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Sample records for achieve science goals

  1. An Investigation on Students' Personal Achievement Goals and Perceived Parents' Goal Emphases in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' personal achievement goals and their perceived parents' goal emphases in science. A total of 295 seventh-grade students completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Perceived Parent Goal Emphases Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed an interaction between perceived parents' mastery approach…

  2. Investigating Elementary Students' Learning Approaches, Motivational Goals, and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacieminoglu, Esme; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among students' learning approaches, motivational goals, previous science grades, and their science achievement for the concepts related to atomic theory and explored the effects of gender and sociodemographic variables on students' learning approaches, motivational goals, and their science achievement for the…

  3. Predicting Seventh Grade Students' Engagement in Science by Their Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidiroglu, Melike; Sungur, Semra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how well seventh grade students' engagement in science can be predicted by their achievement goals. For the specified purpose, a correlational research design was utilized. Data were obtained from 153 seventh grade students through administration of Achievement Goal Questionnaire and Engagement Questionnaire.…

  4. The influence of momentary classroom goal structures on student engagement and achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science. This study examined the relationship between classroom goal structures in high school science and two different learning outcomes: (1) students' cognitive engagement in science and (2) students' science course grades. To achieve this aim, classroom goal structures were examined as both a variable feature of the classroom that shifts from activity to activity (i.e., momentary classroom goal structure), and as a single global characteristic describing the dominant goal structure of a classroom over time (i.e., global classroom goal structure). Students' momentary cognitive engagement significantly increased when instructional moments were mastery or performance goal structured compared to moments that had no identifiable goal structure. However, no relationships were found between global classroom goal structure and cognitive engagement or science course grades.

  5. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  6. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire among Nigerian Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Fatade, Alfred O.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The stability of the achievement goal orientation across different contexts has been a source of further research since the new millennium. Through theoretically-driven and empirically-based analyses, this study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elliot and McGregor 2x2 framework for achievement goal questionnaire within…

  7. The Influence of Momentary Classroom Goal Structures on Student Engagement and Achievement in High School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaleski, Diana Janet

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' instructional practices fundamentally shape students' classroom experiences. However, it is still unclear what patterns of instructional practice are related to specific classroom goal structures, and how momentary changes in classroom goal structures affect students' momentary cognitive engagement in high school science.…

  8. Does the Constellation Program Offer Opportunities to Achieve Space Science Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.; Dissel, Adam F.; Folta, David C.; Stevens, John; Budinoff, Jason G.

    2008-01-01

    Future space science missions developed to achieve the most ambitious goals are likely to be complex, large, publicly and professionally very important, and at the limit of affordability. Consequently, it may be valuable if such missions can be upgraded, repaired, and/or deployed in space, either with robots or with astronauts. In response to a Request for Information from the US National Research Council panel on Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System, we developed a concept for astronaut-based in-space servicing at the Earth-Moon L1,2 locations that may be implemented by using elements of NASA's Constellation architecture. This libration point jobsite could be of great value for major heliospheric and astronomy missions operating at Earth-Sun Lagrange points. We explored five alternative servicing options that plausibly would be available within about a decade. We highlight one that we believe is both the least costly and most efficiently uses Constellation hardware that appears to be available by mid-next decade: the Ares I launch vehicle, Orion/Crew Exploration Vehicle, Centaur vehicle, and an airlock/servicing node developed for lunar surface operations. Our concept may be considered similar to the Apollo 8 mission: a valuable exercise before descent by astronauts to the lunar surface.

  9. Achieving Science Goals with CubeSats: a Study by the National Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbuchen, T.; Sheffer, A.

    2015-12-01

    We will discuss an ongoing study by the National Academies' Space Studies Board focused on CubeSats, and in particular their scientific potential and technological promise. Through this study, several US agencies seek inputs on the current status of CubeSat programs in government, academic and industrial sectors. The study will also make recommendations about additional investments that are needed to further increase the value of CubeSats to the science community. Furthermore, the committee will provide sample priority science goals that describe near-term opportunities, such as providing continuity of key measurements to mitigate potential gaps in measurements of key parameters- and that can be accomplished given the current state of CubeSat capabilities. We will summarize some data in the public domain about CubeSats our study is based on, and also focus on some selected science opportunities that can be addressed by CubeSats and which are part of Decadal Survey priorities.

  10. Besides Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Study on the Relations between Epistemic Beliefs, Achievement Goals, Self-Beliefs, and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Boscolo, Pietro; Tornatora, Maria; Ronconi, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the contribution of learner cognitive and motivational characteristics to achievement in science at three grade levels. Specifically, the relations between domain-specific epistemic beliefs about the development and justification of scientific knowledge, achievement goals, knowledge, self-concept, self-efficacy, and achievement…

  11. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  12. Equity in Science at South African Schools: A pious platitude or an achievable goal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewnarain Ramnarain, Umesh

    2011-07-01

    The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying curriculum reform. This paper reports on equity in terms of equality of outputs and equality of inputs in South African school science, with a particular focus on the implementation of practical science investigations. This was a qualitative case study of two teachers on their implementation of science investigations at two schools, one a township school, previously designated for black children, and the other a former Model C school, previously reserved for white children. My study was guided by the curriculum implementation framework by Rogan and Grayson in trying to understand the practice of these teachers at schools located in contextually diverse communities. The framework helped profile the implementation of science investigations and also enabled me to explore the factors which are able to support or hinder this implementation.

  13. Equity in Science at South African Schools: A Pious Platitude or an Achievable Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain

    2011-01-01

    The apartheid policies in South Africa had a marked influence on the accessibility and quality of school science experienced by the different race groups. African learners in particular were seriously disadvantaged in this regard. The issues of equity and redress were foremost in transformation of the education system, and the accompanying…

  14. Stereotype Threat's Effect on Women's Achievement in Chemistry: The Interaction of Achievement Goal Orientation for Women in Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…

  15. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  16. Achieving the Goals: Goal 5, First in the World in Math and Science. Technology Resources. [Resource Guide to Federal Support for Technology in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Interagency Committee on Education, Washington, DC.

    The information in this volume was compiled in order to provide a guide to the technology-in-education programs of the federal government. The goal of this book is to provide important information about technological resources that will assist teachers, administrators, students, parents and others in achieving the goal of the United States being…

  17. Extending the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework: Development of a Measure of Scientific Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deemer, Eric D.; Carter, Alice P.; Lobrano, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    The current research sought to extend the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework by developing and testing the Achievement Goals for Research Scale (AGRS). Participants (N = 317) consisted of graduate students in the life, physical, and behavioral sciences. A principal components analysis (PCA) extracted five components accounting for 72.59% of the…

  18. Effects of an intensive middle school science experience on the attitude toward science, self-esteem, career goal orientation, and science achievement of eighth-grade female students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Tammy Kay

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a year long intensive extracurricular middle school science experience on the self-esteem, career goal orientation, and attitude toward science of eighth grade female students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixteen self-selected eighth grade female students participated in extracurricular science experiences such as camping, rock climbing, specimen collecting and hiking, as well as meeting and interacting with female science role models. Data was collected using pre- and posttest methods using the Children's Attitude Toward Science Survey, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Career Explorer. End of year science course grades were examined for seventh and eighth grades and compared to first semester high school grades. Qualitative data was in the form of: (1) focus group interviews conducted prior to field experiences, at the end of all field experiences, and at the end of the first semester of high school, and (2) journal entries from throughout the project. Qualitative data was examined for changes in student perceptions of science as a discipline, self as scientist, women in science, and social comparison of self in science.

  19. Science Goals to Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545): This short course will present the science goals for a variety of types of imaging and spectral measurements, the thermal requirements that these goals impose on the instruments designed to obtain the measurements, and some of the types of trades that can be made among instrument subsystems to ensure the required performance is maintained. Examples of thermal system evolution from initial concept to final implementation will be given for several actual systems.

  20. Self-Beliefs and Student Goal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caroline J.; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students' levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are…

  1. Hands-On Science Reform, Science Achievement, and the Elusive Goal of "science for All" in a Diverse Elementary School District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarria, Marissa

    Given the emphasis on "science for all" in national reform documents, this study analyzed student science achievement scores in hands-on reform versus traditional classrooms for 3,667 students in Grades 3 to 6 by gender, ethnicity, free or reduced lunch status, parent education, and level of English proficiency to determine whether these subgroups performed better or worse in reform classrooms. Teachers in reform classrooms used exemplary hands-on science kits and attended 1-day in-service training per kit. Teachers in traditional classrooms used the regular activity-based science curriculum with textbook. Gender differences favoring boys appeared in both types of classrooms, but were larger in the reform classrooms. Boys from lower socioeconomic levels performed better in reform classrooms, but limited-English-proficient boys performed worse. Parent education was significantly related to higher achievement for boys only in reform classrooms. For girls this relation was significant only in traditional classrooms. White girls performed significantly worse in reform classroom, but there were no differences for Asian and Hispanic girls. Implications for adapting hands-on science reform to meet student needs are discussed.

  2. The Role of Goal Attainment Expectancies in Achievement Goal Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Hulleman, Chris S.

    2013-01-01

    The current studies introduce the goal attainment expectancy construct to achievement goal theory. Three studies, 2 in college classrooms and the other using a novel math task in the laboratory, converged on the same finding. For mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals alike, the harder the goal appeared to attain, the less likely…

  3. Theme: Achieving 2020 Goal 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Reinventing Agricultural Education 2020 Project's goal of partnerships and strategic alliances, which serves as a catalyst to ensure that the other goals are accomplished and sustained. Eleven articles discuss establishing partnerships at local, state, and national levels and balancing old alliances with new connections.…

  4. Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Kharusi, Hussain A.

    2007-12-01

    Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic self-efficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment

  5. Effects of teachers' assessment practices on ninth grade students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations in Muscat science classrooms in the Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Kharusi, Hussain A.

    2007-12-01

    Classroom assessment is a continual activity for teachers to improve the quality of instruction and motivate students to learn (Brookhart, 1999; Gronlund, 2006). Although there is a great deal of research on teachers' classroom assessment practices, few empirical research attempts have been made to link these practices to students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and motivation defined in terms of achievement goal orientations. This study examined teachers' assessment practices within the framework of classroom assessment literature and achievement goal theory. More specifically, the purposes of this study were to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations and to investigate the possible effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on perceived classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. The participants were 1,636 ninth grade students and their corresponding 83 science teachers enrolled in public schools within Muscat educational region in Oman 2 during the spring semester 2007. Two questionnaires were developed and used, one for students and one for teachers. The student's questionnaire focused on students' perceived classroom assessment environment, achievement goal orientations, and academic selfefficacy. The teacher's questionnaire focused on teachers' frequent uses of traditional assessments, alternative assessments, and classroom assessment practices recommended by experts of educational measurement and assessment. Principal components/exploratory factor analyses (PCA/EFA) were conducted to identify the underlying dimensions of students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment and achievement goal orientations. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were employed to examine the effects of certain student-level and class-level characteristics on students' perceptions of classroom assessment environment

  6. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  7. Chandrayaan-1: Science goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, N.

    2005-12-01

    be released to land on the Moon during the mission. Salient features of the mission are described here. The ensemble of instruments onboard Chandrayaan-1 should enable us to accomplish the science goals defined for this mission.

  8. Type A Performance Standards and Goal Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Clay H.

    Achievement striving is a central dimension of the Type A behavior pattern. To investigate the relationship between Type A behavior pattern, personal performance goals, and goal achievement on two general information tests, 126 undergraduates participated in a two-phase study. First, behavior patterns were assessed using the Framingham Type A…

  9. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  10. Science Goal Monitor: Science Goal Driven Automation for NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA s future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist s desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve om understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an operational prototype so that the perceived risks associated

  11. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  12. A 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, a 3 x 2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested. The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for…

  13. Science Goal Monitor: science goal driven automation for NASA missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Pell, Melissa; Matusow, David; Bailyn, Charles

    2004-09-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA's future missions will be essential because of the need to: (1) effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data, (2) successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives, and (3) substantially reduce mission operations staff and costs. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized. In order to introduce science driven automation in missions, we must be able to: capture and interpret the science goals of observing programs, represent those goals in machine interpretable language; and allow spacecrafts' onboard systems to autonomously react to the scientist's goals. In short, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists' goals. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is a prototype software tool being developed to determine the best strategies for implementing science goal driven automation in missions. The tools being developed in SGM improve the ability to monitor and react to the changing status of scientific events. The SGM system enables scientists to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of science data to identify occurrences of key events previously specified by the scientist. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the scientist's desired reactions. Through SGM, we will improve our understanding about the capabilities needed onboard for success, develop metrics to understand the potential increase in science returns, and develop an "operational" prototype so that the perceived risks

  14. Reward employees, achieve goals with incentive compensation.

    PubMed

    Vergara, G H; Bourke, J

    1985-08-01

    Incentive compensation, rewarding employees financially for extraordinary performance, can be a motivational tool for healthcare organizations. This method of compensation uses a financial reward as an incentive for executives to achieve certain predetermined, agreed-upon goals. Incentive compensation provides two advantages for the healthcare organization--it provides a mechanism to maximize organizational productivity and it gives executives a means to achieve greater compensation.

  15. Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, The, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This Wallace Perspective paper summarizes key findings of a newly-published book, "Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals: The Secondary Principal's Guide," that argues that school counselors could be much more active players in improving student learning. The book, which bases its conclusions heavily on Wallace's Transforming School…

  16. Mobile Learning and Achievement Goal Orientation Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asplund, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Students with different achievement goal orientations have different approaches towards learning and studying. There is a widespread interest to find an easy access into learning spaces for those students who have low motivation with fear of failure and academic withdrawal. Mobile learning offers an easily accessible chance with low threshold to…

  17. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  18. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  19. Advancing Achievement Goal Theory: Using Goal Structures and Goal Orientations to Predict Students' Motivation, Cognition, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how different components of achievement goal theory were related to each other and to students' motivation, cognitive engagement, and achievement in mathematics. Junior high school students (N=525) completed a self-report survey that assessed their perceived classroom goal structures; personal goal…

  20. Motivational Climates, Achievement Goals, and Physical Education Outcomes: A Longitudinal Test of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…

  1. Teacher Goal Endorsement, Student Achievement Goals and Student Achievement in Mathematics: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deevers, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among teacher practices, student motivation and student achievement on standardized mathematics assessments using an Achievement Goal Theory framework. From 2006 through 2009, 800 public school students participated in mathematics assessments and completed surveys measuring perceptions of teacher practices and…

  2. Achieving the Goals. Goal 4: Teacher Education and Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Goal 4 of the National Education Goals envisions that teachers will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills. This book examines what federal agencies are doing to enhance teacher preparation, presents information on career-long development, and offers program descriptions and contact names. The first…

  3. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  4. An analysis of factors correlated with the achievement of the goal standard for the science portion of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetz, Barbara Fotta

    2001-07-01

    This study sought to identify factors that could be used to predict the success of students on the science portion of the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT). While the Connecticut State Department of Education measures student achievement in mathematics, reading and writing in grades 4, 6, and 8, science is assessed only in the grade ten CAPT. Since the CAPT science test does not identify specific areas in need of improvement, it is not possible to determine causes for low test scores. To address this, the study investigated the predictive values of the grade eight Mastery Tests in mathematics and reading, the student ability scores of the Otis-Lennon School Ability Index, and grades in prior science courses. The research sample consisted of five hundred and twenty-five students, member of the graduating classes of 2000 and 2001 in a large suburban high school. Students in the study had participated in the district testing program and their scores for the grade seven Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT), the grade eight Connecticut Mastery Tests (CMT) and the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Tests (CAPT) were available for analysis. This study investigated correlations between student achievement on the CMT and the science subtest of the CAPT, between OLSAT scores and the CAPT science scores, and between grades in ninth grade science and CAPT science scores. Scores were disaggregated by gender and by course level. Hypotheses 1, 2, 3 and 4 investigated the Pearson Product Moment Correlations of the OLSAT, CMT and course grades with scores on the science portion of the CAPT. Hypothesis 5 compared the scores of male and female students, using the t-test of independent sample means. Calculations showed moderate correlations for hypotheses 1--4, and the hypotheses were accepted. Hypothesis 5 was accepted for one class and rejected for the other. On the whole, female students received higher course grades and lower standardized test

  5. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  6. Temperament, Personality and Achievement Goals among Chinese Adolescent Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…

  7. NASA Now: Geology: Curiosity -- Main Science Goals

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Ashwin Vasavada, deputy project scientist for the Mars Science Laboratory, discusses the main science goals for Curiosity, including the investigation of the presence of water and evidence of l...

  8. Correlates of Achievement Goal Orientations in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2003-01-01

    Achievement goal theory suggests that the motivational processes operating in achievement settings such as PE are dependent on the achievement goals manifested in that setting. In this paper, research is reviewed examining the motivation-related correlates of task and ego (approach) goal orientations in physical education, namely (a)…

  9. Reliance on luck: identifying which achievement goals elicit superstitious behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamerman, Eric J; Morewedge, Carey K

    2015-03-01

    People often resort to superstitious behavior to facilitate goal achievement. We examined whether the specific type of achievement goal pursued influences the propensity to engage in superstitious behavior. Across six studies, we found that performance goals were more likely than learning goals to elicit superstitious behavior. Participants were more likely to engage in superstitious behavior at high than at low levels of chronic performance orientation, but superstitious behavior was not influenced by chronic learning orientation (Studies 1 and 2). Similarly, participants exhibited stronger preferences for lucky items when primed to pursue performance goals rather than learning goals (Studies 3 and 4). As uncertainty of goal achievement increased, superstitious behavior increased when participants pursued performance goals but not learning goals (Study 5). Finally, assignment to use a lucky (vs. unlucky) item resulted in greater confidence of achieving performance goals but not learning goals (Study 6).

  10. Goal Orientations and Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Tran Dang

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a fundamental educational challenge for adolescents in the United States, and particularly for immigrant youth. The motivation to achieve, especially in mathematics, declines during adolescence. Most of what is known about motivation is based on studies of predominately middle-class White students; yet the influx of immigrants over…

  11. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  12. Science Goal Driven Automation for NASA Missions: The Science Goal Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korathkar, Anuradha; Jones, Jeremy; Jung, John; Grosvenor, Sandy

    2003-01-01

    Infusion of automation technologies into NASA s future missions will be essential not only to achieve substantial reduction in mission operations staff and costs, but also in order to both effectively handle an exponentially increasing volume of scientific data and to successfully meet dynamic, opportunistic scientific goals and objectives. Current spacecraft operations cannot respond to science driven events, such as intrinsically variable or short-lived phenomena in a timely manner. For such investigations, we must teach our platforms to dynamically understand, recognize, and react to the scientists goals. While much effort has gone into automating routine spacecraft operations to reduce human workload and hence costs, applying intelligent automation to the science side, i.e., science data acquisition, data analysis and reactions to that data analysis in a timely and still scientifically valid manner, has been relatively under-emphasized.

  13. Classroom Goal Structures, Social Achievement Goals, and Adjustment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Wang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the mediating role of social achievement goals in the relation between classroom goal structures and academic engagement and social adjustment among 373 middle school students (52.8% female). Students' perceptions of classroom goal structures were measured in Fall; social achievement goals and academic and social…

  14. Goal Structures: The Role of Teachers' Achievement Goals and Theories of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Cassady, Jerrell

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how teachers' achievement goals for teaching and implicit theories of their students' intelligence are associated with the goal structures that they create in their classrooms. Teachers ("N" = 209) reported their achievement goals for teaching (mastery, performance-approach goals, and…

  15. Goal Self-Concordance Moderates the Relationship between Achievement Goals and Indicators of Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreau, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery- and performance-approach achievement goals depend on the extent to which these goals are pursued for self-concordant reasons. A sample of 220 undergraduate students completed measures of achievement goals, goal self-concordance, academic satisfaction, and academic…

  16. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  17. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  18. Achievement goals, task performance, and interest: why perceived goal difficulty matters.

    PubMed

    Senko, Corwin; Harackiewicz, Judith M

    2005-12-01

    In field studies, mastery goals, which focus on developing skill, often predict task interest but not actual performance. Performance-approach goals, which focus on outperforming others, instead often predict strong performance but not interest. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that these distinct goal effects trace to goal difficulty perceptions. In each study, participants assigned to a performance-approach goal perceived their goal to be harder, and therefore felt more performance pressure, than those assigned to a mastery goal. Among participants low in dispositional achievement orientation, this experience translated into lower task interest when pursuing the performance-approach goal. However, participants in both studies also performed the activity better when pursuing this goal instead of a standard mastery goal, although this was not mediated by self-reported goal difficulty perceptions. Finally, further demonstrating the role of goal difficulty, a mastery goal manipulated to appear more difficult than a standard mastery goal produced effects matching the performance-approach goal.

  19. The 2 × 2 Standpoints Model of Achievement Goals.

    PubMed

    Korn, Rachel M; Elliot, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we proposed and tested a 2 × 2 standpoints model of achievement goals grounded in the development-demonstration and approach-avoidance distinctions. Three empirical studies are presented. Study 1 provided evidence supporting the structure and psychometric properties of a newly developed measure of the goals of the 2 × 2 standpoints model. Study 2 documented the predictive utility of these goal constructs for intrinsic motivation: development-approach and development-avoidance goals were positive predictors, and demonstration-avoidance goals were a negative predictor of intrinsic motivation. Study 3 documented the predictive utility of these goal constructs for performance attainment: Demonstration-approach goals were a positive predictor and demonstration-avoidance goals were a negative predictor of exam performance. The conceptual and empirical contributions of the present research were discussed within the broader context of existing achievement goal theory and research. PMID:27242641

  20. The 2 × 2 Standpoints Model of Achievement Goals

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Rachel M.; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we proposed and tested a 2 × 2 standpoints model of achievement goals grounded in the development-demonstration and approach-avoidance distinctions. Three empirical studies are presented. Study 1 provided evidence supporting the structure and psychometric properties of a newly developed measure of the goals of the 2 × 2 standpoints model. Study 2 documented the predictive utility of these goal constructs for intrinsic motivation: development-approach and development-avoidance goals were positive predictors, and demonstration-avoidance goals were a negative predictor of intrinsic motivation. Study 3 documented the predictive utility of these goal constructs for performance attainment: Demonstration-approach goals were a positive predictor and demonstration-avoidance goals were a negative predictor of exam performance. The conceptual and empirical contributions of the present research were discussed within the broader context of existing achievement goal theory and research. PMID:27242641

  1. Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…

  2. The Impact of Achievement Goals on the Help-Seeking Attitudes, Perceptions, and Behaviors of Middle-School Science Students Participating in Inquiry-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Kimi Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how mastery-oriented inquiry-based education influences the help-seeking attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of middle-school students after participating in a 5-week intervention program. Four eighth-grade science classes consisting of 123 students in one middle-school in the San Francisco Bay…

  3. Assessing Goal Intent and Achievement of University Learning Community Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer-Lachs, Carole F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the goal intent and achievement of university students, during the Fall 2011 semester, at Blue Wave University, a high research activity public institution in the southeast United States. This study merged theories of motivation to measure goal setting and goal attainment to examine if students who chose to…

  4. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  5. Achievement Goal Orientation toward General Education versus Overall Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, B. J.; Sundre, Donna L.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted regarding the achievement goal orientations of college students within two contexts: coursework in all courses and in general education courses. Interactions were detected for achievement goals by class level and context. Findings raise concern about student attitudes toward general education, despite its importance to…

  6. Did Tanzania Achieve the Second Millennium Development Goal? Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoti, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Development Goal "Achieve universal primary education", the challenges faced, along with the way forward towards achieving the fourth Sustainable Development Goal "Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all". Statistics show that Tanzania has made very promising steps…

  7. Task Values, Achievement Goals, and Interest: An Integrative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Durik, Amanda M.; Schweigert, Shaun B.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this article integrates 3 theoretical perspectives in the field of motivation: expectancy-value, achievement goals, and interest. The authors examined the antecedents (initial interest, achievement goals) and consequences (interest, performance) of task value judgments in 2 learning contexts: a college classroom and a…

  8. On the Measurement of Achievement Goals: Critique, Illustration, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou

    2008-01-01

    The authors identified several specific problems with the measurement of achievement goals in the current literature and illustrated these problems, focusing primarily on A. J. Elliot and H. A. McGregor's (2001) Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ). They attended to these problems by creating the AGQ-Revised and conducting a study that examined…

  9. Structure and Relationships of University Instructors’ Achievement Goals

    PubMed Central

    Daumiller, Martin; Grassinger, Robert; Dickhäuser, Oliver; Dresel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the achievement goals of university instructors, particularly the structure of such goals, and their relationship to biographic characteristics, other aspects of instructors’ motivation, and teaching quality. Two hundred and fifty-one university instructors (184 without Ph.D., 97 with Ph.D., thereof 51 full professors; 146 males, 92 females) answered a questionnaire measuring achievement goals, self-efficacy, and enthusiasm in altogether 392 courses. Teaching quality was assessed using reports from 9,241 students who were attending these courses. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance, work avoidance, and relational goals as being distinguishable from each other. Distinct relationships were found between different instructors’ achievement goals, and gender, age, and career status as well as self-efficacy and enthusiasm. Hierarchical linear models suggested positive associations of instructors’ mastery goals with teaching quality, while negative associations were indicated for performance avoidance goals and work avoidance goals in relation to teaching quality. Exploratory analyses conducted due to a quite large correlation between performance approach and performance avoidance goals indicated that for university instructors, differentiating performance goals into appearance and normative components might also be adequate. All in all, the study highlights the auspiciousness of the theoretical concept of university instructors’ achievement goals and contributes to making it comprehensively accessible. PMID:27047411

  10. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  11. Achievement Goal Theory: The Relationship of Accounting Students' Goal Orientations with Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, Richard B.; Schleifer, Lydia L. F.; McMillan, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Students' goal orientations are examined using two major frameworks for learning: achievement goal theory (AGT) and students' approaches to learning (SAL). Previous student success research is extended, by examining goal constructs from the AGT framework to determine if they help explain the learning process in accounting. Data were gathered using…

  12. Social Perceptions of Achieving Students and Achievement Goals of Students in Malaysia and the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Allan B. I.; Ismail, Rosnah

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates the hypothesis that country differences in achievement goals of students are associated with differences in how students with different achievement goals are perceived by students in different cultures. University students from Malaysia and the Philippine were asked to complete questionnaires on their achievement goals and…

  13. Social Science, Equity and the Sustainable Development Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverman, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals are underpinned by a committment to a world that is just, equitable, inclusive and environmentally sustainable and include goals of ending poverty and hunger; universal access to health, education, water, sanitation, energy and decent work; and reducing the risks and impacts of climate change, biodiversity loss, and marine, forest and land degradation. They seek to reduce inequality between and within countries and achieve gender equality. The SDGs build on the apparent success in meeting many of the Millenium Development Goals, including those of reducing poverty, hunger and debt and providing access to water. The science needed to achieve and monitor most of these goals is social science - an area of scholarship that is traditionally undervalued, underfunded, underepresented misunderstood and lacking in detailed data. This paper will provide an overview of the social science that is needed to support the Sustainable Development Goals, with a particular focus on the challenges of monitoring social data over time and within countries, the importance of research design, and of building capacity and credibility in the social sciences. As an example, the paper will discuss the social science that will be needed to achieve Goal 13: Take urgent actions to combat climate change and its impacts, and measuring targets such as strengthening resilience and adaptive capacity, and raising capacities of women, youth, and marginalized communities to manage and respond climate change.

  14. Goal Setting in Principal Evaluation: Goal Quality and Predictors of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…

  15. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  16. The impact of achievement goals on the help-seeking attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of middle-school science students participating in inquiry-based education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Kimi Lynn

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how mastery-oriented inquiry-based education influences the help-seeking attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of middle-school students after participating in a 5-week intervention program. Four eighth-grade science classes consisting of 123 students in one middle-school in the San Francisco Bay area were selected as a convenience sample. The sample was culturally diverse with no students receiving special education services and seven English Language learners. Help-seeking altitudes and perceptions were assessed using help-seeking scales (general, instrumental, expedient, threat, avoidance, formal, and informal) before and after students participated in an inquiry-based 5-week intervention unit. Help-seeking behaviors were assessed daily during using the homework- and classwork-checklist sheet. Eight students identified with high instrumental and high expedient help-seeking scores were used to form four groups (homogeneous instrumental, homogeneous expedient, and two heterogeneous). Help-seeking attitudes and perceptions (general, instrumental, expedient, formal, and informal) were assessed from pretest to posttest. Help-seeking behaviors were assessed daily during using the homework- and classwork-checklist sheet. Group-level observations were completed weekly. Dependent-samples t tests were conducted to examine the mean differences in pretest and posttest scores on the seven help-seeking scales after the intervention was administered. The t-test analyses revealed statistically significant decreases in scores on help-seeking threat. help-seeking avoidance, and expedient help seeking, whereas t-test analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in informal help seeking at posttest in comparison with pretest scores. For homogeneous instrumental students, decreases occurred in general, instrumental, expedient, and informal help seeking; for homogeneous expedient students, decreases occurred in instrumental and

  17. Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weining C; Wong, Kaishi

    2008-10-01

    Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community-Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into consideration the significant social others in the students' lives. A measuring instrument was established with a sample of Singaporean Chinese university students (N = 196; 144 females and 52 males); its relationships to achievement motives, goals, and consequences were examined. Although the socially oriented achievement goal items were originally constructed from four categories of social others, confirmatory factor analysis suggested a unifactor structure. Results showed that the socially oriented goal was related positively with students' performance goal, mastery goal, and competitive motive; it bore no relationship to mastery motive, work ethic, and interest in learning; and it predicted negatively future engagement. After the effects of mastery and performance goals were controlled for, the socially oriented goal did not predict test anxiety. PMID:22022792

  18. Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weining C; Wong, Kaishi

    2008-10-01

    Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community-Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into consideration the significant social others in the students' lives. A measuring instrument was established with a sample of Singaporean Chinese university students (N = 196; 144 females and 52 males); its relationships to achievement motives, goals, and consequences were examined. Although the socially oriented achievement goal items were originally constructed from four categories of social others, confirmatory factor analysis suggested a unifactor structure. Results showed that the socially oriented goal was related positively with students' performance goal, mastery goal, and competitive motive; it bore no relationship to mastery motive, work ethic, and interest in learning; and it predicted negatively future engagement. After the effects of mastery and performance goals were controlled for, the socially oriented goal did not predict test anxiety.

  19. Perfectionism and Achievement Goal Orientations in Adolescent School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Lavinia E.; Stoeber, Joachim; Negru, Oana; Baban, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Perfectionism has been shown to predict individual differences in achievement goal orientations in university students, but research on perfectionism and goal orientations in school students is still very limited. Investigating 584 adolescent school students in a cross-sectional correlational design, the present study examined how self-oriented…

  20. The Role of Goal Orientations for Adolescent Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keys, Tran D.; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Domina, Thurston

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the association between personal goal orientations and mathematics achievement within the trichotomous goal framework. Participants comprised approximately 2000 seventh and eighth grade White, Hispanic, and Vietnamese students in a low-income urban school district in California. Regression analysis with classroom fixed effects…

  1. Judging Students' Achievement Goal Orientations: Are Teacher Ratings Accurate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicke, Anna-Lena; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagy, Gabriel; Nagy, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Using the theoretical framework of achievement goal theory, this study investigated the accuracy of teachers' judgments of their students' motivation. Self-report data were gathered on the mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals of 1140 German secondary school students (mean age = 14.24) in five academic subjects (English,…

  2. Achievement Goals, Motivation, and Performance: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdan, Tim; Pajares, Frank; Lapin, Amy Z.

    An achievement goal theory framework was used to examine the relations among goals and a number of other motivational constructs in a sample of middle school students. Participants were 189 eighth graders from a public school in the south. In one session students completed the attitude measures and in another session they completed a mathematics…

  3. Using the 2 x 2 Framework of Achievement Goals to Predict Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has established how achievement emotions are related to the trichotomous model of achievement goals, and how they predict academic performance. In our study we examine relations using an additional, mastery-avoidance goal, and whether outcome-focused emotions are predicted by mastery as well as performance goals. Results showed that…

  4. Science Goals in Radiation Protection for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francs A.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Health risks of concern include cancer, degenerative and performance risks to the central nervous system, heart and lens, and the acute radiation syndromes. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contain high energy and charge (HZE) nuclei, which have been shown to cause qualitatively distinct biological damage compared to terresterial radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays, causing risk estimates to be highly uncertain. The biological effects of solar particle events (SPE) are similar to terresterial radiation except for their biological dose-rate modifiers; however the onset and size of SPEs are difficult to predict. The high energies of GCR reduce the effectiveness of shielding, while SPE s can be shielded however the current gap in radiobiological knowledge hinders optimization. Methods used to project risks on Earth must be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting health risks from space radiation, and thus impact mission requirements and costs. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies probabilistic risk assessments and uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts and to mission design. The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in radiation risk projection models. Exploration science goals in radiation protection are centered on ground-based research to achieve the necessary biological knowledge, and in the development of new technologies to improve SPE monitoring and optimize shielding. Radiobiology research is centered on a ground based program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and HZE nuclei at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

  5. The Longitudinal Effects of Achievement Goals and Perceived Control on University Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Newall, Nancy E. G.; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2014-01-01

    In the area of achievement motivation, students' beliefs pertaining to achievement goals and perceived control have separately guided a large amount theoretical and empirical research. However, limited research has considered the simultaneous effects of goals and control on achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine primary and…

  6. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  7. Science Goal Driven Observing and Spacecraft Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Amuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jones, Jeremy; Wolf, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft autonomy will be an integral part of mission operations in the coming decade. While recent missions have made great strides in the ability to autonomously monitor and react to changing health and physical status of spacecraft, little progress has been made in responding quickly to science driven events. For observations of inherently variable targets and targets of opportunity, the ability to recognize early if an observation will meet the science goals of a program, and react accordingly, can have a major positive impact on the overall scientific returns of an observatory and on its operational costs. If the onboard software can reprioritize the schedule to focus on alternate targets, discard uninteresting observations prior to downloading, or download a subset of observations at a reduced resolution, the spacecraft's overall efficiency will be dramatically increased. The science goal monitoring (SGM) system is a proof-of-concept effort to address the above challenge. The SGM will have an interface to help capture higher level science goals from the scientists and translate them into a flexible observing strategy that SGM can execute and monitor. We are developing an interactive distributed system that will use on-board processing and storage combined with event-driven interfaces with ground-based processing and operations, to enable fast re-prioritization of observing schedules, and to minimize time spent on non-optimized observations.

  8. The GOALS Program. Gaining Opportunities to Achieve Lifetime Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwich, Andy; Otto, Nonie

    Designed to support the development of well-rounded individuals, this resource guide integrates the World Cup and soccer into social studies, language arts, mathematics, science, and physical education. The objectives of the GOALS program are for students to: (1) recognize the importance of the World Cup and soccer throughout the world; (2)…

  9. Goal theory, motivation, and school achievement: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Covington, M V

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to document the directions and recent progress in our understanding of the motivational dynamics of school achievement. Based on the accumulating research it is concluded that the quality of student learning as well as the will to continue learning depends closely on an interaction between the kinds of social and academic goals students bring to the classroom, the motivating properties of these goals and prevailing classroom reward structures. Implications for school reform that follow uniquely from a motivational and goal-theory perspective are also explored. PMID:10751969

  10. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: Testing a Model of Their Joint Relations with Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were…

  11. Individual differences in achievement goals among young children.

    PubMed

    Smiley, P A; Dweck, C S

    1994-12-01

    Developmental research has generally not found evidence of helpless responses to failure in young children; a prevailing view is that young children lack the cognitive prerequisite for helplessness. However, recent evidence suggests that even preschoolers are vulnerable to helplessness in some situations. In the present study with 4- and 5-year-olds, we tested a goal-confidence model that predicts achievement behavior during failure for older children. We first categorized preschoolers' orientations toward "learning" or "performance" goals based on their preference for a challenging or nonchallenging task. As for older children, goal orientation was independent of ability and predicted cognitions and emotions during failure. Further, consistent with the model, within a learning goal, children displayed the mastery-oriented pattern regardless of confidence level, whereas within a performance goal, children with low confidence were most susceptible to helplessness. These behavior patterns were found on a second task as well. Thus, our findings show that individual differences in achievement goals emerge very early. PMID:7859551

  12. Achieving blood pressure goals: why aren't we?

    PubMed

    Cushman, William C; Basile, Jan

    2006-12-01

    The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) recommends a blood pressure (BP) goal of <140/90 mm Hg in patients with hypertension and <130/80 mm Hg in those with diabetes or chronic kidney disease. Achievement of BP goals is associated with significant benefits in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although evidence suggests these goals are attainable, only about one third of patients are meeting them. There is a significant gap between treatment guideline recommendations and their implementation in clinical practice. Many clinicians appear satisfied with modest BP reductions and do not make the necessary treatment adjustments to achieve BP goals. Patient nonadherence is another important reason for lack of BP control. For the success of clinical trials to be reproduced in clinical practice, clinicians must recognize the importance of treating BP to goal, emphasize to patients the need to adhere to treatments, and provide persistent, goal-targeted therapy. PMID:17170612

  13. Monitoring Achievement of Educational Governance/Management Policy Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sederberg, Charles H.; Hendrix, Vernon L.

    This paper reports on a field test of a system for monitoring the achievement of selected educational governance/management goals. The study entailed (1) collection of enrollment, revenue, expenditure, and teacher assignment data from a stratified random sample of Minnesota districts for a seven-year period, 1969-70 through 1975-76; (2) reduction…

  14. Modern Psychometrics for Assessing Achievement Goal Orientation: A Rasch Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.; Edwards, Ordene V.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. Aim: We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the…

  15. A Psychometric Evaluation of Two Achievement Goal Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnellan, M. Brent

    2008-01-01

    The properties of the achievement goal inventories developed by Grant and Dweck (2003) and Elliot and McGregor (2001) were evaluated in two studies with a total of 780 participants. A four-factor specification for the Grant and Dweck inventory did not closely replicate results published in their original report. In contrast, the structure of the…

  16. Implicit Beliefs, Achievement Goals, and Procrastination: A Mediational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Andrew J.; Buro, Karen

    2009-01-01

    As a maladaptive behavioural outcome, procrastination should correlate with beliefs about ability and achievement goals that are themselves relatively maladaptive. Accordingly, procrastination should be predicted by entity as opposed to incremental implicit theories (i.e., viewing attributes such as ability as relatively fixed vs. malleable,…

  17. Science and Habitability Goals for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1996-12-01

    The rationale for human exploration of Mars is built around the concept that humans will be required to address fundamental scientific questions on Mars and that Mars will be required to address fundamental questions of humanity's future. Recently, the findings of possible evidence for ancient life on Mars has focused the science goals on the search of environments where life might have arisen. Without changing the nature of the generalized strategy for scientific exploration of Mars, the scientific questions, the needs for robotic exploration, and the potential roles for humans on Mars are coming into better focus. In order to support human scientists on Mars in a safe and productive environment, initial steps will need to be taken along the path toward a permanent martian outpost. Although addressed in large part by technology, the habitability goals also can be stated in terms of scientific questions to be addressed during the robotic and early human phases of Mars exploration. This paper describes goals and objectives for Mars science and human habitation, with emphasis on the possible contributions of humans on Mars.

  18. The nature and dimensions of achievement goals: mastery, evaluation, competition, and self-presentation goals.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Marina S; Gonçalves, Teresa; Lens, Willy; Rodrigues, Luís P

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the nature and dimensions of achievement goals and to examine structural differences in students' goals across school levels. Participants were 134 students from 5th and 6th grades, and 423 students from 7th to 9th grades. A variety of achievement goals were assessed, including mastery goals and several performance-related goals representing three main dimensions: competition, self-presentation, and valence. Two alternative models were tested, using confirmatory factor analysis. For middle-school students a three factor model with presentation, competition, and simple evaluation/mastery goals, was found χ²(132, N = 134) = 160.9, p < .001; CFI = .94; RMSEA = .04, 95%CI [.02 - .06]. In the junior-high sample, one avoidance factor, one competition factor, and a simple evaluation/mastery factor, best fitted the data χ²(114, N = 423) = 269.8638 p < .001; CFI = .93; RMSEA = .06, 95%CI [.05 - .07] thus suggesting that distinct dimensions organize younger and older students' motivation. However, common to both grade levels was the existence of (a) separate but low incidence competition goals, and (b) simple evaluation goals, which encompass neither self-presentation nor competition, and are closely linked to mastery goals. Moreover, significant differences were found in the relative importance attached by students to the different types of goals (p < .001 for all comparisons), both at middle-school F(2, 266) = 220.98; p < .001; η2 = .624) and at junior-high school F(2, 820) = 464.4; p < .001; η2 = .531.

  19. Achieving lipid goals in real life: the Dutch DISCOVERY study.

    PubMed

    Bots, A F E; Kastelein, J J P

    2005-12-01

    DISCOVERY Netherlands was an open-label, randomised, multicentre study (D3560/L00003) designed to compare the effects of rosuvastatin with those of atorvastatin, simvastatin or pravastatin on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement in a primary care setting. Patients (n = 1,215) with type IIa or type IIb hypercholesterolaemia and cardiovascular risk of >20% or a history of coronary heart or other atherosclerotic vascular disease were randomised to receive treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg (n = 621), atorvastatin 10 mg (n = 189), simvastatin 20 mg (n = 194) or pravastatin 40 mg (n = 211) for 12 weeks. Significantly, more patients achieved 1998 and 2003 European LDL-C goals with rosuvastatin than with other statins after 12 weeks (p < 0.001). Rosuvastatin reduced LDL-C and total cholesterol levels significantly more than other statins, both in patients who were statin-naïve and in patients who had received previous statin treatment (p < 0.05). All treatments were similarly well tolerated. In conclusion, greater reductions in LDL-C were achieved with rosuvastatin compared with atorvastatin, simvastatin and pravastatin, enabling more patients to achieve European LDL-C goals.

  20. A Mediation Analysis of Achievement Motives, Goals, Learning Strategies, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. Aims: To investigate the relationship between achievement motives,…

  1. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  2. Literature Review on Achievement Goals and Classroom Goal Structure: Implications for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain

    2010-01-01

    Since its origin in the late 1970s and early 1980s, achievement goal theory has provided significant contributions to the research and practice in education and psychology. The theory has been considered to be an influential framework for conceptualizing student motivation. The term motivation refers to the interaction dynamics of many factors in…

  3. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  4. Precompetitive achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among athletes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Calmeiro, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.

  5. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  6. The Millennium Development Goals: experiences, achievements and what's next.

    PubMed

    Lomazzi, Marta; Borisch, Bettina; Laaser, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 addressing poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, communicable disease, education, gender inequality, environmental damage and the global partnership. Most activities worldwide have focused on maternal and child health and communicable diseases, while less attention has been paid to environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership. Up to now, several targets have been at least partially achieved: hunger reduction is on track, poverty has been reduced by half, living conditions of 200 million deprived people enhanced, maternal and child mortality as well as communicable diseases diminished and education improved. Nevertheless, some goals will not be met, particularly in the poorest regions, due to different challenges (e.g. the lack of synergies among the goals, the economic crisis, etc.). The post-2015 agenda is now under discussion. The new targets, whatever they will be called, should reflect today's political situation, health and environmental challenges, and an all-inclusive, intersectoral and accountable approach should be adopted. PMID:24560268

  7. Storage Ring Based EDM Search — Achievements and Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehrach, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    This paper summarizes the experimental achievements of the JEDI (Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations) Collaboration to exploit and demonstrate the feasibility of charged particle Electric Dipole Moment searches with storage rings at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Recent experimental results, design and optimization of critical accelerator elements, progress in beam and spin tracking, and future goals of the R & D program at COSY are presented.

  8. Achieving Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health.

    PubMed

    Callister, Lynn Clark; Edwards, Joan E

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goal 5, the improvement of maternal health. Maternal mortality rates (MMR) remain high globally, and in the United States there have been recent increases in MMR. Interventions to improve global maternal health are described. Nurses should be aware of the enduring epidemic of global maternal mortality, advocate for childbearing women, and contribute to implementing effective interventions to reduce maternal mortality. PMID:20673318

  9. Moving the Achievement Goal Approach One Step Forward: Toward a Systematic Examination of the Autonomous and Controlled Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Elliot, Andrew J.; Soenens, Bart; Mouratidis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    An important recent development in the achievement goal literature is to define achievement goals strictly as aims. In this overview, we argue that this restrictive definition of achievement goals paves the way for a systematic consideration of the autonomous and controlled reasons underlying individuals' achievement goals, a distinction…

  10. The Influence of Achievement Goal Orientations and Task Concreteness on Situational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapola, Anna; Jaakkola, Tomi; Niemivirta, Markku

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated changes in elementary school students' (n = 140) situational interest as a function of achievement goal orientation profiles and task characteristics. The authors repeatedly measured situational interest during a simulated science learning task in 2 task conditions that differed in the concreteness of the task…

  11. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  12. Science and policy characteristics of the Paris Agreement temperature goal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Lissner, Tabea; Licker, Rachel; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Hare, William

    2016-09-01

    The Paris Agreement sets a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, and pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here, we present an overview of science and policy aspects related to this goal and analyse the implications for mitigation pathways. We show examples of discernible differences in impacts between 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming. At the same time, most available low emission scenarios at least temporarily exceed the 1.5 °C limit before 2100. The legacy of temperature overshoots and the feasibility of limiting warming to 1.5 °C, or below, thus become central elements of a post-Paris science agenda. The near-term mitigation targets set by countries for the 2020-2030 period are insufficient to secure the achievement of the temperature goal. An increase in mitigation ambition for this period will determine the Agreement's effectiveness in achieving its temperature goal.

  13. Students' Achievement Goals in Relation to Academic Motivation, Competence Expectancy, and Classroom Environment Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…

  14. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  15. Obama Announces Science Education Goal at White House Science Fair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    With student participants in the second annual White House Science Fair as a backdrop, President Barack Obama announced on 7 February programs to help prepare new math and science teachers and to meet a new goal of having 1 million more U.S. college graduates in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) over the next decade than there would be at the current graduation rate. That goal is outlined in a report entitled “Engage to excel,” by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), released the same day. Obama also announced several other initiatives, including a $22 million private-sector investment, led by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, to invest in STEM teacher training. After he toured the science fair projects, Obama said the science fair students “inspire” him. “What impresses me so much is not just how smart you are, but it's the fact that you recognize you've got a responsibility to use your talents in service of something bigger than yourselves,” he said. What these young people are doing is “going to make a bigger difference in the life of our country over the long term than just about anything,” adding, “We've got to emphasize how important this is and recognize these incredible young people who are doing that that I couldn't even imagine thinking about at fifth grade or eighth grade or in high school.”

  16. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised for Thai College Students and Asian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratsameemonthon, L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The four dimensions (2x2) of achievement goal are the latest versión of achievement goal questionnaire to explain reasons or purposes of individuals pursuing their goal. In Thailand the 2x2 framework of achievement goal questionnaire to examine a student's achievement goal in the Thai Language version may not have been sufficiently…

  17. Human regeneration: An achievable goal or a dream?

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sukla

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of regenerative medicine is to replenish cells or tissues or even to restore different body parts that are lost or damaged due to disease, injury and aging. Several avenues have been explored over many decades to address the fascinating problem of regeneration at the cell, tissue and organ levels. Here we discuss some of the primary approaches adopted by researchers in the context of enhancing the regenerating ability of mammals. Natural regeneration can occur in different animal species, and the underlying mechanism is highly relevant to regenerative medicine-based intervention. Significant progress has been achieved in understanding the endogenous regeneration in urodeles and fishes with the hope that they could help to reach our goal of designing future strategies for human regeneration. PMID:26949097

  18. Integrating Turkish Work and Achievement Goals With Schwartz's Human Values.

    PubMed

    Tevrüz, Suna; Turgut, Tülay; Çinko, Murat

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the integration of indigenous values developed in Turkey to Schwartz's universal values. Students (N = 593) from six universities in Istanbul responded the value scale, which consists of 10 etic PVQ items (each item representing one of 10 main Schwartz values) and 23 emic WAG items (representing work-achievement goals). PROXSCAL, a multidimensional scaling method, was used to test whether etic and emic sets of values integrate and form the universal circular structure proposed in Schwartz value theory. The motivational continuum of values as a circular structure was similar to pan-cultural results, but adding another value type to the openness to change pole. While some of the items in this region represent autonomy of thought, remaining items diverge. The principle of conflicting values on opposite poles was not supported in relation to openness to change-conservation dimension. These two poles had similar priorities, contrasting with pan-cultural results, and demonstrating a culture-specific aspect of responding to motivational goals. Insights gained by emic studies will be functional in enriching understanding values, and contributing to the comprehensiveness and universality of Schwartz value theory. PMID:27247656

  19. Hope & Achievement Goals as Predictors of Student Behavior & Achievement in a Rural Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christopher O.; Winn, Tina D.; Adams, Blakely N.; Shepard, Misty R.; Huddleston, Chelsea D.; Godwin, Kayce L.

    2009-01-01

    Relations among a set of cognitive-motivational variables were examined with the intent being to assess and clarify the nature of their interconnections within a middle school sample. Student perception of hope, which includes perceptions of agency and pathways, was investigated, along with personal achievement goal orientation, as predictors of…

  20. Oil Independence: Achievable National Goal or Empty Slogan?

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, David L; Leiby, Paul Newsome; Patterson, Philip D; Plotkin, Steven E; Singh, Margaret K

    2007-01-01

    Oil independence has been a goal of U.S. energy policy for the past 30 years yet has never been rigorously defined. A rigorous, measurable definition is proposed: to reduce the costs of oil dependence to less than 1% of GDP in the next 20 to 25 years, with 95% probability. A simulation model incorporating the possibility of future oil supply disruptions and other sources of uncertainty is used to test whether two alternative energy policy strategies, Business as Usual and an interpretation of the strategy proposed by the National Commission on Energy Policy (NCEP), can achieve oil independence for the United States. Business as Usual does not produce oil independence. The augmented NCEP strategy comes close to achieving oil independence for the U.S. economy within the next 20-25 years but more is needed. The success of the strategy appears to be robust regardless of how the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) responds to it. Expected annual savings are estimated to exceed $250 billion per year by 2030.

  1. Representing student achievements in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Dana; Calabrese Barton, Angela

    2001-03-01

    In what follows, we develop a conceptual argument for expanding current visions of performance assessment to include the following three ideals: that performance/assessment addresses the value-laden decisions about what and whose science is learned and assessed and include multiple worldviews, that performance/assessment in science simultaneously emerges in response to local needs, and that the performance/assessment is a method as well as an ongoing search for method. To make this argument, we draw together ideas raised by critical, feminist and multicultural science educators to describe an inclusive science education, one we refer to as critical science education, to raise questions about the nature and purpose of performance assessment in science education. We are particularly interested in how the science of assessment is challenged and transformed within a critical science education perspective and the conditions needed to create an equitable and inclusive practice of science and science assessment across diversity. We present a case study from a youth-led community science project in the inner city to help contextualize our argument.

  2. Predicting Teachers' Achievement Goals for Teaching: The Role of Perceived School Goal Structure and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, YoonJung; Shim, Sungok Serena

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated contextual and personal factors associated with teachers' achievement goals for teaching. A total of 211 teachers completed an online survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that perceived school mastery goal structure and performance goal structure predicted teachers' mastery goals and…

  3. Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Classroom Goals and the Adoption of Personal Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Students' perceptions of classroom goals influence their adoption of personal goals. To assess different forms of classroom goals, recent studies have favoured an overall measure of performance classroom goals, compared to a two-dimensional assessment of performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals (PAVCG). Aims: This…

  4. Course Goals in Social Science, Grades K-12. Critique Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multnomah County Intermediate Education District, Portland, OR.

    This document on course goals in the social sciences is one part of a critique series dealing with the development and evaluation of course goals in six subject matter areas for grades K-12. The series provides an initial pool of course-level goals that are expected to be of considerable value in assisting educators with goal definition related to…

  5. Assessing the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire across Task Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Winne, Philip H.

    2012-01-01

    A program of research is necessary to examine the psychometric properties of instruments designed to measure individuals' achievement goal orientations. Recently, research on achievement goal orientation has examined the stability of achievement goals to assess how context might influence individuals' achievement goals. Accordingly, studies are…

  6. Mars 2020 Science Rover: Science Goals and Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, John F.; Beaty, D.; Bass, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT), chartered in January 2013 by NASA, formulated a spacecraft mission concept for a science-focused, highly mobile rover to explore and investigate in detail a site on Mars that likely was once habitable. The mission, based on the Mars Science Laboratory landing and rover systems, would address, within a cost- and time-constrained framework, four objectives: (A) Explore an astrobiologically relevant ancient environment on Mars to decipher its geological processes and history, including the assessment of past habitability; (B) Assess the biosignature preservation potential within the selected geological environment and search for potential biosignatures; (C) Demonstrate significant technical progress towards the future return of scientifically selected, well-documented samples to Earth; and (D) provide an opportunity for contributed instruments from Human Exploration or Space Technology Programs. The SDT addressed the four mission objectives and six additional charter-specified tasks independently while specifically looking for synergy among them. Objectives A and B are each ends unto themselves, while Objective A is also the means by which samples are selected for objective B, and together they motivate and inform Objective C. The SDT also found that Objective D goals are well aligned with A through C. Critically, Objectives A, B, and C as an ensemble brought the SDT to the conclusion that exploration oriented toward both astrobiology and the preparation of a returnable cache of scientifically selected, well documented surface samples is the only acceptable mission concept. Importantly the SDT concluded that the measurements needed to attain these objectives were essentially identical, consisting of six types of field measurements: 1) context imaging 2) context mineralogy, 3) fine-scale imaging, 4) fine-scale mineralogy, 5) fine-scale elemental chemistry, and 6) organic matter detection. The mission concept fully addresses

  7. Primary Mathematics Teachers' Goal Orientations and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Throndsen, Inger; Turmo, Are

    2013-01-01

    Primary mathematics teachers' (N = 521) personal goal orientation and instructional practices were examined based on questionnaire responses. The teachers (grades 2 and 3) were oriented towards mastery goals and mastery approaches to instruction, and reported high teaching efficacy. Strong positive relation between performance orientation and…

  8. Goals and Achievement Orientations of Women Newspaper Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Ardyth B.

    1984-01-01

    Concludes (1) that female newspaper managers are strongly committed to their jobs, (2) that they are setting goals but that their personal goals and those of the company have little connection, and (3) that most women expect to reach no more than two titles up from their present positions in the next five years. (FL)

  9. Outdoor Education and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, José M.; Brewer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students have limited opportunities to learn science in an outdoor setting at school. Some suggest this is partially due to a lack of teacher efficacy teaching in an outdoor setting. Yet the research literature indicates that outdoor learning experiences develop positive environmental attitudes and can positively affect science…

  10. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  11. Health in the developing world: achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals depend critically on scaling up public health investments in developing countries. As a matter of urgency, developing-country governments must present detailed investment plans that are sufficiently ambitious to meet the goals, and the plans must be inserted into existing donor processes. Donor countries must keep the promises they have often reiterated of increased assistance, which they can easily afford, to help improve health in the developing countries and ensure stability for the whole world. PMID:15654410

  12. Science Standards, Science Achievement, and Attitudes about Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belin, Charlie M.; Kisida, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationships between (a) the quality of state science standards and student science achievement, (b) the public's belief in teaching evolution and the quality of state standards, and (c) the public's belief in teaching evolution and student science achievement. Using multiple measures, we find no evidence of a…

  13. Testing Multiple Goals Theory in an Asian Context: Filipino University Students' Motivation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dela Rosa, Elmer D.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals research has focused on the importance of mastery relative to performance goals, but the multiple goals perspective asserts that performance goals also lead to positive outcomes and that learners adopt multiple goals in adaptive ways. However, this multiple-goals perspective has not been extensively studied in Asian students. The…

  14. Learning Science, Learning about Science, Doing Science: Different Goals Demand Different Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This opinion piece paper urges teachers and teacher educators to draw careful distinctions among four basic learning goals: learning science, learning about science, doing science and learning to address socio-scientific issues. In elaboration, the author urges that careful attention is paid to the selection of teaching/learning methods that…

  15. Examination of Achievement Goals and Social Goals of College Students at Different Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenowich, Patricia Ann

    2009-01-01

    Goal theory postulates that learners have both academic and social reasons for pursuing academic outcomes. In domain-learning theory, the development of expertise is domain specific and is a progressive learning process that is characterized by the interplay of knowledge, interest, and strategic processing. This study integrated goal theory and…

  16. Deep Learning in Distance Education: Are We Achieving the Goal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Rick L.; Gregg, Andrea; Joo, K. P.

    2015-01-01

    As educators, one of our goals is to help students arrive at deeper levels of learning. However, how is this accomplished, especially in online courses? This design-based research study explored the concept of deep learning through a series of design changes in a graduate education course. A key question that emerged was through what learning…

  17. Can We Achieve Our National Higher-Education Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirwan, William

    2009-01-01

    In several high-profile speeches this year, President Barack Obama has set an ambitious educational goal: By 2020, the United States will have the highest proportion of adults with a college degree in the world. The emphasis on education in both his proposed budget for fiscal 2010 and in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009…

  18. Advance care planning: thinking ahead to achieve our patients' goals.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Rosemary

    2011-09-01

    The End of Life Care Strategy for England describes advance care planning (ACP) as a 'voluntary process of discussion about future care...concerns and wishes...values or personal goals for care, their understanding of their illness and prognosis...wishes for types of care or treatment and the availability of these' (Department of Health (DH), 2008). In Scotland, Living and Dying Well: Building on Progress (Scottish Government (SG), 2011) referred to adopting a 'thinking ahead' philosophy.

  19. Investigating the Achievement Goals of University Students in Terms of Psycho-Social Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayis, Ahmet Rifat; Ceyhan, Aydogan Aykut

    2015-01-01

    It is the aim of this research to investigate the achievement goals of university students. Firstly, university students' adoption levels of achievement goals are described. Next, how their level of academic self-efficacy, irrational beliefs, perfectionism, self-determination, locus of control and gender predict each achievement goal is depicted.…

  20. Achievement Goals and Approaches to Studying: Evidence from Adult Learners in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Richard; Richardson, John T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goals predict learning in children and young adults, but it is unclear whether they apply to older adults and how they are related to approaches to studying. An online survey examined achievement goals, approaches to studying and academic attainment in distance learners. The Achievement Goals Questionnaire-Revised and the Approaches to…

  1. Achieving Millennium Development Goals for Health: Building Understanding, Trust and Capacity to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Heidi J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical interventions promise achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals provided social-, capacity- and knowledge-based constraints to scaling up and reaching marginalized people at risk, are addressed, and balance between prevention and treatment is struck. We argue for a new approach: multi-stakeholder capacity building and learning for empowerment: MuSCLE. MuSCLE is used as a way to frame three systemic weaknesses in traditional health science and policy approaches: 1) a lack of engagement with people at risk to build a collective understanding of the contexts of health problems; 2) a lack of multi-criteria evaluation of alternative interventions; and 3) a lack of attention paid to integrated capacity building. The MuSCLE framework responds in three ways: 1) Participatory assessment of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political contexts of health, identifying priorities using risk and vulnerability science, and modeling drivers; 2) Selection among intervention alternatives that makes ecological, socio-cultural, economic and political tradeoffs transparent; and 3) Integrated capacity building for sustainable and adaptive interventions. Literature and field lessons support the argument, and guidelines are set down. A MuSCLE approach argues for a transformation in health science and policy in order to achieve Millennium Development Goals for health. PMID:17399849

  2. International note: The relationship between achievement goals and academic-related boredom.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang

    2015-06-01

    In a sample of 520 Chinese high school students, the present study aimed to replicate the prior Western findings about the relationship between achievement goals and academic boredom. Our findings indicated that mastery-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals predicted academic boredom, but mastery-avoidance goals and performance-approach goals did not. PMID:25828547

  3. International note: The relationship between achievement goals and academic-related boredom.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyang

    2015-06-01

    In a sample of 520 Chinese high school students, the present study aimed to replicate the prior Western findings about the relationship between achievement goals and academic boredom. Our findings indicated that mastery-approach goals and performance-avoidance goals predicted academic boredom, but mastery-avoidance goals and performance-approach goals did not.

  4. Aligning Student Support with Achievement Goals. The Secondary Principals Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Gordon, Molly F.

    2005-01-01

    Many principals feel they lack the personnel necessary to raise student achievement to mandated levels. Yet, as school leaders seek to improve educational outcomes, one of the most underutilized groups remains student support professionals-the counselors, social workers, and nurses already on site. The authors offer a practical approach to…

  5. Academic Identity Status and the Relationship to Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Was, Christopher A.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim; Stack-Oden, Maura; Isaacson, Randall M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Two constructs that have received a great deal of attention in Educational Psychology research are Achievement Orientation and Identity Status. However, the relationship between these two constructs has not received the attention that the current researcher feel is warranted. The impetus for the current study is the paucity of…

  6. Examining the Relationships among Classroom Goal Structure, Achievement Goal Orientation, Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning for Ethnically Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, David; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shores, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the learning strategies used by ethnically diverse learners and to investigate the relationships among the constructs of classroom goal structure, achievement goal orientation, motivation and self-regulated learning in an ethnically diverse population of fourth and fifth grade learners (n = 396). Goal…

  7. Striving to Connect: Extending an Achievement Goal Approach to Teacher Motivation to Include Relational Goals for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were designed to extend Butler's (2007) model and measure of achievement goals for teaching, to recognize that teaching is an interpersonal endeavor, not just personal endeavor. In Study 1, results from 530 teachers in Israel confirmed the predicted 5-factor model comprising relational goals, whereby teachers aspire to create close and…

  8. Analyzing Student Motivation at the Confluence of Achievement Goals and Their Underlying Reasons: An Investigation of Goal Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Tait, Carolyn; Hodis, Georgeta M.; Hodis, Monica A.; Scornavacca, Eusebio

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the interrelations among achievement goals and the underlying reasons for pursuing them. To do so, it utilized the framework of goal complexes, which are regulatory constructs defined at the intersection of aims and reasons. Data from two independent large samples of New Zealand university students showed that across…

  9. The Science Goals of NASA's Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.; Grunsfeld, John

    2004-01-01

    The recently released policy directive, "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U. S. Space Exploration," seeks to advance the U. S. scientific, security and economic interest through a program of space exploration which will robotically explore the solar system and extend human presence to the Moon, Mars and beyond. NASA's implementation of this vision will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance, including the origin of our Solar System and the search for life beyond Earth. The Exploration Roadmap identifies four key targets: the Moon, Mars, the outer Solar System, and extra-solar planets. First, a lunar investigation will set up exploration test beds, search for resources, and study the geological record of the early Solar System. Human missions to the Moon will serve as precursors for human missions to Mars and other destinations, but will also be driven by their support for furthering science. The second key target is the search for past and present water and life on Mars. Following on from discoveries by Spirit and Opportunity, by the end of the decade there will have been an additional rover, a lander and two orbiters studying Mars. These will set the stage for a sample return mission in 2013, increasingly complex robotic investigations, and an eventual human landing. The third key target is the study of underground oceans, biological chemistry, and their potential for life in the outer Solar System. Beginning with the arrival of Cassini at Saturn in July 2004 and a landing on Titan in 2006, the next decade will see an extended investigation of the Jupiter icy moons by a mission making use of Project Prometheus, a program to develop space nuclear power and nuclear-electric propulsion. Finally, the search for Earth-like planets and life includes a series of telescopic missions designed to find and characterize extra-solar planets and search them for evidence of life. These missions include HST and Spitzer

  10. The Science Goals of NASA's Exploration Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. P.; Grunsfeld, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    The recently released policy directive, "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U. S. Space Exploration," seeks to advance the U. S. scientific, security and economic interest through a program of space exploration which will robotically explore the solar system and extend human presence to the Moon, Mars and beyond. NASA's implementation of this vision will be guided by compelling questions of scientific and societal importance, including the origin of our Solar System and the search for life beyond Earth. The Exploration Roadmap identifies four key targets: the Moon, Mars, the outer Solar System, and extra-solar planets. First, a lunar investigation will set up exploration test beds, search for resources, and study the geological record of the early Solar System. Human missions to the Moon will serve as precursors for human missions to Mars and other destinations, but will also be driven by their support for furthering science. The second key target is the search for past and present water and life on Mars. Following on from discoveries by Spirit and Opportunity, by the end of the decade there will have been an additional rover, lander and orbiter studying Mars. These will set the stage for a sample return mission and increasingly complex robotic investigations in the next decade, and an eventual human landing. The third key target is the study of underground oceans, biological chemistry, and their potential for life in the outer Solar System. Beginning with the arrival of Cassini at Saturn in July 2004 and a landing on Titan in 2005, the next decade will see an extended investigation of the Jupiter icy moons by a mission making use of Project Prometheus, a program to develop space nuclear power and nuclear-electric propulsion. Finally, the search for Earth-like planets and life includes a series of telescopic missions designed to find and characterize extra-solar planets and search them for evidence of life. These missions include HST and

  11. Attitudes and achievement of Bruneian science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. The results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. These differences were at moderate level. In single-sex schools, the girls achieved moderately better in science than the boys despite their attitudes were only marginally better than the boys. However, there were no gender differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of students in coeducational schools. The attitudes towards and achievement in science of girls in single-sex schools were moderately better than those of girls in coeducational schools. Whereas the attitudes towards and achievement in science of boys in single-sex schools were only marginally better than the boys in coeducational schools. However, further research to investigate (a) if these differences are repeated at other levels as well as in other subjects, and (b) the extent to which school type contributed towards these differences is recommended.

  12. The role of goal structures and peer climate in trajectories of social achievement goals during high school.

    PubMed

    Makara, Kara A; Madjar, Nir

    2015-04-01

    Students' social goals--reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers--are consequential for students' interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how these social goals develop over time, especially among high school students. The aim of the study was to assess trajectories of students' social goals and to determine how relevant individual and contextual variables predicted initial levels and trajectories of students' social goals. Participants were 9th through 12th grade students (N = 526) attending a U.S. high school. Students filled out surveys of their social goals (social development, social demonstration-approach, and social demonstration-avoidance) 6 times across 2 school years. Nonlinear growth curve analyses and piecewise growth curve analyses were used to assess trajectories of social goals across time. Students' initial levels of social goals differed based on their gender, grade level, prior achievement, and perceptions of classroom goals structures and peer climate. Furthermore, despite substantial stability over time, the shapes of these goal trajectories were predicted by students' gender, grade level, and perceptions of classroom goal structures and peer climate. In particular, students who perceived an increase in performance-avoidance classroom goals maintained higher demonstration social goals and decreased in developmental social goals over time, and students who perceived an increase in positive peer climate decreased in demonstration-avoidance social goals. Implications and directions for future research on social goals are discussed.

  13. The role of goal structures and peer climate in trajectories of social achievement goals during high school.

    PubMed

    Makara, Kara A; Madjar, Nir

    2015-04-01

    Students' social goals--reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers--are consequential for students' interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how these social goals develop over time, especially among high school students. The aim of the study was to assess trajectories of students' social goals and to determine how relevant individual and contextual variables predicted initial levels and trajectories of students' social goals. Participants were 9th through 12th grade students (N = 526) attending a U.S. high school. Students filled out surveys of their social goals (social development, social demonstration-approach, and social demonstration-avoidance) 6 times across 2 school years. Nonlinear growth curve analyses and piecewise growth curve analyses were used to assess trajectories of social goals across time. Students' initial levels of social goals differed based on their gender, grade level, prior achievement, and perceptions of classroom goals structures and peer climate. Furthermore, despite substantial stability over time, the shapes of these goal trajectories were predicted by students' gender, grade level, and perceptions of classroom goal structures and peer climate. In particular, students who perceived an increase in performance-avoidance classroom goals maintained higher demonstration social goals and decreased in developmental social goals over time, and students who perceived an increase in positive peer climate decreased in demonstration-avoidance social goals. Implications and directions for future research on social goals are discussed. PMID:25730313

  14. How new coal plants help achieve environmental goals

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, B.

    2009-03-15

    A compelling case can be made for building more coal plants to reduce CO{sub 2}. If all the existing coal-fired power plants are replaced by new ultra-supercritical plants, there would be a reduction in coal use and greenhouse gases of 30% and the US could easily meet the 2020 goals. If coal plants co-fired 15% biomass, the total reduction would be 45%. If the waste heat is efficiently utilized there is another 20% gain. This is even before you consider the use of electricity to replace gasoline in cars or carbon capture and sequestration. When you add it all together there is a strong case that coal can contribute to a big reduction in CO{sub 2}. The author advocates that it can be part of the solution and not the problem. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  16. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included…

  17. Raising Minority Achievement in Science and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabowski, Freeman A., III

    2003-01-01

    Describes the achievement gap between minority and non-minority students in science and mathematics. Provides advice to parents, educators, and students on how to raise minority-group achievement. Describes the Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, which recruits and supports minority students who excel in…

  18. Autonomous Multi-Sensor Coordination: The Science Goal Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jung, John; Hess, Melissa; Jones, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Many dramatic earth phenomena are dynamic and coupled. In order to fully understand them, we need to obtain timely coordinated multi-sensor observations from widely dispersed instruments. Such a dynamic observing system must include the ability to Schedule flexibly and react autonomously to sciencehser driven events; Understand higher-level goals of a sciencehser defined campaign; Coordinate various space-based and ground-based resources/sensors effectively and efficiently to achieve goals. In order to capture transient events, such a 'sensor web' system must have an automated reactive capability built into its scientific operations. To do this, we must overcome a number of challenges inherent in infusing autonomy. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) is a prototype software tool being developed to explore the nature of automation necessary to enable dynamic observing. The tools being developed in SGM improve our ability to autonomously monitor multiple independent sensors and coordinate reactions to better observe dynamic phenomena. The SGM system enables users to specify what to look for and how to react in descriptive rather than technical terms. The system monitors streams of data to identify occurrences of the key events previously specified by the scientisther. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the users' desired reactions between different sensors. The information can be used to rapidly respond to a variety of fast temporal events. Investigators will no longer have to rely on after-the-fact data analysis to determine what happened. Our paper describes a series of prototype demonstrations that we have developed using SGM and NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite and Earth Observing Systems' Aqua/Terra spacecrafts' MODIS instrument. Our demonstrations show the promise of coordinating data from different sources, analyzing the data for a relevant event, autonomously updating and rapidly obtaining a follow-on relevant image

  19. [POLIOMYELITIS ERADICATION--ONE STEP TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL].

    PubMed

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Čavlek, Tatjana; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana

    2014-12-01

    Poliomyelitis is a very old disease of humans, caused by poliovirus. With appearance of the epidemics in the 20th century, poliomyelitis became a global public health issue. In 1988, the World Health Organization started a campaign for global eradication of poliomyelitis and till now poliomyelitis cases have been reduced by more than 99%. In Croatia, the introduction of vaccination in 1961 resulted in dramatic reduction of paralytic disease. The European region, including Croatia was certified polio free in 2002. However, the final goal of the "polio-free world" has not yet been reached. To reinforce the campaign, the global polio eradication initiative has come up with the Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 with detailed program how to resolve the main challenges: (a) continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs; (b) reinfection of polio-free areas; and (c) outbreaks due to the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV). Global oral polio vaccine cessation will follow, with the introduction of universal use of inactivated polio vaccine.

  20. Achieving the Cairo Conference (ICPD) goal for youth in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Laila; Rob, Ubaidur; Bhuiya, Ismat; Khan, M E; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    Sexual and reproductive health education is not yet formally introduced in Bangladesh without which the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo's goal to ensure young people's right to access to such information and services will remain unfulfilled. The Population Council provided technical assistance to a governmental department to pilot youth reproductive health education. Study findings from the pre- and posttests of 379 matched respondents revealed significant changes in knowledge, attitudes, and life-skills. Knowledge about long-term contraceptives and skills on negotiating safe sex improved significantly by 63% and 26%, respectively. Youths who do not consider menstruation as a disease nearly doubled, and misunderstandings about the mother's role in sex determination of a child were significantly dispelled. Decisions not to accompany friends in visiting sex workers and to use condoms, ignoring friends' disapproval, were increased over 18%. Over 98% of students reported that teachers discussed condoms, while only 12% alleged unfriendly behavior. Findings motivated the department to scale up the reproductive health curriculum. PMID:17686687

  1. The Science Goals of the Constellation-X Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Weaver, Kimberly; Petre, Robert; Bookbinder, Jay

    2004-01-01

    The Constellation-X mission will address the questions: "What happens to matter close to a black hole?" and "What is Dark Energy?" These questions are central to the NASA Beyond Einstein Program, where Constellation-X plays a central role. The mission will address these questions by using high throughput X-ray spectroscopy to observe the effects of strong gravity close to the event horizon of black holes, and to observe the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies in order to precisely determine Cosmological parameters. To achieve these primary science goals requires a factor of 25-100 increase in sensitivity for high resolution spectroscopy. The mission will also perform routine high- resolution X-ray spectroscopy of faint and extended X-ray source populations. This will provide diagnostic information such as density, elemental abundances, velocity, and ionization state for a wide range of astrophysical problems. This has enormous potential for the discovery of new unexpected phenomena. The Constellation-X mission is a high priority in the National Academy of Sciences McKee-Taylor Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey of new Astrophysics Facilities for the first decade of the 21st century.

  2. Mastery-approach goals eliminate retrieval-induced forgetting: the role of achievement goals in memory inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kenji; Castel, Alan D; Murayama, Kou

    2015-05-01

    The present study examined how achievement goals affect retrieval-induced forgetting. Researchers have suggested that mastery-approach goals (i.e., developing one's own competence) promote a relational encoding, whereas performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrating one's ability in comparison with others) promote item-specific encoding. These different encoding processes may affect the degree to which participants integrate the exemplars within a category and, as a result, we expected that retrieval-induced forgetting may be reduced or eliminated under mastery-approach goals. Three experiments were conducted using a retrieval-practice paradigm with different stimuli, where participants' achievement goals were manipulated through brief written instructions. A meta-analysis that synthesized the results of the three experiments showed that retrieval-induced forgetting was not statistically significant in the mastery-approach goal condition, whereas it was statistically significant in the performance-approach goal condition. These results suggest that mastery-approach goals eliminate retrieval-induced forgetting, but performance-approach goals do not, demonstrating that motivation factors can influence inhibition and forgetting.

  3. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx.10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders, if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  4. Does NASA's Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating

  5. Before Sustainable Development Goals (SDG): why Nigeria failed to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

    PubMed Central

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David

    2016-01-01

    World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date. PMID:27795754

  6. Profiling Differences in Achievement and Social Goals of Students at Different Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patricia Tenowich; Sonnenschein, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate domain-learning theory and goal theory to investigate the learning processes, achievement goals, social goals, and achievement of 141 college students. Cluster-analytic procedures were used to categorize participants at different levels of expertise based on their responses on knowledge, interest, and…

  7. Liking a Tough Teacher: Interpersonal Characteristics of Teaching and Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainhard, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Many have claimed, but only some have shown, that the social nature of teaching and classrooms is likely to have a direct effect on students' achievement goals. This study examined the extent to which Dutch secondary school students' (N?=?2892) achievement goals were related to the interpersonal quality of teaching. Students' goals were examined…

  8. Integrating the Demonstration Orientation and Standards-Based Models of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynne, Heather Marie

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal theory and thus, the empirical measures stemming from the research, are currently divided on two conceptual approaches, namely the reason versus aims-based models of achievement goals. The factor structure and predictive utility of goal constructs from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Strategies (PALS) and the latest two versions…

  9. The Explanatory and Predictive Relationship Pattern between University Students' Goal Orientation Behaviours and Their Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpur, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the explanatory and predictive relationship pattern between university students' goal orientation behaviours and their academic achievement. The study group consisted of 259 university students. A "2x2 Achievement Goal Orientations Scale" was used to determine the students' goal orientation…

  10. Separation of Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Achievement Goals : A Broader Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J.; Yamagata, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on achievement goals, performance-approach goals (striving to do better than others) and performance-avoidance goals (striving to avoid doing worse than others) tend to exhibit a moderate to high correlation, raising questions about whether the 2 goals represent distinct constructs. In the current article, we sought to examine…

  11. Parents' Attitudes Towards Science and their Children's Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Liyanage Devangi H.

    2014-12-01

    Although countries worldwide are emphasizing the importance of science education for technological development and global economic competition, comparative findings from standardized international student assessments reveal a huge gap in science scores between developed and developing countries. Certain developed economies too have made little progress in raising science achievement over the past decade. Despite school improvement being placed high on the policy agenda, the results of such actions have been poor. Therefore, there is a need to explore additional ways in which science achievement can be enhanced. This study focuses on the family and examines whether parents' attitudes towards science (how much they value science and the importance they place on it) can influence their children's science achievement. Individual- and school-level data are obtained from the Program for International Student Assessment 2006 survey for 15 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and non-OECD countries. Hierarchical linear modelling is employed to estimate the equations. The findings indicate that parents' attitudes towards science have a positive and statistically significant effect on science achievement, after controlling for other important student- and school-level variables. Moreover, students from poor backgrounds appear to benefit from more positive parental science attitudes as much as students from high socioeconomic status, such that equality of student achievement is not affected. This study recommends that schools and teachers encourage parents to play a more pro-active role in their children's science education, as well as educate parents about the importance of science and strategies that can be adopted to support their children's science learning.

  12. Science Goals of the U.S. Department of the Interior Southeast Climate Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, Melinda S.

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of the Interior Southeast Climate Science Center (CSC) finalized the first draft of its goals for research needed to address the needs of natural and cultural partners for climate science in the Southeastern United States. The science themes described in this draft plan were established to address the information needs of ecoregion conservation partnerships, such as the Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) and other regional conservation-science and resource-management partners. These themes were developed using priorities defined by partners and stakeholders in the Southeast and on a large-scale, multidisciplinary project-the Southeast Regional Assessment Project (SERAP)-developed in concert with those partners. Science products developed under these themes will provide models of potential future conditions, assessments of likely impacts, and tools that can be used to inform the conservation management decisions of LCCs and other partners. This information will be critical as managers try to anticipate and adapt to climate change. Resource managers in the Southeast are requesting this type of information, in many cases as a result of observed climate change effects. The Southeast CSC draft science plan identifies six science themes and frames the activities (tasks, with examples of recommended near-term work for each task included herein) related to each theme that are needed to achieve the objectives of the Southeast CSC.

  13. Dominant Achievement Goals of Older Workers and Their Relationship with Motivation-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their dominant achievement goals were linked to…

  14. An Examination of Achievement Goals in Learning: A Quasi-Quantitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The achievement goals framework has been researched and used to explain and account for individuals' learning and academic achievements. Over the past three decades, progress has been made in the conceptualizations and research development of different possible theoretical models of achievement goals. Notably, in this study, we…

  15. Science Achievement of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sara Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this quantitative descriptive and correlational study were to describe the science achievements of secondary agricultural education students and determine if the number of agricultural education courses passed, FFA involvement, and SAE participation would statistically significantly improve students' performance on science…

  16. Multicultural education, pragmatism, and the goals of science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hani, Charbel Niño; Mortimer, Eduardo Fleury

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we offer an intermediate position in the multiculturalism/universalism debate, drawing upon Cobern and Loving's epistemological pluralism, pragmatist philosophies, Southerland's defense of instructional multicultural science education, and the conceptual profile model. An important element in this position is the proposal that understanding is the proper goal of science education. Our commitment to this proposal is explained in terms of a defense of an ethics of coexistence for dealing with cultural differences, according to which social argumentative processes—including those in science education—should be marked by dialogue and confrontation of arguments in the search of possible solutions, and an effort to (co-)live with differences if a negotiated solution is not reached. To understand the discourses at stake is, in our view, a key requirement for the coexistence of arguments and discourses, and the science classroom is the privileged space for promoting an understanding of the scientific discourse in particular. We argue for "inclusion" of students' culturally grounded ideas in science education, but in a sense that avoids curricular multicultural science education, and, thus, any attempt to broaden the definition of "science" so that ideas from other ways of knowing might be simply treated as science contents. Science teachers should always take in due account the diversity of students' worldviews, giving them room in argumentative processes in science classrooms, but should never lose from sight the necessity of stimulating students to understand scientific ideas. This view is grounded on a distinction between the goals of science education and the nature of science instruction, and demands a discussion about how learning is to take place in culturally sensitive science education, and about communicative approaches that might be more productive in science classrooms organized as we propose here. We employ the conceptual profile model to

  17. Achievement, attributions, self-efficacy, and goal setting by accounting undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pi-Yueh; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2010-02-01

    Correlations were examined between two measures of accounting self-efficacy achievement goal setting, attributions, and scores on the Accounting Practice Achievement Test, obtained 1 yr. apart for 124 freshmen in junior college. Analysis indicated favorable attribution contributed to a higher mean score on accounting self-efficacy. Students with higher perceived self-efficacy performed better on the proficiency tests. Those with higher self-efficacy also set higher goals for subsequent achievement tests. Moreover, students who set higher achievement goals performed better. Goal setting mediated the relation of initial self-efficacy with subsequent test performance. However, the amount of variance accounted for by self-efficacy was small. An effective method for enhancing performance on an accounting achievement test might be to increase beneficial attributions, self-efficacy in accounting, and to encourage setting reasonable achievement goals.

  18. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  19. Hands-on science and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Allen Michael

    From the late 1950s through today, hands-on science has been promoted as a method of science instruction. Currently, recent national science reform efforts seek to temper its role. However, no consensus has been reached on the relationship of hands-on science to student achievement though this topic has been researched since the turn of the 20th century using various methods. To improve upon the literature, this work addresses three major limitations of past research---the lack of data on performance assessments of student achievement, the need to control for factors affecting both hands-on science and test scores, and the potential for a differential relationship by student ability. This work focuses on three research questions: (1) whether hands-on science is positively related to student achievement as measured by standardized test scores using both multiple choice and performance tests, (2) whether this relationship is stronger when using performance tests, and (3) whether this relationship differs by student ability. We apply regression analysis to two data sources. The primary data set is the 1994 RAND Survey of 1400 8th grade students and their teachers in Southern California which includes multiple choice and performance test scores. A second data source is the nationally representative NELS:88 with a focus on the 8th grade student sample. The initial findings vary by source of report, student or teacher, on the level of hands-on science. When accounting for the quality of the reports, the results show an association between the level of handson science and student test scores for both multiple choice and performance tests. The results find little difference for this relationship by type of test. Nor do they show strong evidence for a differential relationship due to student ability. These findings support the promotion of hands-on science at the middle school/junior high level while raising a concern about current science reform attempts to reduce and

  20. Academic and Social Achievement Goals: Their Additive, Interactive, and Specialized Effects on School Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Aims: Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and…

  1. Prevalence, Stability, and Functionality of Achievement Goal Profiles in Mathematics from Third to Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinger, Malte; Wild, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal trajectories of achievement goal profiles in mathematics from third to seventh grade in a sample of 302 German students. Latent profile analyses were conducted separately for each school year and revealed three subgroups of students with distinct goal profiles labeled high multiple goals, moderate multiple…

  2. Improving Low Achievers' Academic Performance at University by Changing the Social Value of Mastery Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…

  3. Increasing Women's Aspirations and Achievement in Science: The Effect of Role Models on Implicit Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Julie E.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating…

  4. Students' Achievement Goals, Emotion Perception Ability and Affect and Performance in the Classroom: A Multilevel Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassiou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Andreou, Eleni; Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Performance at school is affected not only by students' achievement goals but also by emotional exchanges among classmates and their teacher. In this study, we investigated relationships between students' achievement goals and emotion perception ability and class affect and performance. Participants were 949 Greek adolescent students in 49 classes…

  5. An Application Model of Reality Therapy to Develop Effective Achievement Goals in Tier Three Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunawan; Xiong, Junmei

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an application of reality therapy to developing effective achievement goals for students in tier three of a tiered response to intervention approach. The roles of teachers and school counselors, to improve effective achievement goals, are briefly discussed as a frame for applying reality therapy. The application model…

  6. The Impact of Achievement Goals on Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Does Self-Efficacy Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lochbaum, Marc; Guan, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The relationships among students' self-efficacy, 2 × 2 achievement goals (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], and performance-avoidance goals), and achievement performance remain largely unanswered. We tested a model of the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between 2 × 2…

  7. The Achievement Goals Orientation of South African First Year University Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh Dewnarain; Ramaila, Sam

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the achievement goals orientation of first year physics students at a South African university. The mixed methods design involved a quantitative survey of 291 students using an achievement goals questionnaire and individual interviews of selected participants. Results showed that the students perceived they have a stronger…

  8. Applications of Achievement Goal Theory to Physical Education: Implications for Enhancing Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treasure, Darren C.; Roberts, Glyn C.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the basic tenets of achievement goal theory, analyzing research in physical education that focuses extensively on instructional practice and strategies that may improve the quality of students' motivation. Comments on the potential utility of adopting an achievement goal approach to understanding and enhancing motivation in physical…

  9. The Prevalence, Development and Domain Specificity of Elementary School Students' Achievement Goal Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen in de Wal, Joost; Hornstra, Lisette; Prins, Frans J.; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2016-01-01

    This study's aim was to examine the prevalence, development and domain specificity of fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school students' achievement goal profiles. Achievement goals were measured for language and mathematics among 722 pupils at three points in time. These data were analysed through latent profile analysis and latent transition…

  10. Testing Structural Invariance of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire in American, Chinese, and Dutch College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Huaping; Hernandez, Diley

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the structural invariance of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) in American, Chinese, and Dutch college students. Using confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), the authors found evidence for the four-factor structure of achievement goals in all three samples. Subsequent multigroup CFAs supported structural invariance of…

  11. Amalgamation of Future Time Orientation, Epistemological Beliefs, Achievement Goals and Study Strategies: Empirical Evidence Established

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently research evidence emphasizes two main lines of inquiry, namely the relations between future time perspective (FTP), achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance) and study processing strategies, and the relations between epistemological beliefs, achievement goals and study processing strategies.…

  12. Achievement Goals during Middle Childhood: Individual Differences in Motivation and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis M.; Zheng, Chanjin; Lemoine, Katherine A.; Martin, Caroline P.; Tang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Person-centered analyses of achievement goals have been scarce in studies of elementary school children. In this investigation, the authors examined the natural combinations of achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, performance-avoidance) among 3rd grade students (N = 195) and how clusters differed in self-, teacher-, and peer-reported…

  13. Achievement Goal Orientations of Community College Mathematics Students and the Misalignment of Instructor Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the results of a survey of achievement goal orientations administered to a sample of 777 students enrolled in remedial and college-level mathematics courses at a community college. Results indicate that students' achievement goal orientations are consistent with adaptive learning patterns: Students are interested in…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Examination of the Psychometric Properties of Responses to the Achievement Goal Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Zhou, Mingming; Nesbit, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The psychometric properties of scores from the Achievement Goal Questionnaire were examined in samples of Japanese (N = 326) and Canadian (N = 307) postsecondary students. Previous research found evidence of a four-factor structure of achievement goals in U.S. samples. Using confirmatory factor-analytic techniques, the authors found strong…

  15. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yanhua; Zhu, Xiangru; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a Chinese version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (C-SAGOS), a measure testing the trichotomous framework of achievement goal orientations in a social domain. A total of 208 college students (51% female) aged 18 to 23 participated in the study. Factor analyses showed that the three-factor model…

  16. Changes in Self-Esteem across the First Year in College: The Role of Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Ryan, Allison M.; Cassady, Jerrell

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of achievement goals on the growth trajectories of self-esteem during the first-year at a comprehensive public university. College freshmen (N = 311) were followed for one academic year with three time points. Between-individual differences and within-individual change in achievement goals were…

  17. Gender Differences in the Factor Structure of the 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Aldhafri, Said

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the factor structure of the 2x2 achievement goal framework using a multi-sample invariance analysis. A total of 117 male and 125 female undergraduate teacher education students completed Elliot and Murayama's (2008) Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R). Results provided empirical evidence…

  18. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  19. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  20. Procrastination and the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework in Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganesan, Rajalakshmi; Mamat, Norul Hidayah Bt; Mellor, David; Rizzuto, Laura; Kolar, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated academic procrastination in the context of the 2 x 2 goal achievement theoretical framework within a population of 450 Malaysian undergraduate students, aged 18 to 25 years. Participants completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Tuckman Procrastination Test. Approach dimensions of both the mastery and…

  1. Does the NASA Constellation Architecture Offer Opportunities to Achieve Multiple Additional Goals in Space?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.

  2. The Role of Achievement Motivations and Achievement Goals in Taiwanese College Students' Cognitive and Psychological Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen; Lu, Luo

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how motivational factors are associated with Taiwanese college students' cognitive, personal, and social development by incorporating both relatively global, static self-attributes, such as social-oriented achievement motivation and individual-oriented achievement motivation, which are considered to be culturally balanced…

  3. Exploring the Relationships among Mirror Neurons, Theory of Mind, and Achievement Goals: Towards a Model of Achievement Goal Contagion in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2009-01-01

    This article aimed to examine the relationship between mirror neuron and theory of mind functions and to explore their possible roles in the emergence of an achievement goal contagion in educational settings such as classrooms. Based on the evidence from different lines of research such as neurobiology, neuropsychology, social psychology, and…

  4. Teacher perception, lesson study and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Whitney E.

    The purpose of this research was to explore group differences between teachers participating in North Cascades Olympic Science Partnership (NCOSP) activities and a matched group of non-NCOSP teachers. Specifically, the study explored potential differences between groups on: (a) science achievement as measured by the science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), (b) teacher perception of knowledge, experience and confidence with lesson study, a collaborative professional development model, (c) teacher perception of knowledge with curriculum, and (d) teacher perception of knowledge and experience with pedagogy. Further, in order todemonstrate group similarities, demographic data for each group were described and considered in the areas of teacher gender, school grade span, school enrollment, percent of students receiving free and reduced meal benefits, percent of female students, percent of students who are an ethnic minority, and percent of students who are identified as special education. A total of 206 science teachers were randomly selected for this population. The experimental (NCOSP science teachers) and comparison (non-NCOSP science teachers) groups were both initially comprised of 103 participants. Data collected from 55 NCOSP teachers and 32 non-NCOSP teachers were valid and used in the statistical analyses. Descriptive and inferential analyses were completed. To ensure the NCOSP and matched groups were statistically similar, chi-square tests for independence were computed. A one-way Hotelling's T2, the equivalent of a MANOVA for two groups, was computed using the SPSS general linear model. The procedure simultaneously compared the independent variable (Group: NCOSP teachers and non-NCOSP teachers) across the seven dependent variables, student science achievement as measured by science WASL, curriculum knowledge, pedagogy knowledge, pedagogy confidence, lesson study knowledge, lesson study experience, and lesson study confidence. Results for the

  5. Urban Elementary Students' Conceptions of Learning Goals for Agricultural Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary J.; Hess, Alexander J.; Hayes, Kathryn N.

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, both science and agricultural education professional organizations have identified agriculture as a fundamental technology to be studied by students, with the goal of achieving an understanding of the agri-food system necessary for democratic participation. Benchmarks representing the content that K-12 children need to understand about…

  6. Relationship between Achievement Goals and Students' Self-Reported Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p < .001, η2 = .39. The result also revealed that students were more likely to endorse the mastery-approach goal than three other goals. The simple correlations revealed mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were positively related to students' self-reported personal (r = .54, p < .001; r = .37, p < .001, respectively) and social responsibility (r = .38, p < .001; r = .22, p < .001, respectively) behaviors. However, hierarchical regression analyses indicated only the mastery-approach goal emerged as the significant positive predictor, b = .52, t(216) = 7.19, p < .001 for personal responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p < .001 for social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.

  7. An international validation study of two achievement goal measures in a pharmacy education context

    PubMed Central

    Alrakaf, Saleh; Abdelmageed, Ahmed; Kiersma, Mary; Coulman, Sion A; John, Dai N; Tordoff, June; Anderson, Claire; Noreddin, Ayman; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Background Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor’s Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) and Elliot and Murayama’s revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R) are widely used to assess students’ achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA. Methods In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit. Results In contrast to the scale developers’ findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study. Conclusion Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the achievement goals of undergraduate pharmacy students from these countries. PMID:25298743

  8. Examining the dimensional structure and nomological network of achievement goals in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    King, Ronnel B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the 2 × 2 achievement goal model in the Philippine context. The dimensional structure of the four achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, and performance-avoidance) and their associations with key learning outcomes were investigated. In Study 1, support for the dimensional structure of the 2 × 2 model was found. In Study 2, associations between achievement goals and learning outcomes such as engagement, disaffection, and achievement were investigated. Contrary to Western research, performance-avoidance was positively associated with adaptive outcomes and performance-approach goals were only weakly related to achievement. Cross-cultural implications are discussed.

  9. Achievement Goals and Emotions: The Mediational Roles of Perceived Progress, Control, and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Nathan C.; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R.; Ranellucci, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, "Educational Psychology Review," 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the…

  10. Insight into error hiding: exploration of nursing students' achievement goal orientations.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Karee E

    2014-02-01

    An estimated 50% of medication errors go unreported, and error hiding is costly to hospitals and patients. This study explored one issue that may facilitate error hiding. Descriptive statistics were used to examine nursing students' achievement goal orientations in a high-fidelity simulation course. Results indicated that although this sample of nursing students held high mastery goal orientations, they also held moderate levels of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goal orientations. These goal orientations indicate that this sample is at high risk for error hiding, which places the benefits that are typically gleaned from a strong mastery orientation at risk. Understanding variables, such as goal orientation, that can be addressed in nursing education to reduce error hiding is an area of research that needs to be further explored. This article discusses the study results and evidence-based instructional practices for this sample's achievement goal orientation profile. PMID:24444007

  11. Exploring Secondary Science Teachers' Perceptions on the Goals of Earth Science Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2009-01-01

    The educational reform movement since the 1990s has led the secondary earth science curriculum in Taiwan into a stage of reshaping. The present study investigated secondary earth science teachers' perceptions on the Goals of Earth Science Education (GESE). The GESE should express the statements of philosophy and purpose toward which educators…

  12. How Students' Achievement Goals Shape Their Beliefs about Effective Teaching: A "Build-a-Professor" Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Belmonte, Kimberly; Yakhkind, Anastasyia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Which instructor qualities do students consider most important? The answer likely depends on the student. This study attempted to trace beliefs about the most essential instructor qualities to students' academic achievement goals. Aims: The present study tested the hypothesis that students pursuing mastery goals favour instructors who…

  13. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  14. Indicators of Success in Achieving the El Centro College Goals, 1997-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Centro Coll., Dallas, TX.

    This is a report on indicators of success in achieving community college goals at El Centro College (Texas). The report provides statistics from 1997-2000 and focuses on the progress of nine goals: (1) institutionalizing service beyond expectation--according to student satisfaction surveys, campus changes that have occurred between 1996 and 1999…

  15. Relationships among Properties of College Students' Self-Set Academic Goals and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor W.; Cho, Yoonjung; Kim, Jung-In; Weinstein, Claire Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among properties of college students' self-set academic goals and academic achievement, using multiple theoretical perspectives. Using a personal goal-based research methodology, college students enrolled in a learning-to-learn course (N = 130) were asked to list 20 of their…

  16. Achievement Goal Orientation for Athletic Training Education: Preparing for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…

  17. Relationship between Lifestyle Values and Achievement Goal Orientation among Vocational Students in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chantara, Soontornpathai; Koul, Ravinder; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai

    2014-01-01

    This study brings models of value theory and motivational goal theory together to investigate the relationship between lifestyle values (materialism, religiosity, physical well-being and image) and achievement goal orientation of college students enrolled in vocational programmes in Thailand (N?=?1670, males?=?38.5% and females?=?61.5%). We found…

  18. Achievement Goal Orientations and Subjective Well-Being: A Person-Centred Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether students with different achievement goal orientation profiles differ in terms of subjective well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, school-related burnout, and educational goal appraisals). Six groups of students with unique motivational profiles were identified. Observed differences in subjective well-being…

  19. Achievement Goal Orientation and Differences in Self-Reported Copying Behaviour across Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songsriwittaya, Alisa; Koul, Ravinder; Kongsuwan, Sak

    2010-01-01

    This survey study investigated the relationship between achievement goal orientation and self-reported copying behaviour among college students (N = 2007) enrolled in five different academic programmes in Thailand. Results of statistical analysis showed several significant findings: performance approach goal orientation, performance avoidance goal…

  20. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  1. Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David A.; Phillips, Prudence

    1985-01-01

    Presents two discussions which focus on the rationale for and goals of teaching electrochemistry at high school and college levels. The first is "Electrochemistry" by Ronald Perkins and the second is "Goals in Teaching Electrochemistry" by J. T. Maloy. (JN)

  2. Achieving conservation science that bridges the knowledge-action boundary.

    PubMed

    Cook, Carly N; Mascia, Michael B; Schwartz, Mark W; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    There are many barriers to using science to inform conservation policy and practice. Conservation scientists wishing to produce management-relevant science must balance this goal with the imperative of demonstrating novelty and rigor in their science. Decision makers seeking to make evidence-based decisions must balance a desire for knowledge with the need to act despite uncertainty. Generating science that will effectively inform management decisions requires that the production of information (the components of knowledge) be salient (relevant and timely), credible (authoritative, believable, and trusted), and legitimate (developed via a process that considers the values and perspectives of all relevant actors) in the eyes of both researchers and decision makers. We perceive 3 key challenges for those hoping to generate conservation science that achieves all 3 of these information characteristics. First, scientific and management audiences can have contrasting perceptions about the salience of research. Second, the pursuit of scientific credibility can come at the cost of salience and legitimacy in the eyes of decision makers, and, third, different actors can have conflicting views about what constitutes legitimate information. We highlight 4 institutional frameworks that can facilitate science that will inform management: boundary organizations (environmental organizations that span the boundary between science and management), research scientists embedded in resource management agencies, formal links between decision makers and scientists at research-focused institutions, and training programs for conservation professionals. Although these are not the only approaches to generating boundary-spanning science, nor are they mutually exclusive, they provide mechanisms for promoting communication, translation, and mediation across the knowledge-action boundary. We believe that despite the challenges, conservation science should strive to be a boundary science, which

  3. Recognizing potential barriers to setting and achieving effective rehabilitation goals for patients with persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stephen G

    2016-07-01

    Although the process of goal setting in rehabilitation of individuals with persistent pain is considered a fundamental and requisite skill, it is frequently reported as a challenging element of clinical practice. Factors which may contribute to the complexity of goal setting include the potential for unrecognized shifts in cognitive function, psychological comorbidities, and the social context of both providers and patients. This review aims to describe factors which may confound the process of setting and achieving collaborative rehabilitation goals using a biopsychosocial framework and to provide recommendations to enhance goal setting effectiveness.

  4. Recognizing potential barriers to setting and achieving effective rehabilitation goals for patients with persistent pain.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stephen G

    2016-07-01

    Although the process of goal setting in rehabilitation of individuals with persistent pain is considered a fundamental and requisite skill, it is frequently reported as a challenging element of clinical practice. Factors which may contribute to the complexity of goal setting include the potential for unrecognized shifts in cognitive function, psychological comorbidities, and the social context of both providers and patients. This review aims to describe factors which may confound the process of setting and achieving collaborative rehabilitation goals using a biopsychosocial framework and to provide recommendations to enhance goal setting effectiveness. PMID:27355159

  5. Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: the role of passion and achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals.

  6. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  7. The Use of ICT in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaino, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the contribution of higher education institutions in achieving these have been emphasized. This study sought to find out the extent to which university-based researches on ICTs addressed and impacted the three MDGs of gender…

  8. How University Students with Reading Difficulties Are Supported in Achieving Their Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university…

  9. Attributional Beliefs of Singapore Students: Relations to Self-Construal, Competence and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David J.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Sheng, Yee Zher; Aye, Khin Maung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates attributional beliefs of Singapore secondary students in their English study and how they can be predicted by self-construal, competence and achievement goals. A total of 1,496 students were administered surveys on seven attributions, independent and interdependent self-construals, previous achievement, self-efficacy,…

  10. Theories of Intelligence, Achievement Goals and Learning Strategies of Chinese Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hau, Kit-Tai; Hui, Hing-fai

    It has been suggested that students' belief of whether intelligence is malleable and flexible would affect their purpose of achievement (achievement goals). This might, in turn, influence their learning strategies. The present study examined the above relationships among 194 Grade 7 Chinese students in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling…

  11. The Role of Achievement Goals in Online Test Anxiety and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yan; Taylor, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of achievement goals in online test anxiety and help-seeking while controlling for self-efficacy and potential demographic differences. A total of 150 online students participated in the survey. Separate hierarchical regression analysis results suggested the differential roles of achievement goals…

  12. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self-Reported Study Strategies as Predictors of Online Studying Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adesope, Olusola O.; Zhou, Mingming; Nesbit, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether achievement motivations influence the adoption of learning strategies and learning strategies influence studying behavior in an online learning environment. The Goal Orientation Questionnaire was used to measure achievement motives, and the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was…

  13. Achievement Goals, Motivation to Learn, and Mathematics Anxiety among Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vásquez-Colina, María D.; Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa R.; Furner, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a pilot study examining the feasibility of a research design to investigate how achievement goals relate to the construct of math anxiety. In addition, we also consider how other important achievement-related behaviors, like self-efficacy, help-seeking, and self-regulation, might also relate to students' math…

  14. Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement: Why Do Implicit Beliefs, Goals, and Effort Regulation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komarraju, Meera; Nadler, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    We examined motivational orientations, cognitive-metacognitive strategies, and resource management in predicting academic achievement. Undergraduates (407) completed the Motivated Strategies Learning Questionnaire, Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale, Achievement Goal Inventory, and self-reported grade point average. A MANCOVA (controlling for…

  15. Friendship networks and achievement goals: an examination of selection and influence processes and variations by gender.

    PubMed

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M

    2014-09-01

    Interactions with friends are a salient part of students' experience at school. Thus, friends are likely to be an important source of influence on achievement goals. This study investigated processes within early adolescent friendships (selection and influence) with regard to achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals) among sixth graders (N = 587, 50% girls at wave 1, N = 576, 52% girls at wave 2) followed from fall to spring within one academic year. Students' gender was examined as a moderator in these processes. Longitudinal social network analysis found that friends were similar to each other in mastery goals and that this similarity was due to both selection and influence effects. Influence but not selection effects were found for performance-approach goals. Influence effects for performance-approach goals were stronger for boys compared to girls in the classroom. Neither selection, nor influence, effects were found in relation to performance-avoidance goals. However, the higher a student was in performance-avoidance goals, the less likely they were to be named as a friend by classmates. Implications for early adolescents' classroom adjustment are discussed.

  16. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  17. Self-harm reasons, goal achievement, and prediction of future self-harm intent.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen P; Santor, Darcy A

    2010-05-01

    Self-harm may have several reasons, and these reasons may have corresponding implied goals. The current study examined reasons for self-harm and whether the a priori goals intended by these reasons were achieved. Fifty-seven individuals with a history of self-harm were recruited online and volunteered their time to complete a series of online questionnaires assessing past self-harm frequency, self-harm reasons, whether the goal associated with these reasons was achieved, and future self-harm intent. Reasons to reduce tension and dissociation associated with more past self-harm, a higher intent to self-harm again, and it was reported that the goals associated with reasons were achieved (i.e., these internal states were extinguished). Achievement of these goals (i.e., reported reductions in tension and dissociation) mediated the relation between corresponding self-harm reasons and intent to self-harm in the future. Findings support the view that self-harm is a maladaptive coping strategy and the reinforcement component of the experiential avoidance model of self-harm. Results have clinical implications and heuristic value for future research, which are discussed.

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: the moderating role of achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård

    2013-09-01

    This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE. PMID:22273179

  19. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: the moderating role of achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård

    2013-09-01

    This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE.

  20. Achieving What Political Science Is For

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isacoff, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues for a political science discipline and teaching framework predicated empirically on the study of "real-world problems" and normatively on promoting civic engagement among political science students. I argue for a rethinking of political science and political science education in view of the pragmatist thought of John…

  1. Autonomous Multi-sensor Coordination: The Science Goal Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Jung, John; Geiger, Jenny; Grosvenor, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Next-generation science and exploration systems will employ new observation strategies that will use multiple sensors in a dynamic environment to provide high quality monitoring, self-consistent analyses and informed decision making. The Science Goal Monitor (SGM) is a prototype software tool being developed to explore the nature of automation necessary to enable dynamic observing of earth phenomenon. The tools being developed in SGM improve our ability to autonomously monitor multiple independent sensors and coordinate reactions to better observe the dynamic phenomena. The SGM system enables users to specify events of interest and how to react when an event is detected. The system monitors streams of data to identify occurrences of the key events previously specified by the scientist/user. When an event occurs, the system autonomously coordinates the execution of the users desired reactions between different sensors. The information can be used to rapidly respond to a variety of fast temporal events. Investigators will no longer have to rely on after-the-fact data analysis to determine what happened. Our paper describes a series of prototype demonstrations that we have developed using SGM and NASA's Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite and Earth Observing Systems Aqua/Terra spacecrafts MODIS instrument. Our demonstrations show the promise of coordinating data from different sources, analyzing the data for a relevant event, autonomously updating and rapidly obtaining a follow-on relevant image. SGM is being used to investigate forest fires, floods and volcanic eruptions. We are now identifying new earth science scenarios that will have more complex SGM reasoning. By developing and testing a prototype in an operational environment, we are also establishing and gathering metrics to gauge the success of automating science campaigns.

  2. Science Achievement in TIMSS Cognitive Domains Based on Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kablan, Zeynel; Kaya, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The interest in raising levels of achievement in math and science has led to a focus on investigating the factors that shape achievement in these subjects. Understanding how different learning styles might influence science achievement may guide educators in their efforts to raise achievement. This study is an attempt to examine…

  3. The influence of avoidance temperament and avoidance-based achievement goals on flow.

    PubMed

    Oertig, Daniela; Schüler, Julia; Brandstätter, Veronika; Augustine, Adam A

    2014-06-01

    In the present research, we conducted two studies designed to examine the joint influence of avoidance temperament and avoidance-based achievement goals on the experience of flow on a creativity task. In both a laboratory study (N = 101; M(age)  = 22.61, SD(age)  = 4.03; 74.3% female) and a naturalistic study (N = 102; M(age)  = 16.23, SD(age)  = 1.13; 48% female), participants high in avoidance temperament were shown to experience greater flow when performance-avoidance goals were induced; no differences were found in any of the other three achievement goal conditions from the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. These findings reveal a short-term benefit for a disposition-goal match grounded in avoidance motivation, and point to the need for more research on both avoidance-based matches and the short-term versus long-term implications of such matches.

  4. The International Lunar Network: science goals and landing site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieczorek, M. A.; Crawford, I.; Iln Site Selection Working Group

    2010-12-01

    working groups were created with the purpose of defining a set of core scientific instruments, communications standards, and site selection criteria. The core instruments working group identified four instruments to be included on any future ILN node: a seismometer, heat flow probe, electromagnetic sounder, and laser retroreflector. The focus of this site selection working group is to identify classes of sites and network geometries that would best address lunar science goals. Though our work is preliminary, we have identified two science goals that place stringent constraints on the selection of the initial landing sites. One goal is to elucidate the asymmetric thermal evolution of the Moon, and three sites that are necessary for the heat flow experiment include the Procellarum KREEP terrain, the Feldspathic highlands terrane, and a region where the crust is thin or absent. A second goal is to determine the size of the lunar core, and the key seismic site selection criteria include the identification of reflected and refracted core phases. This paper will represent an update of the site selection working group activities, and our work to optimize a lunar network for all core scientific instruments.

  5. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Achievement and Social Goals among Chinese and Filipino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Ganotice, Fraide A.; Watkins, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined how achievement (mastery and performance) and social goals (affiliation, approval, concern, and status) influenced various learning outcomes in two collectivist cultures. Filipino (n = 355) and Hong Kong Chinese (n = 697) secondary students answered the relevant questionnaires. Regression analyses using mastery, performance, and social…

  6. Transforming Schools with Technology: How Smart Use of Digital Tools Helps Achieve Six Key Education Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.

    2008-01-01

    In this timely and thoughtful book, Andrew Zucker argues that technology can and will play a central role in efforts to achieve crucial education goals, and that it will be an essential component of further improvement and transformation of schools. The book is marked not only by Zucker's cutting-edge sophistication about digital technologies, but…

  7. Achievement Goal Orientation of Community College Mathematics Students and the Misalignment of Instructors' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa, Vilma

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings regarding the application of a survey of achievement goal orientations to a sample of mathematics 777 students enrolled in remedial and college mathematics courses at a community college. The survey was based on the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales [PALS] and it included questions from the Views About Mathematics…

  8. School Environmental Health Programs and the Challenges of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations (UN) mandate of achieving healthful living for all by the year 2015 through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is facing several challenges. In the school environment, and particularly in less developed countries (LDCs), the situation is further strained by both relatively weak infrastructure and competing governmental…

  9. Saving for Success: Financial Education and Savings Goal Achievement in Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Mary L.; Mauldin, Teresa; Sabia, Joseph J.; Koonce, Joan; Palmer, Lance

    2011-01-01

    Using microdata from the American Dream Demonstration, the current study examines factors associated with savings and savings goal achievement (indicated by a matched withdrawal) among participants of individual development account (IDA) programs. Multinomial logit results show that hours of participation in financial education programs, higher…

  10. The Influence of Context-Specific and Dispositional Achievement Goals on Children's Paired Collaborative Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Amanda; Yuill, Nicola; Luckin, Rosemary

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research has demonstrated that working collaboratively can have positive effects on children's learning. While key factors have been identified which influence the quality of these interactions, little research has addressed the influence of children's achievement goals on collaborative behaviour. Aims: This paper investigates the…

  11. Chinese Mindset: Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation and Academic Achievement in Hong Kong Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei-Wen; Wong, Yi-Lee

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between theories of intelligence and goal orientations, and their joint connections to students' academic achievement in the Chinese cultural context. A total of 418 university students in Hong Kong participated in the present study. The survey was administered to collect information…

  12. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  13. School Socio-Economic Status and Student Socio-Academic Achievement Goals in Upper Secondary Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Nathan; Archer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In recent years motivational researchers have spent considerable time examining race/ethnicity and gender differences in academic and social achievement goals, but little time examining the influence of socioeconomic status (SES). This lack of attention is surprising given that both student motivation and SES have been shown to predict academic…

  14. Students' Perceptions of Parental and Teacher Academic Involvement: Consequences on Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regner, Isabelle; Loose, Florence; Dumas, Florence

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether students' perceptions of two major facets of parental and teacher academic involvement (i.e., academic support and academic monitoring), contribute to the process of students' achievement goals adoption. French junior high-school students completed two questionnaires assessing first their perceptions of parental…

  15. Classroom Achievement Goal Structure, School Engagement, and Substance Use among 10th Grade Students in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the relationships between students' perceived classroom achievement goals, school engagement and substance use in terms of smoking and drinking, and at investigating gender differences regarding these issues in a sample of 1,239 Norwegian 10th grade students. A multivariate analysis showed that…

  16. Socially Oriented Motivational Goals and Academic Achievement: Similarities between Native and Anglo Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Jinnat; McInerney, Dennis M.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; King, Ronnel B.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between two socially oriented dimensions of student motivation and academic achievement of Native (Navajo) American and Anglo American students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a multidimensional and hierarchical model was found to explain the relations between performance and social goals. Four first-order…

  17. Parental Involvement and Expectations of Children's Academic Achievement Goals in Botswana: Parent's Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kgosidialwa, Keinyatse T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the school related activities that parents in Botswana engage in with their children. The study also examined how parents in Botswana perceive their involvement and expectations of their children's academic achievement goals. Sixteen parents (15 females and 1 male) who had children in standards five, six, or seven participated…

  18. Exploring Students' Reflective Thinking Practice, Deep Processing Strategies, Effort, and Achievement Goal Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2009-01-01

    Recent research indicates that study processing strategies, effort, reflective thinking practice, and achievement goals are important factors contributing to the prediction of students' academic success. Very few studies have combined these theoretical orientations within one conceptual model. This study tested a conceptual model that included, in…

  19. Achievement Attributions and Self-Instructions Under Competitive and Individualistic Goal Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Carole

    1984-01-01

    Fifth and sixth graders performed at a high or low level on a novel achievement task within a competitive or individual goal structure. The type and frequency of children's thoughts were assessed. Children made more ability attributions in the competitive condition and more effort attributions in the individual condition. (Author/BS)

  20. 38 CFR 21.53 - Reasonable feasibility of achieving a vocational goal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and... employment handicap, or (2) A serious employment handicap. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3106(a)) (b) Definition. The... achievement of a vocational goal is not currently reasonably feasible, VA shall provide the...

  1. Achievement Goals, Motivational Climate and Sportspersonship: A Study of Young Handball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornes, Tor; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and sportspersonship in a sample of young male Norwegian handball players. A cross-sectional study of 440 male handball players aged from 14 to 16 was conducted, in which the players responded to a questionnaire measuring…

  2. Autonomy Support versus Psychological Control, Perfectionism, and Taiwanese Adolescents' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2013-01-01

    The author attempted to explore potential antecedents of achievement goals and relations of teacher and parental autonomy support versus psychological control to Taiwanese adolescents' perfectionistic tendencies. A total of 512 eighth-grade students completed self-reported questionnaires assessing variables of interest. Results indicated that…

  3. Achievement Goal Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Gender Invariance in a Sample of Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Jing; Bai, Yu; He, Yini; McWhinnie, Chad M.; Ling, Yu; Smith, Hannah; Huebner, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the gender invariance of the Chinese version of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-C) utilizing a sample of 1,115 Chinese university students. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis supported the configural, metric, and scalar invariance of the AGQ-C across genders. Analyses also revealed that the latent…

  4. Antecedents and Trajectories of Achievement Goals: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciani, Keith D.; Sheldon, Kennon M.; Hilpert, Jonathan C.; Easter, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that both achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (SDT) are quite useful in explaining student motivation and success in academic contexts. However, little is known about how the two theories relate to each other. Aim: The current research used SDT as a framework to understand why students enter classes…

  5. Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback…

  6. Self-Determined Motivation and Social Achievement Goals in Children's Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini

    2011-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study we investigated to what extent autonomous and controlled motivation and social achievement goals are associated with students' emotional experiences at school. We found in a sample of 426 elementary school students, aged from 10 to 12 years, autonomous motivation (i.e. students' engagement in class activities because…

  7. Goals, Data Use, and Instruction: The Effect of a Teacher Professional Development Program on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a pretest-posttest control group design. Applying propensity score…

  8. Analyzing State and Private School Students' Achievement Goal Orientation Levels in Terms of Some Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türkçapar, Ünal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the state and private school students' achievement goal orientation levels in terms of some variables. Quantitative survey method was used in this study. Study group in this research consists of 201 students who are studying at state and private school in Kahramanmaras during the 2014-2015 academic year.…

  9. Instructional Leadership, School Goals, and Student Achievement: Exploring the Relationship between Means and Ends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamburg, Jerry D.; Andrews, Richard L.

    This study investigated the relationship of an organization's clear and focused mission and the role of the principal as a strong instructional leader to the academic achievement of students. Focus was on extending educators' understanding of the types of goals selected by instructionally effective schools and activities of principals in schools…

  10. Student Perceptions of Classroom Achievement Goal Structure: Is It Appropriate to Aggregate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Arena C.; Ruzek, Erik A.; Schenke, Katerina; Conley, AnneMarie M.; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Student reports are a common approach to characterizing how students experience their classrooms. We used a recently developed method--multilevel confirmatory factor analysis--to determine whether commonly employed measures of achievement goal structure constructs (mastery and performance) typically verified at the student level can be verified at…

  11. Achievement Goals and Persistence across Tasks: The Roles of Failure and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Kaplan, Avi

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is on the role of achievement goals in students' persistence. The authors administered 5 puzzles to 96 college students: 4 unsolvable and 1 relatively easy (acting as a hope probe). They examined whether and how persistence may deteriorate as a function of failing the puzzles, as well as whether and how persistence may…

  12. Achievement Goals and Their Relations to Children's Disruptive Behaviors in an After-School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This study used a trichotomous achievement goal model to explore and describe what actually happened in terms of students' achievement goals and disruptive behaviors in an after-school physical activity program. Participants included 158 students in grades 3-6. They completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and disruptive…

  13. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  14. Disentangling achievement orientation and goal setting: effects on self-regulatory processes.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Steve W J; Bell, Bradford S

    2006-07-01

    H. Heckhausen and J. Kuhl's (1985) goal typology provided the conceptual foundation for this research, which examined the independent and integrated effects of achievement orientation and goal-setting approaches on trainees' self-regulatory activity. Using a complex computer-based simulation, the authors examined the effects of 3 training design factors--goal frame, goal content, and goal proximity--cutting across these 2 theoretical domains on the nature, focus, and quality of the self-regulatory activities of 524 trainees. Results revealed that all 3 factors had a significant influence on self-regulation, with goal content exhibiting the greatest influence. In line with expectations, congruent learning frame and content compared with congruent performance frame and content was beneficial for trainees' self-regulatory activity, incongruent combinations of goal frame and content were better than congruent performance frames and content, and effects for the incongruent combinations cutting across the domains were asymmetrical. Theoretical extensions for further disentangling these distinct domains and training design implications are discussed.

  15. Science Talent in the Young Expressed within Ecologies of Achievement. Research-Based Decision Making Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandwein, Paul F.

    This study defines some of the educational ecosystems that encourage students to discover science interests and science talent. Six interrelated constructs are discussed. Construct 1 consists of a skein of achievement-centered, goal-targeted environments that comprise the inspiring teaching and learning that can enhance the endowments of students.…

  16. Do Goals Lead to Outcomes or Can It Be the Other Way Around?: Causal Ordering of Mastery Goals, Metacognitive Strategies, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Goal theory research has mostly focused on the unidirectional effects of goals on learning strategies and academic achievement. Reciprocal relationships have mostly been neglected. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to examine the reciprocal relations and causal ordering of mastery goals, metacognitive strategy use, and academic…

  17. The Role of Goal Structures and Peer Climate in Trajectories of Social Achievement Goals during High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makara, Kara A.; Madjar, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Students' social goals--reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers-are consequential for students' interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how…

  18. Concept Mapping and Science Achievement of Middle Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snead, Donald; Snead, Wanda L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of concept mapping on the science achievement of middle grade science students. The subjects were 182 eighth-grade students, distributed into eight intact earth science classes by ability levels. The ability level variable also was examined as a possible effect on student achievement. Two teachers were involved in…

  19. Relationship between achievement goal constructs and physical self-perceptions in a physical activity setting.

    PubMed

    Newton, Maria; Detling, Nicole; Kilgore, Jennifer; Bernhardt, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The relations of achievement goal theory constructs and physical self-perceptions were explored with 225 students (91 men, 109 women, and 25 nonindicators; M age=23.5 yr., SD=9.2), enrolled in basic physical activity classes (aerobics, weight training, modern dance, badminton, yoga, tai chi, basketball, racquetball, gymnastics, bowling, aquatone, and step aerobics) in a university setting. Goal orientations (Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire), perceptions of the motivational climate (Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2), and physical self-perceptions (Physical Self-perception Profile) were assessed. Data were analyzed separately by sex. Ego orientation was the only predictor of Physical Self-perceptions in men, accounting for between 12 and 15% of the variance in Physical Self-worth, Sport Competence, Physical Conditioning, and Body Attractiveness. Constructs of achievement goal theory were not predictive of Physical Self-perceptions in the women. The results are discussed in light of achievement goal theory and the nature of the sample.

  20. Relationship between achievement goal constructs and physical self-perceptions in a physical activity setting.

    PubMed

    Newton, Maria; Detling, Nicole; Kilgore, Jennifer; Bernhardt, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The relations of achievement goal theory constructs and physical self-perceptions were explored with 225 students (91 men, 109 women, and 25 nonindicators; M age=23.5 yr., SD=9.2), enrolled in basic physical activity classes (aerobics, weight training, modern dance, badminton, yoga, tai chi, basketball, racquetball, gymnastics, bowling, aquatone, and step aerobics) in a university setting. Goal orientations (Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire), perceptions of the motivational climate (Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2), and physical self-perceptions (Physical Self-perception Profile) were assessed. Data were analyzed separately by sex. Ego orientation was the only predictor of Physical Self-perceptions in men, accounting for between 12 and 15% of the variance in Physical Self-worth, Sport Competence, Physical Conditioning, and Body Attractiveness. Constructs of achievement goal theory were not predictive of Physical Self-perceptions in the women. The results are discussed in light of achievement goal theory and the nature of the sample. PMID:15648467

  1. Increasing women's aspirations and achievement in science: The effect of role models on implicit cognitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelan, Julie E.

    This research investigated the role of implicit science beliefs in the gender gap in science aspirations and achievement, with the goal of testing identification with a female role model as a potential intervention strategy for increasing women's representation in science careers. At Time 1, women's implicit science stereotyping (i.e., associating men more than women with science) was linked to more negative (implicit and explicit) attitudes towards science and less identification with science. For men, stereotypes were either non-significantly or positively related to science attitudes and identification. Time 2 examined the influence of implicit and explicit science cognitions on students' science aspirations and achievement, and found that implicit stereotyping, attitudes, and identification were all unique predictors of science aspirations, but not achievement. Of more importance, Time 2 examined the influence of science role models, and found that identification with a role model of either gender reduced women's implicit science stereotyping and increased their positive attitudes toward science. Implications for decreasing the gender gap in advanced science achievement are discussed.

  2. Understanding motivational structures that differentially predict engagement and achievement in middle school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Christine S.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Seitz, Jeffery; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Middle school has been documented as the period in which a drop in students' science interest and achievement occurs. This trend indicates a lack of motivation for learning science; however, little is known about how different aspects of motivation interact with student engagement and science learning outcomes. This study examines the relationships among motivational factors, engagement, and achievement in middle school science (grades 6-8). Data were obtained from middle school students in the United States (N = 2094). The theoretical relationships among motivational constructs, including self-efficacy, and three types of goal orientations (mastery, performance approach, and performance avoid) were tested. The results showed that motivation is best modeled as distinct intrinsic and extrinsic factors; lending evidence that external, performance based goal orientations factor separately from self-efficacy and an internal, mastery based goal orientation. Second, a model was tested to examine how engagement mediated the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors and science achievement. Engagement mediated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and science achievement, whereas extrinsic motivation had no relationship with engagement and science achievement. Implications for how classroom practice and educational policy emphasize different student motivations, and in turn, can support or hinder students' science learning are discussed.

  3. Digital Games and the US National Research Council's Science Proficiency Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Garza, Mario; Clark, Douglas B.; Nelson, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesises research on digital games and science learning as it supports the goals for science proficiency outlined in the report by the US National Research Council on science education reform. The review is organised in terms of these research-based goals for science proficiency in light of their alignment with current science…

  4. Science Goals for the ARM Recovery Act Radars

    SciTech Connect

    JH Mather

    2012-05-29

    Science Goals for the ARM Recovery Act Radars. In October 2008, an ARM workshop brought together approximately 30 climate research scientists to discuss the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility's role in solving outstanding climate science issues. Through this discussion it was noted that one of ARM's primary contributions is to provide detailed information about cloud profiles and their impact on radiative fluxes. This work supports cloud parameterization development and improved understanding of cloud processes necessary for that development. A critical part of this work is measuring microphysical properties (cloud ice and liquid water content, cloud particle sizes, shapes, and distribution). ARM measurements and research have long included an emphasis on obtaining the best possible microphysical parameters with the available instrumentation. At the time of the workshop, this research was reaching the point where additional reduction in uncertainties in these critical parameters required new instrumentation for applications such as specifying radiative heating profiles, measuring vertical velocities, and studying the convective triggering and evolution of three-dimensional (3D) cloud fields. ARM was already operating a subset of the necessary instrumentation to make some progress on these problems; each of the ARM sites included (and still includes) a cloud radar (operating at 35 or 94 GHz), a cloud lidar, and balloon-borne temperature and humidity sensors. However, these measurements were inadequate for determining detailed microphysical properties in most cases. Additional instrumentation needed to improve retrievals of microphysical processes includes radars at two additional frequencies for a total of three at a single site (35 GHz, 94 GHz, and a precipitation radar) and a Doppler lidar. Evolving to a multi-frequency scanning radar is a medium-term goal to bridge our understanding of two-dimensional (2D) retrievals to the 3D cloud

  5. Students' Achievement Goal Orientations and Their Behavioral and Emotional Engagement: Co-Examining the Role of Perceived School Goal Structures and Parent Goals during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonida, Eleftheria N.; Voulala, Katerina; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

    2009-01-01

    The role of perceived school goal structures and parent goals in predicting adolescents' goal orientations and their behavioral and emotional engagement in the classroom was examined in the present study. Surveys were given to a sample of 271 seventh- and ninth-grade students. Path analyses showed that (a) perceived school mastery goal structures…

  6. Black Achievers in Science, Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago, IL.

    In this guide, 16 historical and contemporary black scientists and engineers are highlighted as role models. Four scientists are represented in each of four technical fields: life sciences (Ernest E. Just; Harvey M. Pickrum; George W. Carver; Patricia S. Cowings); physical science (George R. Carruthers; Percy L. Julian; Walter E. Massey; Warren M.…

  7. Values based decision making: a tool for achieving the goals of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Mills, Anne E; Spencer, Edward M

    2005-03-01

    The recognition that the success of the healthcare organization depends on its achievement of two interrelated goals is a relatively recent phenomenon. In its mid-history the healthcare organization was largely able to ignore cost issues. In its latter history, many would argue that it ignored its quality goals as it pursued its cost goals (15). Either approach, given declining revenues and a competitive landscape, is incompatible with continued responsible operation. If this is true, then tools that were appropriate when the healthcare organization was focused on the achievement of one or another of these goals are not adequate as the healthcare organization seeks to achieve both goals together. Thus, new perspectives and new tools must be found that help the organization address two intimately related but sometimes conflicting goals. Values based decision-making can be the perspective needed, and organization ethics is one tool that can be of use in supporting it within the institution. But there are caveats. In order for values based decision-making to be effective, leadership must take an active role in promoting its use. It must relinquish a degree of control and it must begin to trust its stakeholders to make decisions within the context of the organization's values and goals. This can be extremely difficult, as control by senior management is often seen as the only effective means of ensuring that correct decisions are made. There are additional difficulties in the healthcare organization. Control rests within two groups and the healthcare organization is operating in an environment in which variance elimination is emphasized as a means of controlling costs. This may be an appealing notion for revenue strapped healthcare organization leaders, but it implies greater control exerted by managers, not less. Relinquishing any degree of control is a frightening prospect, but it has been done successfully. An excellent example of leadership encouraging decisions

  8. Values based decision making: a tool for achieving the goals of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Mills, Anne E; Spencer, Edward M

    2005-03-01

    The recognition that the success of the healthcare organization depends on its achievement of two interrelated goals is a relatively recent phenomenon. In its mid-history the healthcare organization was largely able to ignore cost issues. In its latter history, many would argue that it ignored its quality goals as it pursued its cost goals (15). Either approach, given declining revenues and a competitive landscape, is incompatible with continued responsible operation. If this is true, then tools that were appropriate when the healthcare organization was focused on the achievement of one or another of these goals are not adequate as the healthcare organization seeks to achieve both goals together. Thus, new perspectives and new tools must be found that help the organization address two intimately related but sometimes conflicting goals. Values based decision-making can be the perspective needed, and organization ethics is one tool that can be of use in supporting it within the institution. But there are caveats. In order for values based decision-making to be effective, leadership must take an active role in promoting its use. It must relinquish a degree of control and it must begin to trust its stakeholders to make decisions within the context of the organization's values and goals. This can be extremely difficult, as control by senior management is often seen as the only effective means of ensuring that correct decisions are made. There are additional difficulties in the healthcare organization. Control rests within two groups and the healthcare organization is operating in an environment in which variance elimination is emphasized as a means of controlling costs. This may be an appealing notion for revenue strapped healthcare organization leaders, but it implies greater control exerted by managers, not less. Relinquishing any degree of control is a frightening prospect, but it has been done successfully. An excellent example of leadership encouraging decisions

  9. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success among African-American and European American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    2012-01-01

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores…

  10. Goal!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the story of his son, Joshua Pauls. Josh is an energetic young man who learned at a very young age not to let anything stop him from achieving his dreams. Born with a birth defect known as bilateral bibia hemimelia, which means he was born without his tibia bone in both of his legs, Josh was only 10 months old…

  11. Academic Goals, Student Homework Engagement, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School.

    PubMed

    Valle, Antonio; Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13). Findings show that: (a) academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b) the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, PMID:27065928

  12. State downsizing as a determinant of infant mortality and achievement of Millennium Development Goal 4.

    PubMed

    Palma-Solís, Marco Antonio; Alvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the worldwide effect of state downsizing policies on achievement of U.N. Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) on infant mortality rates. In an ecological retrospective cohort study of 161 countries, from 1978 to 2002, the authors analyzed changes in government consumption (GC) as determining exposure to achievement of MDG4. Descriptive methods and a multiple logistic regression were applied to adjust for changes in gross domestic product, level of democracy, and income inequality. Excess infant mortality in the exposed countries, attributable to reductions in GC, was estimated. Fifty countries were found to have reduced GC, and 111 had increased GC. The gap in infant mortality rate between these groups of countries doubled in the study period. Non-achievement of MDG4 was associated with reductions in GC and increases in income inequality. The excess infant mortality attributable to GC reductions in the exposed countries from 1990 to 2002 was 4,473,348 deaths. The probability of achieving MDG4 seems to be seriously compromised for many countries because of reduced public sector expenditure during the last 25 years of the 20th century, in response to World Bank/International Monetary Fund Washington Consensus policies. This seeming contradiction between the goals of different U.N. branches may be undermining achievement of MDG4 and should be taken into account when developing future global governance policy. PMID:19492631

  13. Critical appraisal of amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil fixed-dose combination in achieving blood pressure goals.

    PubMed

    Basile, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension remains a significant health burden in the United States, with almost one in three adults affected, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The goal of antihypertensive treatment is to reduce cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality by reducing blood pressure (BP). Guidelines recommend a target BP of <140/90 mmHg, with a more stringent goal of <130/80 mmHg for patients with diabetes and chronic renal disease. However, BP goal attainment rates remain low and most patients require therapy with two or more antihypertensive agents. Combination antihypertensive therapy usually employs agents from different classes, thus benefitting from complementary mechanisms of action to achieve greater BP control with fewer side effects. Patient adherence to therapy is enhanced by formulating treatments as fixed-dose (single-pill) combinations. One example is the combination of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB), with olmesartan medoxomil, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Here, the rationale for the use of CCB/ARB combination therapy is discussed, as well as the pharmacology and tolerability of the amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil combination and its efficacy in terms of achieving BP goal in patients with hypertension. Advantages of its use from the patient's perspective are also discussed.

  14. Critical appraisal of amlodipine and olmesartan medoxomil fixed-dose combination in achieving blood pressure goals

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension remains a significant health burden in the United States, with almost one in three adults affected, and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The goal of antihypertensive treatment is to reduce cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality by reducing blood pressure (BP). Guidelines recommend a target BP of <140/90 mmHg, with a more stringent goal of <130/80 mmHg for patients with diabetes and chronic renal disease. However, BP goal attainment rates remain low and most patients require therapy with two or more antihypertensive agents. Combination antihypertensive therapy usually employs agents from different classes, thus benefitting from complementary mechanisms of action to achieve greater BP control with fewer side effects. Patient adherence to therapy is enhanced by formulating treatments as fixed-dose (single-pill) combinations. One example is the combination of amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB), with olmesartan medoxomil, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Here, the rationale for the use of CCB/ARB combination therapy is discussed, as well as the pharmacology and tolerability of the amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil combination and its efficacy in terms of achieving BP goal in patients with hypertension. Advantages of its use from the patient’s perspective are also discussed. PMID:21949625

  15. The effect of workshop groups on achievement goals and performance in biology: An outcome evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Wendi Kay

    This two-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on performance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students in a three-course series and investigated motivational explanations for performance differences. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992) at the University of California. Majority volunteers randomly assigned to workshops (n = 61) performed between 1/2 and 1 standard deviation better than those assigned to the control group (n = 60; p < .05) in each quarter without spending more time studying. During Quarter 1, workshop minority students (n = 25) showed a pattern of increasing exam performance in comparison to historic control minority students (n = 21), who showed a decreasing pattern (p < .05). Although sex differences in biology performance were a focus of investigation, none were detected. Motivational predictions derived from the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation (Elliot & Church, 1997) were partially supported. Self-report survey measures of achievement goals, modeled after those used by Elliot and colleagues, were requested from all enrolled students. Volunteers (n = 121) reported higher average levels of approach and avoidance goals than nonvolunteers (n = 439; p < .05) and the relationship of goals to performance was moderated by volunteer status. Performance of volunteers was negatively related to avoidance of failure goals (r = .41, p < .01) and unrelated to performance approach goals. Performance of nonvolunteers was unrelated to avoidance of failure goals and positively related to performance approach goals (r = .28, p < .01). Mastery goals were unrelated to performance for all students. Results were inconsistent with Dweck and Leggett's (1988) theory of mastery vs. performance orientation, but were similar to results found by Elliot and colleagues. Contrary to hypotheses, motivational goals did not mediate performance for

  16. The Role of Self-Efficacy, Task Value, and Achievement Goals in Predicting Learning Strategies, Task Disengagement, Peer Relationship, and Achievement Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Lau, Shun; Nie, Youyan

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a combination of expectancy-value and achievement goal theories, this study examined the role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in students' learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship, and English achievement outcome. A sample of 1475 Year-9 students participated in the study. A structural equation model…

  17. Examining the Construct Validity of the Thai Version of the 2 × 2 Achievement Goal Orientation Scale among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poondej, Chanut; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita

    2016-01-01

    In the literature on motivational goals, there has been an increase on the interest of a concept of the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. However, evidences supporting the reliability and validity of this framework are still needed. The study reported in this paper was to validate the Thai version of the 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation scale by…

  18. Examining Dual Meanings of Items in 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaires through MTMM Modeling and MDS Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Elliot and McGregor proposed a 2 x 2 (mastery-performance x approach- avoidance) achievement goal frameworks and developed a questionnaire to measure four goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals). This study examines the dual meanings of items in 2 x 2 achievement goal…

  19. Different Methods, Different Results: Examining the Implications of Methodological Divergence and Implicit Processes for Achievement Goal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Laura; Remedios, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal theory is one of the most popular theories of achievement motivation. Techniques researchers have used to assess goals include standardized questionnaires and interviews. One curious finding is that participants whose self-report questionnaire responses strongly indicate they operate with a performance goal do not make performance…

  20. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees.

  1. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. PMID:25158824

  2. Science Goal Driven Observing: A Step towards Maximizing Science Returns and Spacecraft Autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jones, Jeremy E.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Wolf, Karl R.

    2002-12-01

    In the coming decade, the drive to increase the scientific returns on capital investment and to reduce costs will force automation to be implemented in many of the scientific tasks that have traditionally been manually overseen. Thus, spacecraft autonomy will become an even greater part of mission operations. While recent missions have made great strides in the ability to autonomously monitor and react to changing health and physical status of spacecraft, little progress has been made in responding quickly to science driven events. The new generation of space-based telescopes/observatories will see deeper, with greater clarity, and they will generate data at an unprecedented rate. Yet, while onboard data processing and storage capability will increase rapidly, bandwidth for downloading data will not increase as fast and can become a significant bottleneck and cost of a science program. For observations of inherently variable targets and targets of opportunity, the ability to recognize early if an observation will not meet the science goals of variability or minimum brightness, and react accordingly, can have a major positive impact on the overall scientific returns of an observatory and on its operational costs. If the observatory can reprioritize the schedule to focus on alternate targets, discard uninteresting observations prior to downloading, or download them at a reduced resolution its overall efficiency will be dramatically increased. We are investigating and developing tools for a science goal monitoring (SGM) system. The SGM will have an interface to help capture higher-level science goals from scientists and translate them into a flexible observing strategy that SGM can execute and monitor. SGM will then monitor the incoming data stream and interface with data processing systems to recognize significant events. When an event occurs, the system will use the science goals given it to reprioritize observations, and react appropriately and/or communicate with

  3. Science Goal Driven Observing: A Step Towards Maximizing Science Returns and Spacecraft Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koratkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jones, Jeremy; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Wolf, Karl

    2002-01-01

    In the coming decade, the drive to increase the scientific returns on capital investment and to reduce costs will force automation to be implemented in many of the scientific tasks that have traditionally been manually overseen. Thus, spacecraft autonomy will become an even greater part of mission operations. While recent missions have made great strides in the ability to autonomously monitor and react to changing health and physical status of spacecraft, little progress has been made in responding quickly to science driven events. The new generation of space-based telescopes/observatories will see deeper, with greater clarity, and they will generate data at an unprecedented rate. Yet, while onboard data processing and storage capability will increase rapidly, bandwidth for downloading data will not increase as fast and can become a significant bottleneck and cost of a science program. For observations of inherently variable targets and targets of opportunity, the ability to recognize early if an observation will not meet the science goals of variability or minimum brightness, and react accordingly, can have a major positive impact on the overall scientific returns of an observatory and on its operational costs. If the observatory can reprioritize the schedule to focus on alternate targets, discard uninteresting observations prior to downloading, or download them at a reduced resolution its overall efficiency will be dramatically increased. We are investigating and developing tools for a science goal monitoring (SGM) system. The SGM will have an interface to help capture higher-level science goals from scientists and translate them into a flexible observing strategy that SGM can execute and monitor. SGM will then monitor the incoming data stream and interface with data processing systems to recognize significant events. When an event occurs, the system will use the science goals given it to reprioritize observations, and react appropriately and/or communicate with

  4. Goals for Human Milk Feeding in Mothers of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: How Do Goals Change and Are They Achieved During the NICU Hospitalization?

    PubMed Central

    Bigger, Harold; Patel, Aloka L.; Rossman, Beverly; Fogg, Louis F.; Meier, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Little is known about human milk (HM) feeding goals for mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1,500 g birth weight) infants, especially for black mothers, for whom rates of VLBW birth are higher and lactation rates lower. This study examined the establishment, modification, and achievement of HM feeding goals during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) hospitalization for mothers of VLBW infants and the influence of maternal race and income. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study measured maternal HM feeding goals (exclusive [EHM], partial, none) predelivery and during three time intervals: day of life (DOL) 1–14, 15–28, and 29–72. Goal achievement compared the goal for the time interval with the proportion of HM feedings received by the infant. Goal establishment, modification, and achievement were examined using chi-squared and contingency tables. Results: Three hundred fifty-two mother–infant dyads (53% black; 70% low-income; mean birth weight, 1,048 g) were studied. Predelivery, 55% of mothers planned to provide EHM; fewer black and low-income mothers chose EHM. During DOL 1–14, 63% of mothers chose EHM, and predelivery racial differences disappeared. Only 10% of mothers chose exclusive at-breast EHM feedings. EHM feeding goals decreased during NICU hospitalization, especially for black mothers. Whereas most mothers met their HM feeding goals initially, achievement rates declined during hospitalization. Mothers' EHM goal achievement was not influenced by race or income. Conclusions: Mothers changed their predelivery HM feeding goals after birth of a VLBW infant. Longitudinally, HM feeding goals and achievement reflected less HM use, highlighting the need to target lactation maintenance in this population. PMID:26110439

  5. Personal Best (PB) and "Classic" Achievement Goals in the Chinese Context: Their Role in Predicting Academic Motivation, Engagement and Buoyancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kai; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has shown personal best (PB) goals to be significantly related to students' motivation, engagement and achievement. However, research thus far has investigated PB goals only among Western samples and it is unclear to what extent PB goals hold academic merit in the Asian context. It is also unclear whether PB goals explain…

  6. On the Value of Intrinsic Rather than Traditional Achievement Goals for Performing Artists: A Short-Term Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacaille, Natalie; Koestner, Richard; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Educational researchers have examined the effect of achievement goals on student performance, and suggest that both mastery goals and performance-approach goals are beneficial, whereas performance-avoidance goals are harmful. Recent research proposes that these results may not be generalized in the domain of music. The purpose of the present study…

  7. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions. PMID:27356396

  8. [Implementation of precision control to achieve the goal of schistosomiasis elimination in China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2016-02-01

    The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.

  9. Achieving a balance - Science and human exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    The linkage between science and human exploration is close. Currently, proponents of science and human presence themes identified by the Synthesis Group as the most important themes of Mars exploration, tend to have reservations about the other camp. Mechanisms that integrate the program themes are essential, to gain the advocacies of the exploration communities and find optimal solutions to the technical problems. Without such mechanisms, it will be difficult to gain widespread acceptance of the SEI as the strategic horizon for the U.S. civilian space program.

  10. Meeting IYA Goals for Diverse Science Center and Planetarium Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols Yehling, Michelle; Carney, K.

    2008-05-01

    The International Year of Astronomy provides the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, IL with a chance to bring astronomy into the greater Chicagoland area. 1) The presenters will outline Adler's program plans to date, from community outreach programs such as Café Scientifique and citizen science light pollution observations, to programs within the institution, like a temporary exhibit about how telescopes have shaped our understanding of the cosmos. The presenters will focus on the range of programming and how this suite of programs brings together IYA topical threads, addressing sustainability and the needs of our audiences. 2) How do we know that the IYA programs we design actually work for our audiences? How do we assess and improve our work? This session will introduce participants to the "backwards design” process through which Adler educators create experiences that begin with focused goals. Facilitators will take participants through the Adler's evaluation planning method that uncovers what we want to know about our educational programs and experiences. Tools for program design and evaluation will be shared. 3) Facilitators will present for discussion three activities that have been designed and evaluated for one of our audiences, the museum-going family. Workshop participants are invited to critique and discuss these activities, their rationale, their fit with identified audience and institutional needs, and IYA thematic strands. Participants will share any ideas they have for adaptation of these activities for other audiences in their own settings. 4) Finally, all of the educational design and evaluation tools, program descriptions, and lesson plans will be compiled into an electronic document. Participants are encouraged to bring program description examples and/or activity lesson plans that can be incorporated into the document to provide an IYA "workbook". This workbook will be sent to all interested session participants by no later than July 31, 2008.

  11. Relationships among constructivist learning environment perceptions, motivational beliefs, self-regulation and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Tas, Yasemin; Gok, Gulsum; Sungur Vural, Semra

    2013-11-01

    Background. There are attempts to integrate learning environment research with motivation and self-regulation research that considers social context influences an individual's motivation, self-regulation and, in turn, academic performance. Purpose. This study explored the relationships among constructivist learning environment perception variables (personal relevance, uncertainty, shared control, critical voice, student negotiation), motivational beliefs (self-efficacy, intrinsic interest, goal orientation), self-regulation, and science achievement. Sample. The sample for this study comprised 802 Grade 8 students from 14 public middle schools in a district of Ankara in Turkey. Design and methods. Students were administered 4 instruments: Constructivist Learning Environment Survey, Goal Achievement Questionnaire, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and Science Achievement Test. LISREL 8.7 program with SIMPLIS programming language was used to test the conceptual model. Providing appropriate fit indices for the proposed model, the standardized path coefficients for direct effects were examined. Results. At least one dimension of the constructivist learning environment was associated with students' intrinsic interest, goal orientation, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and science achievement. Self-efficacy emerged as the strongest predictor of both mastery and performance avoidance goals rather than the approach goals. Intrinsic value was found to be significantly linked to science achievement through its effect on self-regulation. The relationships between self-efficacy and self-regulation and between goal orientation and science achievement were not significant. Conclusion. In a classroom environment supporting student autonomy and control, students tend to develop higher interest in tasks, use more self-regulatory strategies, and demonstrate higher academic performance. Science teachers are highly recommended to consider these findings when designing

  12. Recognizing the Achievements of Women in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dujari, Anuradha

    2000-01-01

    Lists the women Nobel Prize laureates and questions why, with the exception of Marie Curie, all these women scientists are not well known by the public. Explains why so few women have won the Nobel Prize in science and medicine as compared to other fields. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  13. Science Challenge: Olympic Achievement for Your Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Donald E.; Berkheimer, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    Describes how a science challenge program was modeled after the Olympics to offer a variety of science events in a competitive setting. Reviews organizational factors, suggests sources for events, and identifies rules and scoring procedures. (ML)

  14. Economic costs of achieving current conservation goals in the future as climate changes.

    PubMed

    Shaw, M Rebecca; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Cameron, D Richard; Mackenzie, Jason; Roehrdanz, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Conservation of biologically diverse regions has thus far been accomplished largely through the establishment and maintenance of protected areas. Climate change is expected to shift climate space of many species outside existing reserve boundaries. We used climate-envelope models to examine shifts in climate space of 11 species that are representative of the Mount Hamilton Project area (MHPA) (California, U.S.A.), which includes areas within Alameda, Santa Clara, San Joaquin, Stanislaus, Merced, and San Benito counties and is in the state's Central Coast ecoregion. We used Marxan site-selection software to determine the minimum area required as climate changes to achieve a baseline conservation goal equal to 80% of existing climate space for all species in the MHPA through 2050 and 2100. Additionally, we assessed the costs associated with use of existing conservation strategies (land acquisition and management actions such as species translocation, monitoring, and captive breeding) necessary to meet current species-conservation goals as climate changes. Meeting conservation goals as climate changes through 2050 required an additional 256,000 ha (332%) of protected area, primarily to the south and west of the MHPA. Through 2050 the total cost of land acquisition and management was estimated at US$1.67-1.79 billion, or 139-149% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. To maintain 80% of climate space through 2100 required nearly 380,000 additional hectares that would cost $2.46-2.62 billion, or 209-219% of the cost of achieving the same conservation goals with no climate change. Furthermore, maintaining 80% of existing climate space within California for 27% of the focal species was not possible by 2100 because climate space for these species did not exist in the state. The high costs of conserving species as the climate changes-that we found in an assessment of one conservation project-highlights the need for tools that will aid

  15. The 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in Predicting Online Student Test Anxiety and Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yan; Taylor, Jeff; Cao, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of the new 3 × 2 achievement goal model in predicting online student test anxiety and help-seeking. Achievement goals refer to students' general aims for participating in learning and the standard by which they judge their achievement (Pintrich, 2000). According to Elliot and his colleagues (2011), there are six…

  16. Academic Goals, Student Homework Engagement, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Antonio; Regueiro, Bibiana; Núñez, José C.; Rodríguez, Susana; Piñeiro, Isabel; Rosário, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13). Findings show that: (a) academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b) the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, (c) homework time management was associated with the approach to homework, (d) and the approach to homework, like the rest of the variables of the model (except for the time spent on homework), was related to the student's academic motivation (i.e., academic goals). PMID:27065928

  17. Predicting elite Scottish athletes' attitudes towards doping: examining the contribution of achievement goals and motivational climate.

    PubMed

    Allen, Justine; Taylor, John; Dimeo, Paul; Dixon, Sarah; Robinson, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding athletes' attitudes to doping continues to be of interest for its potential to contribute to an international anti-doping system. However, little is known about the relationship between elite athletes' attitudes to drug use and potential explanatory factors, including achievement goals and the motivational climate. In addition, despite specific World Anti-Doping Agency Code relating to team sport athletes, little is known about whether sport type (team or individual) is a risk or protective factor in relation to doping. Elite athletes from Scotland (N = 177) completed a survey examining attitudes to performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Athletes were generally against doping for performance enhancement. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that task and ego goals and mastery motivational climate were predictors of attitudes to PED use (F (4, 171) = 15.81, P < .01). Compared with individual athletes, team athletes were significantly lower in attitude to PED use and ego orientation scores and significantly higher in perceptions of a mastery motivational climate (Wilks' lambda = .76, F = 10.89 (5, 170), P < .01). The study provides insight into how individual and situational factors may act as protective and risk factors in doping in sport.

  18. The effects of achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a novel motor task.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Morris, Rebecca L; Ring, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of trichotomous achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a golf-putting task. Male (n = 39) and female (n = 63) undergraduate students participated in the experiment in exchange for course credit. Participants were assigned to a mastery, performance-approach, or performance-avoidance goal condition and completed seven blocks of 10 trials (one for baseline, four for the experimental phase, and two for the transfer phase) of a golf-putting task. Distance from the target was measured and performance measures of accuracy and consistency were calculated. Self-reported enjoyment during the baseline and experimental phases and practice during a 5-min period before and following the experimental task were also assessed. Performance accuracy and consistency improved similarly among the three groups. Individuals in all three conditions reported enjoying the task to the same extent. Mastery participants practiced for longer than performance-approach participants during the practice period. Performance-avoidance participants did not differ significantly from the other two groups. The three goals were equally effective in promoting performance and enjoyment of the golf-putting task. The differential practice results for the two performance goals suggest that they should be considered separately. PMID:19735037

  19. Multilevel Modeling of Science Achievement in the Timss Participating Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza; Kalantarrashidi, Shojae Aldin

    2015-01-01

    The authors aimed to investigate the variability in science achievement as a function of student-, school- and country-level factors. Achievement scores of 134,123 eighth-grade students from 4,511 schools of 29 countries who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study were analyzed. Multilevel modeling results…

  20. Teacher Practices and Middle-School Science Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur L.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; LaNasa, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the construction and application of an instrument entitled the "Science Achievement Influences Survey" to assess combined effects of student attitudes about science, peer interaction, and home support, and the frequency of student-centred and teacher-centred instructional practices on student achievement. Controlling for pre-test…

  1. Differences in Middle School Science Achievement by School District Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Matthew James; Maxwell, Gerri M.; Holland, Glenda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in Texas middle school student achievement in science by school district enrollment size. Quantitative research utilized analysis of variance to determine whether significant differences existed between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8th grade science results and four school…

  2. Science Achievement, Class Size, and Demographics: The Debate Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Whitehead, Marie

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship between school system financial and demographic data and student achievement in the science section of the 1998 Tennessee statewide Terra Nova tests. Results indicate that while many schools had science scale score achievement higher than expected based on system demographics, others should examine a variety of…

  3. Achievement of Serbian Eighth Grade Students in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonijevic, Radovan

    2006-01-01

    The paper considers the main results and some educational implications of the TIMSS 2003 assessment conducted in Serbia in the fields of the science achievement of Serbian eighth grade students and the science curriculum context of their achievement. There were 4264 students in the sample. It was confirmed that Serbian eighth graders had made…

  4. Keep It Positive: Using Student Goals and Appraisals to Inform Small Group Work in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Donetta, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    In teaching science, small group work is often recommended and frequently used. In this study, we asked 130 students about their personal goals and views (appraisals) of small group work in science. We found significant relationships between students' personal goals and their views of doing science in small groups. We discuss the practical…

  5. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  6. Advances in genetics and genomics: use and limitations in achieving malaria elimination goals

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D.

    2015-01-01

    Success of the global research agenda towards eradication of malaria will depend on the development of new tools, including drugs, vaccines, insecticides and diagnostics. Genetic and genomic information now available for the malaria parasites, their mosquito vectors and human host, can be harnessed to both develop these tools and monitor their effectiveness. Here we review and provide specific examples of current technological advances and how these genetic and genomic tools have increased our knowledge of host, parasite and vector biology in relation to malaria elimination and in turn enhanced the potential to reach that goal. We then discuss limitations of these tools and future prospects for the successful achievement of global malaria elimination goals. PMID:25943157

  7. Advances in genetics and genomics: use and limitations in achieving malaria elimination goals.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D

    2015-05-01

    Success of the global research agenda towards eradication of malaria will depend on the development of new tools, including drugs, vaccines, insecticides and diagnostics. Genetic and genomic information now available for the malaria parasites, their mosquito vectors and human host, can be harnessed to both develop these tools and monitor their effectiveness. Here we review and provide specific examples of current technological advances and how these genetic and genomic tools have increased our knowledge of host, parasite and vector biology in relation to malaria elimination and in turn enhanced the potential to reach that goal. We then discuss limitations of these tools and future prospects for the successful achievement of global malaria elimination goals.

  8. Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Von, Anna; Hidron, Alicia; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Tellez, Ildefonso; Barragán, Maribel; Jones, Danielle; Náquira, Cesar G; Mendez, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Discussion Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease of American trypanosomiasis, will play a key role to enable the most impoverished populations in Latin America the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Most cases of Chagas disease occur among forgotten populations because these diseases persist exclusively in the poorest and the most marginalized communities in Latin America. Summary Addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with T. cruzi infection will contribute to improve the health of the most impoverished populations in Latin America and will ultimately grant them with the opportunity to achieve their full economic potential. PMID:17725836

  9. Achievement of cardiometabolic goals in aware hypertensive patients in Spain: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Banegas, José R; Graciani, Auxiliadora; de la Cruz-Troca, Juan J; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Coca, Antonio; Ruilope, Luis M; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Despite the importance of achieving cardiometabolic goals beyond blood pressure, in the health of hypertensives, no comprehensive assessment of these characteristics has been performed in whole countries. We studied in 2008-2010 a total of 11 957 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged≥18 years. Information on cardiometabolic characteristics was collected at the participants' homes, through structured questionnaires, physical examination, and fasting blood samples. A total of 3983 individuals (33.3%) had hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg or current antihypertensive drug treatment), 59.4% were aware of their condition, 78.8% treated among those aware, and 48.5% controlled among those aware and treated (22.7% of all hypertensives). Of the aware hypertensives, 13.8% had a body mass index<25 kg/m2, 38.6% consumed <2.4 g/d of sodium, 19.3% were diabetic with 61% attaining goal hemoglobin A1c<6.5%, whereas 42.3% had hypercholesterolemia, with 38.1% reaching goal low-density lipoprotein<115 mg/dL. Only 30.7% of overweight patients received a prescription of specific method for weight loss, 17.4% of daily smokers were offered a smoking cessation strategy, and 15.8% of older patients were given a flu shot. Aware and unaware hypertensives showed a similar frequency of some lifestyle, such as adequate physical activity. In conclusion, in a European country with a well-developed, free-access healthcare system, achievement of many cardiometabolic goals among hypertensives is poor. Moreover, a serious deficiency in hypertension awareness and in the effectiveness of some lifestyle interventions among aware hypertensives is present. Greater effort is needed in the management of coexisting risk factors and on lifestyle medical advice to improve the cardiometabolic health of hypertensives. PMID:22949530

  10. Structure of Black Male Students Academic Achievement in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rascoe, Barbara

    Educational policies and practices have been largely unsuccessful in closing the achievement gap between Black and White students "Schwartz, 2001". This achievement gap is especially problematic for Black students in science "Maton, Hrabrowski, - Schmitt, 2000. Given the fact that the Black-White achievement gap is still an enigma, the purpose of this article is to address the Black female-Black male academic achievement gap in science majors. Addressing barriers that Black male students may experience as college science and engineering majors, this article presents marketing strategies relative to politics, emotional intelligence, and issues with respect to how science teaching, and Black male students' responses to it, are different. Many Black male students may need to experience a paradigm shift, which structures and enhances their science achievement. Paradigm shifts are necessary because exceptional academic ability and motivation are not enough to get Black males from their first year in a science, technology, education, and mathematics "STEM" major to a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. The conclusions focus on the balance of truth-slippery slopes concerning the confluence of science teachers' further ado and Black male students' theories, methods, and values that position their academic achievement in science and engineering majors.

  11. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  12. Schistosomiasis elimination strategies and potential role of a vaccine in achieving global health goals.

    PubMed

    Mo, Annie X; Agosti, Jan M; Walson, Judd L; Hall, B Fenton; Gordon, Lance

    2014-01-01

    In March 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation co-sponsored a meeting entitled "Schistosomiasis Elimination Strategy and Potential Role of a Vaccine in Achieving Global Health Goals" to discuss the potential role of schistosomiasis vaccines and other tools in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination strategies. It was concluded that although schistosomiasis elimination in some focal areas may be achievable through current mass drug administration programs, global control and elimination will face several significant scientific and operational challenges, and will require an integrated approach with other, additional interventions. These challenges include vector (snail) control; environmental modification; water, sanitation, and hygiene; and other future innovative tools such as vaccines. Defining a clear product development plan that reflects a vaccine strategy as complementary to the existing control programs to combat different forms of schistosomiasis will be important to develop a vaccine effectively.

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Self-Reported Achievement Goals and Nonself-Report Performance across Three Achievement Domains (Work, Sports, and Education)

    PubMed Central

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual’s drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that – overall – approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of

  14. A meta-analysis of self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance across three achievement domains (work, sports, and education).

    PubMed

    Van Yperen, Nico W; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of performance

  15. Achieving Open Access to Conservation Science

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-01-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. Obtención de Acceso Abierto a la Ciencia de la Conservación Resumen La ciencia de la conservación es una

  16. Achieving Open Access to Conservation Science

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-01-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. Obtención de Acceso Abierto a la Ciencia de la Conservación Resumen La ciencia de la conservación es una

  17. Affect and achievement goals in physical activity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ntoumanis, N; Biddle, S J

    1999-12-01

    Achievement goal orientation theory has been the subject of extensive research in recent years. In view of the importance of identifying the motivational antecedents of affect in physical activity, this study examined through meta-analysis the conflicting evidence regarding the links between different achievement goals and emotions. Using the formulas of Hunter and Schmidt (1), correlations were gathered from 41 independent samples and were corrected for both sampling and measurement errors. The results showed that task orientation and positive affect were moderately-to-highly correlated and in a positive fashion, whereas the relationship between task orientation and negative affect was negative and moderate to small. Both correlations were found to be heterogeneous, and so moderators were sought. The relationships between ego orientation and positive and negative affect were positive but very small, with the former being heterogeneous. Moderators coded were the time frame of affect (independent of context vs. after an athletic event), the physical activity setting (school physical education vs. recreation vs. competitive sport), age (university vs. school students), nationality (British vs. American), nature of negative affect (high vs. low arousal), and the publication status of the studies (published vs. unpublished). Lastly, a subset of the corrected correlations were inserted into a structural equation modelling analysis in order to look concurrently at the relationships among all the variables.

  18. Peer relationships in adolescent competitive soccer: associations to perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Roberts, Glyn C; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Miller, Blake W

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the perceived motivational climate, achievement goals, perfectionism and indices of peer relationships in a sample of young male and female Norwegian soccer players. The sample consisted of 1719 experienced soccer players (1231 males, 488 females) aged 12-19 years (mean = 14.9 years) participating in the Norway Cup international youth soccer competition. The players responded to a questionnaire measuring perceived peer acceptance and quality of friendship in soccer, perceived motivational climate, achievement goals and perfectionism in soccer. Canonical correlation analyses revealed that young female players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly mastery oriented, and who were moderately task oriented and scored negatively on maladaptive perfectionism, reported better relations with their peers in soccer. Constructive peer relations were evident in that they scored positively on companionship with their best friend in soccer; they perceived this friend as being loyal and allowing of free discussion, and they reported being socially accepted by their peers in soccer. Mirroring these findings, young male players who perceived the motivational climate as predominantly performance oriented, who had a moderately negative score on task orientation but a quite strong positive score on maladaptive perfectionism, reported negative relationships with peers in terms of these aspects. They also reported being in conflict with their best soccer friend. The findings suggest that the qualities of motivation have a systematic relationship with peer acceptance and the quality of friendship in male and female youth soccer.

  19. Millennium Development Goals: how public health professionals perceive the achievement of MDGs

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Laaser, Ulrich; Theisling, Mareike; Tapia, Leticia; Borisch, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA) has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs. The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention. Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework. PMID:25249060

  20. Funding research to achieve the Spine "10 × 25" goal.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Back and neck pain are among the top causes of burden-of-illness, both in the US and globally. The North American Spine Foundation aims to reduce US spine-related disability 10% by 2025. New kinds of research will be needed in the spine field to achieve this goal. The vast majority of investigator-initiated medical research in the US is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Unfortunately, current NIH funding is heavily skewed away from spine research. Although back and neck pain account for 6.9% of all burden-of-illness in America, it appears certain that NIH devotes less than 1% of its budget to research on back and neck pain. While the total average NIH funding per unit of burden-of-illness for all diseases is 343 dollars per disability-adjusted life year, back and neck pain appear to receive, at most, only 48 dollars per disability-adjusted life year. In order to reduce the burden-of-illness of spine disorders enough to achieve the Spine 10 × 25 goal, the spine community and general public need to lobby Congress to increase research funding for back and neck pain.

  1. Science Suffers when Getting a Grant Becomes the Goal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    The perception that academic scientists must pursue money from government agencies like the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health is subverting the aims of science and making it harder for institutions and individual professors to do innovative and original research. Of course winning a large federal grant attracts a…

  2. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  3. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-12-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

  4. The relationship between achievement goal profile groups and perceptions of motivational climates in sport.

    PubMed

    Ntoumanis, N; Biddle, S

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to expand on previous research that has found compatibility between individuals' views on achievement and the type of achievement that was promoted in the sport environment they belonged to. However, this line of research has ignored the fact that the two main goal orientations are largely independent and that their impact in combination is often different from their effects examined separately. The present study, therefore, examined which combinations of goal orientations are compatible with perceptions of mastery and performance climates in a sample of 146 British university students. With regard to mastery climate, the analysis showed that the critical factor was the degree of task orientation since those with high scores in this factor (irrespective of the degree of their ego orientation) perceived the climate as more mastery-oriented than those with low scores in task orientation. This was substantiated by the large differences in effect sizes between the high- and low-task groups. As far as performance climate was concerned, the most negative perceptions of climate were held by those who were rated both low in task orientation and high in ego orientation. A general inference from these results is that high task orientation is motivationally adaptive, whereas high ego orientation is not motivationally detrimental as long as it is accompanied by a high task orientation. These findings are in contrast with previous suggestions that have called for the enhancement of task orientation with the concurrent suppression of ego orientation. Our results are, however, consonant with studies which have employed a goal profiles analysis in sport and in physical education, and with empirical evidence from real sport settings.

  5. The relationship between urban middle school students' interest in science, perceptions of science teachers, and achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onwumere, Everett Anayo

    There is currently a serious problem in secondary science education in the United States. This statement is based on the National Science Foundation's report stating that, when compared to students from other industrialized nations, the nation's students, on the average, still rank near the bottom in science and mathematics achievement. This background is the backbone of the problem for this study. This study investigated learner variables suspected to play a role in science instruction at the middle school level, and related them to achievement in science classroom. Among these variables, students' interest in science (attitude toward science), and perceptions of science teachers (feelings toward science teachers' characteristics) have received considerable attention from researchers over the years. Each of these two variables could be related to students' achievement in science. This study investigated the nature of these relationships. Two instruments were used to collect the data. The Scientific Attitude Inventory II (SAI II) was used to collect data on students' science interest. The Questionnaire for Teacher Interactions (QTI) was used to collect data on students' perceptions of science teachers. The students' teacher-assigned science grades were used as the measure of students' achievement in science. The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression statistics were used to analyze the data. The following conclusions were made based on the results: (1) Students' interest in science is not a sufficient predictor of students' achievement in science. (2) Students' perception of science teachers is an important determinant of students' achievement in science. (3) The combined effects of students' interest in science and perceptions of science teachers on students' achievement in science were significant. (4) There was a relationship between female middle school students' interest in science and their achievement in science. (5) For the male middle

  6. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing.

    PubMed

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-11-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser-provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  7. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  8. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing

    PubMed Central

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-01-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser–provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  9. The Relevance and Application of Goal Theory to Interpreting Indigenous Minority Group Motivation and Achievement in School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.; And Others

    The goal theory of achievement argues that the goals stressed by schools have dramatic consequences for whether children develop a sense of self-efficacy, or whether they avoid challenging tasks, giving up when faced with failure. It is commonly believed that the goals stressed by Western-oriented schools are inappropriate to indigenous minority…

  10. An Integrative Cultural View of Achievement Motivation: Parental and Classroom Predictors of Children's Goal Orientations when Learning Mathematics in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In; Schallert, Diane L.; Kim, Myoungsook

    2010-01-01

    Our goal was to identify how students' perceptions of their parents shape the kind and degree of motivational goal orientations that they adopt in their mathematics classroom, broadening the application of achievement goal orientation theory and self-determination theory to students in Korea. Two groups of students participated, one from a middle…

  11. It's Not Always Just about the Grade: Exploring the Achievement Goal Orientations of Pre-Med Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Gail

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the achievement goal orientations of a group of all male pre-med students attending a small, urban undergraduate college. Semi-structured interviews examined under what circumstances students adopted extrinsic goals, mastery goals, or a mixture of the two. Findings indicated that while nearly all students…

  12. Examining Hong Kong Students' Achievement Goals and Their Relations with Students' Perceived Classroom Environment and Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Kit-Ling; Lee, John

    2008-01-01

    This study examined Hong Kong students' achievement goals and their relations with students' perceived classroom environment and strategy use based on the multiple goal perspective of goal orientation theory. A total of 925 Grade 8 students from six secondary schools in Hong Kong voluntarily responded to a questionnaire that measured these three…

  13. College Students' Achievement Goal Orientation and Motivational Regulations in Physical Activity Classes: A Test of Gender Invariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Xiaoxia; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students' 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students' scores were fully…

  14. The Measurement Structure, Stability and Mediating Effects of Achievement Goals in Math with Middle-School Student Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Sunny S. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the measurement structure, cross-year stability of achievement goals, and mediating effects of achievement goals between self-efficacy and math grades in a national sample of Taiwan middle school students. The measurement model with factorial structure showed good fit to the data. In the panel data (N?=?343), four achievement…

  15. The Effects of Achievement Goals and Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors on Reading Comprehension in Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernacki, Matthew L.; Byrnes, James P.; Cromley, Jennifer G.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining students' achievement goals, cognitive engagement strategies and performance have found that achievement goals tend to predict classes of cognitive strategy use which predict performance on measures of learning. These studies have led to deeper theoretical understanding, but their reliance on self-report data limit the…

  16. An Investigation of Achievement Goals and Time Perspective in Community College Students Engaged in a First-Year Experience Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campen, Darrin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the relationship between time perspective and achievement goals among 144 community college students engaged in a first-year experience course. A 4 X 5 correlational model was utilized to examine the relationship between four different achievement goals as measured by scores on the…

  17. Factor Structure and Predictive Utility of the 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Model in a Sample of Taiwan Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Yu-Tzu; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Hwang, Fang-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This study examined structure and predictive utility of the 2 x 2 achievement goal model among Taiwan pre-university school students (ages 10 to 16) who learned Chinese language arts. The confirmatory factor analyses of Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Chinese version provided good fitting between the factorial and dimensional structures with the…

  18. From Self-Theories of Intelligence to Academic Delay of Gratification: The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-El-Fattah, Sabry M.; AL-Nabhani, Hilal Z.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among implicit self-theories, achievement goals, and academic delay of gratification. Do achievement goals mediate the relationship between implicit self-theories and academic delay of gratification? A sample of 195 Omani high school students rated themselves on three measures tapping these constructs. A path…

  19. Parental Behaviors and Adolescents' Achievement Goals at the Beginning of Middle School: Emotional Problems as Potential Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Recent literature on the determinants of academic motivation has shown that parenting and emotions are central elements in understanding students' achievement goals. The authors of this study set out to examine the predictive relationship between parental behaviors during the last year of elementary school and adolescents' achievement goals at the…

  20. Students' Attitudes and Perceived Purposes of Physical Education in Singapore: Perspectives from a 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K.; Lim, B. S.; Aplin, N. G.; Chia, Y. H. M.; McNeill, M.; Tan, W. K.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to re-examine the relationships between achievement goals and perceived purposes of PE, perceived motivational climates, attitudes towards PE teachers and affective outcomes using the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. Questionnaires were completed by 493 secondary school students (222 males, 262 females, 9 missing)…

  1. Scholars Ponder Goals of Science, Technology and Society Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is the twentieth anniversary of Cornell's program on science, technology, and society (STS); one of the country's largest and most influential. Described is the current status of STS programs around the country. Surveys social problems affecting STS areas. (MVL)

  2. Achieving science, math and reading literacy for all: The role of inquiry-based science instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Man

    With the enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, educators and policy makers have been seeking effective strategies to improve students' science, mathematics and reading achievement. One of the primary teaching strategies recommended by reform-oriented organizations, such as the National Research Council (1996), is to utilize inquiry-based science instruction. In this study, I examined the effects of inquiry-based science instruction and traditional science instruction on student achievement across science, mathematics and reading. I also compared the effects of inquiry-based science instruction and traditional science instruction on student achievement. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999---a large, national data sample---a series of structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicated that inquiry-based science instruction was associated with significant, positive gains not only in science achievement, but also in mathematics and reading achievement. The positive relationship between inquiry instruction and student achievement was found above and beyond the contributions of traditional science instruction, which generally showed no significant relationship to student achievement. Findings support the theoretical position that inquiry-based science instruction can have robust benefits across the curriculum. This study contributes to the dialogue on effective instructional methods to achieve science, mathematics and reading literacy for all. Overall, this study provides cautious support for the idea that student achievement can be promoted by supporting and encouraging teachers to implement inquiry-based science instruction.

  3. The Reciprocal Relations between Self-Concept, Motivation and Achievement: Juxtaposing Academic Self-Concept and Achievement Goal Orientations for Mathematics Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…

  4. Achieving the health Millennium Development Goals for South Africa: challenges and priorities.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Mickey; Lawn, Joy E; Sanders, David; Barron, Peter; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Flisher, Alan J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tollman, Stephen M; Churchyard, Gavin J; Coovadia, Hoosen

    2009-09-19

    15 years after liberation from apartheid, South Africans are facing new challenges for which the highest calibre of leadership, vision, and commitment is needed. The effect of the unprecedented HIV/AIDS epidemic has been immense. Substantial increases in mortality and morbidity are threatening to overwhelm the health system and undermine the potential of South Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However The Lancet's Series on South Africa has identified several examples of leadership and innovation that point towards a different future scenario. We discuss the type of vision, leadership, and priority actions needed to achieve such a change. We still have time to change the health trajectory of the country, and even meet the MDGs. The South African Government, installed in April, 2009, has the mandate and potential to address the public health emergencies facing the country--will they do so or will another opportunity and many more lives be lost?

  5. Meeting the Technology Portion of the Science and Technology Goal of Quality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg. Bureau of Curriculum Services.

    One of the goals of quality education in Pennsylvania is to help every student acquire knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of science and technology. This publication, which focuses on the technology component of this goal, is an initial effort by a team of scientists and science educators to define technology as it should be presented in…

  6. 77 FR 26292 - Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge; Public Workshop; Issue Paper AGENCY: Food and... Mitigation Strategy Assessments: Social Science Methodologies to Assess Goals Related to Knowledge.'' The... patients' and health care providers' knowledge about the risks of drugs marketed with an approved...

  7. Integrating Turkish Work and Achievement Goals With Schwartz’s Human Values

    PubMed Central

    Tevrüz, Suna; Turgut, Tülay; Çinko, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the integration of indigenous values developed in Turkey to Schwartz’s universal values. Students (N = 593) from six universities in Istanbul responded the value scale, which consists of 10 etic PVQ items (each item representing one of 10 main Schwartz values) and 23 emic WAG items (representing work-achievement goals). PROXSCAL, a multidimensional scaling method, was used to test whether etic and emic sets of values integrate and form the universal circular structure proposed in Schwartz value theory. The motivational continuum of values as a circular structure was similar to pan-cultural results, but adding another value type to the openness to change pole. While some of the items in this region represent autonomy of thought, remaining items diverge. The principle of conflicting values on opposite poles was not supported in relation to openness to change-conservation dimension. These two poles had similar priorities, contrasting with pan-cultural results, and demonstrating a culture-specific aspect of responding to motivational goals. Insights gained by emic studies will be functional in enriching understanding values, and contributing to the comprehensiveness and universality of Schwartz value theory. PMID:27247656

  8. On the Need for Rethinking Current Practice that Highlights Goal Achievement Risk in an Enterprise Context.

    PubMed

    Aven, Eyvind; Aven, Terje

    2015-09-01

    This article addresses the issue of how performance and risk management can complement each other in order to enhance the management of an enterprise. Often, we see that risk management focuses on goal achievements and not the enterprise risk related to its activities in the value chain. The statement "no goal, no risk" is a common misconception. The main aim of the article is to present a normative model for describing the links between performance and risk, and to use this model to give recommendations on how to best structure and plan the management of an enterprise in situations involving risk and uncertainties. The model, which has several novel features, is based on the interaction between different types of risk management (enterprise risk management, task risk management, and personal risk management) and a structure where the enterprise risk management overrules both the task and personal risk management. To illustrate the model we use the metaphor of a ship, where the ship is loaded with cash-generating activities and has a direction over time determined by the overall strategic objectives. Compared to the current enterprise risk management practice, the model and related analysis are founded on a new perspective on risk, highlighting knowledge and uncertainties beyond probabilities. PMID:25930689

  9. Enteral nutrition administration in a surgical intensive care unit: Achieving goals with better strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sara; Madisi, Nagendra Y; Bassily-Marcus, Adel; Manasia, Anthony; Oropello, John; Kohli-Seth, Roopa

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of an enteral feeding protocol on administration of nutrition to surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients initiated on enteral nutrition (EN) support during their stay in a 14 bed SICU. Data collected over a seven-day period included date of tube feed initiation, rate initiated, subsequent hourly rates, volume provided daily, and the nature and length of interruptions. The six months prior to implementation of the feeding protocol (pre-intervention) and six months after implementation (post-intervention) were compared. One hundred and four patients met criteria for inclusion; 53 were pre-intervention and 51 post-intervention. RESULTS: Of the 624 patients who received nutrition support during the review period, 104 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Of the 104 patients who met criteria outlined for inclusion, 64 reached the calculated goal rate (pre = 28 and post = 36). The median time to achieve the goal rate was significantly shorter in the post-intervention phase (3 d vs 6 d; P = 0.01). The time to achieve the total recommended daily volume showed a non-significant decline in the post-intervention phase (P = 0.24) and the overall volume administered daily was higher in the post-intervention phase (61.6% vs 53.5%; P = 0.07). While the overall interruptions data did not reach statistical significance, undocumented interruptions (interruptions for unknown reasons) were lower in the post-intervention phase (pre = 23/124, post = 9/96; P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: A protocol delineating the initiation and advancement of EN support coupled with ongoing education can improve administration of nutrition to SICU patients. PMID:27652209

  10. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P. Craig; Buyon, Lucas E.; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the “big three” diseases—namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria—has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda

  11. Enteral nutrition administration in a surgical intensive care unit: Achieving goals with better strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sara; Madisi, Nagendra Y; Bassily-Marcus, Adel; Manasia, Anthony; Oropello, John; Kohli-Seth, Roopa

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of an enteral feeding protocol on administration of nutrition to surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients initiated on enteral nutrition (EN) support during their stay in a 14 bed SICU. Data collected over a seven-day period included date of tube feed initiation, rate initiated, subsequent hourly rates, volume provided daily, and the nature and length of interruptions. The six months prior to implementation of the feeding protocol (pre-intervention) and six months after implementation (post-intervention) were compared. One hundred and four patients met criteria for inclusion; 53 were pre-intervention and 51 post-intervention. RESULTS: Of the 624 patients who received nutrition support during the review period, 104 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Of the 104 patients who met criteria outlined for inclusion, 64 reached the calculated goal rate (pre = 28 and post = 36). The median time to achieve the goal rate was significantly shorter in the post-intervention phase (3 d vs 6 d; P = 0.01). The time to achieve the total recommended daily volume showed a non-significant decline in the post-intervention phase (P = 0.24) and the overall volume administered daily was higher in the post-intervention phase (61.6% vs 53.5%; P = 0.07). While the overall interruptions data did not reach statistical significance, undocumented interruptions (interruptions for unknown reasons) were lower in the post-intervention phase (pre = 23/124, post = 9/96; P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: A protocol delineating the initiation and advancement of EN support coupled with ongoing education can improve administration of nutrition to SICU patients.

  12. The Contributions of Onchocerciasis Control and Elimination Programs toward the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Caitlin; Callahan, Kelly; Katabarwa, Moses; Richards, Frank; Hopkins, Donald; Withers, P Craig; Buyon, Lucas E; McFarland, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    In 2000, 189 member states of the United Nations (UN) developed a plan for peace and development, which resulted in eight actionable goals known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Since their inception, the MDGs have been considered the international standard for measuring development progress and have provided a blueprint for global health policy and programming. However, emphasis upon the achievement of priority benchmarks around the "big three" diseases--namely HIV, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria--has influenced global health entities to disproportionately allocate resources. Meanwhile, several tropical diseases that almost exclusively impact the poorest of the poor continue to be neglected, despite the existence of cost-effective and feasible methods of control or elimination. One such Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD), onchocerciasis, more commonly known as river blindness, is a debilitating and stigmatizing disease primarily affecting individuals living in remote and impoverished areas. Onchocerciasis control is considered to be one of the most successful and cost-effective public health campaigns ever launched. In addition to improving the health and well-being of millions of individuals, these programs also lead to improvements in education, agricultural production, and economic development in affected communities. Perhaps most pertinent to the global health community, though, is the demonstrated effectiveness of facilitating community engagement by allowing communities considerable ownership with regard to drug delivery. This paper reviews the contributions that such concentrated efforts to control and eliminate onchocerciasis make to achieving select MDGs. The authors hope to draw the attention of public policymakers and global health funders to the importance of the struggle against onchocerciasis as a model for community-directed interventions to advance health and development, and to advocate for NTDs inclusion in the post 2015 agenda. PMID

  13. Mathematics, Engineering Science Achievement (MESA). Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Growing Science, Technology, Education, and Mathematics (STEM) talent Washington MESA--Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement--helps under-represented community college students excel in school and ultimately earn STEM bachelor's degrees. MESA has two key programs: one for K-12 students, and the other for community and technical college…

  14. Science Education Information Report, General Bibliography Series 25, Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science Education, Columbus, OH.

    This is the fifth in the third series of general bibliographies developed to disseminate information on documents analyzed at the ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science Education. Reported are some 64 citations of documents related to student achievement in science and mathematics education. The documents included represent research reports,…

  15. Strategies for Science Student Achievement & Productive School Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing literature pertaining to student achievement and school productivity. This session will present school and classroom strategies used in high school science classes at Robert E. Lee High School (5A) in Tyler, Texas. This year, 84% of the students at Lee passed the science TAKS test. Lee is also ranked in the top 1500 high…

  16. Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Susan Preston

    1999-01-01

    Compared the impact of robotics (computer-powered manipulative) to a battery-powered manipulative (novelty control) and traditionally taught science class on science achievement and problem solving of fourth through sixth graders. Found that the robotics group had higher scores on programming logic-problem solving than did the novelty control…

  17. The Effect of Achievement Goals on Moral Attitudes in Young Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo; Silva, Manuel J Coelho e; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Cumming, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the hypothesis that achievement goal orientations will predict sportpersonship attitudes among young athletes, namely that task orientation will predict socially positive attitudes and ego orientation will predict socially negative attitudes. For hundred and eighty two athletes, aged 13 to 16 years completed the Portuguese versions of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQp) and of the Sports Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQp). Bivariate correlations were used to examine the relationships between TEOSQp and SAQp. Afterwards, relationships between ego orientation and score agreement in cheating and gamesmanship as well as task orientation and score agreement in convention and commitment were examined through EQS (version 5.7). For the estimation of the model, the maximum likelihood method was used. A matrix correlation between the variables (task orientation, ego orientation, cheating, gamesmanship, convention and commitment) showed positive correlations between task orientation and convention (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and commitment (r = 0. 40, p < 0.01). Ego orientation appeared to be positively correlated with cheating (r = 0.30, p < 0.01) and gamesmanship (r = 0.33, p < 0.01), and negatively with convention (r = -0.16, p < 0.01).The fit of the model was evaluated using the CFI (0.97) and SRMR (0.04). The hypothesized model was confirmed. Task and ego orientations produced a significant effect on prosocial attitudes and on antisocial attitudes, respectively. Task-oriented goals in youth sport programs can represent a relevant framework for promoting prosocial attitudes and consequentely increment the effectiveness of educational interventions. Key points Sport seems to be an important component of daily physical activity in children and adolescents and its importance is often viewed as positive. Literature suggests that a high task orientation has a positive link with moral variables and a high ego orientation is

  18. [Regulatory science forum--its background and goal].

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, M

    1993-01-01

    Regulatory science is, broadly speaking, the effort to insure that the products of our advanced technological civilization are developed in harmony with human needs. More specifically, regulatory science can be described as the science of evaluating the safety, efficacy and quality of these products. An unbiased assessment of these aspects is necessary for proper regulation of food, drugs, the environment, agricultural chemicals as well as the countless new materials available to the public every year. Evaluation does not interfere with product development; indeed, it often hastens the appearance of beneficial products in the public sector. Evaluation criteria should be established through consensus between industry, academia, and government and only after a thorough scientific discussion grounded in the basic principle of protecting the welfare of society's citizens. Even more important than broad-ranging knowledge is the need to develop new evaluation strategies and methodologies. Numerous problems confronting the world today can surely benefit from the evaluative techniques of regulatory science. Since research in the academic sphere often fails to address many of these issues, I want to reiterate the need for our National Institute to play a more prominent role in coordinating regulatory policy and pursuing these issues based on my firm belief that such activity is indispensable for human survival.

  19. The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph: Instrument, goals, and science results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Heap, S. R.; Beaver, E. A.; Boggess, A.; Carpenter, K. G.; Ebbets, D. C.; Hutchings, J. B.; Jura, M.; Leckrone, D. S.; Linsky, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS), currently in Earth orbit on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), operates in the wavelength range 1150-3200 A with spectral resolutions (lambda/delta lambda) of approximately 2 x 10(exp 3), 2 x 10(exp 4), and 1 x 10(exp 3). The instrument and its development from inception, its current status, the approach to operations, representative results in the major areas of the scientific goals, and prospects for the future are described.

  20. The development of self-perceptions of ability and achievement goals and their relations in physical education.

    PubMed

    Xiang, P; Lee, A

    1998-09-01

    This study examined the development of self-perceptions of ability and achievement goals and their relationships in physical education. Three hundred and eight students in 4th, 8th, and 11th grades completed questionnaires assessing their goal orientations, conceptions of ability, and perceived competence in physical education. Analyses assessing grade-related changes in conceptions of ability and achievement goals showed that as the students progressed from grades 4 through 11, they were more likely to: (a) interpret ability as a stable capacity that may limit or increase the effect of effort on performance and (b) become ego-oriented. Analyses assessing relationships between variables of interest across grade level revealed that achievement goals were related to different conceptions of ability, students' self-ratings were significantly positively correlated to their teachers' ratings of their competence, and no consistent relationships emerged between achievement goals and perceived competence.

  1. An International Comparison Study of Pharmacy Students’ Achievement Goals and their Relationship to Assessment Type and Scores

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Claire; Coulman, Sion A.; John, Dai N.; Tordoff, June; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify pharmacy students’ preferred achievement goals in a multi-national undergraduate population, to investigate achievement goal preferences across comparable degree programs, and to identify relationships between achievement goals, academic performance, and assessment type. Methods: The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to second year students in 4 universities in Australia, New Zealand, England, and Wales. Academic performance was measured using total scores, multiple-choice questions, and written answers (short essay). Results: Four hundred eighty-six second year students participated. Students showed an overall preference for the mastery-approach goal orientation across all sites. The predicted relationships between goal orientation and multiple-choice questions, and written answers scores, were significant. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind to examine pharmacy students’ achievement goals at a multi-national level and to differentiate between assessment type and measures of achievement motivation. Students adopting a mastery-approach goal are more likely to gain high scores in assessments that measure understanding and depth of knowledge. PMID:25995510

  2. Quantitative analyses and modelling to support achievement of the 2020 goals for nine neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, T Déirdre; Adams, Emily R; Anderson, Roy M; Atkins, Katherine; Bartsch, Sarah; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Behrend, Matthew; Blok, David J; Chapman, Lloyd A C; Coffeng, Luc; Courtenay, Orin; Crump, Ron E; de Vlas, Sake J; Dobson, Andy; Dyson, Louise; Farkas, Hajnal; Galvani, Alison P; Gambhir, Manoj; Gurarie, David; Irvine, Michael A; Jervis, Sarah; Keeling, Matt J; Kelly-Hope, Louise; King, Charles; Lee, Bruce Y; Le Rutte, Epke A; Lietman, Thomas M; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial; Medley, Graham F; Michael, Edwin; Pandey, Abhishek; Peterson, Jennifer K; Pinsent, Amy; Porco, Travis C; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Reimer, Lisa; Rock, Kat S; Singh, Brajendra K; Stolk, Wilma; Swaminathan, Subramanian; Torr, Steve J; Townsend, Jeffrey; Truscott, James; Walker, Martin; Zoueva, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis and mathematical models are useful tools in informing strategies to control or eliminate disease. Currently, there is an urgent need to develop these tools to inform policy to achieve the 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). In this paper we give an overview of a collection of novel model-based analyses which aim to address key questions on the dynamics of transmission and control of nine NTDs: Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, soil-transmitted helminths, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and trachoma. Several common themes resonate throughout these analyses, including: the importance of epidemiological setting on the success of interventions; targeting groups who are at highest risk of infection or re-infection; and reaching populations who are not accessing interventions and may act as a reservoir for infection,. The results also highlight the challenge of maintaining elimination 'as a public health problem' when true elimination is not reached. The models elucidate the factors that may be contributing most to persistence of disease and discuss the requirements for eventually achieving true elimination, if that is possible. Overall this collection presents new analyses to inform current control initiatives. These papers form a base from which further development of the models and more rigorous validation against a variety of datasets can help to give more detailed advice. At the moment, the models' predictions are being considered as the world prepares for a final push towards control or elimination of neglected tropical diseases by 2020. PMID:26652272

  3. Carbon nanotubes as vectors for gene therapy: past achievements, present challenges and future goals.

    PubMed

    Bates, Katie; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2013-12-01

    Promising therapeutic and prophylactic effects have been achieved following advances in the gene therapy research arena, giving birth to the new generation of disease-modifying therapeutics. The greatest challenge that gene therapy vectors still face is the ability to deliver sufficient genetic payloads in order to enable efficient gene transfer into target cells. A wide variety of viral and non-viral gene therapy vectors have been developed and explored over the past 10years, including carbon nanotubes. In this review we will address the application of carbon nanotubes as non-viral vectors in gene therapy with the aim to give a perspective on the past achievements, present challenges and future goals. A series of important topics concerning carbon nanotubes as gene therapy vectors will be addressed, including the benefits that carbon nanotubes offer over other non-viral delivery systems. Furthermore, a perspective is given on what the ideal genetic cargo to deliver using carbon nanotubes is and finally the geno-pharmacological impact of carbon nanotube-mediated gene therapy is discussed.

  4. Gross domestic product, science interest, and science achievement: a person × nation interaction.

    PubMed

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Cheung, Amanda K; Briley, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    Maximizing science achievement is a critical target of educational policy and has important implications for national and international economic and technological competitiveness. Previous research has identified both science interest and socioeconomic status (SES) as robust predictors of science achievement, but little research has examined their joint effects. In a data set drawn from approximately 400,000 high school students from 57 countries, we documented large Science Interest × SES and Science Interest × Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) interactions in the prediction of science achievement. Student interest in science is a substantially stronger predictor of science achievement in higher socioeconomic contexts and in higher-GDP nations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that in higher-opportunity contexts, motivational factors play larger roles in learning and achievement. They add to the growing body of evidence indicating that substantial cross-national differences in psychological effect sizes are not simply a logical possibility but, in many cases, an empirical reality.

  5. The Influence of Mind Mapping on Eighth Graders' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abi-El-Mona, Issam; Adb-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of using mind maps as a learning tool on eighth graders' science achievement, whether such influence was mediated by students' prior scholastic achievement, and the relationship between students' mind maps and their conceptual understandings. Sixty-two students enrolled in four intact sections of a grade 8 science…

  6. Teacher and Child Predictors of Achieving IEP Goals of Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is encouraging that children with autism show a strong response to early intervention, yet more research is needed for understanding the variability in responsiveness to specialized programs. Treatment predictor variables from 47 teachers and children who were randomized to receive the COMPASS intervention (Ruble et al. in The collaborative model for promoting competence and success for students with ASD. Springer, New York, 2012a) were analyzed. Predictors evaluated against child IEP goal attainment included child, teacher, intervention practice, and implementation practice variables based on an implementation science framework (Dunst and Trivette in J Soc Sci 8:143–148, 2012). Findings revealed one child (engagement), one teacher (exhaustion), two intervention quality (IEP quality for targeted and not targeted elements), and no implementation quality variables accounted for variance in child outcomes when analyzed separately. When the four significant variables were compared against each other in a single regression analysis, IEP quality accounted for one quarter of the variance in child outcomes. PMID:23838728

  7. Difficulties Experienced in Setting and Achieving Goals by Participants of a Falls Prevention Programme: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the ability of participants of a falls prevention programme to set and achieve goals. Methods: The study used a prospective longitudinal design and a mixed-methods approach to data collection. Study participants were (1) 220 older adults participating in a 15-week combined exercise and education falls prevention programme and (2) 9 practitioners (3 home-care nurses, 5 community workers, and an exercise physiologist) involved in delivering the programme. Data from goal-setting forms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of appropriate goals set and achieved. Data were analyzed according to programme setting (home- or group-based) and whether or not participants were classified as being from a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) background in the Australian context. Semi-structured interviews with programme practitioners were thematically analyzed. Results: A total of 144 respondents (n=75 CALD group, n=41 non-CALD group, n=6 CALD home, n=22 non-CALD home) set 178 goals. Only 101 (57%) goals could be evaluated according to achievement, because participants set goals that focused on health state instead of behaviour, set goals not relevant to falls prevention, used inappropriate constructs to measure goal achievement, and either did not review their goals or dropped out of the programme before goal review. Of these 101 goals, 64 were achieved. Practitioners described their own difficulties in understanding the process of setting health behaviour goals along with communication, cultural, and logistic difficulties. Conclusions: Both CALD and non-CALD participants and those participating in both group- and home-based programmes experienced difficulty in setting and achieving goals to facilitate behaviour change for falls prevention. Data suggest that home-based participants had more difficulty in setting goals than their group-based counterparts and, to a lesser extent, that CALD participants

  8. Empirically establishing blood glucose targets to achieve HbA1c goals.

    PubMed

    Wei, Nancy; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the average fasting, postprandial, and bedtime self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) concentrations associated with specified HbA1c levels using data from the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The ADAG study was a multicenter observational study that used continuous glucose monitoring and SMBG testing to determine the relationship between mean average glucose and HbA1c. We used the SMBG data from 470 of the ADAG study participants (237 with type 1 diabetes and 147 with type 2 diabetes) to determine the average fasting, premeal, 90-min postmeal, and bedtime blood glucose (BG) for predefined target HbA1c groups between 5.5 and 8.5% (37-69 mmol/mol). t Tests were used to compare mean BG values between type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups. RESULTS The average fasting BG needed to achieve predefined HbA1c target levels of 5.5-6.49% (37-47 mmol/mol), 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol), 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol), 7.5-7.99% (58-64 mmol/mol), and 8.0-8.5% (64-69 mmol/mol) were 122 mg/dL with 95% CI 117-127, 142 mg/dL (135-150), 152 mg/dL (143-162), 167 mg/dL (157-177), and 178 mg/dL (164-192), respectively. Postmeal BG to achieve the HbA1c level of 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol) and 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol) were 139 mg/dL (134-144) and 152 mg/dL (147-157), respectively. Bedtime BG was 153 mg/dL (145-161) and 177 mg/dL (166-188), respectively. CONCLUSIONS We have determined the average BG at premeal, postmeal, and bedtime to achieve a variety of HbA1c targets. These results, based on empirical data, will help patients and providers set realistic day-to-day SMBG targets to achieve individualized HbA1c goals.

  9. The influence of classroom climate on science process and content achievement of community college students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukoos, Gerry D.; Penick, John E.

    The effect of two specific classroom climates on learning of science process skills and content achievement in college level science classes was studied. Two classroom climates were established and designated as discovery classroom climate (DCC) and nondiscovery classroom climate (NDCC). The term discovery denotes the degree of freedom the teacher established in classroom interactions, both verbal and nonverbal. Verbal interactions were monitored with the Science Laboratory Interaction Categories. These data indicate that students in the two classroom climates achieved equally as well on learning of biological content of the course, but students in the discovery classroom climate achieved significantly higher scores in science process skills as measured by the Welch Science Process Inventory. This study, conducted in a large, suburban community college, offers some useful information to the person who has educational goals beyond, but including, the learning of science information and concepts, and possibly science process. Students in the less directive discovery climate learned as much content as those in a more directive comparison class-they lost nothing of what is traditionally sought in a college science class. In addition, the discovery climate facilitated the development of science process skills which were significantly better than the comparison class. A five-week intensive class using the discovery climate was found to provide as much content acquisition as the ten-week nondiscovery climate.

  10. Parent Involvement Practices of High-Achieving Elementary Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Samara Susan

    This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.

  11. Disengaging from Unattainable Career Goals and Reengaging in More Achievable Ones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Participants were 181 university students who completed measures of career development (self-efficacy, perceived barriers, distress, planning, and exploration) and goal adjustment capacity (disengagement and reengagement). We expected (a) that when contemplating unachievable goals, those with a higher capacity to adjust their goals (i.e., to…

  12. Task Goal Attributes, n Achievement, and Supervisory Performance. Technical Report No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steers, Richard M.

    A review of the research literature on goal-setting in organizational settings reveals that goal-setting on an individual job results in better task performance. However, the processes behind their effectiveness is unclear. For example, how are various job attributes of task goals related to performance, and how do various individual differences…

  13. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self Handicapping as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Intrinsic Achievement Motivation and Negative Automatic Thoughts in Adolescence Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapikiran, Sahin

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…

  14. Motivation and Performance within a Collaborative Computer-Based Modeling Task: Relations between Students' Achievement Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, Cognitive Processing, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sins, Patrick H. M.; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In order to test the model, group measures of…

  15. A Path Analysis of Basic Need Support, Self-Efficacy, Achievement Goals, Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement Level among Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Age; Danielsen, Anne G.; Samdal, Oddrun

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' support of basic psychological needs, self-efficacy, achievement goals, life satisfaction and academic achievement level was measured in a sample of 240 secondary school students (8th and 10th grades). Correlation analysis showed significant positive relations between all of the variables, except for the relation between need support of…

  16. Student Veteran perceptions of facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals.

    PubMed

    Norman, Sonya B; Rosen, Jay; Himmerich, Sara; Myers, Ursula S; Davis, Brittany; Browne, Kendall C; Piland, Neill

    2015-01-01

    According to recent estimates, over 1 million Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans are utilizing the post-9/11 GI Bill to pursue higher education. Data collected by the Department of Defense suggests that greater than 17% of returning Veterans may suffer from mental and physical health disorders, which can negatively affect school performance. The current study explored student Veterans' perceived facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals. Thirty-one student Veterans completed self-report measures and interviews. Results suggested that Veterans that were reporting problems or symptoms in one mental or physical health domain were likely to be reporting symptoms or problems in others as well. The interview data were coded, and three overarching themes related to barriers and facilitators emerged: person features (e.g., discipline and determination, symptoms and stressors), institutional structure (i.e., what schools and the Department of Veterans Affairs do that was perceived to help or hinder student Veteran success), and policy concerns (i.e., how the structure of the GI Bill affects student Veteran school experience). Results from this research indicate the need for larger studies and program development efforts aimed at enhancing academic outcomes for Veterans.

  17. Organizational and media stress among professional football players: testing an achievement goal theory model.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, E; Halvari, H; Roberts, G C

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate media and coach-athlete stress experienced by professional football players and their relationship to motivational variables by testing an achievement goal theory (AGT) stress model. In order to do so, we developed scales specifically designed to assess media and coach-athlete stress. Eighty-two elite football players (M(age) =25.17 years, SD=5.19) completed a series of questionnaires. Correlations and bootstrapping were used as primary statistical analyses, supplemented by LISREL, to test the hypotheses. Results revealed that a mastery climate was directly and negatively associated with coach-athlete stress, while a performance climate was directly and positively associated with coach-athlete stress. In addition, an indirect positive path between the performance climate and media stress was revealed through ego orientation. These findings support some of the key postulates of AGT; a mastery climate reduces the perception of stress among athletes, and the converse is true for a performance climate. Coaches of elite footballers are advised to try to reduce the emphasis on performance criteria because of its stress-reducing effects.

  18. Gender, level of participation, and type of sport: differences in achievement goal orientation and attributional style.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Cerin, Ester

    2009-07-01

    Findings regarding gender differences in achievement goal orientations and attributional style have been somewhat inconsistent. One possible explanation for varied findings is that potentially confounding variables such as level of participation and type of sport have not been considered. Athletes (108 males and 164 females) from team and individual sports, competing at recreational and competitive levels, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Sport Attributional Style Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Athletes competing in individual sports had a higher ego orientation than those from team sports, and females scored higher in task orientation than males. Individual sport athletes made more internal, stable, and global, and less externally controllable attributions for positive events, and more internal attributions for negative events than team sport athletes. Competitive female athletes made less global attributions for positive events than did recreational female athletes. This difference was not observed in male athletes. Competitive individual, but not team, athletes made less global attributions than recreational individual athletes. The significant interactions regarding globality suggest that the tradition in sport psychology attribution research to focus solely on internality, stability, and controllability may be inadequate. From an applied perspective, sport psychologists and coaches may find it beneficial to target individual sport athletes and males for interventions designed to enhance task orientation. Similarly, team sport athletes may be appropriate as a focus for attribution retraining programs.

  19. Zambian Pre-Service Chemistry Teachers' Views on Chemistry Education Goals and Challenges for Achieving Them in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Asiana; Mumba, Frackson; Chabalengula, Vivien M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Zambian preservice chemistry teachers' views on the goals of chemistry education, the importance of the goals, and challenges for achieving them in schools. The study sample was comprised of 59 pre-service chemistry teachers at the University of Zambia. Data were collected using a modified Likert-scale questionnaire that…

  20. The Role of Personal Best (PB) and Dichotomous Achievement Goals in Students' Academic Motivation and Engagement: A Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the role of prior personal best goals in predicting subsequent academic motivation and engagement. A total of 1160 high school students participated in a longitudinal survey study exploring the extent to which personal best and mastery and performance (dichotomous) achievement goals predict students' academic motivation and…

  1. Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals during Task Engagement: Their Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…

  2. Quality Science Teacher Professional Development and Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2007-12-01

    Studies show that socio-economic background and parental education accounts for 50-60 percent of a child's achievement in school. School, and other influences, account for the remaining 40-50 percent. In contrast to most other professions, schools require no real apprenticeship training of science teachers. Overall, only 38 percent of United States teachers have had any on-the-job training in their first teaching position, and in some cases this consisted of a few meetings over the course of a year between the beginning teacher and the assigned mentor or master teacher. Since individual teachers determine the bulk of a student's school experiences, interventions focused on teachers have the greatest likelihood of affecting students. To address this deficiency, partnerships between scientists and K-12 teachers are increasingly recognized as an excellent method for improving teacher preparedness and the quality of science education. Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers' (founded in 1990) basic premise is simple: teachers cannot effectively teach science if they have no firsthand experience doing science, hence the Program's motto, "Practice what you teach." Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers provides strong evidence that a teacher research program is a very effective form of professional development for secondary school science teachers and has a direct correlation to increased student achievement in science. The author will present the methodology of the program's evaluation citing statistically significant data. The author will also show the economic benefits of teacher participation in this form of professional development.

  3. Effects of everyday romantic goal pursuit on women's attitudes toward math and science.

    PubMed

    Park, Lora E; Young, Ariana F; Troisi, Jordan D; Pinkus, Rebecca T

    2011-09-01

    The present research examined the impact of everyday romantic goal strivings on women's attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). It was hypothesized that women may distance themselves from STEM when the goal to be romantically desirable is activated because pursuing intelligence goals in masculine domains (i.e., STEM) conflicts with pursuing romantic goals associated with traditional romantic scripts and gender norms. Consistent with hypotheses, women, but not men, who viewed images (Study 1) or overheard conversations (Studies 2a-2b) related to romantic goals reported less positive attitudes toward STEM and less preference for majoring in math/science compared to other disciplines. On days when women pursued romantic goals, the more romantic activities they engaged in and the more desirable they felt, but the fewer math activities they engaged in. Furthermore, women's previous day romantic goal strivings predicted feeling more desirable but being less invested in math on the following day (Study 3).

  4. Learning environment, motivation, and achievement in high school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbitt Nolen, Susan

    2003-04-01

    In a study of the relationship between high school students' perceptions of their science learning environments and their motivation, learning strategies, and achievement, 377 students in 22 introductory science classrooms completed surveys in the fall and spring of their ninth-grade year. Hierarchical linear regression was used to model the effects of variables at both the classroom and individual level simultaneously. High intraclass agreement (indicated by high parameter reliability) on all classroom environment measures indicated that students shared perceptions of the classroom learning environment. Controlling for other factors, shared perceptions that only the most able could succeed in science classrooms and that instruction was fast-paced and focused on correct answers negatively predicted science achievement, as measured on a districtwide curriculum-linked test. Shared perceptions that classrooms focused on understanding and independent thinking positively predicted students' self-reported satisfaction with learning. Implications of these results for both teaching and research into classroom environments are discussed.

  5. A Longitudinal Analysis of Elementary School Students' Achievement Goals in Literacy Activities.

    PubMed

    Meece, Judith L.; Miller, Samuel D.

    2001-10-01

    The authors examined the temporal stability of elementary school students' (N = 432) motivation goals (task-mastery, performance, and work-avoidant) for literacy activities in the classroom. Task-specific assessments of students' goals were collected in the fall and spring of Grades 3, 4, and 5. Stability coefficients indicated a reasonable degree of consistency in students' goal responses over time, even though goals were initially assessed in relation to a specific learning assignment. However, there were also significant mean-level changes in students' goals within the school year and significant linear declines in task-mastery and performance goals over time. Changes were consistent across gender groups and across ability levels. Additionally, changes in task-mastery goal ratings explained variations in students' reported use of active learning strategies in reading and writing activities. The important implications of this study for future research are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11681828

  6. When performance-approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: a social value approach.

    PubMed

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Research on achievement goal promotion at University has shown that performance-approach goals are perceived as a means to succeed at University (high social utility) but are not appreciated (low social desirability). We argue that such a paradox could explain why research has detected that performance-approach goals consistently predict academic grades. First-year psychology students answered a performance-approach goal scale with standard, social desirability and social utility instructions. Participants' grades were recorded at the end of the semester. Results showed that the relationship between performance-approach goals and grades was inhibited by the increase of these goals' social desirability and facilitated by the increase of their social utility, revealing that the predictive validity of performance-approach goals depends on social value.

  7. Astro-H: science goals, development status, and European contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guainazzi, M.; Astro-H Mission

    2014-07-01

    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth X-ray mission initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H allows a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (5-80 keV) provided by multilayer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3-12 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry a X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope (0.4-12 keV) and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector (40-600 keV). ASTRO-H is expected to provide breakthrough results in the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution, the behaviour of matter in the gravitational strong field regime, the physical conditions in sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters at different redshifts. I will also review the European contribution to Astro-H, both in terms of hardware development as well as in terms of prospective support for the European community.

  8. Astro-H: science goals, development status, and European contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Fernandez, C.

    2015-07-01

    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth X-ray mission initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H allows a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (5-80 keV) provided by multilayer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3-12 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry a X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope (0.4-12 keV) and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector (40-600 keV). ASTRO-H is expected to provide breakthrough results in the studies of the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution, the behaviour of matter in the strong gravitational field regime, providing time-resolved spectra from material approaching the event horizon of a black hole, the physical conditions in sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and the distribution of dark matter in galaxy clusters at different redshifts. ASTRO-H will be launched into low-Earth orbit from the Tanegashima Space Center, Japan, by a JAXA H-IIA rocket.

  9. Meeting IYA Goals for Diverse Planetarium and Science Museum Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, M. M.; Carney, K. E.

    2008-11-01

    The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) in 2009 provides the Adler Planetarium in Chicago, Illinois with a chance to bring astronomy into the city of Chicago and beyond. The Adler serves diverse audiences in the Chicagoland area and elsewhere. Each audience has unique needs to be taken into account when designing for IYA. The Adler has created a suite of programs for IYA that addresses a number of topical strands, tailored for the many audiences that Adler serves. Adler has found synergy between some existing programs designed for these audiences and IYA thematic strands. One advantage of this is that it increases the likelihood of program sustainability. The authors will outline some of Adler's program plans to date from person-to-person community outreach programs such as Café Scientifique programs, to a citizen science light pollution observation program, to programs within the institution, such as a new temporary exhibit about the roles of telescopes in our understanding of the cosmos. The presenters will focus on the range of programming and how they bring together IYA topics as well as addressing the needs of our identified audiences.

  10. National GDP, Science Interest and Science Achievement: A Person-by-Nation Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Drob, Elliot M. Tucker; Cheung, Amanda K.; Briley, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing science achievement is a critical target of educational policy, with important implications for national and international economic and technological competitiveness. Previous research has identified both science interest and socioeconomic status (SES) as robust predictors of science achievement, but little research has examined their joint effects. In a dataset drawn from approximately 400,000 high school students from 57 countries, we document large interest by SES and interest by per capita gross domestic product (GDP) interactions in the prediction of science achievement. Student interest in science is a substantially stronger predictor of science achievement in higher socioeconomic contexts and in higher GDP nations. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in higher opportunity contexts, motivational factors play larger roles in learning and achievement. They add to the growing body of evidence indicating that substantial cross national differences in psychological effect sizes are not simply a logical possibility, but in many cases, an empirical reality. PMID:25304883

  11. The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS): Description and Science Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Mark; Baum, Stefi Alison; Chandler, Claire J.; Chatterjee, Shami; Murphy, Eric J.; Myers, Steven T.; VLASS Survey Science Group

    2016-01-01

    The VLA Sky Survey (VLASS) will cover 80% of the sky to a target depth of 70muJy in the 2-4GHz S-band of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. With a resolution of 2.5 arcseconds, it will deliver the highest angular resolution of any wide area radio survey. Each area of the survey will be observed in three epochs spaced by 32 months in order to investigate the transient radio source population over an unprecedented combination of depth and area, resulting in a uniquely powerful search for hidden explosions in the Universe. The survey will be carried out in full polarization, allowing the characterization of the magneto-ionic medium in AGN and intervening galaxies over a wide range of redshifts, and the study of Faraday rotating foregrounds such as ionized bubbles in the Milky Way. The high angular resolution will allow us to make unambiguous identifications of nearly 10 million radio sources, comprised of both extragalactic objects and more nearby radio sources in the Milky Way, through matching to wide area optical/IR surveys such as SDSS, PanSTARRS, DES, LSST, EUCLID, WFIRST and WISE. Integral to the VLASS plan is an Education and Public Outreach component that will seek to inform and educate both the scientific community and the general public about radio astronomy through the use of social media, citizen science and educational activities. We will discuss opportunities for community involvement in VLASS, including the development of Enhanced Data Products and Services that will greatly increase the scientific utility of the survey.

  12. The science achievement of various subgroups on alternative assessment formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas; Welch, Wayne

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the science achievement outcomes for different subgroups of students using different assessment formats. A nationally representative sample of approximately 3,500 ninth grade science students from 13 high schools throughout the United States completed a series of science assessments designed to measure their level of achievement on the national science education standards. All of the schools were using a curriculum designed to meet the standards. The assessments included a multiple-choice test, a written open-ended test, a hands-on lab skills test, and a hands-on full investigation. The results show that the student outcomes on the different assessment formats are more highly correlated for higher achieving students than for lower achieving students. Patterns for different cultural groups also vary by assessment format. There were no differences found for sex. The results support the notion that different assessment formats assess different competencies and that the achievement of students from different subgroups varies by assessment format.

  13. Achieving Conservation Science that Bridges the Knowledge–Action Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Carly N; Mascia, Michael B; Schwartz, Mark W; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    There are many barriers to using science to inform conservation policy and practice. Conservation scientists wishing to produce management-relevant science must balance this goal with the imperative of demonstrating novelty and rigor in their science. Decision makers seeking to make evidence-based decisions must balance a desire for knowledge with the need to act despite uncertainty. Generating science that will effectively inform management decisions requires that the production of information (the components of knowledge) be salient (relevant and timely), credible (authoritative, believable, and trusted), and legitimate (developed via a process that considers the values and perspectives of all relevant actors) in the eyes of both researchers and decision makers. We perceive 3 key challenges for those hoping to generate conservation science that achieves all 3 of these information characteristics. First, scientific and management audiences can have contrasting perceptions about the salience of research. Second, the pursuit of scientific credibility can come at the cost of salience and legitimacy in the eyes of decision makers, and, third, different actors can have conflicting views about what constitutes legitimate information. We highlight 4 institutional frameworks that can facilitate science that will inform management: boundary organizations (environmental organizations that span the boundary between science and management), research scientists embedded in resource management agencies, formal links between decision makers and scientists at research-focused institutions, and training programs for conservation professionals. Although these are not the only approaches to generating boundary-spanning science, nor are they mutually exclusive, they provide mechanisms for promoting communication, translation, and mediation across the knowledge–action boundary. We believe that despite the challenges, conservation science should strive to be a boundary science, which

  14. Influence of subject matter discipline and science content knowledge on National Board Certified science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breslyn, Wayne Gene

    The present study investigated differences in the continuing development of National Board Certified Science Teachers' (NBCSTs) conceptions of inquiry across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The central research question of the study was, "How does a NBCST's science discipline (biology, chemistry, earth science, or physics) influence their conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry-based teaching and learning?" A mixed methods approach was used that included an analysis of the National Board portfolio entry, Active Scientific Inquiry, for participants (n=48) achieving certification in the 2007 cohort. The portfolio entry provided detailed documentation of teachers' goals and enactment of an inquiry lesson taught in their classroom. Based on the results from portfolio analysis, participant interviews were conducted with science teachers (n=12) from the 2008 NBCST cohort who represented the science disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The interviews provided a broader range of contexts to explore teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals of inquiry. Other factors studied were disciplinary differences in NBCSTs' views of the nature of science, the relation between their science content knowledge and use of inquiry, and changes in their conceptions of inquiry as result of the NB certification process. Findings, based on a situated cognitive framework, suggested that differences exist between biology, chemistry, and earth science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry. Further, individuals teaching in more than one discipline often held different conceptions of inquiry depending on the discipline in which they were teaching. Implications for the research community include being aware of disciplinary differences in studies on inquiry and exercising caution in generalizing findings across disciplines. In addition, teachers who teach in more than one discipline can highlight the contextual

  15. Monitoring the performance of community forestry to achieve REDD+ goals through geospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, H.; Krishna Gautam, S.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Koju, U. A.; Uddin, K.; Karky, B.

    2014-11-01

    sequestrate more and more carbon in coming years. A linear regress model obtained (AGB = 0.0543*CPA - 62.078 with R2 = 0.76) by plotting the delineated crowns from satellite image and field based biomass values at 1ha grid. The present study was conducted in order to analyse, the performance of community forestry to achieve REDD+ goals by considering a sample of pilot project site in Nepal.

  16. Smoothing out transitions: how pedagogy influences medical students' achievement of self-regulated learning goals.

    PubMed

    White, Casey B

    2007-08-01

    Medical school is an academic and developmental path toward a professional life demanding self-regulation and self-education. Thus, many medical schools include in their goals for medical student education their graduates' ability to self-assess and self-regulate their education upon graduation and throughout their professional lives. This study explores links between medical students' use of self-regulated learning as it relates to motivation, autonomy, and control, and how these influenced their experiences in medical school. Subjects were medical students in two distinct medical school environments, "Problem-based learning" and "Traditional." PBL students described a rough transition into medical school, but once they felt comfortable with the autonomy and control PBL gave them, they embraced the independence and responsibility. They found themselves motivated to learning for learning's sake, and able to channel their motivation into effective transitions from the classrooms into the clerkships. Traditional students had a rougher transition from the classrooms to the clerkships. In the first two years they relied on faculty to direct and control learning, and they channeled their motivation toward achieving the highest grade. In the clerkships, they found faculty expected them to be more independent and self-directed than they felt prepared to be, and they struggled to assume responsibility for their learning. Self-regulated learning can help smooth out the transitions through medical school by preparing first and second year students for expectations in the third and fourth years, which can then maximize learning in the clinical milieu, and prepare medical students for a lifetime of learning.

  17. Malaria elimination in Haiti by the year 2020: an achievable goal?

    PubMed

    Boncy, Paul Jacques; Adrien, Paul; Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Existe, Alexandre; Henry, Patricia Jean; Raccurt, Christian; Brasseur, Philippe; Fenelon, Natael; Dame, John B; Okech, Bernard A; Kaljee, Linda; Baxa, Dwayne; Prieur, Eric; El Badry, Maha A; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Mulligan, Connie J; Carter, Tamar E; Beau de Rochars, V Madsen; Lutz, Chelsea; Parke, Dana M; Zervos, Marcus J

    2015-01-01

    Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, are the last locations in the Caribbean where malaria still persists. Malaria is an important public health concern in Haiti with 17,094 reported cases in 2014. Further, on January 12, 2010, a record earthquake devastated densely populated areas in Haiti including many healthcare and laboratory facilities. Weakened infrastructure provided fertile reservoirs for uncontrolled transmission of infectious pathogens. This situation results in unique challenges for malaria epidemiology and elimination efforts. To help Haiti achieve its malaria elimination goals by year 2020, the Laboratoire National de Santé Publique and Henry Ford Health System, in close collaboration with the Direction d'Épidémiologie, de Laboratoire et de Recherches and the Programme National de Contrôle de la Malaria, hosted a scientific meeting on "Elimination Strategies for Malaria in Haiti" on January 29-30, 2015 at the National Laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The meeting brought together laboratory personnel, researchers, clinicians, academics, public health professionals, and other stakeholders to discuss main stakes and perspectives on malaria elimination. Several themes and recommendations emerged during discussions at this meeting. First, more information and research on malaria transmission in Haiti are needed including information from active surveillance of cases and vectors. Second, many healthcare personnel need additional training and critical resources on how to properly identify malaria cases so as to improve accurate and timely case reporting. Third, it is necessary to continue studies genotyping strains of Plasmodium falciparum in different sites with active transmission to evaluate for drug resistance and impacts on health. Fourth, elimination strategies outlined in this report will continue to incorporate use of primaquine in addition to chloroquine and active surveillance of cases. Elimination of

  18. Malaria elimination in Haiti by the year 2020: an achievable goal?

    PubMed

    Boncy, Paul Jacques; Adrien, Paul; Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Existe, Alexandre; Henry, Patricia Jean; Raccurt, Christian; Brasseur, Philippe; Fenelon, Natael; Dame, John B; Okech, Bernard A; Kaljee, Linda; Baxa, Dwayne; Prieur, Eric; El Badry, Maha A; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Mulligan, Connie J; Carter, Tamar E; Beau de Rochars, V Madsen; Lutz, Chelsea; Parke, Dana M; Zervos, Marcus J

    2015-06-05

    Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, are the last locations in the Caribbean where malaria still persists. Malaria is an important public health concern in Haiti with 17,094 reported cases in 2014. Further, on January 12, 2010, a record earthquake devastated densely populated areas in Haiti including many healthcare and laboratory facilities. Weakened infrastructure provided fertile reservoirs for uncontrolled transmission of infectious pathogens. This situation results in unique challenges for malaria epidemiology and elimination efforts. To help Haiti achieve its malaria elimination goals by year 2020, the Laboratoire National de Santé Publique and Henry Ford Health System, in close collaboration with the Direction d'Épidémiologie, de Laboratoire et de Recherches and the Programme National de Contrôle de la Malaria, hosted a scientific meeting on "Elimination Strategies for Malaria in Haiti" on January 29-30, 2015 at the National Laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The meeting brought together laboratory personnel, researchers, clinicians, academics, public health professionals, and other stakeholders to discuss main stakes and perspectives on malaria elimination. Several themes and recommendations emerged during discussions at this meeting. First, more information and research on malaria transmission in Haiti are needed including information from active surveillance of cases and vectors. Second, many healthcare personnel need additional training and critical resources on how to properly identify malaria cases so as to improve accurate and timely case reporting. Third, it is necessary to continue studies genotyping strains of Plasmodium falciparum in different sites with active transmission to evaluate for drug resistance and impacts on health. Fourth, elimination strategies outlined in this report will continue to incorporate use of primaquine in addition to chloroquine and active surveillance of cases. Elimination of

  19. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities.

  20. The development of future thinking: young children's ability to construct event sequences to achieve future goals.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities. PMID:24786765

  1. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task.

    PubMed

    van de Pol P, K C; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals' achievement motivation. PMID:23204359

  2. Effect of implicit theories on judgement of cheating acceptability in physical education: the mediating role of achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Corrion, Karine; D'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Chalabaev, Aïna; Schiano-Lomoriello, Sandrine; Roussel, Peggy; Cury, François

    2010-06-01

    We tested a hypothetical model that examined both the effects of implicit theories of ability on the judgement of cheating acceptability in a physical education context and the mediating role of the achievement goals defined in the social-cognitive model of achievement motivation. Data were collected from 477 middle-school students, who completed measures of implicit theories of ability, achievement goals, and judgement of cheating acceptability in team sports within a cross-sectional design. The results indicated that performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals mediated the relationships between entity theory and the judgement of cheating acceptability, and mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance goals mediated the relationships between incremental theory and the judgement of cheating acceptability. Further research is needed to determine whether these results would be replicated with other moral variables and other contexts.

  3. Task- and Self-Related Pathways to Deep Learning: The Mediating Role of Achievement Goals, Classroom Attentiveness, and Group Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Shun; Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan

    2008-01-01

    Background: The expectancy-value and achievement goal theories are arguably the two most dominant theories of achievement motivation in the contemporary literature. However, very few studies have examined how the constructs derived from both theories are related to deep learning. Moreover, although there is evidence demonstrating the links between…

  4. Perceived Teacher Factors in Relation to Students' Achievement-Related Outcomes in Science Classrooms in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakiz, Gönül

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the roles that perceived teacher affective support (PTAS), perceived teacher mastery goal orientation (PTMGO), academic emotions, self-efficacy and behavioural engagement play on students' science achievement in elementary school science classrooms. The potential relations of different levels of…

  5. Measuring more than we know? An examination of the motivational and situational influences in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydel, Angela Michelle

    The purpose of this dissertation was to advance theoretical understanding about fit between the personal resources of individuals and the characteristics of science achievement tasks. Testing continues to be pervasive in schools, yet we know little about how students perceive tests and what they think and feel while they are actually working on test items. This study focused on both the personal (cognitive and motivational) and situational factors that may contribute to individual differences in achievement-related outcomes. 387 eighth grade students first completed a survey including measures of science achievement goals, capability beliefs, efficacy related to multiple-choice items and performance assessments, validity beliefs about multiple-choice items and performance assessments, and other perceptions of these item formats. Students then completed science achievement tests including multiple-choice items and two performance assessments. A sample of students was asked to verbalize both thoughts and feelings as they worked through the test items. These think-alouds were transcribed and coded for evidence of cognitive, metacognitive and motivational engagement. Following each test, all students completed measures of effort, mood, energy level and strategy use during testing. Students reported that performance assessments were more challenging, authentic, interesting and valid than multiple-choice tests. They also believed that comparisons between students were easier using multiple-choice items. Overall, students tried harder, felt better, had higher levels of energy and used more strategies while working on performance assessments. Findings suggested that performance assessments might be more congruent with a mastery achievement goal orientation, while multiple-choice tests might be more congruent with a performance achievement goal orientation. A variable-centered analytic approach including regression analyses provided information about how students, on

  6. Enabling the Future: Linking Science and Technology to Societal Goals. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government, New York, NY.

    This report seeks ways to improve the knowledge, understanding, and information available to the federal government on the long-term nature of the science and technology (S&T) enterprise as it relates to societal goals. The recommendations focus on a few key issues: improving the national capacity to define and revise long-term S&T goals; linking…

  7. Student Expectations, University Goals: Looking for Alignment in General Education Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    This action research dissertation explores the alignment of university goals, faculty practice, and student expectations for general education natural science courses as a first step to understanding how best to restructure the program to ensure that students are learning in alignment with university stated goals for this aspect of their…

  8. An Investigation of the Goals for an Environmental Science Course: Teacher and Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation uses an ethnographic case study approach to explore the benefits and challenges of including a variety of goals within a high school Environmental Science curriculum. The study focuses on environmental education (EE) goals established by the Belgrade Charter (1975), including developing students' environmental awareness and…

  9. Differential Effects of Goal Setting and Value Reappraisal on College Women's Motivation and Achievement in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acee, Taylor Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the differential effects of goal setting and value reappraisal on female students' self-efficacy beliefs, value perceptions, exam performance and continued interest in statistics. It was hypothesized that the Enhanced Goal Setting Intervention (GS-E) would positively impact students'…

  10. Spring 1977 Survey of the Goals and Achievements of Students Enrolled in Spring 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankovich, Mary Jo

    A student follow-up study was conducted to determine the educational and career goals of students who were enrolled at Macomb County Community College (MCCC) and the degree to which they felt their goals had been met. A random sample of 2,066 students enrolled in Spring 1973 were surveyed by questionnaire in June 1977; 983 (55.9%) responded. The…

  11. The Influence of Goal Orientation on Student Satisfaction, Academic Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebken, Heinke

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: A variety of studies has shown that the type of goal orientation determines students' cognitive and behavioral reactions as well as their educational performance (e.g. Ames 1992, Ames/Archer 1988, Valle et al. 2003). Contrary to many views, this study perceives goal orientation as a multidimensional construct with different…

  12. Accelerating the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Ghana: Literacy, the Missing Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagoe, Michael Ayitey

    2011-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals launched in 2001 provide a worldwide agenda to reduce poverty by 2015. Though the eight goals provide synergies for the rapid reduction of poverty, the MDGs have come under criticism for being too narrow and sometimes leaving out critical aspects of human development and well-being. Although the MDGs address some…

  13. Achieving fruit, juice, and vegetable recipe preparation goals influences consumption by 4th grade students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or ve...

  14. Achievement and Social Goals of Younger and Older Elementary Students: Response to Academic and Social Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Beike, Suzanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with mild disabilities experience sufficient failure to produce negative future expectations (goals), which may compound early academic and social deficits. This research compared the teacher- and student-rated goals of 57 children at two age levels, who were average learners, had a reading problem/disability (RP), and were hyperactive or…

  15. Achievement Goals and Coping Strategies: Identifying the Traditional/Nontraditional Students Who Use Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Marcus Lee; Nussbaum, E. Michael

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed 178 undergraduates to investigate whether differences exist between traditional and nontraditional students' goal orientations and/or coping strategies and to investigate relationships between goal orientations and coping strategies. Using the variables age, marital status, parental status, and whether time was ever taken off from…

  16. Antecedents of Approach-Avoidance Achievement Goal Adoption: An Analysis of Two Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Victoria; Spray, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between implicit theories of ability and competence perceptions to changes in approach-avoidance goal adoption in two specific activities in the curriculum. Four hundred and thirty pupils, aged 11-15 years, completed measures of approach-avoidance goals, perceived competence and implicit…

  17. Goal Modification, Global-Analytical Learning Styles, and Achievement in Technical Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabalan, Danilo A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the possibility of developing different goals, mastery or competitive, on students and consequently affecting their learning styles. In the 3-week experiment period, a pretest-posttest design was used to the two intact college English classes. The outcomes revealed that the goals of the students could be modified in different…

  18. An explanatory model of academic achievement based on aptitudes, goal orientations, self-concept and learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel

    2012-03-01

    As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement. PMID:22379697

  19. An explanatory model of academic achievement based on aptitudes, goal orientations, self-concept and learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel

    2012-03-01

    As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement.

  20. Worksheet Usage, Reading Achievement, Classes' Lack of Readiness, and Science Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Che-Di

    2014-01-01

    Instructional written materials play important roles as teachers' agents in effective teaching practices. Worksheets are one of the most frequently used materials. In this exploratory study, the relationships between worksheet usage and science achievement in 32 countries were examined through the use of TIMSS and PIRLS data and multiple…

  1. Improving Student Achievement in Science. Based on the "Handbook of Research on Improving Student Achievement."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet summarizes the science chapter from the "Handbook of Research on Improving Student Achievement," a report sponsored by the Alliance for Curriculum Reform and also published by the Educational Research Service. The handbook is based on the idea that efforts to improve instruction must focus on the existing knowledge base on effective…

  2. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  3. Examining classroom interactions related to difference in students' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zady, Madelon F.; Portes, Pedro R.; Ochs, V. Dan

    2003-01-01

    The current study examines the cognitive supports that underlie achievement in science by using a cultural historical framework (L. S. Vygotsky (1934/1986), Thought and Language, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.) and the activity setting (AS) construct (R. G. Tharp & R. Gallimore (1988), Rousing minds to life: Teaching, learning and schooling in social context, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.) with its five features: personnel, motivations, scripts, task demands, and beliefs. Observations were made of the classrooms of seventh-grade science students, 32 of whom had participated in a prior achievement-related parent-child interaction or home study (P. R. Portes, M. F. Zady, & R. M. Dunham (1998), Journal of Genetic Psychology, 159, 163-178). The results of a quantitative analysis of classroom interaction showed two features of the AS: personnel and scripts. The qualitative field analysis generated four emergent phenomena related to the features of the AS that appeared to influence student opportunity for conceptual development. The emergent phenomenon were science activities, the building of learning, meaning in lessons, and the conflict over control. Lastly, the results of the two-part classroom study were compared to those of the home science AS of high and low achievers. Mismatches in the AS features in the science classroom may constrain the opportunity to learn. Educational implications are discussed.

  4. Learning Environment, Motivation, and Achievement in High School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between high school students' perceptions of their science learning environments and their motivation, learning strategies, and achievement. Discusses the focus of shared perceptions and instruction and indicates that shared perceptions focused on understanding and independent thinking positively predicted students'…

  5. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day…

  6. Secondary School Students' Motivation and Achievement in Combined Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Shean Jen; Yong, Bob Chui Seng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated students' motivation and achievement in combined science. A sample of 324 Year 11 students from eight government secondary schools in Brunei Darussalam participated in the study. Of the sample, 141 were boys and 183 were girls and their average age was 16.4 years. The motivation instrument used was adapted from the science…

  7. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  8. Impact of Looping on Middle School Science Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Tammy M.

    2013-01-01

    Looping may be defined as a teacher remaining with a group of students for multiple academic years. In this quantitative study, looping was examined as a factor on science achievement. State-wide eighth grade school level 2010 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) data were used. By responding to a mailing, school administrators…

  9. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born…

  10. Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors Influencing Middle Level Students' Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group…

  11. Investigation of Factors Affecting Students' Science Achievement According to Student Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Erdal; Tüysüz, Cengiz; Tosun, Cemal; Ilhan, Nail

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate the factors affecting students' science achievement according to student science teachers. The survey model which is one of the quantitative research methods was used. The sample was consisted of total 606 student science teachers from four state universities in Turkey. The data were obtained by using the…

  12. Computers and Traditional Teaching Practices: Factors influencing middle level students' science achievement and attitudes about science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Marszalek, Jacob M.; Stoddard, Elizabeth R.; Wrobel, Jerzy M.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes toward science with student-reported frequency of using computers to learn science and other classroom practices. Baseline comparison data were collected on the frequency of student-centred teaching practices (e.g. the use of group experiments during science class) and traditional teaching practices (e.g. having students copy notes during science class) to learn science. The student sample was composed of 294 seventh-grade students enrolled in middle school science. Multiple regression was used to investigate the association of attitudes toward science, student-centred teaching practices, computer usage, and traditional teaching practices with science achievement. Both attitudes toward science and student-centred teaching practices were positively associated with science achievement, and student-centred teaching practice was positively associated with attitude toward science. Computer usage was found to have a negative association with student achievement, which was moderated by traditional teaching practices.

  13. Science Self-Beliefs and Science Achievement of Adolescents in Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the predictive effects of science self-beliefs on science achievement for 24,680 13-year-old students from Gulf Cooperation Council member countries--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--who participated in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007. The…

  14. Personal Best (PB) Goal Setting and Students' Motivation in Science: A Study of Science Valuing and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Durksen, Tracy L.; Williamson, Derek; Kiss, Julia; Ginns, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To build on prior correlational research into personal best (PB) goals and motivational outcomes, an experimental study was conducted to assess the role of PB goal setting in gains (or declines) in students' motivation in science (viz. biology, anatomy, health). The study (comprising N = 71 elementary/primary and secondary school students) applied…

  15. Analysis of the Project Synthesis Goal Cluster Orientation and Inquiry Emphasis of Elementary Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staver, John R.; Bay, Mary

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study designed to examine selected units of commonly used elementary science texts, using the Project Synthesis goal clusters as a framework for part of the examination. The discussion of the finding focuses on the comparison of the results to recommendations of the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). (TW)

  16. Math and Science Social Cognitive Variables in College Students: Contributions of Contextual Factors in Predicting Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two contextual factors, parental involvement and perceived career barriers, on math/science goals. Using social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), a path model was tested to investigate hypothesized relationships between math- and science-related efficacy beliefs (i.e., task and…

  17. Learning to Teach Science: Personal Epistemologies, Teaching Goals, and Practices of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Nam-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand what personal epistemologies and science teaching goals preservice secondary science teachers of a teacher education program in the USA bring with them to their learning to teach and how they translate such beliefs into actions. A set of essay questions, developed through a pilot study, was used to…

  18. Effects of Inquiry-Based Science Instruction on Science Achievement and Interest in Science: Evidence from Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2012-01-01

    The author sought to investigate the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on science achievement and interest in science of 5,120 adolescents from 85 schools in Qatar. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed the substantial positive effects of science teaching and learning with a focus on model or applications and…

  19. The effect of technology on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, June Kraft

    2003-10-01

    Prior research indicates that technology has had little effect on raising student achievement. Little empirical research exists, however, studying the effects of technology as a tool to improve student achievement through development of higher order thinking skills. Also, prior studies have not focused on the manner in which technology is being used in the classroom and at home to enhance teaching and learning. Empirical data from a secondary school representative of those in California were analyzed to determine the effects of technology on student science achievement. The quantitative analysis methods for the school data study included a multiple linear path analysis, using final course grade as the ultimate exogenous variable. In addition, empirical data from a nationwide survey on how Americans use the Internet were disaggregated by age and analyzed to determine the relationships between computer and Internet experience and (a) Internet use at home for school assignments and (b) more general computer use at home for school assignments for school age children. Analysis of data collected from the a "A Nation Online" Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau assessed these relationships via correlations and cross-tabulations. Finally, results from these data analyses were assessed in conjunction with systemic reform efforts from 12 states designed to address improvements in science and mathematics education in light of the Third International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS). Examination of the technology efforts in those states provided a more nuanced understanding of the impact technology has on student achievement. Key findings included evidence that technology training for teachers increased their use of the computer for instruction but students' final science course grade did not improve; school age children across the country did not use the computer at home for such higher-order cognitive activities as graphics and design or spreadsheets

  20. Using the instructional congruence model to change a science teacher's practices and English language learners' attitudes and achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salame, Hania Moussa

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of adapting the instructional congruence model on the English Language Learners' (ELL) attitudes and achievement in science. Changes in teacher's views and practices were documented. The mixed-method approach was adapted. Data sources were the "Attitude Towards Science" survey, VNOS-C questionnaire, Luykx and Lee (2007) observational instrument, Gee (1997) discussion categories, video recordings, and pre- and post-tests. A science teacher and a class of 24 ELL female students in a charter school participated in this research. The results of this study indicated that student achievement increased significantly and students' attitudes improved in all contexts. At the conclusion of the study, all teacher's views on NOS were reported to be informed, teacher's practices were rated higher, and different classroom interactions increased significantly. The instructional congruence model in science education has been successful in reaching different learners, improving students' attitudes and achievement in science and enhancing teacher's views and practices. This model has significant potential for meeting the challenging goals of reformed science education.

  1. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    .5 billion in the coming years against the annual requirement of US$ 5 billion. While appreciating the foreign assistance, we wish to highlight the fact that unless we have internal strength of resources and manpower, sustained battles against malaria may face serious problems in achieving the final goal of malaria elimination. PMID:23391787

  2. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V P

    2012-12-01

    .5 billion in the coming years against the annual requirement of US$ 5 billion. While appreciating the foreign assistance, we wish to highlight the fact that unless we have internal strength of resources and manpower, sustained battles against malaria may face serious problems in achieving the final goal of malaria elimination.

  3. Battling malaria iceberg incorporating strategic reforms in achieving Millennium Development Goals & malaria elimination in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V P

    2012-12-01

    .5 billion in the coming years against the annual requirement of US$ 5 billion. While appreciating the foreign assistance, we wish to highlight the fact that unless we have internal strength of resources and manpower, sustained battles against malaria may face serious problems in achieving the final goal of malaria elimination. PMID:23391787

  4. A Message to the Black Community: The Present Administration and its Domestic Achievements and Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, James E.

    1977-01-01

    This is the complete text of President Carter's speech concerning the black community. Here he presents the programs, goals, and objectives the Carter Administration has in mind for black Americans. (Author/AM)

  5. An End-to-End Architecture for Science Goal Driven Observing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeremy; Grosvenor, Sandy; Koratkar, Anuradha; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Wolf, Karl; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    New observatories will have greater on-board storage capacity and on-board processing capabilities. The new bottleneck will be download capacity. The cost of downlink time and limitations of bandwidth will end the era where all exposure data is downloaded and all data processing is performed on the ground. In addition, observing campaigns involving inherently variable targets will need scheduling flexibility to focus observing time and data download on exposures that are scientifically interesting. The ability to quickly recognize and react to such events by re-prioritizing the observing schedule will be an essential characteristic for maximizing scientific returns. It will also be a step towards increasing spacecraft autonomy, a major goal of NASA's strategic plan. The science goal monitoring (SGM) system is a proof-of-concept effort to address these challenges. We are developing an interactive distributed system that will use on-board processing and storage combined with event-driven interfaces with ground-based processing and operations, to enable fast re-prioritization of observing schedules, and to minimize time spent on non-optimized observations. SGM is initially aimed towards time-tagged observing modes used frequently in spectroscopic studies of varying targets. In particular, the SGM is collaborating with the proposed MIDEX-class mission Kronos team. The variable targets that Kronos seeks to study make an adaptive system such as SGM particularly valuable for achieving mission goals. However, the architecture and interfaces will also be designed for easy adaptability to other observing platforms, including ground-based systems and to work with different scheduling and pipeline processing systems. This talk will focus on our strategy for developing SGM and the technical challenges that we have encountered. We will discuss the SGM architecture as it applies to the Kronos mission and explain how it is scalable to other missions.

  6. Science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation: Perceptions of female science olympians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Kelly Rae

    Women remain under-represented in science career fields and this is especially evident in the physical sciences. Female students maintain equal science interest and achievement to male students in elementary school but by middle and high school they fall behind their male peers. Reasons cited for girls' declining interest in science include battling traditional gender stereotypes, lack of encouragement, and lack of female role models. Four main science concerns related to girls/women as indicated by research literature were science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. In Georgia, some girls have made a break from the research trends by demonstrating their fervor for science through participation in the academic activity, Science Olympiad. The purpose of this study was to examine the science perceptions of girls who demonstrated science success by their participation in Science Olympiad. Utilizing phenomenological and feminist perspectives, the qualitative research method of focus group interviewing was used to address the research questions comprising the four science concerns of female science access, career choices, achievement, and motivation. The study participants were all girls/women who participated in Science Olympiad. A total of five focus groups were studied. One of the focus groups had current college undergraduates, former Science Olympians, in it while the others were composed of high school girls. Through the description of their science experiences, the participants shared their perceptions of the four science concerns. When addressing these science concerns, the participants revealed four factors that had most affected their science perceptions: the importance of support, science needs Serious Fun, teachers matter, and the bonuses of extracurricular involvement. In their experiences, the participants found success in science because they had teachers, parents, and peers who supported their academic interests, including science, and

  7. Associations between Achievement Goal Orientations and Academic Performance Among Students at a UK Pharmacy School

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Hanna, Alan; Hall, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To ascertain goal orientations of pharmacy students and establish whether associations exist between academic performance, gender, or year of study. Methods. Goal orientations were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Respondents were categorized as high or low performers based on university grades. Associations and statistical significance were ascertained using parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression, as appropriate. Results. A response rate of 60.7% was obtained. High performers were more likely to be female than male. The highest mean score was for mastery approach; the lowest for work avoidance. The mean score for work avoidance was significantly greater for low performers than for high performers and for males than for females. First-year students were most likely to have top scores in mastery and performance approaches. Conclusion. It is encouraging that the highest mean score was for mastery approach orientation, as goal orientation may play a role in academic performance of pharmacy students. PMID:26396273

  8. National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement.

    PubMed

    Nosek, Brian A; Smyth, Frederick L; Sriram, N; Lindner, Nicole M; Devos, Thierry; Ayala, Alfonso; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Bergh, Robin; Cai, Huajian; Gonsalkorale, Karen; Kesebir, Selin; Maliszewski, Norbert; Neto, Félix; Olli, Eero; Park, Jaihyun; Schnabel, Konrad; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Tulbure, Bogdan Tudor; Wiers, Reinout W; Somogyi, Mónika; Akrami, Nazar; Ekehammar, Bo; Vianello, Michelangelo; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Greenwald, Anthony G

    2009-06-30

    About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap. We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement.

  9. National differences in gender–science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement

    PubMed Central

    Nosek, Brian A.; Smyth, Frederick L.; Sriram, N.; Lindner, Nicole M.; Devos, Thierry; Ayala, Alfonso; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Bergh, Robin; Cai, Huajian; Gonsalkorale, Karen; Kesebir, Selin; Maliszewski, Norbert; Neto, Félix; Olli, Eero; Park, Jaihyun; Schnabel, Konrad; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Tulbure, Bogdan Tudor; Wiers, Reinout W.; Somogyi, Mónika; Akrami, Nazar; Ekehammar, Bo; Vianello, Michelangelo; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Greenwald, Anthony G.

    2009-01-01

    About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. Self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap. We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement. PMID:19549876

  10. Endorsing Achievement Goals Exacerbates the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde; Van Damme, Jan; Verschueren, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model predicts students' academic self-concept to be negatively predicted by the achievement level of their reference group, controlling for individual achievement. Despite an abundance of empirical evidence supporting the BFLPE, there have been relatively few studies searching for possible moderators.…

  11. A Qualitative Study of the Achievement Goals of Recreational Exercise Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Helen; Morris, Tony; Moore, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for many of today's leading causes of ill health. In-order to increase physical activity (PA) participation and information about why people engage in PA is needed. We interviewed 11 recreational exercise participants to examine their goals for participating in recreational exercise. Our results revealed…

  12. Effects of Graphing, Goal Setting, and Conferencing on Reading and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Amy T.

    2016-01-01

    Improving foundational academic skills for elementary level students continues to be a challenge for classroom teachers. This study implemented weekly progress monitoring procedures using curriculum-based measurement assessments in conjunction with weekly individual student-teacher graphing and goal-setting conferences to determine the effect the…

  13. Intrinsic Motivation, Learning Goals, Engagement, and Achievement in a Diverse High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Worrell, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high…

  14. Improving Student Achievement in Alaska. Alaska Goals 2000 Annual Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Alaska Goals 2000 is part of a coordinated, statewide effort to improve public education for all students in Alaska. In 1997-1998, 90% of Alaska's federal funding was used to fund grants to local school districts, and 10% was used to fund state-level activities through the Alaska Department of Education. During 1997-1998, curriculum frameworks and…

  15. Achieving Service-Learning Goals in a Financial Accounting Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Darwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A financial accounting class in a Philippine university has a service-learning group project that involves setting up a simple accounting system for microenterprises. Aims: This paper examines the extent to which service-learning goals such as course learning, teamwork, civic responsibility, and impact on the client organization are…

  16. Achievement Goal Orientations and Self-Regulation in Writing: An Integrative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Avi; Lichtinger, Einat; Gorodetsky, Malka

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that self-regulation of writing is a multifaceted modular construct and that students would perceive different goal orientations for writing as involving the application of different writing strategies. Two hundred eleven Jewish Israeli high school students engaged in a writing assignment and then reported on their…

  17. Hard-Pressed to Achieve the EFA Goals by 2015 in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caoli-Rodriguez, Rhona B.

    2008-01-01

    The Philippines has experienced a setback in its progress towards EFA 2015 Goals. In particular, a decline in primary and secondary education performance indicators and a widening gap between boys' and girls' performance were noted. While the present policy environment in the country has been conducive to education reforms, a lack of political…

  18. The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Darlene

    Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

  19. Achievement of therapeutic goals with low-dose imiglucerase in Gaucher disease: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Tukan, Irina; Hadas-Halpern, Irith; Altarescu, Gheona; Abrahamov, Ayala; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari

    2013-01-01

    Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder, is a multisystem disorder with variable and unpredictable onset and severity. Disease-specific enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been shown to reverse or ameliorate disease-specific hepatosplenomegaly and anemia and thrombocytopenia. ERT also impacts bone manifestations, including bone crises, bone pain, and appearance of new osteonecrosis, and improves bone mineral density to varying degrees. The objective of this study was to assess achievement of predefined therapeutic goals based on international registry outcomes for Israeli patients with Gaucher disease receiving imiglucerase for four consecutive years on a low-dose regimen followed in a single center. All data were taken from patient files. The therapeutic goals were taken from standards published in the literature for disease-specific clinical parameters. Among 164 patients at baseline, values for spleen and liver volumes, hemoglobin and platelet counts, and Z-scores for lumbar spine and femoral were significantly different from the goal. After four years ERT, there was a significant improvement (P = 0.000) in each of the therapeutic goal parameters from baseline. 15.2% of these patients achieved all hematology-visceral goals. In children, there was achievement of linear growth and puberty. This survey highlights the good overall response in symptomatic patients receiving low-dose ERT with imiglucerase in Israel. PMID:24285960

  20. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized an innovative teaching strategy. Fifty-eight eighth-grade high achieving students were selected as the comparison group. The Secondary School Student Questionnaire was conducted to measure all participants' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. In addition, 12 target students from the experimental group (i.e., six active and six passive students) were recruited for weekly classroom observations and follow-up interviews during the intervention. Both quantitative and qualitative findings revealed that experimental group students experienced significant impact as seen through increased attitudes and decreased anxiety of learning science. Implications for practice and research are provided.

  1. Performance-Based Assessment, Science Festival Exhibit Presentations, and Elementary Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Verilette A.; Gerber, Brian L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the effective use of performance-based assessment for evaluating fifth- and sixth-grade student achievement as demonstrated by student exhibit presentations at a science festival. Individual evaluation scores and group negotiated evaluations were consistent. (Author/MM)

  2. Modeling the Contribution of Enterprise Architecture Practice to the Achievement of Business Goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Steenbergen, Marlies; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    Enterprise architecture is a young, but well-accepted discipline in information management. Establishing the effectiveness of an enterprise architecture practice, however, appears difficult. In this chapter we introduce an architecture effectiveness model (AEM) to express how enterprise architecture practices are meant to contribute to the business goals of an organization. We developed an AEM for three different organizations. These three instances show that the concept of the AEM is applicable in a variety of organizations. It also shows that the objectives of enterprise architecture are not to be restricted to financial goals. The AEM can be used by organizations to set coherent priorities for their architectural practices and to define KPIs for measuring the effectiveness of these practices.

  3. Understanding the Self-Directed Online Learning Preferences, Goals, Achievements, and Challenges of MIT OpenCourseWare Subscribers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Kou, Xiaojing; Xu, Shuya; Sheu, Feng-Ru

    2015-01-01

    This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners who subscribed to the monthly OpenCourseWare (OCW) e-newsletter from MIT. Data collection included a 25-item survey of 1,429 newsletter subscribers; 613 of whom also completed an…

  4. Transforming American Education. A Directory of Research and Practice To Help the Nation Achieve the Six National Education Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC.

    In response to America 2000, a federal strategy to achieve the six National Education Goals established in 1989 by the Administration and the nation's governors), communities in all 50 states are actively developing plans and programs. This directory is meant to be a way of sharing information about successful and promising work going on in…

  5. The Relationship between Self-Determination, Achievement Goal Orientation and Satisfaction with the Learning Experience: Working with Adult Lifelong Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodd, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated how self-perceptions of self-determination and of achievement goal orientation were related to self-perceptions of satisfaction with the learning experience in a population of 495 adults engaged in non-formal lifelong learning through participation as amateur members of the United States Dressage Association.…

  6. Positive and Negative Ability Beliefs among Navajo High School Students: How Do They Relate to Students' School Achievement Goals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkley, John W.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    This paper draws on the stereotype threat hypothesis and social identity theory to examine the influence of positive and negative ability beliefs on Navajo students' achievement goals. Data were collected on 829 Navajo students in two reservation high schools. The results support the notion that Navajo students hold both positive and negative…

  7. LinguaFolio Goal Setting Intervention and Academic Achievement: Increasing Student Capacity for Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Oxana D.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades there has been a shift from thinking less about teaching and more about learning. Such a paradigm shift from teacher-centered to student-centered instruction requires students to think about their own learning and to monitor their own learning development and language achievement. Researchers have identified goal setting…

  8. The Pivotal Role of Effort Beliefs in Mediating Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Achievement Goals and Academic Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…

  9. Implementation of the Language-in-Education Policy and Achieving Education for All Goals in Botswana Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokibelo, Eureka

    2016-01-01

    Nations are tasked with expanding education, increasing its accessibility and quality to develop skilled labour forces needed to compete in the global world. Every nation is under pressure to strive to give their learners an opportunity to explore their potential to achieve the national and global educational goals. In learning, language and…

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Achievement Goal Orientations during the Middle School Transition: The Contribution of Emotional and Behavioral Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchesne, Stéphane; Ratelle, Catherine F.; Feng, Bei

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study builds on research addressing changes in achievement goal orientations (AG) across the transition to middle school. We had two objectives. The first was to identify and describe different development trajectories of AG (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance) from the last year of elementary school (Grade…

  11. Implicit Theories of Intelligence, Goal Orientation, Cognitive Engagement, and Achievement: A Test of Dweck's Model with Returning to School Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupeyrat, Caroline; Marine, Claudette

    2005-01-01

    This study tested and extended Dweck's social-cognitive theory of motivation with adults who deliberately chose to face the challenge of returning to school. We examined the relationships among beliefs (implicit theories) on the nature of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement in learning, and achievement using path analyses.…

  12. Investigating Predictive Role of 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientations on Learning Strategies with Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltaninejad, Mehraneh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between achievement goal orientations and Learning Strategies. The sample of study consists of 350 public high school students (135 males and 215 females, mean age: 17 ± 0.65) from two high schools in Kerman province of Iran selected by random multistage cluster sampling method. In this…

  13. Influence of Students' Understanding and Goal Commitment on Academic Achievement in Introductory Technology in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Godwin A.; Mbaba, Uduak G.; Udofia, Aniefiok E.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the influence of students' understanding and goal commitment on their academic achievement in Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. An ex-post facto survey design was used and a random sample of 2,500 junior secondary three (13-14 years old) students from a population of 48,302 JSS three…

  14. Does the Confidence of First-Year Undergraduate Students Change over Time According to Achievement Goal Profile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the changes in students' academic behavioural confidence over the course of their first year of academic study and whether changes differ by their achievement goal profile. Self-report data were collected from 434 participants in three waves: at the beginning of the first semester of their first year of undergraduate study, at…

  15. The Role of Academic Help-Seeking Attitudes, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Dissertation Self-Efficacy in Dissertation Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Tisha Stoll

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored socialization variables (academic discipline, part-time versus full-time enrollment status, and student involvement with research and teaching assistantships) and educational psychological variables (academic help-seeking attitudes, achievement goal orientations, and dissertation self-efficacy) in relation to…

  16. Neo-piagetian predictors of achievement in physical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    This article examines the predictive value of the cognitive variables of developmental level, mental capacity, cognitive style, short-term storage space, and numerical inductive reasoning for student achievement in college science. Achievement was analyzed for each of the categories of pure recall, computational, complex items, and total score of a midterm exam as well as for the composite score on a final exam. The sample for this study consisted of a class of 32 nonscience majors enrolled in Physical Science I at the University of Southern Mississippi. The results showed that developmental level was the single best predictor of achievement. Short-term storage space and mental capacity were significant predictors of achievement for computational and complex items, but, as expected from theoretical considerations, not for pure recall items. The degree of field dependence did not well predict performance on pure recall or computational items. The results also indicate that mental capacity and field dependence do not contribute significantly to the variance if developmental level is held constant. The pattern of the predictive power of numerical inductive reasoning parallels, in magnitude, that of mental capacity. The results of this study and its implications indicate that the construct of short-term storage space has great potential to guide classroom practice and the development of instructional materials. A strategy is outlined that would guide curriculum planners and classroom teachers in the development of materials which would allow students to develop complex problem-solving behaviors.

  17. The Role of Extension Specialists in Meeting K-12 Science Education Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milam, Michael R.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a variety of ways in which extension specialists can support and supplement the K-12 science curriculum in Missouri. Includes a description of the Missouri Mastery Achievement Test (MMAT) and its use in assessing agricultural literacy. (DDR)

  18. Achievement Goals, School Achievement, Self-Estimations of School Achievement, and Calibration in Students with and without Special Education Needs in Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Susanne; Hessels, Marco G. P.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the goal orientation of students with and without special education needs (SEN) in inclusive schools. Participants were 186 students (110 boys; 76 girls) from Grade 7 (mean age = 13.83). Of these, 93 were diagnosed as having SEN, while the other 93 were mainstream students matched on IQ. Students without SEN scored…

  19. Frequency, duration, and time devoted to elementary science instruction and the association with science achievement and science interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almarode, John Taylor

    Although the United States continues to lead in many STEM areas (i.e., research and design and productivity), the Science and Engineering Indicators (NSB, 2010) suggest that the country is experiencing an erosion of its STEM advantage, ultimately losing the edge in each of these areas. Looking at trends in K-12 science, the 2010 National Science Board report indicated that the United States' position among selected countries declined in fourth grade science (NSB, 2010). This trend raises concern about the lagging student interest in the natural sciences, and thus the fate of science achievement outcomes for students in the United States. The research questions addressed in this study were: What is the pattern of growth for first-time kindergartners in science achievement from the end of third grade to the end of eighth grade? Controlling for differences in student demographics, are gains that first-time kindergartners make in science achievement from the end of third grade to the end of eighth grade associated with the frequency, duration, and time devoted to science in the third grade? Controlling for differences in student demographics is the frequency, duration, and time devoted to science in the third grade associated with the students' interest in eighth grade science? A subset of the variables contained in the ECLS-K: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 data set and a subsample of the cohort of students in the ECLS-K data set. An unconditional growth model indicated that science achievement followed a non-linear pattern with significant individual variation in trajectories. In addition, students beginning with lower initial science achievement experience more rapid growth than those students beginning with higher initial science achievement. A conditional growth model suggested that the frequency of science in the third grade was a significant predictor of the achievement trajectory in science above and beyond demographic

  20. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Curriculum and Seventh Grade Mathematics and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jamie Smith

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to evaluate to what degree Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education influenced mathematics and science achievement of seventh grade students in one Middle Tennessee school district. This research used an independent samples t test at the a = 0.05 level to evaluate…