touch conversion as a motivating example, though others abound (e.g., vision, stock market data). In the past, vibrotactile hearing aids have demonstrated improvement in speech perceptions in the deaf. However, a sound-to-touch sensory substitution device that works with high efficacy and without the aid of lipreading has yet to be developed. Is this because skin simply does not have the capacity to effectively relay high-throughput streams such as sound? Or is this because the spatial and temporal properties of skin have not been leveraged to full advantage? Here, we begin to address these questions with two experiments. First, we seek to determine the best method of relaying information through the skin using an identification task on the lower back. We find that vibrotactile patterns encoding information in both space and time yield the best overall information transfer estimate. Patterns encoded in space and time or "intensity" (the coupled coding of vibration frequency and force) both far exceed performance of only spatially encoded patterns. Next, we determine the vibrotactile two-tacton resolution on the lower back-the distance necessary for resolving two vibrotactile patterns. We find that our vibratory motors conservatively require at least 6 cm of separation to resolve two independent tactile patterns (>80 % correct), regardless of stimulus type (e.g., spatiotemporal "sweeps" versus single vibratory pulses). Six centimeter is a greater distance than the inter-motor distances used in Experiment 1 (2.5 cm), which

  8. Design Achievements of the Command Center Information Subsystem (CCIS), A Dynamic and Extensible Computing System for Natural Language Understanding of Navy Command Center Information.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-30

    A109 259 NAVAL OCEAN SYSTEMS CENTER SAN DIEGO CA F/6 5/1 DESIGN ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE COMMAND CENTER INFORMATION SUBSYSTEM-ETC(U) AUG 80 D L SMALL- D 0...CHART 0 . nn 0+ Technical Report 581 DESIGN ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE COMMAND. CENTER INFORMATION SUBSYSTEM (CCIS) A dynamic and extensible computing system...0102LF41d4-661 UCAQI SeCUP11T CLASSIICATION of, Tells FARI 096en 7"W L93ASL ~k DESIGN ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE COMMAND CENTER INFORMATION SUBSYSTEM (CCIS) A

  9. Achievable information rates calculation for optical OFDM few-mode fiber long-haul transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changyu; Djordjevic, Ivan B; Zou, Ding

    2015-06-29

    We propose a method to estimate the lower bound of achievable information rates (AIRs) of high speed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) in spatial division multiplexing (SDM) optical long-haul transmission systems. The estimation of AIR is based on the forward recursion of multidimensional super-symbol efficient sliding-window Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm. We consider most of the degradations of fiber links including nonlinear effects in few-mode fiber (FMF). This method does not consider the SDM as a simple multiplexer of independent data streams, but provides a super-symbol version for AIR calculation over spatial channels. This super-symbol version of AIR calculation algorithm, in principle, can be used for arbitrary multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO)-SDM system with channel memory consideration. We illustrate this method by performing Monte Carlo simulations in a complete FMF model. Both channel model and algorithm for calculation of the AIRs are described in details. We also compare the AIRs results for QPSK/16QAM in both single mode fiber (SMF)- and FMF-based optical OFDM transmission.

  10. Reliability and Levels of Difficulty of Objective Test Items in a Mathematics Achievement Test: A Study of Ten Senior Secondary Schools in Five Local Government Areas of Akure, Ondo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebule, S. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and difficult indices of Multiple Choice (MC) and True or False (TF) types of objective test items in a Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). The instruments used were two variants- 50-items Mathematics achievement test based on the multiple choice and true or false test formats. A total of five hundred (500)…

  11. The reliability of manual reporting of clinical events in an anesthesia information management system (AIMS).

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Pruitt, Eric Y; Cook-Sather, Scott D; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2012-12-01

    Manual incident reports significantly under-report adverse clinical events when compared with automated recordings of intraoperative data. Our goal was to determine the reliability of AIMS and CQI reports of adverse clinical events that had been witnessed and recorded by research assistants. The AIMS and CQI records of 995 patients aged 2-12 years were analyzed to determine if anesthesia providers had properly documented the emesis events that were observed and recorded by research assistants who were present in the operating room at the time of induction. Research assistants recorded eight cases of emesis during induction that were confirmed with the attending anesthesiologist at the time of induction. AIMS yielded a sensitivity of 38 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.5-75.5 %), while the sensitivity of CQI reporting was 13 % (95 % CI 0.3-52.7 %). The low sensitivities of the AIMS and CQI reports suggest that user-reported AIMS and CQI data do not reliably include significant clinical events.

  12. Reliable and robust transmission and storage techniques for medical images with patient information.

    PubMed

    Nergui, Myagmarbayar; Acharya, U Sripati; Acharya U, Rajendra; Yu, Wenwei

    2010-12-01

    There is an increased emphasis on the use of digital techniques in all aspects of human life today. Broadcast radio and television, cellular phone services, consumer and entertainment electronics etc are increasingly using digital signal processing techniques to improve the quality of service. Transmission and storage of documentation and images pertaining to patient records cannot remain an exception to this global trend. Hence, patient records (text and image information) are increasingly stored and processed in digital form. Currently, text and image information, which constitute two separate pieces of data are handled as different files. Thus, there is a possibility of the text and message information, pertaining to different patients, being interchanged and thus mishandled. This can be avoided by merging text and image information in such a manner that the two can be separated without perceptible damage to information contained in either file. Digital watermarking techniques can be used to interleave patient information with medical images. In this work, we have employed digital watermarking along with strong cryptographic protocols and powerful error correcting codes. This reduces the probability of sensitive patient information falling into the wrong hands and ensures information integrity when it is conveyed over noisy channels.

  13. Trust in Testimony about Strangers: Young Children Prefer Reliable Informants Who Make Positive Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boseovski, Janet J.

    2012-01-01

    Young children have been described as critical consumers of information, particularly in the domain of language learning. Indeed, children are more likely to learn novel words from people with accurate histories of object labeling than with inaccurate ones. But what happens when informant testimony conflicts with a tendency to see the world in a…

  14. Trust in Testimony about Strangers: Young Children Prefer Reliable Informants Who Make Positive Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boseovski, Janet J.

    2012-01-01

    Young children have been described as critical consumers of information, particularly in the domain of language learning. Indeed, children are more likely to learn novel words from people with accurate histories of object labeling than with inaccurate ones. But what happens when informant testimony conflicts with a tendency to see the world in a…

  15. Can family caregivers of terminally ill patients be a reliable source of information about the severity of patient symptoms?

    PubMed

    Resnizky, Shirli; Bentur, Netta

    This study examines the reliability of family caregivers' assessments of a terminally ill patient's symptoms and identifies patient and caregiver characteristics that affect the reliability of caregiver reports. It compares the reports of 143 patients in home hospice units with those of their family caregiver about patient symptoms during the 3 days preceding the interview (Edmonton scale). Correlation coefficients between the patients' and proxies' reports were 0.5 to 0.8, indicating moderate-to-high agreement. Characteristics that had an independent effect on identical reporting were the patient being fully disabled, the care-giver being a woman in good health, the caregiver living with the patient, and the caregiver providing assistance with activities of daily living and medical care. These results suggest that primary caregivers can be a good source of information about a patient's symptoms, although their reports should be used with caution.

  16. The Development of Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis Simulations for Inclusion in Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Diego Mandelli; Ronald L. Boring; Curtis L. Smith; Rachel B. Shirley

    2015-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy is sponsoring the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program, which has the overall objective of supporting the near-term and the extended operation of commercial nuclear power plants. One key research and development (R&D) area in this program is the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization pathway, which combines probabilistic risk simulation with thermohydraulic simulation codes to define and manage safety margins. The R&D efforts to date, however, have not included robust simulations of human operators, and how the reliability of human performance or lack thereof (i.e., human errors) can affect risk-margins and plant performance. This paper describes current and planned research efforts to address the absence of robust human reliability simulations and thereby increase the fidelity of simulated accident scenarios.

  17. Accuracy and reliability of Chile's National Air Quality Information System for measuring particulate matter: Beta attenuation monitoring issue.

    PubMed

    Toro A, Richard; Campos, Claudia; Molina, Carolina; Morales S, Raul G E; Leiva-Guzmán, Manuel A

    2015-09-01

    A critical analysis of Chile's National Air Quality Information System (NAQIS) is presented, focusing on particulate matter (PM) measurement. This paper examines the complexity, availability and reliability of monitoring station information, the implementation of control systems, the quality assurance protocols of the monitoring station data and the reliability of the measurement systems in areas highly polluted by particulate matter. From information available on the NAQIS website, it is possible to confirm that the PM2.5 (PM10) data available on the site correspond to 30.8% (69.2%) of the total information available from the monitoring stations. There is a lack of information regarding the measurement systems used to quantify air pollutants, most of the available data registers contain gaps, almost all of the information is categorized as "preliminary information" and neither standard operating procedures (operational and validation) nor assurance audits or quality control of the measurements are reported. In contrast, events that cause saturation of the monitoring detectors located in northern and southern Chile have been observed using beta attenuation monitoring. In these cases, it can only be concluded that the PM content is equal to or greater than the saturation concentration registered by the monitors and that the air quality indexes obtained from these measurements are underestimated. This occurrence has been observed in 12 (20) public and private stations where PM2.5 (PM10) is measured. The shortcomings of the NAQIS data have important repercussions for the conclusions obtained from the data and for how the data are used. However, these issues represent opportunities for improving the system to widen its use, incorporate comparison protocols between equipment, install new stations and standardize the control system and quality assurance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceived Reliable Sources of Reading Instruction Information Selected by Kindergarten, First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Grade Teacher-Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglane-Hodges, Janet Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The teacher is considered the most important factor in student success. With increased emphasis on research-based information through federal legislation, teachers struggle selecting credible methods and procedures among available reading instruction sources confounding the possibility of student achievement. Teacher self-knowledge, peer teachers,…

  19. Perceived Reliable Sources of Reading Instruction Information Selected by Kindergarten, First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Grade Teacher-Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biglane-Hodges, Janet Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The teacher is considered the most important factor in student success. With increased emphasis on research-based information through federal legislation, teachers struggle selecting credible methods and procedures among available reading instruction sources confounding the possibility of student achievement. Teacher self-knowledge, peer teachers,…

  20. Is the diagnostic function of pacemakers a reliable source of information about ventricular arrhythmias?

    PubMed

    Kumor, Magdalena; Baranowski, Rafał; Koźluk, Edward; Walczak, Franciszek

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of pacemaker diagnostic function in diagnosing ventricular arrhythmias. We compared the occurrence of ventricular ectopic beats in 51 simultaneous 24-hour electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings and pacemaker event counters printouts. The diagnostic function of a pacemaker allowed also for a qualitative assessment in 38 patients. In these cases, the occurrence of complex forms of ventricular arrhythmias was cross-checked for accelerated ventricular rhythms together with ventricular tachycardia, and triplets and couplets. The detection of at least one type of complex ventricular form of arrhythmia, diagnosed by both methods, was considered as an agreement between the methods. The results of ventricular ectopic beat counts differed significantly between the methods. In three (6%) patients, the results were consistent; in 20 (39%) the pacemaker underestimated results; in 28 (55%) they were overestimated. When more liberal criteria of agreement were applied, clinically significant differences were observed in 24 (47%) patients; in seven (29%) patients the count made by the pacemaker was lowered; and in 17 (71%) it was overestimated. Ventricular tachycardias were recorded in 24-hour ECG in eight patients. In three, they were identified by the pacemaker diagnostic function. In five, the pacemaker did not recognize tachycardia (because of its frequency being below 120/min). In nine, tachycardia was recognized falsely. The sensitivity in ventricular tachycardia diagnosis by pacemaker diagnostic function was 38%, specificity - 70%, the value of a positive result - 25%, negative - 81%. The evaluation of ventricular arrhythmias by pacemaker cannot serve as the only reliable diagnostic method of arrhythmias. The presence of a large number of sequences that may correspond to ventricular arrhythmia or failure to sense, should result in verification via 24-hour ECG monitoring.

  1. The Information Edge: Using Data to Accelerate Achievement--Technology Counts, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Virginia, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This special issue presents the ninth edition of "Education Week's" annual report on education technology, "Technology Counts." The annual report found that the nation has made dramatic progress in developing computerized data systems that can reliably guide education decision-making, but still has plenty of work to do before those systems can…

  2. The Information Edge: Using Data to Accelerate Achievement--Technology Counts, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Virginia, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This special issue presents the ninth edition of "Education Week's" annual report on education technology, "Technology Counts." The annual report found that the nation has made dramatic progress in developing computerized data systems that can reliably guide education decision-making, but still has plenty of work to do before those systems can…

  3. Reliability of neuronal information conveyed by unreliable neuristor-based leaky integrate-and-fire neurons: a model study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyungkwang; Kornijcuk, Vladimir; Seok, Jun Yeong; Kim, Seong Keun; Kim, Inho; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Doo Seok

    2015-01-01

    We conducted simulations on the neuronal behavior of neuristor-based leaky integrate-and-fire (NLIF) neurons. The phase-plane analysis on the NLIF neuron highlights its spiking dynamics – determined by two nullclines conditional on the variables on the plane. Particular emphasis was placed on the operational noise arising from the variability of the threshold switching behavior in the neuron on each switching event. As a consequence, we found that the NLIF neuron exhibits a Poisson-like noise in spiking, delimiting the reliability of the information conveyed by individual NLIF neurons. To highlight neuronal information coding at a higher level, a population of noisy NLIF neurons was analyzed in regard to probability of successful information decoding given the Poisson-like noise of each neuron. The result demonstrates highly probable success in decoding in spite of large variability – due to the variability of the threshold switching behavior – of individual neurons. PMID:25966658

  4. Development of a Tablet-based symbol digit modalities test for reliably assessing information processing speed in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Tung, Li-Chen; Yu, Wan-Hui; Lin, Gong-Hong; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Wu, Chien-Te; Tsai, Chia-Yin; Chou, Willy; Chen, Mei-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2016-09-01

    To develop a Tablet-based Symbol Digit Modalities Test (T-SDMT) and to examine the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the T-SDMT in patients with stroke. The study had two phases. In the first phase, six experts, nine college students and five outpatients participated in the development and testing of the T-SDMT. In the second phase, 52 outpatients were evaluated twice (2 weeks apart) with the T-SDMT and SDMT to examine the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the T-SDMT. The T-SDMT was developed via expert input and college student/patient feedback. Regarding test-retest reliability, the practise effects of the T-SDMT and SDMT were both trivial (d=0.12) but significant (p≦0.015). The improvement in the T-SDMT (4.7%) was smaller than that in the SDMT (5.6%). The minimal detectable changes (MDC%) of the T-SDMT and SDMT were 6.7 (22.8%) and 10.3 (32.8%), respectively. The T-SDMT and SDMT were highly correlated with each other at the two time points (Pearson's r=0.90-0.91). The T-SDMT demonstrated good concurrent validity with the SDMT. Because the T-SDMT had a smaller practise effect and less random measurement error (superior test-retest reliability), it is recommended over the SDMT for assessing information processing speed in patients with stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation The Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), a common measure of information processing speed, showed a substantial practise effect and considerable random measurement error in patients with stroke. The Tablet-based SDMT (T-SDMT) has been developed to reduce the practise effect and random measurement error of the SDMT in patients with stroke. The T-SDMT had smaller practise effect and random measurement error than the SDMT, which can provide more reliable assessments of information processing speed.

  5. Turning State Data and Research into Information: An Example from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, David; Seppanen, Loretta; Stephens, Deborah; Stewart, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, a new performance funding system for community and technical colleges. Its purposes are to improve public accountability by more accurately describing what students achieve from enrolling in state colleges each year and provide incentives through financial rewards to…

  6. Achievement Information Monitoring in Schools (AIMS): Larger Straws in the Winds of Change. Professional Paper 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    The Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development (SWRL) is dedicated to the belief that individual differences among students do not stand in the way of universal quality instructional achievement in the nation's schools. Important steps towards the condition of universal instructionalized achievement are: (1) the…

  7. Is the internet a reliable source of information for patients seeking total ankle replacement?

    PubMed

    Elliott, Andrew D; Bartel, Annette F P; Simonson, Devin; Roukis, Thomas S

    2015-01-01

    The modern patient population relies on the Internet to provide knowledge about medical procedures. However, a gap between established medical guidelines and the information provided on the Internet exists. Because of the general poor quality of the medical information available on the Internet and the increasing popularity of total ankle replacement (TAR) with its known potential serious complications, we undertook the present study to evaluate the information on TAR available to the general public through the Internet and to determine the quality of information according to authorship type and site certification status. Three common search engines were used to identify a total of 105 websites. The TAR information quality was rated as "excellent," "high," "moderate," "low," or "unacceptable." The sites were evaluated for authorship or sponsorship, content, and other criteria. The data were analyzed as a complete set, as a comparison among authorship types (academic, private, industry, or other), and by certification status. Websites with scores of excellent or high were 35% of the sites reviewed, and 48% were ranked as poor or unacceptable. Of the authorship types, the highest quality authorship was for the industry and other sites, which rated high or excellent 46% of the time. Eight percent of the sites evaluated were certified; however, certification status was not associated with improved information quality. Our study has demonstrated a low quality of TAR information available across all website types, regardless of authorship type. We suggest a partnership between professional organizations and physicians to ensure that provider websites reflect the current indications and contraindications of TAR to enhance patient education. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of informant characteristics on the reliability of family history interviews.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Kim H W; Derks, Eske M; Hendriks, Eva J E; Cahn, Wiepke

    2011-06-01

    Family history interviews are widely used in psychiatric research, as well as in genetic and twin studies, and provide a way to collect family history information quickly and economically. To obtain a valid assessment of family history, it is important to investigate which family member will be able to provide accurate information. Previous research shows that the validity of family history reporting can be influenced by characteristics of the informant, such as age, gender and personal history of psychiatric disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of a subject's position in a pedigree on the validity of data collection. Family history data on diabetes and psychiatric disorders were collected in three generations of 33 families by interviewing both an index subject (3rd generation) and his or her mother (2nd generation). Mothers were shown to report higher rates of diabetes and psychiatric disorder in the family compared to the index subjects. There was no significant difference in the disease rate reported by male and female index subject. Mothers who experienced a depressive episode indicated significantly more family members as having a psychiatric disorder than mothers who never experienced such an episode. This could be explained by the presence of informant bias, but may also result from the fact that depression is a heritable disorder and is therefore actually more prevalent in these families. Our findings suggest that family interview data should be collected by interviewing subjects who have a central position in the pedigree and can therefore provide information on his/her own generation, the previous and the next. In addition, psychiatric status of the informant should be carefully addressed.

  9. RELIABILITY MODELS OF AGING PASSIVE COMPONENTS INFORMED BY MATERIALS DEGRADATION METRICS TO SUPPORT LONG-TERM REACTOR OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Toyooka, Michael Y.

    2012-05-01

    Paper describes a methodology for the synthesis of nuclear power plant service data with expert-elicited materials degradation information to estimate the future failure rates of passive components. This method should be an important resource to long-term plant operations and reactor life extension. Conventional probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) are not well suited to addressing long-term reactor operations. Since passive structures and components are among those for which replacement can be least practical, they might be expected to contribute increasingly to risk in an aging plant; yet, passives receive limited treatment in PRAs. Furthermore, PRAs produce only snapshots of risk based on the assumption of time-independent component failure rates. This assumption is unlikely to be valid in aging systems. The treatment of aging passive components in PRA presents challenges. Service data to quantify component reliability models are sparse, and this is exacerbated by the greater data demands of age-dependent reliability models. Another factor is that there can be numerous potential degradation mechanisms associated with the materials and operating environment of a given component. This deepens the data problem since risk-informed management of component aging will demand an understanding of the long-term risk significance of individual degradation mechanisms. In this paper we describe a Bayesian methodology that integrates metrics of materials degradation susceptibility with available plant service data to estimate age-dependent passive component reliabilities. Integration of these models into conventional PRA will provide a basis for materials degradation management informed by predicted long-term operational risk.

  10. Treatment of Passive Component Reliability in Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization FY 2010 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W Youngblood

    2010-09-01

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A technical challenge at the core of this effort is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, is founded on probabilistic characterizations of SSC performance.

  11. The impact of informative tutoring feedback and self-efficacy on motivation and achievement in concept learning.

    PubMed

    Narciss, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    Informative tutoring feedback (ITF) provides assisted multiple response tries by offering strategically useful information for task completion as opposed to simply offering the solution. Previous studies on ITF focused on its effects on achievement. The present studies examine the assumption that ITF affects not only achievement, but also motivational variables such as task engagement, effort, persistence, and satisfaction with performance. In two experiments, students differing in self efficacy (SE) for identifying concepts worked on concept identification tasks. In cases of incorrect hypothesis about the concept, they received either outcome feedback or ITF. Results reveal that motivation and achievement depend on both SE and type of feedback. Future research should examine in more detail how ITF affects the self-enhancing processes between on-task motivation, achievement, and self-evaluation.

  12. Is anterior N2 enhancement a reliable electrophysiological index of concealed information?

    PubMed

    Ganis, Giorgio; Bridges, David; Hsu, Chun-Wei; Schendan, Haline E

    2016-12-01

    Concealed information tests (CITs) are used to determine whether an individual possesses information about an item of interest. Event-related potential (ERP) measures in CITs have focused almost exclusively on the P3b component, showing that this component is larger when lying about the item of interest (probe) than telling the truth about control items (irrelevants). Recent studies have begun to examine other ERP components, such as the anterior N2, with mixed results. A seminal CIT study found that visual probes elicit a larger anterior N2 than irrelevants (Gamer and Berti, 2010) and suggested that this component indexes cognitive control processes engaged when lying about probes. However, this study did not control for potential intrinsic differences among the stimuli: the same probe and irrelevants were used for all participants, and there was no control condition composed of uninformed participants. Here, first we show that the N2 effect found in the study by Gamer and Berti (2010) was in large part due to stimulus differences, as the effect observed in a concealed information condition was comparable to that found in two matched control conditions without any concealed information (Experiments 1 and 2). Next, we addressed the issue of the generality of the N2 findings by counterbalancing a new set of stimuli across participants and by using a control condition with uninformed participants (Experiment 3). Results show that the probe did not elicit a larger anterior N2 than the irrelevants under these controlled conditions. These findings suggest that caution should be taken in using the N2 as an index of concealed information in CITs. Furthermore, they are a reminder that results of CIT studies (not only with ERPs) performed without stimulus counterbalancing and suitable control conditions may be confounded by differential intrinsic properties of the stimuli employed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability of information-based integration of EEG and fMRI data: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Assecondi, Sara; Ostwald, Dirk; Bagshaw, Andrew P

    2015-02-01

    Most studies involving simultaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data rely on the first-order, affine-linear correlation of EEG and fMRI features within the framework of the general linear model. An alternative is the use of information-based measures such as mutual information and entropy, which can also detect higher-order correlations present in the data. The estimate of information-theoretic quantities might be influenced by several parameters, such as the numerosity of the sample, the amount of correlation between variables, and the discretization (or binning) strategy of choice. While these issues have been investigated for invasive neurophysiological data and a number of bias-correction estimates have been developed, there has been no attempt to systematically examine the accuracy of information estimates for the multivariate distributions arising in the context of EEG-fMRI recordings. This is especially important given the differences between electrophysiological and EEG-fMRI recordings. In this study, we drew random samples from simulated bivariate and trivariate distributions, mimicking the statistical properties of EEG-fMRI data. We compared the estimated information shared by simulated random variables with its numerical value and found that the interaction between the binning strategy and the estimation method influences the accuracy of the estimate. Conditional on the simulation assumptions, we found that the equipopulated binning strategy yields the best and most consistent results across distributions and bias correction methods. We also found that within bias correction techniques, the asymptotically debiased (TPMC), the jackknife debiased (JD), and the best upper bound (BUB) approach give similar results, and those are consistent across distributions.

  14. A Study on Information Technology Integrated Guided Iscovery Instruction towards Students' Learning Achievement and Learning Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Yu, Lean

    2016-01-01

    In the information explosion era with constant changes of information, educators have promoted various effective learning strategies for students adapting to the complex modern society. The impact and influence of traditional teaching method have information technology integrated modern instruction and science concept learning play an important…

  15. A Study on Information Technology Integrated Guided Iscovery Instruction towards Students' Learning Achievement and Learning Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Chich-Jen; Yu, Lean

    2016-01-01

    In the information explosion era with constant changes of information, educators have promoted various effective learning strategies for students adapting to the complex modern society. The impact and influence of traditional teaching method have information technology integrated modern instruction and science concept learning play an important…

  16. Tracking the Reliability of the U.S. Electric Power System: An Assessment of Publicly Available Information Reported to State Public Utility Commissions

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina H.; Eto, Joseph H.

    2008-10-10

    Large blackouts, such as the August 14-15, 2003 blackout in the northeasternUnited States and Canada, focus attention on the importance of reliable electric service. As public and private efforts are undertaken to improve reliability and prevent power interruptions, it is appropriate to assess their effectiveness. Measures of reliability, such as the frequency and duration of power interruptions, have been reported by electric utilities to state public utility commissions for many years. This study examines current state and utility practices for collecting and reporting electricity reliability information and discusses challenges that arise in assessing reliability because of differences among these practices. The study is based primarily on reliability information for 2006 reported by 123 utilities to 37 state public utility commissions.

  17. Dutch hospitals provide reliable "one click" patient information using a Quality Window.

    PubMed

    Van Rooy, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    In 2014, the Dutch Association of Hospitals (Nederlandse Vereniging van Ziekenhuizen, NVZ) launched the "Quality Window" at general hospitals across the Netherlands. The Quality Window is an online platform for patients which shares a hospital's current and previous scores on ten quality indicators, from patient experience to employee satisfaction. The Quality Window therefore responds to the growing demand for information and transparency when it comes to hospital care and performance. Not only can patients access helpful information about a hospital's quality through the Quality Window, they can also compare results with other hospitals, the national average, and more. Many hospitals also take the opportunity to expand on how indicators work in practice and the actions being taken towards improvement. The Quality Window was developed with the help of hospitals and patients. Over the coming years it will be expanded to university hospitals across the country. General hospitals will also begin developing Quality Windows for specific patient groups, such as cancer patients.

  18. Tumor LOH analysis provides reliable linkage information for prenatal genetic testing of sporadic NF1 patients.

    PubMed

    Serra, Eduard; Pros, Eva; García, Carles; López, Eva; Gili, M Lluïsa; Gómez, Carolina; Ravella, Anna; Capellá, Gabriel; Blanco, Ignacio; Lázaro, Conxi

    2007-09-01

    The neurofibromatosis type 1 gene has one of the highest mutation rates in humans: about 50% of NF1 patients are de novo cases. Although direct mutation characterization has greatly improved over the past decade, in the context of clinical genetics services worldwide, there is still a significant number of patients for which, while fulfilling NF1 clinical criteria, no constitutive mutation is found at a desired time. This is particularly critical for prenatal genetic testing of sporadic cases. Here we describe the use of loss of heterozygosity information in neurofibromas to obtain linkage information on the affected NF1 haplotype, which may be applied for prenatal testing in sporadic patients. However, proper genetic counseling should be provided regarding the possibility of somatic mosaicism.

  19. Evaluation of neural network robust reliability using information-gap theory.

    PubMed

    Pierce, S Gareth; Ben-Haim, Yakov; Worden, Keith; Manson, Graeme

    2006-11-01

    A novel technique for the evaluation of neural network robustness against uncertainty using a nonprobabilistic approach is presented. Conventional optimization techniques were employed to train multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks, which were then probed with an uncertainty analysis using an information-gap model to quantify the network response to uncertainty in the input data. It is demonstrated that the best performing network on data with low uncertainty is not in general the optimal network on data with a higher degree of input uncertainty. Using the concepts of information-gap theory, this paper develops a theoretical framework for information-gap uncertainty applied to neural networks, and explores the practical application of the procedure to three sample cases. The first consists of a simple two-dimensional (2-D) classification network operating on a known Gaussian distribution, the second a nine-lass vibration classification problem from an aircraft wing, and the third a two-class example from a database of breast cancer incidence.

  20. Diverse Data Sets Can Yield Reliable Information through Mechanistic Modeling: Salicylic Acid Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, G. M.; Bassingthwaighte, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This is a practical example of a powerful research strategy: putting together data from studies covering a diversity of conditions can yield a scientifically sound grasp of the phenomenon when the individual observations failed to provide definitive understanding. The rationale is that defining a realistic, quantitative, explanatory hypothesis for the whole set of studies, brings about a “consilience” of the often competing hypotheses considered for individual data sets. An internally consistent conjecture linking multiple data sets simultaneously provides stronger evidence on the characteristics of a system than does analysis of individual data sets limited to narrow ranges of conditions. Our example examines three very different data sets on the clearance of salicylic acid from humans: a high concentration set from aspirin overdoses; a set with medium concentrations from a research study on the influences of the route of administration and of sex on the clearance kinetics, and a set on low dose aspirin for cardiovascular health. Three models were tested: (1) a first order reaction, (2) a Michaelis-Menten (M-M) approach, and (3) an enzyme kinetic model with forward and backward reactions. The reaction rates found from model 1 were distinctly different for the three data sets, having no commonality. The M-M model 2 fitted each of the three data sets but gave a reliable estimates of the Michaelis constant only for the medium level data (Km = 24±5.4 mg/L); analyzing the three data sets together with model 2 gave Km = 18±2.6 mg/L. (Estimating parameters using larger numbers of data points in an optimization increases the degrees of freedom, constraining the range of the estimates). Using the enzyme kinetic model (3) increased the number of free parameters but nevertheless improved the goodness of fit to the combined data sets, giving tighter constraints, and a lower estimated Km = 14.6±2.9 mg/L, demonstrating that fitting diverse data sets with a single model

  1. Diverse Data Sets Can Yield Reliable Information through Mechanistic Modeling: Salicylic Acid Clearance.

    PubMed

    Raymond, G M; Bassingthwaighte, J B

    This is a practical example of a powerful research strategy: putting together data from studies covering a diversity of conditions can yield a scientifically sound grasp of the phenomenon when the individual observations failed to provide definitive understanding. The rationale is that defining a realistic, quantitative, explanatory hypothesis for the whole set of studies, brings about a "consilience" of the often competing hypotheses considered for individual data sets. An internally consistent conjecture linking multiple data sets simultaneously provides stronger evidence on the characteristics of a system than does analysis of individual data sets limited to narrow ranges of conditions. Our example examines three very different data sets on the clearance of salicylic acid from humans: a high concentration set from aspirin overdoses; a set with medium concentrations from a research study on the influences of the route of administration and of sex on the clearance kinetics, and a set on low dose aspirin for cardiovascular health. Three models were tested: (1) a first order reaction, (2) a Michaelis-Menten (M-M) approach, and (3) an enzyme kinetic model with forward and backward reactions. The reaction rates found from model 1 were distinctly different for the three data sets, having no commonality. The M-M model 2 fitted each of the three data sets but gave a reliable estimates of the Michaelis constant only for the medium level data (Km = 24±5.4 mg/L); analyzing the three data sets together with model 2 gave Km = 18±2.6 mg/L. (Estimating parameters using larger numbers of data points in an optimization increases the degrees of freedom, constraining the range of the estimates). Using the enzyme kinetic model (3) increased the number of free parameters but nevertheless improved the goodness of fit to the combined data sets, giving tighter constraints, and a lower estimated Km = 14.6±2.9 mg/L, demonstrating that fitting diverse data sets with a single model

  2. Molecularly and structurally distinct synapses mediate reliable encoding and processing of auditory information.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Carolin

    2015-12-01

    Hearing impairment is the most common human sensory deficit. Considering the sophisticated anatomy and physiology of the auditory system, disease-related failures frequently occur. To meet the demands of the neuronal circuits responsible for processing auditory information, the synapses of the lower auditory pathway are anatomically and functionally specialized to process acoustic information indefatigably with utmost temporal precision. Despite sharing some functional properties, the afferent synapses of the cochlea and of auditory brainstem differ greatly in their morphology and employ distinct molecular mechanisms for regulating synaptic vesicle release. Calyceal synapses of the endbulb of Held and the calyx of Held profit from a large number of release sites that project onto one principal cell. Cochlear inner hair cell ribbon synapses exhibit a unique one-to-one relation of the presynaptic active zone to the postsynaptic cell and use hair-cell-specific proteins such as otoferlin for vesicle release. The understanding of the molecular physiology of the hair cell ribbon synapse has been advanced by human genetics studies of sensorineural hearing impairment, revealing human auditory synaptopathy as a new nosological entity.

  3. Reliable structural information from multiscale decomposition with the Mellor-Brady filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Image-based medical diagnosis typically relies on the (poorly reproducible) subjective classification of textures in order to differentiate between diseased and healthy pathology. Clinicians claim that significant benefits would arise from quantitative measures to inform clinical decision making. The first step in generating such measures is to extract local image descriptors - from noise corrupted and often spatially and temporally coarse resolution medical signals - that are invariant to illumination, translation, scale and rotation of the features. The Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) provides a wavelet multiresolution analysis (WMRA) tool e.g. in 2D with good properties, but has limited rotational selectivity. Also, it requires computationally-intensive steering due to the inherently 1D operations performed. The monogenic signal, which is defined in n >= 2D with the Riesz transform gives excellent orientation information without the need for steering. Recent work has suggested the Monogenic Riesz-Laplace wavelet transform as a possible tool for integrating these two concepts into a coherent mathematical framework. We have found that the proposed construction suffers from a lack of rotational invariance and is not optimal for retrieving local image descriptors. In this paper we show: 1. Local frequency and local phase from the monogenic signal are not equivalent, especially in the phase congruency model of a "feature", and so they are not interchangeable for medical image applications. 2. The accuracy of local phase computation may be improved by estimating the denoising parameters while maximizing a new measure of "featureness".

  4. [Are newspapers a reliable source of information about doping in sports?].

    PubMed

    Durrieu, Geneviève; Gorsse, Elisabeth; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2004-01-01

    To study the coverage by French newspapers of doping in sports, we performed a systematic review of articles appearing between January and March 2003 on the following French websites: L'Equipe, Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération, La Dépêche du Midi and Agence France-Presse (AFP). We recorded a total of 58 articles about doping. Among them, 48 (83%) were collected from the AFP news. L'Equipe, a French sports newspaper, published seven articles (12%). Most of the recorded data reported results of worldwide antidoping control (71%). No information about new drugs was found. The analysis of the selected articles pointed out the following: (i) the seriousness of observations related to doping since, during this 3-month period, we noted two deaths of athletes; (ii) the risks associated with the use of dietary supplements, particularly products including amphetamine derivatives; (iii) the interest in judicial investigation as an information source about doping in sports (investigation of suspicious deaths of Italian football players); and (iv) identification of the sports involved in doping (cycling, but also athletics, football, rugby). Systematic analysis of newspaper reports can be considered as a relevant method for monitoring the pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology of doping in sports.

  5. The role of effective communication in achieving informed consent for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pick, Andrew; Gilbert, Kayleigh; McCaul, James

    2014-11-11

    Informed consent is fundamental to the protection of the rights, safety and wellbeing of patients in clinical research. For consent to be valid, patients must first be given all the information they need about the proposed research to be able to decide whether they would like to take part. This material should be presented in a way that is easy for them to understand. This article explores the importance of communication in clinical research, and how more effective communication with patients during the informed consent process can ensure they are fully informed.

  6. Microcomputers: Means to Achievement. Using Information More Efficiently for Special Needs Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses database management systems for special needs student information management. Considers data access policies, implementation, software selection criteria, and special needs related uses. (SK)

  7. How reliable is online diffusion of medical information targeting patients and families?

    PubMed Central

    Xavier-Elsas, Pedro; Bastos, Sandra Epifânio; Gaspar-Elsas, Maria Ignez C

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether online diffusion of the “Ten Warning Signs of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PID)’’ adheres to accepted scientific standards. METHODS: We analyzed how reproducible is online diffusion of a unique instrument, the “Ten Warning Signs of PID”, created by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF), by Google-assisted searches among highly visited sites from professional, academic and scientific organizations; governmental agencies; and patient support/advocacy organizations. We examined the diffusion, consistency of use and adequate referencing of this instrument. Where applicable, variant versions of the instrument were examined for changes in factual content that would have practical impact on physicians or on patients and their families. RESULTS: Among the first 100 sites identified by Google search, 85 faithfully reproduced the JMF model, and correctly referenced to its source. By contrast, the other 15 also referenced the JMF source but presented one or more changes in content relative to their purported model and therefore represent uncontrolled variants, of unknown origin. Discrepancies identified in the latter included changes in factual content of the original JMF list (C), as well as removal (R) and introduction (I) of novel signs (Table 2), all made without reference to any scientific publications that might account for the drastic changes in factual content. Factual changes include changes in the number of infectious episodes considered necessary to raise suspicion of PID, as well as the inclusion of various medical conditions not mentioned in the original. Together, these changes will affect the way physicians use the instrument to consult or to inform patients, and the way patients and families think about the need for specialist consultation in view of a possible PID diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The retrieved adaptations and variants, which significantly depart from the original instrument, raise concerns about standards for

  8. The Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale provides a simple and reliable measure of preoperative anxiety.

    PubMed

    Boker, Abdulaziz; Brownell, Laurence; Donen, Neil

    2002-10-01

    To compare three anxiety scales; the anxiety visual analogue scale (VAS), the anxiety component of the Amsterdam preoperative anxiety and information scale (APAIS), and the state portion of the Spielburger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), for assessment of preoperative anxiety levels in same day admission patients. Patients completed the three anxiety assessment scales both before and after seeing the anesthesiologist preoperatively. The scales used were the STAI, the six-question APAIS, and the VAS. APAIS was further subdivided to assess anxiety about anesthesia (sum A), anxiety about surgery (sum S) and a combined anxiety total (i.e., sum C = sum A + sum S). These scales were compared to one another. Pearson's correlation (pair-wise deletion) was used for validity testing. Cronbach's alpha analysis was used to test internal validity of the various components of the APAIS scale. A correlation co-efficient (r) > or = 0.6 and P < 0.05 were considered significant. Four hundred and sixty three scale sets were completed by 197 patients. There was significant and positive correlation between VAS and STAI r = 0.64, P < 0.001), VAS and APAIS r = 0.6, P < 0.001), sum C and STAI r = 0.63, P < 0.001) and between VAS and sum C r = 0.61, P < 0.001). Sum C and STAI r value were consistent with repeated administration. Cronbach's alpha-levels for the anxiety components of the APAIS (sum C) and desire for information were 0.84 and 0.77 respectively. In addition to VAS, the anxiety component of APAIS (sum C) is a promising new practical tool to assess preoperative patient anxiety levels.

  9. Identifying Predictors of Achievement in the Newly Defined Information Literacy: A Neural Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Randall; Hignite, Michael; Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.

    2009-01-01

    Information Literacy is a concept that evolved as a result of efforts to move technology-based instructional and research efforts beyond the concepts previously associated with "computer literacy." While computer literacy was largely a topic devoted to knowledge of hardware and software, information literacy is concerned with students' abilities…

  10. Administrator Effectiveness: The Effects of Advocacy and Information on Achieving Outcomes in an Organizational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Salancik, Gerald R.

    1977-01-01

    A sample of academic departments in a large state university were examined on the effects of (1) information about the distribution of department influence, (2) information about the department's standing on various dimensions, and (3) the effects of advocating that allocations be based on dimensions favoring the department. (Author/MLF)

  11. How Need for Cognition Affects the Processing of Achievement-Related Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Diener, Claudia; Bertrams, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The present article analyzed, how need for cognition (NFC) influences the formation of performance expectancies. When processing information, individuals with lower NFC often rely on salient information and shortcuts compared to individuals higher in NFC. We assume that these preferences of processing will also make individuals low in NFC more…

  12. How Need for Cognition Affects the Processing of Achievement-Related Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Diener, Claudia; Bertrams, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The present article analyzed, how need for cognition (NFC) influences the formation of performance expectancies. When processing information, individuals with lower NFC often rely on salient information and shortcuts compared to individuals higher in NFC. We assume that these preferences of processing will also make individuals low in NFC more…

  13. A Review of Large-Scale "How Much Information?" Inventories: Variations, Achievements and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pressed by the increasing social importance of digital information, including the current attention given to the "big data paradigm", several research projects have taken up the challenge to quantify the amount of technologically mediated information. Method: This meta-study reviews the eight most important inventories in a…

  14. Identifying Predictors of Achievement in the Newly Defined Information Literacy: A Neural Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Randall; Hignite, Michael; Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.

    2009-01-01

    Information Literacy is a concept that evolved as a result of efforts to move technology-based instructional and research efforts beyond the concepts previously associated with "computer literacy." While computer literacy was largely a topic devoted to knowledge of hardware and software, information literacy is concerned with students' abilities…

  15. The Black-White Achievement Gap: When Progress Stopped. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.; Coley, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This report is about understanding the periods of progress and the periods of stagnation in changes in the achievement gap that have occurred over the past several decades. The authors try to understand what might have contributed to the progress as well as probe the reasons that may account for the progress halting, in the hope of finding some…

  16. The Effects of Geography Information System (GIS) Based Teaching on Underachieving Students' Mastery Goal and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Soon Singh Bikar; Rathakrishnan, Balan; Sharif, Sabariah; Talin, Rosy; Eboy, Oliver Valentine

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the number of students electing to study Geography in Malaysian upper secondary schools, and their level of achievement in the subject, has declined. The main factor appears to be a lack of motivation. Yet there has been little research into the impact of instructional methods on Geography students' motivation and…

  17. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  18. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  19. Motivations, Achievements, and Challenges of Self-Directed Informal Learners in Open Educational Environments and MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung

    2017-01-01

    This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners enrolled in a massive open online course (MOOC) related to online teaching hosted by Blackboard using CourseSites. Data collection included a 40-item survey, of which 159 MOOC…

  20. Measuring Inequality of Opportunity in Education by Combining Information on Coverage and Achievement in PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamboa, Luis Fernando; Waltenberg, Fábio D.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the distance between countries and the goal of equality of opportunity in education has been the focus of recent contributions in the economic literature, which have concentrated either on intergroup gaps in access to a given level of studies or on intergroup gaps in educational achievement. We argue that both aspects are important and…

  1. The Effect of Poverty on Student Achievement. Information Capsule. Volume 0901

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2009-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between students' socioeconomic status and their levels of academic achievement. Although educators should be held accountable for improving the performance of all students, including those living in poverty, schools alone can't eliminate the negative factors associated with poverty that lead to a large achievement…

  2. Measuring Inequality of Opportunity in Education by Combining Information on Coverage and Achievement in PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamboa, Luis Fernando; Waltenberg, Fábio D.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the distance between countries and the goal of equality of opportunity in education has been the focus of recent contributions in the economic literature, which have concentrated either on intergroup gaps in access to a given level of studies or on intergroup gaps in educational achievement. We argue that both aspects are important and…

  3. National Board Certification: Impact on Student Achievement and Teacher Practices. Information Capsule. Volume 0917

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    The combination of difficult economic times and increased accountability has led policymakers to call for evidence that students taught by National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)-certified teachers make greater achievement gains than those taught by non-NBPTS-certified teachers. Overall, studies show mixed results regarding the…

  4. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Usage and Achievement of Turkish Students in Pisa 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the ICT usage and academic achievement of Turkish students in PISA 2006 data. The sample of the study included 4942 students from 160 schools. Frequencies, independent samples t-tests, ANOVAs, pearson correlation coefficients, exploratory factor analysis, and regression analysis were used. A high percentage…

  5. Reliability of directional information in unsorted spikes and local field potentials recorded in human motor cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perge, János A.; Zhang, Shaomin; Malik, Wasim Q.; Homer, Mark L.; Cash, Sydney; Friehs, Gerhard; Eskandar, Emad N.; Donoghue, John P.; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Action potentials and local field potentials (LFPs) recorded in primary motor cortex contain information about the direction of movement. LFPs are assumed to be more robust to signal instabilities than action potentials, which makes LFPs, along with action potentials, a promising signal source for brain-computer interface applications. Still, relatively little research has directly compared the utility of LFPs to action potentials in decoding movement direction in human motor cortex. Approach. We conducted intracortical multi-electrode recordings in motor cortex of two persons (T2 and [S3]) as they performed a motor imagery task. We then compared the offline decoding performance of LFPs and spiking extracted from the same data recorded across a one-year period in each participant. Main results. We obtained offline prediction accuracy of movement direction and endpoint velocity in multiple LFP bands, with the best performance in the highest (200-400 Hz) LFP frequency band, presumably also containing low-pass filtered action potentials. Cross-frequency correlations of preferred directions and directional modulation index showed high similarity of directional information between action potential firing rates (spiking) and high frequency LFPs (70-400 Hz), and increasing disparity with lower frequency bands (0-7, 10-40 and 50-65 Hz). Spikes predicted the direction of intended movement more accurately than any individual LFP band, however combined decoding of all LFPs was statistically indistinguishable from spike-based performance. As the quality of spiking signals (i.e. signal amplitude) and the number of significantly modulated spiking units decreased, the offline decoding performance decreased 3.6[5.65]%/month (for T2 and [S3] respectively). The decrease in the number of significantly modulated LFP signals and their decoding accuracy followed a similar trend (2.4[2.85]%/month, ANCOVA, p = 0.27[0.03]). Significance. Field potentials provided comparable

  6. Reliability of ICD-10 external cause of death codes in the National Coroners Information System.

    PubMed

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Clapperton, Angela J; Killian, Jessica J; Stephan, Karen L; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Availability of ICD-10 cause of death codes in the National Coroners Information System (NCIS) strengthens its value as a public health surveillance tool. This study quantified the completeness of external cause ICD-10 codes in the NCIS for Victorian deaths (as assigned by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in the yearly Cause of Death data). It also examined the concordance between external cause ICD-10 codes contained in the NCIS and a re-code of the same deaths conducted by an independent coder. Of 7,400 NCIS external cause deaths included in this study, 961 (13.0%) did not contain an ABS assigned ICD-10 code and 225 (3.0%) contained only a natural cause code. Where an ABS assigned external cause ICD-10 code was present (n=6,214), 4,397 (70.8%) matched exactly with the independently assigned ICD-10 code. Coding disparity primarily related to differences in assignment of intent and specificity. However, in a small number of deaths (n=49, 0.8%) there was coding disparity for both intent and external cause category. NCIS users should be aware of the limitations of relying only on ICD-10 codes contained within the NCIS for deaths prior to 2007 and consider using these in combination with the other NCIS data fields and code sets to ensure optimum case identification.

  7. Toward reliable retrieval of functional information of papillary dermis using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Guo, Jun-Yen; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chou, Ting-Chun; Lin, Ming-Jen; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-02-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) has been employed to quantify tissue optical properties and its interrogation volume is majorly controlled by the source-to-detector separations (SDSs). To noninvasively quantify properties of dermis, a SRDRS setup that includes SDS shorter than 1 mm is required. It will be demonstrated in this study that Monte Carlo simulations employing the Henyey-Greenstein phase function cannot always precisely predict experimentally measured diffuse reflectance at such short SDSs, and we speculated this could be caused by the non-negligible backward light scattering at short SDSs that cannot be properly modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. To accurately recover the optical properties and functional information of dermis using SRDRS, we proposed the use of the modified two-layer (MTL) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiment results revealed that the MTL probing geometry was capable of faithfully recovering the optical properties of upper dermis. The capability of the MTL geometry in probing the upper dermis properties was further verified through a swine study, and it was found that the measurement results were reasonably linked to histological findings. Finally, the MTL probe was utilized to study psoriatic lesions. Our results showed that the MTL probe was sensitive to the physiological condition of tissue volumes within the papillary dermis and could be used in studying the physiology of psoriasis.

  8. Toward reliable retrieval of functional information of papillary dermis using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wen; Guo, Jun-Yen; Tzeng, Shih-Yu; Chou, Ting-Chun; Lin, Ming-Jen; Huang, Lynn Ling-Huei; Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (SRDRS) has been employed to quantify tissue optical properties and its interrogation volume is majorly controlled by the source-to-detector separations (SDSs). To noninvasively quantify properties of dermis, a SRDRS setup that includes SDS shorter than 1 mm is required. It will be demonstrated in this study that Monte Carlo simulations employing the Henyey-Greenstein phase function cannot always precisely predict experimentally measured diffuse reflectance at such short SDSs, and we speculated this could be caused by the non-negligible backward light scattering at short SDSs that cannot be properly modeled by the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. To accurately recover the optical properties and functional information of dermis using SRDRS, we proposed the use of the modified two-layer (MTL) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom experiment results revealed that the MTL probing geometry was capable of faithfully recovering the optical properties of upper dermis. The capability of the MTL geometry in probing the upper dermis properties was further verified through a swine study, and it was found that the measurement results were reasonably linked to histological findings. Finally, the MTL probe was utilized to study psoriatic lesions. Our results showed that the MTL probe was sensitive to the physiological condition of tissue volumes within the papillary dermis and could be used in studying the physiology of psoriasis. PMID:26977361

  9. Challenges to achieving sustainable sanitation in informal settlements of Kigali, Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Tsinda, Aime; Abbott, Pamela; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katrina; Adogo, Jane; Okurut, Kenan; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2013-12-10

    Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city's population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two informal settlements (Gatsata and Kimisagara) were selected for the study, which used a mixed method approach for data collection. The research found that residents experienced multiple problems because of poor sanitation and that the main barrier to improved sanitation was cost. Findings from this study can be used by the city authorities in the planning of effective sanitation intervention strategies for communities in informal settlements.

  10. Challenges to Achieving Sustainable Sanitation in Informal Settlements of Kigali, Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Tsinda, Aime; Abbott, Pamela; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katrina; Adogo, Jane; Okurut, Kenan; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city’s population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two informal settlements (Gatsata and Kimisagara) were selected for the study, which used a mixed method approach for data collection. The research found that residents experienced multiple problems because of poor sanitation and that the main barrier to improved sanitation was cost. Findings from this study can be used by the city authorities in the planning of effective sanitation intervention strategies for communities in informal settlements. PMID:24336021

  11. A model for achieving total quality-management information technology infrastructure within an integrated delivery system.

    PubMed

    Tan, J K

    1998-11-01

    The strategic development and deployment of a health management information technology infrastructure is discussed from two perspectives for radiologists and for other medical technologists: the integrated delivery system (IDS) perspective and a total quality-management (TQM) perspective. On the one hand, an IDS perspective is important because of the need to prepare radiologists and other medical practitioners to thrive within rapidly changing health organizational models and evolving health service delivery partnership systems. On the other, a TQM perspective is important due to the need to realize an appropriate, efficient, and cost-effective health information infrastructure for developing seamless, integrated radiological and other medical imaging services. Apart from intelligently pursuing an aligned organizational business strategy with the organizational information system strategy, senior radiological managers and medical technologists of health organizations need to pay particular attention to key quality principles for effecting changes in organizational structures and processes to fit changes in information technological requirements, implementations, and innovations.

  12. How do nurses and teachers perform breast self-examination: are they reliable sources of information?

    PubMed Central

    Demirkiran, Fatma; Balkaya, Nevin Akdolun; Memis, Sakine; Turk, Gulengun; Ozvurmaz, Safiye; Tuncyurek, Pars

    2007-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare knowledge, behavior and attitudes among female nurses and teachers concerning breast self-examination (BSE). Methods Two-hundred and eighty nine women working in Aydin, Turkey (125 nurses and 164 teachers) were included in the study. The data were collected using a questionnaire designed to measure the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of the groups. Analysis involved percentiles, χ2 tests, t tests and factor analysis. Results The knowledge of nurses about BSE was higher than that of teachers (81.5% versus 45.1%; p < 0.001). BSE practice parameters (i.e. age groups, indications, frequency) were similar (p > 0.05), whereas skills in performing self-examination were higher in nurses (p < 0.001). Fear of having breast cancer is the most frequent reason for performing BSE. Among nurses, the reasons for failure to perform BSE were the absence of prominent breast problems (82%) and forgetting (56.4%). The teachers who did not perform BSE said that the reasons were lack of knowledge on how to perform self-examination (68.9%) and absence of problems (54%). Both groups had unacceptable technical errors in the performance of BSE. Conclusion We conclude that nurses and teachers should be supported with information enabling them to accomplish their roles in the community. To improve BSE practice, it is crucial to coordinate continuous and planned education. PMID:17547778

  13. Validity and Reliability of Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Computerized Adaptive Tests in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, Shanthini; Szymonifka, Jackie; Burket, Jayme C; Berman, Jessica R; Kirou, Kyriakos A; Levine, Alana B; Sammaritano, Lisa R; Mandl, Lisa A

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the construct validity and the test-retest reliability of Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) computerized adaptive tests (CAT) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Adults with SLE completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, LupusQoL-US version ("legacy instruments"), and 14 selected PROMIS CAT. Using Spearman correlations, PROMIS CAT were compared with similar domains measured with legacy instruments. CAT were also correlated with the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI) disease activity and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SDI) scores. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using ICC. There were 204 outpatients with SLE enrolled in the study and 162 completed a retest. PROMIS CAT showed good performance characteristics and moderate to strong correlations with similar domains in the 2 legacy instruments (r = -0.49 to 0.86, p < 0.001). However, correlations between PROMIS CAT and the SELENA-SLEDAI disease activity and SDI were generally weak and statistically insignificant. PROMIS CAT test-retest ICC were good to excellent, ranging from 0.72 to 0.88. To our knowledge, these data are the first to show that PROMIS CAT are valid and reliable for many SLE-relevant domains. Importantly, PROMIS scores did not correlate well with physician-derived measures. This disconnect between objective signs and symptoms and the subjective patient disease experience underscores the crucial need to integrate patient-reported outcomes into clinical care to ensure optimal disease management.

  14. Towards sustainability of health information systems: how can we define, measure and achieve it?

    PubMed

    Garde, Sebastian; Hullin, Carola M; Chen, Rong; Schuler, Thilo; Gränz, Jana; Knaup, Petra; Hovenga, Evelyn J S

    2007-01-01

    Health information systems (HIS) in their current form are rarely sustainable. In order to sustain our health information systems and with it our health systems, we need to focus on defining and maintaining sustainable Health Information System building blocks or components. These components need to be easily updatable when clinical knowledge (or anything else) changes, easily adaptable when business requirements or processes change, and easily exchangeable when technology advances. One major prerequisite for this is that we need to be able to define and measure sustainability, so that it can become one of the major business drivers in HIS development. Therefore, this paper analyses general definitions and indicators for sustainability, and analyses their applicability to HIS. We find that general 'Emergy analysis' is one possibility to measure sustainability for HIS. Based on this, we investigate major enablers and inhibitors to sustainability in a highlevel framework consisting of four pillars: clinical, technical, socio-technical, and political/business.

  15. Skill and reliability of experimental GEFS ensemble forecast guidance designed to inform decision-making in reservoir management in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuerer, Michael; Webb, Robert S.; Hamill, Thomas M.

    2017-04-01

    Many reservoirs operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) in California provide flood control as well as water supply, recreation and stream flow regulation. Operations for flood control follow seasonally specified elevations for an upper volume of reservoir storage with unused storage capacity designated for flood risk management and thus not available for water supply storage. In the flood control operation of these reservoirs, runoff is captured during rain events and then released soon after at rates that do not result in downstream flooding (typically over a 5 to 8 day period), resulting in evacuated storage space to capture runoff from the next potential storm. As part of the Forecast-Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) partnership to more effectively balance flood and drought risks, we developed an experimental California medium-range precipitation forecast system based on NCEP GEFS reforecasts and Climatology-Calibrated Precipitation Analysis (CCPA). We have applied this experimental forecast system to predict the probability of day 5-10 precipitation accumulations at each CCPA grid point within California to exceed certain pre-specified thresholds. Discussions with flood and water supply managers indicate that forecast guidance for the very low risk of extreme precipitation for watersheds above reservoirs can be valuable for decision making. In this study, we assess the skill and reliability of this experimental forecast system to predict low probabilities of precipitation extreme events for select watersheds during recent winter precipitation seasons. Our analysis indicate there may be sufficient reliability in forecasts guidance for low probabilities of heavy precipitation events to inform decision making in reservoir management in select California river basins to manage flood risk while increasing water supply for consumptive use and ecosystem services.

  16. Skill and reliability of experimental GEFS ensemble forecast guidance designed to inform decision-making in reservoir management in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, R. S.; Scheuerer, M.; Hamill, T.

    2016-12-01

    Many reservoirs operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) in California provide flood control as well as water supply, recreation and stream flow regulation. Operations for flood control follow seasonally specified elevations for an upper volume of reservoir storage with unused storage capacity designated for flood risk management and thus not available for water supply storage. In the flood control operation of these reservoirs, runoff is captured during rain events and then released soon after at rates that do not result in downstream flooding (typically over a 5 to 8 day period), resulting in evacuated storage space to capture runoff from the next potential storm. As part of the Forecast-Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) partnership to more effectively balance flood and drought risks, we developed an experimental California medium-range precipitation forecast system based on NCEP GEFS Reforecasts and Climatology-Calibrated Precipitation Analysis (CCPA). We have applied this experimental forecast system to predict the probability of day 5-10 precipitation accumulations at each CCPA grid point within California to exceed certain pre-specified thresholds. Discussions with flood and water supply managers indicate that forecast guidance for the very low risk of extreme precipitation for watersheds above reservoirs can be valuable for decision making. In this study, we assess the skill and reliability of this experimental forecast system to predict low probabilities of precipitation extreme events for select watersheds during recent winter precipitation seasons. Our analysis indicate there may be sufficient reliability in forecasts guidance for low probabilities of heavy precipitation events to inform decision making in reservoir management in select California river basins to manage flood risk while increasing water supply for consumptive use and ecosystem services.

  17. An Approach to Reducing Information Loss and Achieving Diversity of Sensitive Attributes in k-anonymity Methods.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sunyong; Shin, Moonshik; Lee, Doheon

    2012-11-13

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) enable the sharing of patients' medical data. Since EHRs include patients' private data, access by researchers is restricted. Therefore k-anonymity is necessary to keep patients' private data safe without damaging useful medical information. However, k-anonymity cannot prevent sensitive attribute disclosure. An alternative, l-diversity, has been proposed as a solution to this problem and is defined as: each Q-block (ie, each set of rows corresponding to the same value for identifiers) contains at least l well-represented values for each sensitive attribute. While l-diversity protects against sensitive attribute disclosure, it is limited in that it focuses only on diversifying sensitive attributes. The aim of the study is to develop a k-anonymity method that not only minimizes information loss but also achieves diversity of the sensitive attribute. This paper proposes a new privacy protection method that uses conditional entropy and mutual information. This method considers both information loss as well as diversity of sensitive attributes. Conditional entropy can measure the information loss by generalization, and mutual information is used to achieve the diversity of sensitive attributes. This method can offer appropriate Q-blocks for generalization. We used the adult database from the UCI Machine Learning Repository and found that the proposed method can greatly reduce information loss compared with a recent l-diversity study. It can also achieve the diversity of sensitive attributes by counting the number of Q-blocks that have leaks of diversity. This study provides a privacy protection method that can improve data utility and protect against sensitive attribute disclosure. The method is viable and should be of interest for further privacy protection in EHR applications.

  18. An Approach to Reducing Information Loss and Achieving Diversity of Sensitive Attributes in k-anonymity Methods

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sunyong; Shin, Moonshik

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) enable the sharing of patients’ medical data. Since EHRs include patients’ private data, access by researchers is restricted. Therefore k-anonymity is necessary to keep patients’ private data safe without damaging useful medical information. However, k-anonymity cannot prevent sensitive attribute disclosure. An alternative, l-diversity, has been proposed as a solution to this problem and is defined as: each Q-block (ie, each set of rows corresponding to the same value for identifiers) contains at least l well-represented values for each sensitive attribute. While l-diversity protects against sensitive attribute disclosure, it is limited in that it focuses only on diversifying sensitive attributes. The aim of the study is to develop a k-anonymity method that not only minimizes information loss but also achieves diversity of the sensitive attribute. This paper proposes a new privacy protection method that uses conditional entropy and mutual information. This method considers both information loss as well as diversity of sensitive attributes. Conditional entropy can measure the information loss by generalization, and mutual information is used to achieve the diversity of sensitive attributes. This method can offer appropriate Q-blocks for generalization. We used the adult database from the UCI Machine Learning Repository and found that the proposed method can greatly reduce information loss compared with a recent l-diversity study. It can also achieve the diversity of sensitive attributes by counting the number of Q-blocks that have leaks of diversity. This study provides a privacy protection method that can improve data utility and protect against sensitive attribute disclosure. The method is viable and should be of interest for further privacy protection in EHR applications. PMID:23612074

  19. Utilizing Information and Communication Technologies to Achieve Lifelong Education for All: A Case Study of Myanmar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Naing Yee

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the role of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in advancing the cause of education for all and livelong learning. After examining the claimed benefits of ICTs for promoting education and schooling, and the characteristics of education and the basic education movement in Asia, the paper focuses on providing a case…

  20. Enhancing Academic Achievement and Transition Outcomes Using Technology. Information Brief. Volume 4, Issue 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzo, Margo Vreeburg; Murray, Alexa; O'Hanlon, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This information brief addresses how educators can align transition goals with standards-based education. The Nisonger Center at Ohio State University (OSU) has developed a standards-driven, computer-based curriculum for students with disabilities in grades 8 through 10, whose curriculum emphasizes (1) reading competencies needed to pass…

  1. Decision-Making, Information Communication Technology, and Data Analysis by School Leaders about Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoma, Ahunna Margaux

    2012-01-01

    This case study of one school district examined how school leaders use student performance data and technology-based data analysis tools to engage in data-informed decision-making for continuous improvement. School leaders in this context included leaders at the district, school, and classroom levels. An extensive literature review provided the…

  2. Decision-Making, Information Communication Technology, and Data Analysis by School Leaders about Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akoma, Ahunna Margaux

    2012-01-01

    This case study of one school district examined how school leaders use student performance data and technology-based data analysis tools to engage in data-informed decision-making for continuous improvement. School leaders in this context included leaders at the district, school, and classroom levels. An extensive literature review provided the…

  3. National Library of Medicine Disaster Information Management Research Center: Achieving the vision, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Love, Cynthia B.; Arnesen, Stacey J.; Phillips, Steven J.; Windom, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2013, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC) continued to build its programs and services on the foundation laid in its starting years, 2008–2010. Prior to 2008, NLM had a long history of providing health information, training, and tools in response to disasters. Aware of this legacy, the NLM long range plan (Charting a Course for the 21st Century: NLM’s Long Range Plan 2006–2016) called for creation of a center to show “a strong commitment to disaster remediation and to provide a platform for demonstrating how libraries and librarians can be part of the solution to this national problem”. NLM is continuing efforts to ensure that medical libraries have plans for the continuity of their operations, librarians are trained to understand their roles in preparedness and response, online disaster health information resources are available for many audiences and in multiple formats, and research is conducted on tools to enhance the exchange of critical information during and following disasters. This paper describes the 2010–2013 goals and activities of DIMRC and its future plans. PMID:27570333

  4. Achievable steps toward building a National Health Information infrastructure in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stead, William W; Kelly, Brian J; Kolodner, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need to reflect carefully on which approaches are likely to work on a large enough scale to have the intended beneficial national impacts and which are better left to smaller projects within the boundaries of health care organizations. This report provides a primer for use by informatics professionals as they explain aspects of that dividing line to policy makers and to health care leaders and front-line providers. It then identifies short-term, intermediate, and long-term steps that might be taken by the NHII initiative.

  5. Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stead, William W.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kolodner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need to reflect carefully on which approaches are likely to work on a large enough scale to have the intended beneficial national impacts and which are better left to smaller projects within the boundaries of health care organizations. This report provides a primer for use by informatics professionals as they explain aspects of that dividing line to policy makers and to health care leaders and front-line providers. It then identifies short-term, intermediate, and long-term steps that might be taken by the NHII initiative. PMID:15561783

  6. Efficiency achievements from a user-developed real-time modifiable clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Roderick O; Patrick, Jon; Besiso, Ali

    2015-02-01

    This investigation was initiated after the introduction of a new information system into the Nepean Hospital Emergency Department. A retrospective study determined that the problems introduced by the new system led to reduced efficiency of the clinical staff, demonstrated by deterioration in the emergency department's (ED's) performance. This article is an investigation of methods to improve the design and implementation of clinical information systems for an ED by using a process of clinical team-led design and a technology built on a radically new philosophy denoted as emergent clinical information systems. The specific objectives were to construct a system, the Nepean Emergency Department Information Management System (NEDIMS), using a combination of new design methods; determine whether it provided any reduction in time and click burden on the user in comparison to an enterprise proprietary system, Cerner FirstNet; and design and evaluate a model of the effect that any reduction had on patient throughput in the department. The methodology for conducting a direct comparison between the 2 systems used the 6 activity centers in the ED of clerking, triage, nursing assessments, fast track, acute care, and nurse unit manager. A quantitative study involved the 2 systems being measured for their efficiency on 17 tasks taken from the activity centers. A total of 332 task instances were measured for duration and number of mouse clicks in live usage on Cerner FirstNet and in reproduction of the same Cerner FirstNet work on NEDIMS as an off-line system. The results showed that NEDIMS is at least 41% more efficient than Cerner FirstNet (95% confidence interval 21.6% to 59.8%). In some cases, the NEDIMS tasks were remodeled to demonstrate the value of feedback to create improvements and the speed and economy of design revision in the emergent clinical information systems approach. The cost of the effort in remodeling the designs showed that the time spent on remodeling is

  7. Leveraging health information technology to achieve the “triple aim” of healthcare reform

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Harpreet S; Bates, David W

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate experiences with leveraging health information technology (HIT) to improve patient care and population health, and reduce healthcare expenditures. Materials and methods In-depth qualitative interviews with federal government employees, health policy, HIT and medico-legal experts, health providers, physicians, purchasers, payers, patient advocates, and vendors from across the United States. Results The authors undertook 47 interviews. There was a widely shared belief that Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) had catalyzed the creation of a digital infrastructure, which was being used in innovative ways to improve quality of care and curtail costs. There were however major concerns about the poor usability of electronic health records (EHRs), their limited ability to support multi-disciplinary care, and major difficulties with health information exchange, which undermined efforts to deliver integrated patient-centered care. Proposed strategies for enhancing the benefits of HIT included federal stimulation of competition by mandating vendors to open-up their application program interfaces, incenting development of low-cost consumer informatics tools, and promoting Congressional review of the The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) to optimize the balance between data privacy and reuse. Many underscored the need to “kick the legs from underneath the fee-for-service model” and replace it with a data-driven reimbursement system that rewards high quality care. Conclusions The HITECH Act has stimulated unprecedented, multi-stakeholder interest in HIT. Early experiences indicate that the resulting digital infrastructure is being used to improve quality of care and curtail costs. Reform efforts are however severely limited by problems with usability, limited interoperability and the persistence of the fee-for-service paradigm—addressing these issues therefore needs to be the federal

  8. The Southeastern Minnesota Beacon Project for Community-driven Health Information Technology: Origins, Achievements, and Legacy.

    PubMed

    Chute, Christopher G; Hart, Lacey A; Alexander, Alex K; Jensen, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    The Southeastern (SE) Minnesota Beacon organized all the health care providers, county public health organizations, and school districts in the deployment and integration of health information exchange (HIE) and targeted health communication around childhood asthma and diabetes. The community cooperated to establish a clinical data repository for all residents in the 11-county region. Through this community of practice approach that involved traditional and nontraditional providers, the SE Minnesota Beacon was able to realize unique applications of this technology. This manuscript overviews the associated organization and infrastructure of this community collaboration. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) stimulus, established 17 projects throughout the United States targeting the introduction and meaningful use of health information technology (HIT). These 17 communities were intended to serve as an example of what could be accomplished. The SE Minnesota Beacon is one of these communities. The community ultimately opted for peer-to-peer HIE, using Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN) Connect software. The clinical data repository was established using the infrastructure developed by the Regenstrief Institute, which operated as a trusted third party. As an extension to HIE, the consortium of county public health departments created a patient data portal for use by school nurses and parents. Childhood asthma was addressed by creating, exchanging, and maintaining an "asthma action plan" for each affected child, shared throughout the community, including through the patient portal. Diabetes management introduced patient treatment decision tools and patient quality of life measures, facilitating care. Influenza vaccination was enhanced by large-scale community reporting in partnership with the state vaccination registry. The methodology and

  9. The Southeastern Minnesota Beacon Project for Community-driven Health Information Technology: Origins, Achievements, and Legacy

    PubMed Central

    Chute, Christopher G.; Hart, Lacey A.; Alexander, Alex K.; Jensen, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Southeastern (SE) Minnesota Beacon organized all the health care providers, county public health organizations, and school districts in the deployment and integration of health information exchange (HIE) and targeted health communication around childhood asthma and diabetes. The community cooperated to establish a clinical data repository for all residents in the 11-county region. Through this community of practice approach that involved traditional and nontraditional providers, the SE Minnesota Beacon was able to realize unique applications of this technology. This manuscript overviews the associated organization and infrastructure of this community collaboration. Background: The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) stimulus, established 17 projects throughout the United States targeting the introduction and meaningful use of health information technology (HIT). These 17 communities were intended to serve as an example of what could be accomplished. The SE Minnesota Beacon is one of these communities. Methods: The community ultimately opted for peer-to-peer HIE, using Nationwide Health Information Network (NwHIN) Connect software. The clinical data repository was established using the infrastructure developed by the Regenstrief Institute, which operated as a trusted third party. As an extension to HIE, the consortium of county public health departments created a patient data portal for use by school nurses and parents. Childhood asthma was addressed by creating, exchanging, and maintaining an “asthma action plan” for each affected child, shared throughout the community, including through the patient portal. Diabetes management introduced patient treatment decision tools and patient quality of life measures, facilitating care. Influenza vaccination was enhanced by large-scale community reporting in partnership with the state vaccination

  10. Achieving meaningful use of health information technology: a guide for physicians to the EHR incentive programs.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Leah; Seidman, Joshua; Trudel, Karen; Berwick, Donald M; Blumenthal, David; Mostashari, Farzad; Jain, Sachin H

    2012-05-14

    Over 30,000 clinicians have already qualified to receive initial incentive payments for the meaningful use of electronic health records (EHRs) through the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) EHR Incentive Programs. However, 2012 is the final year to receive maximum incentive payments, and many physicians still have questions regarding meaningful use objectives and how to register for, report, and attest to meaningful use. We provide herein an overview of the Medicare and Medicaid EHR Incentive Programs and guide physicians in the process of how to demonstrate meaningful use of health information technology.

  11. Achieving U.S. Health information technology adoption: the need for a third hand.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Blackford

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. health care information technology (HIT) market is broken; broad-scale adoption of HIT is not occurring despite considerable evidence of its impact on the quality of care and patient safety. Although adoption of HIT will not cure all that ails health care, it is an important step toward transformation of the U.S. health care delivery system. In this commentary I describe several critical issues pertaining to the HIT market failure and several ways in which the federal government may act as a deft and gentle "Third Hand" to assist the Invisible Hand of Adam Smith.

  12. Reliability and relative weighting of visual and nonvisual information for perceiving direction of self-motion during walking

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Direction of self-motion during walking is indicated by multiple cues, including optic flow, nonvisual sensory cues, and motor prediction. I measured the reliability of perceived heading from visual and nonvisual cues during walking, and whether cues are weighted in an optimal manner. I used a heading alignment task to measure perceived heading during walking. Observers walked toward a target in a virtual environment with and without global optic flow. The target was simulated to be infinitely far away, so that it did not provide direct feedback about direction of self-motion. Variability in heading direction was low even without optic flow, with average RMS error of 2.4°. Global optic flow reduced variability to 1.9°–2.1°, depending on the structure of the environment. The small amount of variance reduction was consistent with optimal use of visual information. The relative contribution of visual and nonvisual information was also measured using cue conflict conditions. Optic flow specified a conflicting heading direction (±5°), and bias in walking direction was used to infer relative weighting. Visual feedback influenced heading direction by 16%–34% depending on scene structure, with more effect with dense motion parallax. The weighting of visual feedback was close to the predictions of an optimal integration model given the observed variability measures. PMID:24648194

  13. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-09-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. What it will take to achieve the as-yet-unfulfilled promises of health information technology.

    PubMed

    Kellermann, Arthur L; Jones, Spencer S

    2013-01-01

    A team of RAND Corporation researchers projected in 2005 that rapid adoption of health information technology (IT) could save the United States more than $81 billion annually. Seven years later the empirical data on the technology's impact on health care efficiency and safety are mixed, and annual health care expenditures in the United States have grown by $800 billion. In our view, the disappointing performance of health IT to date can be largely attributed to several factors: sluggish adoption of health IT systems, coupled with the choice of systems that are neither interoperable nor easy to use; and the failure of health care providers and institutions to reengineer care processes to reap the full benefits of health IT. We believe that the original promise of health IT can be met if the systems are redesigned to address these flaws by creating more-standardized systems that are easier to use, are truly interoperable, and afford patients more access to and control over their health data. Providers must do their part by reengineering care processes to take full advantage of efficiencies offered by health IT, in the context of redesigned payment models that favor value over volume.

  15. The need of adequate information to achieve total compliance of mass drug administration in Pekalongan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginandjar, Praba; Saraswati, Lintang Dian; Taufik, Opik; Nurjazuli; Widjanarko, Bagoes

    2017-02-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) initiated The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) through mass drug administration (MDA). Pekalongan started MDA in 2011. Yet the LF prevalence in 2015 remained exceed the threshold (1%). This study aimed to describe the inhibiting factors related to the compliance of MDA in community level. This was a rapid survey with cross sectional approach. A two-stages random sampling was used in this study. In the first stage, 25 clusters were randomly selected from 27 villages with proportionate to population size (PPS) methods (C-Survey). In the second stage, 10 subjects were randomly selected from each cluster. Subject consisted of 250 respondents from 25 selected clusters. Variables consisted of MDA coverage, practice of taking medication during MDA, enabling and inhibiting factors to MDA in community level. The results showed most respondents had poor knowledge on filariasis, which influence awareness of the disease. Health-illness perception, did not receive the drugs, lactation, side effect, and size of the drugs were dominant factors of non-compliance to MDA. MDA information and community empowerment were needed to improve MDA coverage. Further study to explore the appropriate model of socialization will support the success of MDA program

  16. Field-Induced Crystalline-to-Amorphous Phase Transformation on the Si Nano-Apex and the Achieving of Highly Reliable Si Nano-Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yifeng; Deng, Zexiang; Wang, Weiliang; Liang, Chaolun; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2015-01-01

    Nano-scale vacuum channel transistors possess merits of higher cutoff frequency and greater gain power as compared with the conventional solid-state transistors. The improvement in cathode reliability is one of the major challenges to obtain high performance vacuum channel transistors. We report the experimental findings and the physical insight into the field induced crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation on the surface of the Si nano-cathode. The crystalline Si tip apex deformed to amorphous structure at a low macroscopic field (0.6~1.65 V/nm) with an ultra-low emission current (1~10 pA). First-principle calculation suggests that the strong electrostatic force exerting on the electrons in the surface lattices would take the account for the field-induced atomic migration that result in an amorphization. The arsenic-dopant in the Si surface lattice would increase the inner stress as well as the electron density, leading to a lower amorphization field. Highly reliable Si nano-cathodes were obtained by employing diamond like carbon coating to enhance the electron emission and thus decrease the surface charge accumulation. The findings are crucial for developing highly reliable Si-based nano-scale vacuum channel transistors and have the significance for future Si nano-electronic devices with narrow separation. PMID:25994377

  17. The indispensable intermediaries: a qualitative study of informal caregivers' struggle to achieve influence at and after hospital discharge.

    PubMed

    Bragstad, Line Kildal; Kirkevold, Marit; Foss, Christina

    2014-07-30

    The care policy and organization of the care sector is shifting to accommodate projected demographic changes and to ensure a sustainable model of health care provision in the future. Adult children and spouses are often the first to assume care giving responsibilities for older adults when declining function results in increased care needs. By introducing policies tailored to enabling family members to combine gainful employment with providing care for older relatives, the sustainability of the future care for older individuals in Norway is more explicitly placed on the family and informal caregivers than previously. Care recipients and informal caregivers are expected to take an active consumer role and participate in the care decision-making process. This paper aims to describe the informal caregivers' experiences of influencing decision-making at and after hospital discharge for home-bound older relatives. This paper reports findings from a follow-up study with an exploratory qualitative design. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 19 informal caregivers of older individuals discharged from hospital in Norway. An inductive thematic content analysis was undertaken. Informal caregivers take on comprehensive all-consuming roles as intermediaries between the care recipient and the health care services. In essence, the informal caregivers take the role of the active participant on behalf of their older relative. They describe extensive efforts struggling to establish dialogues with the "gatekeepers" of the health care services. Achieving the goal of the best possible care for the care recipient seem to depend on the informal caregivers having the resources to choose appropriate strategies for gaining influence over decisions. The care recipients' extensive frailty and increasing dependence on their families coupled with the complexity of health care services contribute to the perception of the informal caregivers' indispensable role as intermediaries

  18. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  19. The relationship of learning motivation, achievement and satisfaction for nurses learning simple excel VBA information systems programming.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ying Li; Chien, Tsai Feng; Kuo, Ming Chuan; Chang, Polun

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand the relationship between participating nurses' motivation, achievement and satisfaction before and after they learned to program in Excel Visual Basic for Applications (Excel VBA). We held a workshop to train nurses in developing simple Excel VBA information systems to support their clinical or administrative practices. Before and after the workshop, the participants were evaluated on their knowledge of Excel VBA, and a questionnaire was given to survey their learning motivation and satisfaction. Statistics softwares Winsteps and SPSS were used for data analysis. Results show that the participants are more knowledgeable about VBA as well as more motivated in learning VBA after the workshop. Participants were highly satisfied with the overall arrangement of the workshop and instructors, but didn't have enough confidence in promoting the application of Excel VBA themselves. In addition, we were unable to predict the participants' achievement by their demographic characteristics or pre-test motivation level.

  20. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Packard, Michael H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this manual is failure physics-the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low-cost reliable products. In a broader sense the manual should do more. It should underscore the urgent need CI for mature attitudes toward reliability. Five of the chapters were originally presented as a classroom course to over 1000 Martin Marietta engineers and technicians. Another four chapters and three appendixes have been added, We begin with a view of reliability from the years 1940 to 2000. Chapter 2 starts the training material with a review of mathematics and a description of what elements contribute to product failures. The remaining chapters elucidate basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures.

  1. The importance of reliable information exchange in emergency practices: a misunderstanding that was uncovered before it was too late.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Halvor

    2015-07-07

    Many medical emergency practices are regulated by written procedures that normally provide reliable guidelines for action. In some cases, however, the consequences of following rule-based instructions can have unintended negative consequences. The article discusses a case - described on a type level - where the consequences of following a rule formulation could have been fatal. A weak and elderly patient has cardiac arrest, and a Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) clause is written in the patient's medical record. Paramedics at the scene cannot see that the patient's general appearance match conditions which would indicate the DNR clause, so they start cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and the patient survives. This turns out to be a crucial decision. The DNR clause is from an earlier bout with serious disease from which the patient has recovered, against all odds, and someone has forgotten to remove the clause from the medical record. In order to be able to interpret the validity of written guidelines, paramedics and other health workers need to develop personal skills that transcend the ability simply to follow written instructions. Within traditional virtue ethics, personal judgment is conceived of as crucial for being able to make 'good' autonomous decisions. Virtue ethical analyses, decision-making abilities and non-technical communication skills are important as conceptual tools when health workers need to make difficult clinical decisions. The case study accentuates the significance of prudent judgment in medical practice. In the case described, the consequence of trusting the written advance directive could have been fatal, but the point is general: for the purpose of achieving excellent organizational performance, it is insufficient for health workers to rely uncritically on rules and procedures. Even the clearest rule formulations must be interpreted contextually in order to determine ethically correct behavior and avoid potential negative consequences that are

  2. Robust fusion with reliabilities weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Jean-Francois; Marques, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    The reliability is a value of the degree of trust in a given measurement. We analyze and compare: ML (Classical Maximum Likelihood), MLE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Entropy), MLR (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability), MLRE (Maximum Likelihood weighted by Reliability and Entropy), DS (Credibility Plausibility), DSR (DS weighted by reliabilities). The analysis is based on a model of a dynamical fusion process. It is composed of three sensors, which have each it's own discriminatory capacity, reliability rate, unknown bias and measurement noise. The knowledge of uncertainties is also severely corrupted, in order to analyze the robustness of the different fusion operators. Two sensor models are used: the first type of sensor is able to estimate the probability of each elementary hypothesis (probabilistic masses), the second type of sensor delivers masses on union of elementary hypotheses (DS masses). In the second case probabilistic reasoning leads to sharing the mass abusively between elementary hypotheses. Compared to the classical ML or DS which achieves just 50% of correct classification in some experiments, DSR, MLE, MLR and MLRE reveals very good performances on all experiments (more than 80% of correct classification rate). The experiment was performed with large variations of the reliability coefficients for each sensor (from 0 to 1), and with large variations on the knowledge of these coefficients (from 0 0.8). All four operators reveal good robustness, but the MLR reveals to be uniformly dominant on all the experiments in the Bayesian case and achieves the best mean performance under incomplete a priori information.

  3. An Illustration of the Effects of Fluctuations in Test Information on Measurement Error, the Attenuation of Effect Sizes, and Diagnostic Reliability.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Brian P

    2017-03-16

    Measurement precision often fluctuates across latent trait continuums. Plots of test information are typically provided in item response theory (IRT) investigations, but the numerical values for test information are not readily interpretable. This article draws attention to the important, nonlinear relationships between test information, location-specific standard errors of measurement, and location-specific reliability. It provides a method for examining the attenuation in effect sizes (correlations) that is caused by fluctuating levels of measurement error. It also outlines the conditions under which fluctuating measurement error influences effect sizes. The effect of fluctuating error on effect sizes can be more serious than what is predicted by the well-known correction for attenuation formula that is based on constant reliability coefficients. The relationship between levels of test information and diagnostic reliability is also examined. Higher levels of test information are required for diagnostic reliability than for the prevention of effect size attenutation. Data from previously published IRT studies in personality and abnormal psychology are used to illustrate these phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Assuring reliability program effectiveness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide simple identification and description of techniques that have proved to be most useful either in developing a new product or in improving reliability of an established product. The first reliability task is obtaining and organizing parts failure rate data. Other tasks are parts screening, tabulation of general failure rates, preventive maintenance, prediction of new product reliability, and statistical demonstration of achieved reliability. Five principal tasks for improving reliability involve the physics of failure research, derating of internal stresses, control of external stresses, functional redundancy, and failure effects control. A final task is the training and motivation of reliability specialist engineers.

  5. Assuring reliability program effectiveness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide simple identification and description of techniques that have proved to be most useful either in developing a new product or in improving reliability of an established product. The first reliability task is obtaining and organizing parts failure rate data. Other tasks are parts screening, tabulation of general failure rates, preventive maintenance, prediction of new product reliability, and statistical demonstration of achieved reliability. Five principal tasks for improving reliability involve the physics of failure research, derating of internal stresses, control of external stresses, functional redundancy, and failure effects control. A final task is the training and motivation of reliability specialist engineers.

  6. The indispensable intermediaries: a qualitative study of informal caregivers’ struggle to achieve influence at and after hospital discharge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The care policy and organization of the care sector is shifting to accommodate projected demographic changes and to ensure a sustainable model of health care provision in the future. Adult children and spouses are often the first to assume care giving responsibilities for older adults when declining function results in increased care needs. By introducing policies tailored to enabling family members to combine gainful employment with providing care for older relatives, the sustainability of the future care for older individuals in Norway is more explicitly placed on the family and informal caregivers than previously. Care recipients and informal caregivers are expected to take an active consumer role and participate in the care decision-making process. This paper aims to describe the informal caregivers’ experiences of influencing decision-making at and after hospital discharge for home-bound older relatives. Methods This paper reports findings from a follow-up study with an exploratory qualitative design. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 19 informal caregivers of older individuals discharged from hospital in Norway. An inductive thematic content analysis was undertaken. Results Informal caregivers take on comprehensive all-consuming roles as intermediaries between the care recipient and the health care services. In essence, the informal caregivers take the role of the active participant on behalf of their older relative. They describe extensive efforts struggling to establish dialogues with the “gatekeepers” of the health care services. Achieving the goal of the best possible care for the care recipient seem to depend on the informal caregivers having the resources to choose appropriate strategies for gaining influence over decisions. Conclusions The care recipients’ extensive frailty and increasing dependence on their families coupled with the complexity of health care services contribute to the perception of the informal

  7. Brief Report: How Do They Manage Social Interaction? The Influence of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Self-Monitoring by Adolescents with Low Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoshan; Zhao, Jun-Yan; Yu, Guoliang

    2010-01-01

    During social interactions people self-monitor their behavior at least partially to conceal socially devalued characteristics. This study examined the influences of concealing academic achievement on self-monitoring in an academically-relevant social interaction. An interview paradigm called for school-aged adolescent participants (total N = 86)…

  8. Readability and Test-Retest Reliability of a Psychometric Instrument Designed to Assess HIV/AIDS Attitudes, Beliefs, Behaviours and Sources of HIV Prevention Information of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogun, Joseph; Abiona, Titilayo; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Adefuye, Adedeji; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose; Yakut, Yavuz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This comparative study evaluated the readability and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes, beliefs behaviours and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among young adults recruited from universities in the United States of America (USA), Turkey and South Africa. Design/Setting: The instrument was…

  9. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrova, Olga; Flicker, Jack David; Johnson, Jay; Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Schindelholz, Eric John; Sorensen, Neil R.; Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  10. CISN Display Progress to Date - Reliable Delivery of Real-Time Earthquake Information, and ShakeMap to Critical End Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, H.; Hauksson, E.; Thomas, E.; Friberg, P.; Frechette, K.; Given, D.

    2003-12-01

    can give Emergency Response managers' information needed to allocate limited personnel and resources after a major event. The shaking intensity shape files may be downloaded out-of-band to the client computer, and with the GIS mapping tool, users can plot organizational assets on the CISN Display map and analyze their inventory against potentially damaged areas. Lastly, in support of a robust design is a well-established and reliable set of communication protocols. To achieve a state-full server connection and messaging via a signaling channel the application uses a Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA). The client responds to keep-alive signals from the server, and alerts users of changes in the connection status. This full-featured messaging service will allow the system to trigger a reconnect strategy whenever the client detects a loss of connectivity. This sets the CISN Display apart from its predecessors, which do not provide a failover mechanism, or a state of connection. Thus by building on past programming successes and advances in proven Internet technologies, the CISN Display will augment the emergency responder's ability to make informed decisions following a potentially damaging earthquake.

  11. Being an Informed Consumer of Health Information and Assessment of Electronic Health Literacy in a National Sample of Internet Users: Validity and Reliability of the e-HLS Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Yeatts, Dale; Hughes, Susan; Hudson, Cassie; Bell, Valarie

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet, with its capacity to provide information that transcends time and space barriers, continues to transform how people find and apply information to their own lives. With the current explosion in electronic sources of health information, including thousands of websites and hundreds of mobile phone health apps, electronic health literacy is gaining an increasing prominence in health and medical research. An important dimension of electronic health literacy is the ability to appraise the quality of information that will facilitate everyday health care decisions. Health information seekers explore their care options by gathering information from health websites, blogs, Web-based forums, social networking websites, and advertisements, despite the fact that information quality on the Internet varies greatly. Nonetheless, research has lagged behind in establishing multidimensional instruments, in part due to the evolving construct of health literacy itself. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine psychometric properties of a new electronic health literacy (ehealth literacy) measure in a national sample of Internet users with specific attention to older users. Our paper is motivated by the fact that ehealth literacy is an underinvestigated area of inquiry. Methods Our sample was drawn from a panel of more than 55,000 participants maintained by Knowledge Networks, the largest national probability-based research panel for Web-based surveys. We examined the factor structure of a 19-item electronic Health Literacy Scale (e-HLS) through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency reliability, and construct validity on sample of adults (n=710) and a subsample of older adults (n=194). The AMOS graphics program 21.0 was used to construct a measurement model, linking latent factors obtained from EFA with 19 indicators to determine whether this factor structure achieved a good fit with our entire sample

  12. Being an Informed Consumer of Health Information and Assessment of Electronic Health Literacy in a National Sample of Internet Users: Validity and Reliability of the e-HLS Instrument.

    PubMed

    Seçkin, Gül; Yeatts, Dale; Hughes, Susan; Hudson, Cassie; Bell, Valarie

    2016-07-11

    The Internet, with its capacity to provide information that transcends time and space barriers, continues to transform how people find and apply information to their own lives. With the current explosion in electronic sources of health information, including thousands of websites and hundreds of mobile phone health apps, electronic health literacy is gaining an increasing prominence in health and medical research. An important dimension of electronic health literacy is the ability to appraise the quality of information that will facilitate everyday health care decisions. Health information seekers explore their care options by gathering information from health websites, blogs, Web-based forums, social networking websites, and advertisements, despite the fact that information quality on the Internet varies greatly. Nonetheless, research has lagged behind in establishing multidimensional instruments, in part due to the evolving construct of health literacy itself. The purpose of this study was to examine psychometric properties of a new electronic health literacy (ehealth literacy) measure in a national sample of Internet users with specific attention to older users. Our paper is motivated by the fact that ehealth literacy is an underinvestigated area of inquiry. Our sample was drawn from a panel of more than 55,000 participants maintained by Knowledge Networks, the largest national probability-based research panel for Web-based surveys. We examined the factor structure of a 19-item electronic Health Literacy Scale (e-HLS) through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency reliability, and construct validity on sample of adults (n=710) and a subsample of older adults (n=194). The AMOS graphics program 21.0 was used to construct a measurement model, linking latent factors obtained from EFA with 19 indicators to determine whether this factor structure achieved a good fit with our entire sample and the subsample (age ≥ 60

  13. 'Give us the full story': overcoming the challenges to achieving informed choice about fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Wild, Kayli; Maypilama, Elaine Lawurrpa; Kildea, Sue; Boyle, Jacqueline; Barclay, Lesley; Rumbold, Alice

    2013-12-01

    This cross-cultural qualitative study examined the ethical, language and cultural complexities around offering fetal anomaly screening in Australian Aboriginal communities. There were five study sites across the Northern Territory (NT), including urban and remote Aboriginal communities. In-depth interviews were conducted between October 2009 and August 2010, and included 35 interviews with 59 health providers and 33 interviews with 62 Aboriginal women. The findings show that while many providers espoused the importance of achieving equity in access to fetal anomaly screening, their actions were inconsistent with this ideal. Providers reported they often modified their practice depending on the characteristics of their client, including their English skills, the perception of the woman's interest in the tests and assumptions based on their risk profile and cultural background. Health providers were unsure whether it was better to tailor information to the specific needs of their client or to provide the same level of information to all clients. Very few Aboriginal women were aware of fetal anomaly screening. The research revealed they did want to be offered screening and wanted the 'full story' about all aspects of the tests. The communication processes advocated by Aboriginal women to improve understanding about screening included community discussions led by elders and educators. These processes promote culturally defined ways of sharing information, rather than the individualised, biomedical approaches to information-giving in the clinical setting. A different and arguably more ethical approach to introducing fetal anomaly screening would be to initiate dialogue with appropriate groups of women in the community, particularly young women, build relationships and utilise Aboriginal health workers. This could accommodate individual choice and broader cultural values and allow women to discuss the moral and philosophical debates surrounding fetal anomaly screening

  14. Spatial and temporal organization of multi-protein assemblies: achieving sensitive control in information-rich cell-regulatory systems.

    PubMed

    Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M; Wu, Qian; Ochi, Takashi; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Sibanda, Bancinyane Lynn; Blundell, Tom L

    2012-06-28

    The regulation of cellular processes in living organisms requires signalling systems that have a high signal-to-noise ratio. This is usually achieved by transient, multi-protein complexes that assemble cooperatively. Even in the crowded environment of the cell, such assemblies are unlikely to form by chance, thereby providing a sensitive regulation of cellular processes. Furthermore, selectivity and sensitivity may be achieved by the requirement for concerted folding and binding of previously unfolded components. We illustrate these features by focusing on two essential signalling pathways of eukaryotic cells: first, the monitoring and repair of DNA damage by non-homologous end joining, and second, the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint, which detects and corrects defective attachments of chromosomes to the kinetochore. We show that multi-protein assemblies moderate the full range of functional complexity and diversity in the two signalling systems. Deciphering the nature of the interactions is central to understanding the mechanisms that control the flow of information in cell signalling and regulation.

  15. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; Glinsky, C.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  16. Network reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1985-01-01

    Network control (or network management) functions are essential for efficient and reliable operation of a network. Some control functions are currently included as part of the Open System Interconnection model. For local area networks, it is widely recognized that there is a need for additional control functions, including fault isolation functions, monitoring functions, and configuration functions. These functions can be implemented in either a central or distributed manner. The Fiber Distributed Data Interface Medium Access Control and Station Management protocols provide an example of distributed implementation. Relative information is presented here in outline form.

  17. Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    RELAV, a NASA-developed computer program, enables Systems Control Technology, Inc. (SCT) to predict performance of aircraft subsystems. RELAV provides a system level evaluation of a technology. Systems, the mechanism of a landing gear for example, are first described as a set of components performing a specific function. RELAV analyzes the total system and the individual subsystem probabilities to predict success probability, and reliability. This information is then translated into operational support and maintenance requirements. SCT provides research and development services in support of government contracts.

  18. VLSI reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Sabnis, A.G. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents major topics in IC reliability from basic concepts to packaging issues. Other topics covered include failure analysis techniques, radiation effects, and reliability assurance and qualification. This book offers insight into the practical aspects of VLSI reliability.

  19. Testing the Mediating Role of Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in the Relationship between Sources of Efficacy Information and Students Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamadi, Fatemeh Shaterian; Asadzadeh, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the mediating role of teachers' self-efficacy beliefs in the relationship between sources of efficacy information and students achievement. For achieving this aim, this study suggests two alternative models, tested by Structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. In the first model, sources of efficacy…

  20. Testing the Mediating Role of Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in the Relationship between Sources of Efficacy Information and Students Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamadi, Fatemeh Shaterian; Asadzadeh, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the mediating role of teachers' self-efficacy beliefs in the relationship between sources of efficacy information and students achievement. For achieving this aim, this study suggests two alternative models, tested by Structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. In the first model, sources of efficacy…

  1. Parts, Materials, and Processes Experience Summary. Volume 1; [Catalog of ALERT and Other Information on Basic Design, Reliability, Quality and Applications Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The ALERT program, a system for communicating common problems with parts, materials, and processes, is condensed and catalogued. Expanded information on selected topics is provided by relating the problem area (failure) to the cause, the investigations and findings, the suggestions for avoidance (inspections, screening tests, proper part applications), and failure analysis procedures. The basic objective of ALERT is the avoidance of the recurrence of parts, materials, and processed problems, thus improving the reliability of equipment produced for and used by the government.

  2. Associations between Reading Achievement and Independent Reading in Early Elementary School: A Genetically Informative Cross-Lagged Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A.; DeThorne, Laura S.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a cross-lagged twin design to examine reading achievement and independent reading from 10 to 11 years (n = 436 twin pairs). Reading achievement at age 10 significantly predicted independent reading at age 11. The alternative path, from independent reading at age 10 to reading achievement at age 11, was not significant. Individual…

  3. Role of amplifiers gain on the achievable information rate of M-ary PSK and QAM constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nuno A.; Pinto, Armando N.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of optical amplification on the achievable information rate (AIR) is evaluated, considering continuous and discrete modulation formats. The theoretical model for the AIR considers the optical amplification noise, the nonlinear optical noise, and the coherent receiver shot and thermal noise sources. Two different scenarios for the AIR are analyzed. First, we admit that the gain of each optical amplifier under or over compensate the previous fiber span loss. After that, we consider the case where we remove optical amplifiers from the transmission link. Results show that for the first scenario, when we under or over compensate the span loss the AIR tends to decrease. Nevertheless, for low cardinality constellations the AIR is not primarily limited by the gain of the optical amplifiers. In the second scenario, results show that it is possible to remove amplification stages from the end to the beginning of the transmission link without decreasing the AIR. We observe that for a polarization multiplexing (PM) 4-PSK constellation the plateau of 4 bits/symbol is preserved even if we remove the last two amplifiers from the transmission link.

  4. Development and reliability of a scale of physical-activity related informal social control for parents of Chinese pre-schoolers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parents’ perceived informal social control, defined as the informal ways residents intervene to create a safe and orderly neighbourhood environment, may influence young children’s physical activity (PA) in the neighbourhood. This study aimed to develop and test the reliability of a scale of PA-related informal social control relevant to Chinese parents/caregivers of pre-schoolers (children aged 3 to 5 years) living in Hong Kong. Methods Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a structured, multi-step brainstorming technique, was conducted with two groups of caregivers (mainly parents; n = 11) of Hong Kong pre-schoolers in June 2011. Items collected in the NGT sessions and those generated by a panel of experts were used to compile a list of items (n = 22) for a preliminary version of a questionnaire of informal social control. The newly-developed scale was tested with 20 Chinese-speaking parents/caregivers using cognitive interviews (August 2011). The modified scale, including all 22 original items of which a few were slightly reworded, was subsequently administered on two occasions, a week apart, to 61 Chinese parents/caregivers of Hong Kong pre-schoolers in early 2012. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the items and scale were examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), paired t-tests, relative percentages of shifts in responses to items, and Cronbach’s α coefficient. Results Thirteen items generated by parents/caregivers and nine items generated by the panel of experts (total 22 items) were included in a first working version of the scale and classified into three subscales: “Personal involvement and general informal supervision”, “Civic engagement for the creation of a better neighbourhood environment” and “Educating and assisting neighbourhood children”. Twenty out of 22 items showed moderate to excellent test-test reliability (ICC range: 0.40-0.81). All three subscales of informal social control

  5. Reliability of health information for the public on the World Wide Web: systematic survey of advice on managing fever in children at home.

    PubMed Central

    Impicciatore, P.; Pandolfini, C.; Casella, N.; Bonati, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of healthcare information on the world wide web and therefore how it may help lay people cope with common health problems. METHODS: Systematic search by means of two search engines, Yahoo and Excite, of parent oriented web pages relating to home management of feverish children. Reliability of information on the web sites was checked by comparison with published guidelines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Minimum temperature of child that should be considered as fever, optimal sites for measuring temperature, pharmacological and physical treatment of fever, conditions that may warrant a doctor's visit. RESULTS: 41 web pages were retrieved and considered. 28 web pages gave a temperature above which a child is feverish; 26 pages indicated the optimal site for taking temperature, most recommending rectal measurement; 31 of the 34 pages that mentioned drug treatment recommended paracetamol as an antipyretic; 38 pages recommended non-drug measures, most commonly tepid sponging, dressing lightly, and increasing fluid intake; and 36 pages gave some indication of when a doctor should be called. Only four web pages adhered closely to the main recommendations in the guidelines. The largest deviations were in sponging procedures and how to take a child's temperature, whereas there was a general agreement in the use of paracetamol. CONCLUSIONS: Only a few web sites provided complete and accurate information for this common and widely discussed condition. This suggests an urgent need to check public oriented healthcare information on the internet for accuracy, completeness, and consistency. PMID:9224132

  6. [Reliability of data on compliance with Constitutional Amendment 29 reported to the Public Healthcare Budget Information System by municipalities in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rogério Fabiano; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin; Espírito Santo, Antônio Carlos Gomes do; Sousa, Islândia Maria Carvalho de; Duarte-Neto, Paulo J; Brito e Silva, Keila Silene de

    2009-12-01

    The present study analyzes the reliability of data on compliance with Constitutional Amendment 29 (CA29) reported to the Public Healthcare Budget Information System (known as SIOPS) by municipalities in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A quantitative, analytical cross-sectional study was conducted using the years 2000 to 2005 as the reference. Invoices audited by the State Accounts Court were used as the parameter for determining reliability of the percentage of compliance with CA29 as reported to SIOPS, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to measure data agreement. The results show a mismatch between the databases, suggesting slight to moderate agreement between the SIOPS data and those from the State Accounts Court. The low degree of agreement may result from lack of consensus among municipalities regarding definition of health-related revenues and expenses or the existence of different criteria used by SIOPS and the State Accounts Court for calculating the CA29.

  7. On the reliability of the occlusion technique as a tool for the assessment of the HMI of in-vehicle information and communication systems.

    PubMed

    Gelau, Christhard; Henning, Matthias J; Krems, Josef F

    2009-03-01

    In recent years considerable efforts have been spent on the development of the occlusion technique as a procedure for the assessment of the human-machine interface of in-vehicle information and communication systems (IVIS) designed to be used by the driver while driving. The importance and significance of the findings resulting from the application of this procedure depends essentially on its reliability. Because there is a lack of evidence as to whether this basic criterion of measurement is met with this procedure, and because questionable reliability can lead to doubts about their validity, our project strove to clarify this issue. This paper reports on a statistical reanalysis of data obtained from previous experiments. To summarise, the characteristic values found for internal consistency were almost all in the range of .90 for the occlusion technique, which can be considered satisfactory.

  8. Associations between reading achievement and independent reading in early elementary school: A genetically-informative cross-lagged study

    PubMed Central

    Harlaar, Nicole; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A.; DeThorne, Laura S.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study used a cross-lagged twin design to examine reading achievement and independent reading from 10 to 11 years (n = 436 twin pairs). Reading achievement at age 10 significantly predicted independent reading at age 11. The alternative path, from independent reading at age 10 to reading achievement at age 11, was not significant. Individual differences in reading achievement and independent reading at both ages were primarily due to genetic influences. Furthermore, individual differences in independent reading at age 11 partly reflected genetic influences on reading achievement at age 10. These findings suggest that genetic influences that contribute to individual differences in children’s reading abilities also influence the extent to which children actively seek out and create opportunities to read. PMID:22026450

  9. Associations between reading achievement and independent reading in early elementary school: a genetically informative cross-lagged study.

    PubMed

    Harlaar, Nicole; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee A; Dethorne, Laura S; Petrill, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    This study used a cross-lagged twin design to examine reading achievement and independent reading from 10 to 11 years (n = 436 twin pairs). Reading achievement at age 10 significantly predicted independent reading at age 11. The alternative path, from independent reading at age 10 to reading achievement at age 11, was not significant. Individual differences in reading achievement and independent reading at both ages were primarily due to genetic influences. Furthermore, individual differences in independent reading at age 11 partly reflected genetic influences on reading achievement at age 10. These findings suggest that genetic influences that contribute to individual differences in children's reading abilities also influence the extent to which children actively seek out and create opportunities to read.

  10. Equilibrating errors: reliable estimation of information transmission rates in biological systems with spectral analysis-based methods.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Irina; French, Andrew S; Immonen, Esa-Ville; Frolov, Roman; Weckström, Matti

    2014-06-01

    Shannon's seminal approach to estimating information capacity is widely used to quantify information processing by biological systems. However, the Shannon information theory, which is based on power spectrum estimation, necessarily contains two sources of error: time delay bias error and random error. These errors are particularly important for systems with relatively large time delay values and for responses of limited duration, as is often the case in experimental work. The window function type and size chosen, as well as the values of inherent delays cause changes in both the delay bias and random errors, with possibly strong effect on the estimates of system properties. Here, we investigated the properties of these errors using white-noise simulations and analysis of experimental photoreceptor responses to naturalistic and white-noise light contrasts. Photoreceptors were used from several insect species, each characterized by different visual performance, behavior, and ecology. We show that the effect of random error on the spectral estimates of photoreceptor performance (gain, coherence, signal-to-noise ratio, Shannon information rate) is opposite to that of the time delay bias error: the former overestimates information rate, while the latter underestimates it. We propose a new algorithm for reducing the impact of time delay bias error and random error, based on discovering, and then using that size of window, at which the absolute values of these errors are equal and opposite, thus cancelling each other, allowing minimally biased measurement of neural coding.

  11. Health Literacy INDEX: development, reliability, and validity of a new tool for evaluating the health literacy demands of health information materials.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Kreuter, Matthew W; Casey, Chris; Leme, Luisa; Thompson, Tess; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Jacobsen, Heather; Sterling, Ryan; Oguntimein, Joy; Filler, Carl; Culbert, Arthur; Rooney, Megan; Lapka, Christy

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus on how best to assess the health literacy demands of health information materials. Comprehensive, reliable, and valid assessment tools are needed. The authors report on the development, refinement, and testing of Health Literacy INDEX, a new tool reflecting empirical evidence and best practices. INDEX is comprised of 63 indicators organized into 10 criteria: plain language, clear purpose, supporting graphics, user involvement, skill-based learning, audience appropriateness, user instruction, development details, evaluation methods, and strength of evidence. In a sample of 100 materials, intercoder agreement was high: 90% or better for 52% of indicators, and above 80% for nearly all others. Overall scores generated by INDEX were highly correlated with average ratings from 12 health literacy experts (r = 0.89, p < .0001). Additional research is warranted to examine the association between evaluation ratings generated by INDEX and individual understanding, behaviors, and improved health. Health Literacy INDEX is a comprehensive tool with evidence for reliability and validity that can be used to evaluate the health literacy demands of health information materials. Although improvement in health information materials is just one aspect of mitigating the effects of limited health literacy on health outcomes, it is an essential step toward a more health literate public.

  12. Combining Self-Assessments and Achievement Tests in Information Literacy Assessment: Empirical Results and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the significance of information literacy self-assessments in higher education with a special focus on situational conditions increasing their explanatory power. First, it was hypothesised that self-assessments of information literacy correlate higher with factual information literacy if measured after the administration of…

  13. Combining Self-Assessments and Achievement Tests in Information Literacy Assessment: Empirical Results and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Tom; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the significance of information literacy self-assessments in higher education with a special focus on situational conditions increasing their explanatory power. First, it was hypothesised that self-assessments of information literacy correlate higher with factual information literacy if measured after the administration of…

  14. Reading self-perceived ability, enjoyment and achievement: A genetically informative study of their reciprocal links over time.

    PubMed

    Malanchini, Margherita; Wang, Zhe; Voronin, Ivan; Schenker, Victoria J; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A; Kovas, Yulia

    2017-04-01

    Extant literature has established a consistent association between aspects of reading motivation, such as enjoyment and self-perceived ability, and reading achievement, in that more motivated readers are generally more skilled readers. However, the developmental etiology of this relation is yet to be investigated. The present study explores the development of the motivation-achievement association and its genetic and environmental underpinnings. Applying cross-lagged design in a sample of 13,825 twins, we examined the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the association between reading enjoyment and self-perceived ability and reading achievement. Children completed a reading comprehension task and self-reported their reading enjoyment and perceived ability twice in middle childhood: when they were 9-10 and 12 years old. Results showed a modest reciprocal association over time between reading motivation (enjoyment and perceived ability) and reading achievement. Reading motivation at age 9-10 statistically predicted the development of later achievement, and similarly, reading achievement at age 9-10 predicted the development of later motivation. This reciprocal association was observed beyond the stability of the variables and their contemporaneous correlation and was largely explained by genetic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Reading Self-Perceived Ability, Enjoyment and Achievement: A Genetically Informative Study of Their Reciprocal Links Over Time

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Extant literature has established a consistent association between aspects of reading motivation, such as enjoyment and self-perceived ability, and reading achievement, in that more motivated readers are generally more skilled readers. However, the developmental etiology of this relation is yet to be investigated. The present study explores the development of the motivation–achievement association and its genetic and environmental underpinnings. Applying cross-lagged design in a sample of 13,825 twins, we examined the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the association between reading enjoyment and self-perceived ability and reading achievement. Children completed a reading comprehension task and self-reported their reading enjoyment and perceived ability twice in middle childhood: when they were 9–10 and 12 years old. Results showed a modest reciprocal association over time between reading motivation (enjoyment and perceived ability) and reading achievement. Reading motivation at age 9–10 statistically predicted the development of later achievement, and similarly, reading achievement at age 9–10 predicted the development of later motivation. This reciprocal association was observed beyond the stability of the variables and their contemporaneous correlation and was largely explained by genetic factors. PMID:28333527

  16. Materials Reliability Program: Risk-Informed Revision of ASME Section XI Appendix G - Proof of Concept (MRP-143)

    SciTech Connect

    B. Bishop; et al

    2005-03-30

    This study indicates that risk-informed methods can be used to significantly relax the current ASME and NRC Appendix G requirements while still maintaining satisfactory levels of reactor vessel structural integrity. This relaxation in Appendix G requirements directly translates into significant improvements in operational flexibility.

  17. Internal and Temporal Reliability Estimates for Informant Ratings of Personality Using the NEO PI-R and IAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, John E.; Lee, Patricia A.; Sherker, Jennifer L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the internal consistency and temporal stability of informant ratings from the revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) (P. Costa and R. McRae, 1992) and the Interpersonal Adjective Scale (IAS) (J. Wiggins, 1995) through ratings by 109 undergraduates of well-known adult targets. The estimates of internal consistency and temporal…

  18. Information and Risk Modification Trial (INFORM): design of a randomised controlled trial of communicating different types of information about coronary heart disease risk, alongside lifestyle advice, to achieve change in health-related behaviour.

    PubMed

    Silarova, Barbora; Lucas, Joanne; Butterworth, Adam S; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Girling, Christine; Lawrence, Kathryn; Mackintosh, Stuart; Moore, Carmel; Payne, Rupert A; Sharp, Stephen J; Shefer, Guy; Tolkien, Zoe; Usher-Smith, Juliet; Walker, Matthew; Danesh, John; Griffin, Simon

    2015-09-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death globally. Primary prevention of CVD requires cost-effective strategies to identify individuals at high risk in order to help target preventive interventions. An integral part of this approach is the use of CVD risk scores. Limitations in previous studies have prevented reliable inference about the potential advantages and the potential harms of using CVD risk scores as part of preventive strategies. We aim to evaluate short-term effects of providing different types of information about coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, alongside lifestyle advice, on health-related behaviours. In a parallel-group, open randomised trial, we are allocating 932 male and female blood donors with no previous history of CVD aged 40-84 years in England to either no intervention (control group) or to one of three active intervention groups: i) lifestyle advice only; ii) lifestyle advice plus information on estimated 10-year CHD risk based on phenotypic characteristics; and iii) lifestyle advice plus information on estimated 10-year CHD risk based on phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured physical activity. Secondary outcomes include: objectively measured dietary behaviours; cardiovascular risk factors; current medication and healthcare usage; perceived risk; cognitive evaluation of provision of CHD risk scores; and psychological outcomes. The follow-up assessment takes place 12 weeks after randomisation. The experiences, attitudes and concerns of a subset of participants will be also studied using individual interviews and focus groups. The INFORM study has been designed to provide robust findings about the short-term effects of providing different types of information on estimated 10-year CHD risk and lifestyle advice on health-related behaviours. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN17721237 . Registered 12 January 2015.

  19. Learning to Spike: The Self-Organization of Spiking Behavior in Neurons for the Purpose of Reliable Information Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, Martin

    1998-03-01

    Information from the senses must be compressed into the limited range of firing rates generated by spiking nerve cells. By adjusting the diverse set voltage-dependent conductances in the cell membrane, nerve cells can, in principle, match their response to the statistics of naturally occurring stimuli. By treating the activation and inactivation functions of voltage-dependent conductances as time-dependent basis functions, one can map Hodgkin-Huxley models of single neurons onto a standard neural network model with feedback. Adaptation rules are proposed that change the parameters of these time-dependent basis functions based on maximum entropy/maximum information principles. I explore how such learning rules can transform a non-spiking neuron into one that produces action potentials.

  20. Do we have the reliable data? An exploration of data quality for AIDS information system in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Yu, Ping; Wang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    A national AIDS program evaluation system has been applied to the ranking of the performance of involved public health organizations in China since 2007. The system provides quantitative performance comparison information based on automatic mining of the data stored in a unified web-based national information system, China AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System (the CRIMS). Hence, the quality of the AIDS program evaluation system is directly related to the data quality in the CRIMS. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the AIDS program evaluation system. The research method is qualitative interview of public health practitioners in Jiangxi Province. The public health practitioners believed that the introduction and ongoing usage of the CRIMS has significantly transformed the practice of AIDS prevention and control. They believed that the AIDS program evaluation system has brought in increased accountability of public health. They suggested that the accuracy and completeness of AIDS program evaluation needs to go beyond the data from the CRIMS. Further research will continue to identify the unknown factors that undermine the performance of AIDS programs in China.

  1. Advanced 2D die placement inspection system for reliable flip chip interconnections based on 3D information of die and substrate by a phase measuring profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Kee; Kim, Min Young

    2011-05-01

    To use flip chip interconnection technology for semiconductor packages offers a number of possible advantages to the user: reduced signal inductance, reduced power/ground inductance, higher signal density, die shrink, and reduced package footprint. However, manufacturing processes for 'flip chip'-integrated packages need a high precision alignment between flip chip and matched substrate. Comparing with original visual alignment based on 2D image information, an advanced die placement inspection system for reliable flip chip interconnections has been firstly proposed by authors [2]. In this paper, the proposed system is reviewed briefly, and system calibration algorithms and information processing algorithms are described in detail. To verify the system performance, a series of real experiments is performed on flip chip packages for high performance computing, and its results are discussed in detail.

  2. Date of first positive HIV test: reliability of information collected for HIV/AIDS surveillance in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; Campsmith, Michael; Sweeny, Patricia; Lee, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the reliability of the first positive HIV test date reported in the U.S. HIV/AIDS Reporting System (HARS). This date is essential to determine case counts for resource allocation for HIV treatment and prevention efforts. METHODS: The dates of first positive HIV tests reported by individuals with HIV in an interview survey conducted in 16 states (n=16,394, interviewed 1995-2002) were compared with the dates of HIV diagnosis reported to HARS. The percentage of agreement for the year of diagnosis and the weighed kappa (k) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. RESULTS: Self-reported year of diagnosis agreed with the year of diagnosis in HARS for 56% of date pairs (k=0.69; 95% CI 0.68, 0.70); 30% reported an earlier diagnosis year. Agreement differed by sex, age, race, exposure, and reason or place of testing (p<.01). Lower agreement was found when the self-reported diagnostic test was anonymous (k=0.57; 95% CI 0.52, 0.62) compared with confidential tests (k=0.66; 95% CI 0.64, 0.68). Lower agreement was also found for cases first reported with AIDS (k=0.58; 95% CI 0.55, 0.62) compared with cases first reported with HIV not AIDS (k=0.71; 95% CI 0.70, 0.73) as well as for participants interviewed three years or more after their HARS diagnosis date (k=0.55; 95% CI 0.52, 0.57) compared with those interviewed within one year (k=0.62; 95% CI 0.61, 0.63). More than 20% of participants in almost all groups, however, reported earlier diagnosis years than those recorded in HARS. CONCLUSION: As many as 30% of HIV diagnoses may have occurred earlier than recorded in HARS. Additional studies need to determine mechanisms to adequately capture diagnosis dates in HARS. PMID:15736337

  3. Comparative testing of reliability and audit utility of ordinal objective calculus complexity scores. Can we make an informed choice yet?

    PubMed

    Jaipuria, Jiten; Suryavanshi, Manav; Sen, Tridib K

    2016-12-01

    To assess the reliability of the Guy's Stone Score, the Seoul National University Renal Stone Complexity (S-ReSC) score and the S.T.O.N.E. scores in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and assess their utility in discriminating outcomes [stone free rate (SFR), complications, need for multiple PCNL sessions, and auxiliary procedures] valid across parameters of experience of surgeon, independence from surgical approach, and variations in institution-specific instrumentation. A prospectively maintained database of two tertiary institutions was analysed (606 cases). Institutes differed in instrumentation, while the overall surgical team comprised: two trainees (experience <100 cases), two junior consultants (experience 100-200 cases), and two senior surgeons (experience >1000 cases). Scores were assigned and re-assigned after 4 months by one trainee and an expert surgeon. Inter-rater and test-retest agreement were analysed by Cohen's κ and intraclass correlation coefficient. Multivariate logistic regression models were created adjusting outcomes for the institution, comorbidity, Amplatz size, access tract location, the number of punctures, the experience level of the surgeon, and individual scoring system, and receiver operating curves were analysed for comparison. Despite some areas of inconsistencies, individually all scores had excellent inter-rater and test-retest concordance. On multivariable analyses, while the experience of the surgeon and surgical approach characteristics (such as access tract location, Amplatz size, and number of punctures) remained independently associated with different outcomes in varying combinations, calculus complexity scores were found consistently to be independently associated with all outcomes. The S-ReSC score had a superior association with SFR, the need for multiple PCNL sessions, and auxiliary procedures. Individually all scoring systems performed well. On cross comparison, the S-ReSC score consistently emerged to be more

  4. Integration of Human Reliability Analysis Models into the Simulation-Based Framework for the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Ronald; Mandelli, Diego; Rasmussen, Martin; Herberger, Sarah; Ulrich, Thomas; Groth, Katrina; Smith, Curtis

    2016-06-01

    This report presents an application of a computation-based human reliability analysis (HRA) framework called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER). HUNTER has been developed not as a standalone HRA method but rather as framework that ties together different HRA methods to model dynamic risk of human activities as part of an overall probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). While we have adopted particular methods to build an initial model, the HUNTER framework is meant to be intrinsically flexible to new pieces that achieve particular modeling goals. In the present report, the HUNTER implementation has the following goals: • Integration with a high fidelity thermal-hydraulic model capable of modeling nuclear power plant behaviors and transients • Consideration of a PRA context • Incorporation of a solid psychological basis for operator performance • Demonstration of a functional dynamic model of a plant upset condition and appropriate operator response This report outlines these efforts and presents the case study of a station blackout scenario to demonstrate the various modules developed to date under the HUNTER research umbrella.

  5. Reading Self-Perceived Ability, Enjoyment and Achievement: A Genetically Informative Study of Their Reciprocal Links over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malanchini, Margherita; Wang, Zhe; Voronin, Ivan; Schenker, Victoria J.; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A.; Kovas, Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Extant literature has established a consistent association between aspects of reading motivation, such as enjoyment and self-perceived ability, and reading achievement, in that more motivated readers are generally more skilled readers. However, the developmental etiology of this relation is yet to be investigated. The present study explores the…

  6. Enhancing Young Hispanic Dual Language Learners' Achievement: Exploring Strategies and Addressing Challenges. Policy Information Report. ETS RR-15-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Debra J.; Tazi, Zoila

    2015-01-01

    Dual language learners, or DLLs, may have greater school readiness needs due to the key role English oral language skills play in the development of emerging literacy skills in English and their overall academic achievement. This especially can be the case if children's capacity to benefit from classroom instruction and interact with teachers and…

  7. An Investigation of World Language Teachers' Use of Student Performance Data to Inform Teaching and to Help Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffi, Bruno N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the types of content-based student performance data World Language teachers used to improve instruction and student academic achievement, the purposes for which they used data, the issues they encountered, and the suggestions they made for more effective use of data. The Standards for Foreign Language Learning…

  8. Effectiveness of an ESAA Funded Information Feedback System on the Reading and Arithmetic Achievement of Black and White Fifth Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokar, Edward; Ford, Valeria

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Multi-Ethnic Information Feedback System (MIFS) on the reading and arithmetic achievement of fifth grade pupils. Consisting of an objective referenced test-item and a computer feedback system MIFS enabled teachers to continually measure student performance and evaluate the…

  9. The Role of Arts-Related Information and Communication Technology Use in Problem Solving and Achievement: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Sudmalis, David

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 data set comprising over 190,000 15-year-old students in 25 countries, the current study sought to examine the role of arts-related information and communication technology (ICT) use in students' problem-solving skill and science and mathematics achievement. Structural equation…

  10. Influence of a Metacognitive Scaffolding for Information Search in B-"Learning" Courses on Learning Achievement and Its Relationship with Cognitive and Learning Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huertas, Adriana; López, Omar; Sanabria, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The research's objective is to evaluate the differential effect that a metacognitive scaffolding for information web searches has on learning achievement of high school students with different cognitive style in the field dependence and independence dimension and on learning style in the dimension proposed by Honey and Alonso known as CHAEA. One…

  11. The Role of Arts-Related Information and Communication Technology Use in Problem Solving and Achievement: Findings from the Programme for International Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Sudmalis, David

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the Programme for International Student Assessment 2003 data set comprising over 190,000 15-year-old students in 25 countries, the current study sought to examine the role of arts-related information and communication technology (ICT) use in students' problem-solving skill and science and mathematics achievement. Structural equation…

  12. The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project: sample preparation guidelines for reliable reporting of glycomics datasets

    PubMed Central

    Struwe, Weston B; Agravat, Sanjay; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Campbell, Matthew P; Costello, Catherine E; Dell, Anne; Ten Feizi; Haslam, Stuart M; Karlsson, Niclas G; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Kolarich, Daniel; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Novotny, Milos V; Packer, Nicolle H; Paulson, James C; Rapp, Erdmann; Ranzinger, Rene; Rudd, Pauline M; Smith, David F; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wells, Lance; York, William S; Zaia, Joseph; Kettner, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project was established in 2011 to provide guidelines to aid in data reporting from all types of experiments in glycomics research including mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography, glycan arrays, data handling and sample preparation. MIRAGE is a concerted effort of the wider glycomics community that considers the adaptation of reporting guidelines as an important step towards critical evaluation and dissemination of datasets as well as broadening of experimental techniques worldwide. The MIRAGE Commission published reporting guidelines for MS data and here we outline guidelines for sample preparation. The sample preparation guidelines include all aspects of sample generation, purification and modification from biological and/or synthetic carbohydrate material. The application of MIRAGE sample preparation guidelines will lead to improved recording of experimental protocols and reporting of understandable and reproducible glycomics datasets. PMID:27654115

  13. Access to Reliable Information about Long-Term Prognosis Influences Clinical Opinion on Use of Lifesaving Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Honeybul, Stephen; Ho, Kwok; O'Hanlon, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background Decompressive craniectomy has been traditionally used as a lifesaving rescue treatment in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study assessed whether objective information on long-term prognosis would influence healthcare workers' opinion about using decompressive craniectomy as a lifesaving procedure for patients with severe TBI. Method A two-part structured interview was used to assess the participants' opinion to perform decompressive craniectomy for three patients who had very severe TBI. Their opinion was assessed before and after knowing the predicted and observed risks of an unfavourable long-term neurological outcome in various scenarios. Results Five hundred healthcare workers with a wide variety of clinical backgrounds participated. The participants were significantly more likely to recommend decompressive craniectomy for their patients than for themselves (mean difference in visual analogue scale [VAS] −1.5, 95% confidence interval −1.3 to −1.6), especially when the next of kin of the patients requested intervention. Patients' preferences were more similar to patients who had advance directives. The participants' preferences to perform the procedure for themselves and their patients both significantly reduced after knowing the predicted risks of unfavourable outcomes, and the changes in attitude were consistent across different specialties, amount of experience in caring for similar patients, religious backgrounds, and positions in the specialty of the participants. Conclusions Access to objective information on risk of an unfavourable long-term outcome influenced healthcare workers' decision to recommend decompressive craniectomy, considered as a lifesaving procedure, for patients with very severe TBI. PMID:22384231

  14. The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project: sample preparation guidelines for reliable reporting of glycomics datasets.

    PubMed

    Struwe, Weston B; Agravat, Sanjay; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Campbell, Matthew P; Costello, Catherine E; Dell, Anne; Ten Feizi; Haslam, Stuart M; Karlsson, Niclas G; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Kolarich, Daniel; Liu, Yan; McBride, Ryan; Novotny, Milos V; Packer, Nicolle H; Paulson, James C; Rapp, Erdmann; Ranzinger, Rene; Rudd, Pauline M; Smith, David F; Tiemeyer, Michael; Wells, Lance; York, William S; Zaia, Joseph; Kettner, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    The minimum information required for a glycomics experiment (MIRAGE) project was established in 2011 to provide guidelines to aid in data reporting from all types of experiments in glycomics research including mass spectrometry (MS), liquid chromatography, glycan arrays, data handling and sample preparation. MIRAGE is a concerted effort of the wider glycomics community that considers the adaptation of reporting guidelines as an important step towards critical evaluation and dissemination of datasets as well as broadening of experimental techniques worldwide. The MIRAGE Commission published reporting guidelines for MS data and here we outline guidelines for sample preparation. The sample preparation guidelines include all aspects of sample generation, purification and modification from biological and/or synthetic carbohydrate material. The application of MIRAGE sample preparation guidelines will lead to improved recording of experimental protocols and reporting of understandable and reproducible glycomics datasets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Achieving change through mutual development: supported online learning and the evolving roles of health and information professionals.

    PubMed

    Bury, Rachel; Martin, Lindsey; Roberts, Sue

    2006-12-01

    Major changes in health care, within an information- and technology-rich age, are impacting significantly on health professionals and upon their education and training. Health information professionals-in both the National Health Service (NHS) and higher education (HE) contexts-are consequently developing their roles, skills and partnerships to meet the needs of flexible education and training. This article explores one facet of this-supported online learning and its impact on role development. A case study approach was taken, aiming to explore how academics, health information professionals and learning technologists are developing supported online learning to explicitly address the e-literacy and information needs of health students within the context of NHS frameworks for education. This was contextualized by a literature review. The case study explores and discusses three dynamics--(i) The use of supported online learning tools by future health-care professionals throughout their professional training to ensure they have the appropriate e-literacy skills; (ii) the use of supported online learning by current health professionals to enable them to adapt to the changing environment; (iii) the development of the health information professional, and particularly their role within multi-disciplinary teams working with learning technologists and health professionals, to enable them to design and deliver supported online learning. The authors argue that, in this specific case study, health information professionals are key to the development of supported online learning. They are working successfully in collaboration and their roles are evolving to encompass learning and teaching activities in a wider context. There are consequently several lessons to be drawn in relation to professional education and role development.

  16. Achieving a Risk-Informed Decision-Making Environment at NASA: The Emphasis of NASA's Risk Management Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the evolution of risk management (RM) at NASA. The aim of the RM approach at NASA is to promote an approach that is heuristic, proactive, and coherent across all of NASA. Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) is a decision making process that uses a diverse set of performance measures along with other considerations within a deliberative process to inform decision making. RIDM is invoked for key decisions such as architecture and design decisions, make-buy decisions, and budget reallocation. The RIDM process and how it relates to the continuous Risk Management (CRM) process is reviewed.

  17. Successful Information Technology Outsourcing: A Case Study on How a U.S.-Based Company Achieves Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daluisio, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    In the late 1980s, the Eastman Kodak company initiated what would become one of the biggest trends in information technology (IT): outsourcing. IT outsourcing (ITO) allows a company to focus on the services that will differentiate it from its competitors and farm out nondifferentiating services. ITO has grown from the initial landmark effort at…

  18. Intermediate Trends in Math and Science Partnership-Related Changes in Student Achievement with Management Information System Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2009-01-01

    This substudy in the evaluation design of the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) Program Evaluation examines student proficiency in mathematics and science for the MSPs' schools in terms of changes across three years (2003/04, 2004/05, and 2005/06) and relationships with MSP-related variables using Management Information System data with the…

  19. Towards an Integrated Analytical Framework of Information and Communications Technology Literacy: From Intended to Implemented and Achieved Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markauskaite, Lina

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Theoretical approaches and frameworks that help us to understand the contemporary notion of information and communication technology literacy (ICT literacy) in the formal education sector are reviewed and examined. Method: The analysis is conducted from a technology (i.e., computer science) conceptual perspective. The focus is on…

  20. Achieving Engineering Competencies in the Global Information Society through the Integration of On-Campus and Workplace Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Malcolm; Chisholm, Colin U.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering organizations are increasingly under pressure to perform more efficiently with fewer people. To manage this, organizations need to understand what skills, knowledge and behaviours they need from engineers who have to practise in a global information society. Engineering educators, in collaboration with employers, therefore now need to…

  1. Achievement of Specificational Information Usage with True and False Feedback in Learning a Visual Relative-Mass Discrimination Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runeson, Sverker; Andersson, Isabell E. K.

    2007-01-01

    Participants' usage of informational variables in learning visual relative-mass discrimination in collisions was tracked by means of PROBIT correlations. Four groups received feedback that was true or accorded with either of three nonspecificational cue variables. A majority in each group adopted the feedback, but several participants defied the…

  2. A Methodology to Assist Faculty in Developing Successful Approaches for Achieving Learner Centered Information Systems Curriculum Outcomes: Team Based Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Teresa A.; Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Landry, Jeffrey P.; Lusk, C. Scott; Saulnier, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    All industries face the interrelated challenges of identifying and training the critical skills needed to be successful in the workplace. Specifically of interest to the information systems field is that any newly trained IS professional has to be equipped to solve increasingly difficult problems with great confidence and competence. In this paper…

  3. Successful Information Technology Outsourcing: A Case Study on How a U.S.-Based Company Achieves Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daluisio, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    In the late 1980s, the Eastman Kodak company initiated what would become one of the biggest trends in information technology (IT): outsourcing. IT outsourcing (ITO) allows a company to focus on the services that will differentiate it from its competitors and farm out nondifferentiating services. ITO has grown from the initial landmark effort at…

  4. Achieving Engineering Competencies in the Global Information Society through the Integration of On-Campus and Workplace Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Malcolm; Chisholm, Colin U.

    2008-01-01

    Engineering organizations are increasingly under pressure to perform more efficiently with fewer people. To manage this, organizations need to understand what skills, knowledge and behaviours they need from engineers who have to practise in a global information society. Engineering educators, in collaboration with employers, therefore now need to…

  5. [Parenting stress and the reliability of parental information in the diagnostics of children and adolescents with symptoms of psychiatric and behavioral disorders].

    PubMed

    Irlbauer-Müller, Viktoria; Eichler, Anna; Stemmler, Mark; Moll, Gunther H; Kratz, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Information from parents is regularly used in the diagnostic process of children and adolescents with psychiatric symptoms. But the reliability of this information is debatable, because the parents’ own stress can distort their perceptions of the child’s symptoms. For each of N = 68 children and adolescents (11–18 years) who were using mental health services for the first time, we evaluated the ratings of a parent and a professional clinician (internalizing, externalizing symptoms, total-problem score). In addition, parenting stress was scored on the Eltern-Belastungs-Inventars (EBI, Tröster, 2011), which measures both child-related stress and parent-related stress as well as total stress. Highly stressed parent ratings differed more from the clinicians’ ratings than the ratings of less stressed parents. Additionally, correlations showed that higher parenting stress resulted in larger differences between the parent’s and the clinician’s assessments. Multiple regressions proved the predictive value of child-caused parenting stress for these differences. These results apply for internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and total-problem score. Parenting stress should be evaluated systematically in order to carefully assess the value of the information from parents and to determine how it should be included in diagnostic and therapeutical decisions.

  6. Achievements of the DOT-NASA Joint Program on Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Technologies: Application to Multimodal Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report presents three-year accomplishments from the national program on Commercial Remote Sensing and Geospatial Technology (CRSGT) application to transportation, administered by the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The joint program was authorized under Section 5113 of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). This is the first national program of its type focusing on transportation applications of emerging commercial remote sensing technologies. U.S. DOT's Research and Special Programs Administration manages the program in coordination with NASA's Earth Science Enterprise's application programs. The program focuses on applications of CRSGT products and systems for providing smarter and more efficient transportation operations and services. The program is performed in partnership with four major National Consortia for Remote Sensing in Transportation (NCRST). Each consortium focuses on research and development of products in one of the four priority areas for transportation application, and includes technical application and demonstration projects carried out in partnership with industries and service providers in their respective areas. The report identifies products and accomplishments from each of the four consortia in meeting the goal of providing smarter and more efficient transportation services. The products and results emerging from the program are being implemented in transportation operations and services through state and local agencies. The Environmental Assessment and Application Consortium (NCRST-E) provides leadership for developing and deploying cost effective environmental and transportation planning services, and integrates CRSGT advances for achieving smarter and cost effective corridor planning. The Infrastructure Management Consortium (NCRST-I) provides leadership in technologies that achieve smarter and cheaper ways of managing

  7. Integrating Resource-Based and Person-Based Approaches to Understanding Wealth Effects on School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Destin, Mesmin

    2013-01-01

    Wealth and assets have a reliable positive relationship with the achievement outcomes of students. Various approaches to understanding student achievement may inform the understanding of how wealth seems to influence children's educational experiences. This paper describes several perspectives from the student achievement literature within the…

  8. PET-MR image fusion in soft tissue sarcoma: accuracy, reliability and practicality of interactive point-based and automated mutual information techniques.

    PubMed

    Somer, Edward J R; Marsden, Paul K; Benatar, Nigel A; Goodey, Joanne; O'Doherty, Michael J; Smith, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    The fusion of functional positron emission tomography (PET) data with anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography images, using a variety of interactive and automated techniques, is becoming commonplace, with the technique of choice dependent on the specific application. The case of PET-MR image fusion in soft tissue is complicated by a lack of conspicuous anatomical features and deviation from the rigid-body model. Here we compare a point-based external marker technique with an automated mutual information algorithm and discuss the practicality, reliability and accuracy of each when applied to the study of soft tissue sarcoma. Ten subjects with suspected sarcoma in the knee, thigh, groin, flank or back underwent MR and PET scanning after the attachment of nine external fiducial markers. In the assessment of the point-based technique, three error measures were considered: fiducial localisation error (FLE), fiducial registration error (FRE) and target registration error (TRE). FLE, which represents the accuracy with which the fiducial points can be located, is related to the FRE minimised by the registration algorithm. The registration accuracy is best characterised by the TRE, which is the distance between corresponding points in each image space after registration. In the absence of salient features within the target volume, the TRE can be measured at fiducials excluded from the registration process. To assess the mutual information technique, PET data, acquired after physically removing the markers, were reconstructed in a variety of ways and registered with MR. Having applied the transform suggested by the algorithm to the PET scan acquired before the markers were removed, the residual distance between PET and MR marker-pairs could be measured. The manual point-based technique yielded the best results (RMS TRE =8.3 mm, max =22.4 mm, min =1.7 mm), performing better than the automated algorithm (RMS TRE =20.0 mm, max =30.5 mm, min =7.7 mm) when

  9. Unraveling the sequence information in COI barcode to achieve higher taxon assignment based on Indian freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mohua; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Efficacy of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA barcode in higher taxon assignment is still under debate in spite of several attempts, using the conventional DNA barcoding methods, to assign higher taxa. Here we try to understand whether nucleotide and amino acid sequence in COI gene carry sufficient information to assign species to their higher taxonomic rank, using 160 species of Indian freshwater fishes. Our results reveal that with increase in the taxonomic rank, sequence conservation decreases for both nucleotides and amino acids. Order level exhibits lowest conservation with 50% of the nucleotides and amino acids being conserved. Among the variable sites, 30-50% were found to carry high information content within an order, while it was 70-80% within a family and 80-99% within a genus. High information content shows sites with almost conserved sequence but varying at one or two locations, which can be due to variations at species or population level. Thus, the potential of COI gene in higher taxon assignment is revealed with validation of ample inherent signals latent in the gene.

  10. Co-emergence of multi-scale cortical activities of irregular firing, oscillations and avalanches achieves cost-efficient information capacity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Hai-Jun; Zhou, Changsong

    2017-02-01

    The brain is highly energy consuming, therefore is under strong selective pressure to achieve cost-efficiency in both cortical connectivities and activities. However, cost-efficiency as a design principle for cortical activities has been rarely studied. Especially it is not clear how cost-efficiency is related to ubiquitously observed multi-scale properties: irregular firing, oscillations and neuronal avalanches. Here we demonstrate that these prominent properties can be simultaneously observed in a generic, biologically plausible neural circuit model that captures excitation-inhibition balance and realistic dynamics of synaptic conductance. Their co-emergence achieves minimal energy cost as well as maximal energy efficiency on information capacity, when neuronal firing are coordinated and shaped by moderate synchrony to reduce otherwise redundant spikes, and the dynamical clusterings are maintained in the form of neuronal avalanches. Such cost-efficient neural dynamics can be employed as a foundation for further efficient information processing under energy constraint.

  11. Co-emergence of multi-scale cortical activities of irregular firing, oscillations and avalanches achieves cost-efficient information capacity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai-Jun; Zhou, Changsong

    2017-01-01

    The brain is highly energy consuming, therefore is under strong selective pressure to achieve cost-efficiency in both cortical connectivities and activities. However, cost-efficiency as a design principle for cortical activities has been rarely studied. Especially it is not clear how cost-efficiency is related to ubiquitously observed multi-scale properties: irregular firing, oscillations and neuronal avalanches. Here we demonstrate that these prominent properties can be simultaneously observed in a generic, biologically plausible neural circuit model that captures excitation-inhibition balance and realistic dynamics of synaptic conductance. Their co-emergence achieves minimal energy cost as well as maximal energy efficiency on information capacity, when neuronal firing are coordinated and shaped by moderate synchrony to reduce otherwise redundant spikes, and the dynamical clusterings are maintained in the form of neuronal avalanches. Such cost-efficient neural dynamics can be employed as a foundation for further efficient information processing under energy constraint. PMID:28192429

  12. Person Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, James

    1977-01-01

    Person changes can be of three kinds: developmental trends, swells, and tremors. Person unreliability in the tremor sense (momentary fluctuations) can be estimated from person characteristic curves. Average person reliability for groups can be compared from item characteristic curves. (Author)

  13. Working Group summary reports from the Advanced Photon Source reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    A workshop was held at APS to address reliability goals for accelerator systems. Seventy-one individuals participated in the workshop, including 30 from other institutions. The goals of the workshop were to: (1) Give attendees an introduction to the basic concepts of reliability analysis. (2) Exchange information on operating experience at existing accelerator facilities and strategies for achieving reliability at facilities under design or in construction. (3) Discuss reliability goals for APS and the means of their achievement. This report contains the working group summary report an APS`s following systems: RF Systems; Power Supplies; Magnet Systems; Interlock and Diagnostics; and Vacuum Systems.

  14. Working Group summary reports from the Advanced Photon Source reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    A workshop was held at APS to address reliability goals for accelerator systems. Seventy-one individuals participated in the workshop, including 30 from other institutions. The goals of the workshop were to: (1) Give attendees an introduction to the basic concepts of reliability analysis. (2) Exchange information on operating experience at existing accelerator facilities and strategies for achieving reliability at facilities under design or in construction. (3) Discuss reliability goals for APS and the means of their achievement. This report contains the working group summary report an APS's following systems: RF Systems; Power Supplies; Magnet Systems; Interlock and Diagnostics; and Vacuum Systems.

  15. Finding Reliable Health Information Online

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources NHGRI-Related News Journal Articles from NHGRI Social Media Careers Educational Programs Health Professional Education Intramural Training Office Online Careers & Training Resources Training ...

  16. Specific response to herbivore-induced de novo synthesized plant volatiles provides reliable information for host plant selection in a moth.

    PubMed

    Zakir, Ali; Bengtsson, Marie; Sadek, Medhat M; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Anderson, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Animals depend on reliable sensory information for accurate behavioural decisions. For herbivorous insects it is crucial to find host plants for feeding and reproduction, and these insects must be able to differentiate suitable from unsuitable plants. Volatiles are important cues for insect herbivores to assess host plant quality. It has previously been shown that female moths of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), avoid oviposition on damaged cotton Gossypium hirsutum, which may mediated by herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). Among the HIPVs, some volatiles are released following any type of damage while others are synthesized de novo and released by the plants only in response to herbivore damage. In behavioural experiments we here show that oviposition by S. littoralis on undamaged cotton plants was reduced by adding volatiles collected from plants with ongoing herbivory. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) recordings revealed that antennae of mated S. littoralis females responded to 18 compounds from a collection of headspace volatiles of damaged cotton plants. Among these compounds, a blend of the seven de novo synthesized volatile compounds was found to reduce oviposition in S. littoralis on undamaged plants under both laboratory and ambient (field) conditions in Egypt. Volatile compounds that are not produced de novo by the plants did not affect oviposition. Our results show that ovipositing females respond specifically to the de novo synthesized volatiles released from plants under herbivore attack. We suggest that these volatiles provide reliable cues for ovipositing females to detect plants that could provide reduced quality food for their offspring and an increased risk of competition and predation.

  17. Understanding low reliability of memories for neutral information encoded under stress: alterations in memory-related activation in the hippocampus and midbrain.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shaozheng; Hermans, Erno J; van Marle, Hein J F; Fernández, Guillén

    2012-03-21

    Exposure to an acute stressor can lead to unreliable remembrance of intrinsically neutral information, as exemplified by low reliability of eyewitness memories, which stands in contrast with enhanced memory for the stressful incident itself. Stress-sensitive neuromodulators (e.g., catecholamines) are believed to cause this low reliability by altering neurocognitive processes underlying memory formation. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity during memory formation in 44 young, healthy human participants while incidentally encoding emotionally neutral, complex scenes embedded in either a stressful or neutral context. We recorded event-related pupil dilation responses as an indirect index of phasic noradrenergic activity. Autonomic, endocrine, and psychological measures were acquired to validate stress manipulation. Acute stress during encoding led to a more liberal response bias (more hits and false alarms) when testing memory for the scenes 24 h later. The strength of this bias correlated negatively with pupil dilation responses and positively with stress-induced heart rate increases at encoding. Acute stress, moreover, reduced subsequent memory effects (SMEs; items later remembered vs forgotten) in hippocampus and midbrain, and in pupil dilation responses. The diminished SMEs indicate reduced selectivity and specificity in mnemonic processing during memory formation. This is in line with a model in which stress-induced catecholaminergic hyperactivation alters phasic neuromodulatory signaling in memory-related circuits, resulting in generalized (gist-based) processing at the cost of specificity. Thus, one may speculate that loss of specificity may yield less discrete memory representations at time of encoding, thereby causing a more liberal response bias when probing these memories.

  18. Mission reliability model programmers guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Joseph M.; Simonson, Jonathan H.; Veatch, Michael H.

    1986-12-01

    The Mission Reliability Model (MIREM) has been developed to evaluate the reliability and sustained operating capability of advanced electronic circuits during the early stages of development. MIREM is applicable to integrated systems that achieve fault tolerance through dynamic fault detection, fault isolation, and reconfiguration. The model can also be valuable in evaluating designs that employ only dedicated or hard-wired redundancy. The most unique feature of MIREM is its ability to accurately reflect the impact of reconfigurable, competing functions on system reliability. The user defines the resources necessary to support a required function, e.g., Global Positioning System (GPS), and the model will compute the probability of losing that functional capability over a certain operating time. A critical failure occurs when there is not a sufficient number of working resources to support a specified function. As an analytic model, MIREM determines a value for Mean Time Between Critical Failure, Mission Completion Success Probability, and Failure Resiliency. The MIREM Programmers Guide addresses the model's program structure, function of routines, interdependence of subprograms and common blocks, and file usage. The information needed to port the model to other computer systems is also provided.

  19. Reliability physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Speakers whose topics relate to the reliability physics of solar arrays are listed and their topics briefly reviewed. Nine reports are reviewed ranging in subjects from studies of photothermal degradation in encapsulants and polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers to interface bonding stability to electrochemical degradation of photovoltaic modules.

  20. The reliability of sensitive information provided by injecting drug users in a clinical setting: clinician-administered versus audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI).

    PubMed

    Islam, M Mofizul; Topp, Libby; Conigrave, Katherine M; van Beek, Ingrid; Maher, Lisa; White, Ann; Rodgers, Craig; Day, Carolyn A

    2012-01-01

    Research with injecting drug users (IDUs) suggests greater willingness to report sensitive and stigmatised behaviour via audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) methods than during face-to-face interviews (FFIs); however, previous studies were limited in verifying this within the same individuals at the same time point. This study examines the relative willingness of IDUs to report sensitive information via ACASI and during a face-to-face clinical assessment administered in health services for IDUs. During recruitment for a randomised controlled trial undertaken at two IDU-targeted health services, assessments were undertaken as per clinical protocols, followed by referral of eligible clients to the trial, in which baseline self-report data were collected via ACASI. Five questions about sensitive injecting and sexual risk behaviours were administered to participants during both clinical interviews and baseline research data collection. "Percentage agreement" determined the magnitude of concordance/discordance in responses across interview methods, while tests appropriate to data format assessed the statistical significance of this variation. Results for all five variables suggest that, relative to ACASI, FFI elicited responses that may be perceived as more socially desirable. Discordance was statistically significant for four of the five variables examined. Participants who reported a history of sex work were more likely to provide discordant responses to at least one socially sensitive item. In health services for IDUs, information collection via ACASI may elicit more reliable and valid responses than FFI. Adoption of a universal precautionary approach to complement individually tailored assessment of and advice regarding health risk behaviours for IDUs may address this issue.

  1. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  2. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 2: Human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; Technical issues related to rulemakings; Risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; High burn-up fuel research

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following: (1) human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; (2) technical issues related to rulemakings; (3) risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; and (4) high burn-up fuel research. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Use of Sequent Peak Algorithm Drought Severity Index and Hydroclimatic Reconstructions from Tree-Rings to Inform Water Supply Reliability Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, B. S.; Palhegyi, G.

    2015-12-01

    consistent with Meko et al. (2014) in their analysis of other watersheds in the region. These findings and other insights from the reconstructed runoff timeseries along with the SPADSI provide valuable information for water resource managers evaluating water supply reliability assumptions for future drought planning efforts.

  4. High reliability organizations (HROs).

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Kathleen M

    2011-06-01

    Academic and professional disciplines, such as organisation and management theory, psychology, sociology and engineering, have, for years, grappled with the multidisciplinary issues of safety and accident prevention. However, these ideas are just beginning to enrich research on safety in medicine. This article examines a domain of research on system safety - the High Reliability Organization (HRO) paradigm. HROs operate in hazardous conditions, but have fewer than their fair share of adverse events. HROs are committed to safety at the highest level and adopt a special approach to its pursuit. The attributes and operating dynamics of the best HROs provide a template on which to better understand how safe and reliable performance can be achieved under trying conditions, and this may be useful to researchers and caregivers who seek to improve safety and reliability in health care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability of semiology description.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seo-Young; Cho, Jinwhan; Lee, Sang-Kun; Nam, Hyunwoo

    2008-01-01

    Seizure semiology is important for classifying patients' epilepsy. Physicians usually get most of the seizure information from observers though there have been few reports on the reliability of the observers' description. This study aims at determining the reliability of observers' description of the semiology. We included 92 patients who had their habitual seizures recorded during video-EEG monitoring. We compared the semiology described by the observers with that recorded on the videotape, and reviewed which characteristics of the observers affected the reliability of their reported data. The classification of seizures and the individual components of the semiology based only on the observer-description was somewhat discordant compared with the findings from the videotape (correct classification, 85%). The descriptions of some ictal behaviors such as oroalimentary automatism, tonic/dystonic limb posturing, and head versions were relatively accurate, but those of motionless staring and hand automatism were less accurate. The specified directions by the observers were relatively correct. The accuracy of the description was related to the educational level of the observers. Much of the information described by well-educated observers is reliable. However, every physician should keep in mind the limitations of this information and use this information cautiously.

  6. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies.

  7. 78 FR 77574 - Protection System Maintenance Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Information), Office of Electric Reliability, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street NE... shedding equipment affecting the bulk electric system. While the proposed Reliability Standard also gives... Electric Reliability Organization (ERO) to develop mandatory and enforceable Reliability Standards, subject...

  8. Ultra reliability at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Andrew A.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra reliable systems are critical to NASA particularly as consideration is being given to extended lunar missions and manned missions to Mars. NASA has formulated a program designed to improve the reliability of NASA systems. The long term goal for the NASA ultra reliability is to ultimately improve NASA systems by an order of magnitude. The approach outlined in this presentation involves the steps used in developing a strategic plan to achieve the long term objective of ultra reliability. Consideration is given to: complex systems, hardware (including aircraft, aerospace craft and launch vehicles), software, human interactions, long life missions, infrastructure development, and cross cutting technologies. Several NASA-wide workshops have been held, identifying issues for reliability improvement and providing mitigation strategies for these issues. In addition to representation from all of the NASA centers, experts from government (NASA and non-NASA), universities and industry participated. Highlights of a strategic plan, which is being developed using the results from these workshops, will be presented.

  9. Computational methods for efficient structural reliability and reliability sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y.-T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments in efficient structural reliability analysis methods. The paper proposes an efficient, adaptive importance sampling (AIS) method that can be used to compute reliability and reliability sensitivities. The AIS approach uses a sampling density that is proportional to the joint PDF of the random variables. Starting from an initial approximate failure domain, sampling proceeds adaptively and incrementally with the goal of reaching a sampling domain that is slightly greater than the failure domain to minimize over-sampling in the safe region. Several reliability sensitivity coefficients are proposed that can be computed directly and easily from the above AIS-based failure points. These probability sensitivities can be used for identifying key random variables and for adjusting design to achieve reliability-based objectives. The proposed AIS methodology is demonstrated using a turbine blade reliability analysis problem.

  10. Computational methods for efficient structural reliability and reliability sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y.-T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents recent developments in efficient structural reliability analysis methods. The paper proposes an efficient, adaptive importance sampling (AIS) method that can be used to compute reliability and reliability sensitivities. The AIS approach uses a sampling density that is proportional to the joint PDF of the random variables. Starting from an initial approximate failure domain, sampling proceeds adaptively and incrementally with the goal of reaching a sampling domain that is slightly greater than the failure domain to minimize over-sampling in the safe region. Several reliability sensitivity coefficients are proposed that can be computed directly and easily from the above AIS-based failure points. These probability sensitivities can be used for identifying key random variables and for adjusting design to achieve reliability-based objectives. The proposed AIS methodology is demonstrated using a turbine blade reliability analysis problem.

  11. CISN Display - Reliable Delivery of Real-time Earthquake Information, Including Rapid Notification and ShakeMap to Critical End Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, H.; Hauksson, E.; Thomas, E.; Friberg, P.; Given, D.

    2002-12-01

    earthquake information on the Web. The links are automatically created when product generators deliver CUBE formatted packets to a Quake Data Distribution System (QDDS) hub (new distribution methods may be used later). The "feeder" modules tap into the QDDS hub and convert the packets into XML-messages. These messages are forwarded to message queues, and then distributed to clients where URLs are dynamically created for these products and linked to events on the CISN Display map. The products may be downloaded out-of-band; and with the inclusion of a GIS mapping tool users can plot organizational assets on the CISN Display map and overlay them against key spectral data, such as ground accelerations. This gives Emergency Response Managers information useful in allocating limited personnel and resources after a major event. At the heart of the system's robustness is a well-established and reliable set of communication protocols for best-effort delivery of data. For critical users a Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) state-full connection is used via a dedicated signaling channel. The system employs several CORBA methods that alert users of changes in the link status. Loss of connectivity triggers a strategy that attempts to reconnect through various physical and logical paths. Thus, by building on past application successes and proven Internet advances the CISN Display targets a specific audience by providing enhancements previously not available from other applications.

  12. Fulfilling Schmidt Ocean Institute's commitment to open sharing of information, data, and research outcomes: Successes and Lessons Learned from Proposal Evaluation to Public Repositories to Lasting Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A.; Zykov, V.

    2016-02-01

    Schmidt Ocean Institute's vision is that the world's ocean be understood through technological advancement, intelligent observation, and open sharing of information. As such, making data collected aboard R/V Falkor available to the general public is a key pillar of the organization and a major strategic focus. Schmidt Ocean Institute supports open sharing of information about the ocean to stimulate the growth of its applications and user community, and amplify further exploration, discovery, and deeper understanding of our environment. These efforts are supported through partnerships with data management experts in the oceanographic community to enable standards-compliant sharing of scientific information and data collected during research cruises. To properly fulfill the commitment, proponents' data management plans are evaluated as part of the proposal process when applying for ship time. We request a thorough data management plan be submitted and expert reviewers evaluate the proposal's plan as part of the review process. Once a project is successfully selected, the chief scientist signs an agreement stating delivery dates for post-cruise data deliverables in a timely manner, R/V Falkor underway and meterological data is shared via public repositories, and links and reports are posted on the cruise webpage. This allows many more creative minds and thinkers to analyze, process, and study the data collected in the world ocean rather than privileging one scientist with the proprietary information, driving international and national scientific progress. This presentation will include the Institute's mission, vision, and strategy for sharing data, based on our Founders' passions, the process for evaluating proposed data management plans, and our partnering efforts to make data publically available in fulfillment of our commitment. Recent achievements and successes in data sharing, as well as future plans to improve our efforts will also be discussed.

  13. Helping people make well-informed decisions about health care: old and new challenges to achieving the aim of the Cochrane Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Andrew D

    2013-09-20

    The aim of the Cochrane Collaboration is to help people make well-informed decisions about health care by preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of health care interventions. This aim is as relevant now as it was 20 years ago, when the Cochrane Collaboration was established. Substantial progress has been made toward addressing challenges to achieving the Collaboration's aim. At the same time, a huge amount of work remains to be done. Current challenges include improving the quality of reviews, methodological challenges, meeting the needs of contributors and users and taking on new challenges while staying focused on the Collaboration's aim. Radical thinking and substantial change may be needed to identify and implement pragmatic strategies to ensure that reviews are up-to-date and informative. Methodological challenges include the development and application of better methods for addressing explanatory factors, incorporating non-randomized evidence and making comparisons across multiple interventions. Innovations in editorial processes and strategies to meet the needs of low- and middle-income countries and diverse users of Cochrane reviews are needed. Finally, although it is important to consider broadening the aims of the Collaboration to include types of questions other than the effects of interventions and types of products other than the Cochrane Library, we should not lose sight of the aim of the Cochrane Collaboration. Addressing that aim is still a major challenge that requires the collaboration of thousands of people around the world and continuing improvements in the methods used to achieve that aim.

  14. Reliable vision-guided grasping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicewarner, Keith E.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    Automated assembly of truss structures in space requires vision-guided servoing for grasping a strut when its position and orientation are uncertain. This paper presents a methodology for efficient and robust vision-guided robot grasping alignment. The vision-guided grasping problem is related to vision-guided 'docking' problems. It differs from other hand-in-eye visual servoing problems, such as tracking, in that the distance from the target is a relevant servo parameter. The methodology described in this paper is hierarchy of levels in which the vision/robot interface is decreasingly 'intelligent,' and increasingly fast. Speed is achieved primarily by information reduction. This reduction exploits the use of region-of-interest windows in the image plane and feature motion prediction. These reductions invariably require stringent assumptions about the image. Therefore, at a higher level, these assumptions are verified using slower, more reliable methods. This hierarchy provides for robust error recovery in that when a lower-level routine fails, the next-higher routine will be called and so on. A working system is described which visually aligns a robot to grasp a cylindrical strut. The system uses a single camera mounted on the end effector of a robot and requires only crude calibration parameters. The grasping procedure is fast and reliable, with a multi-level error recovery system.

  15. 75 FR 71625 - System Restoration Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... effect on the human environment.\\33\\ The actions proposed here fall within the categorical exclusion in... Commission by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation, the Electric Reliability Organization (ERO... CONTACT: David O'Connor (Technical Information), Office of Electric Reliability, Division of Reliability...

  16. 76 FR 16277 - System Restoration Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Resource'' submitted to the Commission for approval by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Electric Reliability Organization certified by the Commission. The approved Reliability...) 502-6498. David O'Connor (Technical Information), Office of Electric Reliability, Division of...

  17. Neural Networks, Reliability and Data Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Neural network technology has been surveyed with the intent of determining the feasibility and impact neural networks may have in the area of...automated reliability tools. Data analysis capabilities of neural networks appear to be very applicable to reliability science due to similar mathematical...tendencies in data.... Neural networks , Reliability, Data analysis, Automated reliability tools, Automated intelligent information processing, Statistical neural network.

  18. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  19. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrig, L.

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986 to 1990. The reliability photovoltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warrantees available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the U.S., PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  20. 77 FR 16435 - Transmission Relay Loadability Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin Ryan (Legal Information), Office of the General Counsel... U. Hubona (Technical Information), Office of Electric Reliability, Division of Reliability Standards.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION Before Commissioners...

  1. Grid reliability management tools

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Martinez, C.; Dyer, J.; Budhraja, V.

    2000-10-01

    To summarize, Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) is engaged in a multi-year program of public interest R&D to develop and prototype software tools that will enhance system reliability during the transition to competitive markets. The core philosophy embedded in the design of these tools is the recognition that in the future reliability will be provided through market operations, not the decisions of central planners. Embracing this philosophy calls for tools that: (1) Recognize that the game has moved from modeling machine and engineering analysis to simulating markets to understand the impacts on reliability (and vice versa); (2) Provide real-time data and support information transparency toward enhancing the ability of operators and market participants to quickly grasp, analyze, and act effectively on information; (3) Allow operators, in particular, to measure, monitor, assess, and predict both system performance as well as the performance of market participants; and (4) Allow rapid incorporation of the latest sensing, data communication, computing, visualization, and algorithmic techniques and technologies.

  2. Reliability model of a monopropellant auxiliary propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    A mathematical model and associated computer code has been developed which computes the reliability of a monopropellant blowdown hydrazine spacecraft auxiliary propulsion system as a function of time. The propulsion system is used to adjust or modify the spacecraft orbit over an extended period of time. The multiple orbit corrections are the multiple objectives which the auxiliary propulsion system is designed to achieve. Thus the reliability model computes the probability of successfully accomplishing each of the desired orbit corrections. To accomplish this, the reliability model interfaces with a computer code that models the performance of a blowdown (unregulated) monopropellant auxiliary propulsion system. The computer code acts as a performance model and as such gives an accurate time history of the system operating parameters. The basic timing and status information is passed on to and utilized by the reliability model which establishes the probability of successfully accomplishing the orbit corrections.

  3. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM)--Description. Users Guide. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goclowski, John C.; And Others

    The Reliability, Maintainability, and Cost Model (RMCM) described in this report is an interactive mathematical model with a built-in sensitivity analysis capability. It is a major component of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Model (LCCIM), which was developed as part of the DAIS advanced development program to be used to assess the potential impacts…

  4. Information-seeking behavior during residency is associated with quality of theoretical learning, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice: a strobe-compliant article.

    PubMed

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3-6; range, 1-10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77-17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33-4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09-4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01-3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46-11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the specialty (OR, 3.33; 95

  5. Information-seeking Behavior During Residency Is Associated With Quality of Theoretical Learning, Academic Career Achievements, and Evidence-based Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Braun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Data regarding knowledge acquisition during residency training are sparse. Predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements and evidence-based medical practice during residency are unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study on residents and attending physicians across several residency programs in 2 French faculties of medicine. We comprehensively evaluated the information-seeking behavior (I-SB) during residency using a standardized questionnaire and looked for independent predictors of theoretical learning quality, academic career achievements, and evidence-based medical practice among I-SB components using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Between February 2013 and May 2013, 338 fellows and attending physicians were included in the study. Textbooks and international medical journals were reported to be used on a regular basis by 24% and 57% of the respondents, respectively. Among the respondents, 47% refer systematically (4.4%) or frequently (42.6%) to published guidelines from scientific societies upon their publication. The median self-reported theoretical learning quality score was 5/10 (interquartile range, 3–6; range, 1–10). A high theoretical learning quality score (upper quartile) was independently and strongly associated with the following I-SB components: systematic reading of clinical guidelines upon their publication (odds ratio [OR], 5.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–17.44); having access to a library that offers the leading textbooks of the specialty in the medical department (OR, 2.45, 95% CI, 1.33–4.52); knowledge of the specialty leading textbooks (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.09–4.10); and PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.01–3.73). Research Master (M2) and/or PhD thesis enrolment were independently and strongly associated with the following predictors: PubMed search skill score ≥5/10 (OR, 4.10; 95% CI, 1.46–11.53); knowledge of the leading medical journals of the

  6. [Reliability of cancer as the underlying cause of death according to the Mortality Information System and Population-Based Cancer Registry in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Patricia Pereira Vasconcelos de; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Curado, Maria Paula; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Moura, Lenildo de

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the reliability of cancer as the underlying cause of death using probabilistic linkage between the Mortality Information System and Population-Based Cancer Registry (PBCR) in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil, from 2000 to 2005. RecLink III was used for probabilistic linkage, and reliability was assessed by Cohen's kappa and prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). In the probabilistic linkage, 2,874 individuals were identified for the reliability analysis. Cohen's kappa ranged from 0.336 to 0.846 and PABAK from 0.810 to 0.990 for 14 neoplasm groups defined in the study. For reliability of the 35 leading cancers, 12(34.3%) presented kappa values under 0.600 and PABAK over 0.981. Among the neoplasms common to both sexes, crude agreement ranged from 0.672 to 0.790 and adjusted agreement from 0.894 to 0.961. Sixty-seven percent of cases classified by the Mortality Information System as "cancer of ill-defined sites" were reclassified according to the PBCR. This study was useful for the classification of cancer mortality estimates in areas covered by the PBCR.

  7. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. Integrated modular engine - Reliability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsley, R. C.; Ward, T. B.

    1992-07-01

    A major driver in the increased interest in integrated modular engine configurations is the desire for ultra reliability for future rocket propulsion systems. The concept of configuring multiple sets of turbomachinery networked to multiple thrust chamber assemblies has been identified as an approach with potential to achieve significant reliability enhancement. This paper summarizes the results of a reliability study comparing networked systems vs. discrete engine installations, both with and without major module and engine redundancy. The study was conducted for gas generator, expander, and staged combustion cycles. The results are representative of either booster or upper-stage applications and are indicative of either plug or nonplug installation philosophies.

  10. Reliable VLSI sequential controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Maki, G.; Shamanna, M.

    1990-01-01

    A VLSI architecture for synchronous sequential controllers is presented that has attractive qualities for producing reliable circuits. In these circuits, one hardware implementation can realize any flow table with a maximum of 2(exp n) internal states and m inputs. Also all design equations are identical. A real time fault detection means is presented along with a strategy for verifying the correctness of the checking hardware. This self check feature can be employed with no increase in hardware. The architecture can be modified to achieve fail safe designs. With no increase in hardware, an adaptable circuit can be realized that allows replacement of faulty transitions with fault free transitions.

  11. Reliability and Maintainability Issues for the Next Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Zane J.; Gold, Saul L.; Koontz, Ron F.; Lavine, Ted L.; /SLAC

    2011-08-26

    Large accelerators for high energy physics research traditionally have been designed using informal best design, engineering, and management practices to achieve acceptable levels of operational availability. However, the Next Linear Collider(NLC) project presents a particular challenge for operational availability due to the unprecedented size and complexity of the accelerator systems required to achieve the physics goals of high center-of-mass energy and high luminosity. Formal reliability and maintainability analysis, design, and implementation will be required to achieve acceptable operational availability for the high energy physics research program. This paper introduces some of the basic concepts of reliability analysis and applies them to the 2.6-cm microwave power system of the two 10-km-long, 250-GeV linacs that are currently proposed for the NLC design.

  12. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  13. How to Find Reliable ENT Info

    MedlinePlus

    ... Do I Know If Medical Information On The Internet Is Accurate And Reliable? Determining whether health information ... Of Otolaryngology (ear, nose, & throat) Information On The Internet? There are many websites that contain educational materials ...

  14. 78 FR 44909 - Regional Reliability Standard BAL-002-WECC-2-Contingency Reserve

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) submitted the... pez Esquerra (Technical Information), Office of Electric Reliability, Division of Reliability... regional Reliability Standard BAL-002-WECC-2 (Contingency Reserve). The North American Electric Reliability...

  15. Waste package reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table.

  16. A Study of Secondary Students' Decision-Making Processes with Respect to Information Use, Particularly Students' Judgements of Relevance and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Curtis L.

    2010-01-01

    This report details an ongoing investigation of the decision-making processes of a group of secondary school students in south-eastern Australia undertaking information search tasks. The study is situated in the field of information seeking and use, and, more broadly, in decision making. Research questions focus on students' decisions about the…

  17. Statistical modeling of software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    This working paper discusses the statistical simulation part of a controlled software development experiment being conducted under the direction of the System Validation Methods Branch, Information Systems Division, NASA Langley Research Center. The experiment uses guidance and control software (GCS) aboard a fictitious planetary landing spacecraft: real-time control software operating on a transient mission. Software execution is simulated to study the statistical aspects of reliability and other failure characteristics of the software during development, testing, and random usage. Quantification of software reliability is a major goal. Various reliability concepts are discussed. Experiments are described for performing simulations and collecting appropriate simulated software performance and failure data. This data is then used to make statistical inferences about the quality of the software development and verification processes as well as inferences about the reliability of software versions and reliability growth under random testing and debugging.

  18. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  19. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.

  20. New Information Dispersal Techniques for Trustworthy Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parakh, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Information dispersal algorithms (IDA) are used for distributed data storage because they simultaneously provide security, reliability and space efficiency, constituting a trustworthy computing framework for many critical applications, such as cloud computing, in the information society. In the most general sense, this is achieved by dividing data…

  1. New Information Dispersal Techniques for Trustworthy Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parakh, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    Information dispersal algorithms (IDA) are used for distributed data storage because they simultaneously provide security, reliability and space efficiency, constituting a trustworthy computing framework for many critical applications, such as cloud computing, in the information society. In the most general sense, this is achieved by dividing data…

  2. The effects of geographic information system (GIS) technologies on students' attitudes, self-efficacy, and achievement in middle school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Thomas Ray

    Since the publication of the National Science Education Standards , a concerted and evolving movement to make science classrooms more inquiry-oriented has been building. The proliferation of models of teaching and learning where questions and investigations drive learning, while not new are also not easy to plan, implement, or evaluate. In order to make the vision of the Standards come to fruition, educators are calling on the tools of technology to support and foster the shift to scientific inquiry or classroom research. The use of certain data analysis technologies have been suggested to be a particularly powerful ally in the struggle to extend classroom teaching and learning into the realm of problem-driven classroom inquiry. The use of a Geographic Information System (GIS), a technology allowing for the graphical representation of data with a geographic component seems to be one technology that can adequately bolster the dynamic and complex needs of the science classroom engaged in scientific inquiry. In this study, eighth grade Earth science students studying relative, local air quality indicators were divided in two groups; a treatment group that utilized GIS-supported scientific inquiry and a control group that used traditional mapping techniques to support their study. Student attitudes regarding science and technology were measured with a pre/post instrument across the study. Individual student efforts were summarily evaluated with a modified Kansas Science Performance Based Assessment rubric. During the two-week treatment, the students using the GIS-supported materials were found to show positive and significant improvements in science self-efficacy and attitudes toward technology. While female attitudes and self-efficacy were not found to change, males significantly improved on all affective factors. Students using GIS also performed significantly better than traditional mapping students on science process skills, specifically data analysis techniques

  3. Achieving excellence.

    PubMed

    Williams, R B

    1986-03-01

    The concept of achieving excellence in pharmacy through development of effective leadership is discussed. The majority of hospital pharmacy directors have had very little education and training in management and effective leadership. Yet, excellent leadership skills will be needed to transform pharmacy more completely into a health profession. The management style most likely to be effective in this era of change is one that encompasses a high regard for both people and production through shared responsibility, high participation, involvement, and commitment. The following recommendations are offered to help achieve excellence through effective leadership: the ethic of self-development must be instilled in aspiring managers; courses in human behavior, leadership, and management should be added to undergraduate pharmacy curricula; pharmacy technicians should be educated in college-based programs that focus on drug distribution; Master of Science programs in hospital pharmacy should be deleted or restructured to focus on leadership and management; regional "centers for excellence" in leadership education should be developed; general residency training should be incorporated in undergraduate education so that more advanced residencies can be offered to graduates; high-level, self-study programs in management and leadership need to be developed, and substantial research funds need to be dedicated to the study of hospital pharmacy management.

  4. Multiple objective optimization in reliability demonstration test

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Lu; Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela; Li, Mingyang

    2016-10-01

    Reliability demonstration tests are usually performed in product design or validation processes to demonstrate whether a product meets specified requirements on reliability. For binomial demonstration tests, the zero-failure test has been most commonly used due to its simplicity and use of minimum sample size to achieve an acceptable consumer’s risk level. However, this test can often result in unacceptably high risk for producers as well as a low probability of passing the test even when the product has good reliability. This paper explicitly explores the interrelationship between multiple objectives that are commonly of interest when planning a demonstration test andmore » proposes structured decision-making procedures using a Pareto front approach for selecting an optimal test plan based on simultaneously balancing multiple criteria. Different strategies are suggested for scenarios with different user priorities and graphical tools are developed to help quantify the trade-offs between choices and to facilitate informed decision making. As a result, potential impacts of some subjective user inputs on the final decision are studied to offer insights and useful guidance for general applications.« less

  5. Multiple objective optimization in reliability demonstration test

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Lu; Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela; Li, Mingyang

    2016-10-01

    Reliability demonstration tests are usually performed in product design or validation processes to demonstrate whether a product meets specified requirements on reliability. For binomial demonstration tests, the zero-failure test has been most commonly used due to its simplicity and use of minimum sample size to achieve an acceptable consumer’s risk level. However, this test can often result in unacceptably high risk for producers as well as a low probability of passing the test even when the product has good reliability. This paper explicitly explores the interrelationship between multiple objectives that are commonly of interest when planning a demonstration test and proposes structured decision-making procedures using a Pareto front approach for selecting an optimal test plan based on simultaneously balancing multiple criteria. Different strategies are suggested for scenarios with different user priorities and graphical tools are developed to help quantify the trade-offs between choices and to facilitate informed decision making. As a result, potential impacts of some subjective user inputs on the final decision are studied to offer insights and useful guidance for general applications.

  6. Applicability and Limitations of Reliability Allocation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliability allocation process may be described as the process of assigning reliability requirements to individual components within a system to attain the specified system reliability. For large systems, the allocation process is often performed at different stages of system design. The allocation process often begins at the conceptual stage. As the system design develops, more information about components and the operating environment becomes available, different allocation methods can be considered. Reliability allocation methods are usually divided into two categories: weighting factors and optimal reliability allocation. When properly applied, these methods can produce reasonable approximations. Reliability allocation techniques have limitations and implied assumptions that need to be understood by system engineers. Applying reliability allocation techniques without understanding their limitations and assumptions can produce unrealistic results. This report addresses weighting factors, optimal reliability allocation techniques, and identifies the applicability and limitations of each reliability allocation technique.

  7. Interrater Reliability of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Child and Parent Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyneham, Heidi J.; Abbott, Maree J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study determined interrater agreement on diagnoses achieved using the parent and child versions of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children for DSM-IV (ADIS-C/P) and examined informant, age, and gender influences on reliability. Method: Diagnoses established for 153 seven- to 16-year-old children during live…

  8. [Reliable health information for patients with rare diseases : Quality demands defined by the National Action Plan and how they are put into practice].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Corinna; Brunsmann, Frank; Siegert, Svenja

    2017-05-01

    Information for patients with rare diseases has to adhere to strict quality criteria in order to support individual treatment decisions or coping strategies. However, developers are facing specific challenges: For example, the evidence is often insufficient or of very low quality. In the context of the National Action League for People with Rare Diseases (NAMSE), criteria have been developed that assure high-quality information on rare diseases. Core criteria comprise the involvement of patients or their advocates in all stages of the development process, the systematic search and assessment of the evidence, systematic collection of patient experience, transparency in terms of people involved and funding, and nondirective and neutral formulation of content and documentation of the process. In a joint project between the Alliance for Chronic Rare Diseases (ACHSE e. V.) and the German Agency for Quality in Medicine (ÄZQ), ten short information leaflets on different rare diseases have been developed in the past three years, conceived to show the applicability of these criteria. First experiences with this format show that the criteria are adaptive to a broad range of diverse rare diseases and settings. Involving patients and their advocates throughout the whole development process - from prioritization to development of methods and provision of patient experience and coping strategies - is crucial. Insufficient evidence remains a challenge. The examples show that in the absence of proven findings, information that matters to patients and reflects this uncertainty is feasible.

  9. Reliability model generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Catherine M. (Inventor); Cohen, Gerald C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for automatically generating reliability models for use with a reliability evaluation tool is described. The reliability model generator of the present invention includes means for storing a plurality of low level reliability models which represent the reliability characteristics for low level system components. In addition, the present invention includes means for defining the interconnection of the low level reliability models via a system architecture description. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, a reliability model for the entire system is automatically generated by aggregating the low level reliability models based on the system architecture description.

  10. Human reliability and confinement.

    PubMed

    Hauty, G T

    1964-01-01

    Problems inherent in the modifiability of circadian periodicity and in impoverished sensory environments were explored for the purpose of appraising attenuative effects upon human reliability. Accordingly, highly selected subjects were confined within a one-man altitude chamber for prolonged periods of time and under a variety of designed conditions. The findings relative to the modifiability of biological rhythm indicate that adjustment to a drastic revision of the 24-hour biological day was accomplished to a significant and practical extent by certain subjects, the extent of adjustment was directly related to the maintenance of high initial levels of proficiency, and just as subjects differ greatly in their adjustment to revised biological time, they differ to an equal extent in the degree of synchronization manifested by the apparent periodicities of the different physiological systems. In the investigation of impoverished sensory environments, it was found that the joint effects of impoverished sensory conditions and continuous work at an operator system drastically degraded the reliability of certain subjects. Further, neither prior experience nor knowledge acted to mitigate the degree of aberrancy experienced which in the case of one subject was so extreme as to necessitate his removal from the chamber prior to the termination of confinement period. Finally, management of certain aberrant behavior, specifically hallucinatory experiences, could be successfully achieved by those subjects who continuously attempted to maintain a diversity of sensory input.

  11. Improving Search Engine Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruthi, Jyoti; Kumar, Ela

    2010-11-01

    Search engines on the Internet are used daily to access and find information. While these services are providing an easy way to find information globally, they are also suffering from artificially created false results. This paper describes two techniques that are being used to manipulate the search engines: spam pages (used to achieve higher rankings on the result page) and cloaking (used to feed falsified data into search engines). This paper also describes two proposed methods to fight this kind of misuse, algorithms for both of the formerly mentioned cases of spamdexing.

  12. Reliability Considerations for the Operation of Large Accelerator User Facilities

    DOE PAGES

    Willeke, F. J.

    2016-01-29

    The lecture provides an overview of considerations relevant for achieving highly reliable operation of accelerator based user facilities. The article starts with an overview of statistical reliability formalism which is followed by high reliability design considerations with examples. Finally, the article closes with operational aspects of high reliability such as preventive maintenance and spares inventory.

  13. Reliability Considerations for the Operation of Large Accelerator User Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, F. J.

    2016-01-29

    The lecture provides an overview of considerations relevant for achieving highly reliable operation of accelerator based user facilities. The article starts with an overview of statistical reliability formalism which is followed by high reliability design considerations with examples. Finally, the article closes with operational aspects of high reliability such as preventive maintenance and spares inventory.

  14. Hyperactivity and Attention Problems in a Swiss Sample of School-Aged Children: Effects of School Achievement, Child Gender, and Informants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Bader, Michel; Thevoz, Sara; Kinal, Anna; Halfon, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The sensitivity and tolerance regarding ADHD symptoms obviously differ from one culture to another and according to the informants (parents, teachers, or children). This stimulates the comparison of data across informants and countries. Method: Parents and teachers of more than 1,000 school-aged Swiss children (5 to 17 years old) fill…

  15. Reliability in the design phase

    SciTech Connect

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H. ); Majumdar, D. )

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  16. Reliability in the design phase

    SciTech Connect

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H.; Majumdar, D.

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system`s reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  17. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.

    1995-11-01

    This conference proceedings is the compilation of papers presented at the eighth PV Performance Reliability Workshop held on September 7--8, 1995. Twenty-two of the twenty six presentations which were submitted in a timely manner are included. This Workshop is one of the technology transfer mechanism employed by the PV Performance and Engineering Project in exchanging technical information in the field of PV component and system reliability. At this time, 10 to 20 year warranty on many of the commercial modules are being provided by PV module manufacturers routinely. Several years of warranty is also being provided by inverter manufacturers. This is very encouraging but there are at present no general warranties on system performance or system reliability which is what I believe will be necessary in the future. As you will read in several of the presentations, many of the attributes that assist in defining PV performance and reliability are still evolving. And specifically, the data base on thin film PV technologies performance and reliability is still very much under development. I believe a forum like this is an appropriate setting to exchange technical information in an open format. Towards that end, we were able to persuade many of the major players in the PV performance and reliability field to speak at this conference. These proceedings provide a good description of what these experts believe the major issues in this area are from their perspective.

  18. Mind the Gap: 20 Years of Progress and Retrenchment in School Funding and Achievement Gaps. Policy Information Report. ETS RR-16-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.; Farrie, Danielle; Sciarra, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been significant progress in the long term, achievement gaps among the nation's students persist.Many factors have contributed to the disparities in outcomes, and societal changes can explain progress, or lack thereof, over the past few decades.This is well documented in the 2010 Educational Testing Service (ETS) report…

  19. The Accuracy of Self-Report Information Collected on the ACT Test Battery: High School Grades and Items of Nonacademic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, E. James; Ormsby, Victor J.

    This paper reports the accuracy with which students report their high school grades and nonacademic achievements when they write the ACT Test Battery. A sample of 5,775 student records from 134 high schools was studied. The correlations between self-reported and school-reported grades were found to range from .81 to .86. The correlations were…

  20. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    SciTech Connect

    Morzinski, Jerome; Anderson - Cook, Christine M; Klamann, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  1. Human Capital: Building the Information Technology Workforce To Achieve Results. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    The Comptroller General of the United States testified before Congress regarding the General Accounting Office's (GAO's) framework for building the information technology (IT) work force to achieve results. The following were among the key points of his testimony: (1) the federal government is facing pervasive human capital challenges that are…

  2. Characterizing reliability in a product/process design-assurance program

    SciTech Connect

    Kerscher, W.J. III; Booker, J.M.; Bement, T.R.; Meyer, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    Over the years many advancing techniques in the area of reliability engineering have surfaced in the military sphere of influence, and one of these techniques is Reliability Growth Testing (RGT). Private industry has reviewed RGT as part of the solution to their reliability concerns, but many practical considerations have slowed its implementation. It`s objective is to demonstrate the reliability requirement of a new product with a specified confidence. This paper speaks directly to that objective but discusses a somewhat different approach to achieving it. Rather than conducting testing as a continuum and developing statistical confidence bands around the results, this Bayesian updating approach starts with a reliability estimate characterized by large uncertainty and then proceeds to reduce the uncertainty by folding in fresh information in a Bayesian framework.

  3. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  4. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  5. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  6. Reliability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Schafer, William D.

    This digest discusses sources of error in testing, several approaches to estimating reliability, and several ways to increase test reliability. Reliability has been defined in different ways by different authors, but the best way to look at reliability may be the extent to which measurements resulting from a test are characteristics of those being…

  7. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  8. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  9. Psychometric properties of the 25-item Work Limitations Questionnaire in Japan: factor structure, validity, and reliability in information and communication technology company employees.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yuko; Matsushima, Eisuke; Uji, Masayo

    2014-02-01

    The 25-item Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ-25) measures presenteeism but has not been sufficiently validated in a Japanese population. A total of 451 employees from four information technology companies in Tokyo completed the WLQ-25 and questionnaires of other variables on two occasions, 2 weeks apart. The WLQ-25 yielded a two-factor structure: Cognitive Demand and Physical Demand. These subscales showed good internal consistency, and both were associated with adverse working conditions, greater perceived job strain, lower skill use, poorer workplace social support, and less satisfactory psychological adjustment. Intraclass correlation coefficients of the two WLQ-25 subscales between time 1 and time 2 were 0.78 and 0.55, respectively. This study suggests acceptable psychometric properties of the WLQ-25 in Japan.

  10. Does a fast nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy- and X-ray crystallography hybrid approach provide reliable structural information of ligand-protein complexes? A case study of metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Johan; Nyström, Susanne; Derbyshire, Dean; Wallberg, Hans; Agback, Tatiana; Kovacs, Helena; Bertini, Ivano; Giachetti, Andrea; Luchinat, Claudio

    2009-03-26

    A human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) hydroxamic acid inhibitor (CGS27023A) was cross-docked into 15 MMP-12, MMP-13, MMP-9, and MMP-1 cocrystal structures. The aim was to validate a fast protocol for ligand binding conformation elucidation and to probe the feasibility of using inhibitor-protein NMR contacts to dock an inhibitor into related MMP crystal structures. Such an approach avoids full NMR structure elucidation, saving both spectrometer- and analysis time. We report here that for the studied MMPs, one can obtain docking results well within 1 A compared to the corresponding reference X-ray structure, using backbone amide contacts only. From the perspective of the pharmaceutical industry, these results are relevant for the binding studies of inhibitor series to a common target and have the potential advantage of obtaining information on protein-inhibitor complexes that are difficult to crystallize.

  11. Can There Be Reliability without "Reliability?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    An "Educational Researcher" article by Pamela Moss (1994) asks the title question, "Can there be validity without reliability?" Yes, she answers, if by reliability one means "consistency among independent observations intended as interchangeable" (Moss, 1994, p. 7), quantified by internal consistency indices such as…

  12. Engaging All Employees in Efforts to Achieve High Reliability.

    PubMed

    Benedicto, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    DRAMATIC AND NUMEROUS advances in science, technology, and medicine provide new opportunities to keep people healthy as well as to diagnose, treat, and cure disease. Unfortunately, increasing complexity increases opportunities for mistakes and errors, particularly in healthcare organizations as they struggle to prevent patient harm (). Safety problems persist and harm to patients continues despite widespread attention to the need for improvement ().An engaged and empowered workforce is critical to improving the patient experience, improving health outcomes, and correcting unsafe conditions (). However, all healthcare workers-nurses, physicians, security guards, chaplains, and so many others-are subject to the same stressors and system failures that lead to patient harm. This situation compromises the workforce's ability to ensure care that is consistently excellent and safe. Patient harm events are further exacerbated by employee fatigue, disengagement, burnout, intimidation, bullying, and violence in the work place.

  13. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  14. Can there be reliability without reliability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    1994-10-01

    A recent article by Pamela Moss asks the title question, 'Can there be validity without reliability?' If by reliability we mean only KR-2O coefficients or inter-rater correlations, the answer is yes. Sometimes these particular indices for evaluating evidence suit the problem we encounter; sometimes they don't. If by reliability we mean credibility of evidence, where credibility is defined as 'appropriate to the intended inference, the answer is no, we cannot have validity without reliability. Because 'validity' encompasses the process of reasoning as well as the data, uncritically accepting observations as strong evidence, when they may be incorrect, misleading, unrepresentative, or fraudulent, may lead coincidentally to correct conclusions but not to valid ones. This paper discusses and illustrates a broader conception of 'reliability' in educational assessment, to ground a deeper understanding of the issues raised by Professor Moss's question.

  15. 'Information-Based-Acquisition' (IBA) technique with an ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer for high-throughput and reliable protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Yokosuka, Toshiyuki; Yoshinari, Kiyomi; Kobayashi, Kinya; Ohtake, Atsushi; Hirabayashi, Atsumu; Hashimoto, Yuichiro; Waki, Izumi; Takao, Toshifumi

    2006-01-01

    Highly complex protein mixtures can be analyzed after proteolysis using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In an LC/MS run, intense peptide ions originating from high-abundance proteins are preferentially analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)), so obtaining the MS(2) spectra of peptide ions from low-abundance proteins is difficult even if such ions are detected. Furthermore, the MS(2) spectra may produce insufficient information to identify the peptides or proteins. To solve these problems, we have developed a real-time optimization technique for MS(2), called the Information-Based-Acquisition (IBA) system. In a preliminary LC/MS run, a few of the most intense ions detected in every MS spectrum are selected as precursors for MS(2) and their masses, charge states and retention times are automatically registered in an internal database. In the next run, a sample similar to that used in the first run is analyzed using database searching. Then, the ions registered in the database are excluded from the precursor ion selection to avoid duplicate MS(2) analyses. Furthermore, real-time de novo sequencing is performed just after obtaining the MS(2) spectrum, and an MS(3) spectrum is obtained for accurate peptide identification when the number of interpreted amino acids in the MS(2) spectrum is less than five. We applied the IBA system to a yeast cell lysate which is a typical crude sample, using a nanoLC/ion-trap time-of flight (IT/TOF) mass spectrometer, repeating the same LC/MS run five times. The obtained MS(2) and MS(3) spectra were analyzed by applying the Mascot (Matrix Science, Boston, MA, USA) search engine to identify proteins from the sequence database. The total number of identified proteins in five LC/MS runs was three times higher than that in the first run and the ion scores for peptide identification also significantly increased, by about 70%, when the MS(3) spectra were used, combined with the MS(2) spectra, before being subjected to

  16. Making Decisions with Unknown Sensory Reliability

    PubMed Central

    Deneve, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    To make fast and accurate behavioral choices, we need to integrate noisy sensory input, take prior knowledge into account, and adjust our decision criteria. It was shown previously that in two-alternative-forced-choice tasks, optimal decision making can be formalized in the framework of a sequential probability ratio test and is then equivalent to a diffusion model. However, this analogy hides a “chicken and egg” problem: to know how quickly we should integrate the sensory input and set the optimal decision threshold, the reliability of the sensory observations must be known in advance. Most of the time, we cannot know this reliability without first observing the decision outcome. We consider here a Bayesian decision model that simultaneously infers the probability of two different choices and at the same time estimates the reliability of the sensory information on which this choice is based. We show that this can be achieved within a single trial, based on the noisy responses of sensory spiking neurons. The resulting model is a non-linear diffusion to bound where the weight of the sensory inputs and the decision threshold are both dynamically changing over time. In difficult decision trials, early sensory inputs have a stronger impact on the decision, and the threshold collapses such that choices are made faster but with low accuracy. The reverse is true in easy trials: the sensory weight and the threshold increase over time, leading to slower decisions but at much higher accuracy. In contrast to standard diffusion models, adaptive sensory weights construct an accurate representation for the probability of each choice. This information can then be combined appropriately with other unreliable cues, such as priors. We show that this model can account for recent findings in a motion discrimination task, and can be implemented in a neural architecture using fast Hebbian learning. PMID:22679418

  17. Making decisions with unknown sensory reliability.

    PubMed

    Deneve, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    To make fast and accurate behavioral choices, we need to integrate noisy sensory input, take prior knowledge into account, and adjust our decision criteria. It was shown previously that in two-alternative-forced-choice tasks, optimal decision making can be formalized in the framework of a sequential probability ratio test and is then equivalent to a diffusion model. However, this analogy hides a "chicken and egg" problem: to know how quickly we should integrate the sensory input and set the optimal decision threshold, the reliability of the sensory observations must be known in advance. Most of the time, we cannot know this reliability without first observing the decision outcome. We consider here a Bayesian decision model that simultaneously infers the probability of two different choices and at the same time estimates the reliability of the sensory information on which this choice is based. We show that this can be achieved within a single trial, based on the noisy responses of sensory spiking neurons. The resulting model is a non-linear diffusion to bound where the weight of the sensory inputs and the decision threshold are both dynamically changing over time. In difficult decision trials, early sensory inputs have a stronger impact on the decision, and the threshold collapses such that choices are made faster but with low accuracy. The reverse is true in easy trials: the sensory weight and the threshold increase over time, leading to slower decisions but at much higher accuracy. In contrast to standard diffusion models, adaptive sensory weights construct an accurate representation for the probability of each choice. This information can then be combined appropriately with other unreliable cues, such as priors. We show that this model can account for recent findings in a motion discrimination task, and can be implemented in a neural architecture using fast Hebbian learning.

  18. The Effects of a Web-Based Information Feedback System on Academic Achievement Motivation and Performance of Junior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappe, Stephen M.; Sonak, Brian C.; Hunter, Maxwell W.; Suen, Hoi K.

    Information feedback is widely believed to play an important role in cognitive processes such as monitoring and self-regulation. It has been linked to enhanced motivation and increased performance. Assisted by feedback, students confirm or change knowledge and modify cognitive processes for better performance. This study investigated self-selected…

  19. Model VESL Program Guide, Office Information Systems, International: One Semester Intensive Training Certificate of Achievement Programs in General, Medical, and Legal Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Irma J.

    The Office Information Systems-International Program at Southwestern College, in California, was designed to provide Hispanic students with training for entry-level office employment. This model program guide stems from a project to improve curricula and delivery and focuses on changes in three intensive bilingual programs in general, medical, and…

  20. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A method and a computer program are presented to calculate probability of system success from an arbitrary reliability block diagram. The class of reliability block diagrams that can be handled include any active/standby combination of redundancy, and the computations include the effects of dormancy and switching in any standby redundancy. The mechanics of the program are based on an extension of the probability tree method of computing system probabilities.

  1. Spacecraft reliability/maintainability optimization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharmahd, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    Description of a procedure to develop a methodology to optimize man-serviced systems for reliability and maintainability. The spacecraft systems are analyzed using failure modes and effects analysis and maintenance analysis, component mean-time-between failure, duty cycle, type of redundancy, and cost information to develop parametric data on various time intervals. Included are crew time-to-repair, cost, weight, and volume effects of increasing subsystem reliability above the baseline. Results are presented for space systems using the existing data from a research and applications module. These results show the minimum cost of sustaining mission operations.

  2. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  3. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  4. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  5. Integrated avionics reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alikiotis, Dimitri

    1988-01-01

    The integrated avionics reliability task is an effort to build credible reliability and/or performability models for multisensor integrated navigation and flight control. The research was initiated by the reliability analysis of a multisensor navigation system consisting of the Global Positioning System (GPS), the Long Range Navigation system (Loran C), and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Markov reliability models were developed based on system failure rates and mission time.

  6. Component reliability parameters estimation considering weather factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    In order to study influence of power system reliability parameters under the complex weather, this paper presents a component reliability parameter estimation method based on the one directional S-rough law and F-decomposition law. The S-rough rule handles the failure rate and the uncertain weather conditions. According to this, it establishes reliable parameter estimation model. Then the power system reliability evaluation adds the F-decomposition law analysis to form the interfere metrics and analyzes influence of component reliability parameters under different weather combinations. In the numerical example verification, the results show that the proposed model can predict the transmission line failure rate, and reveals the influence regularity of component reliability parameter. Based on the objective data (climate in many years), the proposed method can eliminate the influence of subjective factor. Evaluation results are more objective, and provide important information for the power system reliability evaluation.

  7. Theory of reliable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to refine the current notion of system reliability by identifying and investigating attributes of a system which are important to reliability considerations. Techniques which facilitate analysis of system reliability are included. Special attention was given to fault tolerance, diagnosability, and reconfigurability characteristics of systems.

  8. Reliability as Argument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Reliability consists of both important social and scientific values and methods for evidencing those values, though in practice methods are often conflated with the values. With the two distinctly understood, a reliability argument can be made that articulates the particular reliability values most relevant to the particular measurement situation…

  9. Viking Lander reliability program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilny, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Viking Lander reliability program is reviewed with attention given to the development of the reliability program requirements, reliability program management, documents evaluation, failure modes evaluation, production variation control, failure reporting and correction, and the parts program. Lander hardware failures which have occurred during the mission are listed.

  10. Reliability model generator specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Mccann, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The Reliability Model Generator (RMG), a program which produces reliability models from block diagrams for ASSIST, the interface for the reliability evaluation tool SURE is described. An account is given of motivation for RMG and the implemented algorithms are discussed. The appendices contain the algorithms and two detailed traces of examples.

  11. Reliability and structural integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    An analytic model is developed to calculate the reliability of a structure after it is inspected for cracks. The model accounts for the growth of undiscovered cracks between inspections and their effect upon the reliability after subsequent inspections. The model is based upon a differential form of Bayes' Theorem for reliability, and upon fracture mechanics for crack growth.

  12. Predicting software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlewood, B.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed look is given to software reliability techniques. A conceptual model of the failure process is examined, and some software reliability growth models are discussed. Problems for which no current solutions exist are addressed, emphasizing the very difficult problem of safety-critical systems for which the reliability requirements can be enormously demanding.

  13. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.

    1991-12-31

    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. This paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics.

  14. Reliability assurance for regulation of advanced reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Lofaro, R.; Samanta, P.

    1991-01-01

    The advanced nuclear power plants must achieve higher levels of safety than the first generation of plants. Showing that this is indeed true provides new challenges to reliability and risk assessment methods in the analysis of the designs employing passive and semi-passive protection. Reliability assurance of the advanced reactor systems is important for determining the safety of the design and for determining the plant operability. Safety is the primary concern, but operability is considered indicative of good and safe operation. This paper discusses several concerns for reliability assurance of the advanced design encompassing reliability determination, level of detail required in advanced reactor submittals, data for reliability assurance, systems interactions and common cause effects, passive component reliability, PRA-based configuration control system, and inspection, training, maintenance and test requirements. Suggested approaches are provided for addressing each of these topics.

  15. Creating Highly Reliable Accountable Care Organizations.

    PubMed

    Vogus, Timothy J; Singer, Sara J

    2016-12-01

    Accountable Care Organizations' (ACOs) pursuit of the triple aim of higher quality, lower cost, and improved population health has met with mixed results. To improve the design and implementation of ACOs we look to organizations that manage similarly complex, dynamic, and tightly coupled conditions while sustaining exceptional performance known as high-reliability organizations. We describe the key processes through which organizations achieve reliability, the leadership and organizational practices that enable it, and the role that professionals can play when charged with enacting it. Specifically, we present concrete practices and processes from health care organizations pursuing high-reliability and from early ACOs to illustrate how the triple aim may be met by cultivating mindful organizing, practicing reliability-enhancing leadership, and identifying and supporting reliability professionals. We conclude by proposing a set of research questions to advance the study of ACOs and high-reliability research.

  16. 75 FR 16913 - Transmission Relay Loadability Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC). Reliability Standard PRC-023-1... protect the electric network from all fault conditions, but do not limit transmission loadability or... Information), Office of Electric Reliability, Division of Reliability Standards, Federal Energy Regulatory...

  17. Segmentation of biological target volumes on multi-tracer PET images based on information fusion for achieving dose painting in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lelandais, Benoît; Gardin, Isabelle; Mouchard, Laurent; Vera, Pierre; Ruan, Su

    2012-01-01

    Medical imaging plays an important role in radiotherapy. Dose painting consists in the application of a nonuniform dose prescription on a tumoral region, and is based on an efficient segmentation of biological target volumes (BTV). It is derived from PET images, that highlight tumoral regions of enhanced glucose metabolism (FDG), cell proliferation (FLT) and hypoxia (FMiso). In this paper, a framework based on Belief Function Theory is proposed for BTV segmentation and for creating 3D parametric images for dose painting. We propose to take advantage of neighboring voxels for BTV segmentation, and also multi-tracer PET images using information fusion to create parametric images. The performances of BTV segmentation was evaluated on an anthropomorphic phantom and compared with two other methods. Quantitative results show the good performances of our method. It has been applied to data of five patients suffering from lung cancer. Parametric images show promising results by highlighting areas where a high frequency or dose escalation could be planned.

  18. URREF Reliability Versus Credibility in Information Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    procedures. If UR means uncertainty calculus (UC) (mathematical framework, theory), then we are asking if, for instance, possibility theory or...and or on other empirical criteria to be defined (if UR is an uncertainty calculus ). In addition to relevance affecting re- liability and credibility...Model Update,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, 21(5):2824-2837, 2012. [13] C. Yang, L. Kaplan , and E. Blasch, “Performance Measures of Covariance

  19. A reliability measure of protein-protein interactions and a reliability measure-based search engine.

    PubMed

    Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook

    2010-02-01

    Many methods developed for estimating the reliability of protein-protein interactions are based on the topology of protein-protein interaction networks. This paper describes a new reliability measure for protein-protein interactions, which does not rely on the topology of protein interaction networks, but expresses biological information on functional roles, sub-cellular localisations and protein classes as a scoring schema. The new measure is useful for filtering many spurious interactions, as well as for estimating the reliability of protein interaction data. In particular, the reliability measure can be used to search protein-protein interactions with the desired reliability in databases. The reliability-based search engine is available at http://yeast.hpid.org. We believe this is the first search engine for interacting proteins, which is made available to public. The search engine and the reliability measure of protein interactions should provide useful information for determining proteins to focus on.

  20. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  1. Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic Reliability and Engineering. One-sided sheet that includes Scope, Core Competencies and Capabilities, and Contact/Web information.

  2. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  3. Recalibrating software reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

    1990-01-01

    In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predicitons for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates prodcued by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

  4. Recalibrating software reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

    1989-01-01

    In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predictions for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates produced by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

  5. Software Reliability 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Dolores R.

    2003-01-01

    In FY01 we learned that hardware reliability models need substantial changes to account for differences in software, thus making software reliability measurements more effective, accurate, and easier to apply. These reliability models are generally based on familiar distributions or parametric methods. An obvious question is 'What new statistical and probability models can be developed using non-parametric and distribution-free methods instead of the traditional parametric method?" Two approaches to software reliability engineering appear somewhat promising. The first study, begin in FY01, is based in hardware reliability, a very well established science that has many aspects that can be applied to software. This research effort has investigated mathematical aspects of hardware reliability and has identified those applicable to software. Currently the research effort is applying and testing these approaches to software reliability measurement, These parametric models require much project data that may be difficult to apply and interpret. Projects at GSFC are often complex in both technology and schedules. Assessing and estimating reliability of the final system is extremely difficult when various subsystems are tested and completed long before others. Parametric and distribution free techniques may offer a new and accurate way of modeling failure time and other project data to provide earlier and more accurate estimates of system reliability.

  6. Recalibrating software reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Sarah; Chan, P. Y.; Littlewood, Bev; Snell, John

    1990-01-01

    In spite of much research effort, there is no universally applicable software reliability growth model which can be trusted to give accurate predictions of reliability in all circumstances. Further, it is not even possible to decide a priori which of the many models is most suitable in a particular context. In an attempt to resolve this problem, techniques were developed whereby, for each program, the accuracy of various models can be analyzed. A user is thus enabled to select that model which is giving the most accurate reliability predicitons for the particular program under examination. One of these ways of analyzing predictive accuracy, called the u-plot, in fact allows a user to estimate the relationship between the predicted reliability and the true reliability. It is shown how this can be used to improve reliability predictions in a completely general way by a process of recalibration. Simulation results show that the technique gives improved reliability predictions in a large proportion of cases. However, a user does not need to trust the efficacy of recalibration, since the new reliability estimates prodcued by the technique are truly predictive and so their accuracy in a particular application can be judged using the earlier methods. The generality of this approach would therefore suggest that it be applied as a matter of course whenever a software reliability model is used.

  7. General Achievement Trends: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. Accessibility, reliability, and usability of neurosurgical resources.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Nitin; Kommana, Sumana S; Hansberry, David R; Kashkoush, Ahmed I; Friedlander, Robert M; Lunsford, L Dade

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Closing the knowledge gap that exists between patients and health care providers is essential and is facilitated by easy access to patient education materials. Although such information has the potential to be an effective resource, it must be written in a user-friendly and understandable manner, especially when such material pertains to specialized and highly technical fields such as neurological surgery. The authors evaluated the accessibility, usability, and reliability of current educational resources provided by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS), Healthwise, and the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). METHODS Online neurosurgical patient education information provided by AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS was evaluated using the LIDA scale, a website quality assessment tool, by medical professionals and nonmedical professionals. A high achieving score is regarded as 90% or greater using the LIDA scale. RESULTS Accessibility scores were 76.7% (AANS), 83.3% (Healthwise), and 75.0% (NINDS). Average usability scores for the AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS were 73.3%, 82.6%, and 82.9%, respectively, when evaluated by medical professionals and 78.5%, 80.7%, and 75.9%, respectively, for nonmedical professionals, respectively. Average reliability scores were 58.5%, 53.3%, 72.6%, respectively, for medical professionals and 70.4%, 66.7%, and 78.5%, respectively, for nonmedical professionals when evaluating the AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS websites. CONCLUSIONS Although organizations like AANS, Healthwise, and NINDS should be commended for their ongoing commitment to provide health care-oriented materials, modification of this material is suggested to improve the patient education value.

  9. Six Motivational Reasons for Low School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Reiss ("The normal personality: a new way of thinking about people." Cambridge University Press, New York, 2008) empirically derived a reliable and valid taxonomy of 16 life motives ("psychological needs"). The model suggests six motivational reasons for low achievement in school. Low achievement may be motivated by fear of failure (high need for…

  10. Six Motivational Reasons for Low School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Reiss ("The normal personality: a new way of thinking about people." Cambridge University Press, New York, 2008) empirically derived a reliable and valid taxonomy of 16 life motives ("psychological needs"). The model suggests six motivational reasons for low achievement in school. Low achievement may be motivated by fear of failure (high need for…

  11. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Gathering Feedback for Teachers: Combining High-Quality Observations with Student Surveys and Achievement Gains"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This study examined five instruments used to assess the effectiveness of teacher practices based on classroom observations. The study first examined whether observers could reliably assess teachers with each instrument, and then examined how well each instrument, along with other information, predicted student achievement. The study reported that,…

  12. Reliability based design optimization: Formulations and methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Harish

    Modern products ranging from simple components to complex systems should be designed to be optimal and reliable. The challenge of modern engineering is to ensure that manufacturing costs are reduced and design cycle times are minimized while achieving requirements for performance and reliability. If the market for the product is competitive, improved quality and reliability can generate very strong competitive advantages. Simulation based design plays an important role in designing almost any kind of automotive, aerospace, and consumer products under these competitive conditions. Single discipline simulations used for analysis are being coupled together to create complex coupled simulation tools. This investigation focuses on the development of efficient and robust methodologies for reliability based design optimization in a simulation based design environment. Original contributions of this research are the development of a novel efficient and robust unilevel methodology for reliability based design optimization, the development of an innovative decoupled reliability based design optimization methodology, the application of homotopy techniques in unilevel reliability based design optimization methodology, and the development of a new framework for reliability based design optimization under epistemic uncertainty. The unilevel methodology for reliability based design optimization is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the traditional nested formulation. Numerical test problems show that the unilevel methodology can reduce computational cost by at least 50% as compared to the nested approach. The decoupled reliability based design optimization methodology is an approximate technique to obtain consistent reliable designs at lesser computational expense. Test problems show that the methodology is computationally efficient compared to the nested approach. A framework for performing reliability based design optimization under epistemic uncertainty is also developed

  13. A highly reliable LAN protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, A. C.

    1986-10-01

    As a research project for NASA's Langley Research Center, a variation on the military standard for avionics buses was developed to increase fault tolerance. The resulting protocol, called implicit token passing (ITP), replaces an explicit token with brief 'soundoff' messages from all nodes participating on the LAN. ITP features high throughput and bounded message delay, and achieves high reliability through tolerance of failed nodes and automatic resynchronization when failed nodes are revived. The protocol is ideally suited for a bus topology and fiber optic media.

  14. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  15. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, Verne William; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  16. Reliability, Recursion, and Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Melvin, Ed.; Wagon, Stan, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    The discrete mathematics topics of trees and computational complexity are implemented in a simple reliability program which illustrates the process advantages of the PASCAL programing language. The discussion focuses on the impact that reliability research can provide in assessment of the risks found in complex technological ventures. (Author/JJK)

  17. Monte Carlo Reliability Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    to Stochastic Processes , Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1975. (5) R. E. Barlow and F. Proscham, Statistical TheorX of Reliability and Life...Lewis and Z. Tu, "Monte Carlo Reliability Modeling by Inhomogeneous ,Markov Processes, Reliab. Engr. 16, 277-296 (1986). (4) E. Cinlar, Introduction

  18. Chapter 9: Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Algora, Carlos; Espinet-Gonzalez, Pilar; Vazquez, Manuel; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David; Kurtz, Sarah; Rubio, Francisca; McConnell,Robert

    2016-04-15

    This chapter describes the accumulated knowledge on CPV reliability with its fundamentals and qualification. It explains the reliability of solar cells, modules (including optics) and plants. The chapter discusses the statistical distributions, namely exponential, normal and Weibull. The reliability of solar cells includes: namely the issues in accelerated aging tests in CPV solar cells, types of failure and failures in real time operation. The chapter explores the accelerated life tests, namely qualitative life tests (mainly HALT) and quantitative accelerated life tests (QALT). It examines other well proven and experienced PV cells and/or semiconductor devices, which share similar semiconductor materials, manufacturing techniques or operating conditions, namely, III-V space solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). It addresses each of the identified reliability issues and presents the current state of the art knowledge for their testing and evaluation. Finally, the chapter summarizes the CPV qualification and reliability standards.

  19. Reliability prediction for a class of highly reliable digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.

    1992-01-01

    Three theorems which show that the reliability of a popular class of systems can be computed using small and simple models are presented. This class consists of systems that are assemblages of subsystems where each subsystem is a majority-voting threeplex plus spares or majority-voting fourplex plus spares. The theorems are error bounds for model reduction and simplification. The error bounds are given in terms of readily available system parameters. The three theorems have been applied to a system that has been used as an example that generates extremely large reliability models; the system considered is one version of AIPS (Advanced Information Processing System) for IAPSA (Integrated Airframe Propulsion System Architecture).

  20. Reliability prediction for a class of highly reliable digital systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allan L.

    Three theorems which show that the reliability of a popular class of systems can be computed using small and simple models are presented. This class consists of systems that are assemblages of subsystems where each subsystem is a majority-voting threeplex plus spares or majority-voting fourplex plus spares. The theorems are error bounds for model reduction and simplification. The error bounds are given in terms of readily available system parameters. The three theorems have been applied to a system that has been used as an example that generates extremely large reliability models; the system considered is one version of AIPS (Advanced Information Processing System) for IAPSA (Integrated Airframe Propulsion System Architecture).

  1. Reliability improvements on Thales RM2 rotary Stirling coolers: analysis and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauquil, J. M.; Seguineau, C.; Martin, J.-Y.; Benschop, T.

    2016-05-01

    The cooled IR detectors are used in a wide range of applications. Most of the time, the cryocoolers are one of the components dimensioning the lifetime of the system. The cooler reliability is thus one of its most important parameters. This parameter has to increase to answer market needs. To do this, the data for identifying the weakest element determining cooler reliability has to be collected. Yet, data collection based on field are hardly usable due to lack of informations. A method for identifying the improvement in reliability has then to be set up which can be used even without field return. This paper will describe the method followed by Thales Cryogénie SAS to reach such a result. First, a database was built from extensive expertizes of RM2 failures occurring in accelerate ageing. Failure modes have then been identified and corrective actions achieved. Besides this, a hierarchical organization of the functions of the cooler has been done with regard to the potential increase of its efficiency. Specific changes have been introduced on the functions most likely to impact efficiency. The link between efficiency and reliability will be described in this paper. The work on the two axes - weak spots for cooler reliability and efficiency - permitted us to increase in a drastic way the MTTF of the RM2 cooler. Huge improvements in RM2 reliability are actually proven by both field return and reliability monitoring. These figures will be discussed in the paper.

  2. Information Management Challenges in Achieving Coalition Interoperability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    Gruninger, 1996] M. Uschold, M. Gruninger, Ontologies : principles, methods and applications, Knowledge Engineering Review, 11(2), 1996, pp. 93-155. [Valente...discovering that FC, even if it were a solved problem (using formal methods , architectural design approaches, model checking, etc.), is still not...Chaudron-96] L. Chaudron. Firststeps towards first order logic in formal concept analysis. Conference on conceptual Knowledge Processing, Darmstadt, Germany

  3. Storage Reliability of Missile Materiel Program. Missile Materiel Reliability Prediction Handbook - Parts Count Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    OF MISSILE MATERIEL PROGRAM ,. MISSILE MATERIEL RELIABILITY PREDICTION HANDBOOK + "ARTS COUNT PREDICTION LC-78-1 FEBRUARY 1978 Prepared by: Dennis F...data for predicting the reliability of missile systems based on a "parts count" approach. The handbook is a result of a program whosa objective is the...has been extracted from existing reliability prediction sources. For more informations, contactz Commaz • •r U. S. h. ,y Missile R&D Command ATTN

  4. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  5. Reliability of self-reporting of antibiotic consumption in the community - Index of Reliability.

    PubMed

    Ferson, K; Montgomery, J; Moore, R E; Millar, B C; Leggett, P; Coulter, W A; Goldsmith, C E; Moore, J E

    2014-10-01

    To date, there is no evidence to indicate the reliability of how patients self-report their own antibiotic usage in the community. Such data are fundamental in supporting antimicrobial stewardship practices, and so there is a need to determine its accuracy and reliability. Patients in the community (n = 476) were required to recollect their antibiotic usage in the past three months. Simultaneously, similar information was obtained by careful extraction from their respective medical notes, which was qualitatively compared with the patient's recollection. Overall, concordance was high (88·1%), but age (<20 and >80 years) and sex (female) were significant factors of reliability. This study suggests that basic self-reporting of antibiotic usage amongst patients is relatively reliable, with increasing accuracy with years until 80 years. Where such information is critical, the current study can help decide who to interview and whose notes to interrogate, in the quest to obtain reliable and accurate information. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Closing the Achievement Gap: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robards, Shirley N.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap between low- and high-achieving public school students is an important goal of public education. This article explores background information and research and discusses examples of best practices to close the achievement gap. Several plans have been proposed as ways to enhance the achievement of under-represented…

  7. Reliability Analysis Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    RAM program determines probability of success for one or more given objectives in any complex system. Program includes failure mode and effects, criticality and reliability analyses, and some aspects of operations, safety, flight technology, systems design engineering, and configuration analyses.

  8. The rating reliability calculator

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David J

    2004-01-01

    Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program. PMID:15117416

  9. Software reliability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Larry W.

    1989-01-01

    The longterm goal of this research is to identify or create a model for use in analyzing the reliability of flight control software. The immediate tasks addressed are the creation of data useful to the study of software reliability and production of results pertinent to software reliability through the analysis of existing reliability models and data. The completed data creation portion of this research consists of a Generic Checkout System (GCS) design document created in cooperation with NASA and Research Triangle Institute (RTI) experimenters. This will lead to design and code reviews with the resulting product being one of the versions used in the Terminal Descent Experiment being conducted by the Systems Validations Methods Branch (SVMB) of NASA/Langley. An appended paper details an investigation of the Jelinski-Moranda and Geometric models for software reliability. The models were given data from a process that they have correctly simulated and asked to make predictions about the reliability of that process. It was found that either model will usually fail to make good predictions. These problems were attributed to randomness in the data and replication of data was recommended.

  10. Metrology automation reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, Elizabeth E.

    1996-09-01

    At Motorola's MOS-12 facility automated measurements on 200- mm diameter wafers proceed in a hands-off 'load-and-go' mode requiring only wafer loading, measurement recipe loading, and a 'run' command for processing. Upon completion of all sample measurements, the data is uploaded to the factory's data collection software system via a SECS II interface, eliminating the requirement of manual data entry. The scope of in-line measurement automation has been extended to the entire metrology scheme from job file generation to measurement and data collection. Data analysis and comparison to part specification limits is also carried out automatically. Successful integration of automated metrology into the factory measurement system requires that automated functions, such as autofocus and pattern recognition algorithms, display a high degree of reliability. In the 24- hour factory reliability data can be collected automatically on every part measured. This reliability data is then uploaded to the factory data collection software system at the same time as the measurement data. Analysis of the metrology reliability data permits improvements to be made as needed, and provides an accurate accounting of automation reliability. This reliability data has so far been collected for the CD-SEM (critical dimension scanning electron microscope) metrology tool, and examples are presented. This analysis method can be applied to such automated in-line measurements as CD, overlay, particle and film thickness measurements.

  11. Stable unstable reliability theory.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Hoben; Lohaus, Arnold; Domsch, Holger

    2012-05-01

    Classical reliability theory assumes that individuals have identical true scores on both testing occasions, a condition described as stable. If some individuals' true scores are different on different testing occasions, described as unstable, the estimated reliability can be misleading. A model called stable unstable reliability theory (SURT) frames stability or instability as an empirically testable question. SURT assumes a mixed population of stable and unstable individuals in unknown proportions, with w(i) the probability that individual i is stable. w(i) becomes i's test score weight which is used to form a weighted correlation coefficient r(w) which is reliability under SURT. If all w(i) = 1 then r(w) is the classical reliability coefficient; thus classical theory is a special case of SURT. Typically r(w) is larger than the conventional reliability r, and confidence intervals on true scores are typically shorter than conventional intervals. r(w) is computed with routines in a publicly available R package. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Mission Reliability Estimation for Repairable Robot Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Dolan, John; Stancliff, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A mission reliability estimation method has been designed to translate mission requirements into choices of robot modules in order to configure a multi-robot team to have high reliability at minimal cost. In order to build cost-effective robot teams for long-term missions, one must be able to compare alternative design paradigms in a principled way by comparing the reliability of different robot models and robot team configurations. Core modules have been created including: a probabilistic module with reliability-cost characteristics, a method for combining the characteristics of multiple modules to determine an overall reliability-cost characteristic, and a method for the generation of legitimate module combinations based on mission specifications and the selection of the best of the resulting combinations from a cost-reliability standpoint. The developed methodology can be used to predict the probability of a mission being completed, given information about the components used to build the robots, as well as information about the mission tasks. In the research for this innovation, sample robot missions were examined and compared to the performance of robot teams with different numbers of robots and different numbers of spare components. Data that a mission designer would need was factored in, such as whether it would be better to have a spare robot versus an equivalent number of spare parts, or if mission cost can be reduced while maintaining reliability using spares. This analytical model was applied to an example robot mission, examining the cost-reliability tradeoffs among different team configurations. Particularly scrutinized were teams using either redundancy (spare robots) or repairability (spare components). Using conservative estimates of the cost-reliability relationship, results show that it is possible to significantly reduce the cost of a robotic mission by using cheaper, lower-reliability components and providing spares. This suggests that the

  13. Test Reliability by Ability Level of Examinees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy; Sax, Gilbert

    Achievement test reliability as a function of ability was determined for multiple sections of a large university French class (n=193). A 5-option multiple-choice examination was constructed, least attractive distractors were eliminated based on the instructor's judgment, and the resulting three forms of the examination (i.e. 3-, 4-, or 5-choice…

  14. Reliable spectrometric fiber Bragg grating peak detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Filipe; Martins, Paulo; Ferreira, Luís. A.; Araújo, Francisco M.

    2015-09-01

    A method for reliable fiber Bragg grating peak detection compatible with spectrometric demodulation schemes is presented. High immunity to differential losses and independency on the threshold settings was achieved. The effectiveness of the demonstrated method was corroborated by a 3σ accuracy of 2pm determined over 109 samples of 100 resonant peaks multiplexed in [1500; 1600] nm spectral range acquired throughout a year.

  15. MOV reliability evaluation and periodic verification scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Bunte, B.D.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish a periodic verification testing schedule based on the expected long term reliability of gate or globe motor operated valves (MOVs). The methodology in this position paper determines the nominal (best estimate) design margin for any MOV based on the best available information pertaining to the MOVs design requirements, design parameters, existing hardware design, and present setup. The uncertainty in this margin is then determined using statistical means. By comparing the nominal margin to the uncertainty, the reliability of the MOV is estimated. The methodology is appropriate for evaluating the reliability of MOVs in the GL 89-10 program. It may be used following periodic testing to evaluate and trend MOV performance and reliability. It may also be used to evaluate the impact of proposed modifications and maintenance activities such as packing adjustments. In addition, it may be used to assess the impact of new information of a generic nature which impacts safety related MOVs.

  16. Estimating the Reliability of a Crewed Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutomski, M. G.; Garza, J.

    2012-01-01

    Now that the Space Shuttle Program has been retired, the Russian Soyuz Launcher and Soyuz Spacecraft are the only means for crew transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). Are the astronauts and cosmonauts safer on the Soyuz than the Space Shuttle system? How do you estimate the reliability of such a crewed spacecraft? The recent loss of the 44 Progress resupply flight to the ISS has put these questions front and center. The Soyuz launcher has been in operation for over 40 years. There have been only two Loss of Crew (LOC) incidents and two Loss of Mission (LOM) incidents involving crew missions. Given that the most recent crewed Soyuz launcher incident took place in 1983, how do we determine current reliability of such a system? How do all of the failures of unmanned Soyuz family launchers such as the 44P impact the reliability of the currently operational crewed launcher? Does the Soyuz exhibit characteristics that demonstrate reliability growth and how would that be reflected in future estimates of success? In addition NASA has begun development of the Orion or Multi-Purpose Crewed Vehicle as well as started an initiative to purchase Commercial Crew services from private firms. The reliability targets are currently several times higher than the last Shuttle reliability estimate. Can these targets be compared to the reliability of the Soyuz arguably the highest reliable crewed spacecraft and launcher in the world to determine whether they are realistic and achievable? To help answer these questions this paper will explore how to estimate the reliability of the Soyuz launcher/spacecraft system over its mission to give a benchmark for other human spaceflight vehicles and their missions. Specifically this paper will look at estimating the Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC) probability for an ISS crewed Soyuz launcher/spacecraft mission using historical data, reliability growth, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques.

  17. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  18. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2012: February 28 - March 1, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  19. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2014: February 25-26, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.

    2014-02-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  20. Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop 2010: February 18-19, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.

    2013-11-01

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Module Reliability Workshop (PVMRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology--both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.