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Sample records for achieve results comparable

  1. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  2. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  3. Getting to Results. Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Tory

    2008-01-01

    The "Closing the Achievement Gap" series explores the Casey Foundation's education investments and presents stories, results, and lessons learned. This publication describes efforts to develop a flexible but rigorous results measurements system that enables the Foundation and its grantees to reflect on practice and course-correct as needed to…

  4. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  5. Results of scientific achievements for production

    SciTech Connect

    Primachenko, V.V.

    1988-07-01

    During recent years the Aluminosilicate Refractory Laboratory of the Ukrainian Scientific-Research Institute for Refractories together with refractory, metallurgical, and other plants has solved a number of problems on the technology and service of refractories. This paper reviews those achievements. A method for producing refractories, vibrocasting, was developed and was found to increase labor productivity by two or three times. The properties of vibrocast refractory parts and materials are discussed and compared to those of pressed and pneumatically rammed refractories. A number of new high-quality forms of refractory production were introduced for fused mullite and heat-resistant mullite-corundum refractories. Increasing the service life of coke oven doors by using an unreinforced block liner and mechanizing their installation and removal was also discussed. The economic savings obtained via these and other developments are cited.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Meeting the Whole Child Initiatives through Standardized and Competency-Based Education Systems in Terms of Achievement and Meeting the Whole Child Initiatives: Comparing Professional Perceptions and Identified Measurable Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional education (TE) largely uses a standardized (SbE) approach while alternatives (nTE) tend to more of a competency (CbE), or student-centered approach. This comparative analysis examines essential aspects of such pedagogies in determining the effectiveness of schooling systems in meeting the Whole Child Initiative (Souza, 1999; Carter et…

  7. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  8. Initial results of SEPAC scientific achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, T.; Kawashima, N.; Sasaki, S.; Yanagisawa, M.; Kuriki, K.; Nagatomo, M.; Ninomiya, K.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Williamson, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Electron beam injection of 5 keV, 300 mA (1.5 kW) and MPD arcjet plasma injection of 2 kJ/shot were successfully performed together with various kinds of diagnostic instruments including a high sensitivity TV camera observation in the Spacelab 1. Major scientific results obtained are studies of: (1) vehicle charge-up due to the electron beam emission and its neutralization by the MPD arcjet plasma; (2) beam-plasma interaction including the plasma wave excitation; (3) beam-atmosphere interaction such as the verification of critical velocity ionization effect; and (4) anomalous enhancement of ionization associated with a neutral gas injection into space.

  9. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes. PMID:10257047

  10. Comparative Soot Diagnostics: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Gard, Melissa Y.

    1997-01-01

    The motivation for the Comparative Soot Diagnostics (CSD) experiment lies in the broad practical importance of understanding combustion generated particulate. Depending upon the circumstances, particulate matter can affect the durability and performance of combustion equipment, can be a pollutant, can be used to detect fires and, in the form of soot, can be the dominant source of radiant energy from flames. The nonbuoyant structure of most flames of practical interest makes understanding of soot processes in low gravity flames important to our ability to predict fire behavior on earth. These studies also have direct applications to fire safety in human-crew spacecraft, since smoke is the indicator used for automated detection in current spacecraft. In the earliest missions (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo), the crew quarters were so cramped that it was considered reasonable that the astronauts would rapidly detect any fire. The Skylab module, however, included approximately 20 UV-sensing fire detectors. The Space Shuttle has 9 particle-ionization smoke detectors in the mid-deck and flight deck and Spacelab has six additional particle-ionization smoke detectors. The designated detectors for the ISS are laser-diode, forward-scattering, smoke or particulate detectors. Current plans for the ISS call for two detectors in the open area of the module, and detectors in racks that have both cooling air flow and electrical power. Due to the complete absence of data concerning the nature of particulate and radiant emission from incipient and fully developed low-g fires, all three of these detector systems were designed based upon l-g test data and experience. As planned mission durations and complexity increase and the volume of spacecraft increases, the need for and importance of effective, crew-independent, fire detection grows significantly. To provide this level of protection, more knowledge is needed concerning low-gravity fire phenomena and, in particular, how they might be

  11. School Counselors: Closing Achievement Gaps and Writing Results Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartline, Julie; Cobia, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Charged with closing the achievement gap for marginalized students, school counselors need to be able to identify gaps, develop interventions, evaluate effectiveness, and share results. This study examined 100 summary results reports submitted by school counselors after having received four days of training on the ASCA National Model. Findings…

  12. Comparability of Educational Achievement and Learning Attitudes across Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taht, Karin; Must, Olev

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the invariance of educational achievement (EA) and learning attitudes (LA) measures across nations. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to estimate the invariance of educational achievement and learning attitudes across 55 nations (Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2006 data, N = 354,203). The…

  13. Manufacturing of glassy thin shell for adaptive optics: results achieved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutriquet, F.; Rinchet, A.; Carel, J.-L.; Leplan, H.; Ruch, E.; Geyl, R.; Marque, G.

    2012-07-01

    Glassy thin shells are key components for the development of adaptive optics and are part of future & innovative projects such as ELT. However, manufacturing thin shells is a real challenge. Even though optical requirements for the front face - or optical face - are relaxed compared to conventional passive mirrors, requirements concerning thickness uniformity are difficult to achieve. In addition, process has to be completely re-defined as thin mirror generates new manufacturing issues. In particular, scratches and digs requirement is more difficult as this could weaken the shell, handling is also an important issue due to the fragility of the mirror. Sagem, through REOSC program, has recently manufactured different types of thin shells in the frame of European projects: E-ELT M4 prototypes and VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror (VLT DSM).

  14. Principal Leadership and Mathematics Achievement: An International Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Seon-Hi; Slater, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences and similarities in the impact of school leadership on student mathematics achievement in different global regions using TIMSS international data. Three-level unconditional and conditional hierarchical models were fitted to the data in each country. The findings showed that the variables of teacher…

  15. Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

  16. Two- and Three-Year Achievement Results from the Memphis Restructuring Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Sanders, William L.; Wright, S. Paul; Stringfield, Sam; Wang, L. Weiping; Alberg, Marty

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of student achievement, using a value-added testing technique, after 3 years of Memphis Restructuring Initiative. Findings show positive achievement gains in reform schools compared to demographically similar control schools, though strength of gains varied by type of reform and community poverty levels. (Contains…

  17. Comparing Ultraviolet Spectra Against Calculations: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2003-01-01

    The five-year goal of this effort is to calculate high fidelity mid-UV spectra for individual stars and stellar systems for a wide range of ages, abundances, and abundance ratios. In this first year, the emphasis was placed on revising the list of atomic line parameters used to calculate mid-UV spectra. First, new identifications of atomic lines and measurements of their transition probabilities were obtained for lines of the first and second ionization stages of iron-peak elements. Second, observed mid-UV and optical spectra for standard stars were re-analyzed and compared to new calculations, to refine the determination of transition probabilities and to estimate the identity of lines still missing from the laboratory lists. As evidenced by the figures, a dramatic improvement has resulted in the reproduction of the spectra of standard stars by the calculations.

  18. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  19. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the principle vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  20. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  1. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  2. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  3. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction. PMID:27606585

  4. Comparative results of 327 chemical carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed Central

    Haseman, J K; Huff, J E; Zeiger, E; McConnell, E E

    1987-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) have carried out a number of laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies and presented the results of these experiments in a series of Technical Reports. This paper tabulates the results of the 327 NCI/NTP studies carried out to date on 308 distinct chemicals, and discusses certain issues relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenicity in these experiments. This compilation of results from NCI/NTP carcinogenicity experiments provides a large database that can be used to study structure-activity correlations, interspecies concordance, and associations between laboratory animal carcinogenicity and other toxicological effects. PMID:3691430

  5. Student Achievement of 3rd-Graders in Comparable Single-Age and Multiage Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Wendy; Allison, Jeanette; Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Compared reading, writing, and mathematics achievement of Title I and non-Title I third graders in comparable multiage and single-age classrooms in three school districts. Found higher achievement among non-Title I students in multiage settings when compared to those in a single-age setting. No setting differences were observed for Title I…

  6. Student Achievement in Ohio Charter Schools: A Comparative and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotler, Ruth M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fifth-grade student achievement in Ohio public charter schools as compared to student achievement in traditional public schools, and to determine whether the performance of charter schools changed over time. Research questions asked 1) how does student achievement in Ohio's public charters compare…

  7. Comparing the Effects of Instructional and Transformational Leadership on Student Achievement: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzer, Ryan H.; Caldarella, Paul; Hallam, Pamela R.; Brown, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare transformational and instructional leadership theories, examine the unique impact that school leaders have on student achievement, and determine which specific leadership practices are associated with increased student achievement. The sample for this study consisted of 590 teachers in 37 elementary schools…

  8. Comparing Types of Student Placement and the Effect on Achievement for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Patricia Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Since implementing No Child Left Behind, schools have improved student achievement while also preparing students for the 21st century. Schools continue to strive for 100% proficiency in all subgroups by 2014, but achievement gap exists for students with disabilities. This study used a causal comparative research design to test the concept of…

  9. Comparing diagnostic tests: trials in people with discordant test results.

    PubMed

    Hooper, R; Díaz-Ordaz, K; Takeda, A; Khan, K

    2013-06-30

    Diagnostic tests are traditionally compared for accuracy against a gold standard but can also be compared prospectively in a trial. A conventional trial comparing two tests would randomize each participant to a testing strategy, but a more efficient alternative is to give both tests to all participants and follow up those with discordant results. Participants could be randomized before or after testing. The statistical analysis of such a trial has not previously been described. We investigated two estimates of the risk difference for a binary outcome: one based on analysing outcomes as if from a conventional trial and one combining estimates of different parameters in the manner of a decision analysis. We show that the trial estimate and decision analysis estimate are both unbiased and derive approximate formulae for their standard errors. By using the decision analysis estimate (but not the trial estimate), the same precision can be achieved by randomizing before testing as by randomizing after. To avoid destroying equipoise, and to allow consenting and randomizing to be carried out at the same visit, we recommend randomizing before testing. Giving both tests to all participants means fewer need to be recruited: in one example from the literature, the proposed design was nearly four times more efficient in this sense than a conventional trial design. PMID:23172716

  10. The Impact of Troops to Teachers Participants on Student Achievement: A Causal-Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuch, Kurt Stanley

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study is to examine the impact of Troops to Teachers (TTT) participants on student achievement by comparing the mean scores of Texas students in the eighth grade during the 2011-2012 academic year taught by TTT participants with the mean scores of all other Texas eighth grade students on each of four…

  11. A Study Comparing the Effect of Multiage Education Practices versus Traditional Education Practices on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrell, Janet L.

    This study compared the effects of multi-age classroom strategies to those of traditional classroom strategies on the academic achievement of fourth grade students in reading and math. Standardized test scores from 20 fourth-grade students in two multi-age third- and fourth-grade classrooms were compared to the scores of 20 students from 7…

  12. A Comparative Study of Achievement in Project Physics by Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Reports the results of a study relating to the most appropriate secondary grade level to enroll in physics, the reliability of standardized achievement scores in algebra and physics as predictors of success in high school physics, and the similarities in background and achievement of college and secondary physics students. (JR)

  13. Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, Vicki

    Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

  14. Comparing Achievement between K-8 and Middle Schools: A Large-Scale Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Vaughan; Ruby, Allen

    2007-01-01

    This study compares middle schools to K-8 schools, as well as to newly formed K-8 schools that are part of a K-8 conversion policy. The outcome is student achievement, and our sample includes 40,883 eighth-grade students from 95 schools across five cohorts. The analysis uses multilevel modeling to account for student, cohort, and school-level…

  15. Comparing Relations of Motivation, Engagement, and Achievement among Struggling and Advanced Adolescent Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauda, Susan Lutz; Guthrie, John T.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of reading motivation, engagement, and achievement in early adolescence by comparing interrelations of these variables in struggling and advanced readers. Participants were 183 pairs of seventh grade students matched in gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school attended. They completed…

  16. Are Two Better than One? A Comparative Study of Achievement Gaps and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), the size of the literacy achievement gap between 15-year-old students from two-parent and those from single-mother households were compared across 18 industrialized nations. This study found that cross-national differences exist in the association between single motherhood…

  17. Performance as a Function of Resultant Achievement Motivation (Perceived Ability) and Perceived Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    1974-01-01

    Data confirmed Kukla's attributional theory of performance. When a task is perceived to be difficult, high resultant achievers perform better than low resultant achievers, whereas the low motive group proves to be superior to the high group when the task is perceived as easy. (Author/RK)

  18. Comparing Potential with Achievement: Rationale and Procedures for Objectively Analyzing Achievement-Aptitude Discrepancies in LD Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Gerald S.; And Others

    A critical review of the literature dealing with quantification of achievement-aptitude differences for identifying learning disabled (LD) readers revealed that methods developed to date suffer from grave inadequacies. Among the methods considered were those of the following individuals: G. Bond and M. Tinker, M. Monroe, A. Harris and E. Sipay, H.…

  19. Systematic modeling versus the learning cycle: Comparative effects on integrated science process skill achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Rochelle L.; Norman, John T.

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the systematic modeling teaching strategy on integrated science process skills and formal reasoning ability. Urban middle school students received a three-month process skill intervention treatment from teachers trained in either the use of systematic modeling or the learning-cycle model. A third, control group received traditional science instruction. The analysis of data revealed that (a) students receiving modeled instruction demonstrated a significant difference in their achievement of process skills when compared to either of the control groups. (b) Students taught by teachers who had received special process skill and strategy training demonstrated a significant difference in their process skill achievement when compared with the control group. (c) Students at different cognitive reasoning levels demonstrated significantly different process skill ability.

  20. The Effects of CSCOPE on Student Achievement as Measured by Both TAKS and STAAR Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Maricela Robledo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CSCOPE curriculum on student achievement. CSCOPE is a curriculum management system used in 750 of the 1,039 school districts in the state of Texas. Student achievement is based on the results acquired from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the new version of the state…

  1. Comparing Results from Constant Comparative and Computer Software Methods: A Reflection about Qualitative Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putten, Jim Vander; Nolen, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared qualitative research results obtained by manual constant comparative analysis with results obtained by computer software analysis of the same data. An investigated about issues of trustworthiness and accuracy ensued. Results indicated that the inductive constant comparative data analysis generated 51 codes and two coding levels…

  2. Co-Teaching vs. Solo Teaching: Comparative Effects on Fifth Graders' Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witcher, Melissa; Feng, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Current educational reform in K-12 schools in this nation is much driven by the No Child Left Behind Act. One central goal of NCLB is to "bring all students (including special education children) up to grade level in reading and math, to close the achievement gap and to hold schools accountable for results"(ed.gov). Varied innovative efforts are…

  3. Some Correlates of Net Gain Resultant from Answer Changing on Objective Achievement Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Daniel J.; Schwedel, Allan

    1975-01-01

    Determines the relationship of sex, answer-changing incidence, and total score to net changes in total score resulting from changing answers, by examining the answer-changing behavior of graduate students responding to achievement test items. (Author/RC)

  4. Usage of Computers and Calculators and Students' Achievement: Results from TIMSS 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonijevic, Radovan

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the facts obtained from TIMSS 2003 (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). This international comparative study, which includes 47 participant countries worldwide, explores dependence between eighth grade students' achievement in the areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and geography, and basic…

  5. Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: how to achieve optimal results with simple punch technique.

    PubMed

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Tabatabaii Mohammadi, Sayed Ziaeddin; Sontou, Alain Fabrice; Farajzadeh Deroee, Armin; Boroojerdi, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EEDCR) has been popularized as a minimally invasive technique. Although preliminary reports revealed less success in comparison with external approaches, recent endonasal endoscopic surgeries on various types of DCR have preserved advantages of this technique while diminishing the failures. We described our experience on EEDCR, including the main advantages and disadvantages of it. Hundred consecutive cases of lachrymal problems underwent EEDCR utilizing simple punch removal of bone, instead of powered instrumentation or lasers. The medial aspect of the sac was removed in all of patients, while preserving normal mucosa around the sac. Hundred cases of EEDCR were performed on 81 patients, with 19 bilateral procedures. Nine procedures were performed under local anesthesia. Based on a mean 14 months follow-up, 95 cases were free of symptoms, revealing 95% success rate. The punch technique diminishes the expenses of powered or laser instrumentation with comparable results. It seems that preserving normal tissues and creating a patent rhinostomy with least surgical trauma and less subsequent scar, plays the most important role in achieving desirable results. PMID:22065173

  6. School Achievement and Personality. Description of School Achievement in Terms of Ability, Trait, Situational and Background Variables. I: Design and Hypotheses; IV: Results and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskanen, Erkki A.

    This monograph, done in Helsinki, Finland, contains the first and fourth sections dealing with design, hypotheses, results, and discussion, describing school achievement in terms of ability, trait, situational, and background variables. The report (1) investigates the structure of school achievement, (2) describes school achievement in terms of…

  7. Information Uncertainty to Compare Qualitative Reasoning Security Risk Assessment Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory M; Key, Brian P; Zerkle, David K; Shevitz, Daniel W

    2009-01-01

    The security risk associated with malevolent acts such as those of terrorism are often void of the historical data required for a traditional PRA. Most information available to conduct security risk assessments for these malevolent acts is obtained from subject matter experts as subjective judgements. Qualitative reasoning approaches such as approximate reasoning and evidential reasoning are useful for modeling the predicted risk from information provided by subject matter experts. Absent from these approaches is a consistent means to compare the security risk assessment results. Associated with each predicted risk reasoning result is a quantifiable amount of information uncertainty which can be measured and used to compare the results. This paper explores using entropy measures to quantify the information uncertainty associated with conflict and non-specificity in the predicted reasoning results. The measured quantities of conflict and non-specificity can ultimately be used to compare qualitative reasoning results which are important in triage studies and ultimately resource allocation. Straight forward extensions of previous entropy measures are presented here to quantify the non-specificity and conflict associated with security risk assessment results obtained from qualitative reasoning models.

  8. The Study of Student Achievement as a Result of Modification of Certain Identifiable Teacher Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widell, Waldo R.; And Others

    This study found no significant difference in student achievement as a result of change in identified teacher behaviors in an American History course. The behaviors were those identified in the Stanford Teacher Competence Appraisal Guide. Behavior change was effected through the use of a microteaching teach-reteach cycle with feedback from…

  9. Missing Data and Mixed Results: The Effects of Teach For America on Student Achievement Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Emily K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits existing experimental work on Teach For America (TFA) and extends it by examining treatment effects across the distribution of student achievement. TFA is a rapidly expanding teacher preparation program that currently serves over half a million students in low-income districts across the country. Previous research results did…

  10. Sense of Coherence and Academic Achievement of Domestic and International Students: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, J. Paul

    2008-01-01

    Traditional models of educational outcomes relate academic achievement to university experiences controlling for background characteristics, like former levels of achievement. In these models, most of the variance in the outcome under consideration is explained not by experiences inside the university but by background characteristics, such as…

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Preschool Attendance and Reading Achievement among Second-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Kelly Latham

    2011-01-01

    Preschool attendance is considered an important factor for predicting later success in literacy achievement. This quantitative ex-post facto study examined whether attendance of public prekindergarten is related to improved reading achievement in 2nd grade students in a rural, southeastern school district. The learning theories of Piaget, Bandura,…

  12. Horseradish peroxidase and chitosan: activation, immobilization and comparative results.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Kumosani, Taha A; El-Shishtawy, Reda M

    2013-09-01

    Recently, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized on activated wool and we envisioned that the use of chitosan would be interesting instead of wool owing to its simple chemical structure, abundant nature and biodegradability. In this work, HRP was immobilized on chitosan crosslinked with cyanuric chloride. FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize immobilized HRP. The number of ten reuses of immobilized HRP has been detected. The pH was shifted from 5.5 for soluble HRP to 5.0 for immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP had an optimum temperature of 30 °C, which was shifted to 35 °C for immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP and immobilized HRP were thermal stable up to 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The apparent kinetic constant values (K(m)) of soluble HRP and chitosan-HRP were 35 mM and 40 mM for guaiacol and 2.73 mM and 5.7 mM for H2O2, respectively. Immobilization of HRP partially protected them from metal ions compared to soluble enzyme. The chitosan-HRP was remarkably more stable against urea, Triton X-100 and organic solvents. Chitosan-HRP exhibited large number of reuses and more resistance to harmful compounds compared with wool-HRP. On the basis of results obtained in the present study, chitosan-HRP could be employed in bioremediation application. PMID:23769933

  13. Comparative data compression techniques and multi-compression results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. R.; Ibrahimy, M. I.; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ferdaus, M. M.; Khan, M. N. H.

    2013-12-01

    Data compression is very necessary in business data processing, because of the cost savings that it offers and the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. It is a method or system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication, we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise freely. This paper will provide some compression techniques for lossless text type data compression and comparative result of multiple and single compression, that will help to find out better compression output and to develop compression algorithms.

  14. Next Generation Scientists, Next Opportunities: EPA's Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M.

    2004-12-01

    Scientific research is one of the most powerful tools we have for understanding and protecting our environment. It provides the foundation for what we know about our planet, how it has changed, and how it could be altered in the future. The National Center for Environmental Research (NCER) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) supports high-quality, extramural research by the nation's leading scientists and engineers to strengthen the basis for decisions about local and national environmental issues. NCER works with academia, state and local governments, other federal agencies, and scientists in EPA to increase human knowledge of how to protect our health and natural resources through its three major programs: · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Grants · Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Fellowships STAR, NCER's primary program, funds research grants and graduate fellowships in environmental science and engineering. Developing the next generation of environmental scientists and engineers is one of NCER's most important objectives. Each year, NCER helps between 80 and 160 students achieve Master's or Ph.D. degrees in environmental science and engineering through its STAR and Greater Research Opportunities (GRO) fellowships. Some of these students have moved on to careers in government while others are now full-time professors and researchers. Still others are working for state environmental agencies or furthering their studies through postdoctoral positions at universities. Since the inception of the NCER program, STAR fellowships (along with grants and SBIR projects) have been awarded in every state in the country. With the help of STAR, current and future scientists and engineers have been able to explore ways to preserve and protect human health and our precious resources.

  15. Exploring the Achievement Gap between White and Minority Students in Texas: A Comparison of the 1996 and 2000 NAEP and TAAS Eighth Grade Mathematics Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Thomas H.; Kester, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Compared scores for Texas eighth graders on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to study the achievement gap in mathematics in 1996 and 2000. Results show the likelihood of a ceiling effect impacting students' TAAS scores that created the illusion the achievement gap had narrowed.…

  16. Results from D-T Experiments on TFTR and Implications for Achieving an Ignited Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J. and the TFTR Group

    1998-07-14

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enabled not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. As a result of the worldwide research on tokamaks, the scientific and technical issues for achieving an ignited plasma are better understood and the remaining questions more clearly defined. The principal research topics which have been studied on TFTR are transport, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and energetic particle confinement. The integration of separate solutions to problems in each of these research areas has also been of major interest. Although significant advances, such as the reduction of turbulent transport by means of internal transport barriers, identification of the theoretically predicted bootstrap current, and the study of the confinement of energetic fusion alpha-particles have been made, interesting and important scientific and technical issues remain for achieving a magnetic fusion energy reactor. In this paper, the implications of the TFTR experiments for overcoming these remaining issues will be discussed.

  17. Comparative risk assessment: an international comparison of methodologies and results.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, R D; Shih, J; Sessions, S L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a systematic procedure for evaluating the environmental problems affecting a geographic area. This paper looks beyond the U.S. border and examines the experience with CRAs conducted in various developing countries and economies in transition, including Bangkok, Thailand, Cairo, Egypt and Quito, Ecuador, as well as other locations in Eastern Europe, Asia and Central and South America. A recent pilot CRA conducted in Taiwan is also considered. Comparisons are made of both the methodologies and the results across the relatively diverse international literature. The most robust finding is that conventional air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter and lead) consistently rank as high health risks across all of the CRAs examined. Given the varied nature of the settings studied in the CRAs, including level of economic development, urban-rural differences, and climate, this finding is particularly significant. Problems involving drinking water are also ranked as a high or medium health risk in almost all the countries studied. This is consistent with the results of analyses conducted by the World Bank suggesting contamination, limited coverage and erratic service by water supply systems. Beyond the major air pollutants and drinking water, the CRA results diverge significantly across countries. A number of problems involving toxic chemicals, e. g., hazardous air pollutants, rank as high health risks in the US but do not appear as consistent areas of concerns in the other countries studied. This likely reflects the so-called "risk transition" - the shift from sanitation and infection disease problems to those involving industry, vehicles and toxic substances - that often occurs with economic development. It may also reflect the greater information about sources of toxic pollutants in the U.S. For other problems, there are important differences across the developing countries and economies in transition. For example, hazardous and

  18. Linking Parent and Community Involvement with Student Achievement: Comparing Principal and Teacher Perceptions of Stakeholder Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Molly F.; Louis, Karen Seashore

    2009-01-01

    Expanding the sources of leadership in schools has been a reform theme since the mid 1980s. Using exploratory factor analysis and regression, we examine the following questions: (1) How does leadership style affect principals' openness to community involvement? (2) Is a principal's openness to community involvement related to student achievement?…

  19. Social Capital and Adolescents Mathematics Achievement: A Comparative Analysis of Eight European Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gisladottir, Berglind

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of social capital on mathematics achievement in eight European cities. The study draws on data from the 2008 Youth in Europe survey, carried out by the Icelandic Center for Social Research and Analysis. The sample contains responses from 17,312 students in 9th and 10th grade of local secondary schools in the…

  20. Comparing the Efficacy of SRA Reading Mastery and Guided Reading on Reading Achievement in Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alisha K.

    2010-01-01

    The federal No Child Left Behind Act requires all students, regardless of gender, race, or socioeconomic status, to be proficient in reading by the year 2014. Although progress has been made, discrepancies in reading achievement remain. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two instructional strategies…

  1. Comparative Effects of Two Modes of Computer-Assisted Instructional Package on Solid Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Ezenwa, Victoria Ifeoma; Anyanwu, Romanus Chogozie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of two modes of computer-assisted instructional package on solid geometry achievement amongst senior secondary school students in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI(AT) and CAI(AN) packages were examined. This study adopted a pretest-posttest…

  2. Achievement of Audi-Tutorial and Conventional Biology Students, A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Phillip D.; Unbehaun, Laraine M.

    1971-01-01

    Students studying a biology course by audio-tutorial or conventional lecture-laboratory methods differed in achievement on course examinations, with the A-T group scoring significantly higher on the total test and 3 of the 9 subtests. (AL)

  3. The College-Choice Process of High Achieving Freshmen: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the college-choice process of high achieving students. Employing current literature and previous research, it combined current models of college choice and the influential factors identified throughout the literature while utilizing the concept of bounded rationality to create a conceptual framework to…

  4. Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri & Ladakhi Adolescent Girls: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, N. A.; Puja, Javeed Ahamd; Bhat, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Adolescents girls in Jammu and Kashmir. 400 sample subjects were selected randomly from two ethnic groups' viz. Kashmiri and Ladakhi. The investigators used Palsane & Sharma's study habits inventory (PSSHI) to collect data from the field. Certain…

  5. Four National Training Systems Compared: Achievements and Issues. Occasional Paper No. 114.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Chris

    A comparison of the vocational education and training (VET) offered in Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United States revealed that programs in all three nations emphasized the following aims: competence at work, commitment of all to achieve excellence, and capacity to contribute to change. Organizations in all three nations were…

  6. Comparing District Achievement to Improve Decision Making in Clark County, Nevada. Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In response to changing demographics, a tightening budget, and drastic achievement gaps (white students outperform Latino students on standardized tests) the Clark County School District in Nevada (the fifth largest district in the country) commissioned, in 2011, an educational and operational efficiency review. The district commissioned the…

  7. Reliability and Validity of Information about Student Achievement: Comparing Large-Scale and Classroom Testing Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and validity are two characteristics that must be considered whenever information about student achievement is collected. However, those characteristics--and the methods for evaluating them--differ in large-scale testing and classroom testing contexts. This article presents the distinctions between reliability and validity in the two…

  8. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  9. Direct anterior total hip arthroplasty: Comparative outcomes and contemporary results

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Keith P; Kamath, Atul F

    2016-01-01

    Direct anterior total hip arthroplasty has become increasingly more popular among arthroplasty surgeons, in large part due to the use of an intramuscular interval and desire to reduce soft tissue damage. Several studies have now been published comparing the anterior intramuscular to other commonly used approaches, and many studies have published complication rates on large series of patients. Review of comparative studies indicates direct anterior hips tend towards shorter hospital stays and high rates of patients discharged to home. Although some studies show evidence of early benefit in functional outcomes, there is no strong evidence that the anterior approach provides any long term functional improvements compared to other approaches. Additionally, evidence to support reduced damage to soft tissue may not translate to certain clinical significance. Rates of intra-operative femur fracture, operative time and blood loss rates are notably higher for those developing familiarity with this approach. However, when surgeons have performed a modest number of procedures, the complication rates tend to markedly decrease in most studies to levels comparable to other approaches. Accuracy of component positioning also favors the anterior approach in some studies. This review summarizes the available literature comparing the direct anterior to other approaches for total hip arthroplasty and provides a comprehensive summary of common complications. PMID:26925380

  10. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  11. The Role of the OECD in International Comparative Studies of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaw, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) underpins its extensive policy work with strong databases of comparable statistics and indicators with which it compares countries. In 2000, it extended its education database with its first collection of data on the performances of 15-year-olds in reading, mathematics and science…

  12. The Essential Role of Curricular Analyses in Comparative Studies of Mathematics Achievement: Developing "Fair" Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Oscar; Papick, Ira; Ross, Dan J.; Grouws, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the process of development of assessment instruments for the Comparing Options in Secondary Mathematics: Investigating Curriculum (COSMIC) project. The COSMIC project was a three-year longitudinal comparative study focusing on evaluating high school students' mathematics learning from two distinct…

  13. Comparative Study of Achievable Quality Cutting Carbon Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics Using Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluemel, S.; Jaeschke, P.; Suttmann, O.; Overmeyer, L.

    Laser cutting of CFRP lightweight parts has the advantages of a contact-free, automatable and flexible processing for a prospective series production. For the development of strategies for laser cutting of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP), different scientific approaches exist to achieve a process with small heat affected zones (HAZ), and high cutting rates. Within this paper a cw laser, a nanosecond and a picosecond laser source emitting in the near infrared range have been used in combination with a scanning system to cut CFRP with a thermoplastic matrix. The influence of the scanning speed on the size of the HAZ and the corresponding tensile strength were investigated for each laser source. Furthermore, the authors compared the achievable HAZ and the effective cutting speeds of the different setups in order to evaluate the efficiency and quality of the chosen strategies. The results show that a nanosecond pulsed laser source with high average power is a good trade-off between attainable quality and cutting rate.

  14. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-09-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PMID:25198617

  15. A Study of the Generalizability of the Results of a Standardized Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelavin, Sol H.; Barker, Pierce

    A standardized achievement testing program was begun in Alum Rock, California in the fall of 1972 as part of an evaluation of an Educational Voucher Demonstration. During each of the first three years of the demonstration both the form of test administration and the particular level of the standardized achievement test that a student is assigned…

  16. Achievement Goal Validation among African American High School Students: CFA and Rasch Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Caroline O.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Jones, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goal theory helps describe how and why students engage in various academic behaviors. Historically, achievement goals have been examined almost exclusively with undergraduate, nonminority samples, and predominately with factor analytic techniques. The present study adds to a growing literature by providing initial validation of a…

  17. Does Lengthening the School Day Increase Students' Academic Achievement? Results from a Natural Experiment in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    This study (an impact evaluation of the Chilean full school day program) uses difference-in-differences to estimate the effect of a large increase in instructional time on high school students' academic achievement. The main findings are (i) the program had a positive effect on students' achievement in both mathematics and language; (ii) the…

  18. Results from D-T experiments on TFTR and implications for achieving an ignited plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Blanchard, W.; Batha, S.

    1998-07-01

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enable not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. As a result of the worldwide research on tokamaks, the scientific and technical issues for achieving an ignited plasma are better understood and the remaining questions more clearly defined. The principal research topics which have been studied on TFTR are transport, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and energetic particle confinement. The integration of separate solutions to problems in each of these research areas has also been of major interest. Although significant advances, such as the reduction of turbulent transport by means of internal transport barriers, identification of the theoretically predicted bootstrap current, and the study of the confinement of energetic fusion alpha-particles have been made, interesting and important scientific and technical issues remain. In this paper, the implications for the TFTR experiments for overcoming these remaining issues will be discussed.

  19. The Value of International Comparative Studies of Achievement--A Danish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelund, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Barry McGaw, Education Director of the OECD until December 2005, has described and evaluated the current programme of international comparative assessment surveys, notably the PISA programme. Any international survey will have its stronger and its weaker points. With a high profile programme like PISA, there is a risk that the limitations will be…

  20. Mathematics Achievement, Comparative Study Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Norman L.; Nerenz, Anne G.

    This is one of a series of reports which provide definitions of and descriptive data on the variables used in the Comparative Study of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IEG) Evaluation Project. Phase IV investigated three curriculum programs specifically designed to be compatible with instructional programming for the individual…

  1. Trend Analysis on Mathematics Achievements: A Comparative Study Using TIMSS Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Research addressed the importance of mathematics education for the students' preparation to enter scientific and technological workforce. This paper utilized Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 data to conduct a global comparative analysis on mathematics performance at varied International Benchmark levels. The…

  2. Our Global Mirror: Comparing Student Achievement and Teacher Practice around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Douglas; Niblock, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Independent schools are, for the most part, exempt from mandatory participation in standardized tests designed for state and federal comparisons, nor are they required to take part in comparative international assessments. The anxiety in the broader culture, however, is driving a growing interest among independent school parents (and prospective…

  3. A Comparative Study of Science Achievement and Self-Concept during a Historical Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural changes were accompanied by the sovereignty transition of Hong Kong during the TIMSS data collection, which triggered migration of intellectual families between Hong Kong and other places. To enhance comparability of the urban setting, this investigation focuses on Singapore and Hong Kong for having similar Chinese majority and…

  4. Comparing the Effects of Four Instructional Treatments on EFL Students' Achievement in Writing Classified Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodabandeh, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The current study set out to compare the effect of traditional and non-traditional instructional treatments; i.e. explicit, implicit, task-based and no-instruction approaches on students' abilities to learn how to write classified ads. 72 junior students who have all taken a course in Reading Journalistic Texts at the Payame-Noor University…

  5. Comparing the Reading Performance of High-Achieving Adolescents: Computer-Based Testing versus Paper/Pencil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eno, Linda Peet

    2011-01-01

    Literacy is moving into the digital context. Many of the literacy tasks associated with higher education, the workplace, and civic life now take place in the digital world. Literacy in high school, however, languishes in the text world. This study compared the text literacy of a group of high-achieving 10th-grade students, to their digital…

  6. Traditional vs. Experiential: A Comparative Study of Instructional Methodologies on Student Achievement in New York City Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the differences in student achievement on state standardized tests between experiential learning and direct learning instructional methodologies. Specifically, the study compares student performances in Expeditionary Learning schools, which is a Comprehensive School Reform model that utilizes experiential learning, to their…

  7. A Causal-Comparative Study of Third Grade Reading Achievement and the Use of Commercial Reading Programs to Promote Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Wendy E.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, causal-comparative study examined the reading achievement of third grade students to ascertain the reading health of elementary students as measured through South Carolina's standardized assessment, the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS). The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a significant difference…

  8. Comparing Self-Regulatory and Early Academic Skills as Predictors of Later Math, Reading, and Science Elementary School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrah, William M., III.

    2010-01-01

    The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with…

  9. A Study Comparing the Academic Achievement of African American Male Students Enrolled in Two Types of Nontraditional High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Anthony B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of the achievement of African American male students enrolled in an early college high school to those enrolled in a performing arts high school. The Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) scores of the 11th-grade African American male students from an early college high school were compared to the GHSGT…

  10. COMPARING MODEL RESULTS TO NATIONAL CLIMATE POLICY GOALS: RESULTS FROM THE ASIA MODELING EXERCISE

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Jiang, Kejun

    2012-12-01

    While the world has yet to adopt a single unified policy to limit climate change, many countries and regions have adopted energy and climate policies that have implications for global emissions. In this paper, we discuss a few key policies and how they are included in a set of 24 energy and integrated assessment models that participated in the Asia Modeling Exercise. We also compare results from these models for a small set of stylized scenarios to the pledges made as part of the Copenhagen Accord and the goals stated by the Major Economies Forum. We find that the targets outlined by the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Korea require significant policy action in most of the models analyzed. For most of the models in the study, however, the goals outlined by India are met without any climate policy. The stringency of climate policy required to meet China’s Copenhagen pledges varies across models and accounting methodologies.

  11. Comparative Results of Tests on Several Different Types of Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisenko, M. S.

    1944-01-01

    This paper presents the results of tests conducted to determine the effect of the constructional elements of a Laval nozzle on the velocity and pressure distribution and the magnitude of the reaction force of the jet. The effect was studied of the shapes of the entrance section of the nozzle and three types of divergent sections: namely, straight cone, conoidal with cylindrical and piece and diffuser obtained computationally by a graphical method due to Professor F. I. Frankle. The effect of the divergence angle of the nozzle on the jet reaction was also investigated. The results of the investigation showed that the shape of the generator of the inner surface of the entrance part of the nozzle essentially has no effect on the character of the flow and on the reaction. The nozzle that was obtained by graphical computation assured the possibility of obtaining a flow for which the velocity of all the gas particles is parallel to the axis of symmetry of the nozzle, the reaction being on the average 2 to 3 percent greater than for the usual conical nozzle under the same conditions, For the conical nozzle the maximum reaction was obtained for a cone angle of 25deg to 27deg. At the end of this paper a sample computation is given by the graphical method. The tests were started at the beginning of 1936 and this paper was written at the same time.

  12. Mathematics beliefs and achievement of adolescent students in Japan: results from the TIMSS 1999 assessment.

    PubMed

    House, J Daniel

    2005-12-01

    A recent study (1) of undergraduate students in a precalculus course indicated that they expressed slightly positive attitudes toward mathematics. It is important, however, to examine relationships between students' initial attitudes and achievement outcomes. The present purpose was to assess the relationship between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a large national sample of students from the TIMSS 1999 international sample (eighth graders) from Japan. Several significant relationships between mathematics beliefs and test scores were noted. In addition, the overall multiple regression equation that assessed the joint significance of the complete set of self-belief variables was significant (F7.65 = 159.48, p < .001) and explained 20.6% of the variance in mathematics achievement test scores. PMID:16512286

  13. Compare the educational achievement of medical students with different circadian rhythms in difficult courses of basic sciences

    PubMed Central

    Liaghatdar, Mohammad Javad; Ashoorion, Vahid; Avizhgan, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Advantageous times for different people are different to some extent, considering the effective physiological changes during the circadian rhythm, in terms of the peak time of physiological activities. The goal of this study is to compare the educational achievement of students, with different morning–evening habits, in completing difficult and easy courses. Materials and Methods: This research is a retrospective descriptive–analytical study, which has been conducted on students of the fifth semester of General Medicine in the Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The morning–evening habits of the students were determined by the Horne-Strauss 19-item questionnaire. The students were asked to determine the courses that were ’difficult’ and ’easy,’ using a researcher-made questionnaire. The students’ scores in the considered courses during the five semesters were obtained from the Education Department of the Faculty and analyzed using the descriptive t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the multivariate regression test in the SPSS software. Results: Sixty-three students (67% girls and 33% boys) participated in this study, of whom 11, 60, and 29% were morning, morning–evening, and evening students, respectively. The mean scores of the difficult courses in all five semesters were reduced in the evening pattern compared to the morning and morning–evening patterns. Reduction of the mean score in the difficult courses, in the evening group, compared with the morning–evening and morning groups was observed in all five semesters among girls, but in three semesters among boys. Conclusion: This study showed that evening students experienced academic failure in difficult courses, which required a more cognitive performance. It is recommended that difficult specialized courses be presented at hours when all student groups have a better cognitive performance PMID:27110555

  14. High School Size, Achievement Equity, and Cost: Robust Interaction Effects and Tentative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Howley, Craig; Williams, Tony; Glascock, Catherine

    Research has revealed interactive effects of school size and socioeconomic status--as school size increases, the mean measured achievement of schools with disadvantaged students declines. The larger the number of less advantaged students attending a school, the greater the decline. The same school-level interactions have been found in California,…

  15. Some Results and Comments on Using Latent Structure Models to Measure Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1980-01-01

    Technical problems in achievement testing associated with using latent structure models to estimate the probability of guessing correct responses by examinees is studied; also the lack of problems associated with using Wilcox's formula score. Maximum likelihood estimates are derived which may be applied when items are hierarchically related.…

  16. Do Teacher Characteristics Matter? New Results on the Effects of Teacher Preparation on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla-Acevedo, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Research fairly consistently demonstrates that teachers are an important measurable factor in student learning, yet few teacher characteristics are shown to be consistently related to student achievement. Using a state administrative dataset that matches individual students to their teachers over time, I find that math teachers' undergraduate…

  17. Influences on Academic Achievement: A Comparison of Results from Uganda and More Industrialized Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    Findings in industrialized countries, such as those of Jencks and Coleman, indicate that socioeconomic status has a strong influence on academic achievement and that school effects are of lesser importance. This study of socioeconomic influences and school influences on the performance of 23,615 Ugandan children taking the Primary Leaving…

  18. BOY SCOUT 5 A DAY ACHIEVEMENT BADGE: OUTCOME RESULTS OF A TROOP & INTERNET INTERVENTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: A Boy Scout Five-A-Day Achievement Badge program (SAD), with both troop and Internet-based activities was developed and implemented, and its effect on fruit-juice (FJ) and low-fat vegetable (LV) consumption and psychosocial mediators evaluated. Methods: The nine-week program included 20 ...

  19. 5 A DAY ACHIEVEMENT BADGE FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN BOY SCOUTS: PILOT OUTCOME RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boy Scouts are an important channel to complement school-based programs to enable boys to eat more fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables (FJV) for chronic disease prevention. The "5 a Day Achievement Badge" program was presented on a pilot study basis to African-American Boy Scout troops in Houston. Tro...

  20. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  1. Improving Achievement in Low-Performing Schools: Key Results for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Randolph E.; Burke, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    As accountability in schools becomes more crucial, educators are looking for comprehensive and innovative management practices that respond to challenges and realities of student academic achievement. In order to improve academic performance and the quality of instruction, the entire school community needs to be involved. This book provides six…

  2. Mathematics Instruction and Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students in Korea: Results from the TIMSS 2007 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J, Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective teaching practice for improving student achievement in mathematics is a critical area for instructional design. Further, results from international assessments of mathematics achievement have indicated that students in Korea typically earned test scores higher then international averages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  3. Comparing Self-Regulatory and Early Academic Skills as Predictors of Later Math, Reading, and Science Elementary School Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrah, William M., III

    The achievement score gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged children at school entry is a major problem in education today. Identifying the skills critical for school readiness is an important step in developing interventions aimed at addressing these score gaps. The purpose of this study is to compare a number of school readiness skills with an eye toward finding out which are the best predictors of later academic achievement in math, reading, and science. The predictors were early reading, math, general knowledge, socioemotional skills, and motor skills. Data were obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of 1998 (NCES, 1998) database. While controlling for an extensive set of family characteristics, predictions were made across five years - from the end of kindergarten to the end of fifth grade. Consistent with current findings, reading and math skills predicted later achievement. Interestingly, general knowledge, attention, and fine motor skills also proved to be important predictors of later academic achievement, but socioemotional skills were not. The findings were interpreted from a neurobiological perspective involving the development of self-regulation. These school entry skills are used to predict later achievement in reading, math, and science. I argued that in addition to acquiring early academic knowledge, children need to regulate the use of this knowledge to meet academic goals.

  4. Self-esteem and academic achievement: a comparative study of adolescent students in England and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and academic achievement from the beginning to the end of their academic year during their 11th–12th year of age. For both samples, quantitative results demonstrated that fall self-esteem was related to multiple indicators of later year academic achievement. While country differences emerge by the end of the year, math appears to have a consistent relationship with self-esteem in both country contexts. Qualitative analyses found some support for British students’ self-perceptions as more accurately reflecting their academic experience than the students from the United States. PMID:24068853

  5. A study comparing student satisfaction, achievement, and retention in a multimedia-based lecture and traditional lecture college general chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuler, John L.

    2001-07-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not a significant difference exists between general chemistry students taught by a contemporary multimedia approach and those taught by a traditional lecture approach with regard to their achievement and overall satisfaction. The study differentiated between the level of achievement and satisfaction according to age group and gender. A comparison of student retention for each methodology, multimedia-based versus traditional, was also conducted. Methodology. The research design for this study was quasi experimental. The population consisted of first semester community college general chemistry students. A questionnaire was used to measure student course satisfaction and a standardized final exam was used to measure student achievement. Findings. Results showed no significant statistical difference in achievement when students' final exam scores were compared. When age group was considered, the older students showed statistically greater achievement than the younger, regardless of instruction methodology. There were no statistical differences in achievement by gender. A statistically significant difference was found in question nine on the satisfaction survey when students were asked if their interest in the subject had increased while taking the course. Students in the multimedia-based course responded more favorably than those in the traditional course. When gender was considered no statistical differences in satisfaction were seen. Additionally, no differences in student retention were seen. Conclusions and recommendations. Results showing no differences in achievement between the two instructional methodologies may be viewed as both positive and negative. Positive because changing to a multimedia-based lecture did not adversely impact student achievement, and negative because one might expect a multimedia-based lecture, when considering the cost of implementation, to yield a more positive outcome

  6. The Efforts to Improve Mathematics Learning Achievement Results of High School Students as Required by Competency-Based Curriculum and Lesson Level-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidabutar, Ropinus

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the effect of various, innovated teaching models to improved the student's achievement in various topic in Mathematics. The study was conduct experiment by using innovated teaching with contextual, media and web which are the compared. with conventional teaching method. The result showed the innovation in the…

  7. Achieving the prediction results by visualized treatment objective following anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy. A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, V; Kumar, K A Jeevan; Mohan, A P; Kumar, B Pavan; Kunusoth, Ramesh; Kumar, M Pavan

    2013-06-01

    This study used the manual visualized treatment objectives (VTO) as a tool to evaluate the predictive value of the computer-assisted VTO. Presurgical cephalometric tracing predictions generated by oral and maxillofacial surgeons and computer-assisted VTOs were compared with the postsurgical outcome as seen on lateral cephalometric tracings. Ten measurements of the predicted and actual postsurgical hard tissue landmarks were compared statistically. A paired Student's t test showed that in nine of ten measurements, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean values of manual VTO (MVTO). Statistically significant differences were found in one of the four linear measurements (cant of upper lip P - 0.0001). For computer assisted (CAVTO) Student's t test showed that in nine of ten measurements, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean values. Statistically significant differences were found in one of the four linear measurements (nasolabial angle, P  - 0.0001). From these data, it appears that both VTOs demonstrated good predictive comparative outcome, and are equally predictive, but CAVTO is precise. PMID:24431838

  8. Are New Technologies Influencing the Academic Results Achieved by Students? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargallo-Castel, Ana; Esteban-Salvador, Luisa; Marzo-Navarro, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) within tertiary education in a Spanish University. We analyze the results of a new initiative developed by the University of Zaragoza through an innovative project for a virtual campus called "Anillo Digital Docente." Data relating to…

  9. Neighborhoods and Academic Achievement: Results from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 11909

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Families originally living in public housing were assigned housing vouchers by lottery, encouraging moves to neighborhoods with lower poverty rates. Although we had hypothesized that reading and math test scores would be higher among children in families offered vouchers (with larger effects among younger children), the results show no significant…

  10. Neighborhoods and Academic Achievement: Results from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Families originally living in public housing were assigned housing vouchers by lottery, encouraging moves to neighborhoods with lower poverty rates. Although we had hypothesized that reading and math test scores would be higher among children in families offered vouchers (with larger effects among younger children), the results show no significant…

  11. So What's Different? Student Achievement and Attitude Results from Instructional Development Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, J. Nicholls; Van Horn, Kathleen L.

    Reported are the results of instructional development projects at Utah State University, funded under mini grants, faculty development grants, or developmental grants to departments. These projects involve redesign of courses in media production, library resources, pattern design and fitting, counselling psychology, quantitative methods,…

  12. Is the Presence of a Results-Oriented Professional Learning Community Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between teacher collaboration practices known as working as a professional learning community (PLC) and student performance. Through a review of the current literature, an operational framework of PLCs was developed that distinguished results-oriented from inquiry-oriented PLCs. The study considered the…

  13. Student Achievement in Private Schools: Results From NAEP 2000-2005. NCES 2006-459

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report is the first to focus on private school students' performance on NAEP assessments. It provides results in reading, mathematics, science, and writing in 2000, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Specifically, it focuses on the three private school types that combined enroll the greatest proportion of private school students (Catholic, Lutheran, and…

  14. "STEPS" Avionics for Exploration Systems the Achieved Results and the Next "STEPS-2"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Andrea; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Gaia, Enrico; Paccagnini, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the STEPS project reached results in the avionics domains like: vision-based GNC for Mars Descent & Landing, Hazard avoidance and complete spacecraft autonomy; Autonomous Rover Navigation, based on perception, 3D map reconstruction and path planning; Mobility & Mechanisms providing an Integrated Ground Mobility System, Rendezvous & Docking equipment, and protection from Environment effects; Human-machine interface features of a predictive Command and Control System;; novel Design & Development Tools, such as a Rover S/W simulator and prototypes of the DEM viewer and of a S/W Rock Creator/visualizator. This paper presents also the STEPS 2 project that started January 2013 and is aimed at improving the development of the most promising technologies, selected from the results of the first STEP phase, and addressing the needs of the exploration missions as defined in the 2012 ministerial conference, with the ultimate goal of an in-flight validation within next five years.

  15. Achieving Higher Diagnostic Results in Stereotactic Brain Biopsy by Simple and Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gulsen, Salih

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurosurgeons have preferred to perform the stereotactic biopsy for pathologic diagnosis when the intracranial pathology located eloquent areas and deep sites of the brain. AIM: To get a higher ratio of definite pathologic diagnosis during stereotactic biopsy and develop practical method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We determined at least two different target points and two different trajectories to take brain biopsy during stereotactic biopsy. It is a different way from the conventional stereotactic biopsy method in which one point has been selected to take a biopsy. We separated our patients into two groups, group 1 (N=10), and group 2 (N= 19). We chose one target to take a biopsy in group 1, and two different targets and two different trajectories in group 2. In group 2, one patient underwent craniotomy due to hemorrhage at the site of the biopsy during tissue biting. However, none of the patients in both groups suffered any neurological complication related biopsy procedure. RESULTS: In group 1, two of 10 cases, and, in group 2, fourteen of 19 cases had positive biopsy harvesting. These results showed statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Regarding these results, choosing more than one trajectories and taking at least six specimens from each target provides higher diagnostic rate in stereotaxic biopsy taking method.

  16. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  17. Interprofessional curriculum development achieves results: Initial evidence from a dementia-care protocol.

    PubMed

    Annear, Michael James; Goldberg, Lynette R; Lo, Amanda; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the outcomes of a five-day, protocol-based interprofessional education (IPE) initiative to prepare undergraduate medical, nursing, and paramedic students for collaborative work with adults with dementia. Clinical placements provided a structured and supervised IPE experience for 127 students in two Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) in Hobart, Australia, during 2013 and 2014. The IPE activity was based on a seven-step protocol formulated by an interprofessional team of educators and aged care practitioners that revolved around collaborative assessments of adults with complex health needs. This article describes the IPE protocol and presents the results of a pre- and post-placement attitude questionnaire and knowledge quiz administered to evaluate student attitudes towards IPE and knowledge of dementia. Data suggest that a five-day, supervised, and protocol-based IPE experience in a dementia-care setting can inculcate positive changes in student attitudes about collaborative practice and may encourage dementia-related learning outcomes. PMID:27029913

  18. The South America VLF Network - SAVNET: Achievements, Latest Results and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present recent results obtained by the South America VLF Network (SAVNET). The use of the VLF technique by tracking subionospheric propagation anomalies appears as a very promising tool to study various aspects of Space Weather disturbances. On long timescales it is possible to indirectly monitor the solar Lyman-alpha radiation along the solar cycles. Short time phenomena like solar explosive events can be observed with 100% probability, even for the small intensity events. The effect of high-energy precipitating solar particles can be tracked in the low ionosphere. The same technique is also relevant to study the ionospheric perturbations caused by geomagnetic storms on typical timescales of a day to few days. Extra solar and terrestrial high-energy phenomena are naturally detected in the very sensitive low ionospheric plasma, as Gamma-ray bursts and Soft Gamma-ray repeaters. Finally, the remote sensing of the low ionosphere is also used to search for seismic-electromagnetic effects prior to Earthquakes. At the present time, SAVNET is composed of nine (9) tracking receiver stations in Brazil, Peru, Argentina and Mexico. In this presentation we will describe our future plans for expanding the array. Eastern Europe, Ecuador and Asia are good host candidates to participate in these forthcoming activities. The array expansion is necessary to improve the probability detection of very high-energy remote phenomena, and to demonstrate that these processes of great astrophysical importance can be easily detected using a cheap and simple technique.

  19. The Valid Use of NAEP Achievement Level Scores to Confirm State Test Results in the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2007-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act sanctions the use of NAEP scores to confirm state testing results. The U.S. Department of Education, as test developer, is responsible to set forth how NAEP scores are to be interpreted and used. Thus far, the Department has not published a clear set of guidelines for using NAEP achievement level scores to conduct a…

  20. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery, Shelly; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farritor, Shane; Joyce, James; Rebrovich, Barb

    2003-01-01

    Condensing five years of significant work into a brief narrative fitting PPR requirements gave the affiliates of the Nebraska Space Grant a valuable chance for reflection. Achievements of Space Grant in Nebraska were judiciously chosen for this document that best illustrate the resultant synergism of this consortium, keeping in mind that these examples are only a representation of greater activity throughout the state. Following are highlights of many of the finer and personal achievements for Nebraska Space Grant. The Consortium welcomes inquiries to elaborate on any of these accomplishments.

  1. Safety Observations Achieve Results

    2000-01-16

    The SOAR web application provides a multi-checklist capability where focused observations can be created to address risk-likely work environments, tasks, etc. The SOAR web application has numerous reports to sort the data by key word, multiple factors (i.e., location, team, behavior, checklist, work environment, etc.), and the highest frequency of behaviors and error-likely predecessors, etc. Other performance indicators are also provided.

  2. Breast cancer early diagnosis experience in Florence: can a self referral policy achieve the results of service screening?

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, D; Paci, E; Zappa, M; Rosselli del Turco, M

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the impact of a breast clinic on a specific target population and evaluate early diagnosis performance indicators for breast cancer in the presence of a self referral policy. DESIGN--Women living in Florence between 1980 and 1989 who had undergone mammography at a self referral breast clinic were studied. Main outcome measures were the use of mammography in relation to age, symptoms, and the interval between two subsequent tests, and early diagnosis performance indicators were the detection rate (DR), the prevalence/incidence ratio, and the proportion of early detected cancers. Performance indicators were compared with those from formal screening programmes. SETTING--Florence, Italy. PATIENTS--All mammograms performed at the clinic from 1980-89 in 40-69 year old women living in Florence were examined (n = 42,226). Records included the date of birth and of the examination, the reason for testing (asymptomatic/presence of pain/presence of symptoms other than pain), and the TNM classification for breast cancer cases. MAIN RESULTS--The total number of mammograms performed per annum increased by 70% over the decade, but much of this was routine repeat mammography (54.1% in 1989). Rates of first examinations in asymptomatic women increased in the second half of the decade from 17 per 1000 in 1985 to 31 per 1000 in 1989. Mammographic coverage decreased with increasing age from 12.6% in 40-49 year olds to 6.0% in 60-69 years old. Performance indicators of the activity in asymptomatic women were comparable with those expected in service screening. The proportion of not advanced cancers detected in asymptomatic women was 62.3% with a DR of 5.3 per 1000, and the average prevalence/incidence ratio was 2.9. CONCLUSIONS--High quality mammography performed in a breast clinic in self referred asymptomatic women can achieve as good results as a formal invitation screening service. Only a few of these women will benefit, but those who do are likely to be

  3. A comparative study of the energy resolution achievable with digital signal processors in x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, A.; Zambusi, M.; Ripamonti, G.

    1996-04-01

    Interest for digital processing of signals from radiation detectors is subject to a growing attention due to its intrinsic adaptivity, easiness of calibration, etc. This work compares two digital processing methods: a multiple-delay-line (DL){sup N} filter and a least-mean-squares (LMS) adaptive filter for applications in high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. The signal pulse, as appears at the output of a proper analog conditioning circuit, is digitized; the samples undergo a digital filtering procedure. Both digital filters take advantage of the possibility of synthesizing the best possible weighting function with respect to the actual noise conditions. A noticeable improvement of more than 10% in energy resolution has been achieved with both systems with respect to state-of-the-art systems based on analog circuitry. In particular, the two digital processors are shown to be the best choice respectively; for on-line use with critical ballistic deficit conditions and for very-high-resolution spectroscopy systems, ultimately limited by 1/f noise.

  4. Microwave ablation at 10.0 GHz achieves comparable ablation zones to 1.9 GHz in ex vivo bovine liver.

    PubMed

    Luyen, Hung; Gao, Fuqiang; Hagness, Susan C; Behdad, Nader

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using high-frequency microwaves for tissue ablation by comparing the performance of a 10 GHz microwave ablation system with that of a 1.9 GHz system. Two sets of floating sleeve dipole antennas operating at these frequencies were designed and fabricated for use in ex vivo experiments with bovine livers. Combined electromagnetic and transient thermal simulations were conducted to analyze the performance of these antennas. Subsequently, a total of 16 ablation experiments (eight at 1.9 GHz and eight at 10.0 GHz) were conducted at a power level of 42 W for either 5 or 10 min. In all cases, the 1.9 and 10 GHz experiments resulted in comparable ablation zone dimensions. Temperature monitoring probes revealed faster heating rates in the immediate vicinity of the 10.0 GHz antenna compared to the 1.9 GHz antenna, along with a slightly delayed onset of heating farther from the 10 GHz antenna, suggesting that heat conduction plays a greater role at higher microwave frequencies in achieving a comparably sized ablation zone. The results obtained from these experiments agree very well with the combined electromagnetic/thermal simulation results. These simulations and experiments show that using lower frequency microwaves does not offer any significant advantages, in terms of the achievable ablation zones, over using higher frequency microwaves. Indeed, it is demonstrated that high-frequency microwave antennas may be used to create reasonably large ablation zones. Higher frequencies offer the advantage of smaller antenna size, which is expected to lead to less invasive interstitial devices and may possibly lead to the development of more compact multielement arrays with heating properties not available from single-element antennas. PMID:24845280

  5. Comparing Dichotomous and Trichotomous Approaches to Achievement Goal Theory: An Example Using Motivational Regulations as Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Nikitaras, Nikitas

    2007-01-01

    Background: It is commonly assumed that there is conceptual equivalence between the task and ego achievement goals proposed by Nicholl's (1989) dichotomous achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1989), and the mastery and performance approach goals advanced by Elliot's (1997) trichotomous hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement…

  6. Reassessing a Learning Gap: A Comparative Study of Student Science Achievement in the U.S. and China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun

    1996-01-01

    Reviews current literature related to the science achievement "learning gap" between Chinese and U.S. students. Presents an empirical assessment based on a more representative database from both countries. An extended mid-1980s study (the Second International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement Study, or SSIS), found no…

  7. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Yilmaz; Yesilyurt, Selami

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and…

  8. The Impacts of Student-, Teacher- and School-Level Factors on Mathematics Achievement: An Exploratory Comparative Investigation of Singaporean Students and the USA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Reports from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) consistently show that there is a substantial gap in average mathematics achievement between Singapore and the USA. This study conducts an exploratory comparative investigation on the multilevel factors influencing the mathematics achievement of students from these two…

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Grade Span Configurations and Academic Achievement among 6-8 and K-8 Public Schools in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of grade span configurations on academic achievement in middle and K-8 public schools in the state of Texas. More specifically, academic achievement was examined and compared between two different school settings (i.e., middle schools and K-8 schools) for sixth-, seventh-, and…

  10. An Investigation of the Relationship between Culture (As Defined by the Correlates of Effective Schools) and Achievement in Two Demographically Comparable Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krizan, Margaret M. Best

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the level of student achievement in two demographically comparable urban high schools was examined as to the presence of or the absence of the Correlates of Effective Schools. The purpose of the study was to determine: Do the Correlates of an Effective School as identified by Lezotte distinguish a higher achieving high…

  11. The Role of Schools in Bridging Within-School Achievement Gaps Based on Socioeconomic Status: A Cross-National Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Haigen; Sebastian, James

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the Coleman report in 1966, research on the role of schools in influencing student achievement relative to the role of family background has generated considerable interest and controversy. A large volume of international and comparative research has also been devoted to studying school effects on student achievement.…

  12. A comparative study of the Louisiana Graduation Exit Exam science scores and student achievement based on block, modified block, and traditional bell schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buczala, Deanna Marie

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among bell schedules, GEE 21 science scores, and cumulative GPAs. Factors under consideration included teacher perspective, gender, ethnicity and students' at-risk status. The researcher collected data from the Louisiana Department of Education (LDE) targeting seven schools for three types of bell schedules---traditional, modified block, and block. From each school, the cumulative GPAs and GEF 21 science scores of up to 50 randomly selected students were analyzed. The effectiveness of different bells schedules on student achievement has resulted in conflicting data. Some educators feel that block scheduling will provide teachers with more time to engage students in higher-order thinking problems and to better engage them in the content material, thus improving student achievement overall (Gullatt, 2006). Some studies found that block scheduling provides students the opportunity to spend more time examining a subject with greater detail for a longer period of continuous time. Other studies have found that students on traditional schedules outperform block scheduled students on high stakes testing (Veal & Schreiber, 1999). Using a causal-comparative research design, the researcher examined the effect of three different bell schedules on student cumulative GPAS and GEE 21 science scores. The cumulative GPAs for the students were used to determine if there was a difference in the achievement level for students taught using different bell schedules. The GEE 21 science scores were also assessed for possible differences in learning science across various bell schedules.

  13. The achievements of "Chemistry in the Community" students compared to traditional chemistry students in an introductory university chemistry course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brent, Bill M.

    found between the two groups of students using ANCOVAs with alpha = 0.05. To determine any difference in the attitude of the students toward STS issues, the Science, Technology, and Society Attitude Scale (1996 Iowa Assessment Handbook) was administered to the students. No significant difference was found between the two groups using a t test with alpha = 0.05. The ChemCom and non-ChemCom students with similar high school backgrounds were comparable in achievement in a university chemistry course and in attitude toward technological and societal issues.

  14. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  15. Comparing Cattell-Horn-Carroll factor models: differences between bifactor and higher order factor models in predicting language achievement.

    PubMed

    Beaujean, A Alexander; Parkin, Jason; Parker, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Previous research using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has shown a relationship between cognitive ability and academic achievement. Most of this research, however, has been done using the Woodcock-Johnson family of instruments with a higher order factor model. For CHC theory to grow, research should be done with other assessment instruments and tested with other factor models. This study examined the relationship between different factor models of CHC theory and the factors' relationships with language-based academic achievement (i.e., reading and writing). Using the co-norming sample for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--4th Edition and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test--2nd Edition, we found that bifactor and higher order models of the subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Edition produced a different set of Stratum II factors, which, in turn, have very different relationships with the language achievement variables of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test--2nd Edition. We conclude that the factor model used to represent CHC theory makes little difference when general intelligence is of major interest, but it makes a large difference when the Stratum II factors are of primary concern, especially when they are used to predict other variables. PMID:24840178

  16. Comparing the Impacts of Tutorial and Edutainment Software Programs on Students' Achievements, Misconceptions, and Attitudes towards Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Yılmaz; Yeşilyurt, Selami

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment design of instructional software programs related to the "cell division" topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the cell division achievement test (CAT), the cell division concept test (CCT) and biology attitude scale (BAS) was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research. After the treatment, general achievement in CAT increased in favor of experimental groups. Instructional software programs also had the positive effect to the awareness of students' understandings to the general functions of mitosis and meiosis. However, the current study revealed that there were still some misconceptions in the experimental groups even after the treatment. It was also noticed that only using edutainment software program significantly changed students' attitudes towards biology.

  17. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  18. The Influence of Classroom Disciplinary Climate of Schools on Reading Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Bo; Van Damme, Jan; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Yang, Xiangdong; Gielen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in research and practice in the effect of classroom disciplinary climate of schools on academic achievement, little is known about the generalizability of this effect over countries. Using hierarchical linear analyses, the present study reveals that a better classroom disciplinary climate in a school is significantly…

  19. A Quantitative Study Comparing the Academic Achievement of Seventh Grade Reading Students Exposed to Two Types of Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Joanne A.

    2012-01-01

    Many middle school students are not achieving the Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) at individual schools in North Carolina. A consequence of continual failure to reach AYP goals is the withdrawal of Title 1 funding. Since federal funds are an integral part of nearly half of the public schools in North Carolina, it is imperative that students improve…

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Single-Sex Schools in Terms of Achievement in Reading and Math and Student Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brathwaite, Debra Ann

    2010-01-01

    Single-sex education is a reform initiative that is taking root in the United States and in many countries around the world as a possible solution to closing the racial, achievement, and gender gaps that have emerged where minority students lag behind their White counterparts and boys are falling behind girls academically. Although there have been…

  1. Achievement Levels of Middle School Students in the Standardized Science and Technology Exam and Formative Assessment Probes: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Bulunuz, Mizrap; Karagöz, Funda; Tavsanli, Ömer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    The present study has two aims. Firstly, it aims to determine eighth grade students' conceptual understanding of floating and sinking through formative assessment probes. Secondly, it aims to determine whether or not there is a significant difference between students' performance in formative assessment probes and their achievement in the…

  2. Comparative Effects of Multisensory and Metacognitive Instructional Approaches on English Vocabulary Achievement of Underachieving Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, Folakemi O.; Lawal, R. Adebayo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the relative effects of three instructional Approaches i.e. Multisensory, Metacognitive, and a combination of Multisensory and Metacognitive Instructional Approaches on the Vocabulary achievement of underachieving Secondary School Students. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design in which a…

  3. Comparing Multiple Intelligences Approach with Traditional Teaching on Eight Grade Students' Achievement in and Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Dogan, Alev; Gokcek, Nur; Kilic, Ziya; Kilic, Esma

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple intelligences (MI) teaching approach on 8th Grade students' achievement in and attitudes toward science. This study used a pretest-posttest control group experimental design. While the experimental group (n=30) was taught a unit on acids and bases using MI teaching approach, the…

  4. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Adolescent Students in England and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and…

  5. Intelligence of Mexican American Children: A Field Study Comparing Neo-Piagetian and Traditional Capacity and Achievement Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Avila, Edward A.; Havassy, Barbara

    Approximately 1,225 Mexican American and Anglo American children in grades 1-6 (ages 6-14) from California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were tested using school achievement and IQ standardized tests and four Piagetian-derived measures (Cartoon Conservation Scales, Water Level Task, Figural Intersection Test, and Serial Task). The field study's…

  6. WISC-III Predictors of Academic Achievement for Children with Learning Disabilities: Are Global and Factor Scores Comparable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, James B.; Fiorello, Catherine A.; Kavanagh, Jack A.; Hoeppner, Jo-Ann B.; Gaither, Rebecca A.

    2001-01-01

    This study of 174 children meeting criteria for learning disabilities revealed that the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) factors accounted for a large portion of the achievement variance during hierarchical regression analyses. Proposes that the practitioner should refrain from focusing on global scores and…

  7. CLASSROOM INTERACTION, PUPIL ACHIEVEMENT AND ADJUSTMENT IN TEAM TEACHING AS COMPARED WITH THE SELF-CONTAINED CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LAMBERT, PHILIP; AND OTHERS

    EXPLORED ARE TEACHING AND LEARNING RELATIONSHIPS OR FORMS OF CLASSROOM INTERACTION IN THE TEAM TEACHING ARRANGEMENT, AND THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THESE AND TRADITIONAL CLASSROOM INTERACTION WITH RESPECT TO STUDENT ADJUSTMENT AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT. AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO IMPROVE THE SOPHISTICATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS. A 2-YEAR TEAM…

  8. The Children of Guest Workers: Comparative Analysis of Scholastic Achievement of Pupils of Turkish Origin throughout Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasztor, Adel

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of Turkish labour migrant children in four countries across Europe in terms of their educational performance. By looking at the PISA 2003 (Programme for International Student Assessment) data pertaining to mathematics achievement of 15-year-olds, it explores the effects of ethnicity, gender and family…

  9. Rod Visual Pigment Optimizes Active State to Achieve Efficient G Protein Activation as Compared with Cone Visual Pigments*

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Keiichi; Imamoto, Yasushi; Maeda, Ryo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Most vertebrate retinas contain two types of photoreceptor cells, rods and cones, which show different photoresponses to mediate scotopic and photopic vision, respectively. These cells contain different types of visual pigments, rhodopsin and cone visual pigments, respectively, but little is known about the molecular properties of cone visual pigments under physiological conditions, making it difficult to link the molecular properties of rhodopsin and cone visual pigments with the differences in photoresponse between rods and cones. Here we prepared bovine and mouse rhodopsin (bvRh and mRh) and chicken and mouse green-sensitive cone visual pigments (cG and mG) embedded in nanodiscs and applied time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to compare their Gt activation efficiencies. Rhodopsin exhibited greater Gt activation efficiencies than cone visual pigments. Especially, the Gt activation efficiency of mRh was about 2.5-fold greater than that of mG at 37 °C, which is consistent with our previous electrophysiological data of knock-in mice. Although the active state (Meta-II) was in equilibrium with inactive states (Meta-I and Meta-III), quantitative determination of Meta-II in the equilibrium showed that the Gt activation efficiency per Meta-II of bvRh was also greater than those of cG and mG. These results indicated that efficient Gt activation by rhodopsin, resulting from an optimized active state of rhodopsin, is one of the causes of the high amplification efficiency of rods. PMID:24375403

  10. Achieving health outcomes through professional dental care: comparing the cost of dental treatment for children in three practice modes.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, J M; Green, P; Ship, I I

    1984-01-01

    The search for effective strategies to deal with prevention and treatment of oral disease focuses on children as a natural target population. This article reports data on the comparative costs of delivering dental care to children via (1) a school-based practice using Expanded Function Dental Auxiliaries, (2) a school-based practice without EFDAs, and (3) a group of unrelated private dental practices operating independent of the school system. Utilization of a dentist's services varied significantly between the children assigned to private care and those assigned to the school-based programs, but it cost less per patient to provide dental treatment through the private practitioners. If school-based practices are clearly more effective in reducing dental disease, in the long run the need for manpower and resources in these programs might be lowered to a point where they will become more cost-effective than private practices. If the two delivery modes are equally effective in reducing dental disease, however, results from the study indicate that private practices are more cost-effective and will probably maintain their cost-effective advantage over school-based programs. PMID:6234261

  11. Different Methods, Different Results: Examining the Implications of Methodological Divergence and Implicit Processes for Achievement Goal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Laura; Remedios, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal theory is one of the most popular theories of achievement motivation. Techniques researchers have used to assess goals include standardized questionnaires and interviews. One curious finding is that participants whose self-report questionnaire responses strongly indicate they operate with a performance goal do not make performance…

  12. Classroom Instruction and Science Achievement in Japan, Hong Kong, and Chinese Taipei: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The Third International Mathematics and Science Study represents the most comprehensive international assessment of educational contexts and student achievement yet conducted. As part of the examination of the effects of contextual factors on student achievement, a model was constructed that considered the effects of variables such as…

  13. Preliminary Results of Bioactive Amniotic Suspension with Allograft for Achieving One and Two-Level Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Eubulus J.; Utter, Philip A.; Cavanaugh, David A.; Frank, Kelly A.; Moody, Devan; McManus, Brian; Stone, Marcus B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone graft material for lumbar fusion was historically autologous bone graft (ABG). In recent years alternatives such as allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), ceramics, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) have gained favor, although the complications of these are not fully understood. Bioactive amniotic suspension (BAS) with allograft is a new class of material derived from human amniotic tissue. Methods Eligible patients receiving a one or two level lumbar interbody fusion with Nucel, a BAS with allograft, were contacted and scheduled for a mininmim 12 month follow-up visit. Patients were evaluated for fusion using CT's and plain radiographs. Clincal outcomes, including ODI, VAS back and leg were collected, as well as comorbidities including BMI, smoking status, diabetes and previous lumbar surgery. Results One-level patients (N=38) were 71.1% female with mean age of 58.4 ± 12.7 and mean BMI of 30.6 ± 6.08. Two-level patients (N=34) were 58.8% female with mean age of 49.3 ±10.9 and mean BMI of 30.1 ± 5.82. Kinematic fusion was achieved in 97.4% of one-level patients and 100% of two-level patients. Baseline comorbidities were present in 89.5% of one-level patients and 88.2% of two-level patients. No adverse events related to BAS were reported in this study. Conclusion Fusion status is evaluated with many different biologics and varying methods in the literature. BAS with allograft in this study demonstrated high fusion rates with no complications within a largely comorbid population. Although a small population, BAS with allograft results were encouraging for one and two-level lumbar interbody fusion in this study. Further prospective studies should be conducted to investigate safety and efficacy in a larger population. PMID:27162714

  14. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. Results There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. Conclusions A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)—ACTRN12609000854235. PMID:23043203

  15. Achieving an Undetectable PSA After Radiotherapy for Biochemical Progression After Radical Prostatectomy Is an Independent Predictor of Biochemical Outcome-Results of a Retrospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, Thomas Lohm, Gunnar; Bottke, Dirk; Hoecht, Stefan; Miller, Kurt; Siegmann, Alessandra; Schostak, Martin; Neumann, Konrad; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) is commonly used to treat patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). Retrospective series have demonstrated biochemical response in approximately 60-75% of patients, but only a significantly lower rate of patients achieves a response with a decrease of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to a value below the limits of detectability. Therefore, long-term response at 10 years is only about 20-25% in all of these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine prognostic factors with impact on achieving the undetectable PSA range after SRT and to define the role of this end point. Methods and Materials: Between 1997 and 2004, 162 patients received SRT at the Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin. No patient had hormonal treatment before SRT and 90% of the patients (143) had a SRT dose of 66 Gy. We analyzed the impact of nine potential risk factors on achieving an undetectable PSA after RT and on biochemical relapse-free survival (bNED) after SRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 41.5 months and median PSA pre-RT was 0.33 ng/mL. Calculated bNED for 3.5 years was 54%. A total of 60% of the patients achieved an undetectable PSA after SRT. Univariate analysis demonstrated statistically significant predictors of biochemical progression after SRT: Gleason score (p = 0.01), PSA pre-SRT (p = 0.031), tumor stage (p = 0.047), and persistent detectable PSA after RT (p < 0.00005). In multivariate analysis, margin status (p = 0.017) and PSA pre-SRT (p = 0.002) were significant predictors of an undetectable PSA after SRT. The most significant independent predictor of bNED was 'PSA undetectable after RT' (p < 0.0005) with a hazard ratio of 8.4, thus leading to a calculated bNED at 3.5 years of 75% compared with only 18% for those patients, who did not achieve an undetectable PSA after SRT. The rate of severe Grade 3-4 side effects was below 2.5%. Conclusions: The study represents one of the largest retrospective

  16. 12th Annual Comparative Analysis of the Racine Unified School District: Demographics, Attendance, Finances, Student Engagement, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese; Schmidt, Jeff; Kramer, Renee

    2009-01-01

    This is the 12th annual report on conditions affecting the Racine Unified School District (RUSD). This year, the analysis again focuses on the long-term historical trends in RUSD. The analysis compares RUSD data to data of nine peer school districts as well as statewide data. The peer districts are defined as those Wisconsin districts with…

  17. 13th Annual Comparative Analysis of the Racine Unified School District: Demographics, Attendance, Finances, Student Engagement, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese; Schmidt, Jeff; Wynn, Tess

    2010-01-01

    This is the 13th annual report on the conditions affecting the Racine Unified School District (RUSD). This year, the analysis again focuses on the long-term historical trends in RUSD and compares the district to nine peer districts across the state. The peer districts are those with the most similar enrollments to RUSD. The report is configured in…

  18. 10th Annual Comparative Analysis of the Racine Unified School District: Demographics, Attendance, Finances, Student Engagement, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Jeffrey C.; Dickman, Anneliese; Schmidt, Jeffrey K.

    2007-01-01

    This is the 10th annual report on conditions affecting the Racine Unified School District RUSD). Analysis continues to focus on the long-term historical trends in RUSD, comparing RUSD to nine peer school districts and the State of Wisconsin. RUSD peer districts are Wisconsin's largest (Milwaukee Public Schools are not included) and their…

  19. 11th Annual Comparative Analysis of the Racine Unified School District: Demographics, Attendance, Finances, Student Engagement, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This is the 11th annual report on conditions affecting the Racine Unified School District (RUSD). Analysis continues to focus on the long-term historical trends in RUSD, comparing RUSD to nine peer school districts and the State of Wisconsin. RUSD peer districts are Wisconsin's largest (Milwaukee Public Schools are not included) and their…

  20. Comparing Prospective Twice-Exceptional Students with High-Performing Peers on High-Stakes Tests of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sherry Mee; Taylor, Emily P.; McCallum, R. Steve; Coles, Jeremy T.; Hays, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    From a sample of 1,242 third graders, prospective twice-exceptional students were selected using reading and math curriculum-based measures (CBMs), routinely used in Response to Intervention (RtI). These prospective twice-exceptional students were compared with non-twice-exceptional peers with similar strengths in either math or reading on CBMs…

  1. Comparative Study of Vibration Stability at Operating Light Source Facilities and Lessons Learned in Achieving NSLS II Stability Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Simos,N.; Fallier, M.; Amick, H.

    2008-06-23

    In an effort to ensure that the stability goals of the NSLS II will be met once the accelerator structure is set on the selected BNL site a comprehensive evaluation of the ground vibration observed at existing light source facilities has been undertaken. The study has relied on measurement data collected and reported by the operating facilities as well as on new data collected in the course of this study. The primary goal of this comprehensive effort is to compare the green-field conditions that exist in the various sites both in terms of amplitude as well as frequency content and quantify the effect of the interaction of these accelerator facilities with the green-field vibration. The latter represents the ultimate goal of this effort where the anticipated motion of the NSLS II ring is estimated prior to its construction and compared with the required stability criteria.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Relationship among Quality Instruction, Teacher Self-Efficacy, Student Background, and Mathematics Achievement in South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Ji-Won; Han, Seong Won; Kang, Chungseo; Kwon, Oh Nam

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast student, teacher, and school factors that are associated with student mathematics achievement in South Korea and the United States. Using the data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011, this study examines factors that are linked to teachers who deliver…

  3. A Comparative Study of Achievement in the Concepts of Fundamentals of Geometry Taught by Computer Managed Individualized Behavioral Objective Instructional Units Versus Lecture-Demonstration Methods of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Merrill Edgar

    The purposes of this study were (1) to identify and compare the effect on student achievement of an individualized computer-managed geometry course, built on behavioral objectives, with traditional instructional methods; and (2) to identify how selected individual aptitudes interact with the two instructional modes. The subjects were…

  4. A Comparative Case Study of Factors Distinguishing between High and Low-Performance on Reading Achievement in Elementary Rural Appalachian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jennifer; Hausman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative comparative case study identified factors that distinguish between high and low-performance on reading achievement in elementary rural Appalachian schools. This study determined the most effective instructional reading strategies, as well as other influential factors, implemented by school districts in the rural Appalachia area…

  5. A Comparative Case Study of Factors Distinguishing between High and Low-Performance on Reading Achievement in Elementary Rural Appalachian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative comparative case study identified factors that distinguish between high and low-performance on reading achievement in elementary rural Appalachian schools. This study determined the most effective instructional reading strategies, as well as other influential factors, implemented by school districts in the rural Appalachia area…

  6. A Comparative Study of Parental Involvement and Its Effect on African-American Male and Overall Student Achievement at Single Gender and Coeducational Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellums, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Parental Involvement influenced academic performance at single gender and co-educational schools. This study also compared African American male academic achievement with all students enrolled in two single gender, and one coeducational, middle school programs. Although all three schools reflected a…

  7. School Expectations for Parental Involvement and Student Mathematics Achievement: A Comparative Study of Middle Schools in the US and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Hui; Akiba, Motoko

    2009-01-01

    While schools play a major role in promoting parental involvement in schooling in many countries, few comparative studies examined the level of school expectation for parental involvement and its effect on student achievement. Using the TIMSS 1999 dataset, this study examined the level of school expectation for various types of parental…

  8. Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ormond W.; Wilson, Melly; Barros, Corrin

    2011-01-01

    This summary describes a larger report that discusses how Native Hawaiian students represent the largest single ethnic group in Hawai'i, at 27 percent of the student population in 2008/09. This larger REL Pacific report, "Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math," reports…

  9. Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ormond W.; Wilson, Melly; Barros, Corrin

    2011-01-01

    Native Hawaiian students represent the largest single ethnic group in Hawai'i, at 27 percent of the student population in 2008/09. This REL Pacific report, "Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math," reports the reading and math proficiency rates of grade 8 Native Hawaiian…

  10. The Comparative Effects of Two Laboratory Approaches on Informational Achievement, Informational Retention and Attitudes in Wood Technology at the College Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Jack M.

    Using a project-approach treatment and an exercise/experiment-approach treatment administered to twenty subjects in each of the two groups studied, this research attempted to compare the relative effectiveness of the two approaches to laboratory activity in an industrial arts course at Central Mississippi State College. Informational achievement,…

  11. Evolution of the concept of Capacity-building, results achieved during the past years and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffaiteur, M.; Camacho, S.

    -faring countries and developing countries. A strategy has been presented by the Action Team in order to implement a strategy aimed at increasing again the impact of the various initiatives already going on. The promotion of the sharing of educational materials and information could be facilitated by a network of bodies in UN Member States, dedicated organizations and UN regional centres. This presentation will aim to show the current status of this issue and to present results already achieved and the way forward.

  12. Contaminant trends derived by comparing archived samples with results of a current estuarine monitoring project

    SciTech Connect

    Lauenstein, G.

    1995-12-31

    Organic contaminant concentrations in mussels and oysters were compared between archived samples of a Mussel Watch Program of the 1970s and samples collected in the 1980s and the 1990s by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s (NOAA`s) National Status and Trends Mussel Watch Project. These comparisons are possible because 51 sites of the current Mussel Watch Project were co-located with sites of the 1970s program. Archived samples were analyzed using current analytical techniques and were analyzed concurrently with the 1992 samples of NOAA`s Mussel Watch Project. Chlorinated pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, displayed significant decreases between the 1970s and the 1990s. Polychlorinated biphenyls and butyltins were found in higher concentrations in the first year that they were quantified by NOAA`s Mussel Watch Project (1986 and 1989, respectively) than in the 1970s samples. Concentrations for both have decreased since then. The original 1970s analytical results were also compared to current analytical results from archived samples. Results were comparable for the quantification of DDE. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analyses were generally comparable for the greater than 3-ring molecules. When a conversion factor was applied, results were also comparable for the quantification of PCBs even though the early methods quantified Aroclor 1254 and the more recent method quantifies PCBs by congener.

  13. Height of burst explosions: a comparative study of numerical and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omang, M.; Christensen, S. O.; Børve, S.; Trulsen, J.

    2009-06-01

    In the current work, we use the Constant Volume model and the numerical method, Regularized Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (RSPH) to study propagation and reflection of blast waves from detonations of the high explosives C-4 and TNT. The results from simulations of free-field TNT explosions are compared to previously published data, and good agreement is found. Measurements from height of burst tests performed by the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency are used to compare against numerical simulations. The results for shock time of arrival and the pressure levels are well represented by the numerical results. The results are also found to be in good agreement with results from a commercially available code. The effect of allowing different ratios of specific heat capacities in the explosive products are studied. We also evaluate the effect of changing the charge shape and height of burst on the triple point trajectory.

  14. Globular-cluster stars - Results of theoretical evolution and pulsation studies compared with the observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Survey of recently published studies on globular clusters, and comparison of stellar evolution and pulsation theory with reported observations. The theory of stellar evolution is shown to be capable of describing, in principle, the behavior of a star through all quasi-static stages. Yet, as might be expected, estimates of bulk properties obtained by comparing observations with results of pulsation and stellar atmosphere theory differ somewhat from estimates of these same properties obtained by comparing observations with results of evolution theory. A description is given of how such estimates are obtained, and suggestions are offered as to where the weak points in each theory may lie.

  15. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  16. The Economy-Wide Benefits of Increasing the Proportion of Students Achieving Year 12 Equivalent Education: Modelling Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This study analyzed the economic benefits of an increase in the proportion of Australian students achieving a 12th-grade equivalent education. Earlier research examined the direct costs and benefits of a program that increased 12th grade equivalent education for the five-year cohort 2003-2007. This study built on that by incorporating the indirect…

  17. The Impact of Every Classroom, Every Day on High School Student Achievement: Results from a School-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane M.; Berg, Juliette K.; Alicea, Stacey; Si, Yajuan; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Every Classroom, Every Day (ECED) is a set of instructional improvement interventions designed to increase student achievement in math and English/language arts (ELA). ECED includes three primary components: (a) systematic classroom observations by school leaders, (b) intensive professional development and support for math teachers and…

  18. Comparing Two Examination Results Using Means of Sample Means and Control Charts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabi-Labaika, A. Bisi; Ahani, E.

    2015-01-01

    Some examination candidates submit their scripts first, sometimes, for recognition as being brilliant, and some do for not knowing what to write. However, some equally submit last because they want to dot i's and cross t's. The objective of this research is to compare the results of both the earliest and latest submissions with the aim of finding…

  19. Gestational weight gain: results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts comparative impact trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reporte...

  20. Comparing Results from the Clinical Assessment of Behavior and Child Behavior Checklist with Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are popular assessment tools but more research is needed on the preschool versions of the instruments, particularly with referred samples of preschoolers. This study examined the comparability of results from parent ratings on the preschool versions of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5, Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and…

  1. Comparing Differences in Math Achievement and Attitudes toward Math in a Sixth Grade Mathematics Enrichment Pilot Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tow, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    High-stakes assessments have encouraged educators to ignore the needs of the top performers. Therefore, the Oakwood School District decided to implement a mathematics pilot enrichment program in order to meet the needs of the advanced mathematics students. As a result, this study used quantitative data to determine if there was a significant…

  2. Elementary School Achievement Profiles. A School-by-School Report of Basic Skills, Test Results, and School/Student/Staff Data. School Year 1983-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This report presents the 1983-84 summary achievement profiles of the 82 Portland, Oregon, elementary schools for use by school staffs, administrators, and the community for planning, goal setting, and evaluation. The profiles contain Portland Achievement Level Tests results plus data on the physical facility, school personnel, student enrollment,…

  3. The Predictability of Enrolment and First-Year University Results from Secondary School Performance: The New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive correlations between results from the New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA), a standards-based qualification, and university grade point averages achieved by first-year students in one large New Zealand University (and, for comparison purposes, also presents correlations from the…

  4. IVM results are comparable and may have advantages over standard IVF.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, A; Shavit, T; Shalom-Paz, E

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of immature oocytes from unstimulated ovaries, followed by in vitro maturation (IVM) was originally proposed in order to avoid side effects of gonadotropin administration. The target is to eliminate or significantly reduce the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), drug cost and burden on patients. This technology was also suggested in treatment of normo-ovulatory women, fertility preservation or infrequent conditions such as failure of oocytes to mature or repeated development of poor quality embryos. In this study we intended to examine the possibility that IVM results may be comparable to standard IVF. A PubMed database search from 1999-2013 was carried out for publications concerning the indications of IVM and study the possibility that IVM results may be comparable to standard IVF. In vitro maturation of the oocytes procedures obtained up to 35% clinical pregnancy rate in young women, comparable with in vitro fertilization (IVF) in many programs. The obstetric and perinatal outcomes of IVM cycles are comparable with IVF/ICSI cycles. In conclusion IVM may gradually replace IVF in certain cases, as the technique continues to develop and pregnancy rates continue to increase, being a promising and simple alternative approach to standard IVF in various indications. PMID:25009730

  5. IVM results are comparable and may have advantages over standard IVF

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbogen, A.; Shavit, T.; Shalom-Paz, E.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of immature oocytes from unstimulated ovaries, followed by in vitro maturation (IVM) was originally proposed in order to avoid side effects of gonadotropin administration. The target is to eliminate or significantly reduce the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), drug cost and burden on patients. This technology was also suggested in treatment of normo-ovulatory women, fertility preservation or infrequent conditions such as failure of oocytes to mature or repeated development of poor quality embryos. In this study we intended to examine the possibility that IVM results may be comparable to standard IVF. A PubMed database search from 1999-2013 was carried out for publications concerning the indications of IVM and study the possibility that IVM results may be comparable to standard IVF. In vitro maturation of the oocytes procedures obtained up to 35% clinical pregnancy rate in young women, comparable with in vitro fertilization (IVF) in many programs. The obstetric and perinatal outcomes of IVM cycles are comparable with IVF/ICSI cycles. In conclusion IVM may gradually replace IVF in certain cases, as the technique continues to develop and pregnancy rates continue to increase, being a promising and simple alternative approach to standard IVF in various indications. PMID:25009730

  6. EPA Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Food Allergy/Genetically Engineered Food Research: Progress, Findings and Recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advancements in food technology, pesticide development and genetic modification to food crops may provide benefits compared to more conventional approaches. However, the introduction of a novel protein into the food supply and the possibility of unintentional introduction of a ne...

  7. Laser thermokeratoplasty: analysis of in-vitro results and refractive changes achieved in a first clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Ralf; Geerling, Gerd; Kampmeier, Juergen; Koop, Norbert; Radt, Benno; Birngruber, Reginald

    1997-12-01

    Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) is a minimally invasive method to correct hyperopia and astigmatism. A cw mid-IR laser diode emitting at wavelengths around 1.86 micrometers was used to perform LTK on a first clinical trial. The coagulations were applied to the cornea by means of a specially designed focusing handpiece which was introduced into a corneal application mask fixed by a suction ring. Coagulation patterns consisting of 8 spots per ring were performed with a laser power between 100 - 150 mW and an irradiation time of 10 seconds both on single and on double rings. Significant refractive changes up to 19 D could initially be achieved followed by a strong regression within the first month. Three months post LTK, refractive changes achieved with the single and double ring have stabilized, yielding 1.2 and 1.8 D on the average, respectively. The method reveals only little adverse effects limited to the first days post-op. Force measurements were performed on corneal stripes, which were submerged for 10 s into an oil bath of constant temperature in order to investigate the absolute temperatures required for corneal collagen contraction. Only temperatures exceeding 90 degree(s)C induced a significant force. Analyzing the clinically used LTK parameters by temperature calculations revealed that only a small part of the heated stromal volume experienced sufficient high temperatures to induce significant collagen shrinkage.

  8. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Centers for Water Research on National Priorities Related to a Systems View of Nutrient Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes the missions and objectives of four newly-awarded Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Centers. There is also a description of how the projects fit together to meet solicitation research questions.

  9. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: reviewing the literature comparing the results of primary versus secondary surgery.

    PubMed

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Costales, Javier Robla; Paez, Miguel Domínguez; Nizzo, Gustavo; Valbuena, Sebastian; Varone, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPP) are a relatively common stretch injury of the brachial plexus that occurs during delivery. Roughly 30 % of patients will not recover completely and will need a surgical repair. Two main treatment strategies have been used: primary surgery, consisting in exploring and reconstructing the affected portions of the brachial plexus within the first few months of the patient's life, and secondary procedures that include tendon or muscle transfers, osteotomies, and other orthopedic techniques. Secondary procedures can be done as the only surgical treatment of OBPP or after primary surgery, in order to minimize any residual deficits. Two things are crucial to achieving a good outcome: (1) the appropriate selection of patients, to separate those who will spontaneously recover from those who will recover only partially or not at all; and (2) a good surgical technique. The objective of the present review is to assess the published literature concerning certain controversial issues in OBPP, especially in terms of the true current state of primary and secondary procedures, their results, and the respective roles each plays in modern-day treatment of this complex pathology. Considerable published evidence compiled over decades of surgical experience favors primary nerve surgery as the initial therapeutic step in patients who do not recover spontaneously, followed by secondary surgeries for further functional improvement. As described in this review, the results of such treatment can greatly ameliorate function in affected limbs. For best results, multi-disciplinary teams should treat these patients. PMID:26615411

  10. Comparing Simulation Results with Traditional PRA Model on a Boiling Water Reactor Station Blackout Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhegang Ma; Diego Mandelli; Curtis Smith

    2011-07-01

    A previous study used RELAP and RAVEN to conduct a boiling water reactor station black-out (SBO) case study in a simulation based environment to show the capabilities of the risk-informed safety margin characterization methodology. This report compares the RELAP/RAVEN simulation results with traditional PRA model results. The RELAP/RAVEN simulation run results were reviewed for their input parameters and output results. The input parameters for each simulation run include various timing information such as diesel generator or offsite power recovery time, Safety Relief Valve stuck open time, High Pressure Core Injection or Reactor Core Isolation Cooling fail to run time, extended core cooling operation time, depressurization delay time, and firewater injection time. The output results include the maximum fuel clad temperature, the outcome, and the simulation end time. A traditional SBO PRA model in this report contains four event trees that are linked together with the transferring feature in SAPHIRE software. Unlike the usual Level 1 PRA quantification process in which only core damage sequences are quantified, this report quantifies all SBO sequences, whether they are core damage sequences or success (i.e., non core damage) sequences, in order to provide a full comparison with the simulation results. Three different approaches were used to solve event tree top events and quantify the SBO sequences: “W” process flag, default process flag without proper adjustment, and default process flag with adjustment to account for the success branch probabilities. Without post-processing, the first two approaches yield incorrect results with a total conditional probability greater than 1.0. The last approach accounts for the success branch probabilities and provides correct conditional sequence probabilities that are to be used for comparison. To better compare the results from the PRA model and the simulation runs, a simplified SBO event tree was developed with only four

  11. Principal Perceptions and Student Achievement in Reading in Korea, Mexico, and the United States: Educational Leadership, School Autonomy, and Use of Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Seon-Hi; Slater, Charles L.; Backhoff, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This study compared PISA 2009 student reading literacy scores with principal perceptions across three countries with varying levels of student performance: Korea, Mexico, and the United States. Seventy-five countries participated in PISA 2009, which measured 15-year-old children's reading achievement and principal perceptions. The study…

  12. Comparing and ranking hospitals based on outcome: results from The Netherlands Stroke Survey

    PubMed Central

    Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Dippel, D.W.J.; Scholte Op Reimer, W.J.M.; Van Houwelingen, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Measuring quality of care and ranking hospitals with outcome measures poses two major methodological challenges: case-mix adjustment and variation that exists by chance. Aim: To compare methods for comparing and ranking hospitals that considers these. Methods: The Netherlands Stroke Survey was conducted in 10 hospitals in the Netherlands, between October 2002 and May 2003, with prospective and consecutive enrolment of patients with acute brain ischaemia. Poor outcome was defined as death or disability after 1 year (modified Rankin scale of ⩾3). We calculated fixed and random hospital effects on poor outcome, unadjusted and adjusted for patient characteristics. We compared the hospitals using the expected rank, a novel statistical measure incorporating the magnitude and the uncertainty of differences in outcome. Results: At 1 year after stroke, 268 of the total 505 patients (53%) had a poor outcome. There were substantial differences in outcome between hospitals in unadjusted analysis (χ2 = 48, 9 df, P < 0.0001). Adjustment for 12 confounders led to halving of the χ2 (χ2 = 24). The same pattern was observed in random effects analysis. Estimated performance of individual hospitals changed considerably between unadjusted and adjusted analysis. Further changes were seen with random effect estimation, especially for smaller hospitals. Ordering by expected rank led to shrinkage of the original ranks of 1–10 towards the median rank of 5.5 and to a different order of the hospitals, compared to ranking based on fixed effects. Conclusion: In comparing and ranking hospitals, case-mix-adjusted random effect estimates and the expected ranks are more robust alternatives to traditional fixed effect estimates and simple rankings. PMID:20008321

  13. The lunar interior. [compressional velocities of interior materials compared with lunar seismic results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials thought to be important in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower lunar crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. Anorthosite is preferred if lunar basalts result from a small degree of partial melting. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Ca- and Al-rich minerals are important components of both the lower crust and the upper mantle. Most of the moon may have accreted from refractory material rich in Ca, Al, U, and the rare-earth elements. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high-velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high-pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite.

  14. Occupational health nurses’ achievement of competence and comfort in respiratory protection and preferred learning methods results of a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara J; Novak, Debra A; Carpenter, Holly Elizabeth; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann M; Taormina, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Additional findings are presented from a 2012 nationwide survey of 2,072 occupational health nurses regarding how they achieved competence in respiratory protection, their preferred methods of learning, and how they motivated employees to use respiratory protection. On-the-job training, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course, or attending professional conferences were the primary ways occupational health nurses gained respiratory protection knowledge. Attending professional conferences was the preferred method of learning, varying by type of industry and years of occupational health nurse experience. Employee motivational strategies were not widely used; the most common strategy was to tailor respiratory protection training to workplace culture. Designing training methods that match learning preferences, within the context of the organization's safety and quality improvement culture, is a key recommendation supported by the literature and these findings. Including respiratory protection content and competencies in all levels of academic nursing education is an additional recommendation. Additional research is needed to link training strategies with consistent and correct use of respiratory protection by employees. PMID:24812690

  15. Comparative Analysis of Different Measurement Techniques for MLC Characterization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Larraga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-08-11

    Radiation transmission, leakage and beam penumbra are essential dosimetric parameters related to the commissioning of a multileaf collimation system. This work shows a comparative analysis of commonly used film detectors: X-OMAT V2 and EDR2 radiographic films, and GafChromic EBT registered radiochromic film. The results show that X-OMAT over-estimates radiation leakage and 80-20% beam penumbra. However, according to the reference values reported by the manufacturer for these dosimetric parameters, all three films are adequate for MLC dosimetric characterization, but special care must be taken when X-OMAT V2 film is used due to its low energy photon dependence.

  16. Comparing Functional Analysis and Paired-choice Assessment Results in Classroom Settings

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Wendy K; Wacker, David P; Cigrand, Karla; Merkle, Steve; Wade, Jeanie; Henry, Kim; Wang, Yu-Chia

    2007-01-01

    The results of a functional analysis of problem behavior and a paired-choice assessment were compared to determine whether the same social reinforcers were identified for problem behavior and an appropriate response (time allocation). The two assessments were conducted in classroom settings with 4 adolescents with mental retardation who engaged in severe problem behavior. Each student's classroom teacher served as the therapist for all phases of assessment. The two assessment procedures identified the same social reinforcers for problem and appropriate behavior for 3 of 4 participants. PMID:17970268

  17. Two-dimensional copolymers and multifractality: comparing perturbative expansions, Monte Carlo simulations, and exact results.

    PubMed

    von Ferber, C; Holovatch, Yu

    2002-04-01

    We analyze the scaling laws for a set of two different species of long flexible polymer chains joined together at one of their extremities (copolymer stars) in space dimension D=2. We use a formerly constructed field-theoretic description and compare our perturbative results for the scaling exponents with recent conjectures for exact conformal scaling dimensions derived by a conformal invariance technique in the context of D=2 quantum gravity. A simple Monte Carlo simulation brings about reasonable agreement with both approaches. We analyze the remarkable multifractal properties of the spectrum of scaling exponents. PMID:12005898

  18. ESOPHAGEAL MUCOSAL RESECTION VERSUS ESOPHAGECTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SURGICAL RESULTS IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED MEGAESOPHAGUS

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Gustavo Carvalho; da ROCHA, Rodrigo Lima Bastos; COELHO-NETO, João de Souza; TERCIOTTI-JUNIOR, Valdir; LOPES, Luiz Roberto; ANDREOLLO, Nelson Adami

    2015-01-01

    Background The surgical treatment of advanced megaesophagus has no consensus, being esophagectomy the more commonly used method. Since it has high morbimortality - inconvenient for benign disease -, in recent years an alternative has been introduced: the esophageal mucosal resection. Aim To compare early and late results of the two techniques evaluating the operative time, length of ICU stay; postoperative hospitalization; total hospitalization; intra- and postoperative complication rates; mortality; and long-term results. Methods Were evaluated retrospectively 40 charts, 23 esophagectomies and 17 mucosectomies. In assessing postoperative results, interviews were conducted by using a specific questionnaire. Results Comparing the means of esophagectomy and mucosal resection, respectively, the data were: 1) surgical time - 310.2 min and 279.7 min (p> 0.05); 2) length of stay in ICU - 5 days and 2.53 days (p <0.05); 3) total time of hospitalization - 24.25 days and 20.76 days (p> 0.05); 4) length of hospital stay after surgery - 19.05 days and 14.94 days (p> 0.05); 5) presence of intraoperative complications - 65% and 18% (p <0.05); 6) the presence of postoperative complications - 65% and 35% (p> 0.05). In the assessment of late postoperative score (range 0-10) esophagectomy (n = 5) obtained 8.8 points and 8.8 points also got mucosal resection (n = 5). Conclusions Esophageal mucosal resection proved to be good alternative for surgical treatment of megaesophagus. It was advantageous in the immediate postoperative period by presenting a lower average time in operation, the total hospitalization, ICU staying and complications rate. In the late postoperative period, the result was excellent and good in both operations. PMID:25861065

  19. Prospective randomized study comparing clinical, functional, and aesthetic results of minipterional and classic pterional craniotomies.

    PubMed

    Welling, Leonardo C; Figueiredo, Eberval G; Wen, Hung T; Gomes, Marcos Q T; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson; Casarolli, Cesar; Guirado, Vinicius M P; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT The object of this study was to compare the clinical, functional, and aesthetic results of 2 surgical techniques, pterional (PT) and minipterional (MPT) craniotomies, for microsurgical clipping of anterior circulation aneurysms. METHODS Fifty-eight patients with ruptured and unruptured anterior circulation aneurysms were enrolled into a prospective randomized study. The first group included 28 patients who underwent the MPT technique, and the second group comprised 30 patients who underwent the classic PT craniotomy. To evaluate the aesthetic effects, patients were asked to grade on a rule from 0 to 100 the best and the worst aesthetic result. Photographs were also taken, assessed by 2 independent observers, and classified as showing excellent, good, regular, or poor aesthetic results. Furthermore, quantitative radiological assessment (percentage reduction in thickness and volumetric analysis) of the temporal muscle, subcutaneous tissue, and skin was performed. Functional outcomes were compared using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Frontal facial palsy, postoperative hemorrhage, cerebrospinal fistula, hydrocephalus, and mortality were also analyzed. RESULTS Demographic and preoperative characteristics were similar in both groups. Satisfaction in terms of aesthetic result was observed in 19 patients (79%) in the MPT group and 13 (52%) in the PT group (p = 0.07). The mean score on the aesthetic rule was 27 in the MPT group and 45.8 in the PT group (p = 0.03). Two independent observers analyzed the patient photos, and the kappa coefficient for the aesthetic results was 0.73. According to these observers, excellent and good results were seen in 21 patients (87%) in the MPT and 12 (48%) in the PT groups. The degree of temporal muscle, subcutaneous tissue, and skin atrophy was 14.9% in the MPT group and 24.3% in the PT group (p = 0.01). Measurements of the temporal muscle revealed 12.7% atrophy in the MPT group and 22% atrophy in the PT group (p = 0.005). The

  20. Comparative Study of Cryostripping and Endovenous Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins: Mid-Term Results

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Hyoung; Chung, Jae Ho; Kim, Kwang Taik; Lee, Sung Ho; Son, Ho Sung; Jung, Jae Seung; Kim, Hee Jung; Lee, Seung Hun

    2015-01-01

    Background Conventional stripping is considered to be the standard procedure for great saphenous vein (GSV) varicosities, but many other alternative treatments such as cryostripping, endovenous laser therapy (EVLT), radio-frequency ablation, and ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy have been developed. Among them, both cryostripping and laser therapy have been reported to be less traumatic, with lower rates of complications and recurrences when compared to conventional stripping. To compare the efficacy of these treatments, we have analyzed and compared the mid-term clinical outcomes of cryostripping and EVLT. Methods Patients diagnosed with varicose veins of the GSV and treated with cryostripping or laser therapy between September 2008 and April 2013 were enrolled in this study. Duplex ultrasonography was used for the diagnosis and evaluation of varicosity and reflux, and the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification was used to measure the clinical severity. The symptoms, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), recurrence rates, and complication rates of the cryostripping and laser therapy groups were analyzed and compared. Results A total of 68 patients were enrolled in this study. 32 patients were treated with cryostripping, and 36 patients were treated with laser therapy. The median follow-up period was 29.6 months. Recurrence was noted in three patients from the cryostripping group and in two patients from the EVLT group. There was no difference in the VCSS score, operative time, duration of hospital stay, and complication rate between the cryostripping group and the EVLT group. Conclusion The mid-term clinical outcomes of cryostripping were not inferior to those of EVLT. Further, considering its cost-effectiveness, cryostripping seems to be a safe and feasible method for the treatment of varicose veins. PMID:26509128

  1. Clinical results in carcinoma of the cervix: radium compared to caesium using remote afterloading.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S M; Fairey, R N; Kornelsen, R O; Young, M E; Wong, F L

    1989-05-01

    In 1979 the Cancer Control Agency of British Columbia changed from radium to remote controlled afterloaded caesium in the treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. In the 3 years prior to the change, 139 patients received radium as part of their treatment and in the 3 years after the change, 158 patients received caesium. Overall referral patterns, patient and cancer demographics, and treatment policies were stable throughout the 6-year period. Radiotherapy technique, dose, dose distribution and dose rate were comparable for both radium and caesium treated patients. The results of treatment in the two time periods showed no difference in survival, local tumour control or complications. The use of afterloading has not compromised treatment results and has allowed better nursing care for patients and protection from radiation for all staff. PMID:2752690

  2. Crystalline and Spectroscopic Experimental Study of the Dinitromesithylen (DNM) Compared with the Theoretical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brihi, O.; Medjroubi, M. L.; Hamdouni, N.; Meinnel, J.; Boucekkine, A.; Boudjada, A.

    The aim by our group is to understand the behaviour of the grouping methyl starting from the study of molecules having a great symmetry. In this part of work, it is had the crystalline structure of the dinitromesitylen (DNM) who is solved starting from the diffraction of x-rays starting from a monocrystal at the ambient temperature. Parallel to the experimental study, we undertook theoretical calculations conformation of the insulated molecule of DNM by using the methods of the DFT (Density Functional Theory).Calculations of optimization of the molecular conformation of the DNM by using the chain of program GAUSSIAN03 and functional MPW1PW91, B3LYP level with the 6-311G and LANL2DZ bases gave a conformation Cs with results very close to the experiment for the lengths and the angles of bond. The computation results obtained starting from the base set (6-311G) and functional MPW1PW91 give for the conformation of Dinitromesitylen (DNM) a good agreement of about a 1.9% for the lengths of bond and 1.2% for the angles of bond compared with the results of the diffraction of x-rays. Calculations of Raman and infra-red spectroscopy undertaken starting from the results of optimization by using same functional MPW1PW91 and B3LYP and the sets of bases 6-311G LanL2DZ led to the values of frequencies very close to the experimental results.

  3. [Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus: results and costs compared to surgical closure].

    PubMed

    Vieu, T; Beaurain, S; Angel, C; Leriche, H; Petit, J; Conso, J F; Planché, C; Losay, J

    1995-10-01

    The comparison of the clinical results and costs of the two methods of closure of patient ductus arteriosus was undertaken in two comparable groups of 40 patients treated in the same period in the same hospital. After transcatheter closure there was a 9% residual shunt rate at 3 years, the 2 patients with a residual continuous murmur being operated secondarily. The only complication was severe haemolysis which regressed after transcatheter ablation of the prosthesis. After surgical closure, there were no residual shunt. Some postoperative complications were observed in 20% of cases, usually benign (ventilatory problems, dysphonia or urinary infection), but occasionally more serious (peroperative lesion of the pulmonary artery). Morbidity, inherent to the technique of closure, was very different and much less in catheter closure. The average cost (daily cost x average length of hospital stay) was much less with transcatheter closure 38,558 francs versus 11,240 francs. On the other hand, the direct cost of transcatheter closure was greater than that of surgery: 32,798 francs versus 20,903 francs, the difference being related to the actual price of the prosthesis. The authors conclude that the 3 year results of transcatheter closure of patent ductus arterious make this technique a reasonable therapeutic alternative to surgery. From the safety point of view, the two techniques are comparable bu patient confort is greater with transcatheter closure for an increase in cost of the initial procedure which should decrease in relation to the types and prices of the prosthesis used. PMID:8745615

  4. Comparing and interpreting three-dimensional fabric results, Henry Mountains porphyry, Utah, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsman, E.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    We compare and interpret results of several rock fabric analysis techniques, as applied to samples of plagioclase-hornblende porphyry from a well-exposed small intrusion in the Henry Mountains of southern Utah, U.S.A. The fabric analysis techniques considered include field measurements of phenocryst shape-preferred orientation, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, anisotropy of anhysteric remanent magnetization, high- resolution X-ray computed tomography, and three-dimensional shape-preferred orientation calculated from two- dimensional image analysis. The exceptional exposure of the studied intrusion allows us to confidently infer magma flow kinematics and to estimate the minimum amount of shear strain accommodated by the magma during emplacement. Our study therefore provides an important contrast to most studies, in which flow kinematics and magmatic strain are inferred from rock fabric in incompletely exposed intrusions. We find that observed fabric orientations often closely mimic local intrusion geometry, making it difficult to infer general magmatic flow kinematics from fabric near contacts. At each analysis location, orientation results from each technique generally agree but fabric shape and magnitude parameters vary widely between techniques. Fabric shape may therefore not provide useful information about flow kinematics (e.g. constrictional vs. flattening flow). Similarly, fabric magnitudes plateau at moderate values and do not provide a useful strain gauge. Because each technique provides unique information, it is invariably beneficial to use more than one fabric analysis technique. Failure to check results from one technique against those from another can results in misinterpretation of intrusion flow kinematics.

  5. The Contribution of the Responsive Classroom Approach on Children's Academic Achievement: Results from a Three Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Fan, Xitao; Chiu, Yu-Jen; You, Wenyi

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental study on the contribution of the Responsive Classroom ("RC") Approach to elementary school children's reading and math performance over one-, two-, and three-year periods. All children enrolled in six schools (3 intervention and 3 control schools in a single district) were the participants in…

  6. Preventing Underage Drinking: Using Getting to Outcomes with the SAMHSA Strategic Prevention Framework to Achieve Results. RAND Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imm, Pamela; Chinman, Matthew; Wandersman, Abraham; Rosenbloom, David; Guckenburg, Sarah; Leis, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    Underage drinking is a significant problem in the United States: Alcohol is the primary contributor to the leading causes of death among adolescents. As a result, communitywide strategies to prevent underage drinking are more important than ever. Such strategies depend on the involvement and education of adolescents, parents, law enforcement …

  7. Hypothesis-Driven Candidate Genes for Schizophrenia Compared to Genome-Wide Association Results

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Ann L.; Kim, Yunjung; Sklar, Pamela; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Sullivan, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Candidate gene studies have been a key approach to the genetics of schizophrenia. Results of these studies have been confusing and no genes have been unequivocally implicated. The hypothesis-driven candidate gene literature can be appraised via comparison with the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Methods We described the characteristics of hypothesis-driven candidate gene studies from SZGene, and used pathway analysis to compare hypothesis-driven candidate genes with GWAS results from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Results SZGene contained 732 autosomal genes evaluated in 1,374 studies. These genes had poor statistical power to detect genetic effects typical for human diseases, assessed only 3.7% of genes in the genome, and had low marker densities per gene. Most genes were assessed once or twice (76.9%), providing minimal ability to evaluate consensus across studies. The ISC had power of 89% to detect a genetic effect typical for common human diseases and assessed 79% of known autosomal common genetic variation. Pathway analyses did not reveal enrichment of smaller ISC p-values in hypothesis-driven candidate genes nor did a comprehensive evaluation of meta-hypotheses driving candidate gene selection (schizophrenia as a disease of the synapse or neurodevelopment). The most studied hypothesis-driven candidate genes had no notable ISC results (COMT, DRD3, DRD2, HTR2A, NRG1, BDNF, DTNBP1, and SLC6A4). Conclusions We did not find support for the idea that the hypothesis-driven candidate genes studied in the literature were enriched for common variation involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Larger samples are required definitively to evaluate this conclusion. PMID:21854684

  8. Radio-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy of neuroblastoma: conflicting results, when compared with standard investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Schmiegelow, K.; Simes, M.A.; Agertoft, L.; Berglund, G.; Storm-Mathisen, I.; Andreassen, M.; Salmi, T.T.; Nygard, R.W.; Wiebe, T.; Kreuger, A.

    1989-01-01

    Seventy-one patients with neuroblastoma (NB) and 25 patients with other neoplastic or nonneoplastic diseases were studied with MIBG scintigraphy. Sensitivity and specificity at diagnosis were 94% and 88%, respectively. Of 52 patients with NB studied during follow-up, 14 had on one or several occasions conflicting results, when the findings at MIBG scintigraphy were compared to standard investigations (SI: CT scan, bone scan, x-ray, and ultrasound). The correlation of MIBG scintigraphy and SI to clinical outcome were in these 14 patients not significantly different. Adding VMA-excretion measurements did not significantly improve the predictive value of MIBG scintigraphy or SI. Patients with tumor-suspected lesions only at MIBG scintigraphy should be followed closely and the nature of the lesions should be explored through biopsy.

  9. Barred Galaxy Photometry: Comparing results from the Cananea sample with N-body simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.; Gadotti, D. A.; Carrasco, L.; Bosma, A.; de Souza, R. E.; Recillas, E.

    2009-11-01

    We compare the results of the photometrical analysis of barred galaxies with those of a similar analysis from N-body simulations. The photometry is for a sample of nine barred galaxies observed in the J and K[s] bands with the CANICA near infrared (NIR) camera at the 2.1 m telescope of the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro (OAGH) in Cananea, Sonora, Mexico. The comparison includes radial ellipticity profiles and surface brightness (density for the N-body galaxies) profiles along the bar major and minor axes. We find very good agreement, arguing that the exchange of angular momentum within the galaxy plays a determinant role in the evolution of barred galaxies.

  10. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial

    PubMed Central

    Olender, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n = 82), enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012. PMID:27595023

  11. Gestational Weight Gain: Results from the Delta Healthy Sprouts Comparative Impact Trial.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jessica L; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Goodman, Melissa H; Olender, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Delta Healthy Sprouts trial was designed to test the comparative impact of two home visiting programs on weight status, dietary intake, and health behaviors of Southern African American women and their infants. Results pertaining to the primary outcome, gestational weight gain, are reported. Methods. Participants (n = 82), enrolled early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms. Gestational weight gain, measured at six monthly home visits, was calculated by subtracting measured weight at each visit from self-reported prepregnancy weight. Weight gain was classified as under, within, or exceeding the Institute of Medicine recommendations based on prepregnancy body mass index. Chi-square tests and generalized linear mixed models were used to test for significant differences in percentages of participants within recommended weight gain ranges. Results. Differences in percentages of participants within the gestational weight gain guidelines were not significant between treatment arms across all visits. Conclusions. Enhancing the gestational nutrition and physical activity components of an existing home visiting program is feasible in a high risk population of primarily low income African American women. The impact of these enhancements on appropriate gestational weight gain is questionable given the more basic living needs of such women. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01746394, registered 4 December 2012. PMID:27595023

  12. Class Size and Student Success: Comparing the Results of Five Elementary Schools Using Small Class Sizes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haenn, Joseph F.

    Three "Lab" schools were established in 1994-1995 in Durham, North Carolina public schools solely to provide smaller classes for disadvantaged inner-city students. In addition, smaller class sizes were achieved in two additional elementary schools by "cashing in" teacher aides and other more judicious use of available funds. These two schools were…

  13. Achievements and bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: final results from the EC DELVE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, Hichem; Bruschini, Claudio; Van Kempen, Luc; Schleijpen, Ric; den Breejen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology Development (RTD) situation from early 1990 until 2006. The situation at the European level was analyzed with emphasis on activities sponsored by the European Commission (EC). This was also done for four European countries and Japan, with emphasis on national activities. The developments in HD during the last 10 years underline the fact that in a number of cases demining related developments have been terminated or at least put on hold. The study also showed that the funding provided by the EC under the Framework Program for RTD has led directly to the creation of an extensive portfolio of Humanitarian Demining technology development projects. The latter provided a range of research and supporting measures addressing the critical issues identified as a result of the regulatory policies developed in the field of Humanitarian Demining over the last ten years. However, the range of instruments available to the EC to finance the necessary research and development were limited, to pre-competitive research. The EC had no tools or programs to directly fund actual product development. As a first consequence, the EC funding program for development of technology for Humanitarian Demining unfortunately proved to be largely unsuitable for the small-scale development needed in a field where there is only a very limited market. As a second consequence, most of the research has been demonstrator-oriented. Moreover, the timeframe for RTD in Humanitarian Demining has not been sufficiently synchronized with the timeframe of the EC policies and regulations. The separation of the Mine Action and RTD funding streams in the EC did also negatively affect the take-up of new technologies. As a

  14. Testing Friction Laws by Comparing Simulation Results With Experiments of Spontaneous Dynamic Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Lapusta, N.; Rosakis, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    Friction laws are typically introduced either based on theoretic ideas or by fitting laboratory experiments that reproduce only a small subset of possible behaviors. Hence it is important to validate the resulting laws by modeling experiments that produce spontaneous frictional behavior. Here we simulate experiments of spontaneous rupture transition from sub-Rayleigh to supershear done by Xia et al. (Science, 2004). In the experiments, two thin Homalite plates are pressed together along an inclined interface. Compressive load P is applied to the edges of the plates and the rupture is triggered by an explosion of a small wire. Xia et al. (2004) link the transition in their experiments to the Burridge-Andrews mechanism (Andrews, JGR, 1976) which involves initiation of a daughter crack in front of the main rupture. Xia et al. have measured transition lengths for different values of the load P and compared their results with numerical simulations of Andrews who used linear slip-weakening friction. They conclude that to obtain a good fit they need to assume that the critical slip of the slip-weakening law scales as P-1/2, as proposed by Ohnaka (JGR, 2003). Hence our first goal is to verify whether the dependence of the critical slip on the compressive load P is indeed necessary for a good fit to experimental measurements. To test that, we conducted simulations of the experiments by using boundary integral methodology in its spectral formulation (Perrin et al., 1995; Geubelle and Rice, 1995). We approximately model the wire explosion by temporary normal stress decrease in the region of the interface comparable to the size of the exploding wire. The simulations show good agreement of the transition length with the experimental results for different values of the load P, even though we keep the critical slip constant. Hence the dependence of the critical slip on P is not necessary to fit the experimental measurements. The inconsistency between Andrews' numerical results

  15. Effects of Problem-Based Learning Model versus Expository Model and Motivation to Achieve for Student's Physic Learning Result of Senior High School at Class XI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayekti

    2016-01-01

    "Problem-based learning" (PBL) is one of an innovative learning model which can provide an active learning to student, include the motivation to achieve showed by student when the learning is in progress. This research is aimed to know: (1) differences of physic learning result for student group which taught by PBL versus expository…

  16. Social and Musical Objectives or Experiences School Music Teachers Anticipate Their Students Will Achieve as a Result of Attending a Summer Music Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Eric W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate specific social and musical objectives or experiences school music teachers anticipate their students will achieve as a result of attending a summer music camp. A survey instrument was developed to collect demographic data and responses to questions regarding 14 specific musical and social variables.…

  17. Beating the Odds II: A City-By-City Analysis of Student Performance and Achievement Gaps on State Assessments, Spring 2001 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    This report presents district-by-district achievement data on 57 major city school systems in reading and mathematics. State assessment results were collected from state Web sites, reports, and databases. Data were analyzed by race/ethnicity when reported. Overall, the Great City Schools have made meaningful gains in math scores on state…

  18. Mathematics Beliefs and Achievement of Elementary School Students in Japan and the United States: Results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Student self-beliefs are significantly related to several types of academic achievement. In addition, results from international assessments have indicated that students in Japan have typically scored above international averages (D. L. Kelly, I. V. S. Mullis, & M. O. Martin, 2000). In this study, the author examined relationships between…

  19. Comparing results of clinical versus ultrasonographic examination in developmental dysplasia of hip

    PubMed Central

    Arti, Hamidreza; Mehdinasab, Seyed Abdoulhossein; Arti, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH) is one of the congenital anomalies in newborns that if not diagnosed and treated on time can lead to a severe disability. Although clinical examination is a very useful way for screening, but in some patients, a confirmatory diagnostic method such as ultrasonography is needed. The aim of the present study is to compare the sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination and ultrasonography in early detecting of DDH. Materials and Methods: A total of 5800 of newborns were examined by orthopedic surgeon as a screening method. The newborns with risk factors or suspicious on clinical examination were introduced to repeat clinical and ultrasonographic examination of hip. The results were collected and recorded by a check list and then the sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination were calculated. Results: Of 5701 newborns (11402 hips) who were studied by two methods of clinical examination and ultrasonography (by Graf method), the overall incidence of DDH was 29 per 1000. Only 94 hips (13.5%) of 694 disordered ones according to clinical examination were involved on ultrasonographic evaluation. A total of 240 hips of 334 (72%) involved hips according to ultrasonography (Graf type IIb or more) were diagnosed normal on clinical examination, considering ultrasonography as a gold standard method of evaluating DDH, the sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination were calculated 28.1% and 94.5%, respectively. Conclusion: According to the present study, ultrasonogeraphic examination has a high valuable in screening of DDH and the clinical examination done by an experienced orthopedic surgeon has an acceptable value in primary screening of DDH in developing countries for detecting of healthy neonates, but if the newborn has a risk factor or is suspicious on clinical examination, it will be necessary to get assistance from ultrasonography by an experienced sonographer. PMID:24523795

  20. A comparative study for results obtained using biomonitors and PM10 collectors in Sado Estuary.

    PubMed

    Costa, C J; Marques, A P; Freitas, M C; Reis, M A; Oliveira, O R

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 a program was started, financed by the Environmental Ministry of Portugal and IAEA, aiming to study the inorganic atmospheric pollutant dispersion in Sado Estuary. Gent PM10 air samplers were used for air particulate matter sampling. Three sampling sites were chosen, forming a triangle around the fuel power station of Setúbal. Transplants of Parmelia sulcata Taylor were suspended in nylon bags within a rectangle 15 km wide and 25 km long on a 2.5 x 2.5 km grid. Two sets of four transplants were hung in each of the 47 locations, one set facing the wind and the other set opposing the wind. The transplants were suspended in December 1997 for a 1-year period; every 3 months, one transplant of each set was collected. Both lichen transplants and PM10 filters were analysed by INAA and PIXE. A comparative study of results obtained for the two sampling procedures is presented in this work. PMID:12199472

  1. Different Techniques For Producing Precision Holes (>20 mm) In Hardened Steel—Comparative Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, R. T.; Tanikawa, S. T.

    2009-11-01

    High speed machining (HSM), or high performance machining, has been one of the most recent technological advances. When applied to milling operations, using adequate machines, CAM programs and tooling, it allows cutting hardened steels, which was not feasible just a couple of years ago. The use of very stiff and precision machines has created the possibilities of machining holes in hardened steels, such as AISI H13 with 48-50 HRC, using helical interpolations, for example. Such process is particularly useful for holes with diameter bigger than normal solid carbide drills commercially available, around 20 mm, or higher. Such holes may need narrow tolerances, fine surface finishing, which can be obtained just by end milling operations. The present work compares some of the strategies used to obtain such holes by end milling, and also some techniques employed to finish them, by milling, boring and also by fine grinding at the same machine. Results indicate that it is possible to obtain holes with less than 0.36 m in circularity, 7.41 m in cylindricity and 0.12 m in surface roughness Ra. Additionally, there is less possibilities of obtaining heat affected layers when using such technique.

  2. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia results in higher oxidative stress compared to normobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Ribon, A; Pialoux, V; Saugy, J J; Rupp, T; Faiss, R; Debevec, T; Millet, G P

    2016-03-01

    Sixteen healthy exercise trained participants underwent the following three, 10-h exposures in a randomized manner: (1) Hypobaric hypoxia (HH; 3450m terrestrial altitude) (2) Normobaric hypoxia (NH; 3450m simulated altitude) and (3) Normobaric normoxia (NN). Plasma oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, MDA; advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP) and antioxidant markers (superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidase, GPX; catalase; ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP) were measured before and after each exposure. MDA was significantly higher after HH compared to NN condition (+24%). SOD and GPX activities were increased (vs. before; +29% and +54%) while FRAP was decreased (vs. before; -34%) only after 10h of HH. AOPP significantly increased after 10h for NH (vs. before; +83%), and HH (vs. before; +99%) whereas it remained stable in NN. These results provide evidence that prooxidant/antioxidant balance was impaired to a greater degree following acute exposure to terrestrial (HH) vs. simulated altitude (NH) and that the chamber confinement (NN) did likely not explain these differences. PMID:26732282

  3. Comparing gender awareness in Dutch and Swedish first-year medical students - results from a questionaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To ascertain good and appropriate healthcare for both women and men implementation of gender perspectives in medical education is needed. For a successful implementation, knowledge about students' attitudes and beliefs about men, women, and gender is crucial. The aim of this study was to compare attitudes to gender and gender stereotyping among Dutch and Swedish male and female medical students. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we measured the attitudes and assumptions about gender among 1096 first year medical students (616 Dutch and 480 Swedish) with the validated Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale (N-GAMS). The response rate was 94% in the Netherlands and 93% in Sweden. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the scores between Dutch and Swedish male and female students. Linear regressions were used to analyze the importance of the background variables. Results There were significant differences in attitudes to gender between Dutch and Swedish students. The Swedish students expressed less stereotypical thinking about patients and doctors and the Dutch were more sensitive to gender differences. The students' sex mattered for gender stereotyping, with male students in both countries agreeing more with stereotypical statements. Students' age, father's birth country and mother's education level had some impact on the outcome. Conclusions There are differences between cultures as well as between men and women in gender awareness that need to be considered when implementing gender in medical education. This study suggests that to arouse the students' interest in gender issues and make them aware of the significance of gender in medical work, the examples used in discussions need to be relevant and challenging in the context of the specific country. Due to different levels of knowledge and different attitudes within the student population it is important to create a climate for dialogue where students feel permitted to

  4. Recent results on the spatiotemporal modelling and comparative analysis of Black Death and bubonic plague epidemics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.; Yu, H.-L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. Methods: Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of the composite space-time distributions were generated for important characteristics of two major epidemics: Black Death (14th century Western Europe) and bubonic plague (19th-20th century Indian subcontinent). Results: The comparative spatiotemporal analysis of the epidemics led to a number of interesting findings: (1) the two epidemics exhibited certain differences in their spatiotemporal characteristics (correlation structures, trends, occurrence patterns and propagation speeds) that need to be explained by means of an interdisciplinary effort; (2) geographical epidemic indicators confirmed in a rigorous quantitative manner the partial findings of isolated reports and time series that Black Death mortality was two orders of magnitude higher than that of bubonic plague; (3) modern bubonic plague is a rural disease hitting harder the small villages in the countryside whereas Black Death was a devastating epidemic that indiscriminately attacked large urban centres and the countryside, and while the epidemic in India lasted uninterruptedly for five decades, in Western Europe it lasted three and a half years; (4) the epidemics had reverse areal extension features in response to annual seasonal variations. Temperature increase at the end of winter led to an expansion of infected geographical area for Black Death and a reduction for bubonic plague, reaching a climax at the end of spring when the infected area in Western Europe was always larger than in India. Conversely, without exception, the infected area during winter was larger for the Indian bubonic plague; (5) during the

  5. Comparing infrasound measurements of a ground truth source at regional distances with modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streicher, Florian; Wüst, Sabine; Bittner, Michael; Pilger, Christoph; Koch, Karl

    2013-04-01

    The infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) have a relatively coarse geographical coverage. Even when taking national infrasound stations which are not part of the IMS into account, the inter-station spacing is still in the range of several hundreds of kilometers. For tasks involving the recovery of dynamic properties of the source and hence the understanding of the atmospheric propagation conditions of the infrasonic waves, it is important to validate the methods applied in infrasound modeling, in particular for shorter distances. The shadow zone that exists for paths between the tropospheric and stratospheric ducts thereby poses the most significant difficulty. A field study has been performed utilizing six single infrasound sensors along the great circle path between a known source (DLR engine test facility, Lampoldshausen) and a nearby receiver (BGR infrasound array I26, Bavarian Forest) covering a distance of about 320km in total. The recordings gathered give new possibilities in studying the evolution of the infrasonic wave-field to regional distances and, in particular, through the shadow zone by comparing measured signals with modeling results. In this study we thus aim at testing and improving our infrasound modeling, especially the prediction of shadow zones in ray-tracing. For numerical modeling the ray-tracer HARPA/DLR is used. Compared to its original version HARPA/DLR was improved by the integration of adequate atmospheric temperature and wind fields (ECMWF weather forecast data for altitudes up to 80km, statistical values given by the MSISE00 (temperature) and HWM07 (horizontal wind) climatologies for greater heights). The modeling shows shadow zones which extend from about 20-40km to some 130-170km for the months from December 2011 to March 2012, in good agreement with the observations. However, the modeling effort for April and May 2012 shows a much broader shadow zone, which is less conforming to the observations. Our

  6. The European COPHES/DEMOCOPHES project: towards transnational comparability and reliability of human biomonitoring results.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Esteban, Marta; Koch, Holger Martin; Castano, Argelia; Koslitz, Stephan; Cañas, Ana; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Schoeters, Greet; Hond, Elly Den; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Bloemen, Louis; Horvat, Milena; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Anke; Joas, Reinhard; Biot, Pierre; Aerts, Dominique; Lopez, Ana; Huetos, Olga; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Maurer-Chronakis, Katja; Kasparova, Lucie; Vrbík, Karel; Rudnai, Peter; Naray, Miklos; Guignard, Cedric; Fischer, Marc E; Ligocka, Danuta; Janasik, Beata; Reis, M Fátima; Namorado, Sónia; Pop, Cristian; Dumitrascu, Irina; Halzlova, Katarina; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Berglund, Marika; Jönsson, Bo; Lehmann, Andrea; Crettaz, Pierre; Frederiksen, Hanne; Nielsen, Flemming; McGrath, Helena; Nesbitt, Ian; De Cremer, Koen; Vanermen, Guido; Koppen, Gudrun; Wilhelm, Michael; Becker, Kerstin; Angerer, Jürgen

    2014-07-01

    COPHES/DEMOCOPHES has its origins in the European Environment and Health Action Plan of 2004 to "develop a coherent approach on human biomonitoring (HBM) in Europe". Within this twin-project it was targeted to collect specimens from 120 mother-child-pairs in each of the 17 participating European countries. These specimens were investigated for six biomarkers (mercury in hair; creatinine, cotinine, cadmium, phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine). The results for mercury in hair are described in a separate paper. Each participating member state was requested to contract laboratories, for capacity building reasons ideally within its borders, carrying out the chemical analyses. To ensure comparability of analytical data a Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) was established which provided the participating laboratories with standard operating procedures (SOP) and with control material. This material was specially prepared from native, non-spiked, pooled urine samples and was tested for homogeneity and stability. Four external quality assessment exercises were carried out. Highly esteemed laboratories from all over the world served as reference laboratories. Web conferences after each external quality assessment exercise functioned as a new and effective tool to improve analytical performance, to build capacity and to educate less experienced laboratories. Of the 38 laboratories participating in the quality assurance exercises 14 laboratories qualified for cadmium, 14 for creatinine, 9 for cotinine, 7 for phthalate metabolites and 5 for bisphenol A in urine. In the last of the four external quality assessment exercises the laboratories that qualified for DEMOCOPHES performed the determinations in urine with relative standard deviations (low/high concentration) of 18.0/2.1% for cotinine, 14.8/5.1% for cadmium, 4.7/3.4% for creatinine. Relative standard deviations for the newly emerging biomarkers were higher, with values between 13.5 and 20.5% for bisphenol A and

  7. Results of the 1978 NACUBO Comparative Performance Study and Investment Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresner, Bruce M.

    Information from the 1978 Comparative Performance Study and investment questionnaire conducted by the National Association of College and University Business Officers is presented. One hundred forty-four institutions provided information about 164 investment pools. The Comparative Performance Study provides participating institutions with…

  8. Results of the 1980 NACUBO Comparative Performance Study and Investment Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresner, Bruce M.

    The purpose of the annual National Association of College and University Business Officers' (NACUBO) Comparative Performance Study is to aid administrators in evaluating the performance of their investment pools. The 1980 study contains two parts: (1) comparative performance information and related investment performance statistics; and (2) other…

  9. Case Studies Comparing System Advisor Model (SAM) Results to Real Performance Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, N.; Dobos, A.; Sather, N.

    2012-06-01

    NREL has completed a series of detailed case studies comparing the simulations of the System Advisor Model (SAM) and measured performance data or published performance expectations. These case studies compare PV measured performance data with simulated performance data using appropriate weather data. The measured data sets were primarily taken from NREL onsite PV systems and weather monitoring stations.

  10. Comparing Utility Scores in Common Spinal Radiculopathies: Results of a Prospective Valuation Study

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nikhil R.; Stephen, James H.; Abdullah, Kalil G.; Stein, Sherman C.; Malhotra, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study. Objective To determine whether preference-based health utility scores for common spinal radiculopathies vary by specific spinal level. Methods We employed a standard gamble study using the general public to calculate individual preference-based quality of life for four common radiculopathies: C6, C7, L5, and S1. We compared utility scores obtained for each level of radiculopathy with analysis of variance and t test. Multivariable regression was used to test the effects of the covariates age, sex, and years of education. We also reviewed the literature for publications reporting EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores for patients with radiculopathy. Results Two hundred participants were included in the study. Average utility for the four spinal levels fell within a narrow range (0.748 to 0.796). There were no statistically significant differences between lumbar and cervical radiculopathies, nor were there significant differences among the different spinal levels (F = 0.0850, p = 0.086). Age and sex had no significant effect on utility scores. There was a significant correlation between years of education and utility values for S1 radiculopathy (p = 0.037). On review of the literature, no study separated utility values by specific spinal level. EQ-5D utilities for both cervical and lumbar radiculopathy were considerably lower than the results of our study. Conclusions Utility values associated with the most common levels of cervical and lumbar radiculopathy do not significantly differ from each other, validating the current practice of grouping utility by spinal segment rather than by specific root levels. The discrepancy in average utility values between our study and the EQ-5D highlights the need to be mindful of the underlying instruments used when assessing outcomes studies from different sources. PMID:27099818

  11. Comparing Utility Scores in Common Spinal Radiculopathies: Results of a Prospective Valuation Study.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Nikhil R; Stephen, James H; Abdullah, Kalil G; Stein, Sherman C; Malhotra, Neil R

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study. Objective To determine whether preference-based health utility scores for common spinal radiculopathies vary by specific spinal level. Methods We employed a standard gamble study using the general public to calculate individual preference-based quality of life for four common radiculopathies: C6, C7, L5, and S1. We compared utility scores obtained for each level of radiculopathy with analysis of variance and t test. Multivariable regression was used to test the effects of the covariates age, sex, and years of education. We also reviewed the literature for publications reporting EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) scores for patients with radiculopathy. Results Two hundred participants were included in the study. Average utility for the four spinal levels fell within a narrow range (0.748 to 0.796). There were no statistically significant differences between lumbar and cervical radiculopathies, nor were there significant differences among the different spinal levels (F = 0.0850, p = 0.086). Age and sex had no significant effect on utility scores. There was a significant correlation between years of education and utility values for S1 radiculopathy (p = 0.037). On review of the literature, no study separated utility values by specific spinal level. EQ-5D utilities for both cervical and lumbar radiculopathy were considerably lower than the results of our study. Conclusions Utility values associated with the most common levels of cervical and lumbar radiculopathy do not significantly differ from each other, validating the current practice of grouping utility by spinal segment rather than by specific root levels. The discrepancy in average utility values between our study and the EQ-5D highlights the need to be mindful of the underlying instruments used when assessing outcomes studies from different sources. PMID:27099818

  12. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU)

    PubMed Central

    Pelikan, Jürgen M.; Röthlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. Methods: The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. Results: The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29–62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Discussion: Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. PMID:25843827

  13. Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled {open_quotes}Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Results{close_quotes} (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was {open_quotes}to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.{close_quotes} The study also {open_quotes}identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.{close_quotes} This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete {open_quotes}cradle-to-grave{close_quotes} systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews.

  14. Comparing Lexis and Westlaw: Using System Features To Improve Search Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Rand J.

    This paper compares strengths and weaknesses of the Lexis and Westlaw computer assisted legal research systems. Their powerful full text document delivery capabilities are contrasted with their inherent limitations as information retrieval systems. The objective here is to alert users to the complexities of online legal searching and the necessity…

  15. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  16. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Mössbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-12-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Mössbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  17. Comparing Groups in a Before-After Design: When t Test and ANCOVA Produce Different Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Researchers often test people before and after some treatment and compare these scores with a control group. Sometimes it is not possible to allocate people into conditions randomly, which means the initial scores for the two groups may differ. There are two main approaches: t test on the gain scores and ANCOVA partialling out the…

  18. Hydrogen Station Cost Estimates: Comparing Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator Results with other Recent Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Melaina, M.; Penev, M.

    2013-09-01

    This report compares hydrogen station cost estimates conveyed by expert stakeholders through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculation (HSCC) to a select number of other cost estimates. These other cost estimates include projections based upon cost models and costs associated with recently funded stations.

  19. Comparing MOOC Adoption Strategies in Europe: Results from the HOME Project Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Darco; Schuwer, Robert; Teixeira, Antonio; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Much of the literature and the academic discussion about institutional strategic planning of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) has been centred on the U.S. context. Literature on MOOCs in Europe is still developing and just recently some empirical studies were conducted. However, these studies are not comparable, and it is hard to learn about…

  20. Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay Hasager, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Offshore winds can be observed from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In the FP7 EERA DTOC project, the European Energy Research Alliance project on Design Tools for Offshore Wind Farm Clusters, there is focus on mid- to far-field wind farm wakes. The more wind farms are constructed nearby other wind farms, the more is the potential loss in annual energy production in all neighboring wind farms due to wind farm cluster effects. It is of course dependent upon the prevailing wind directions and wind speed levels, the distance between the wind farms, the wind turbine sizes and spacing. Some knowledge is available within wind farm arrays and in the near-field from various investigations. There are 58 offshore wind farms in the Northern European seas grid connected and in operation. Several of those are spaced near each other. There are several twin wind farms in operation including Nysted-1 and Rødsand-2 in the Baltic Sea, and Horns Rev 1 and Horns Rev 2, Egmond aan Zee and Prinses Amalia, and Thompton 1 and Thompton 2 all in the North Sea. There are ambitious plans of constructing numerous wind farms - great clusters of offshore wind farms. Current investigation of offshore wind farms includes mapping from high-resolution satellite SAR of several of the offshore wind farms in operation in the North Sea. Around 20 images with wind farm wake cases have been retrieved and processed. The data are from the Canadian RADARSAT-1/-2 satellites. These observe in microwave C-band and have been used for ocean surface wind retrieval during several years. The satellite wind maps are valid at 10 m above sea level. The wakes are identified in the raw images as darker areas downwind of the wind farms. In the SAR-based wind maps the wake deficit is found as areas of lower winds downwind of the wind farms compared to parallel undisturbed flow in the flow direction. The wind direction is clearly visible from lee effects and wind streaks in the images. The wind farm wake cases

  1. Compliance of laser-assisted microvascular anastomosis: a comparative study with manual anastomosis (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaria, Roland G.; Lhote, Francois-Marie; Dauzat, Michel; Juan, Jean-Marie; Oliva-Lauraire, Marie-Claire; Durrleman, Nicolas; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Albat, Bernard; Frapier, Jean-Marc; Chaptal, Paul-Andre; Godlewski, Guilhem

    1999-01-01

    The compliance of microvascular anastomosis is an important predictive factor for long term patency of graft or vascular reconstruction. This experimental study compare the compliance of manual suture and laser assisted end to end microvascular anastomosis. In nine New-Zealand white rabbits we performed manual end-to-end suture anastomosis on the left femoral artery and laser assisted anastomosis on the right femoral artery, with a diode laser (wavelength 988 nm, power output 500 mW). Compliance was obtained by echotracking (CBI 8000 sonomicrometry system with 20 MHz implantable microprobe from Crystal-Biotech, USA) on the anastomosis site as well as upstream, and downstream from the anastomosis. Vessel compliance was lower on the manual suture side compared to the laser assisted anastomosis side, especially downstream from the anastomosis.

  2. Comparative application of different risk assessment models and implications on resulting remediation options.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Andrea; Callegari, Arianna; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The issue of contaminated soils and their productive recovery is a quite controversial environmental and economic problem with important consequences for its social, public health and sustainability aspects. The sheer number and characteristics of the polluted sites are so large and varied, and the definition of priorities related to their remediation interventions so site-dependent, that proper characterization and final environmental quality goals reflect a strategic importance. One of the possible approaches to site specific approach and site priority ranking can be that of carrying out, respectively, absolute and comparative analysis procedures. An important aspect to be solved is represented by the necessity to consider not only the potential risk to public health, but also the best possible financial return from the investments for remediation, especially when carried out with public money. In this paper, different contaminated sites' risk assessment approaches are considered, compared and their applicability to support sustainable policies discussed using a case study. PMID:24645457

  3. [Generation and application of dynamic standard reference intervals for analyzing results of comparative genomic hybridization].

    PubMed

    Min'zhenkova, M E; Shilova, N V; Markova, Zh G; Antonenko, V G; Lebedev, I N; Kozlova, Iu O; Zemliakova, V V; Zolotukhina, T V

    2013-10-01

    The present work was aimed at generating the dynamic standard reference intervals (DSRI) and their application for chromosomal-aberration (CA) analysis. The evaluation of the generated DSRI was performed using the DNA samples from four patients with already known CA. High-resolution comparative genomic hybridization analysis (HR-CGH) allowed us to not only identify all of the CAs, that were not revealed by CGH, but also to detect the breakpoints and to determine the size of chromosomal imbalance. PMID:25474900

  4. General vs health specialized search engine: a blind comparative evaluation of top search results.

    PubMed

    Pletneva, Natalia; Ruiz de Castaneda, Rafael; Baroz, Frederic; Boyer, Celia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a blind comparison of top ten search results retrieved by Google.ch (French) and Khresmoi for everyone, a health specialized search engine. Participants--students of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva had to complete three tasks and select their preferred results. The majority of the participants have largely preferred Google results while Khresmoi results showed potential to compete in specific topics. The coverage of the results seems to be one of the reasons. The second being that participants do not know how to select quality and transparent health web pages. More awareness, tools and education about the matter is required for the students of Medicine to be able to efficiently distinguish trustworthy online health information. PMID:25160174

  5. A Comparative Evaluation of Score Results from Computerized and Paper & Pencil Mathematics Testing in a Large Scale State Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, John; Glasnapp, Douglas R.; Yang, Xiangdong; Poggio, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports results from a quasi-controlled empirical investigation addressing the impact on student test scores when using fixed form computer based testing (CBT) versus paper and pencil (P&P) testing as the delivery mode to assess student mathematics achievement in a state's large scale assessment program. Grade 7 students served…

  6. Comparing State and District Test Results to National Norms: Interpretations of Scoring "Above the National Average."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Robert L.; And Others

    Norm-referenced test results reported by states and school districts and factors related to those scores were studied through mail and telephone surveys of 35 states and a nationally representative sample of 153 school districts to determine the degree to which "above average" results were being reported. Part of the stimulus for this study came…

  7. A method to achieve comparable thermal states of car brakes during braking on the road and on a high-speed roll-stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The temperature of a brake friction surface influences significantly the braking effectiveness. The paper describes a heat transfer process in car brakes. Using a developed program of finite element method, the temperature distributions in brake rotors (disc and drum brake) of a light truck have been calculated. As a preliminary consistency criterion of the brake thermal state in road and roll-stand braking conditions, a balance of the energy cumulated in the brake rotor has been taken into account. As the most reliable consistency criterion an equality of average temperatures of the friction surface has been assumed. The presented method allows to achieve on a roll-stand the analogical thermal states of automotive brakes, which are observed during braking in road conditions. Basing on this method, it is possible to calculate the braking time and force for a high-speed roll-stand. In contrast to the previous papers of the author, new calculation results have been presented.

  8. [Composites versus amalgam: comparative measurements of abrasion resistance in vivo: 1-year results].

    PubMed

    Meier, C; Lutz, F

    1979-03-01

    A method for the in-vivo measurement of wear resistance of restorative materials is described. A profilometer is used to record the reduction in vertical dimension of the test material's occlusal surface. This loss of substance is calculated as the wear resistance index. The technique was used in a 13 month clinical evaluation of 3 different restorative materials, Adaptic, Amalgam (Dispersalloy) and Estic microfill. The procedure is simple in execution and very accurate. Statistical analysis has shown significant differences in wear resistance of the examined materials independent of patient variation. Attrition and abrasion were definitely greater with a standard composite material (Adaptic) than with amalgam and a test composite (Estic microfill). The newly developed composite material utilizing extremely fine filler particles of pyrogenic SiO2 (Estic microfill) was shown to be comparable to amalgam in wear resistance during the 13-month test period. PMID:293032

  9. Four methods of attitude determination for spin-stabilized spacecraft with applications and comparative results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The attitude of a spacecraft is determined by specifying independent parameters which relate the spacecraft axes to an inertial coordinate system. Sensors which measure angles between spin axis and other vectors directed to objects or fields external to the spacecraft are discussed. For the spin-stabilized spacecraft considered, the spin axis is constant over at least an orbit, but separate solutions based on sensor angle measurements are different due to propagation of errors. Sensor-angle solution methods are described which minimize the propagated errors by making use of least squares techniques over many sensor angle measurements and by solving explicitly (in closed form) for the spin axis coordinates. These methods are compared with star observation solutions to determine if satisfactory accuracy is obtained by each method.

  10. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p < 0.01). Although no significant difference was seen in the average step length to the 50-m mark between the race and speed training (1.81 ± 0.09 m vs. 1.80 ± 0.09 m, p = 0.065), the average step rate was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (4.56 ± 0.17 Hz vs. 4.46 ± 0.13 Hz, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity. PMID:26907837

  11. Changes in Quality of Life Perceptions in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Comparing Survey Results from 2001 and 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allison; Kitchen, Peter; Randall, James; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing interest in quality of life (QoL) as an integrated approach to addressing key social, environmental and economic determinants of health. The University of Saskatchewan's Community-University Institute for Social Research (CUISR) has examined the process and results of a multi-stakeholder approach to the ongoing sustainability of…

  12. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory based testing

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching to sample memory test. Despite differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  13. A comparative study of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives: results from a multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Dunson, T R; McLaurin, V L; Israngkura, B; Leelapattana, B; Mukherjee, R; Perez-Palacios, G; Saleh, A A

    1993-08-01

    A comparative multicenter clinical trial of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives (OCs) was conducted in Malaysia, Egypt, Thailand, and Mexico. Efficacy, safety and acceptability were investigated in women taking either a norgestrel-based (NG) OC or a norethindrone acetate-based (NA) OC. This paper includes analysis of 892 women, all of whom were at least 42 days but within 26 weeks postpartum and randomly allocated to one of the above OCs. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 4, 8 and 12 months after admission. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics were similar for both groups, as well as compliance. There were nine unintended pregnancies reported; eight of these occurring in the NA group. Adverse experiences were minor with headaches and dizziness being the most common complaints; frequency of reports was similar in both groups. The group taking the NG-based OC had significantly (p < .05) fewer menstrual-related complaints. Discontinuations due to menstrual problems were significantly more common among NA users (primarily amenorrhea). Discontinuations in the NG group were primarily for other personal reasons, e.g. unable to return to the clinic. There was also a significant difference between the two groups for the 11-month gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates due to menstrual problems (p < .01); the NA group had the higher rate. PMID:8403908

  14. Test results from a comparative evaluation of a condensation nuclei fire detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The fire/smoke alarm response of a condensation nuclei fire detector (CNFD) was compared with photoelectric and ionization detectors. Tests were conducted in a former control room 8.5 m by 8.9 with a 2.7 m ceiling. The room had air supplied from above the ceiling and under the floor with return air exiting from ceiling grills. The environment was varied from 278 to 305 K and relative humidities from 8 to 65%. Four detection zones were located in the room. Each zone contained a sampling head for the CNDF, a photodetector, and an ionization detector so that each detector system had four opportunities to alarm during tests. The particle level in the test room was also monitored during tests with a condensation nuclei particle counter. The CNFD responded to 90% of exposures to smoldering plastic and 84% of exposures to visible fire. The photoelectric response was 43 and 12.5% respectively for the same conditions. The ionization response was 9 and 48 respectively.

  15. Levalbuterol compared with racemic albuterol in the treatment of acute asthma: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Richard M; Emerman, Charles L; Schaefer, Kendyl; Disantostefano, Rachel L; Vaickus, Louis; Roach, James M

    2004-01-01

    This was a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized pilot study to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of levalbuterol (LEV) in acute asthma. Asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], 20-55% predicted) were sequentially enrolled into cohorts of 12 to 14 and received 0.63, 1.25, 2.5, 3.75, or 5.0 mg LEV or 2.5 or 5.0 mg racemic albuterol (RAC) every 20 minutes x 3. After the first dose, FEV1 changes were 56% (0.6 L) for 1.25 mg LEV and 6% (0.07 L) and 14% (0.21 L) for 2.5 and 5 mg RAC respectively. After three doses, FEV1 changes were 74% (0.9 L), 39% (0.5 L), and 37% (0.6 L) for 1.25 mg, LEV 2.5 mg, RAC and 0.63 mg LEV respectively. LEV doses greater than 1.25 mg did not further improve bronchodilation. Baseline plasma (S)-albuterol levels were negatively correlated with baseline FEV1 (R = - 0.3, P = .004) and percent change in FEV1 (R = -0.3, P = .006). LEV at a dose of 1.25 mg produced effective bronchodilation that was greater than both RAC doses. The negative correlation between (S)-albuterol levels and FEV1 could suggest a deleterious effect of (S)-albuterol. Larger comparative studies are warranted. PMID:14724875

  16. The Antarctic Ozone Hole: Initial Results from Aura / OMI Compared with TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPeters, R.; Bhartia, P. K.; Newman, P.

    2004-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments (on November 7 , Meteor 3, and Earth Probe) has been monitoring the annual development of the Antarctic ozone hole since the 1980s. The ozone mapping instrument on Aura, OMI, is expected to take over this record of observation from the aging Earth Probe TOMS instrument. The area of the ozone hole can be taken as a sensitive indicator of the magnitude of ozone destruction each year. The timing of initial formation of the ozone hole and its duration are sensitive to the atmospheric dynamics of the southern polar regions. The entire TOMS data record (1978 - 2004) has recently been reprocessed with the new version 8 algorithm, which includes a revised calibration. The effect has been to slightly increase ozone hole area over earlier estimates, but only by 23%. OMI (ozone monitoring instrument) on Aura is a hyperspectral imaging instrument that operates in a pushbroom mode to measure solar backscattered radiation in the ultraviolet and visible. OMI has higher spatial resolution than TOMS - 14 x 24 km versus 38 km x 38 km from TOMS. OMI has now begin mapping total column ozone on a global basis in a measurement similar to TOMS. The ozone hole measurements for 2003 are compared with those from Earth Probe TOMS.

  17. The comparative analysis of model and prototype test results of Bulb turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benišek, M.; Božić, I.; Ignjatović, B.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the problem of the hydropower plant oblique water inflow and its influence on the turbines operation. Oblique water inflow on the low head hydropower plant with bulb turbines influences turbine characteristics. The characteristics change occurs due to swirl incidence in the turbine inlet which spreads to the guide vanes inlet. Downstream, the flow conditions change is caused in the turbine runner in relation to the flow conditions without swirl inflow. Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of swirl flow incidence in the turbine conduit. With the aim of presenting and analyzing the oblique water inflow consequences on the hydropower plant operation, the existing turbine model tests results, performed in the laboratories, and the in situ prototype testing results have been used.

  18. The Nitrogen Footprint Tool for Institutions: Comparing Results for a Diverse Group of Institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castner, E.; Leach, A. M.; Galloway, J. N.; Hastings, M. G.; Lantz-Trissel, J.; Leary, N.; Kimiecik, J.; de la Reguera, E.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic production of reactive nitrogen (Nr) has drastically altered the nitrogen cycle over the past few decades by causing it to accumulate in the environment. A nitrogen footprint (NF) estimates the amount of Nr released to the environment as a result of an entity's activities. The Nitrogen Footprint Tool (NFT) for universities and institutions provides a standardized method for quantifying the NF for the activities and operations of these entities. The NFT translates data on energy use, food purchasing, sewage treatment, and fertilizer use to the amount of Nr lost to the environment using NOx and N2O emission factors, virtual nitrogen factors (VNFs) for food production, N reduction rates from wastewater treatment, and nitrogen uptake factors for fertilizer. As part of the Nitrogen Footprint Project supported by the EPA, seven institutions (colleges, universities, and research institutions) have completed NFT assessments: University of Virginia, University of New Hampshire, Brown University, Dickinson College, Colorado State University, Eastern Mennonite University, and the Marine Biological Laboratory. The results of these assessments reveal the magnitude of impacts on the global nitrogen cycle by different activities and sectors, and will allow these institutions to set NF reduction goals along with management decisions based on scenarios and projections in the NFT. The trends revealed in early analysis of the results include geographic differences based on regional energy sources and local sewage treatment, as well as operational differences that stem from institution type and management. As an example of the impact of management, the amount and type of food served directly impacts the food production NF, which is a large percentage of the total NF for all institutions (35-75%). Comparison of these first NF results will shed light on the primary activities of institutions that add Nr to the environment and examine the differences between them.

  19. ULF foreshock under radial IMF: THEMIS observations and global kinetic simulation Vlasiator results compared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmroth, M.; Archer, M.; Vainio, R.; Hietala, H.; Pfau-Kempf, Y.; Hoilijoki, S.; Hannuksela, O.; Ganse, U.; Sandroos, A.; Alfthan, S. von; Eastwood, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    For decades, monochromatic large-scale ultralow frequency (ULF) waves with a period of about 30 s have been observed upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock. These waves typically propagate obliquely with respect to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), while the growth rate for the instability causing the waves is maximized parallel to the magnetic field. It has been suggested that the mechanism for the oblique propagation concerns wave refraction due to the spatial variability of the suprathermal ions, originating from the E × B drift component. We investigate the ULF foreshock under a quasi-radial IMF with Vlasiator, which is a newly developed global hybrid-Vlasov simulation solving the Vlasov equation for protons, while electrons are treated as a charge-neutralizing fluid. We observe the generation of the 30 s ULF waves and compare their properties to previous literature and multipoint Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft observations. We find that Vlasiator reproduces the foreshock ULF waves in all reported observational aspects. We conclude that the variability of the density and velocity of the reflected back streaming ions determines the large-scale structure of the foreshock, which affects the wave frequency, wavelength, and oblique propagation. We conclude that the wave refraction may also be at work for radial IMF conditions, which has earlier been thought of as an exception to the refraction mechanism due to the small E × B drift component. We suggest that additional refraction may be caused by the large-scale spatial variability of the density and velocity of the back streaming ions.

  20. Carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx: A basis for comparing the results of radiotherapy and surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, W.M.; Parsons, J.T.; Stringer, S.P.; Cassisi, N.J.; Million, R.R. )

    1990-05-01

    An analysis of 129 patients with 131 squamous cell carcinomas of the supraglottic larynx treated between October 1964 and April 1987 with radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy followed by neck dissection is presented. All patients had a minimum 2-year follow-up. Patients were excluded from analysis of disease control at the primary site and/or neck if they died within 2 years of treatment with the site(s) continuously disease-free. Local control rates with radiotherapy and ultimate local control rates, including patients successfully salvaged after a local recurrence, were as follows: T1, 13 of 13 and 13 of 13; T2, 34 of 42 (81%) and 37 of 42 (88%); T3, 25 of 41 (61%) and 34 of 41 (83%); and T4, 3 of 9 and 6 of 9. There was no significant difference in local control rates when comparing patients who were anatomically suitable for a supraglottic laryngectomy with those who would have required a total laryngectomy. Local control rates were slightly diminished in patients with T2-T3 lesions who had impaired or absent vocal cord mobility. The overall rates of ultimate local control with voice preservation for the entire series of 129 patients were as follows: T1, 100%; T2, 87%; T3, 69%; and T4, 57%. Cause-specific survival rates at 5 years by stage were I, 2 of 2; II, 10 of 12 (83%); III, 9 of 13 (69%); IVA, 4 of 6; and IVB, 7 of 22 (32%). The incidence of severe complications was 4 of 115 (3%) for T1-T3 lesions and 4 of 14 (29%) for T4 lesions.

  1. Pesticide residue dynamics in passion fruits: comparing field trial and modelling results.

    PubMed

    Juraske, Ronnie; Fantke, Peter; Ramírez, Ana Cecilia Romero; González, Alonso

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated the exposure to pesticides from the consumption of passion fruits and subsequent human health risks by combining several methods: (i) experimental field studies including the determination of pesticide residues in/on passion fruits, (ii) dynamic plant uptake modelling, and (iii) human health risk assessment concepts. Eight commonly used pesticides were applied onto passion fruits cultivated in Colombia. Pesticide concentrations were measured periodically (between application and harvest) in whole fruits and fruit pulp. Measured concentrations were compared with predicted residues calculated with a dynamic and crop-specific pesticide uptake model, namely dynamiCROP. The model accounts for the time between pesticide application and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the amount of spray deposition on plant surfaces, uptake processes, dilution due to crop growth, degradation in plant components, and reduction due to food processing (peeling). Measured and modelled residues correspond well (r(2)=0.88-0.99), with all predictions falling within the 90% confidence interval of the measured values. A mean error of 43% over all studied pesticides was observed between model estimates and measurements. The fraction of pesticide applied during cultivation that is eventually ingested by humans is on average 10(-4)-10(-6), depending on the time period between application and ingestion and the processing step considered. Model calculations and intake fractions via fruit consumption based on experimental data corresponded well for all pesticides with a deviation of less than a factor of 2. Pesticide residues in fruits measured at recommended harvest dates were all below European Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) and therefore do not indicate any violation of international regulatory thresholds. PMID:22673401

  2. Issues for comparability of DRG statistics in Europe. Results from EURODRG.

    PubMed

    Casas, M

    1991-03-01

    DRG use has spread through most European countries thus offering an opportunity for improving hospital data bases at the European level. An EEC Concerted Action 'Use of DRGs to support Hospital Sector Management in the European Community' was approved by the Committee of Health Services Research of the EEC. A general overview of the project is presented as well as a detailed description of the results of the work on aspects related to DRG data production. These aspects (MBDS implementation and variables definition; coding systems and updating; mapping systems; data auditing; trimming methods; and DRG grouper versions) have been analyzed with the objective of increasing opportunities for valid international comparisons of DRG statistics between European countries. PMID:10170739

  3. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; Supper, W.

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Registration Algorithms in Different Brain Databases With Varying Difficulty: Results and Insights

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Hamed; Bilello, Michel; Da, Xiao; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating various algorithms for the inter-subject registration of brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a necessary topic receiving growing attention. Existing studies evaluated image registration algorithms in specific tasks or using specific databases (e.g., only for skull-stripped images, only for single-site images, etc.). Consequently, the choice of registration algorithms seems task- and usage/parameter-dependent. Nevertheless, recent large-scale, often multi-institutional imaging-related studies create the need and raise the question whether some registration algorithms can 1) generally apply to various tasks/databases posing various challenges; 2) perform consistently well, and while doing so, 3) require minimal or ideally no parameter tuning. In seeking answers to this question, we evaluated 12 general-purpose registration algorithms, for their generality, accuracy and robustness. We fixed their parameters at values suggested by algorithm developers as reported in the literature. We tested them in 7 databases/tasks, which present one or more of 4 commonly-encountered challenges: 1) inter-subject anatomical variability in skull-stripped images; 2) intensity homogeneity, noise and large structural differences in raw images; 3) imaging protocol and field-of-view (FOV) differences in multi-site data; and 4) missing correspondences in pathology-bearing images. Totally 7,562 registrations were performed. Registration accuracies were measured by (multi-)expert-annotated landmarks or regions of interest (ROIs). To ensure reproducibility, we used public software tools, public databases (whenever possible), and we fully disclose the parameter settings. We show evaluation results, and discuss the performances in light of algorithms’ similarity metrics, transformation models and optimization strategies. We also discuss future directions for the algorithm development and evaluations. PMID:24951685

  5. Seasonal and diurnal variations in AMPERE observations of the Birkeland currents compared to modeled results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coxon, J. C.; Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.

    2016-05-01

    We reduce measurements made by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) to give the total Birkeland (field-aligned) current flowing in both hemispheres in monthly and hourly bins. We analyze these totals using 6 years of data (2010-2015) to examine solar zenith angle-driven variations in the total Birkeland current flowing in both hemispheres, simultaneously, for the first time. A diurnal variation is identified in the total Birkeland current flowing, consistent with variations in the solar zenith angle. A seasonal variation is also identified, with more current flowing in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere during Bartels rotations in northern (southern) summer. For months close to equinox, more current is found to flow in the Northern Hemisphere, contrary to our expectations. We also conduct the first test of the Milan (2013) model for estimating Birkeland current magnitudes, with modifications made to account for solar contributions to ionospheric conductance based on the observed variation of the Birkeland currents with season and time of day. The modified model, using the value of ΦD averaged by Bartels rotation (scaled by 1.7), is found to agree with the observed AMPERE currents, with a correlation of 0.87 in the Northern Hemisphere and 0.86 in the Southern Hemisphere. The improvement over the correlation with dayside reconnection rate is demonstrated to be a significant improvement to the model. The correlation of the residuals is found to be consistent with more current flowing in the Northern Hemisphere. This new observation of systematically larger current flowing in the Northern Hemisphere is discussed in the context of previous results which suggest that the Northern Hemisphere may react more strongly to dayside reconnection than the Southern Hemisphere.

  6. Flexible Survival Strategies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Biofilms Result in Increased Fitness Compared with Candida albicans *

    PubMed Central

    Purschke, Frauke Gina; Hiller, Ekkehard; Trick, Iris; Rupp, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms persist in nature as surface-attached communities often surrounded by an extracellular matrix, called biofilms. Most natural biofilms are not formed by a single species but by multiple species. Microorganisms not only cooperate as in some multispecies biofilms but also compete for available nutrients. The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans are two opportunistic pathogens that are often found coexisting in a human host. Several models of mixed biofilms have been reported for these organisms showing antagonistic behavior. To investigate the interaction of P. aeruginosa and C. albicans in more detail, we analyzed the secretome of single and mixed biofilms of both organisms using MALDI-TOF MS/MS at several time points. Overall 247 individual proteins were identified, 170 originated from P. aeruginosa and 77 from C. albicans. Only 39 of the 131 in mixed biofilms identified proteins were assigned to the fungus whereby the remaining 92 proteins belonged to P. aeruginosa. In single-species biofilms, both organisms showed a higher diversity of proteins with 73 being assigned to C. albicans and 154 to P. aeruginosa. Most interestingly, P. aeruginosa in the presence of C. albicans secreted 16 proteins in significantly higher amounts or exclusively among other virulence factors such as exotoxin A and iron acquisition systems. In addition, the high affinity iron-binding siderophore pyoverdine was identified in mixed biofilms but not in bacterial biofilms, indicating that P. aeruginosa increases its capability to sequester iron in competition with C. albicans. In contrast, C. albicans metabolism was significantly reduced, including a reduction in detectable iron acquisition proteins. The results obtained in this study show that microorganisms not only compete with the host for essential nutrients but also strongly with the present microflora in order to gain a competitive advantage. PMID

  7. Comparing the results of bed load transport equations to field measurements in an Alpine river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascher, E.; Baewert, H.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Morche, D.

    2012-04-01

    Transport processes play a decisive role in fluvial systems when sediment is carried from source to sink. In a mountain river reach the morphologic development is basically determined by the bed load transport. Attempts to observe bed load entrainment and movement directly in the field are often complicated through difficulties in spatial and temporal variability and a necessary field effort. For this reason the development of sediment transport equations has a long history. A variety of such formulae has appeared since the first "modern" equation of DU BOYS (1879) was presented. Each of them is based on one of the following approaches: shear stress, stream discharge, stochastic function for sediment movement or stream power. Many of these equations have been developed on the basis of flume data or field data sets from specific river reaches. Therefore a critical consideration of their application to other natural streams is essential. A lack of available field data is undoubtedly the cause for a deficiency of such testing. (GOMEZ & CHURCH 1989; HABERSACK & LARONNE 2002; MARTIN 2003) In this study a selection of sediment transport equations is tested against data sets of 50 field observations from the Partnach River, in the Reintal Valley, Germany, in the years 2008-2011. At the outlet of this alpine catchment the channel bed is characterized by a gradient of 2 % and a median grain size of 24 mm. Bed load samples were taken using the Helley-Smith sampler at flow rates ranging from 1.0 - 5.9 m3/s. According to these data evaluations performance and feasibility of transport equations for field applications are checked. Up to now the results between observed and calculated transport rates show a large scatter of more than several orders of magnitude. This underlines the statements from GOMEZ AND CHURCH (1989) that most equations under/over predict transport rates if the basic requirements (steady flow, equilibrium load), which are usually assumed, are not fulfilled.

  8. Comparing two fish sampling standards over time: largely congruent results but with caveats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cachera, Sébastien; Colon, Michel; Guillard, Jean

    2013-01-01

    1. We sampled Lake Bourget (surface area = 44 km2) using CEN standard gillnet and provisional standard acoustic survey methods over 3 years (2005, 2010 and 2011) as the fish community responded to re-oligotrophication. A total of 16 species were caught in benthic gillnets and three species in pelagic gillnets. 2. Lake Bourget results were consistent with a recent study (Emmrich et al., Freshwater Biology, 57, 2012, 2436) showing strong correspondence between average biomass-per-unit-effort (BPUE) in standard benthic gillnets and average acoustic volume backscattering when smaller lakes (0.25–5.45 km2) were treated as sample units. 3. The BPUE of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) measured by benthic gillnets all declined significantly with increasing bathymetric depth; 93% of nets set at depths >50 m caught zero fish. 4. Pelagic gillnetting indicated that small (20 m) increased significantly after 2005. 5. Both surveys showed whitefish biomass increased significantly during the study, but whitefish ≥25 cm were poorly represented in benthic gillnet catches. Contrary to the acoustic findings, the BPUE of perch and roach in benthic gillnets did not vary significantly over time. This metric is insensitive to changes in size structure in that a high catch of small fish and a low catch of large fish in different years can provide similar average BPUE estimates. 6. We examined correlations between BPUE in benthic gillnets and acoustic methods at fine spatial scales by averaging acoustic backscattering measurements encompassed by buffers of varying size (250–2000 m) around individual gillnets and by averaging samples collected from lake quadrants. Correlations at fines scales were generally poor, and only in 1 year was the quadrant correlation significant. The lack of correlation can be explained, in part, by the two gears sampling different components of the fish community. Conversely, in pelagic habitat, where the

  9. Interannual sedimentary effluxes of alkalinity in the southern North Sea: Model results compared with summer observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetsch, Johannes; Kuehn, Wilfried; Six, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    Alkalinity generation in the sediment of the southern North Sea is the focus of several recent studies. One motivation for these efforts is the potentially enhanced buffering capacity of anthropogenic CO2 invasion into the corresponding pelagic system. An adaptation of a global multilayer sediment model (Heinze et al., 1999) in combination with a pelagic ecosystem model for shelf sea dynamics was used to study the benthic reactions on very different annual cycles (2001 - 2009) including the River Elbe summer flooding in 2002. The focus of this study is the efflux of alkalinity, their different contributors (aerobic respiration, denitrification, net sulfate reduction, calcite dissolution, nitrification) and their seasonal and interannual cycles. Similar to the observations covering the southern North Sea (Brenner et al., 2015) the model results show large horizontal gradients from the near-shore high productive areas with benthic remineralization up to Rmin = 10.6 mol C m‑2 yr‑1 and TA generation RTA = 2 mol C m‑2 yr‑1 to off-shore moderate productive areas with mean Rmin = 2.5 mol C m‑2 yr‑1 and mean TA generation RTA = 0.4 mol C m‑2 yr‑1. Beside calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration (producing ammonium) and denitrification are the largest contributors to alkalinity generation. Nitrification is reducing alkalinity in the sediment. Due to low regenerated primary production in summer, the year 2001 exhibits the lowest input of particulate organic matter into the sediment (POCexp=2.3 mol C m‑2 yr‑1), while the year 2003 exhibits the highest export production (POCexp=2.6 mol C m‑2 yr‑1). The biogeochemical reactions and the effluxes from the sediment follow these pelagic amplitudes with a time lag of about one year with damped amplitudes. References Brenner, H., Braeckman, U., Le Guitton, M., Meysman, F.J.R., 2015. The impact of sedimentary alkalinity release on the water column CO2 system in the North Sea. Biogeosiences Discussion, 12

  10. Comparing the cognitive differences resulting from modeling instruction: Using computer microworld and physical object instruction to model real world problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oursland, Mark David

    This study compared the modeling achievement of students receiving mathematical modeling instruction using the computer microworld, Interactive Physics, and students receiving instruction using physical objects. Modeling instruction included activities where students applied the (a) linear model to a variety of situations, (b) linear model to two-rate situations with a constant rate, (c) quadratic model to familiar geometric figures. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze achievement differences between students (a) receiving different methods of modeling instruction, (b) with different levels of beginning modeling ability, or (c) with different levels of computer literacy. Student achievement was analyzed quantitatively through a three-factor analysis of variance where modeling instruction, beginning modeling ability, and computer literacy were used as the three independent factors. The SOLO (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome) assessment framework was used to design written modeling assessment instruments to measure the students' modeling achievement. The same three independent factors were used to collect and analyze the interviews and observations of student behaviors. Both methods of modeling instruction used the data analysis approach to mathematical modeling. The instructional lessons presented problem situations where students were asked to collect data, analyze the data, write a symbolic mathematical equation, and use equation to solve the problem. The researcher recommends the following practice for modeling instruction based on the conclusions of this study. A variety of activities with a common structure are needed to make explicit the modeling process of applying a standard mathematical model. The modeling process is influenced strongly by prior knowledge of the problem context and previous modeling experiences. The conclusions of this study imply that knowledge of the properties about squares improved the students

  11. Using School-Level Student Achievement to Engage in Formative Evaluation: Comparative School-Level Rates of Oral Reading Fluency Growth Conditioned by Initial Skill for Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Kelli D.; Stoolmiller, Michael L.; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank; Kame'enui, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for data-based decision making at the school level using student achievement data. We demonstrate the potential of a national assessment database [i.e., the University of Oregon DIBELS Data System (DDS)] to provide comparative levels of school-level data on average student achievement gains. Through the DDS as a data source,…

  12. Simvastatin Hydroxy Acid Fails to Attain Sufficient Central Nervous System Tumor Exposure to Achieve a Cytotoxic Effect: Results of a Preclinical Cerebral Microdialysis Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh T; Jacus, Megan O; Davis, Abigail D; Boulos, Nidal; Turner, David C; Vuppala, Pradeep K; Freeman, Burgess B; Gilbertson, Richard J; Stewart, Clinton F

    2016-04-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors were potent hits against a mouse ependymoma cell line, but their effectiveness against central nervous system tumors will depend on their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and attain a sufficient exposure at the tumor. Among 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors that had activity in vitro, we prioritized simvastatin (SV) as the lead compound for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies based on its potential for central nervous system penetration as determined from in silico models. Furthermore, we performed systemic plasma disposition and cerebral microdialysis studies of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in a murine model of ependymoma to characterize plasma and tumor extracellular fluid (tECF) pharmacokinetic properties. The murine dosage of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was equivalent to the maximum tolerated dose in patients (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) based on equivalent plasma exposure of simvastatin acid (SVA) between the two species. SV is rapidly metabolized in murine plasma with 15 times lower exposure compared with human plasma. SVA exposure in tECF was <33.8 ± 11.9 µg/l per hour, whereas the tumor to plasma partition coefficient of SVA was <0.084 ± 0.008. Compared with in vitro washout IC50 values, we did not achieve sufficient exposure of SVA in tECF to suggest tumor growth inhibition; therefore, SV was not carried forward in subsequent preclinical efficacy studies. PMID:26802130

  13. Predictors and outcomes of sustained, intermittent or never achieving remission in patients with recent onset inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael J.; Diffin, Janet; Scirè, Carlo A.; Lunt, Mark; MacGregor, Alex J.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Early remission is the current treatment strategy for patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and RA. Our objective was to identify baseline factors associated with achieving remission: sustained (SR), intermittent (IR) or never (NR) over a 5-year period in patients with early IP. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of patients with IP recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) were obtained at baseline and years 1, 2, 3 and 5. Remission was defined as no tender or swollen joints (out of 51). Patients were classified as NR or PR, respectively, if they were in remission at: no assessment or ⩾3 consecutive assessments after baseline, and IR otherwise. Ordinal regression and a random effects model, respectively, were used to examine the association between baseline factors, remission group and HAQ scores over time. Results. A total of 868 patients (66% female) were included. Of these, 54%, 34% and 12% achieved NR, IR and SR, respectively. In multivariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio, OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.63), higher tender joint count (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93, 0.96), higher HAQ (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.74), being obese (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.99), hypertensive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.90) or depressed (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.00) at baseline were independent predictors of being in a lower remission group. IR and SR were associated with lower HAQ scores over time and lower DAS28 at year 5. Conclusion. Women with higher tender joint count and disability at baseline, depression, obesity and hypertension were less likely to achieve remission. This information could help when stratifying patients for more aggressive therapy. PMID:27220594

  14. Is There a Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement? Positive Results from Public School Children in the Northeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomitz, Virginia R.; Slining, Meghan M.; McGowan, Robert J.; Mitchell, Suzanne E.; Dawson, Glen F.; Hacker, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine relationships between physical fitness and academic achievement in diverse, urban public school children. Methods: This cross-sectional study used public school data from 2004 to 2005. Academic achievement was assessed as a passing score on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) achievement tests in…

  15. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  16. SU-E-T-357: Semi-Automated Knowledge-Based Radiation Therapy (KBRT) Planning for Head-And-Neck Cancer (HNC): Can KBRT Plans Achieve Better Results Than Manual Planning?

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzky, C; Grzetic, S; Lo, J; Das, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Knowledge Based Radiation Therapy Treatment (KBRT) planning can be used to semi-automatically generate IMRT plans for new patients using constraints derived from previously manually-planned, geometrically similar patients. We investigate whether KBRT plans can achieve greater dose sparing than manual plans using optimized, organspecific constraint weighting factors. Methods: KBRT planning of HNC radiotherapy cases geometrically matched each new (query) case to one of the 105 clinically approved plans in our database. The dose distribution of the planned match was morphed to fit the querys geometry. Dose-volume constraints extracted from the morphed dose distribution were used to run the IMRT optimization with no user input. In the first version, all constraints were multiplied by a weighting factor of 0.7. The weighting factors were then systematically optimized (in order of OARs with increasing separation from the target) to maximize sparing to each OAR without compromising other OARs. The optimized, second version plans were compared against the first version plans and the clinically approved plans for 45 unilateral/bilateral target cases using the dose metrics: mean, median and maximum (brainstem and cord) doses. Results: Compared to the first version, the second version significantly reduced mean/median contralateral parotid doses (>2Gy) for bilateral cases. Other changes between the two versions were not clinically meaningful. Compared to the original clinical plans, both bilateral and unilateral plans in the second version had lower average dose metrics for 5 of the 6 OARs. Compared to the original plans, the second version achieved dose sparing that was at least as good for all OARs and better for the ipsilateral parotid (bilateral) and oral cavity (bilateral/unilateral). Differences in planning target volume coverage metrics were not clinically significant. Conclusion: HNC-KBRT planning generated IMRT plans with at least equivalent dose sparing to

  17. Reading Skills Achievement over Eight Administrations of the Achievement Monitoring Tests--Grades 2 and 5. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerenz, Anne G.

    This is one of a series of reports which provide definitions of and descriptive data on the variables used in the Comparative Study of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IEG) Evaluation Project. Phase IV investigated three curriculum programs specifically designed to be compatible with instructional programming for the individual…

  18. Comparative Effects of Concept Mapping and Cooperative Learning Strategies on Senior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Mathematics-Trigonometry in Kano State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bot, Thomas D.; Eze, John E.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the findings from an experimental study on the effectiveness of concept mapping and cooperative learning strategies on SSII students' achievement in trigonometry in mathematics. The research design used in conducting the study was quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test non-equivalent control group. The sample consisted of…

  19. Motivation Factors as Indicators of Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes Academic and Social Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedescleaux, Jonell

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate non-cognitive motivational factors as indicators of academic achievement of male athletes and male non-athletes as measured by a secondary data analysis of the College Student Inventory (CSI) from Fall 2003 to Fall 2005. Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory provided the conceptual framework…

  20. Context and Culture in the Socialization and Development of Personal Achievement Values: Comparing Latino Immigrant Families, European American Families, and Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia M.; Quiroz, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    We documented cross-cultural similarities and differences in values concerning personal achievement between Latino immigrant parents, a group of multiethnic teachers, and European American parents. We also explored intergenerational similarities and differences between parents and their fifth-grade children. The theoretical premise was that…

  1. Impact of Attitudinal Adaptation on Academic Achievement among Students: A Comparative Study of Boys and Girls in Boarding Secondary Schools in Meru County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murithi, Grace Gatune; Nyaga, Veronica Karimi; Barchok, Hillary K.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of attitudinal adaptation on academic achievement among boys and girls in boarding secondary schools in Meru County in Kenya. The descriptive survey research design was adapted for the study whose sample size was 384 students, school counsellors and deputy principals in the boarding secondary schools. The…

  2. The Impact of Montessori Teaching on Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students in a Central Texas School District: A Causal-Comparative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Minerva Mungia

    2013-01-01

    Providing a meaningful and experiential learning environment for all students has long created a concern for alternate ways to teach students who are reportedly demonstrating non-mastery on state standardized assessments. As the benchmark for showing successful academic achievement increases, so does the need for discovering effective ways for…

  3. A Comparative Case Study of the Influence of Educational Governance Team Decision-Making Processes on District Climate and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored how the educational governance team, composed of the superintendent and school board, can, in their collaborative efforts and decision-making processes, influence school district climate and impact student achievement. Though in form and function, school boards have not changed much in their almost 200 years of existence,…

  4. The Relationship between Teaching Practices and Student Achievement in First Year Classes: A Comparative Study of Small Size and Standard Size Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanet, Joel

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the links between the teaching practices of primary school teachers (n = 200) who were observed while presenting a new text to their first year classes, and the student achievement levels in those classes. The teaching practices are specifically concerned with the way the teachers supported and encouraged students'…

  5. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  6. Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous…

  7. Effects of a Universally Free, In-Classroom School Breakfast Program: Results from the Second Year of the Maryland Meals for Achievement Evaluation. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, J. Michael; Rankin, Emunah; Feeney, Kelly; Kenney, Leigh; Kleinman, Ron

    Noting that many children in the United States are not well nourished despite the recent economic boom, the state of Maryland began the Maryland Meals for Achievement (MMFA) program, a demonstration project to see if providing a classroom breakfast free to all students can improve student nutrition and academic achievement. This interim report…

  8. Large-Scale Student Assessment Studies Measure the Results of Processes of Knowledge Acquisition: Evidence in Support of the Distinction between Intelligence and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumert, Jurgen; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Brunner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Given the relatively high intercorrelations observed between mathematics achievement, reading achievement, and cognitive ability, it has recently been claimed that student assessment studies (e.g., TIMSS, PISA) and intelligence tests measure a single cognitive ability that is practically identical to general intelligence. The present article uses…

  9. The PrePex Device Is Unlikely to Achieve Cost-Savings Compared to the Forceps-Guided Method in Male Circumcision Programs in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Obiero, Walter; Young, Marisa R.; Bailey, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Male circumcision (MC) reduces the risk of heterosexual HIV acquisition in men by approximately 60%. MC programs for HIV prevention are currently being scaled-up in fourteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The current standard surgical technique for MC in many sub-Saharan African countries is the forceps-guided male circumcision (FGMC) method. The PrePex male circumcision (PMC) method could replace FGMC and potentially reduce MC programming costs. We compared the potential costs of introducing the PrePex device into MC programming to the cost of the forceps-guided method. Methods Data were obtained from the Nyanza Reproductive Health Society (NRHS), an MC service delivery organization in Kenya, and from the Kenya Ministry of Health. Analyses are based on 48,265 MC procedures performed in four Districts in western Kenya from 2009 through 2011. Data were entered into the WHO/UNAIDS Decision Makers Program Planning Tool. The tool assesses direct and indirect costs of MC programming. Various sensitivity analyses were performed. Costs were discounted at an annual rate of 6% and are presented in United States Dollars. Results Not including the costs of the PrePex device or referral costs for men with phimosis/tight foreskin, the costs of one MC surgery were $44.54–$49.02 and $54.52–$55.29 for PMC and FGMC, respectively. Conclusion The PrePex device is unlikely to result in significant cost-savings in comparison to the forceps-guided method. MC programmers should target other aspects of the male circumcision minimum package for improved cost efficiency. PMID:23349708

  10. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  11. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  12. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM

    PubMed Central

    Pannullo, Susan C.; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A.Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 – 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 – 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 – 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 – 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  13. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM.

    PubMed

    Jia, Angela; Pannullo, Susan C; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 - 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 - 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 - 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 - 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  14. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Results in Significant Decrease in Clinical Toxicities Compared With Conventional Wedge-Based Breast Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Harsolia, Asif; Kestin, Larry; Grills, Inga; Wallace, Michelle; Jolly, Shruti; Jones, Cortney; Lala, Moinaktar; Martinez, Alvaro; Schell, Scott; Vicini, Frank A. . E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a static multileaf collimator process results in a more homogenous dose distribution compared with conventional wedge-based whole breast irradiation (WBI). In the present analysis, we reviewed the acute and chronic toxicity of this IMRT approach compared with conventional wedge-based treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 172 patients with Stage 0-IIB breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy followed by WBI. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography and received WBI (median dose, 45 Gy) followed by a boost to 61 Gy. Of the 172 patients, 93 (54%) were treated with IMRT, and the 79 patients (46%) treated with wedge-based RT in a consecutive fashion immediately before this cohort served as the control group. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Results: A significant reduction in acute Grade 2 or worse dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation was seen with IMRT compared with wedges. A trend was found toward reduced acute Grade 3 or greater dermatitis (6% vs. 1%, p = 0.09) in favor of IMRT. Chronic Grade 2 or worse breast edema was significantly reduced with IMRT compared with conventional wedges. No difference was found in cosmesis scores between the two groups. In patients with larger breasts ({>=}1,600 cm{sup 3}, n = 64), IMRT resulted in reduced acute (Grade 2 or greater) breast edema (0% vs. 36%, p <0.001) and hyperpigmentation (3% vs. 41%, p 0.001) and chronic (Grade 2 or greater) long-term edema (3% vs. 30%, p 0.007). Conclusion: The use of IMRT in the treatment of the whole breast results in a significant decrease in acute dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation and a reduction in the development of chronic breast edema compared with conventional wedge-based RT.

  15. Optimum Cycle Length and Discharge Burnup for Nuclear Fuel; Phase II: Results Achievable with Enrichments Greater than 5 w/o

    SciTech Connect

    J. Secker, et al

    2002-09-30

    The report evaluates increasing enrichment to achieve lower fuel cycle costs. Increasing enrichment 6 w/o does not reach the optimum point. Further increase is possible before the optimum will be reached.

  16. Limited femoral navigation versus conventional intramedullary femoral jig based instrumentation for achieving optimal restoration of mechanical axis post total knee arthroplasty: a prospective comparative study of 200 knees.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nilen A; Patil, Hitendra G; Dhawale, Amol S; Khedkar, Bipin M

    2015-04-01

    A prospective comparative study was conducted to compare the mechanical axis post total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between two groups: In the first group of 100 knees (ASM group) Articular Surface Mounted navigation system was used to guide the distal femoral cut. In the second group of 100 knees (JIG group) conventional intramedullary femoral jig was used. The postoperative mechanical axis of the leg was within 3° of neutral alignment in 90% of the TKA in the ASM group (mean 178.12°) as compared to 74% in the JIG group (mean 177.02°). This difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The data presented show that the use of limited femoral navigation leads to more accurate restoration of mechanical axis alignment when compared to conventional intramedullary femoral jigs. PMID:25466168

  17. High-Dose Continuous Oxacillin Infusion Results in Achievement of Pharmacokinetics Targets in Critically Ill Patients with Deep Sternal Wound Infections following Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Launey, Yoann; Malherbe, Alexandre; Dermu, Marine; Piau, Caroline; Flécher, Erwan; Tribut, Olivier; Mallédant, Yannick; Seguin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge regarding antimicrobial therapy strategies in deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) following cardiac surgery is limited. Therefore, we aimed to determine the steady-state plasma and mediastinal concentrations of oxacillin administered by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with DSWI and to compare these concentrations with the susceptibility of staphylococci recovered. A continuous infusion of oxacillin (150 to 200 mg/kg of body weight/24 h) was administered after a loading dose (50 mg/kg). Plasma and mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin were determined 4 h after the loading dose (H4) and then at day 1 (H24) and day 2 (H48). Twelve patients were included. Nine patients exhibited bacteremia, 5 were in septic shock, 8 were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 4 were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci. The median MIC (first to third interquartile range) was 0.25 (0.24 to 0.41) mg/liter. Median plasma concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 64.4 (41.4 to 78.5) and 20.4 (12.4 to 30.4) mg/liter, 56.9 (31.4 to 80.6) and 21.7 (6.5 to 27.3) mg/liter, and 57.5 (32.2 to 85.1) and 20 (14.3 to 35.7) mg/liter. The median mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 2.3 (0.7 to 25.9) and 0.9 (<0.5 to 15) mg/liter, 29.1 (19.7 to 38.2) and 12.6 (5.9 to 19.8) mg/liter, and 31.6 (14.9 to 42.9) and 17.1 (6.7 to 26.7) mg/liter. High-dose oxacillin delivered by continuous infusion is a valuable strategy to achieve our pharmacokinetic target (4× MIC) at the site of action at H24. But concerns remain in cases of higher MICs, emphasizing the need for clinicians to obtain the MICs for the bacteria and to monitor oxacillin concentrations, especially the unbound forms, at the target site. PMID:24982092

  18. High-dose continuous oxacillin infusion results in achievement of pharmacokinetics targets in critically ill patients with deep sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Nesseler, Nicolas; Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Launey, Yoann; Malherbe, Alexandre; Dermu, Marine; Piau, Caroline; Flécher, Erwan; Tribut, Olivier; Mallédant, Yannick; Seguin, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge regarding antimicrobial therapy strategies in deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) following cardiac surgery is limited. Therefore, we aimed to determine the steady-state plasma and mediastinal concentrations of oxacillin administered by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with DSWI and to compare these concentrations with the susceptibility of staphylococci recovered. A continuous infusion of oxacillin (150 to 200 mg/kg of body weight/24 h) was administered after a loading dose (50 mg/kg). Plasma and mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin were determined 4 h after the loading dose (H4) and then at day 1 (H24) and day 2 (H48). Twelve patients were included. Nine patients exhibited bacteremia, 5 were in septic shock, 8 were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 4 were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci. The median MIC (first to third interquartile range) was 0.25 (0.24 to 0.41) mg/liter. Median plasma concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 64.4 (41.4 to 78.5) and 20.4 (12.4 to 30.4) mg/liter, 56.9 (31.4 to 80.6) and 21.7 (6.5 to 27.3) mg/liter, and 57.5 (32.2 to 85.1) and 20 (14.3 to 35.7) mg/liter. The median mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 2.3 (0.7 to 25.9) and 0.9 (<0.5 to 15) mg/liter, 29.1 (19.7 to 38.2) and 12.6 (5.9 to 19.8) mg/liter, and 31.6 (14.9 to 42.9) and 17.1 (6.7 to 26.7) mg/liter. High-dose oxacillin delivered by continuous infusion is a valuable strategy to achieve our pharmacokinetic target (4× MIC) at the site of action at H24. But concerns remain in cases of higher MICs, emphasizing the need for clinicians to obtain the MICs for the bacteria and to monitor oxacillin concentrations, especially the unbound forms, at the target site. PMID:24982092

  19. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  20. Similar Clinical and Surgical Outcomes Achieved with Early Compared to Late Anti-TNF Induction in Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, Darryl K.; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Halloran, Brendan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha are effective in the management of ulcerative colitis (UC), but their use is often postponed until after failure of other treatment modalities. Objectives. We aim to determine if earlier treatment with infliximab or adalimumab alters clinical and surgical outcomes in UC patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating UC outpatients treated with infliximab or adalimumab from 2003 to 2014. Patients were stratified by time to first anti-TNF exposure; early initiation was defined as starting treatment within three years of diagnosis. Primary outcomes were colectomy, UC-related hospitalization, and clinical secondary loss of response. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess time to the primary outcomes. Results. 115 patients were included (78 infliximab, 37 adalimumab). Median follow-up was 175.6 weeks (IQR 72.4–228.4 weeks). Fifty-seven (49.6%) patients received early anti-TNF therapy; median time to treatment in this group was 38.1 (23.3–91.0) weeks compared to 414.0 (254.0–561.3) weeks in the late initiator cohort (p < 0.0001). Patients treated with early anti-TNF therapy had more severe endoscopic disease at induction (mean Mayo endoscopy subscore 2.46 (SD ± 0.66) versus 1.86 (±0.67), p < 0.001) and trended towards increased risk of colectomy (17.5% versus 8.6%, p = 0.16) and UC-related hospitalization (43.9% versus 27.6%, p = 0.07). In multivariate regression analysis, early anti-TNF induction was not associated with colectomy (HR 2.02 [95% CI: 0.57–7.20]), hospitalization (HR 1.66 [0.84–3.30]), or secondary loss of response (HR 0.86 [0.52–1.42]). Conclusions. Anti-TNF therapy is initiated earlier in patients with severe UC but earlier treatment does not prevent hospitalization, colectomy, or secondary loss of response. PMID:27478817

  1. DOT/NASA comparative assessment of Brayton engines for guideway vehicles and busses. Volume 2: Analysis and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Gas turbine engines were assessed for application to hear duty transportation. A summary of the assumptions, applications, and methods of analysis is included along with a discussion of the approach taken, the technical program flow chart, and weighting criteria used for performance evaluation. The various engines are compared on the bases of weight, performance, emissions and noise, technology status, and growth potential. The results of the engine screening phase and the conceptual design phase are presented.

  2. Comparing a Fischer-Tropsch Alternate Fuel to JP-8 and Their 50-50 Blend: Flow and Flame Visualization Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tacina, M.

    2013-01-01

    Combustion performance of a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel manufactured by Sasol was compared to JP-8 and a 50-50 blend of the two fuels, using the NASA/Woodward 9 point Lean Direct Injector (LDI) in its baseline configuration. The baseline LDI configuration uses 60deg axial air-swirlers, whose vanes generate clockwise swirl, in the streamwise sense. For all cases, the fuel-air equivalence ratio was 0.455, and the combustor inlet pressure and pressure drop were 10-bar and 4 percent. The three inlet temperatures used were 828, 728, and 617 K. The objectives of this experiment were to visually compare JP-8 flames with FT flames for gross features. Specifically, we sought to ascertain in a simple way visible luminosity, sooting, and primary flame length of the FT compared to a standard JP grade fuel. We used color video imaging and high-speed imaging to achieve these goals. The flame color provided a way to qualitatively compare soot formation. The length of the luminous signal measured using the high speed camera allowed an assessment of primary flame length. It was determined that the shortest flames resulted from the FT fuel.

  3. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE RESULTS ACHIEVED IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH TWO KINDS OF AUTOLOGOUS GRAFTS: PATELLAR TENDON VERSUS SEMITENDINOUS AND GRACILIS

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Monteiro, Diego Antico; Dias, Leonardo; Correia, Dárcio Maurício; Cohen, Moisés; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to compare the arthrometric and isokinetic examination results from two types of autologous grafts: the central third of the patellar ligament and a graft formed by the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, within the same rehabilitation protocol, six months after the surgery. Methods: the results from examinations carried out on 63 patients were analyzed. These patients were divided in two groups: one group of 30 patients who received a patellar tendon graft and another group of 33 patients who received a graft from the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles. Both the grafts were attached in the same way, with Endobutton™ for suspensory fixation to the femur and a bioabsorbable interference screw for fixation in the tibial tunnel. Results: arthrometry 30 did not present any statistical difference between the two study groups. On the other hand, the isokinetic evaluation showed that the patellar tendon group had a larger mean peak torque of flexion and greater extension deficit, while the semitendinosus/gracilis group had a better mean flexion/extension ratio and greater percentage of flexion deficit. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups when measuring peak torque extension. Conclusion: therefore, when the patellar tendon was used, there was greater extensor deficit and, when the semitendinosus/gracilis tendons were used, there was greater flexor deficit. PMID:27004173

  4. The Determinants of Student Achievement in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, M. A.; Uysal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent achievement test results show that Turkish students have been performing poorly compared to students from other countries. Using science literacy results from the PISA 2006 survey, we aim to measure the determinants of student achievement in Turkey within the education production function framework. We find that program types have large…

  5. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  6. Achieving Consensus for the Design and Delivery of an Online Intervention to Support Midwives in Work-Related Psychological Distress: Results From a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Clyne, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Background Some midwives are known to experience both professional and organizational sources of psychological distress, which can manifest as a result of the emotionally demanding midwifery work, and the traumatic work environments they endure. An online intervention may be one option midwives may engage with in pursuit of effective support. However, the priorities for the development of an online intervention to effectively support midwives in work-related psychological distress have yet to be explored. Objective The aim of this study was to explore priorities in the development of an online intervention to support midwives in work-related psychological distress. Methods A two-round online Delphi study was conducted. This study invited both qualitative and quantitative data from experts recruited via a scoping literature search and social media channels. Results In total, 185 experts were invited to participate in this Delphi study. Of all participants invited to contribute, 35.7% (66/185) completed Round 1 and of those who participated in this first round, 67% (44/66) continued to complete Round 2. Out of 39 questions posed over two rounds, 18 statements (46%) achieved consensus, 21 (54%) did not. Participants were given the opportunity to write any additional comments as free text. In total, 1604 free text responses were collected and categorized into 2446 separate statements of opinion, creating a total of 442 themes. Overall, participants agreed that in order to effectively support midwives in work-related psychological distress, online interventions should make confidentiality and anonymity a high priority, along with 24-hour mobile access, effective moderation, an online discussion forum, and additional legal, educational, and therapeutic components. It was also agreed that midwives should be offered a simple user assessment to identify those people deemed to be at risk of either causing harm to others or experiencing harm themselves, and direct them to

  7. "Lernen" and Learning Styles: A Comparative Analysis of the Learning Styles of German Adolescents by Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlawaty, Heide

    2009-01-01

    Students in every nation of the world learn new and difficult material in ways that are often similar and, at the same time, different from the way other students of the same age, gender, race, religion, culture, and nationality prefer to learn. The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the preferred learning-style characteristics of…

  8. Comparative Achievement on National Dental Board Examination Part I Between Dental Students in Problem-Based Learning and Traditional Educational Tracks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuler, Charles F.; Fincham, Alan G.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the performance on a national licensing examination of University of Southern California dental students in problem-based learning (PBL) versus those in conventional educational tracks. PBL track students scored significantly higher in all four discipline-based portions of the exam and also in the aggregate, and scored well in…

  9. The Standards We Need: A Comparative Analysis of Performance Standards Shows Us What Is Essential for Principals to Know and Be Able to Do to Improve Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Tim; Kingston, Sally

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the findings from Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning's (McREL) comparative analysis of the Balanced Leadership Framework and the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards and provides insights about what future standards for school-level leaders should encompass. McREL conducted a…

  10. Results from a comparative dietary assessment in Europe: II. Feasibility of pooling individual-based dietary data between countries.

    PubMed

    Wahrendorf, J; Boeing, H; Heinemann, L; Kulesza, W; Rywik, S L; Schroll, M; Sznajd, J; Thiel, C

    1989-06-01

    Dietary investigations in four central European survey populations carried out in the German Democratic Republic, Poland and Denmark between 1982 and 1984 using different methodologies were analysed in order to assess the possibilities of characterizing the dietary habits of individual survey participants in a comparable fashion. This was done with the view of assessing the feasibility of a pooled cancer cohort study. For this purpose a method has been devised to combine dietary information derived by food frequency questionnaires and quantitative recording methods into a quantitative characterization of individuals' habits. A comparable characterization between different cultural settings could be demonstrated for a selected list of food items. The selection was determined by the food items considered in common in the different food frequency questionnaires and yielding sufficient and comparable variation as well as absolute amounts of intake. This was more clearly found for food items such as 'fruit' which experience a concise role in dietary habits. However, the observed discrepancies of the different dietary methods within the countries, and, most importantly, between the countries, result in distributions of average daily consumption values which are not deemed to be comparable. PMID:2743961

  11. Cross-National Comparisons of the Association between Student Motivation for Learning Mathematics and Achievement Linked with School Contexts: Results from TIMSS 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan

    2010-01-01

    The goals of this dissertation were as follows: (1) application of quantitative methods to large-scale databases, (2) investigation of relationships between student mathematics achievement and student motivational attitudes for learning mathematics at the macro level (i.e., national level) and at the micro level (i.e., student level), (3)…

  12. Coping Styles and Achievement: A Cross-National Study of School Children. Volume I of V Volumes: The Theory, Design, and Validation Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Robert F.

    This study undertook to develop an improved conceptual system for explaining effective behavior; to build reliable measures of the components of that behavior; to develop and apply the measures internationally; and to validate the measures and concepts against objective criteria of achievement. An eight-nation team defined three sets of components…

  13. The Effects of Research-Based Curriculum Materials and Curriculum-Based Professional Development on High School Science Achievement: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joseph; Kowalski, Susan; Getty, Stephen; Wilson, Christopher; Carlson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Effective instructional materials can be valuable interventions to improve student interest and achievement in science (National Research Council [NRC], 2007); yet, analyses indicate that many science instructional materials and curricula are fragmented, lack coherence, and are not carefully articulated through a sequence of grade levels (AAAS,…

  14. Who Are the Students Who May Qualify for an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)?: Focus Group Results. Synthesis Report 79

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Sandra; Ebben, Barbara; Kubinski, Eva; Sim, Grant; Liu, Kristin; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christian, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, federal regulations to two major education laws gave state departments of education the option to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The regulations stated that the AA-MAS was intended for students who were being instructed in the grade-level…

  15. Illinois Community College System Selected Programs and Services for Underrepresented Groups. Focus Area: Academic Achievement Promoting Positive Results and Highlighting Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Through the Underrepresented Groups Report, community colleges have an opportunity to report on initiatives and strategies aimed at increasing participation and achievement among individuals with Disabilities, Women, and Minorities. Underrepresented Groups Report production is an important annual statutory responsibility (Public Act 85-283) for…

  16. Achieving lipid goals with rosuvastatin compared with simvastatin in high risk patients in real clinical practice: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center study: the DISCOVERY-Beta study.

    PubMed

    Laks, Toivo; Keba, Ester; Leiner, Mariann; Merilind, Eero; Petersen, Mall; Reinmets, Sirje; Väli, Sille; Sööt, Terje; Otter, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this multi-center, open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial was to compare the efficacy of rosuvastatin with that of simvastatin in achieving the 1998 European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) lipid treatment goals. 504 patients (> or =18 years) with primary hypercholesterolemia and a 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk >20% or history of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other established atherosclerotic disease were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive rosuvastatin 10 mg or simvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 weeks. A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved 1998 EAS low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared to simvastatin 20 mg (64 vs 51.5%, p < 0.01). Similarly, significantly more patients achieved the 1998 EAS total cholesterol (TC) goal and the 2003 EAS LDL-C and TC goals (p < 0.001) with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared with simvastatin 20 mg. The incidence of adverse events and the proportion of patients who discontinued study treatment were similar between treatment groups. In conclusion, in the DISCOVERY-Beta Study in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia greater proportion of patients in the rosuvastatin 10 mg group achieved the EAS LDL-C treatment goal compared with the simvastatin 20 mg group. Drug tolerability was similar across both treatment groups. PMID:19337553

  17. Achieving lipid goals with rosuvastatin compared with simvastatin in high risk patients in real clinical practice: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center study: the DISCOVERY-Beta study

    PubMed Central

    Laks, Toivo; Keba, Ester; Leiner, Mariann; Merilind, Eero; Petersen, Mall; Reinmets, Sirje; Väli, Sille; Sööt, Terje; Otter, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this multi-center, open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial was to compare the efficacy of rosuvastatin with that of simvastatin in achieving the 1998 European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) lipid treatment goals. 504 patients (≥18 years) with primary hypercholesterolemia and a 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk >20% or history of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other established atherosclerotic disease were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive rosuvastatin 10 mg or simvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 weeks. A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved 1998 EAS low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared to simvastatin 20 mg (64 vs 51.5%, p < 0.01). Similarly, significantly more patients achieved the 1998 EAS total cholesterol (TC) goal and the 2003 EAS LDL-C and TC goals (p < 0.001) with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared with simvastatin 20 mg. The incidence of adverse events and the proportion of patients who discontinued study treatment were similar between treatment groups. In conclusion, in the DISCOVERY-Beta Study in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia greater proportion of patients in the rosuvastatin 10 mg group achieved the EAS LDL-C treatment goal compared with the simvastatin 20 mg group. Drug tolerability was similar across both treatment groups. PMID:19337553

  18. Effect of Self-Regulated Learning and Motivation to Achieve against Teacher Professional Capability for Student S1 PGSD of Science Field Compared with Regular Student S1 PGSD at UPBJJ Serang

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayekti

    2015-01-01

    This study is to know effect of self-regulated learning and motivation to achieve against teacher professional capability for student S1 PGSD of science field compared with regular student S1 PGSD. The student uses grades of Classroom Action Research (CAR) and Stabilization of Professional Capability (SPC) on curriculum of S1 PGSD to see…

  19. Metabolic engineering of seeds can achieve levels of omega-7 fatty acids comparable to the highest levels found in natural plant sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.T.; Shanklin, J.; Mishra, G.; Whittle, E.; Bevan, S. A.; Merlo, A. O.; Walsh, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Plant oils containing {omega}-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} and cis-vaccenic 18:1{Delta}{sup 11}) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of {omega}-7 FA accumulation by systematic metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A plastidial 16:0-ACP desaturase has been engineered to convert 16:0 to 16:1{Delta}{sup 9} with specificity >100-fold than that of naturally occurring paralogs, such as that from cat's claw vine (Doxantha unguis-cati). Expressing this engineered enzyme (Com25) in seeds increased {omega}-7 FA accumulation from <2% to 14%. Reducing competition for 16:0-ACP by down-regulating the {beta}-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II 16:0 elongase further increased accumulation of {omega}-7 FA to 56%. The level of 16:0 exiting the plastid without desaturation also increased to 21%. Coexpression of a pair of fungal 16:0 desaturases in the cytosol reduced the 16:0 level to 11% and increased {omega}-7 FA to as much as 71%, equivalent to levels found in Doxantha seeds.

  20. Metabolic Engineering of Seeds Can Achieve Levels of ω-7 Fatty Acids Comparable with the Highest Levels Found in Natural Plant Sources1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huu Tam; Mishra, Girish; Whittle, Edward; Pidkowich, Mark S.; Bevan, Scott A.; Merlo, Ann Owens; Walsh, Terence A.; Shanklin, John

    2010-01-01

    Plant oils containing ω-7 fatty acids (FAs; palmitoleic 16:1Δ9 and cis-vaccenic 18:1Δ11) have potential as sustainable feedstocks for producing industrially important octene via metathesis chemistry. Engineering plants to produce seeds that accumulate high levels of any unusual FA has been an elusive goal. We achieved high levels of ω-7 FA accumulation by systematic metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). A plastidial 16:0-ACP desaturase has been engineered to convert 16:0 to 16:1Δ9 with specificity >100-fold than that of naturally occurring paralogs, such as that from cat's claw vine (Doxantha unguis-cati). Expressing this engineered enzyme (Com25) in seeds increased ω-7 FA accumulation from <2% to 14%. Reducing competition for 16:0-ACP by down-regulating the β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II 16:0 elongase further increased accumulation of ω-7 FA to 56%. The level of 16:0 exiting the plastid without desaturation also increased to 21%. Coexpression of a pair of fungal 16:0 desaturases in the cytosol reduced the 16:0 level to 11% and increased ω-7 FA to as much as 71%, equivalent to levels found in Doxantha seeds. PMID:20943853

  1. Comparative studies on shielding properties of some steel alloys using Geant4, MCNP, WinXCOM and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishwanath P.; Medhat, M. E.; Shirmardi, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients, μ/ρ and effective atomic numbers, Zeff of some carbon steel and stainless steel alloys have been calculated by using Geant4, MCNP simulation codes for different gamma ray energies, 279.1 keV, 661.6 keV, 662 keV, 1115.5 keV, 1173 keV and 1332 keV. The simulation results of Zeff using Geant4 and MCNP codes have been compared with possible available experimental results and theoretical WinXcom, and good agreement has been observed. The simulated μ/ρ and Zeff values using Geant4 and MCNP code signifies that both the simulation process can be followed to determine the gamma ray interaction properties of the alloys for energies wherever analogous experimental results may not be available. This kind of studies can be used for various applications such as for radiation dosimetry, medical and radiation shielding.

  2. Bactericidal activity of moxifloxacin against multidrug-resistant Streptoccocus pneumoniae at clinically achievable serum and epithelial lining fluid concentrations compared with three other antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Cafini, Fabio; Alou, Luis; Sevillano, David; Valero, Eva; Prieto, José

    2004-10-01

    Time-kill studies compared the activities of moxifloxacin with those of levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 10 pneumococcal strains with various drug susceptibilities. Three Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were resistant to moxifloxacin: 6, 7 and 2 strains were resistant to levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate, respectively. Of these, 1 strain was resistant to all antimicrobial agents studied. Moxifloxacin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were bactericidal after 24h at serum Cmax levels against 9 and 8 strains, respectively, while levofloxacin and azithromycin were bactericidal against 3 and 2 strains, respectively. A higher activity was only observed for amoxicillin-clavulanate for logarithmic phase cultures at 1, 4 and 8h compared with stationary phase organisms. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and moxifloxacin were bactericidal at free serum levels (protein unbound) after 24h against 8 and 3 strains, respectively. Moxifloxacin was bactericidal at epithelial lining fluid levels against all strains at 24h, including one moxifloxacin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and azithromycin-resistant strain; lower levels of bactericidal activity was observed for levofloxacin, azithromycin and amoxicillin-clavulanate against 7, 2 and 4 strains, respectively. This demonstrated the importance of moxifloxacin tissue levels. PMID:15380257

  3. Correlation between DNA ploidy, metaphase high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization results and clinical outcome of synovial sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although synovial sarcoma is the 3rd most commonly occurring mesenchymal tumor in young adults, usually with a highly aggressive clinical course; remarkable differences can be seen regarding the clinical outcome. According to comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data published in the literature, the simple and complex karyotypes show a correlation between the prognosis and clinical outcome. In addition, the connection between DNA ploidy and clinical course is controversial. The aim of this study was using a fine-tuning interpretation of our DNA ploidy results and to compare these with metaphase high-resolution CGH (HR-CGH) results. Methods DNA ploidy was determined on Feulgen-stained smears in 56 synovial sarcoma cases by image cytometry; follow up was available in 46 cases (average: 78 months). In 9 cases HR-CGH analysis was also available. Results 10 cases were found DNA-aneuploid, 46 were DNA-diploid by image cytometry. With fine-tuning of the diploid cases according to the 5c exceeding events (single cell aneuploidy), 33 cases were so called "simple-diploid" (without 5c exceeding events) and 13 cases were "complex-diploid"; containing 5c exceeding events (any number). Aneuploid tumors contained large numbers of genetic alterations with the sum gain of at least 2 chromosomes (A-, B- or C-group) detected by HR-CGH. In the "simple-diploid" cases no or few genetic alterations could be detected, whereas the "complex-diploid" samples numerous aberrations (equal or more than 3) could be found. Conclusions Our results show a correlation between the DNA-ploidy, a fine-tuned DNA-ploidy and the HR-CGH results. Furthermore, we found significant correlation between the different ploidy groups and the clinical outcome (p < 0.05). PMID:22053830

  4. Comparative Analysis of Satellite Measurements Calculation Results Using the Postprocessing Services: Asg-Eupos (Poland), Apps (USA) and CSRS (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.

  5. Does Simulation-based Medical Education with Deliberate Practice Yield Better Results than Traditional Clinical Education? A Meta-Analytic Comparative Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    McGaghie, William C.; Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This article presents a comparison of the effectiveness of traditional clinical education toward skill acquisition goals versus simulation-based medical education (SBME) with deliberate practice (DP). Method This is a quantitative meta-analysis that spans twenty years, 1990 to 2010. A search strategy involving three literature databases, 12 search terms, and four inclusion criteria was used. Four authors independently retrieved and reviewed articles. Main outcome measures were extracted to calculate effect sizes. Results Of 3,742 articles identified, 14 met inclusion criteria. The overall effect size for the 14 studies evaluating the comparative effectiveness of SBME compared to traditional clinical medical education was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.76; P < .001). Conclusions Although the number of reports analyzed in this meta analysis is small, these results show that SBME with DP is superior to traditional clinical medical education in achieving specific clinical skill acquisition goals. SBME is a complex educational intervention that should be introduced thoughtfully and evaluated rigorously at training sites. Further research on incorporating SBME with DP into medical education is needed to amplify its power, utility, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:21512370

  6. Achievement of physical activity recommendation and activity levels in students of human medicine compared with the general Austrian population aged between 20 and 29 years.

    PubMed

    Lackinger, Christian; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2015-03-01

    Weekly 150 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity and muscle-strengthening activities are a major public health goal. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form was applied in 467 students of the 4th year at the Medical University of Vienna and compared with subsamples of data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey, 795 subjects with and 1131 subjects without higher education aged 20-29 years. Median values for weekly total energy expenditure were 3083, 3048, and 3816 MET-minutes (P < 0.001) in medical students, higher and lower educated subjects of the general population. Energy expenditure with vigorous intensity was highest in medical students. A total of 39.4 % of medical students reached the minimum requirements of the national physical activity recommendations. Although medical students are taught those recommendation and are aware of their health benefits, only a minority reach them. If medical students engage in physical activity, they do it with higher intensity than the general population. PMID:25786602

  7. Direct disk diffusion test using European Clinical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoints provides reliable results compared with the standard method

    PubMed Central

    Stokkou, Sofia; Geginat, Gernot; Schlüter, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis represents a life-threatening infection requiring the immediate start of antibacterial treatment to reduce morbidity. Thus, laboratories use direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) to rapidly generate preliminary results from positive blood cultures. As the direct AST has not yet been published to be evaluated with EUCAST breakpoints, the purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability of the direct agar diffusion test to correctly produce AST results from positive monobacterial blood cultures compared with the VITEK2-based definitive AST, when current EUCAST breakpoints were used. A total of 428 isolates from unselected monobacterial routine blood cultures and 110 challenge strains were included. Direct agar diffusion-based and standard VITEK2-based AST of 2803 bacterium–drug combinations yielded a total clinical category agreement of 95.47% with 1.28% very major errors and 3.42% combined major and minor errors. On the species level, very major errors were observed in the species–drug combinations Enterococcus spp.–high-level gentamicin (10.87%) and Staphylococcus spp.–rifampicin (5%), only. No very major errors occurred with Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In most species–drug combinations, the direct agar diffusion test using EUCAST breakpoints precisely predicted the result of the definitive antibiotic susceptibility test and, thus, it can be used to optimize empiric antibiotic therapy until definitive results are available. PMID:25883798

  8. Direct disk diffusion test using European Clinical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoints provides reliable results compared with the standard method.

    PubMed

    Stokkou, Sofia; Geginat, Gernot; Schlüter, Dirk; Tammer, Ina

    2015-03-01

    Sepsis represents a life-threatening infection requiring the immediate start of antibacterial treatment to reduce morbidity. Thus, laboratories use direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) to rapidly generate preliminary results from positive blood cultures. As the direct AST has not yet been published to be evaluated with EUCAST breakpoints, the purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability of the direct agar diffusion test to correctly produce AST results from positive monobacterial blood cultures compared with the VITEK2-based definitive AST, when current EUCAST breakpoints were used. A total of 428 isolates from unselected monobacterial routine blood cultures and 110 challenge strains were included. Direct agar diffusion-based and standard VITEK2-based AST of 2803 bacterium-drug combinations yielded a total clinical category agreement of 95.47% with 1.28% very major errors and 3.42% combined major and minor errors. On the species level, very major errors were observed in the species-drug combinations Enterococcus spp.-high-level gentamicin (10.87%) and Staphylococcus spp.-rifampicin (5%), only. No very major errors occurred with Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In most species-drug combinations, the direct agar diffusion test using EUCAST breakpoints precisely predicted the result of the definitive antibiotic susceptibility test and, thus, it can be used to optimize empiric antibiotic therapy until definitive results are available. PMID:25883798

  9. Portal Vein Embolization before Right Hepatectomy: Improved Results Using n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Compared to Microparticles Plus Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Guiu, Boris Bize, Pierre; Gunthern, Daniel; Demartines, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin; Denys, Alban

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is currently no consensus in the literature on which embolic agent induces the greatest degree of liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization (PVE). Only experimental results in a pig model have demonstrated an advantage of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) over 3 other embolic materials (hydrophilic gel, small and large polyvinyl alcohol particles) for PVE. Therefore, the aim of this human study was to retrospectively compare the results of PVE using NBCA with those using spherical microparticles plus coils. Methods: A total of 34 patients underwent PVE using either NBCA (n = 20), or spherical microparticles plus coils (n = 14). PVE was decided according to preoperative volumetry on the basis of contrast-enhanced CT. Groups were compared for age, sex, volume of the left lobe before PVE and future remnant liver ratio (FRL) (volume of the left lobe/total liver volume - tumor volume). The primary end point was the increase in left lobe volume 1 month after PVE. Secondary end points were procedure complications and biological tolerance. Results: Both groups were similar in terms of age, sex ratio, left lobe volume, and FRL before PVE. NBCA induced a greater increase in volume after PVE than did microparticles plus coils (respectively, +74 {+-} 69 % and +23 {+-} 14 %, p < 0.05). The amount of contrast medium used for the procedure was significantly larger when microparticles and coils rather than NBCA were used (respectively, 264 {+-} 43 ml and 162 {+-} 34 ml, p < 0.01). The rate of PVE complications as well as the biological tolerance was similar in both groups. Conclusion: NBCA seems more effective than spherical microparticles plus coils to induce left-lobe hypertrophy.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON THE RESULT FOR ARTHROSCOPIC ROTATOR CUFF SUTURE BETWEEN SMOKING AND NON-SMOKING PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alexandre; Valin, Márcio Rangel; Zampieri, Rodrigo; Almeida, Nayvaldo Couto de; Roveda, Gilberto; Agostini, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively analyze the results from arthroscopic rotator cuff suture between smoking and non-smoking patients. Methods: A group of 286 patients who underwent arthroscopic suturing of primary rotator cuff injuries between June 12, 2002, and May 14, 2008, was analyzed. The patients included in the study were evaluated using the UCLA scale, with a minimum follow-up of 12 months and average of 56.52 months. The variables studied were age, sex, side operated, dominance, profile of cigarette use and UCLA index. Results: This study evaluated a total of 205 patients. Mean age (p = 0.289) and sex (p = 0.124) were analyzed statistically between the smoking and non-smoking patients and the two groups were considered to be similar. The average UCLA score for the non-smoking patients (143) was 34 (32 to 35). The average UCLA score for the smoking patients (51) was 33 (29 to 35). There was no statistically significant difference in UCLA score (p = 0.123) between the smoking and non-smoking patients. For the purposes of statistical analysis, we grouped the small and medium tears (107) and compared these with the large and extensive tears (80), between smokers and non-smokers. There was no statistically significant difference using the Mann-Whitney test regarding the small and medium tears (p = 818). There was a statistically significant difference using the Mann-Whitney test regarding the large and extended tears, between the smoking and non-smoking patients, such that the non-smokers showed better UCLA scores (p = 0.038). Conclusion: The results from arthroscopic suturing of large and extensive rotator cuff injuries are inferior among smoking patients. PMID:27027006

  11. An international comparative public health analysis of sex trafficking of women and girls in eight cities: achieving a more effective health sector response.

    PubMed

    Macias Konstantopoulos, Wendy; Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Cafferty, Elizabeth; McGahan, Anita; Williams, Timothy P; Castor, Judith Palmer; Wolferstan, Nadya; Purcell, Genevieve; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Sex trafficking, trafficking for the purpose of forced sexual exploitation, is a widespread form of human trafficking that occurs in all regions of the world, affects mostly women and girls, and has far-reaching health implications. Studies suggest that up to 50 % of sex trafficking victims in the USA seek medical attention while in their trafficking situation, yet it is unclear how the healthcare system responds to the needs of victims of sex trafficking. To understand the intersection of sex trafficking and public health, we performed in-depth qualitative interviews among 277 antitrafficking stakeholders across eight metropolitan areas in five countries to examine the local context of sex trafficking. We sought to gain a new perspective on this form of gender-based violence from those who have a unique vantage point and intimate knowledge of push-and-pull factors, victim health needs, current available resources and practices in the health system, and barriers to care. Through comparative analysis across these contexts, we found that multiple sociocultural and economic factors facilitate sex trafficking, including child sexual abuse, the objectification of women and girls, and lack of income. Although there are numerous physical and psychological health problems associated with sex trafficking, health services for victims are patchy and poorly coordinated, particularly in the realm of mental health. Various factors function as barriers to a greater health response, including low awareness of sex trafficking and attitudinal biases among health workers. A more comprehensive and coordinated health system response to sex trafficking may help alleviate its devastating effects on vulnerable women and girls. There are numerous opportunities for local health systems to engage in antitrafficking efforts while partnering across sectors with relevant stakeholders. PMID:24151086

  12. Factors influencing intact skin in women with incontinence using absorbent products: results of a cross-sectional, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, Yoshie; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sanada, Hiromi; Konya, Chizuko; Sugama, Junko

    2010-12-01

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common problem in elderly incontinent people. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to examine and compare properties of intact skin on the buttocks and subumbilicus area in elderly people wearing absorbent products and to identify pad environment factors that affect skin properties. Study participants included 45 elderly (age range: 68 to 103 years) female residents of one nursing home who were incontinent of feces and urine (dual incontinence group--DIG, n = 35) or feces only (fecal incontinence group--FIG, n= 10). Skin pH and hydration were measured and factors believed to affect the perineal environment and contribute to the development of IAD were assessed. In both DIG and FIG, skin hydration levels and pH were higher in the coccygeal than in the subumbilical area. Skin hydration of the sacral region in the DIG was significantly higher than in the FIG (P = 0.019) and skin pH on the coccygeal region and sacral region in the DIG was significantly higher than in the FIG (coccygeal region, P = 0.013; sacral region, P = 0.023). Absorbent pad surface pH (P &0.01) and excessive sweating (P = 0.006) were significantly related to skin pH. Results show that properties of perineal skin in elderly women with incontinence are affected by occlusion with pads, increasing the risk of IAD. Studies comparing the effect of various types of pads and pad-change frequencies on skin properties are needed. PMID:21205991

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Michigan showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Missouri showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  15. Comparative analysis of intraoperative radiofrequency ablation versus non-anatomical hepatic resection for small hepatocellular carcinoma: short-term result

    PubMed Central

    Yune, Yongwoo; Kim, Seokwhan; Song, Insang

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims To compare the clinical outcomes of intraoperative radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and non-anatomical hepatic resection (NAHR) for small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods From February 2007 to January 2015, clinical outcomes of thirty four patients with HCC receiving RFA or NAHR were compared, retrospectively. Results There was no difference of patient and tumor characteristic between the two groups that received RFA or NAHR. The 1, 2, and 3-year recurrence rates following RFA were 32.2%, 32.2% and 59.3% respectively, and 6.7%, 33.3% and 33.3% following NAHR respectively (p=0.287). The 1, 2 and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates following RFA were 100%, 88.9% and 76.2% respectively, and 100%, 85.6% and 85.6%, respectively, following NAHR (p=0.869). We did not find a definite statistical difference in recurrence rate and OS rate between the two groups. In the multivariate analysis, number of tumor was an independent prognostic factor for recurrence and albumin was an independent prognostic factor for OS. Conclusions We recommend non-anatomical hepatic resection rather than intraoperative RFA in small sized HCC, due to a higher recurrence rate in intraoperative RFA. Intraoperative RFA was inferior to non-anatomical hepatic resection in terms of recurrence rate. We need to select the optimal treatment considering liver function and possibility of recurrence. PMID:26693237

  16. Tectonic lineament mapping of the Thaumasia Plateau, Mars: Comparing results from photointerpretation and a semi-automatic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, David A.; Di Achille, Gaetano; Barata, Maria Teresa; Alves, Eduardo Ivo

    2012-11-01

    Photointerpretation is the technique generally used to map and analyze the tectonic features existent on Mars surface. In this study we compare qualitatively and quantitatively two tectonic maps based on the interpretation of satellite imagery and a map derived semi-automatically. The comparison of the two photointerpreted datasets allowed us to infer some of the factors that can influence the process of lineament mapping on Mars. Comparing the manually mapped datasets with the semi-automatically mapped features allowed us to evaluate the accuracy of the semi-automatic mapping procedure, as well as to identify the main limitations of the semi-automatic approach to mapping tectonic structures from MOLA altimetry. Significant differences were found between the two photointerpretations. The qualitative and quantitative comparisons showed how mapping criteria, illumination conditions and scale of analysis can locally influence the interpretations. The semi-automatic mapping procedure proved to be mainly dependent on data quality; nevertheless the methodology, when applied to MOLA data, is able to produce meaningful results at a regional scale.

  17. One-dimensional counterion gas between charged surfaces: Exact results compared with weak- and strong-coupling analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dean, David S.; Horgan, Ron R.; Naji, Ali; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate exactly the statistical integral for an inhomogeneous one-dimensional (1D) counterion-only Coulomb gas between two charged boundaries and from this compute the effective interaction, or disjoining pressure, between the bounding surfaces. Our exact results are compared to the limiting cases of weak and strong couplings which are the same for 1D and three-dimensional (3D) systems. For systems with a large number of counterions it is found that the weak-coupling (mean-field) approximation for the disjoining pressure works perfectly and that fluctuations around the mean-field in 1D are much smaller than in 3D. In the case of few counterions it works less well and strong-coupling approximation performs much better as it takes into account properly the discreteness of the counterion charges. PMID:19275406

  18. Comparative Studies of Diurnal and Nocturnal Rodents: Differences in Lifestyle Result in Alterations in Cortical Field Size and Number

    PubMed Central

    Campi, Katharine L.; Krubitzer, Leah

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine and describe the neuroanatomical organization of sensory cortex in four rodents: laboratory Norway rats (Long Evans; Rattus norvegicus), wild-caught Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), wild-caught California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi), and wild-caught Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). Specifically, we examined the myeloarchitecture and cytochrome oxidase reactivity for several well-identified areas in visual cortex (areas 17, 18, and 19), somatosensory cortex (areas S1, S2 and PV), and auditory cortex [areas A1 + AAF (R) and TA] and compared the percentage of dorsolateral cortex devoted to each of these areas. Our results demonstrate that squirrels have a larger mean percentage of dorsolateral cortex devoted to visual areas than rats. The difference is due to the greater percentage of cortex devoted to known areas such as area 17 and area 18 and not simply to a difference in the number of visual areas, which ultimately makes this distinction even more pronounced. Furthermore, both rat groups have a larger percentage of the dorsolateral cortex devoted to somatosensory and auditory cortical areas. Differences within groups were also observed. The arboreal squirrel had a larger mean percentage of dorsolateral cortex devoted to areas 17 and 18 compared with the terrestrial squirrel. The laboratory Norway rat had a larger percentage of dorsolateral cortex devoted to both somatosensory and auditory areas than the wild-caught Norway rat. Our results indicate that differences in sensory apparatus, use of sensory systems, and niche are reflected in the organization and size of cortical areas. PMID:20886618

  19. Midterm Clinical and First Reproductive Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Uterine Fibroid Embolization and Myomectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, Michal Maskova, Jana; Fucikova, Zuzana; Kuzel, David; Belsan, Tomas; Sosna, Ondrej

    2008-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the midterm results of a radiological and surgical approach to uterine fibroids. One hundred twenty-one women with reproductive plans who presented with an intramural fibroid(s) larger than 4 cm were randomly selected for either uterine artery embolization (UAE) or myomectomy. We compared the efficacy and safety of the two procedures and their impact on patient fertility. Fifty-eight embolizations and 63 myomectomies (42 laparoscopic, 21 open) were performed. One hundred eighteen patients have finished at least a 12-month follow-up; the mean follow-up in the entire study population was 24.9 months. Embolized patients underwent a significantly shorter procedure and required a shorter hospital stay and recovery period. They also presented with a lower CRP concentration on the second day after the procedure (p < 0.0001 for all parameters). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the rate of technical success, symptomatic effectiveness, postprocedural follicle stimulating hormone levels, number of reinterventions for fibroid recurrence or regrowth, or complication rates. Forty women after myomectomy and 26 after UAE have tried to conceive, and of these we registered 50 gestations in 45 women. There were more pregnancies (33) and labors (19) and fewer abortions (6) after surgery than after embolization (17 pregnancies, 5 labors, 9 abortions) (p < 0.05). Obstetrical and perinatal results were similar in both groups, possibly due to the low number of labors after UAE to date. We conclude that UAE is less invasive and as symptomatically effective and safe as myomectomy, but myomectomy appears to have superior reproductive outcomes in the first 2 years after treatment.

  20. Early results from an effort to downscale a global dissolved inorganic nitrogen model to achieve a regional assessment of nitrogen dynamics in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. C.; Harrison, J.

    2013-12-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) export to coastal systems has increased dramatically since the early 20th century. The increase in N has been linked to significant environmental impacts such as eutrophication, fish kills, and harmful algal blooms and is caused in part by the increasing use and quantity of synthetic fertilizer on farmland. Significant portions of both the Willamette River Valley in Oregon and the Palouse region of eastern Washington are agricultural land, approximately 20% and 57% respectively. Nitrogen in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) can leach from farms and pasture land into ground and surface water systems. This leaching, combined with DIN in runoff, contributes to the environmental degradation of both waterways (i.e. streams, rivers) and coastal estuaries. Because of this it is important to understand what effects changes in DIN application will have on water quality and DIN export to the coast. DIN export data, retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, was analyzed for 23 major subbasins in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) and estimates DIN export (per area yield) ranging from 5.0 to 883.1 kg N km-2 yr-1. Here we present early results from our effort to downscale the Global Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (Global NEWS) DIN model for application within the Columbia River Basin (CRB). This first attempt at downscaling Global NEWS is missing some key higher-resolution N inputs for the model as well as accurate dam retention and runoff factors which could account for the low correlation between model output and observed data (R2 = 0.21).Our regional model predicts DIN yields ranging from 7.9 to 1146.6 kg N km-2 yr-1. Both the model output and observed data predict the highest per area DIN yields occurring in the Willamette river subbasin. Total DIN export to the coast was modeled as 0.06 Tg N yr-1 compared to 0.07 Tg N yr-1 calculated from the measured data. Based on current model inputs biological N2

  1. Hypofractionation Results in Reduced Tumor Cell Kill Compared to Conventional Fractionation for Tumors With Regions of Hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, David J.; Keall, Paul J.; Loo, Billy W.; Chen, Zhe J.; Brown, J. Martin

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Tumor hypoxia has been observed in many human cancers and is associated with treatment failure in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of different radiation fractionation schemes on tumor cell killing, assuming a realistic distribution of tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: A probability density function for the partial pressure of oxygen in a tumor cell population is quantified as a function of radial distance from the capillary wall. Corresponding hypoxia reduction factors for cell killing are determined. The surviving fraction of a tumor consisting of maximally resistant cells, cells at intermediate levels of hypoxia, and normoxic cells is calculated as a function of dose per fraction for an equivalent tumor biological effective dose under normoxic conditions. Results: Increasing hypoxia as a function of distance from blood vessels results in a decrease in tumor cell killing for a typical radiotherapy fractionation scheme by a factor of 10{sup 5} over a distance of 130 {mu}m. For head-and-neck cancer and prostate cancer, the fraction of tumor clonogens killed over a full treatment course decreases by up to a factor of {approx}10{sup 3} as the dose per fraction is increased from 2 to 24 Gy and from 2 to 18 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Hypofractionation of a radiotherapy regimen can result in a significant decrease in tumor cell killing compared to standard fractionation as a result of tumor hypoxia. There is a potential for large errors when calculating alternate fractionations using formalisms that do not account for tumor hypoxia.

  2. Gadolinium Enhanced MR-angiography Results in Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease: Positive Predictive Value Compared to Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mirsharifi, Seyed Rasool; Noparast, Morteza; Khazravi, Mona; Ghanaati, Hossein; Shakiba, Majid; Sharifi, Amirsina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) represents systematic atherosclerosis of great vessels. PAD affects approximately 10-20 % of patients older than 60 years and is associated with high mortality and morbidity rate debilitating individuals’ life. Objectives: To compare the results of Gadolinium enhanced MR-Angiography and surgery in patients suspected to have peripheral arterial disease. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 30 consecutive patients matching the inclusion criteria were enrolled and MR-Angiography was performed prior to surgery for each one. Results: 22 patients were male (73.3%) and the mean age was 60.3 ± 10.6 years in our study group. The most common artery for cut off and run off was superior femoral artery in both assessments. Proximal section of each artery was the most common anatomical section for cut off and run off. There was a same report of cut off artery by MR-Angiography and surgery (kappa coefficient of agreement was 0.96, P value < 0.001) and positive predictive value was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.83-0.99). Conclusions: According to our findings MR-angiography is an appropriate alternative imaging modality for patients suspected to have peripheral arterial disease and it facilitates the early diagnosis proposed by the clinical findings. Also beneficial characteristics of this method such as low exposure to ionizing radiation, repeatability, and low risk of contrast agent-induced nephropathy make it a modality of choice in patients with renal impairment. PMID:25763247

  3. A comparative study between experimental results and numerical predictions of multi-wall structural response to hypervelocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, William P.; Peck, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last three decades, multiwall structures have been analyzed extensively, primarily through experiment, as a means of increasing the protection afforded to spacecraft structure. However, as structural configurations become more varied, the number of tests required to characterize their response increases dramatically. As an alternative, numerical modeling of high-speed impact phenomena is often being used to predict the response of a variety of structural systems under impact loading conditions. This paper presents the results of a preliminary numerical/experimental investigation of the hypervelocity impact response of multiwall structures. The results of experimental high-speed impact tests are compared against the predictions of the HULL hydrodynamic computer code. It is shown that the hypervelocity impact response characteristics of a specific system cannot be accurately predicted from a limited number of HULL code impact simulations. However, if a wide range of impact loadings conditions are considered, then the ballistic limit curve of the system based on the entire series of numerical simulations can be used as a relatively accurate indication of actual system response.

  4. Comparative Results from a CFD Challenge Over a 2D Three-Element High-Lift Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klausmeyer, Steven M.; Lin, John C.

    1997-01-01

    A high-lift workshop was held in May of 1993 at NASA Langley Research Center. A major part of the workshop centered on a blind test of various computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods in which the flow about a two- dimensional (2D) three-element airfoil was computed without prior knowledge of the experimental data. The results of this 'blind' test revealed: (1) The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods generally showed less variability among codes than did potential/Euler solvers coupled with boundary-layer solution techniques. However, some of the coupled methods still provided excellent predictions. (2) Drag prediction using coupled methods agreed more closely with experiment than the RANS methods. Lift was more accurately predicted than drag for both methods. (3) The CFD methods did well in predicting lift and drag changes due to changes in Reynolds number, however, they did not perform as well when predicting lift and drag increments due to changing flap gap, (4) Pressures and skin friction compared favorably with experiment for most of the codes. (5) There was a large variability in most of the velocity profile predictions. Computational results predict a stronger siat wake than measured suggesting a missing component in turbulence modeling, perhaps curvature effects.

  5. Comparing results from actual and virtual linear scanlines in fractured sandstones of the Marnoso-Arenacea Formation, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsani, Angelo; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Bistacchi, Andrea; Ogata, Kei; Storti, Fabrizio; Fetter, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional photogrammetric techniques arecommonly used to generate high-resolution digital outcrop models suitable to complement stratigraphic and structural field studies. This is particularly true for near vertical outcrops were direct data collection is very difficult to perform, provided that the data are reliable. To check whether fracture attribute data acquired from photogrammetric digital outcrop models can be effectively integrate field data, we performed a multisource data acquisition programme on the master joint set affecting the Langhian part of the Marnoso Arenacea Formation, a foredeep siliciclastic turbidite succession widely exposed in the external sector of the Northern Apennines. We selected an about 90 m high vertical cliff in a meander of the Santerno River, which was surveyed by both terrestrial and drone-aided photogrammetry to produce two different digital outcrop models of the same strata. Moreover, field data were collected in the same strata along river bed exposures few hundred meters upstream. Comparison of master joint attributes, namely orientation, spacing and height, collected along linear scanlines in the field and in the two digital outcrop models shows quite comparable results, particularly when FSI (Fracture Spacing Index) values are considered. Sensitivity tests of the impact of the number of data on the statistical results from photogrammetric scanlines, where hundreds of measurements can be collected along each scan line, were also performed. Our results provide further support to the effectiveness of the integration between field and photogrammetrically-obtained structural data to study fracture densities in partially accessible exposures. Given the large data numbers that can be collected in digital outcrop models, once validated in the field, photogrammetric data allow robust statistical analysis to be performed on fracture attributes.

  6. Cardiovascular and selected comorbidities in early arthritis and early spondyloarthritis, a comparative study: results from the ESPOIR and DESIR cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Gherghe, Ana Maria; Dougados, Maxime; Combe, Bernard; Landewé, Robert; Mihai, Carina; Berenbaum, Francis; Mariette, Xavier; Wolterbeek, Ron; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of comorbidities in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) and early axial spondyloarthritis (ESpA) versus the general population. Methods Baseline data of 689 patients with ERA from the Etude et Suivi des Polyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes (ESPOIR) cohort (age 48.2±12.1 years, symptoms duration 14.2±14.5 weeks) and 645 patients with ESpA from Devenir des Spondylarthropathies Indifférenciées Récentes (DESIR; age 32.8±8.4 years, axial symptoms duration 79.0±45.7 weeks) were analysed. Metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), infections and neoplasia were determined in each cohort. The prevalence (95% CI) of several comorbidities was compared with that in the French general population. For patients without CVD, the 10-year risk of developing CVD was calculated using the Framingham and SCORE equations. The heart age was calculated using the 2008 Framingham points system. Results 42% of patients with ERA and 20.3% of patients with ESpA had at least 1 comorbidity; the most common were arterial hypertension (AHT) and dyslipidaemia. AHT prevalence (95% CI) in ERA (18.2% (15.5% to 21.3%)), but not in ESpA (5.08% (3.57% to 7.14%)), was significantly increased (p<0.05) compared with the general population (7.58%). Prevalence of tuberculosis history was higher in ERA (4.7% (3.3% to 6.6%)), and ESpA (0.99% (0.4% to 2.3%)) than in the general population (0.02%; both p<0.05). No differences were observed in malignancies, coronary heart disease or diabetes. In ERA, among patients without a history of CVD, an intermediate to high CVD risk was found. The heart age exceeded the real age by 4.1±9.6 years in ERA and by 2.1±7.0 years in ESpA (p<0.001). Conclusions We found an increased prevalence of AHT and tuberculosis history in ERA and ESpA, and an increased CVD risk. These results should prompt rheumatologists to check these comorbidities early in the disease. PMID:26535145

  7. Radioembolization results in longer time-to-progression and reduced toxicity compared with chemoembolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J; Kulik, Laura; Wang, Edward; Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent T; Gupta, Ramona; Nikolaidis, Paul; Miller, Frank H; Yaghmai, Vahid; Ibrahim, Saad M; Senthilnathan, Seanthan; Baker, Talia; Gates, Vanessa L; Atassi, Bassel; Newman, Steven; Memon, Khairuddin; Chen, Richard; Vogelzang, Robert L; Nemcek, Albert A; Resnick, Scott A; Chrisman, Howard B; Carr, James; Omary, Reed A; Abecassis, Michael; Benson, Al B; Mulcahy, Mary F

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Chemoembolization is a standard treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Radioembolization with 90Y microspheres is a new, transarterial approach to radiation therapy. We performed a comparative effectiveness analysis of these therapies in patients with HCC. Methods We collected data from 463 patients who were treated with transarterial locoregional therapies (chemoembolization or radioembolization) over a 9-year period. We excluded patients who were not appropriate for comparison and analyzed data from 245 (122 who received chemoembolization and 123 who received radioembolization). Patients were followed for signs of toxicity; all underwent imaging analysis at baseline and follow-up timepoints. Overall survival was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included safety, response rate, and time-to-progression. Uni- and multi-variate analyses were performed. Results Abdominal pain and increased transaminase activity were more frequent following chemoembolization (P<.05). There was a trend that patients treated with radioembolization had a higher response rate than with chemoembolization (49% vs. 36%, P=0.104). Although time-to-progression was longer following radioembolization than chemoembolization (13.3 months vs 8.4 months, P=0.046), median survival times were not statistically different (17.4 months vs 20.5 months, P=0.232). Among patients with intermediate-stage disease, survival was similar between groups that received chemoembolization (17.5 months) and radioembolization (17.2 months, P=0.42). Conclusion Patients with HCC treated by chemoembolization or radioembolization with 90Y microspheres had similar survival times. Radioembolization resulted in longer time-to-progression and less toxicity than chemoembolization. Post-hoc analyses of sample size indicated that a randomized study with >1000 patients would be required to establish equivalence of survival times between patients given the different therapies. PMID:21044630

  8. Prevention praised, cure preferred: results of between-subjects experimental studies comparing (monetary) appreciation for preventive and curative interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background 'An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure’ is a common saying, and indeed, most health economic studies conclude that people are more willing to pay for preventive measures than for treatment activities. This may be because most health economic studies ask respondents to compare preventive measures with treatment, and thus prompt respondents to consider other uses of resources. However, psychological theorizing suggests that, when methods do not challenge subjects to consider other uses of resources, curative treatment is favored over prevention. Could it be that while prevention is praised, cure is preferred? Methods In two experimental studies, we investigated, from a psychological perspective and using a between-subjects design, whether prevention or treatment is preferred and why. In both studies, participants first read a lung cancer prevention or treatment intervention scenario that varied on the prevention-treatment dimension, but that were the same on factors like 'costs per saved life’ and kind of disease. Then participants completed a survey measuring appreciation (general and monetary) as well as a number of potential mediating variables. Results Both studies clearly demonstrated that, when the design was between-subjects, participants had greater (general and monetary) appreciation for treatment interventions than for preventive interventions with perceived urgency of the intervention quite consistently mediating this effect. Differences in appreciation of treatment over preventive treatment were shown to be .59 (Study 1) and .45 (Study 2) on a 5-point scale. Furthermore, participants thought that health insurance should compensate more for the treatment than for preventive measures, differences of 16% (Study 1), and 22% (Study 2). When participants were asked to directly compare both interventions on the basis of a short description, they preferred the preventive intervention. Conclusion It appears that people claim to prefer

  9. Treating Anxiety Disorders in Inner City Schools: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing CBT and Usual Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) in inner city schools, when delivered by novice CBT clinicians, and compared to usual care (UC), is unknown. Objective: This pilot study addressed this issue by comparing a modular CBT for anxiety disorders to UC in a sample of 32 volunteer youth (mean age 10.28 years, 63%…

  10. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  11. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  12. Two-Year Results of a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing ProDisc-C and Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Michael E.; Odum, Susan M.; Gottlieb, Jon R.; Spector, Leo R.; Darden, Bruce V.

    2008-01-01

    Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a well-accepted procedure for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy. Hilibrand et al. reported that adjacent segment disease is known to occur at a rate of 2.9% per year after cervical fusion. Developers of cervical disc replacements postulate that maintaining more normal motion may reduce the rate of adjacent segment disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the 2-year efficacy and safety of ACDF and cervical total disc replacement surgery. Methods Eighty-seven patients from 2 sites of this 13 multicenter trial were randomized to treatment with either ACDF or cervical disc replacement surgery with the ProDisc-C (Synthes, Inc., West Chester, Pennsylvania) implant. Patient outcomes were assessed via neck disability index (NDI), visual analog pain scale (VAS), and health survey SF-36 (QualityMetric, Lincoln, Rhode Island). Forty-three patients were treated with ACDF using allograft and plating, and 44 were treated with cervical disc replacement. The average age was 44 (23 to 61) years. All surgical procedures were single level. Results At all measured time points, both groups showed statistically significant improvement over their preoperative baseline with regard to NDI, VAS arm and neck pain levels, SF-36 mental composite score (MCS), and physical composite score (PCS) (P < .05). At 24 months, the disc replacement group showed results equivalent to the ACDF group with regard to NDI, VAS arm and neck pain, and SF-36 MCS. At 24 months, the disc replacement group showed significantly greater improvement in SF- 36 PCS as compared to the ACDF group (P = .0359). Of note, there was a trend toward greater patient satisfaction in the disc replacement group as compared to the ACDF group (83% versus 71%, P = .144). Conclusions This study indicates that the tested disc replacement device achieves 2-year results ranging from equivalent to superior in comparison to ACDF in the treatment of symptomatic

  13. Comparative effectiveness of biologic monotherapy versus combination therapy for patients with psoriatic arthritis: results from the Corrona registry

    PubMed Central

    Mease, Philip J; Collier, David H; Saunders, Katherine C; Li, Guo; Kremer, Joel M; Greenberg, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the comparative effectiveness of combination therapy (a tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) and a conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (csDMARD) such as methotrexate) and monotherapy (TNFi only) for psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from a large US registry. Methods The analysis included adult patients with PsA who were enrolled in the Corrona database (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01402661), had initiated a TNFi, were biologic naïve, and had a follow-up visit ≥90 days after drug initiation. The endpoints of the analysis were TNFi persistence (drug survival) and time to Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) remission. All analyses were performed using propensity scoring, which were estimated using CDAI and patient sex, to control for channelling bias. Results Of 519 patients meeting the inclusion criteria (318 with combination therapy and 201 with monotherapy), the analysis population was 497 for TNFi persistence and 380 for time to remission. The difference between combination therapy (TNFi+methotrexate, 91% of patients; TNFi+other csDMARD, 9%) and monotherapy was not statistically significant for TNFi persistence (32 and 31 months, p=0.73) and time to remission (21 and 25 months, p=0.56). Predictors of TNFi persistence included Hispanic ethnicity (longer persistence), PsA duration (longer persistence), history of methotrexate use (shorter persistence), body mass index (shorter persistence) and disease activity (shorter persistence). Conclusions Patients with PsA from a large US registry experienced similar TNFi persistence on combination therapy and monotherapy. Prospective, randomised clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of combination therapy versus monotherapy would provide much-needed clarity on treatment options for patients with PsA. Trial registration number NCT01402661. PMID:26819748

  14. A Study of The Eastern Mediterranean Hydrology and Circulation By Comparing Observation and High Resolution Numerical Model Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhammoud, B.; Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    The Eastern Mediterranean hydrology and circulation are studied by comparing the results of a high resolution primitive equation model (described in dedicated session: Béranger et al.) with observations. The model has a horizontal grid mesh of 1/16o and 43 z-levels in the vertical. The model was initialized with the MODB5 climatology and has been forced during 11 years by the daily sea surface fluxes provided by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts analysis in a perpetual year mode corresponding to the year March 1998-February 1999. At the end of the run, the numerical model is able to accurately reproduce the major water masses of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin (Levantine Surface Water, modi- fied Atlantic Water, Levantine Intermediate Water, and Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water). Comparisons with the POEM observations reveal good agreement. While the initial conditions of the model are somewhat different from POEM observations, dur- ing the last year of the simulation, we found that the water mass stratification matches that of the observations quite well in the seasonal mean. During the 11 years of simulation, the model drifts slightly in the layers below the thermocline. Nevertheless, many important physical processes were reproduced. One example is that the dispersal of Adriatic Deep Water into the Levantine Basin is rep- resented. In addition, convective activity located in the northern part of the Levantine Basin occurs in Spring as expected. The surface circulation is in agreement with in-situ and satellite observations. Some well known mesoscale features of the upper thermocline circulation are shown. Sea- sonal variability of transports through Sicily, Otranto and Cretan straits are inves- tigated as well. This work was supported by the french MERCATOR project and SHOM.

  15. Peginterferon add-on results in more HBsAg decline compared to monotherapy in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, W P; Sonneveld, M J; Xie, Q; Guo, S; Zhang, N; Zeuzem, S; Tabak, F; Zhang, Q; Simon, K; Akarca, U S; Streinu-Cercel, A; Hansen, B E; Janssen, H L A

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown whether peginterferon (PEG-IFN) add-on to entecavir (ETV) leads to more HBsAg decline compared to PEG-IFN monotherapy or combination therapy, and whether ETV therapy may prevent HBsAg increase after PEG-IFN cessation. We performed a post hoc analysis of 396 HBeAg-positive patients treated for 72 weeks with ETV + 24 weeks PEG-IFN add-on from week 24 to 48 (add-on, n = 85), 72 weeks with ETV monotherapy (n = 90), 52 weeks with PEG-IFN monotherapy (n = 111) and 52 weeks PEG-IFN + lamivudine (combination, n = 110) within 2 randomized trials. HBsAg decline was assessed at the end of PEG-IFN (EOP) and 6 months after PEG-IFN (EOF) discontinuation. Differences in baseline characteristics were accounted for using inversed probability of treatment weights. At EOP, a HBsAg reduction of ≥1log10 IU/mL was more frequently achieved for patients in the add-on or combination therapy arms (both 36%), compared to PEG-IFN mono (20%) or ETV (8%) (add-on vs PEG-IFN mono P = 0.050). At EOF, the HBsAg reduction ≥1log10 IU/mL was only sustained in patients treated with ETV consolidation (add-on vs combination and PEG-IFN mono: 40% vs 23% and 18%, P = 0.029 and P = 0.003, respectively). For add-on, combination, PEG-IFN mono and ETV, the mean HBsAg-level change at EOF was -0.84, -0.81, -0.68 and -0.33 log10 IU/mL, respectively (P > 0.05 for PEG-IFN arms). HBeAg loss at EOF was 36%, 31%, 33% and 20%, respectively (P > 0.05). PEG-IFN add-on for 24 weeks results in more on-treatment HBsAg decline than does 52 weeks of PEG-IFN monotherapy. ETV therapy may maintain the HBsAg reduction achieved with PEG-IFN. PMID:26403919

  16. Minor counterclockwise rotation of the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) as derived from paleomagnetic results achieved in hematite-bearing Lower Triassic sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szaniawski, Rafał; Ludwiniak, Mirosław; Rubinkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    Paleomagnetic studies accompanied with tectonic fieldworks have been carried out within hematite-bearing Lower Triassic red beds from the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) in order to determine tectonic rotations of regional scale. The studied rocks contain primary remanent magnetization recorded by hematite and display both polarities. The obtained inclination is slightly lower than expected for stable Europe, which could imply either minor latitudinal separation or come from the inclination error. The results from six sampling sites representing rocks situated in autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement and inclined only during the Neogene uplift imply 19° counterclockwise rotation. Considering the tectonic position of the studied rocks, this rotation could be attributed to the entire Tatra Block. In turn, results from rocks tilted in two tectonic events: during Late Cretaceous compression and further in Neogene uplift requires double tectonic correction as normal unfolding procedure results in spurious declination. It is suggested that the latter mechanism together with local rotations of allochthonous nappes may explain part of variable rotations reported in previous paleomagnetic studies of Mesozoic rocks from the Central Western Carpathians.

  17. A simulated reality scenario compared with the computerized Wisconsin card sorting test: an analysis of preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Elkind, J S; Rubin, E; Rosenthal, S; Skoff, B; Prather, P

    2001-08-01

    Neuropsychologists and other clinicians often comment on the minimal relationship that frequently exists between formal assessments of executive functions, analysis of findings, recommendations, and the person's real-life functioning. The authors' believe that current assessments of executive functions do not transfer easily to real-world behavior. There are limitations in the current examinations and in the settings in which they are given. The tests are artificial and the test settings lack the usual stresses, distractions, and multiple demands common to real life. The interactions are unlike what they experience in everyday life. The examiner often, but unintentionally orients the participant to relevant information that in turn can help the person compensate for the difficulties with executive control processes and bias the findings. We believe that virtual reality (VR) more closely approximates real life settings, the distractions, and the common interchanges (VR) provides a "life-like," three-dimensional (3-D) highly interactive environment, and safety from potential dangers that could arise in actual situations. VR can increase motivation because of its gaming, interactive, and immersive qualities and features are easily modified and allow for multiple applications. Our goal is to develop VR assessments that can be administered under controlled and safe conditions, but which are more sensitive to difficulties with executive control processes critical to safe, independent living. This initial study compares several functions assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) with our three-dimensional, stereographic scenario, Look for a Match (LFAM) Study participants completed questionnaires, alternately began with either the WCST or LFAM, and then took the second test. All participants completed motion sickness and follow-up questionnaires. The results demonstrated that the study participants found LFAM to be more enjoyable and interesting, but found the

  18. Achieving a Healthy Zoning Policy in Baltimore: Results of a Health Impact Assessment of the TransForm Baltimore Zoning Code Rewrite

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Amelia; Fichtenberg, Caroline M.; Feingold, Beth J.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Jennings, Jacky M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The social determinants of health (SDH) include factors apart from genes and biology that affect population health. Zoning is an urban planning tool that influences neighborhood built environments. We describe the methods and results of a health impact assessment (HIA) of a rezoning effort in Baltimore, Maryland, called TransForm Baltimore. We highlight findings specific to physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. Methods We conducted a multistage HIA of TransForm Baltimore using HIA practice guidelines. Key informant interviews identified focus areas for the quantitative assessment. A literature review and a zoning code analysis evaluated potential impacts on neighborhood factors including physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. We estimated potential impacts in high- and low-poverty neighborhoods. The findings resulted in recommendations to improve the health-promoting potential of TransForm Baltimore. Results Mixed-use and transit-oriented development were key goals of TransForm Baltimore. Health impacts identified by stakeholders included walkability and healthy communities. For Baltimore residents, we estimated that (1) the percentage of people living in districts allowing mixed-use and off-premise alcohol outlets would nearly triple, (2) 18% would live in transit-oriented development zones, and (3) all residents would live in districts with new lighting and landscaping guidelines. Limiting the concentration of off-premise alcohol outlets represented an opportunity to address health promotion. Conclusions Changes to Baltimore's zoning code could improve population health including decreasing violent crime. HIAs are an important platform for applying SDH to public health practice. This HIA specifically linked municipal zoning policy with promoting healthier neighborhoods. PMID:24179284

  19. Achievements and Challenges upon the Implementation of a Program for National Control of Congenital Chagas in Bolivia: Results 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Billot, Claire; Torrico, Faustino

    2013-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most endemic countries for Chagas disease. Data of 2005 shows that incidence is around 1.09‰ inhabitants and seroprevalence in children under 15 ranged from 10% in urban areas to 40% in rural areas. In this article, we report results obtained during the implementation of the congenital Chagas program, one of the biggest casuistry in congenital Chagas disease, led by National Program of Chagas and Belgian cooperation from 2004 to 2009. The program strategy was based on serological results during pregnancy and on the follow up of children born from positive mothers until one year old; if positive, treatment was done with Benznidazole, 10 mg/Kg/day/30 days with one post treatment control 6 months later. Throughout the length of the program, a total of 318,479 pregnant women were screened and 23.31% were detected positive. 42,538 children born from positive mothers were analyzed at birth by micromethod, of which 1.43% read positive. 10,120 children returned for their second micromethod control of which 2.29% read positive, 7,650 children returned for the serological control, of which 3.32% turned out positive. From the 1,093 positive children, 70% completed the 30 day-treatment and 122 returned for post treatment control with 96% showing a negative result. It has been seen that maternal-fetal transmission rates vary between 2% and 4%, with an average of 2.6% (about half of previously reported studies that reached 5%). In this work, we show that it is possible to implement, with limited resources, a National Congenital Chagas Program and to integrate it into the Bolivian health system. Keys of success are population awareness, health personnel motivation, and political commitment at all levels. PMID:23875039

  20. Achievement of Optimal Medical Therapy Goals for US Adults with Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Todd M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Bittner, Vera; Brenner, David A.; Cushman, Mary; Goff, David C.; Glasser, Stephen; Muntner, Paul; Tabereaux, Paul B.; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a non-clinical trial setting, to determine the proportion of individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) with optimal risk factor levels based on the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial. Background In COURAGE, the addition of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to optimal medical therapy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction in stable CAD patients but resulted in more revascularization procedures. Methods REGARDS is a national prospective cohort study of 30,239 African American and White community-dwelling individuals aged >45 years enrolled in 2003-7. We calculated the proportion of 3,167 participants with self-reported CAD meeting 7 risk factor goals based on COURAGE: 1) aspirin use, 2) systolic blood pressure <130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <85 mmHg (<80 mmHg if diabetic), 3) low density lipoprotein cholesterol <85 mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 mg/dL, and triglycerides <150 mg/dL, 4) fasting glucose <126 mg/dL, 5) nonsmoking status, 6) body mass index <25 kg/m,2 and 7) exercise ≥4 days per week. Results The mean age of participants was 69±9 years, 33% were African American, and 35% were female. Overall, the median number of goals met was 4. Less than a quarter met ≥5 of the 7 goals, and 16% met all 3 goals for aspirin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. Older age, white race, higher income, more education, and higher physical functioning were independently associated with meeting more goals. Conclusions There is substantial room for improvement in risk factor reduction among US individuals with CAD. PMID:24534599

  1. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  2. Early enteral feeding, compared with parenteral, reduces postoperative septic complications. The results of a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, F A; Feliciano, D V; Andrassy, R J; McArdle, A H; Booth, F V; Morgenstein-Wagner, T B; Kellum, J M; Welling, R E; Moore, E E

    1992-01-01

    This two-part meta-analysis combined data from eight prospective randomized trials designed to compare the nutritional efficacy of early enteral (TEN) and parenteral (TPN) nutrition in high-risk surgical patients. The combined data gave sufficient patient numbers (TEN, n = 118; TPN, n = 112) to adequately address whether route of substrate delivery affected septic complication incidence. Phase I (dropouts excluded) meta-analysis confirmed data homogeneity across study sites, that TEN and TPN groups were comparable, and that significantly fewer TEN patients experienced septic complications (TEN, 18%; TPN, 35%; p = 0.01). Phase II meta-analysis, an intent-to-treat analysis (dropouts included), confirmed that fewer TEN patients developed septic complications. Further breakdown by patient type showed that all trauma and blunt trauma subgroups had the most significant reduction in septic complications when fed enterally. In conclusion, this meta-analysis attests to the feasibility of early postoperative TEN in high-risk surgical patients and that these patients have reduced septic morbidity rates compared with those administered TPN. PMID:1386982

  3. Linking Perceptions of School Belonging to Academic Motivation and Academic Achievement amongst Student Athletes: A Comparative Study between High-Revenue Student Athletes and Non-Revenue Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christine Marie

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I examined the relationship that exists among school belonging, achievement motivation, and academic achievement in a sample of student-athletes at UC Berkeley. The goal of the study was to achieve a deeper understanding of how and why achievement motivation and academic achievement is often discrepant between revenue and…

  4. Elementary School Achievement Profiles. Portland Public Schools. A School-by-School Report of Basic Skills Test Results and School/Student/Staff Data: School Year 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This report contains Portland Achievement Levels Tests results for 61 elementary schools, 18 middle schools, and one special program school in the Portland School District for the 1986-87 school year. Twelve different grade-level configurations are represented, from pre-kindergarten to grade 12. Tests are designed to be administered in accordance…

  5. Human Capital: Building the Information Technology Workforce To Achieve Results. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    The Comptroller General of the United States testified before Congress regarding the General Accounting Office's (GAO's) framework for building the information technology (IT) work force to achieve results. The following were among the key points of his testimony: (1) the federal government is facing pervasive human capital challenges that are…

  6. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the 2014 report, "Closing the Achievement Gap Through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten," researchers examined the impacts of "Tools of the Mind" on cognitive and academic…

  7. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2011. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report, issued by the Connecticut Department of Higher Education, reports on trends in higher education for the year 2011. Six goals are presented, each with at least two indicators. Each indicator is broken down into the following subsections: About This Indicator; Highlights; and In the Future. Most indicators also include statistical…

  8. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  9. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  10. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  11. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  12. Converting customer expectations into achievable results.

    PubMed

    Landis, G A

    1999-11-01

    It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system. PMID:10623140

  13. Comparative analysis of substance use in ballet, dance sport, and synchronized swimming: results of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zenic, Natasa; Peric, Mia; Zubcevic, Nada Grcic; Ostojic, Zdenko; Ostojic, Ljerka

    2010-06-01

    There have been few studies comparing substance use and misuse (SU&M) in different performing arts forms. Herein, we identified and compared SU&M in women studying an art (ballet, n = 21), a non-Olympic sport (dance sport, n = 25), and an Olympic sport (synchronized swimming, n = 23). The sample of variables comprised general, educational, and sport factors, as well as SU&M data, including consumption of opiates, cigarettes, alcohol, nutritional supplements, doping behaviors, and beliefs. Using the Kruskal-Wallis test, we found no significant differences between study groups in potential doping behaviors. Most of the examinees reported that they did not rely on physicians' and/or coaches' opinions regarding doping. Only sport dancers recognized their consumption of cannabis as a violation of anti-doping rules. Those more convinced that doping habits are present in their sport (or art) have a certain tendency toward doping usage. In conclusion, a strong anti-doping campaign within the studied arts is suggested, focusing on the health-related problems of SU&M. PMID:20795336

  14. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  15. COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF RETINOIC ACID ON AMPHIBIAN LIMB DEVELOPMENT AND LETHALITY: CHRONIC EXPOSURE RESULTS IN LETHALITY NOT LIMB MALFORMATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, high frequencies of malformations have been reported in amphibians across the United States. It has been suggested that the malformations may be the result of xenobiotic disruption of retinoid signaling pathways during embryogenesis and tadpole development. Therefore, a...

  16. Self-report compared to electronic medical record across eight adult vaccines: Do results vary by demographic factors?

    PubMed Central

    Rolnick, S.J.; Parker, E.D.; Nordin, J.D.; Hedblom, B.D.; Wei, F.; Kerby, T.; Jackson, J.M.; Crain, A.L; Euler, G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunizations are crucial to the prevention of disease, thus, having an accurate measure of vaccination status for a population is an important guide in targeting prevention efforts. In order to comprehensively assess the validity of self-reported adult vaccination status for the eight most common adult vaccines we conducted a survey of vaccination receipt and compared it to the electronic medical record (EMR), which was used as the criterion standard, in a population of community-dwelling patients in a large healthcare system. In addition, we assessed whether validity varied by demographic factors. The vaccines included: pneumococcal (PPSV), influenza (Flu), tetanus diphtheria (Td), tetanus diphtheria pertussis (Tdap), Human PapillomaVirus (HPV), hepatitis A (HepA), hepatitis B (HepB) and herpes zoster (shingles). Telephone surveys were conducted with 11,760 individuals, ≥ 18, half with documented receipt of vaccination and half without. We measured sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, net bias and over- and under-reporting of vaccination. Variation was found across vaccines, however, sensitivity and specificity did not vary substantially by either age or race/ethnicity. Sensitivity ranged between 63% for HepA to over 90% (tetanus, HPV, shingles and Flu). Hispanics were 2.7 times more likely to claim receipt of vaccination compared to whites. For PPSV and Flu those 65+ had low specificity compared to patients of younger ages while those in the youngest age group had lowest specificity for HepA and HepB. In addition to racial/ethnic differences, over-reporting was more frequent in those retired and those with household income less than $75,000. Accurate information for vaccination surveillance is important to estimate progress toward vaccination coverage goals and ensure appropriate policy decisions and allocation of resources for public health. It was clear from our findings that EMR and self-report do not always agree. Finding

  17. Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) office of Research and Evaluation presents Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82 (BSA). The BSA answers the following questions: (1) How does AISD student achievement compare to student achievement nationwide? (2) How does AISD's 1981-82 student achievement compare to the achievement of students in past…

  18. Comparative usefulness of inflammatory markers to indicate bacterial infection-analyzed according to blood culture results and related clinical factors.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Hirokazu; Shirano, Michinori; Kasamatsu, Yu; Morimura, Ayumi; Iida, Ko; Kishi, Tomomi; Goto, Tetsushi; Okamoto, Saki; Ehara, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To assess relationships of inflammatory markers and 2 related clinical factors with blood culture results, we retrospectively investigated inpatients' blood culture and blood chemistry findings that were recorded from January to December 2014 using electronic medical records and analyzed the data of 852 subjects (426 culture-positive and 426 culture-negative). Results suggested that the risk of positive blood culture statistically increased as inflammatory marker levels and the number of related factors increased. Concerning the effectiveness of inflammatory markers, when the outcome definition was also changed for C-reactive protein (CRP), the odds ratio had a similar value, whereas when the outcome definition of blood culture positivity was used for procalcitonin (PCT), the greatest effectiveness of that was detected. Therefore, the current results suggest that PCT is more useful than CRP as an auxiliary indication of bacterial infection. PMID:26525643

  19. Comparing Apples and Oranges: The Mismeasurement of Young Children through the Mismatch of Assessment Purpose and the Interpretation of Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Rena A.; Lyons, Ashley N.; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Grisham-Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of young children in early childhood special education is a central area of educational practice. The results of child assessments often have significant implications for young children, their families, and the programs that serve them, including eligibility for special education services, instructional planning, and documentation…

  20. Mothers say "baby" and their newborns do not choose to listen: a behavioral preference study to compare with ERP results.

    PubMed

    Moon, Christine; Zernzach, Randall C; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2015-01-01

    Previously published results from neonatal brain evoked response potential (ERP) experiments revealed different brain responses to the single word "baby" depending on whether it was recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar female. These results are consistent with behavioral preference studies in which infants altered pacifier sucking to contingently activate recordings of the maternal vs. an unfamiliar female voice, but the speech samples were much longer and information-rich than in the ERP studies. Both types of neonatal voice recognition studies imply postnatal retention of prenatal learning. The preference studies require infant motor and motivation systems to mount a response in addition to voice recognition. The current contingent sucking preference study was designed to test neonatal motivation to alter behavior when the reward is the single word "baby" recorded by the mother or an unfamiliar speaker. Results showed an absent or weak contingent sucking response to the brief maternal voice sample, and they demonstrate the complementary value of electrophysiological and behavioral studies for very early development. Neonates can apparently recognize the maternal voice in brief recorded sample (previous ERP results) but they are not sufficiently motivated by it to alter sucking behavior. PMID:25859203

  1. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  2. Long-term results of a clinical trial comparing isolated vaginal stimulation with combined treatment for women with stress incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Maria Cláudia Bicudo; de Mendonça, Rafaela Rosalba; Rodrigues, Alexandre Oliveira; de Matos, Leandro Luongo; Pompeo, Antônio Carlos Lima; Bezerra, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the efficacy of stress urinary incontinence treatments adding pelvic floor muscle training to vaginal electrical stimulation. Methods Forty-eight women with stress urinary incontinence were randomized into 2 groups: 24 underwent isolated vaginal electrical stimulation, and 24 vaginal electrical stimulation plus pelvic floor muscle training. History, physical examination, voiding diary, perineum strength test, and urodynamic study were assessed. Comparisons were made for adherence to treatment, muscle strength improvement, urinary symptoms, and degree of satisfaction immediately, 12 and 96 months after treatment. Results Patients' degree of satisfaction on vaginal electrical stimulation, and on vaginal electrical stimulation plus pelvic floor muscle training immediately, 12 and 96 months post treatment, were, respectively: 88.2% versus 88.9% 64.7% versus 61.1% and 42.9% versus 28.6% (p>0.05). Conclusion Vaginal electrical stimulation associated to pelvic floor muscle training did not show better results than vaginal electrical stimulation alone. PMID:25003921

  3. From the experimental simulation to integrated non-destructive analysis by means of optical and infrared techniques: results compared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfarra, S.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Lambiase, F.; Paoletti, D.; Di Ilio, A.; Maldague, X.

    2012-11-01

    In this work the possibility of modeling manufacturing ceramic products is analyzed through the application of transient thermography, holographic interferometry and digital speckle photography, in order to identify the subsurface defects characteristics. This integrated method could be used to understand the nature of heterogeneous materials (such as plastic, sponge simulating a void, wood, aluminum) potentially contained within ceramic materials, as well as to predict crack formation due to them. The paper presents the analysis of green ceramic tile containing defects of different types and sizes located at different depths. The finite element method is used for solving the problem of transient heat transfer occurring in experimental conditions. Unknown parameters of the numerical model (such as convective heat transfer coefficients and sample surface emissivity) were adjusted to obtain numerical simulation results as close as possible to those obtained experimentally. Similarities and differences between experimental and simulated data are analyzed and discussed. Possibilities for improving the results and further developments are proposed.

  4. Results, Results, Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dale

    2000-01-01

    Given the amount of time, energy, and money devoted to provincial achievement exams in Canada, it is disturbing that Alberta students and teachers feel so pressured and that the exams do not accurately reflect what students know. Research shows that intelligence has an (untested) emotional component. (MLH)

  5. [Cemented total knee replacement: comparative study between the use or not of tourniquet on the inmediate results].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, J A; Sierra-Pérez, M; García-Velazco, R A; Salas-Mora, C A; Cisneros-González, V M

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of immediate postoperative results of patients undergoing cemented total knee arthroplasty with and without ischemia. Observational, cross-sectional, retrospective, analytical, single-center study that included 180 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty from 2011 to 2014: 120 without ischemia, 60 with ischemia. Mean age was 70 years with SD ± 7. Criteria to assess the immediate postoperative results include intraoperative bleeding, hemoglobin differential and pain. Exclusion criteria comprised patients being treated at a pain clinic, those on anticoagulants, with a history of bleeding disorders, psychiatric conditions, kidney failure or those intolerant to NSAIDs. In total knee arthroplasty without ischemia there is better pain control (p = 0.026). The hemoglobin differential and intraoperative bleeding were less with ischemia (p = 0.008). 32.8% of patients required blood transfusion, but no statistically significant relationship was established with the use or non-use of ischemia (p = 0.301). The most commonly reported pain was within a VAS of 0-3; 62.2% of cases reported mild pain. Mean hemoglobin differential was 3.7 with SD ± 1.3 with a range from 0 to 7.4. Patients in whom no ischemia was used during the surgical procedure experienced less pain. There was less bleeding and hemoglobin differential with the use of ischemia. However, this did not result in a statistically significant difference in the need for blood transfusion. The use of ischemia with caution and according to the surgeons preference is recommended. PMID:27627771

  6. Unambiguous determination of H-atom positions: comparing results from neutron and high-resolution X-ray crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Gardberg, Anna S.; Del Castillo, Alexis R.; Weiss, Kevin L.; Meilleur, Flora; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Myles, Dean A.A.

    2010-11-19

    The locations of H atoms in biological structures can be difficult to determine using X-ray diffraction methods. Neutron diffraction offers a relatively greater scattering magnitude from H and D atoms. Here, 1.65 {angstrom} resolution neutron diffraction studies of fully perdeuterated and selectively CH{sub 3}-protonated perdeuterated crystals of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin (D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively) at room temperature (RT) are described, as well as 1.1 {angstrom} resolution X-ray diffraction studies of the same protein at both RT and 100 K. The two techniques are quantitatively compared in terms of their power to directly provide atomic positions for D atoms and analyze the role played by atomic thermal motion by computing the {sigma} level at the D-atom coordinate in simulated-annealing composite D-OMIT maps. It is shown that 1.65 {angstrom} resolution RT neutron data for perdeuterated rubredoxin are {approx}8 times more likely overall to provide high-confidence positions for D atoms than 1.1 {angstrom} resolution X-ray data at 100 K or RT. At or above the 1.0{sigma} level, the joint X-ray/neutron (XN) structures define 342/378 (90%) and 291/365 (80%) of the D-atom positions for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. The X-ray-only 1.1 {angstrom} resolution 100 K structures determine only 19/388 (5%) and 8/388 (2%) of the D-atom positions above the 1.0{sigma} level for D-rubredoxin and HD-rubredoxin, respectively. Furthermore, the improved model obtained from joint XN refinement yielded improved electron-density maps, permitting the location of more D atoms than electron-density maps from models refined against X-ray data only.

  7. Magnetospheric Interaction at Jupiter's Galilean Moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto: Galileo in-Situ Measurements Compared with Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, N.; Jia, X.; Roussos, E.; Fraenz, M.

    2014-12-01

    Between 1995 and 2003 the Galileo spacecraft orbited Jupiter and flew-by multiple times at the Galilean satellites Io (7), Europa (12), Ganymede (5), and Callisto (8). The wealth of new unprecedented data from Galileo in-situ measurements in comparison to hybrid- and MHD simulation results enhanced our view of the understanding of the interaction between the moons (or in the case of Ganymede's own magnetosphere) and the surrounding highly dynamic Jovian magnetosphere. In this paper the in-situ particles and fields measurements are reviewed in the context of the future ESA-mission JUICE to arrive in the Jovian system in 2030.

  8. Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami

    2012-11-01

    Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n = 20). This includes analysis of the communication styles used and the students' pre- and post-conceptualisation of climate change based on results obtained via essay writing and drawings. The essays and drawings concerned the students' unprompted pre- and post-conceptions about climate change, collected before and after each of the four inquiry-based science sessions (in physics, chemistry, biology and geography). Concept mapping was used in the analysis of the students' responses. The communication used in the four sessions was analysed with a communicative approach in order to find out the discussion about climate change between teacher and students. The analyses indicated that the students did not have the knowledge or the courage to participate in discussion, but post-conceptualisation map showed that students' thinking had become more coherent after the four sessions. Given the results of the present study, proposals for using concepts maps and/or communication analysis in studying students' conceptions are presented.

  9. Structures and geometries of the Tajo Basin crust, Spain: Results of a magnetotelluric investigation compared to seismic and thermal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmoldt, J.-P.; Jones, A. G.; Rosell, O.

    2014-09-01

    The Tajo Basin and Betic Mountain Chain in the south central region of the Iberian Peninsula were chosen for investigation in the first phase of the magnetotelluric (MT) component of the PICASSO (Program to Investigate the Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) project. The MT results provide information about the electrical conductivity distribution in previously unprobed subsurface regions, as well as complimenting and enhancing results of prior geological and geophysical investigations thereby enabling the definition of a petrological subsurface model and a comprehensive understanding about the tectonic setting. Two-dimensional (2-D) inversion of the MT data provides enhanced insight into Iberian subsurface geology in the crust. The most striking features of the final model are (i) a distinct vertical interface within the Variscan basement beneath the center of the Tajo Basin that is spatially associated with the boundary between regions with and without substantial Alpine deformation, and (ii) a middle to lower crustal conductive anomaly that can be related to remnants of asthenospheric intrusion in connection with Pliocene volcanic events in the Calatrava Volcanic Province. For the latter, effects of hydrous phases are inferred that may originate from dehydration processes within the subducting slab beneath Alboran Domain and Betic Mountain Chain.

  10. Comparative 5-year results of short hip total hip arthroplasty with Ti- or CoCr-neck adapters.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Ralf H; Steffen, Reinhard

    2015-03-01

    This prospective study investigated revision after modular short stem implantation. Results are presented for 2 different types of neck adapters (titanium and cobalt-chromium [CoCr]). Eighty-five patients with titanium adapters and 87 patients with CoCr adapters underwent follow-up examination after an average of 5.7 and 5.2 years, respectively. Mean patient age was 57 years in both groups. Indications were primary osteoarthritis (80%), cup dysplasia (14%), and other (6%). Mean Harris Hip Scores were 98 and 99 points (titanium and CoCr groups, respectively). Ninety percent and 96% of patients were very satisfied or satisfied (titanium and CoCr groups, respectively); 3% of patients in both groups were dissatisfied. Pain decreased from visual analog scale score 7 and 6 preoperatively to 0.37 and 0.15 postoperatively for the titanium and CoCr groups, respectively. No joint dislocation occurred. Six patients needed revision within the first year (2 for infection, 1 for via falsa position, and 2 for aseptic loosening in the titanium group, and 1 for aseptic loosening in the CoCr group). Nine revisions occurred due to neck adapter failure (titanium group). Primary standard stems were used in all revisions. Excluding material-related adapter failures in the titanium group, the 5-year survival rate was 94.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.9-97.6 for titanium) and 99% (95% CI, 93.7-99.8 for CoCr). No radiographic signs of loosening were seen at last follow-up. Fine sclerotic lines were detected in Gruen zones 1 (17.2%) and 2 (14%), hypertrophies in zone 3 (4.3%), and periprosthetic cancellous bone compressions in zone 6 (75.8%). No adapter fractures occurred for CoCr components. The treatment and anchoring system of the short stem studied yielded good results and allowed revision using standard stems in all patients. PMID:25826630

  11. Comparative survey of go/no-go results to identify the inhibitory control ability change of Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This research, conducted in 1998 and 2008, uses go/no-go data to investigate the fundamentals of cognitive functioning in the inhibitory control ability of Japanese children. 844 subjects from kindergarten to junior high school participated in go/no-go task experiments. Performance of go/no-go tasks, which are frequently used to investigate response inhibition, measures a variety of cognitive components besides response inhibition. With normal brain development, the ability to inhibit responses improves substantially in adolescence. An increase over time in the error rate during the go/no-go tasks of subjects of the same age indicates that these processes are not functioning properly. Comparisons between the 1998 and 2008 data revealed several differences in error rates. In 2008, there were increases in the number of errors in groups from each age range. The comparison also revealed that overall error rates peaked at later ages in the 2008 subjects. Taken together, these results show changing conditions in the inhibitory function of the prefrontal cortex. However, the reason for these changing conditions remains unclear. While a lifestyle questionnaire revealed several differences in factors such as bedtimes and hours spent watching TV, analysis did not reveal a significant correlation. PMID:25061475

  12. Axillary and thoracic skin temperatures poorly comparable to core body temperature circadian rhythm: results from 2 adult populations.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert; Wang, Shu-Yuann; Lentz, Martha J; Shaver, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Data from 2 separate studies were used to examine the relationships of axillary or thoracic skin temperature to rectal temperature and to determine the phase relationships of the circadian rhythms of these temperatures. In study 1, axillary skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 19 healthy women, 21 to 36 years of age. In study 2, thoracic skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 74 healthy women, 39 to 59 years of age. In both studies, temperatures were recorded continuously for 24 h while subjects carried out normal activities. Axillary and thoracic probes were insulated purposely to prevent ambient effects. Cosinor analysis was employed to estimate circadian rhythm mesor, amplitude, and acrophase. In addition, correlations between temperatures at various measurement sites were calculated and agreement determined. The circadian timing of axillary and skin temperature did not closely approximate that of rectal temperature: the mean acrophase (clock time) for study 1 was 18:57 h for axillary temperature and 16:12 h for rectal; for study 2, it was 03:05 h for thoracic and 15:05 h for rectal. Across individual subjects, the correlations of axillary or thoracic temperatures with rectal temperatures were variable. Results do not support the use of either axillary or skin temperature as a substitute for rectal temperature in circadian rhythm research related to adult women. PMID:14737919

  13. Comparative analysis of numerical simulation and PIV experimental results for a flow caused by field-enhanced dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirkov, V. A.; Komarov, D. K.; Stishkov, Y. K.; Vasilkov, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    The paper studies a particular electrode system, two flat parallel electrodes with a dielectric plate having a small circular hole between them. Its main feature is that the region of the strong electric field is located far from metal electrode surfaces, which permits one to preclude the injection charge formation and to observe field-enhanced dissociation (the Wien effect) leading to the emergence of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow. The described electrode system was studied by way of both computer simulation and experiment. The latter was conducted with the help of the particle image velocimetry (or PIV) technique. The numerical research used trusted software package COMSOL Multiphysics, which allows solving the complete set of EHD equations and obtaining the EHD flow structure. Basing on the computer simulation and the comparison with experimental investigation results, it was concluded that the Wien effect is capable of causing intense (several centimeters per second) EHD flows in low-conducting liquids and has to be taken into account when dealing with EHD devices.

  14. Comparative survey of go/no-go results to identify the inhibitory control ability change of Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Koji; Tabuchi, Hisaaki; Yanagisawa, Hiroki; Yanagisawa, Akitaka; Shinohara, Kikunori; Terasawa, Saiki; Saijo, Osamitsu; Masaki, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    This research, conducted in 1998 and 2008, uses go/no-go data to investigate the fundamentals of cognitive functioning in the inhibitory control ability of Japanese children. 844 subjects from kindergarten to junior high school participated in go/no-go task experiments. Performance of go/no-go tasks, which are frequently used to investigate response inhibition, measures a variety of cognitive components besides response inhibition. With normal brain development, the ability to inhibit responses improves substantially in adolescence. An increase over time in the error rate during the go/no-go tasks of subjects of the same age indicates that these processes are not functioning properly. Comparisons between the 1998 and 2008 data revealed several differences in error rates. In 2008, there were increases in the number of errors in groups from each age range. The comparison also revealed that overall error rates peaked at later ages in the 2008 subjects. Taken together, these results show changing conditions in the inhibitory function of the prefrontal cortex. However, the reason for these changing conditions remains unclear. While a lifestyle questionnaire revealed several differences in factors such as bedtimes and hours spent watching TV, analysis did not reveal a significant correlation. PMID:25061475

  15. The Enmap Contest: Developing and Comparing Classification Approaches for the Environmental Mapping and Analysis Programme - Dataset and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, A. C.; Weinmann, M.; Keller, S.; Müller, R.; Reinartz, P.; Hinz, S.

    2015-08-01

    The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Programme EnMAP is a hyperspectral satellite mission, supposed to be launched into space in the near future. EnMAP is designed to be revolutionary in terms of spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Nevertheless, it will provide a relatively high spatial resolution also. In order to exploit the capacities of this future mission, its data have been simulated by other authors in previous work. EnMAP will differ from other spaceborne and airborne hyperspectral sensors. Thus, the assumption that the standard classification algorithms from other sensors will perform best for EnMAP as well cannot by upheld since proof. Unfortunately, until today, relatively few studies have been published to investigate classification algorithms for EnMAP. Thus, the authors of this study, who have provided some insights into classifying simulated EnMAP data before, aim to encourage future studies by opening the EnMAP contest. The EnMAP contest consists in a benchmark dataset provided for algorithm development, which is presented herein. For demonstrative purposes, this report also represents two classification results which have already been realized. It furthermore provides a roadmap for other scientists interested in taking part in the EnMAP contest.

  16. Zoledronic acid as compared with observation in multiple myeloma patients at biochemical relapse: results of the randomized AZABACHE Spanish trial

    PubMed Central

    García-Sanz, Ramón; Oriol, Albert; Moreno, María J.; de la Rubia, Javier; Payer, Angel R.; Hernández, Miguel T.; Palomera, Luis; Teruel, Ana I.; Blanchard, María J.; Gironella, Mercedes; Ribas, Paz; Bargay, Joan; Abellá, Eugenia; Granell, Miquel; Ocio, Enrique M.; Ribera, Josep M.; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Mateos, María V.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the anti-myeloma effect of zoledronic acid monotherapy by investigating patients at the time of asymptomatic biochemical relapse. One hundred patients were randomized to receive either zoledronic acid (4 mg iv/4 weeks, 12 doses) (n=51) or not (n=49). Experimental and control groups were well balanced for disease and prognostic features. Zoledronic acid did not show an antitumor effect according to changes in M-component. However, there were fewer symptomatic progressions in the experimental group than in the control group (34 versus 41, respectively; P=0.05) resulting in a median time to symptoms of 16 versus 10 months (P=0.161). The median time to next therapy was also slightly longer for the treated group than the untreated, control group (13.4 versus 10.1 months), although the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.360). The pattern of relapses was different for treated versus control patients: progressive bone disease (8 versus 20), anemia (24 versus 18), renal dysfunction (1 versus 2), and plasmacytomas (1 versus 1, respectively). This concurred with fewer skeletal-related events in the treated group than in the control group (2 versus 14), with a projected 4-year event proportion of 6% versus 40% (P<0.001). In summary, zoledronic acid monotherapy does not show an antitumor effect on biochemical relapses in multiple myeloma, but does reduce the risk of progression with symptomatic bone disease and skeletal complications. This trial was registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov database with code NCT01087008 PMID:26069291

  17. Five-year results of a randomised controlled trial comparing mobile and fixed bearings in total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Breeman, S; Campbell, M K; Dakin, H; Fiddian, N; Fitzpatrick, R; Grant, A; Gray, A; Johnston, L; MacLennan, G S; Morris, R W; Murray, D W

    2013-04-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the merits of mobile bearings in total knee replacement, partly because most randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have not been adequately powered. We report the results of a multicentre RCT of mobile versus fixed bearings. This was part of the knee arthroplasty trial (KAT), where 539 patients were randomly allocated to mobile or fixed bearings and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The primary outcome measure was the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) plus secondary measures including Short Form-12, EuroQol EQ-5D, costs, cost-effectiveness and need for further surgery. There was no significant difference between the groups pre-operatively: mean OKS was 17.18 (sd 7.60) in the mobile-bearing group and 16.49 (sd 7.40) in the fixed-bearing group. At five years mean OKS was 33.19 (sd 16.68) and 33.65 (sd 9.68), respectively. There was no significant difference between trial groups in OKS at five years (-1.12 (95% confidence interval -2.77 to 0.52) or any of the other outcome measures. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with knee-related re-operations or in total costs. In this appropriately powered RCT, over the first five years after total knee replacement functional outcomes, re-operation rates and healthcare costs appear to be the same irrespective of whether a mobile or fixed bearing is used. PMID:23539700

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Pasireotide LAR Administration on Lymphocele Prevention after Axillary Node Dissection for Breast Cancer: Results of a Randomized Non-Comparative Phase 2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Chéreau, Elisabeth; Uzan, Catherine; Boutmy-Deslandes, Emmanuelle; Zohar, Sarah; Bézu, Corinne; Mazouni, Chafika; Garbay, Jean-Rémi; Daraï, Emile; Rouzier, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy (response rate centered on 80%) of a somatostatin analog with high affinity for 4 somatostatin receptors in reducing the postoperative incidence of symptomatic lymphocele formation following total mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Setting This prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial was conducted in two secondary care centres. Participants All female patients for whom mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection were indicated were eligible for the study, including patients who had received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Main exclusion criteria were related to diabetes, cardiac insufficiency, disorder of cardiac conduction or hepatic failure. Interventions Patients were randomised to receive one injection of either prolonged-release pasireotide 60 mg or placebo (physiological serum), which were administered intramuscularly 7 to 10 days before the scheduled surgery. The study was conducted in a double-blind manner. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures The primary outcome measure was the percentage of patients who did not develop post-operative axillary symptomatic lymphoceles during the 2 postoperative months. Secondary endpoints were the total quantity of lymph drained, duration and daily volume of drainage and aspirated volumes of lymph. Results Ninety-one patients were randomised. Ninety patients were evaluable: 42 patients received pasireotide, and 48 patients received placebo. The mean estimated response rate were 62.4% (95% Credibility Interval [CrI]: 48.6%-75.3%) in the treatment group and 50.2% (95% CrI: 37.6%-62.8%) in the placebo group. Overall safety was comparable across groups, and one serious adverse event occurred. In the treatment group, one patient with known insulin-depe*ndent diabetes required hospitalization for hyperglycaemia. Conclusions With this phase 2 preliminary study, even if our results indicate a trend towards a reduction in

  19. Comparing Success Rates for General and Credit Recovery Courses Online and Face to Face: Results for Florida High School Courses. REL 2015-095

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, John; Zhou, Chengfu; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results of a REL Southeast study comparing student success in online credit recovery and general courses taken online compared to traditional face-to-face courses. Credit recovery occurs when a student fails a course and then retakes the same course to earn high school credit. This research question was motivated by the…

  20. Comparing hardcopy and softcopy results in the study of the impact of workflow on perceived reproduction quality of fine art images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnand, Susan; Jiang, Jun; Frey, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    A project, supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, is currently underway to evaluate current practices in fine art image reproduction, determine the image quality generally achievable, and establish a suggested framework for art image interchange. To determine the image quality currently being achieved, experimentation has been conducted in which a set of objective targets and pieces of artwork in various media were imaged by participating museums and other cultural heritage institutions. Prints and images for display made from the delivered image files at the Rochester Institute of Technology were used as stimuli in psychometric testing in which observers were asked to evaluate the prints as reproductions of the original artwork and as stand alone images. The results indicated that there were limited differences between assessments made using displayed images relative to printed reproductions. Further, the differences between rankings made with and without the original artwork present were much smaller than expected.

  1. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  2. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  3. A review of glycemic efficacy of liraglutide once daily in achieving glycated hemoglobin targets compared with exenatide twice daily, or sitagliptin once daily in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alshali, Khalid Z; Karawagh, Abdullah M

    2016-08-01

    Incretin-based therapies such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (RA) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have gained prominence in recent years for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Such therapies offer the potential to stimulate endogenous insulin activity in proportion to circulating glucose levels; thereby, lowering the risk of hypoglycemic episodes. The synthetic GLP-1 RA exenatide, the human GLP-1 RA liraglutide, and the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin are the first agents in their respective classes to be approved for the treatment of T2D and their efficacy and safety has been studied extensively in clinical trials. This article reviewed the efficacy of liraglutide once daily in achieving clinical guidelines-recommended glycated hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with T2D compared with exenatide twice daily, or sitagliptin once daily, based on published literature, with an aim to elucidate the preferred choice of incretin-related therapy in treating uncontrolled T2D. PMID:27464858

  4. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  5. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  6. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  7. Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children’s engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  8. Treatment of mechanically sorted organic waste by bioreactor landfill: Experimental results and preliminary comparative impact assessment with biostabilization and conventional landfill.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sisani, Luciano; Rotondi, Luca

    2016-09-01

    Treatment and disposal of the mechanically sorted organic fraction (MSOF) of municipal solid waste using a full-scale hybrid bioreactor landfill was experimentally analyzed. A preliminary life cycle assessment was used to compare the hybrid bioreactor landfill with the conventional scheme based on aerobic biostabilization plus landfill. The main findings showed that hybrid bioreactor landfill was able to achieve a dynamic respiration index (DRI)<1000 mgO2/(kgVSh) in 20weeks, on average. Landfill gas (LFG) generation with CH4 concentration >55% v/v started within 140days from MSOF disposal, allowing prompt energy recovery and higher collection efficiency. With the exception of fresh water eutrophication with the bioreactor scenario there was a reduction of the impact categories by about 30% compared to the conventional scheme. Such environmental improvement was mainly a consequence of the reduction of direct and indirect emissions from conventional aerobic biostabilization and of the lower amount of gaseous loses from the bioreactor landfill. PMID:27026496

  9. Structured Teaching and Classroom Management--the Solution for the Decline of Swedish School Results? Conclusions Drawn from a Comparative Meta-Synthesis of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Håkansson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    With a basis in conclusions from a comparative meta-synthesis of teaching and learning, the question of structured and teacher-led teaching in Swedish comprehensive schools is discussed and analysed. The aim is to illustrate the development of results and changes in teaching patterns in Swedish comprehensive schools in relation to new regulations…

  10. A Comparative Evaluation of Pisa 2003-2006 Results in Reading Literacy Skills: An Example of Top-Five OECD Countries and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Ayhan; Erdagf, Coskun; Tas, Nuray

    2011-01-01

    In this study it is aimed to describe and evaluate comparatively the reading literacy exam results, the finance of education and schools, and socio-cultural status of parents in Turkey and the top-five OECD countries, Finland, Korea, Canada, Australia, New Zealand respectively, in the light reports and publications by OECD regarding PISA 2003 and…

  11. Flipping College Algebra: Effects on Student Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichinose, Cherie; Clinkenbeard, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study compared student engagement and achievement levels between students enrolled in a traditional college algebra lecture course and students enrolled in a "flipped" course. Results showed that students in the flipped class had consistently higher levels of achievement throughout the course than did students in the traditional…

  12. The Effect of Constructivist Mathematics on Achievement in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Michael; Watkins, Sandra; Montalvo, Greg

    2012-01-01

    International assessment data indicate American students are not competing with their counterparts in other countries. The mathematics curriculum and pedagogy are not preparing students to compete in a global economy. This study compared student achievement using sixth grade mathematics results from the Illinois Standards Achievement Test.…

  13. Source apportionment of PM 2.5: Comparing PMF and CMB results for four ambient monitoring sites in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangil; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yuhang; Russell, Armistead G.; Edgerton, Eric S.

    2008-06-01

    Two commonly used receptor models, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and chemical mass balance (CMB), are applied to 3-year PM2.5 data at two urban sites (Atlanta, GA and Birmingham, AL) and two rural sites (Yorkville, GA and Centreville, AL). Source apportionment results using the two receptor models are analyzed and compared. Both models are able to identify major sources at all sites, though the degree of agreements and correlations between source impacts estimated by PMF and CMB varies depending on sources and receptor sites. Estimated contributions of secondary inorganic particles are the most comparable and highly correlated. The lesser comparability and correlations of estimated contributions of other sources (mostly primary) may be attributed to several factors. Resolved source profiles in PMF have more processed (or aged) characteristics resulting in part from atmospheric mixing and condensation of oxidized compounds, whereas source profiles used in CMB are obtained from measurements of emission sources with minimum amount of atmospheric processing. The PMF profiles vary from site to site; both atmospheric processing and local source variability contribute. In comparison, the CMB profiles obtained from a limited number of emission measurements may not be locally representative even if they are regionally representative. The omission of possible known or unknown sources due to lack of proper source profiles or proper "marker" species may also cause the differences in the source apportionment results. In addition, the implication for PM time-series health study is discussed based on the results from this study.

  14. Academic Attitudes of High Achieving and Low Achieving Academically Able Black Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, John Rhodes

    1981-01-01

    In order to identify the relationships between the attitudes and perceptions of peer pressure and the academic achievement of academically able male adolescents, this study compares the school attitudes of high achieving and low achieving Black male youth. (EF)

  15. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  16. Comparable effect with minimal morbidity of low-dose Tokyo 172 strain compared with regular dose Connaught strain as an intravesical bacillus Calmette–Guérin prophylaxis in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: Results of a randomized prospective comparison

    PubMed Central

    Inamoto, Teruo; Ubai, Takanobu; Nishida, Takeshi; Fujisue, Yutaka; Katsuoka, Yoji; Azuma, Haruhito

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to compare patients' morbidity and response of bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) prophylaxis after the intravesical instillation of low-dose Tokyo 172 strain and regular dose Connaught strain in patients with nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Patients and Methods: This was a randomized, active-controlled, open-label, monocenter study. Thirty-eight, NMIBC patients were treated sequentially, in a random order, with low-dose Tokyo 172 strain and regular dose Connaught strain, receiving each therapy for 6 weeks. A total of 18 and 20 patients were randomly assigned to a Tokyo 172 strain arm and a Connaught strain arm, respectively. Complication, morbidity, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) after each treatment were compared. Results: There was no significant difference in the 1-year RFS rate in patients treated with Tokyo 172 strain and Connaught strain (72.2% vs. 83.5%, respectively; P = 0.698). There were no significant differences in adverse events between the arms. Severe adverse events (>Grade 3) were seen in 15% of the Connaught strain group while no severe adverse events were observed as a result of Tokyo 172 strain. Conclusion: Our results indicated that low-dose Tokyo 172 strain decreased adverse events although it was not significant, and the RFS difference was not statistically significant between the two arms. Further investigation is warranted. PMID:23662001

  17. Prasugrel Results in Higher Decrease in High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Comparing to Clopidogrel

    PubMed Central

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Chitsazan, Mandana; Chitsazan, Mitra; Salehi, Negar; Amin, Ahmad; Bidokhti, Arash Amin; Babaali, Nima; Bordbar, Armin; Hejrati, Maral; Moghadami, Samar

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES A growing body of clinical and laboratory evidence indicates that inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. In the present study, we compared the effects of clopidogrel and prasugrel on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS The present randomized, double-blind clinical trial included 120 patients who underwent PCI. Eligible patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to one of the two groups: 80 patients in the first group received clopidogrel (Plavix®; loading dose and maintenance dose of 300 and 75 mg daily, respectively) and 40 patients in the second group received prasugrel (Effient®; loading dose and maintenance dose of 60 and 10 mg, respectively) for 12 weeks. The hs-CRP levels between baseline and 12th week were compared. RESULTS Of the 120 patients, 69 patients (57.5%) were male. Pretreatment hs-CRP level was statistically comparable in clopidogrel (median, 15.10 mg/dL; interquartile range [IQR], 9.62–23.75 mg/dL) and prasugrel groups (median, 18 mg/dL; IQR, 14.25–22 mg/dL; P = 0.06). Patients taking clopidogrel showed a significant reduction in hs-CRP level compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001). Prasugrel administration also resulted in a significant reduction in hs-CRP level (P < 0.001). A significant 73% overall reduction in the hs-CRP level was seen with prasugrel compared with 39% overall reduction in hs-CRP level with clopidogrel (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION Prasugrel seems to be superior to clopidogrel in the reduction of hs-CRP in patients undergoing PCI. PMID:27597810

  18. Self-reported asthma and allergies in top athletes compared to the general population - results of the German part of the GA2LEN-Olympic study 2008

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prevalence of asthma and allergies in top athletes is high. However, most previous studies did not include a general population comparison group. We aimed to compare the prevalence of asthma, allergies and medical treatment in different groups of German top athletes to the general population. Methods Prior to the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, 291 German candidates for participation (65%) completed a questionnaire on respiratory and allergic symptoms. Results were compared to those of a general population study in Germany (n = 2425, response 68%). Furthermore, associations between types of sports and the self-reported outcomes were calculated. All models were adjusted for age, sex, level of education and smoking. Results Athletes reported significantly more doctors' diagnosed asthma (17% vs. 7%), more current use of asthma medication (10% vs. 4%) and allergic rhinitis (25% vs. 17%) compared to the general population. After adjustment, top athletes only had an increased Odds Ratio for doctor's diagnosed asthma (OR: 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.5). Compared to the general population, athletes in endurance sports had an increased OR for doctor's diagnosed asthma (2.4; 1.5-3.8) and current use of asthma medication (1.8; 1.0-3.4). In this group, current wheeze was increased when use of asthma medication was taken into account (1.8; 1.1-2.8). For other groups of athletes, no significantly increased ORs were observed. Conclusions Compared to the general population, an increased risk of asthma diagnosis and treatment was shown for athletes involved in endurance sports. This might be due to a better medical surveillance and treatment of these athletes. PMID:21118543

  19. Less Favorable Body Composition and Adipokines in South Asians Compared to Other U.S. Ethnic Groups: Results from the MASALA and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Arti D.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Lin, Feng; Allison, Matthew A.; Carr, Jeffrey; Herrington, David; Liu, Kiang; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Small studies have shown that South Asians (SAs) have more total body, subcutaneous, visceral and hepatic fat and abnormal adipokine levels compared to Whites. However, comprehensive studies of body composition and adipokines in SAs compared to other ethnic groups are lacking. Methods Using harmonized data, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of two community-based cohorts: Mediators of Atherosclerosis of South Asians Living in America (MASALA, n=906) and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA which included 2,622 Whites; 803 Chinese Americans; 1,893 African Americans; and 1,496 Latinos). General linear models were developed to assess ethnic differences in ectopic fat (visceral, intermuscular, and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation), lean muscle mass, and adipokines (adiponectin and resistin). Models were adjusted for age, sex, site, alcohol use, smoking, exercise, education, household income and BMI. Ectopic fat models were additionally adjusted for hypertension, diabetes, HDL, and triglycerides. Adipokine models were adjusted for subcutaneous, visceral, intermuscular, and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation. Results Compared to all ethnic groups in MESA (Whites, Chinese Americans, African Americans, and Latinos), SAs had greater intermuscular fat (pairwise comparisons to each MESA group, p < 0.01), lower hepatic attenuation (p < 0.001), and less lean mass (p < 0.001). SAs had greater visceral fat compared to Chinese Americans, African Americans and Latinos (p < 0.05) and greater pericardial fat compared to African Americans (p < 0.001). SAs had lower adiponectin levels compared to other ethnic groups (p < 0.01; except Chinese Americans) and higher resistin levels than all groups (p < 0.001), even after adjusting for differences in body composition. Conclusion There are significant ethnic differences in ectopic fat, lean mass, and adipokines. A less favorable body composition and adipokine profile in South Asians may partially

  20. Does single-port laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy result in improved short-term perioperative outcomes compared to conventional multi-port laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy?

    PubMed

    Lo, Charlene; Latin, Ladoris; Fariñas, Ángel; Cruz Pico, Christian X; Postoev, Angelina; Ibikunle, Christopher; Sanni, Aliu

    2015-10-01

    A best evidence topic in bariatric surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question asked whether single-port laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy produces better short-term perioperative outcomes compared to the conventional multi-port laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in the treatment of morbid obesity. A Pubmed search generated 82 papers, 6 of which represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. Of the 6, 1 paper was an updated analysis of the same patient cohort. The evidence on this subject is good. Five papers were level III, nonrandomized studies, 2 of which were prospective and 3 were retrospective cohort studies. The sixth paper was a level II, randomized, prospective study. We conclude that single-port laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy results in less use of postoperative analgesia and better cosmetic satisfaction compared to multi-port laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in the short-term. The two groups showed comparable results in terms of mean operative time, mean hospitalization, and percentage excess weight loss. There was no difference in rate of postoperative complications including trocar site incisional hernia, staple line leaks, and bleeding. PMID:26278664

  1. An Analysis of Student Achievement, Student Interaction, and Social Elements That Support Online Course Completion for High School Students as Compared Qualitatively with Quantitative Data Retrieved via a Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Leah dee Carter

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method research examines student achievement, student interaction and social elements to determine which elements support online course completion for students in a state virtual school. The quantitative goals seek to find a possible degree of convergence with the course completion average grade. Qualitative data from 10 high school…

  2. Measuring Adult Learners' Foreign Language Anxiety, Motivational Factors, and Achievement Expectations: A Comparative Study between Chinese as a Second-Language Students and English as a Second-Language Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Ching

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on interpreting the impacts of foreign language anxiety and individual characteristics on the achievement expectations of Chinese second-language learners and English second-language students at the university level. Four research questions are examined through quantitative design. In relation to methodology, this study…

  3. Comparative Effects of Traditional- versus Contract Activity Packaged- versus Programmed Learning-Sequenced versus Tactual-Instructional Presentations of Course Content on the Achievement and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students in a Private Metropolitan College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egal, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the effects of traditional instruction versus Contract Activity Packaged (CAP) versus Programmed Sequenced Learning (PLS) versus Tactual Resources (TR) on the achievement and attitudes of 32 second-year undergraduate teacher education majors enrolled in two classes of a required child-study course at a…

  4. Analysis of genomic alterations in neuroblastoma by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array comparative genomic hybridization: a comparison of results.

    PubMed

    Combaret, Valérie; Iacono, Isabelle; Bréjon, Stéphanie; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Pierron, Gäelle; Couturier, Jérôme; Bergeron, Christophe; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2012-12-01

    In cases of neuroblastoma, recurring genetic alterations--losses of the 1p, 3p, 4p, and 11q and/or gains of 1q, 2p, and 17q chromosome arms--are currently used to define the therapeutic strategy in therapeutic protocols for low- and intermediate-risk patients. Different genome-wide analysis techniques, such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), have been suggested for detecting chromosome segmental abnormalities. In this study, we compared the results of the two technologies in the analyses of the DNA of tumor samples from 91 neuroblastoma patients. Similar results were obtained with the two techniques for 75 samples (82%). In five cases (5.5%), the MLPA results were not interpretable. Discrepancies between the aCGH and MLPA results were observed in 11 cases (12%). Among the discrepancies, a 18q21.2-qter gain and 16p11.2 and 11q14.1-q14.3 losses were detected only by aCGH. The MLPA results showed that the 7p, 7q, and 14q chromosome arms were affected in six cases, while in two cases, 2p and 17q gains were observed; these results were confirmed by neither aCGH nor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Because of the higher sensitivity and specificity of genome-wide information, reasonable cost, and shorter time of aCGH analysis, we recommend the aCGH procedure for the analysis of genomic alterations in neuroblastoma. PMID:23265803

  5. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Phase 1 Results from the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). [coal utilization for electric power plants feasibility analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Ten advanced energy conversion systems for central-station, based-load electric power generation using coal and coal-derived fuels which were studied by NASA are presented. Various contractors were selected by competitive bidding to study these systems. A comparative evaluation is provided of the contractor results on both a system-by-system and an overall basis. Ground rules specified by NASA, such as coal specifications, fuel costs, labor costs, method of cost comparison, escalation and interest during construction, fixed charges, emission standards, and environmental conditions, are presented. Each system discussion includes the potential advantages of the system, the scope of each contractor's analysis, typical schematics of systems, comparison of cost of electricity and efficiency for each contractor, identification and reconciliation of differences, identification of future improvements, and discussion of outside comments. Considerations common to all systems, such as materials and furnaces, are also discussed. Results of selected in-house analyses are presented, in addition to contractor data. The results for all systems are then compared.

  7. Comparing the results of an analytical model of the no-vent fill process with no-vent fill test results for a 4.96 cu m (175 cu ft) tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, William J.; Chato, David J.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has been investigating a no-vent fill method for refilling cryogenic storage tanks in low gravity. Analytical modeling based on analyzing the heat transfer of a droplet has successfully represented the process in 0.034 and 0.142 sq m commercial dewars using liquid nitrogen and hydrogen. Recently a large tank (4.96 sq m) was tested with hydrogen. This lightweight tank is representative of spacecraft construction. This paper presents efforts to model the large tank test data. The droplet heat transfer model is found to overpredict the tank pressure level when compared to the large tank data. A new model based on equilibrium thermodynamics has been formulated. This new model is compared to the published large scale tank's test results as well as some additional test runs with the same equipment. The results are shown to match the test results within the measurement uncertainty of the test data except for the initial transient wall cooldown where it is conservative (i.e., overpredicts the initial pressure spike found in this time frame).

  8. Comparing the results of an analytical model of the no-vent fill process with no-vent fill test results for a 4.96 cubic meters (175 cubic feet) tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, William J.; Chato, David J.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (NASA/LeRC) have been investigating a no-vent fill method for refilling cryogenic storage tanks in low gravity. Analytical modeling based on analyzing the heat transfer of a droplet has successfully represented the process in 0.034 m and 0.142 cubic m commercial dewars using liquid nitrogen and hydrogen. Recently a large tank (4.96 cubic m) was tested with hydrogen. This lightweight tank is representative of spacecraft construction. This paper presents efforts to model the large tank test data. The droplet heat transfer model is found to over predict the tank pressure level when compared to the large tank data. A new model based on equilibrium thermodynamics has been formulated. This new model is compared to the published large scale tank's test results as well as some additional test runs with the same equipment. The results are shown to match the test results within the measurement uncertainty of the test data except for the initial transient wall cooldown where it is conservative (i.e., overpredicts the initial pressure spike found in this time frame).

  9. Comparative ecology of exotic invaders and ecologically equivalent species of hydrobionths in the Great Lakes of the world: Results of Russia-USA cooperation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pronin, N.M.; Fleischer, G.W.; Kohl, S. G.; Korsunov, V. M.; Baldanova, D.R.; Bronte, C.R.; Garmayeva, C. H.; Hatcher, C. H.; Hoff, M.H.; Maistrenko, S.G.; Nester, R.; O'Gorman, Robert; Owens, R.W.; Pronina, S.V.; Selgeby, J.H.; Sokolnikov, Yury; Todd, N. T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents brief fragments of the results of joint Russia-US research conducted through the cooperative project entitled, 'Comparative ecology of exotic invaders and ecologically equivalent species of hydrobionths in the Great Lakes of the world: Lake Baikal and the Laurentian Great Lakes.' The project was executed under the Agreement on Scientific Cooperation between the Institute of General and Experimental Biology (formerly Buryat Institute of Biology) of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Great Lakes Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  10. Biodegradable 3D-Porous Collagen Matrix (Ologen) Compared with Mitomycin C for Treatment of Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: Results at 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Fei; Li, Lei; Chen, Xiuping; Yan, Xiang; Wang, Liyang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the Ologen as an aid for trabeculectomy performed for primary open-angle glaucoma compared with mitomycin C. Methods. In this prospective, randomized, parallel assignment, comparative study, 31 eyes of 21 primary open-angle glaucoma patients were allocated for trabeculectomy with the Ologen implant; another 32 eyes of 23 patients were treated with trabeculectomy augmented with mitomycin C. The patients were followed up for 5 years and evaluated for intraocular pressure, rate of success, status of the bleb, and adverse events. Result. The mean postoperative intraocular pressure was statistically different at 3 m, 6 m, 1 y, 3 y, and 5 y follow-up. The rates of both complete success (P = 0.017) and overall success (P = 0.031) in the Ologen group were significantly higher than those in the mitomycin C group. The difference of the bleb extent and vascularity was statistically significant in both groups. There was no significant difference in postoperative complication. Conclusions. Ologen provides higher rates of surgical success compared with mitomycin C for patients with primary open-angle glaucoma undergoing trabeculectomy. It may be a new, safe, simple, and effective therapeutic approach for treating primary open-angle glaucoma. PMID:26078875

  11. Ultrasound-guided Central Line Insertion and Standard Peripherally Inserted Catheter Placement in Preterm Infants: Comparing Results from Prospective Study in a Single-center

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamod, Dany Antanios; Zeidan, Smart; Al Bizri, Ayah; Baaklini, Georges; Nassif, Yolla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among preterm infants, the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is the standard line for central venous access; however, its placement exposes them to hypothermia and pain. Ultrasound (US)-guided central line insertion may be less morbid than standard PICC line. Aims: To determine the ease, success rate, and morbidity associated with US-guided central line insertion in the internal jugular vein (IJV) by comparing it to the standard PICC line placement. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center nonrandomized prospective study evaluating preterm infants between October 2013 and June 2014. Patients were allocated into two groups: The standard group (control group) who underwent blind PICC line insertion and the intervention group who underwent a percutaneous US-guided central line insertion in the IJV. The epicutaneo-cava-catheter was used in both groups. Results: Fifty neonates were enrolled on study. A statistically difference in favor of US-IJV insertion was noted concerning the rate of successful first attempt (P < 0.001), insertion (P = 0.001), and procedure duration (P < 0.001) and number of trials (P < 0.001) compared to PICC. No difference in complications (P = 1.000) was noted. Conclusion: US guided catheterization of the IJV technique is faster than PICC line insertion with higher rates of successful first attempt and insertion, less procedure duration and fewer number of trials compared to PICC line insertion. There were no differences in complications. PMID:27298814

  12. Contribution to More Patient-Friendly ART Treatment: Efficacy of Continuous Low-Dose GnRH Agonist as the Only Luteal Support—Results of a Prospective, Randomized, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pirard, Céline; Loumaye, Ernest; Wyns, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate intranasal buserelin for luteal phase support and compare its efficacy with standard vaginal progesterone in IVF/ICSI antagonist cycles. Methods. This is a prospective, randomized, open, parallel group study. Forty patients underwent ovarian hyperstimulation with human menopausal gonadotropin under pituitary inhibition with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, while ovulation trigger and luteal support were achieved using intranasal GnRH agonist (group A). Twenty patients had their cycle downregulated with buserelin and stimulated with hMG, while ovulation trigger was achieved using 10,000 IU human chorionic gonadotropin with luteal support by intravaginal progesterone (group B). Results. No difference was observed in estradiol levels. Progesterone levels on day 5 were significantly lower in group A. However, significantly higher levels of luteinizing hormone were observed in group A during the entire luteal phase. Pregnancy rates (31.4% versus 22.2%), implantation rates (22% versus 15.4%), and clinical pregnancy rates (25.7% versus 16.7%) were not statistically different between groups, although a trend towards higher rates was observed in group A. No luteal phase lasting less than 10 days was recorded in either group. Conclusion. Intranasal administration of buserelin is effective for providing luteal phase support in IVF/ICSI antagonist protocols. PMID:25945092

  13. Contribution to More Patient-Friendly ART Treatment: Efficacy of Continuous Low-Dose GnRH Agonist as the Only Luteal Support-Results of a Prospective, Randomized, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Pirard, Céline; Loumaye, Ernest; Laurent, Pascale; Wyns, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate intranasal buserelin for luteal phase support and compare its efficacy with standard vaginal progesterone in IVF/ICSI antagonist cycles. Methods. This is a prospective, randomized, open, parallel group study. Forty patients underwent ovarian hyperstimulation with human menopausal gonadotropin under pituitary inhibition with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, while ovulation trigger and luteal support were achieved using intranasal GnRH agonist (group A). Twenty patients had their cycle downregulated with buserelin and stimulated with hMG, while ovulation trigger was achieved using 10,000 IU human chorionic gonadotropin with luteal support by intravaginal progesterone (group B). Results. No difference was observed in estradiol levels. Progesterone levels on day 5 were significantly lower in group A. However, significantly higher levels of luteinizing hormone were observed in group A during the entire luteal phase. Pregnancy rates (31.4% versus 22.2%), implantation rates (22% versus 15.4%), and clinical pregnancy rates (25.7% versus 16.7%) were not statistically different between groups, although a trend towards higher rates was observed in group A. No luteal phase lasting less than 10 days was recorded in either group. Conclusion. Intranasal administration of buserelin is effective for providing luteal phase support in IVF/ICSI antagonist protocols. PMID:25945092

  14. A Study to Compare the Scholastic Attendance and the Scholastic Achievement of First Grade Students Whose Parents Participated in the Adult Basic Education Program with the Scholastic Attendance and the Scholastic Achievement of First Grade Students Whose Parents Did Not Participate in the Adult Basic Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Milton J.

    First grade students from families with common ethnic, social, and economic characteristics were studied to determine the effects of parent participation in the Adult Basic Education (ABE) Program on the attendance and achievement of the children. The experimental group was composed of 160 children from low income, Spanish-speaking families in…

  15. Results from a new linear O3 scheme with embedded heterogeneous chemistry compared with the parent full-chemistry 3-D CTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monge-Sanz, B. M.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cariolle, D.; Feng, W.

    2010-05-01

    A detailed full-chemistry 3-D chemistry and transport model (CTM) is used to evaluate the current stratospheric O3 parameterisation in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model and to obtain an alternative version of the ozone scheme implicitly including heterogeneous chemistry. The approach avoids the inaccurate treatment currently given to heterogeneous ozone chemistry in the ECMWF model, as well as the uncertainties of a cold-tracer. The new O3 scheme (COPCAT) is evaluated within the same CTM used to calculate it. It is the first time such a comparison has been possible, providing direct information on the validity of the linear parameterisation approach for stratospheric ozone. Simulated total column and O3 profiles are compared against Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) observations. COPCAT successfully simulates polar loss and reproduces a realistic Antarctic O3 hole. The new scheme is comparable to the full-chemistry in many regions for multiannual runs. The parameterisation produces less ozone over the tropics around 10 hPa, compared to full-chemistry and observations, however, this problem can be ameliorated by choosing a different ozone climatology for the scheme. The new scheme is compared to the current ECMWF scheme in the same CTM runs. The Antarctic O3 hole with the current ECMWF scheme is weaker and disappears earlier than with the new COPCAT scheme. Differences between the current ECMWF scheme and COPCAT are difficult to explain due to the different approach used for heterogeneous chemistry and differences in the photochemical models used to calculate the scheme coefficients. Results with the new COPCAT scheme presented here show that heterogeneous and homogeneous ozone chemistry can be included in a consistent way in a linear ozone parameterisation, without any additional tunable parameters, providing a parameterisation scheme in much better agreement with the current

  16. Results from a new linear O3 scheme with embedded heterogeneous chemistry compared with the parent full-chemistry 3-D CTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monge-Sanz, B. M.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Cariolle, D.; Feng, W.

    2011-02-01

    A detailed full-chemistry 3-D chemistry and transport model (CTM) is used to evaluate the current stratospheric O3 parameterisation in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model and to obtain an alternative version of the ozone scheme implicitly including heterogeneous chemistry. The approach avoids the inaccurate treatment currently given to heterogeneous ozone chemistry in the ECMWF model, as well as the uncertainties of a cold-tracer. The new O3 scheme (COPCAT) is evaluated within the same CTM used to calculate it. It is the first time such a comparison has been possible, providing direct information on the validity of the linear parameterisation approach for stratospheric ozone. Simulated total column and O3 profiles are compared against Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) observations. COPCAT successfully simulates polar loss and reproduces a realistic Antarctic O3 hole. The new scheme is comparable to the full-chemistry in many regions for multiannual runs. The parameterisation produces less ozone over the tropics around 10 hPa, compared to full-chemistry and observations. However, this problem can be ameliorated by choosing a different ozone climatology for the scheme. The new scheme is compared to the current ECMWF scheme in the same CTM runs. The Antarctic O3 hole with the current ECMWF scheme is weaker and disappears earlier than with the new COPCAT scheme. Differences between the current ECMWF scheme and COPCAT are difficult to explain due to the different approach used for heterogeneous chemistry and differences in the photochemical models used to calculate the scheme coefficients. Results with the new COPCAT scheme presented here show that heterogeneous and homogeneous ozone chemistry can be included in a consistent way in a linear ozone parameterisation, without any additional tunable parameters, providing a parameterisation scheme in better agreement with the current knowledge

  17. Comparative ranking of 0. 1 to 10 MW(e) solar thermal electric power systems. Volume I. Summary of results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kowalik, J.S.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-08-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1 to 10 MW(e), operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW(e), a range that is attractive to industrial and other non-utility applications. This volume summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 10 MW(e). Volume II presents data on performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  18. Proton beam radiation therapy results in significantly reduced toxicity compared with intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head and neck tumors that require ipsilateral radiation☆

    PubMed Central

    Romesser, Paul B.; Cahlon, Oren; Scher, Eli; Zhou, Ying; Berry, Sean L.; Rybkin, Alisa; Sine, Kevin M.; Tang, Shikui; Sherman, Eric J.; Wong, Richard; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background As proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) may allow greater normal tissue sparing when compared with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), we compared the dosimetry and treatment-related toxicities between patients treated to the ipsilateral head and neck with either PBRT or IMRT. Methods Between 01/2011 and 03/2014, 41 consecutive patients underwent ipsilateral irradiation for major salivary gland cancer or cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The availability of PBRT, during this period, resulted in an immediate shift in practice from IMRT to PBRT, without any change in target delineation. Acute toxicities were assessed using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results Twenty-three (56.1%) patients were treated with IMRT and 18 (43.9%) with PBRT. The groups were balanced in terms of baseline, treatment, and target volume characteristics. IMRT plans had a greater median maximum brainstem (29.7 Gy vs. 0.62 Gy (RBE), P < 0.001), maximum spinal cord (36.3 Gy vs. 1.88 Gy (RBE), P < 0.001), mean oral cavity (20.6 Gy vs. 0.94 Gy (RBE), P < 0.001), mean contralateral parotid (1.4 Gy vs. 0.0 Gy (RBE), P < 0.001), and mean contralateral submandibular (4.1 Gy vs. 0.0 Gy (RBE), P < 0.001) dose when compared to PBRT plans. PBRT had significantly lower rates of grade 2 or greater acute dysgeusia (5.6% vs. 65.2%, P < 0.001), mucositis (16.7% vs. 52.2%, P = 0.019), and nausea (11.1% vs. 56.5%, P = 0.003). Conclusions The unique properties of PBRT allow greater normal tissue sparing without sacrificing target coverage when irradiating the ipsilateral head and neck. This dosimetric advantage seemingly translates into lower rates of acute treatment-related toxicity. PMID:26867969

  19. Comparing results of an exact vs. an approximate (Bayesian) measurement invariance test: a cross-country illustration with a scale to measure 19 human values

    PubMed Central

    Cieciuch, Jan; Davidov, Eldad; Schmidt, Peter; Algesheimer, René; Schwartz, Shalom H.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequently used procedures for measurement invariance testing is the multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). Muthén and Asparouhov recently proposed a new approach to test for approximate rather than exact measurement invariance using Bayesian MGCFA. Approximate measurement invariance permits small differences between parameters otherwise constrained to be equal in the classical exact approach. However, extant knowledge about how results of approximate measurement invariance tests compare to the results of the exact measurement invariance test is missing. We address this gap by comparing the results of exact and approximate cross-country measurement invariance tests of a revised scale to measure human values. Several studies that measured basic human values with the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) reported problems of measurement noninvariance (especially scalar noninvariance) across countries. Recently Schwartz et al. proposed a refined value theory and an instrument (PVQ-5X) to measure 19 more narrowly defined values. Cieciuch et al. tested its measurement invariance properties across eight countries and established exact scalar measurement invariance for 10 of the 19 values. The current study applied the approximate measurement invariance procedure on the same data and established approximate scalar measurement invariance even for all 19 values. Thus, the first conclusion is that the approximate approach provides more encouraging results for the usefulness of the scale for cross-cultural research, although this finding needs to be generalized and validated in future research using population data. The second conclusion is that the approximate measurement invariance is more likely than the exact approach to establish measurement invariance, although further simulation studies are needed to determine more precise recommendations about how large the permissible variance of the priors may be. PMID:25249996

  20. Comparing results of an exact vs. an approximate (Bayesian) measurement invariance test: a cross-country illustration with a scale to measure 19 human values.

    PubMed

    Cieciuch, Jan; Davidov, Eldad; Schmidt, Peter; Algesheimer, René; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequently used procedures for measurement invariance testing is the multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). Muthén and Asparouhov recently proposed a new approach to test for approximate rather than exact measurement invariance using Bayesian MGCFA. Approximate measurement invariance permits small differences between parameters otherwise constrained to be equal in the classical exact approach. However, extant knowledge about how results of approximate measurement invariance tests compare to the results of the exact measurement invariance test is missing. We address this gap by comparing the results of exact and approximate cross-country measurement invariance tests of a revised scale to measure human values. Several studies that measured basic human values with the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) reported problems of measurement noninvariance (especially scalar noninvariance) across countries. Recently Schwartz et al. proposed a refined value theory and an instrument (PVQ-5X) to measure 19 more narrowly defined values. Cieciuch et al. tested its measurement invariance properties across eight countries and established exact scalar measurement invariance for 10 of the 19 values. The current study applied the approximate measurement invariance procedure on the same data and established approximate scalar measurement invariance even for all 19 values. Thus, the first conclusion is that the approximate approach provides more encouraging results for the usefulness of the scale for cross-cultural research, although this finding needs to be generalized and validated in future research using population data. The second conclusion is that the approximate measurement invariance is more likely than the exact approach to establish measurement invariance, although further simulation studies are needed to determine more precise recommendations about how large the permissible variance of the priors may be. PMID:25249996

  1. Breast Cancer by Age at Diagnosis in the Gharbiah, Egypt, Population-Based Registry Compared to the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 2004–2008

    PubMed Central

    Schlichting, Jennifer A.; Soliman, Amr S.; Schairer, Catherine; Harford, Joe B.; Hablas, Ahmed; Ramadan, Mohamed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Although breast cancers (BCs) in young women often display more aggressive features, younger women are generally not screened for early detection. It is important to understand the characteristics of young onset breast cancer to increase awareness in this population. This analysis includes all ages, with emphasis placed on younger onset BC in Egypt as compared to the United States. Methods. BC cases in the Gharbiah cancer registry (GCR), Egypt, were compared to those in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. This analysis included 3,819 cases from the GCR and 273,019 from SEER diagnosed 2004–2008. Results. GCR cases were diagnosed at later stages, with <5% diagnosed at Stage I and 12% diagnosed at Stage IV. 48% of all SEER cases were diagnosed at Stage I, dropping to 30% among those ≤40. Significant differences in age, tumor grade, hormone receptor status, histology, and stage exist between GCR and SEER BCs. After adjustment, GCR cases were nearly 45 times more likely to be diagnosed at stage III and 16 times more likely to be diagnosed at stage IV than SEER cases. Conclusions. Future research should examine ways to increase literacy about early detection and prompt therapy in young cases. PMID:26495294

  2. Identification of a Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase homologue, EaZIP, involved in leaf-variegation of Epipremnum aureum 'Golden Pothos' is achieved through a unique method of comparative study using tissue cultu

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variegated-leaf plants provide a great tool for studying chloroplast biogenesis by allowing comparative studies of chloroplast development in green and white/yellow sectors on the same leaves. Comparative studies of different color sectors typically employ dissecting techniques that are subject to p...

  3. Rationale and Enrollment Results for a Partially Randomized Patient Preference Trial to Compare Continuation Rates of Short-Acting and Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Hubacher, David; Spector, Hannah; Monteith, Charles; Chen, Pai-Lien; Hart, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Most published contraceptive continuation rates have scientific limitations and cannot be compared; this is particularly true for dissimilar contraceptives. This study uses a new approach to determine if high continuation rates of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) and protection from unintended pregnancy are observable in a population not self-selecting to use LARC. Study Design We are conducting a partially randomized patient preference trial to compare continuation rates of short-acting reversible contraception (SARC) and LARC. Only women seeking SARC were invited to participate. Participants chose to be in the preference cohort (self-selected method use) or opted to be randomized to SARC or LARC; only those in the randomized cohort received free product. We compared participant characteristics, reasons for not trying LARC previously, and the contraceptive choices that were made. Results We enrolled 917 eligible women; 57% chose to be in the preference cohort and 43% opted for the randomized trial. The preference and randomized cohorts were similar on most factors. However, the randomized cohort was more likely than the preference cohort to be uninsured (48% versus 36%, respectively) and to cite cost as a reason for not trying LARC previously (50% versus 10%) (p<0.01 for both comparisons). In the preference cohort, fear of pain/injury/side effects/health risks were the predominant reasons (cited by over 25%) for not trying LARC previously (p<0.01 in comparison to randomized cohort). Conclusions Enrollment was successful and the process created different cohorts to compare contraceptive continuation rates and unintended pregnancy in this ongoing trial. The choices participants made were associated with numerous factors; lack of insurance was associated with participation in the randomized trial. Implications This partially randomized patient preference trial will provide new estimates of contraceptive continuation rates, such that any benefits

  4. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  5. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  6. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  7. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  8. Health-promoting factors in medical students and students of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics: design and baseline results of a comparative longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The negative impact of medical school on students' general and mental health has often been reported. Compared to students of other subjects, or employed peers, medical students face an increased risk of developing depression, anxiety and burnout. While pathogenetic factors have been studied extensively, less is known about health-promoting factors for medical students' health. This longitudinal study aims to identify predictors for maintaining good general and mental health during medical education. We report here the design of the study and its baseline results. Methods We initiated a prospective longitudinal cohort study at the University of Lübeck, Germany. Two consecutive classes of students, entering the university in 2011 and 2012, were recruited. Participants will be assessed annually for the duration of their course. We use validated psychometric instruments covering health outcomes (general and mental health) and personality traits, as well as self-developed, pre-tested items covering leisure activities and sociodemographic data. Results At baseline, compared to students of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects (n = 531; 60.8% response rate), a larger proportion of medical students (n = 350; 93.0% response rate) showed good general health (90.9% vs. 79.7%) and a similar proportion was in good mental health (88.3% vs. 86.3%). Medical students scored significantly higher in the personality traits of extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness. Neuroticism proved to be a statistically significant negative predictor for mental health in the logistic regression analyses. Satisfaction with life as a dimension of study-related behaviour and experience predicted general health at baseline. Physical activity was a statistically significant predictor for general health in medical students. Conclusions Baseline data revealed that medical students reported better general and similar mental

  9. The comparative effectiveness of anti‐TNF therapy and methotrexate in patients with psoriatic arthritis: 6 month results from a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Heiberg, M S; Kaufmann, C; Rødevand, E; Mikkelsen, K; Koldingsnes, W; Mowinckel, P; Kvien, T K

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To compare the response to treatment with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors and methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) within a real‐life clinical setting. Methods We analysed data from an ongoing longitudinal, observational multicentre study in Norway. Our data comprised 526 cases of patients with PsA who received either anti‐TNF treatment (n = 146) or MTX monotherapy (n = 380) and were followed for at least 6 months with measures of disease activity, health status and utility scores. A propensity score was computed to adjust for channelling bias. The changes in measures of disease activity and health‐related quality of life from baseline to 3‐ and 6‐month follow‐up were compared between the groups with adjustments for the baseline value of the dependent variable and the propensity score (analyses of covariance (ANCOVA)). Results The groups were significantly different at baseline with respect to demographic and disease activity measures. The variables included in the propensity score were age, sex, number of previous disease modifying anti‐rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), presence of erosive disease, treatment centre and investigator's global assessment. The adjusted changes at 6 months were significantly larger in the anti‐TNF group for ESR, DAS‐28, M‐HAQ, patient's assessments of pain, fatigue and global disease activity on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and 4 out of 8 SF‐36 dimensions. Conclusions Clinical improvement was superior with TNF inhibitors compared to MTX monotherapy in patients with PsA, when assessed in this setting of daily clinical practice. PMID:17213251

  10. Local Heat Application for the Treatment of Buruli Ulcer: Results of a Phase II Open Label Single Center Non Comparative Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F.; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bratschi, Martin W.; Bolz, Miriam; Um Boock, Alphonse; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pluschke, Gerd; Junghanss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background. Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease most prevalent among West African children. The causative organism, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is sensitive to temperatures above 37°C. We investigated the safety and efficacy of a local heat application device based on phase change material. Methods. In a phase II open label single center noncomparative clinical trial (ISRCTN 72102977) under GCP standards in Cameroon, laboratory confirmed BU patients received up to 8 weeks of heat treatment. We assessed efficacy based on the endpoints ‘absence of clinical BU specific features’ or ‘wound closure’ within 6 months (“primary cure”), and ‘absence of clinical recurrence within 24 month’ (“definite cure”). Results. Of 53 patients 51 (96%) had ulcerative disease. 62% were classified as World Health Organization category II, 19% each as category I and III. The average lesion size was 45 cm2. Within 6 months after completion of heat treatment 92.4% (49 of 53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 81.8% to 98.0%) achieved cure of their primary lesion. At 24 months follow-up 83.7% (41 of 49, 95% CI, 70.3% to 92.7%) of patients with primary cure remained free of recurrence. Heat treatment was well tolerated; adverse effects were occasional mild local skin reactions. Conclusions. Local thermotherapy is a highly effective, simple, cheap and safe treatment for M. ulcerans disease. It has in particular potential as home-based remedy for BU suspicious lesions at community level where laboratory confirmation is not available. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCT 72102977. PMID:26486698

  11. Identifying Achievement Goals and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement in Undergraduate Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. Methods. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students’ grades were obtained from course coordinators. Results. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Conclusion. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement. PMID:25258438

  12. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a 2-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Per N; Skogli, Erik W; Hovik, Kjell T; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically developing children (age 9-16 years) were included at baseline and followed up approximately 25 months later. The children were given a letter/number sequencing task to assess verbal working memory. The performance of children with high-functioning autism on verbal working memory did not improve after 2 years, while improvement was observed in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. The results indicate a different developmental trajectory for verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. More research is needed to construct a developmental framework more suitable for children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24604922

  13. Risk assessment models in genetics clinic for array comparative genomic hybridization: Clinical information can be used to predict the likelihood of an abnormal result in patients

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Rachel M.; Mercurio, Laura; Kanter, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Abuelo, Dianne; Morrow, Eric M.; Shur, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) testing can diagnose chromosomal microdeletions and duplications too small to be detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques. We need to consider which patients are more likely to receive a diagnosis from aCGH testing versus patients that have lower likelihood and may benefit from broader genome wide scanning. We retrospectively reviewed charts of a population of 200 patients, 117 boys and 83 girls, who underwent aCGH testing in Genetics Clinic at Rhode Island hospital between 1 January/2008 and 31 December 2010. Data collected included sex, age at initial clinical presentation, aCGH result, history of seizures, autism, dysmorphic features, global developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia and failure to thrive. aCGH analysis revealed abnormal results in 34 (17%) and variants of unknown significance in 24 (12%). Patients with three or more clinical diagnoses had a 25.0% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings, while patients with two or fewer clinical diagnoses had a 12.5% incidence of abnormal aCGH findings. Currently, we provide families with a range of 10–30% of a diagnosis with aCGH testing. With increased clinical complexity, patients have an increased probability of having an abnormal aCGH result. With this, we can provide individualized risk estimates for each patient.

  14. Spinning Characteristics of the XN2Y-1 Airplane Obtained from the Spinning Balance and Compared with Results from the Spinning Tunnel and from Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamber, M J; House, R O

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of tests of a 1/10-scale model of the XN2Y-1 airplane tested in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel in which the six components of forces and moments were measured. The model was tested in 17 attitudes in which the full-scale airplane had been observed to spin, in order to determine the effects of scale, tunnel, and interference. In addition, a series of tests was made to cover the range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, rates of rotation, and control setting likely to be encountered by a spinning airplane. The data were used to estimate the probable attitudes in steady spins of an airplane in flight and of a model in the free-spinning tunnel. The estimated attitudes of steady spin were compared with attitudes measured in flight and in the spinning tunnel. The results indicate that corrections for certain scale and tunnel effects are necessary to estimate full-scale spinning attitudes from model results.

  15. Histological and Histomorphometric Human Results of HA-Beta-TCP 30/70 Compared to Three Different Biomaterials in Maxillary Sinus Augmentation at 6 Months: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Annibali, Susanna; Iezzi, Giovanna; Sfasciotti, Gian Luca; Cristalli, Maria Paola; Vozza, Iole; Mangano, Carlo; La Monaca, Gerardo; Polimeni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this investigation was to examine the bone regenerative potential of newly biphasic calcium phosphate ceramics (HA-β-TCP 30/70), by assessing histological and histomorphometric results of human specimens retrieved from sinuses augmented with HA-β-TCP 30/70, and comparing them to anorganic bovine bone (ABB), mineralized solvent-dehydrated bone allograft (MSDBA), and equine bone (EB), after a healing period of 6 months. Materials and Methods. Four consecutive patients with edentulous atrophic posterior maxilla were included in this report. A two-stage procedure was carried out for sinus augmentation with HA-β-TCP 30/70, ABB, MSDBA, and EB. After 6 months, specimens were retrieved at the time of implant placement and processed for histological and histomorphometric analyses. Results. At histological examination, all biomaterials were in close contact with the newly formed bone and showed the same pattern of bone formation; the grafted granules were surrounded by a bridge-like network of newly formed bone. A limited number of ABB particles were partially covered by connective tissue. The histomorphometric analysis revealed 30.2% newly formed bone for Ha-β-TCP 30/70, 20.1% for ABB, 16.4% for MSDBA, and 21.9% for EB. Conclusions. Within the limitations of the present investigation, these results support the successful use of HA-β-TCP 30/70 for sinus augmentation. PMID:26273589

  16. Results of community deliberation about social impacts of ecological restoration: comparing public input of self-selected versus actively engaged community members.

    PubMed

    Harris, Charles C; Nielsen, Erik A; Becker, Dennis R; Blahna, Dale J; McLaughlin, William J

    2012-08-01

    Participatory processes for obtaining residents' input about community impacts of proposed environmental management actions have long raised concerns about who participates in public involvement efforts and whose interests they represent. This study explored methods of broad-based involvement and the role of deliberation in social impact assessment. Interactive community forums were conducted in 27 communities to solicit public input on proposed alternatives for recovering wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest US. Individuals identified by fellow residents as most active and involved in community affairs ("AE residents") were invited to participate in deliberations about likely social impacts of proposed engineering and ecological actions such as dam removal. Judgments of these AE participants about community impacts were compared with the judgments of residents motivated to attend a forum out of personal interest, who were designated as self-selected ("SS") participants. While the magnitude of impacts rated by SS participants across all communities differed significantly from AE participants' ratings, in-depth analysis of results from two community case studies found that both AE and SS participants identified a large and diverse set of unique impacts, as well as many of the same kinds of impacts. Thus, inclusion of both kinds of residents resulted in a greater range of impacts for consideration in the environmental impact study. The case study results also found that the extent to which similar kinds of impacts are specified by AE and SS group members can differ by type of community. Study results caution against simplistic conclusions drawn from this approach to community-wide public participation. Nonetheless, the results affirm that deliberative methods for community-based impact assessment involving both AE and SS residents can provide a more complete picture of perceived impacts of proposed restoration activities. PMID:22615108

  17. Results of Community Deliberation About Social Impacts of Ecological Restoration: Comparing Public Input of Self-Selected Versus Actively Engaged Community Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Charles C.; Nielsen, Erik A.; Becker, Dennis R.; Blahna, Dale J.; McLaughlin, William J.

    2012-08-01

    Participatory processes for obtaining residents' input about community impacts of proposed environmental management actions have long raised concerns about who participates in public involvement efforts and whose interests they represent. This study explored methods of broad-based involvement and the role of deliberation in social impact assessment. Interactive community forums were conducted in 27 communities to solicit public input on proposed alternatives for recovering wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest US. Individuals identified by fellow residents as most active and involved in community affairs ("AE residents") were invited to participate in deliberations about likely social impacts of proposed engineering and ecological actions such as dam removal. Judgments of these AE participants about community impacts were compared with the judgments of residents motivated to attend a forum out of personal interest, who were designated as self-selected ("SS") participants. While the magnitude of impacts rated by SS participants across all communities differed significantly from AE participants' ratings, in-depth analysis of results from two community case studies found that both AE and SS participants identified a large and diverse set of unique impacts, as well as many of the same kinds of impacts. Thus, inclusion of both kinds of residents resulted in a greater range of impacts for consideration in the environmental impact study. The case study results also found that the extent to which similar kinds of impacts are specified by AE and SS group members can differ by type of community. Study results caution against simplistic conclusions drawn from this approach to community-wide public participation. Nonetheless, the results affirm that deliberative methods for community-based impact assessment involving both AE and SS residents can provide a more complete picture of perceived impacts of proposed restoration activities.

  18. A Prospective Cohort Study to Compare Treatment Results Between 2 Fractionation Schedules of High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eng-Yen; Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Hao; Lan, Jen-Hong; Chanchien, Chan-Chao; Huang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Chang-Yu; Wang, Chong-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the treatment results of 2 fractionation schedules for high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2001 through January 2008, 267 patients with stage IB-IVA cervical cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent 4-field pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT. The median central and parametrial doses were 39.6 Gy and 45 Gy, respectively. Patient underwent either 6 Gy Multiplication-Sign 4 (HDR-4) (n=144) or 4.5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 6 (HDR-6) (n=123) to point A of ICBT using {sup 192}Ir isotope twice weekly. The rates of overall survival, locoregional failure, distant metastasis, proctitis, cystitis, and enterocolitis were compared between HDR-4 and HDR-6. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic data between HDR-4 and HDR-6 except for total treatment time. The 5-year proctitis rates were 23.0% and 21.5% in HDR-4 and HDR-6 (P=.399), respectively. The corresponding rates of grade 2-4 proctitis were 18.7% and 9.6% (P=.060). The corresponding rates of grades 3-4 proctitis were 5.2% and 1.3% (P=.231). Subgroup analysis revealed that HDR-4 significantly increased grade 2-4 proctitis in patients aged {>=}62 years old (P=.012) but not in patients aged <62 years (P=.976). The rates of overall survival, locoregional failure, distant metastasis, cystitis, and enterocolitis were not significantly different between HDR-4 and HDR-6 schedules. Conclusion: The small fraction size of HDR-ICBT is associated with grade 2 proctitis without compromise of prognosis in elderly patients. This schedule is suggested for patients who tolerate an additional 2 applications of HDR-ICBT.

  19. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  20. From Radical Mastectomy to Breast-Conserving Therapy and Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: A Narrative Review Comparing Oncological Result, Cosmetic Outcome, Quality of Life, and Health Economy

    PubMed Central

    Kaviani, Ahmad; Sodagari, Nassim; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Eslami, Vahid; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Safavi, Amin; Noparast, Maryam; Fitoussi, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Surgical management of breast cancer has evolved considerably over the last two decades. There has been a major shift toward less-invasive local treatments, from radical mastectomy to breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS). In order to investigate the efficacy of each of the three abovementioned methods, a literature review was conducted for measurable outcomes including local recurrence, survival, cosmetic outcome, quality of life (QOL), and health economy. From the point of view of oncological result, there is no difference between mastectomy and BCT in local recurrence rate and survival. Long-term results for OBS are not available. The items assessed in the QOL sound a better score for OBS in comparison with mastectomy or BCT. OBS is also associated with a better cosmetic outcome. Although having low income seems to be associated with lower BCT and OBS utilization, prognosis of breast cancer is worse in these women as well. Thus, health economy is the matter that should be studied seriously. OBS is an innovative, progressive, and complicated subspeciality that lacks published randomized clinical trials comparing surgical techniques and objective measures of outcome, especially from oncologic and health economy points of view. PMID:24167743

  1. Band gap bowing of binary alloys: Experimental results compared to theoretical tight-binding supercell calculations for CdxZn1-xSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourad, Daniel; Czycholl, Gerd; Kruse, Carsten; Klembt, Sebastian; Retzlaff, Reiner; Hommel, Detlef; Gartner, Mariuca; Anastasescu, Mihai

    2010-10-01

    Compound semiconductor alloys of the type AxB1-xC find widespread applications as their electronic bulk band gap varies continuously with x , and therefore a tailoring of the energy gap is possible by variation in the concentration. We model the electronic properties of such semiconductor alloys by a multiband sp3 tight-binding model on a finite ensemble of supercells and determine the band gap of the alloy. This treatment allows for an intrinsic reproduction of band bowing effects as a function of the concentration x and is exact in the alloy-induced disorder. In the present paper, we concentrate on bulk CdxZn1-xSe as a well-defined model system and give a careful analysis on the proper choice of the basis set and supercell size, as well as on the necessary number of realizations. The results are compared to experimental results obtained from ellipsometric measurements of CdxZn1-xSe layers prepared by molecular beam epitaxy and photoluminescence measurements on catalytically grown CdxZn1-xSe nanowires reported in the literature.

  2. Costs of Testing for Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Compared to Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma in The Gambia: Application of Results from the PRET Study

    PubMed Central

    Harding-Esch, Emma; Jofre-Bonet, Mireia; Dhanjal, Jaskiran K.; Burr, Sarah; Edwards, Tansy; Holland, Martin; Sillah, Ansumana; West, Sheila; Lietman, Tom; Keenan, Jeremy; Mabey, David; Bailey, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) treatment of active trachoma with antibiotic is recommended to be initiated in any district where the prevalence of trachoma inflammation, follicular (TF) is ≥10% in children aged 1–9 years, and then to continue for at least three annual rounds before resurvey. In The Gambia the PRET study found that discontinuing MDA based on testing a sample of children for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis(Ct) infection after one MDA round had similar effects to continuing MDA for three rounds. Moreover, one round of MDA reduced disease below the 5% TF threshold. We compared the costs of examining a sample of children for TF, and of testing them for Ct, with those of MDA rounds. Methods The implementation unit in PRET The Gambia was a census enumeration area (EA) of 600–800 people. Personnel, fuel, equipment, consumables, data entry and supervision costs were collected for census and treatment of a sample of EAs and for the examination, sampling and testing for Ct infection of 100 individuals within them. Programme costs and resource savings from testing and treatment strategies were inferred for the 102 EAs in the study area, and compared. Results Census costs were $103.24 per EA plus initial costs of $108.79. MDA with donated azithromycin cost $227.23 per EA. The mean cost of examining and testing 100 children was $796.90 per EA, with Ct testing kits costing $4.80 per result. A strategy of testing each EA for infection is more expensive than two annual rounds of MDA unless the kit cost is less than $1.38 per result. However stopping or deciding not to initiate treatment in the study area based on testing a sample of EAs for Ct infection (or examining children in a sample of EAs) creates savings relative to further unnecessary treatments. Conclusion Resources may be saved by using tests for chlamydial infection or clinical examination to determine that initial or subsequent rounds of MDA for trachoma are unnecessary. PMID:25901349

  3. Self-Efficacy and Achievement Goals as Motivational Links between Perceived Contexts and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yi; Song, Juyeon; Lee, Minhye; Bong, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate (a) how the subjectively perceived achievement goals of significant others would predict the academic self-efficacy and achievement goals of Korean adolescents and (b) how those self-efficacy and achievement goals in turn predicted their achievement. We also compared these predictive…

  4. The Cognitive Determinants of Achieving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    A cognitive explanation of achievement-related behavior is developed. It is suggested that high and low achievers diverge behaviorally in the achievement situation because they conceptualize the causes of success and failure in different ways. The results of a study are presented which show that subjects high in achievement needs tend to attribute…

  5. Reduced intensity VEPEMB regimen compared with standard ABVD in elderly Hodgkin lymphoma patients: results from a randomized trial on behalf of the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi (FIL).

    PubMed

    Zallio, Francesco; Tamiazzo, Stefania; Monagheddu, Chiara; Merli, Francesco; Ilariucci, Fiorella; Stelitano, Caterina; Liberati, Anna Marina; Mannina, Donato; Vitolo, Umberto; Angelucci, Emanuele; Rota Scalabrini, Delia; Vallisa, Daniele; Bellei, Monica; Bari, Alessia; Ciccone, Giovannino; Salvi, Flavia; Levis, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    Survival rates for elderly Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) have not improved substantially in recent years, mainly because of a lack of prospective randomized studies, due to difficulties in enrolling patients. Between 2002 and 2006, 54 untreated HL patients, aged between 65 and 80 years and considered 'non-frail' according to a comprehensive geriatric evaluation, were enrolled into a phase III randomized trial to compare a reduced-intensity regimen (vinblastine, cyclophosphamide, procarbazine, prednisone, etoposide, mitoxantrone, bleomycin; VEPEMB) with standard ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Seventeen patients were in early stage (I-IIA), while 37 were advanced stage. Median age was 72 years and median follow-up was 76 months. Five-year PFS rates were 48% vs. 70% [adjusted Hazard ratio (HR) = 2·19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0·94-5·10, P = 0·068] and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 63% vs. 77% (adjusted HR = 1·67, 95% CI = 0·69-4·03, P = 0·254) for VEPEMB compared to ABVD. Overall treatment-related mortality was 4%. World Health Organization grade 4 cardiac and lung toxicity occurred in four patients treated with ABVD versus no cases in the VEPEMB arm. Standard ABVD regimen resulted in better PFS and OS than the VEPEMB, although the differences were not statistically significant. The low toxicity of both treatments was probably attributable to stringent selection of patients based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment that excluded frail patients. PMID:26763986

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Gadobutrol for Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Central Nervous System: Results from a Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Comparator Study

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Juan E; Rosenberg, Martin; Seemann, Jörg; Breuer, Josy; Haverstock, Daniel; Agris, Jacob; Balzer, Thomas; Anzalone, Nicoletta

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the central nervous system (CNS) with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) is standard of care for CNS imaging and diagnosis because of the visualization of lesions that cause blood–brain barrier breakdown. Gadobutrol is a macrocyclic GBCA with high concentration and high relaxivity. The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of gadobutrol 1.0 M vs unenhanced imaging and vs the approved macrocyclic agent gadoteridol 0.5 M at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg bodyweight. MATERIALS AND METHODS Prospective, multicenter, double-blind, crossover trial in patients who underwent unenhanced MRI followed by enhanced imaging with gadobutrol or gadoteridol. Three blinded readers assessed the magnetic resonance images. The primary efficacy variables included number of lesions detected, degree of lesion contrast-enhancement, lesion border delineation, and lesion internal morphology. RESULTS Of the 402 treated patients, 390 patients received study drugs. Lesion contrast-enhancement, lesion border delineation, and lesion internal morphology were superior for combined unenhanced/gadobutrol-enhanced imaging vs unenhanced imaging (P < 0.0001 for all). Compared with gadoteridol, gadobutrol was non-inferior for all primary variables and superior for lesion contrast-enhancement, as well as sensitivity and accuracy for detection of malignant disease. The percentage of patients with at least one drug-related adverse event was similar for gadobutrol (10.0%) and gadoteridol (9.7%). CONCLUSION Gadobutrol is an effective and well-tolerated macrocyclic contrast agent for MRI of the CNS. Gadobutrol demonstrates greater contrast-enhancement and improved sensitivity and accuracy for detection of malignant disease than gadoteridol, likely because of its higher relaxivity. PMID:25922578

  7. A comparative analysis of role attainment and impairment in binge-eating disorder and bulimia nervosa: results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R C; Shahly, V; Hudson, J I; Supina, D; Berglund, P A; Chiu, W T; Gruber, M; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Benjet, C; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; de Graaf, R; Florescu, S E; Haro, J M; Murphy, S D; Posada-Villa, J; Scott, K; Xavier, M

    2014-03-01

    Background. Cross-national population data from the WHO World Mental Health surveys are used to compare role attainments and role impairments associated with binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Methods. Community surveys assessed 23 000 adults across 12 countries for BED, BN and ten other DSM-IV mental disorders using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Age-of-onset was assessed retrospectively. Ten physical disorders were assessed using standard conditions checklists. Analyses examined reciprocal time-lagged associations of eating disorders (EDs) with education, associations of early-onset (i.e., prior to completing education) EDs with subsequent adult role attainments and cross-sectional associations of current EDs with days of role impairment. Results. BED and BN predicted significantly increased education (females). Student status predicted increased risk of subsequent BED and BN (females). Early-onset BED predicted reduced odds of current (at time of interview) marriage (females) and reduced odds of current employment (males). Early-onset BN predicted increased odds of current work disability (females and males). Current BED and BN were both associated with significantly increased days of role impairment (females and males). Significant BED and BN effects on adult role attainments and impairments were explained by controls for comorbid disorders. Conclusions. Effects of BED on role attainments and impairments are comparable with those of BN. The most plausible interpretation of the fact that these associations are explained by comorbid disorders is that causal effects of EDs are mediated through secondary disorders. Controlled treatment effectiveness studies are needed to trace out long-term effects of BED-BN on secondary disorders. PMID:24054053

  8. Final Results of a Prospective Study Comparing the Local Control of Short-Course and Long-Course Radiotherapy for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Lange, Marisa; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Bajrovic, Amira; Adamietz, Irenaeus A.; Rudat, Volker; Schild, Steven E.

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: Many patients with metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) live long enough to develop a recurrence in the irradiated spinal area. This is the first prospective study that has compared local control of different radiotherapy schedules for MSCC. Methods and Materials: A total of 265 patients treated with radiotherapy alone were included in this prospective nonrandomized study. The primary goal was to compare local control from short-course (1 x 8 Gy/5 x 4 Gy, n = 131) and long-course radiotherapy (10 x 3 Gy/15 x 2.5 Gy/20 x 2 Gy, n = 134). Secondary end points were motor function and survival. The analysis of local control (no MSCC recurrence in the irradiated spinal area) included the 224 patients with improvement or no change of motor deficits during radiotherapy. Eleven additional factors were evaluated for outcomes. Results: One-year local control was 61% after short-course and 81% after long-course radiotherapy (p = 0.005). On multivariate analysis (MVA), improved local control was associated with long-course radiotherapy (p = 0.018). Motor function improved in 37% after short-course and 39% after long-course radiotherapy (p = 0.95). Improved motor function was associated with better performance status (p = 0.015), favorable tumor type (p = 0.034), and slower development of motor deficits (p < 0.001). One-year survival rates were 23% after short-course and 30% after long-course radiotherapy (p = 0.28). On MVA, improved survival was associated with better performance status (p < 0.001), no visceral metastases (p < 0.001), involvement of only one to three vertebrae (p = 0.040), ambulatory status (p = 0.038), and bisphosphonate administration after radiotherapy (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Long-course radiotherapy was associated with better local control, similar functional outcome, and similar survival compared to short-course radiotherapy. Patients with a relatively favorable expected survival should receive long-course radiotherapy.

  9. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  10. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively), fat (both P values <0.001), and sucrose (P<0.001 and P=0.050). At 12 weeks, total carbohydrates were reduced (P<0.001). A majority of women in all groups reported low intakes of vitamin D, folate, and/or iron. In conclusion, a novel dietary treatment led to reduced intake of fat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable vs First-Generation Antipsychotic Long-Acting Injectables in Schizophrenia: Results From a Nationwide, Retrospective Inception Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Jensen, Signe O. W.; Friis, Rasmus B.; Valentin, Jan B.; Correll, Christoph U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare in a generalizable sample/setting objective outcomes in patients receiving first-generation antipsychotic long-acting injectables (FGA-LAIs) or risperidone-LAI (RIS-LAI). Methods: Nationwide, retrospective inception cohort study of adults with International Classification of Diseases-10 schizophrenia using Danish registers from 1995 to 2009 comparing outcomes between clinician’s/patient’s choice treatment with FGA-LAIs or RIS-LAI. Primary outcome was time to psychiatric hospitalization using Cox-regression adjusting for relevant covariates. Secondary outcomes included time to all-cause discontinuation and psychiatric hospitalization in patients without LAI possession gap >28 days, and number of bed-days after psychiatric hospitalization. Results: Among 4532 patients followed for 2700 patient-years, 2078 received RIS-LAI and 2454 received FGA-LAIs (zuclopenthixol decanoate = 52.2%, perphenazine decanoate = 37.2%, haloperidol decanoate = 5.0%, flupenthixol decanoate = 4.4%, fluphenazine decanoate = 1.3%). RIS-LAI was similar to FGA-LAIs regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 246.2±323.7 days vs FGA-LAIs = 276.6±383.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87–1.03, P = 0.199) and time to all-cause discontinuation (RIS-LAI = 245.8±324.0 days vs FGA-LAIs = 287.0±390.9 days; HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86–1.02, P = 0.116). Similarly, in patients without LAI discontinuation, RIS-LAI and FGA-LAIs did not differ regarding time to hospitalization (RIS-LAI = 175.0±268.1 days vs FGA-LAIs = 210.7±325.3 days; HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86–1.04, P = 0.254). Finally, duration of hospitalization was also similar (incidence rate ratio = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.78–1.19, P = 0.744). Results were unchanged when analyzing only patients treated after introduction of RIS-LAI. Conclusions: In this nationwide cohort study, RIS-LAI was not superior to FGA-LAIs regarding time to psychiatric hospitalization, all-cause discontinuation, and duration of

  12. Rates of particle size reduction and passage are faster for legume compared with cool-season grass, resulting in lower rumen fill and less effective fiber.

    PubMed

    Kammes, K L; Allen, M S

    2012-06-01

    Effects of forage family on rates of particle size reduction in, and passage from, the rumen and the relationship of these effects with preliminary dry matter intake (pDMI) were evaluated using 13 ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows in a crossover design with a 14-d preliminary period and two 18-d treatment periods. During the preliminary period, pDMI of individual cows ranged from 19.6 to 29.5 kg/d (mean = 25.9 kg/d). Experimental treatments were diets containing either a) alfalfa silage (AL) or b) orchardgrass silage (OG) as the sole forage. Silages were chopped to 10-mm theoretical length of cut and contained 42.3 and 58.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) for alfalfa and orchardgrass, respectively. Both diets contained approximately 25% forage NDF and 30% total NDF. Feed, orts, rumen, and duodenal samples were wet sieved to fractionate particles above (large) and below (small) 2.36 mm. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) was used as a flow marker. Preliminary DMI, an index of nutrient demand, was determined during the last 4 d of the preliminary period when cows were fed a common diet and used as a covariate. Main effects of forage family and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. Approximately 75% of the NDF consumed was large and 25% was small for both treatments, but cows fed AL consumed more iNDF and less potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) than cows fed OG. The AL diet increased the reduction rate (large to small) compared with OG despite less rumination per unit of forage NDF for AL than OG, suggesting alfalfa NDF was more fragile than orchardgrass NDF. Over 55% of particles in the rumen were below 2.36 mm for AL and OG, indicating that particle size was not a limiting constraint to passage. Passage rates (k(p)) of large iNDF and large pdNDF were similar for AL and OG, but AL increased k(p) of large pdNDF and OG decreased it as pDMI increased. The AL diet increased k(p) of small iNDF and small pdNDF compared with OG, resulting in lower rumen fill

  13. Unambiguous test results or individual independence? The role of clients and families in predictive BRCA-testing in the Netherlands compared to the USA.

    PubMed

    Boenink, Marianne

    2011-06-01

    It has been frequently acknowledged that results of predictive genetic tests may have implications for relatives as well as for the individual client. Ethicists have noted that an individual's right to know her genetic risk may conflict with a relative's right not to know this risk. It is hardly recognised, however, that family members may have a role in the production of test results as well. This article reconstructs the actual process of predictive BRCA-testing in the Netherlands, with a special focus on the roles assigned to clients and families and the expectations about family relationships inscribed in this practice. Fieldwork was carried out in an outpatient clinic for clinical genetics in an academic hospital. Data collection included 11 interviews with members of families, observations of counselling interviews between research participants and their clinical geneticist, and interviews with the 2 clinical geneticists involved in the consultations. It compares this process to the American practice of BRCA-testing. Whereas Dutch practice presupposes active involvement of diseased relatives in the testing process, American practice constitutes the client primarily as an independent individual who may or may not decide to involve her relatives. Moreover, Dutch clients are expected to have a harmonious, open and communicative relationship with their relatives. The American client, in contrast, is supposed to have more distant family relationships. It is argued that an interpretation of these differences in terms of 'the right to know' and 'the right not to know' misses the point, because the production of informative test results depends on the cooperation of relatives. The differences between Dutch and American practice are more adequately interpreted as implying a preference for unambiguous test results versus a preference for individual independence. The paper shows what is lost when opting for one value at the cost of another and discusses several

  14. Early and Long-Term Results of Stent Implantation for Aortic Coarctation in Pediatric Patients Compared to Adolescents: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Bondanza, Sara; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Marasini, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Stents have become the treatment of choice for native aortic coarctation in adults and adolescents, but in pediatric patients insufficient data are currently available to identify the best therapeutic option. Methods. To compare the outcomes of pediatric and adolescent patients, we retrospectively evaluated early and long-term results of stenting for aortic coarctation in 34 patients divided into 2 groups (A and B) composed, respectively, of 17 children (mean age 8.2 ± 2.3, weight ≤30 kg) and 17 adolescents (mean age 14.3 ± 1.7, weight >30 kg). Results. No significant differences in outcome were found between groups immediately after the procedure. In all of our patients, peak systolic gradient pressure significantly decreased after stenting from 43.7 ± 12 to 1.7 ± 3.1 mmHg in group A and from 39.4 ± 16.8 to 1.6 ± 3 in group B (p < 0.0001). We observed early and late adverse events in both groups: early femoral vessel injury or thrombosis was more frequent in younger patients, as well as restenosis due to vessel growth requiring stent redilatations, often complicated by stent fractures. Data from long-term follow-up showed that, in younger patients, stress-related hypertension was more frequent. Conclusions. The procedure was immediately safe and effective in both groups. Pediatric patients must be accurately selected before stenting because they could probably need reinterventions and stents could impact on their future therapeutic perspectives. PMID:26925287

  15. Early and Long-Term Results of Stent Implantation for Aortic Coarctation in Pediatric Patients Compared to Adolescents: A Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Bondanza, Sara; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Marasini, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Stents have become the treatment of choice for native aortic coarctation in adults and adolescents, but in pediatric patients insufficient data are currently available to identify the best therapeutic option. Methods. To compare the outcomes of pediatric and adolescent patients, we retrospectively evaluated early and long-term results of stenting for aortic coarctation in 34 patients divided into 2 groups (A and B) composed, respectively, of 17 children (mean age 8.2 ± 2.3, weight ≤30 kg) and 17 adolescents (mean age 14.3 ± 1.7, weight >30 kg). Results. No significant differences in outcome were found between groups immediately after the procedure. In all of our patients, peak systolic gradient pressure significantly decreased after stenting from 43.7 ± 12 to 1.7 ± 3.1 mmHg in group A and from 39.4 ± 16.8 to 1.6 ± 3 in group B (p < 0.0001). We observed early and late adverse events in both groups: early femoral vessel injury or thrombosis was more frequent in younger patients, as well as restenosis due to vessel growth requiring stent redilatations, often complicated by stent fractures. Data from long-term follow-up showed that, in younger patients, stress-related hypertension was more frequent. Conclusions. The procedure was immediately safe and effective in both groups. Pediatric patients must be accurately selected before stenting because they could probably need reinterventions and stents could impact on their future therapeutic perspectives. PMID:26925287

  16. Thioguanine used in maintenance therapy of chronic myeloid leukaemia causes non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Results from MRC CML. II. Trial comparing busulphan with busulphan and thioguanine.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, P C; Fooks, J; Gray, R; Allan, N C

    1991-10-01

    Portal hypertension with varices developed in 18/675 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in a randomized trial comparing busulphan with busulphan and thioguanine. All 18 had received the drug combination and none busulphan alone (P less than 0.0001). Ascites was also seen significantly more often in the combination arm (P less than 0.05). These results strongly suggest that the addition of thioguanine was responsible for the development of portal hypertension. The histological features were predominantly those of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension--either idiopathic portal hypertension with minimal morphological abnormalities, nodular regenerative hyperplasia or in two cases leukaemic infiltration only was noted. Cirrhosis was present in 3/16 cases studied. Both treatment groups developed abnormal liver function tests during the chronic phase, but particularly with progression of the disease. During chronic phase abnormalities were significantly more frequent in those receiving busulphan and thioguanine-alkaline phosphatase (P less than 0.02), transaminases (P less than 0.04), bilirubin (P less than 0.05), multiple abnormalities (P less than 0.01). The development of portal hypertension was often associated with abnormalities of these tests; however, lack of specificity precludes their use as a predictor of subsequent clinical problems. Thioguanine confers no survival advantage in this disease. In view of its hepatotoxicity it should not be used routinely for maintenance of control in chronic phase CML. PMID:1958475

  17. The influence of loading conditions on fracture initiation, propagation, and interaction in rocks with veins: Results from a comparative Discrete Element Method study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgo, Simon; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a comparative study of loading conditions on the interactions between extension fractures and veins. We model the fracture behavior of brittle discrete element materials each containing a tabular vein body of variable orientation and strength in two different loading conditions. The first is uniaxial tension, applied with servo-controlled sidewalls. The second is a boudinage boundary condition in which a tensile triaxial stress state is induced in the brittle model volume by quasi-viscous extensional deformation in the adjacent layers. Most of the fracture- vein interactions observed in uniaxial tension also exists in boudinage boundary conditions. However, the importance of each interaction mechanism for a given configuration of relative strength and misorientation of the vein may differ according to the loading mechanism. Nucleation and internal deflection is under both boundary conditions the dominating fracture-vein interaction style in weak veins. In uniaxial tension models, strong veins tend to alter the fracture path by external deflection, while under boudinage loading these veins are more likely overcome by the fracture step over mechanism. Dynamic bifurcation of fractures was observed in uniaxial tension models but never for boudinage boundary conditions. This is because the acceleration of fracture tips in these conditions is suppressed by interaction with distributed fractures as well as viscous damping by the neighboring layers.

  18. Intranasal immunization with an epitope-based vaccine results in earlier protection, but not better protective efficacy, against Helicobacter pylori compared to subcutaneous immunization.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibo; Zhang, Jinyong; He, Yafei; Li, Bin; Chen, Li; Huang, Weiwei; Zou, Quanming; Wu, Chao

    2015-07-01

    The route of vaccination plays an important role in the generation of protective immunity against pathogens. In one of our previous studies, subcutaneous (SC) immunization with Epivac had been shown to induce a local and systemic Th1-biased response but failed to provide complete protection. In this study, we investigated whether intranasal (IN) immunization with Epivac could protect against Helicobacter pylori infection to a greater extent than SC immunization. Despite the generation of high serum IgG levels via the two routes of vaccination, the protective effect was independent of the humoral response level. At 2-week post-challenge, examination of the IgG subclass response showed that a dominant IgG2a response was generated after IN immunization, which coincided with elevated IFN-γ production in both splenocytes and stomach homogenates, and a significant reduction in the H. pylori load was found. In contrast, a balanced Th1/Th2 response was induced by SC immunization at the same time point and no protective effect was observed. Two weeks later, the immune response in the SC vaccination groups shifted to Th1 and was equivalent in protection to the IN vaccination route. Our results showed that IN vaccination elicited earlier systemic and gastric Th1 response, which may contribute to the earlier protection compared to SC vaccination. PMID:26044541

  19. Diagnostics of Sacroiliitis According to ASAS Criteria: A Comparative Evaluation of Conventional Radiographs and MRI in Patients with a Clinical Suspicion of Spondyloarthropathy. Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Kwiatkowska, Brygida; Włodkowska-Korytkowska, Monika; Matuszewska, Genowefa; Grochowska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The objective of this study was a comparative evaluation of radiography and MRI in the diagnostics of sacroiliitis in patients with a clinical diagnosis of spondyloartropathy, according to the current ASAS criteria. Material/Methods Sacroiliac joints radiograms and MRI were conducted in 101 consecutive patients, aged 19–71 yrs (mean age: 40.6 yrs). The patients were referred by a senior rheumatologist, with symptoms of the chronic back pain. The sacroiliac joints were assessed on AP radiograms of the pelvis according to the modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis. MRI was performed to look for active and chronic inflammatory lesions. Results Of 14 patients with radiographic sacroiliitis according to modified New York criteria, only 50% had sacroiliitis on MRI. The sensitivity and specificity of conventional radiography were 22% and 94% and of MRI were 71% and 90%. Cohen’s kappa coefficient was κ=0.0187, agreement of radiograms and MRI was 58%. Among 86 patients displaying no sacroiliitis on radiograms, MRI showed sacroiliitis in 34 patients (39.5%). Positive predictive value was 0.429, negative predictive value was 0.605. Conclusions MRI allowed to diagnose sacroiliitis in 39,5 % of patients in preradiographic stage. MRI ruled out the presence of active inflammatory lesions in 60.4% of patients with sacroiliitis on radiograms according to modified New York criteria. PMID:26082819

  20. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  1. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  2. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  3. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  4. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  5. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  19. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  20. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…