Science.gov

Sample records for achieve significant energy

  1. Chrysler: Save Energy Now Assessment Enables a Vehicle Assembly Complex to Achieve Significant Natural Gas Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-01

    This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how Chrysler LLC saves more than 70,000 MMBtu and $627,000 annually after increasing the steam system energy efficiency of a truck and minivan assembly plant in St. Louis, Missouri.

  2. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-01

    The U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, MN, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  3. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    This case study describes how the U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  4. Zion National Park Visitor Center: Significant Energy Savings Achieved through a Whole-Building Design Process: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Hayter, S.

    2002-07-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) applied a whole-building design process developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to create a building that performs more than 70% better than a comparable code-compliant building at no additional construction cost. This whole-building design process involves a committed design team, including the energy consultant, in the earliest conceptual design phase and continues through building commissioning. The design team for this project included the architect, engineer, energy consultant, landscape architect, owner, operator, and others who could influence the building design and operation. Extensive whole-building energy and lighting computer simulations were conducted throughout the process, which included the integration of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies into the building. The design team, inspired by natural cooling within the canyon, developed simple solutions to create an extremely energy efficient building. The se strategies included natural ventilation cooling, cooltowers for evaporative cooling without distribution fans, daylighting, massive building materials, Trombe walls and direct solar gains for heating, engineered window overhangs for solar load control, a building automation system to maintain comfort and control the energy-efficient lighting system, and a roof-mounted photovoltaic system to offset building electrical loads and ensure a power supply during the frequent utility grid outages.

  5. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  6. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million. This was accomplished after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  7. Metaldyne: Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Efficiency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  8. SOARing Into Strategic Planning: Engaging Nurses to Achieve Significant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Barbara; Felton, Fiona; Linus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a new system chief nursing officer engaged the nursing leaders and staff in an Appreciative Inquiry process utilizing strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR), and a Journey of Excellence to assess and understand the current environment. The ultimate goal was to engage all nurses in strategic planning and goal setting to connect their patient care to the system strategic initiatives. This work led to the creation of a nursing vision, a revised professional practice model and greater council alignment, resulting in significant positive change and ongoing advancement throughout the system. The shared decision-making structure was key to the process with a direct connection of each council's goals, leading to the successful achievement of 34 of the 36 goals in 2 years. This article outlines the process, tools, and staff engagement strategies used to achieve system-wide success. This methodology has improved the outcomes across the organization in both small and system-wide work groups. This work can easily be replicated and adapted to help disparate staffs brought together through mergers or acquisitions to become aligned as a new team. This process, model, and framework, provides structure and results in significant outcomes that recognizes and celebrates the work of individual entities while aligning future strategies and goals. PMID:27584888

  9. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Peter G.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture. PMID:23071672

  10. Emotional Intelligence Skills: Significant Factors in Freshmen Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Darwin B.; Nelson, Kaye W.

    This study investigated the role of emotional skills in the academic achievement and retention of university freshmen. The research group was a randomly selected sample of first semester freshmen students (N=165), and cumulative grade point average was used as the criterion for academic success. The study was designed to investigate: (a) the…

  11. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  12. Significant photoinduced Kerr rotation achieved in semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherbunin, R. V.; Vladimirova, M.; Kavokin, K. V.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Kopteva, N. E.; Lagoudakis, P. G.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Giant Kerr rotation and ellipticity are observed and investigated in an asymmetric planar microcavity with a quantum well in the active region. Rotation angle of the polarization plane as well as ellipticity were determined from time- and frequency-resolved measurements of the Stokes vector components of reflected light. It was found that in a small range of the cavity mode detunings the polarized pump pulse creates a large splitting of the lower polariton branch while leaving its linewidth almost the same. This fact gives a possibility to observe at such detunings the Kerr rotation angle and ellipticity, close to their extremes. A theoretical analysis shows that the decisive role in reaching extreme polarization rotation angles is played by the structure asymmetry. Comprehensive analysis of the polarization state of the light in this regime shows that both renormalization of the exciton energy and the saturation of the excitonic resonance contribute to the observed optical nonlinearities.

  13. Achieving energy efficiency during collective communications

    SciTech Connect

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav; Sosonkina, Masha; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-09-13

    Energy consumption has become a major design constraint in modern computing systems. With the advent of petaflops architectures, power-efficient software stacks have become imperative for scalability. Techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (called DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (called throttling) are often used to reduce the power consumption of the compute nodes. To avoid significant performance losses, these techniques should be used judiciously during parallel application execution. For example, its communication phases may be good candidates to apply the DVFS and CPU throttling without incurring a considerable performance loss. They are often considered as indivisible operations although little attention is being devoted to the energy saving potential of their algorithmic steps. In this work, two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather, are investigated as to their augmentation with energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. The experiments prove the viability of such a fine-grain approach. They also validate a theoretical power consumption estimate for multicore nodes proposed here. While keeping the performance loss low, the obtained energy savings were always significantly higher than those achieved when DVFS or throttling were switched on across the entire application run

  14. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  15. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  16. Achieving Energy Independence by Reviving America's Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Neil; Winterer, Amey

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how it is in our nation's energy interest that cities and city living prosper and that movement of people out of cities and into nonurban areas be reversed. However, national energy policy itself favors suburban sprawl-type development and works against city revival. (AM)

  17. Achieving Self-Reliance: Backyard Energy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Stephen

    Appropriate technology (the process most appropriate for local cultural, economic, and social conditions) is geared toward projects which: are small in scale, decentralized, and energy efficient; use local materials, labor, and ingenuity; are not capital-intensive; and maximize the use of renewable energy resources. Descriptions of such projects…

  18. Achieving Energy Efficiency Through Real-Time Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-09-01

    Through the careful implementation of simple behavior change measures, opportunities exist to achieve strategic gains, including greater operational efficiencies, energy cost savings, greater tenant health and ensuing productivity and an improved brand value through sustainability messaging and achievement.

  19. Achieving Higher Energies via Passively Driven X-band Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipahi, Taylan; Sipahi, Nihan; Milton, Stephen; Biedron, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Due to their higher intrinsic shunt impedance X-band accelerating structures significant gradients with relatively modest input powers, and this can lead to more compact particle accelerators. At the Colorado State University Accelerator Laboratory (CSUAL) we would like to adapt this technology to our 1.3 GHz L-band accelerator system using a passively driven 11.7 GHz traveling wave X-band configuration that capitalizes on the high shunt impedances achievable in X-band accelerating structures in order to increase our overall beam energy in a manner that does not require investment in an expensive, custom, high-power X-band klystron system. Here we provide the design details of the X-band structures that will allow us to achieve our goal of reaching the maximum practical net potential across the X-band accelerating structure while driven solely by the beam from the L-band system.

  20. Using the network to achieve energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Giglio, M.

    1995-12-01

    Novell, the third largest software company in the world, has developed Netware Embedded Systems Technology (NEST). NEST will take the network deeper into non-traditional computing environments and will imbed networking into more intelligent devices. Ultimately, this will lead to energy efficiencies in the office. NEST can make point-of-sale terminals, alarm systems, televisions, traffic controls, printers, lights, fax machines, copiers, HVAC controls, PBX machines, etc., either intelligent or more intelligent than they are currently. The mission statement for this particular group is to integrate over 30 million new intelligent devices into the workplace and the home with Novell networks by 1997. Computing trends have progressed from mainframes in the 1960s to keys, security systems, and airplanes in the year 2000. In fact, the new Boeing 777 has NEST in it, and it also has network servers on board. NEST enables the embedded network with the ability to put intelligence into devices. This gives one more control of the devices from wherever one is. For example, the pharmaceutical industry could use NEST to coordinate what the consumer is buying, what is in the warehouse, what the manufacturing plant is tooled for, and so on. Through NEST technology, the pharmaceutical industry now uses a camera that takes pictures of the pills. It can see whether an {open_quotes}overdose{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}underdose{close_quotes} of a particular type of pill is being manufactured. The plant can be shut down and corrections made immediately.

  1. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T.R.

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the application of multiple-resonance spectroscopic techniques for investigating energy transfer and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Two major goals of this work are: (1) to provide information on potential energy surfaces of combustion related molecules at chemically significant energies, and (2) to test theoretical modes of unimolecular dissociation rates critically via quantum-state resolved measurements.

  2. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  3. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases. PMID:25201670

  4. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  5. Factors significantly related to science achievement of Malaysian middle school students: An analysis of TIMSS 1999 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokshein, Siti Eshah

    The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that

  6. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed. PMID:25973781

  7. Achieving high energy absorption capacity in cellular bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.

    2015-05-01

    Cellular bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have exhibited excellent energy-absorption performance by inheriting superior strength from the parent BMGs. However, how to achieve high energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs is vital but mysterious. In this work, using step-by-step observations of the deformation evolution of a series of cellular BMGs, the underlying mechanisms for the remarkable energy absorption capacity have been investigated by studying two influencing key factors: the peak stress and the decay of the peak stress during the plastic-flow plateau stages. An analytical model of the peak stress has been proposed, and the predicted results agree well with the experimental data. The decay of the peak stress has been attributed to the geometry change of the macroscopic cells, the formation of shear bands in the middle of the struts, and the “work-softening” nature of BMGs. The influencing factors such as the effect of the strut thickness and the number of unit cells have also been investigated and discussed. Strategies for achieving higher energy absorption capacity in cellular BMGs have been proposed.

  8. Fraction of the theoretical specific energy achieved on pack level for hypothetical battery chemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Damla; Ha, Seungbum; Gallagher, Kevin G.

    2014-12-01

    In valuing new active materials chemistries for advanced batteries, the theoretical specific energy is commonly used to motivate research and development. A packaging factor is then used to relate the theoretical specific energy to the pack-level specific energy. As this factor is typically assumed constant, higher theoretical specific energies are judged to result in higher pack-level specific energies. To test this implicit assumption, we calculated the fraction of the theoretical specific energy achieved on the pack level for hypothetical cell chemistries with various open-circuit voltages and theoretical specific energies using a peer-review bottom-up battery design model. The pack-level specific energy shows significant dependence on the open-circuit voltage and electrochemical impedance due to changes in the quantity of inactive materials required. At low-valued average open-circuit voltages, systems with dramatically different theoretical specific energies may result in battery packs similar in mass and volume. The fraction of the theoretical specific energy achieved on the pack level is higher for the lower theoretical specific energy systems mainly because the active materials mass dominates the pack mass. Finally, low-valued area-specific impedance is shown to be critical for chemistries of high theoretical specific energy and low open-circuit voltage to achieve higher pack-level specific energies.

  9. The negative influence of significant others on high academic achieving school pupils' choice of nursing as a career.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Gavin R; McNally, Jim

    2013-03-01

    The International Council of Nurses proposes that the shortage of nurses is global in scale and is expected to become much worse in the years ahead. A major factor impacting on the worldwide nursing shortage is the diminishing number of young people choosing nursing as a career (International Council of Nurses, 2008). One important dimension of the school pupils' career choice process is their interactions with significant others and the influence of these significant others (Hodkinson and Sparkes, 1997). As Schools/Departments of Nursing endeavour to attract more intellectual school leavers it is important to examine what advice and opinions are significant others giving regarding nursing as a career choice and how influential is this advice. This paper is based on interview data from 20 high academic achieving 5th and 6th year school pupils in Scotland, paradigmatic cases from a larger sample, who had considered nursing as a possible career choice within their career preference cluster, but then later disregarded nursing and decided to pursue medicine or another health care profession. The data was particularly striking in revealing the negative influence of significant others on high academic achieving school pupils' choice of nursing as a career. The influence of significant others, these being specifically parents, guardians, guidance teachers and career advisors was very apparent in the data in that they had a very negative view regarding nursing as a career choice for high academic achieving school pupils. PMID:22464633

  10. Method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.

    1986-01-01

    A method of achieving the controlled release of thermonuclear energy by illuminating a minute, solid density, hollow shell of a mixture of material such as deuterium and tritium with a high intensity, uniformly converging laser wave to effect an extremely rapid build-up of energy in inwardly traveling shock waves to implode the shell creating thermonuclear conditions causing a reaction of deuterons and tritons and a resultant high energy thermonuclear burn. Utilizing the resulting energy as a thermal source and to breed tritium or plutonium. The invention also contemplates a laser source wherein the flux level is increased with time to reduce the initial shock heating of fuel and provide maximum compression after implosion; and, in addition, computations and an equation are provided to enable the selection of a design having a high degree of stability and a dependable fusion performance by establishing a proper relationship between the laser energy input and the size and character of the selected material for the fusion capsule.

  11. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  12. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  13. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... achieve energy efficiency....

  14. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.7 Water used to achieve energy efficiency....

  15. 10 CFR 433.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 433.7 Section 433.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... achieve energy efficiency....

  16. Building aggressively duty-cycled platforms to achieve energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Yuvraj

    Managing power consumption and improving energy efficiency is a key driver in the design of computing devices today. This is true for both battery-powered mobile devices as well as mains-powered desktop PCs and servers. In case of mobile devices, the focus of optimization is on energy efficiency to maximize battery lifetime. In case of mains-powered devices, we seek to optimize power consumption to reduce energy costs, thermal and environmental concerns. Traditionally, there are two main mechanisms to improve energy efficiency in systems: slowdown techniques that seek to reduce processor speed or radio power against the rate of work done, and shutdown techniques that seek to shut down specific components or subsystems -- such as processor, radio, memory -- to reduce power used by these components when not in use. The adverse effect of using these techniques is either reduced performance (e.g., increase in latency) and/or usability or loss of functionality. The thesis behind this dissertation is that improved energy efficiency can be achieved through system architectures that seek to design and exploit "collaboration" among heterogeneous but functionally similar subsystems. For instance, multiple radio interfaces with different power/performance characteristics can collaborate to provide an energy-efficient wireless communication subsystem. Furthermore, we show that in systems where such heterogeneity is not naturally present, we can introduce heterogeneous components to improve overall energy efficiency. We show that using collaboration, individual subsystems and even entire platforms can be shut down more aggressively to reduce energy consumption, while reducing adverse impacts on performance or usability. We have used collaboration to do energy efficient operation in several contexts. For battery powered mobile devices we show that wireless radios are the dominant power consumers, and then describe several techniques that use various heterogeneous radios present

  17. Multiphase Nano-Composite Coatings for Achieving Energy Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Nainaparampil, Jose

    2012-03-26

    UES Inc. and ANL teamed in this work to develop novel coating systems for the protection of surfaces from thermal degradation mainly in two applications; Machining and Die casting. These coatings were specifically designed for the purpose by incorporating required material phases and the overall architecture, which led to reduce the energy usage and increase efficiency of the operations. Following the UES/ANL's feasibility work, the coatings were developed utilizing High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPMS) and Large area filtered arc deposition (LAFAD) techniques. Toughness, hardness and oxidation resistance: contrasting qualities have been mixed in the right proportion to attain the suitable material characteristic for the cause. Hafnium diboride (HfB2) based materials provided such a system and its properties were tamed to attain the right combination of toughness and hardness by working on the microstructure and architecture of coatings. An effective interfacing material (graded concentrations of topcoat) was also achieved in this work to provide the required adhesion between the substrate and the coating. Combination of an appropriate bond coat and a functional top coat provided the present thermal degradation resistant coating for cutting tools and die-casting applications. Laboratory level performance tests and industrial level application tests by partner companies (Beta Site Testing) were used for the development of these coatings.

  18. Energy and the Structure of Social System: Significance for Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Dennis R.

    The purpose of the paper is to present a model and suggest hypotheses relating the family as a social system to the concepts of human and natural energy. Human energy is interpreted as the capacity of humans, in this case, family members, for doing work and natural energy as resources such as natural gas, carbon dioxide, and heat. A behavioral…

  19. Perspectives on achieving sustainable energy production and use

    EPA Science Inventory

    The traditional definition of sustainability calls for polices and strategies that meet society's present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Achieving operational sustainability requires three critical elements: advances in scien...

  20. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  1. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  2. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  3. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  4. 10 CFR 435.7 - Water used to achieve energy efficiency. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water used to achieve energy efficiency. 435.7 Section 435.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  5. Paradigms and poverty in global energy policy: research needs for achieving universal energy access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Bazilian, Morgan; Toman, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This research letter discusses elements of a long-term interdisciplinary research effort needed to help ensure the maximum social, economic, and environmental benefits of achieving secure universal access to modern energy services. Exclusion of these services affects the lives and livelihoods of billions of people. The research community has an important, but not yet well-defined, role to play.

  6. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T.R.

    1992-03-01

    These experiments apply multiple-laser spectroscopic techniques to investigate the bond energies, potential surface topologies, and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Infrared-optical double resonance pumping of light atom stretch vibrations in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and HN{sub 3} prepares reactant molecules in single rovibrational states above the unimolecular dissociation threshold on the ground potential surface, and laser induced fluorescence detection of the OH or NH fragments monitors the partitioning of energy into individual product quantum states. Product energy partitioning data from H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dissociation provide a stringent test of statistical theories as well as potential energy surface calculations. Ongoing work on HN{sub 3} seeks to determine the height of the barrier to dissociation on the singlet potential energy surface. Our most recently developed spectroscopic scheme allows the measurement of high vibrational overtone spectra of jet-cooled molecules. This approach uses CO{sub 2} laser infrared multiphoton dissociation followed by laser induced fluorescence product detection to measure weak vibrational overtone transitions in low pressure environments. Application of this scheme to record the {Delta}V{sub OH}=4 and {Delta}V{sub OH}=5 transitions of CH{sub 3}OH cooled in a supersonic free-jet demonstrates both its feasibility and its utility for simplifying high vibrational overtone spectra.

  7. Wind energy as a significant source of electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, R G

    1995-01-01

    Wind energy is a commercially available renewable energy source, with state-of-the-art wind plants producing electricity at about $0.05 per kWh. However, even at that production cost, wind-generated electricity is not yet fully cost-competitive with coal- or natural-gas-produced electricity for the bulk electricity market. The wind is a proven energy source; it is not resource-limited in the US, and there are no insolvable technical constraints. This paper describes current and historical technology, characterizes existing trends, and describes the research and development required to reduce the cost of wind-generated electricity to full competitiveness with fossil-fuel-generated electricity for the bulk electricity market. Potential markets are described.

  8. Achieving Energy Savings in Municipal Construction in Long Beach California

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Long Beach Gas and Oil (LBGO), the public gas utility in Long Beach, California, partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build a new, low-energy modular office building that is at least 50% below requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program. The LBGO building, which demonstrates that modular construction can be very energy efficient, is expected to exceed the ASHRAE baseline by about 45%.

  9. Radioactivity as a significant energy source in prebiotic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Garzón, L; Garzón, M L

    2001-01-01

    Radioactivity in the continental crust (due mainly to the isotopes 238U, 235U, 232Th and 40K), as a energy source for chemical evolution in the early Archean (between 3.5 and approximately 4 Ga bp), is reviewed. The most important radioactive source in the continental crust is due to the production and accumulation of radioactive gases within the crust voids (porosity). The study of such mechanism has allowed us to reach a deeper understanding about the nature of the radioactive source and to describe its behavior, particularly with regard to prebiotic chemical evolution. An effective total energy of 3 x 10(18) Ja-1 has been obtained for a depth of 1 km, 4 Ga ago. If a depth of 30 km is taken, the obtained value is almost equal to the UV solar energy radiation (lambda < 150 nm). Within the voids the radioactive source of the continental crust played a relevant role in prebiotic synthesis. In uranium deposits of the same age, the role of radioactivity must have been even more relevant in favoring chemical evolution. PMID:11296523

  10. Navajo Culture and Family Influences on Academic Success: Traditionalism Is Not a Significant Predictor of Achievement among Navajo Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willeto, Angela A. A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of 451 Navajo youths attending 11 high schools in the Navajo Nation found no relationship between their academic achievement and their cultural attachments and practices. Families modestly influenced educational outcomes, but being female was a stronger predictor of academic success. An appendix describes study variables. (Contains 42…

  11. How America can look within to achieve energy security and reduce global warming.

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.; Goldston, D.; Crabtree, G.; Glicksman, L.; Goldstein, D.; Greene, D.; Kammen, D.; Levin, M.; Lubell, M.; Savitz, M.; Sperling, D.; Schlachter, F.; Scofield, J.; Dawson, J.

    2008-12-01

    Making major gains in energy efficiency is one of the most economical and effective ways our nation can wean itself off its dependence on foreign oil and reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. Transportation and buildings, which account for two thirds of American energy usage, consume far more than they need to, but even though there are many affordable energy efficient technologies that can save consumers money, market imperfections inhibit their adoption. To overcome the barriers, the federal government must adopt policies that will transform the investments into economic and societal benefit. And the federal government must invest in research and development programs that target energy efficiency. Energy efficiency is one of America's great hidden energy reserves. We should begin tapping it now. Whether you want the United States to achieve greater energy security by weaning itself off foreign oil, sustain strong economic growth in the face of worldwide competition or reduce global warming by decreasing carbon emissions, energy efficiency is where you need to start. Thirty-five years ago the U.S. adopted national strategies, implemented policies and developed technologies that significantly improved energy efficiency. More than three decades have passed since then, and science and technology have progressed considerably, but U.S. energy policy has not. It is time to revisit the issue. In this report we examine the scientific and technological opportunities and policy actions that can make the United States more energy efficient, increase its security and reduce its impact on global warming. We believe the findings and recommendations will help Congress and the next administration to realize these goals. Our focus is on the transportation and buildings sectors of the economy. The opportunities are huge and the costs are small.

  12. Achieving tunable sensitivity in composite high-energy density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkeev, Sergey; Tsyshevsky, Roman; Kuklja, Maija

    2015-06-01

    Laser irradiation provides a unique opportunity for selective, predictive, and controlled initiation of energetic materials. We propose a consistent micro-scale mechanism of photoexcitation at the interface, formed by a molecular energetic material and a metal oxide. A specific PETN-MgO model composite is used to illustrate and explain seemingly puzzling experiments on selective laser initiation of energetic materials, which reported that the presence of metal oxide additives triggered the photoinitiation by an unusually low energy. We suggest that PETN photodecomposition is catalyzed by oxygen vacancies (F0 centers) at the MgO surface. The proposed model suggests ways to tune sensitivity of energetic molecular materials to photoinitiation. Our quantum-chemical calculations suggest that the structural defects (e.g., oxygen vacancies) strongly interact with the molecular material (e.g., adsorbed energetic molecules) by inducing a charge transfer at the interface and hence play an imperative role in governing both energy absorption and energy release in the system. Our approach and conclusions provide a solid basis for novel design of energetic interfaces with desired properties and offers a new perspective in the field of explosive materials and devices.

  13. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (∼2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size. PMID:26961901

  14. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-03-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (~2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size.

  15. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (∼2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size. PMID:26961901

  16. [The major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries and their significance for the near future].

    PubMed

    Lisitsyn, Iu P; Zhuravleva, T V

    2012-01-01

    Among major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries considered as the most outstanding contribution are the development of theory of system of control of functions of organism and its integrity by I.P. Pavlov and his disciples and followers: the concept of psycho-somatic medicine by Z. Freud and social psychology; the theory of stress and general adaptive syndrome by H. Selye and the discovering of nature of many infectious and parasitic diseases. Then establishment of pathogenic impact of extra-environmental factors, decoding of gene chromosomal structure of organism, development of genetic engineering, effective pharmaceuticals, and techniques of treatment and prevention of various inherent and acquired diseases also can be put into this category. The achievements and discoveries in the area of public health, social medicine and hygiene and development of concept of healthy life-style are discussed too. PMID:23350086

  17. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in Office Buildings, Advanced Energy Design Guides: Office Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing new office buildings that result in 50% less energy use than conventional designs meeting minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Small to Medium Office Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use office buildings with gross floor areas up to 100,000 ft2 (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller office buildings with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of office buildings.

  18. Achieving 50% Energy Savings in New Schools, Advanced Energy Design Guides: K-12 Schools (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This fact sheet summarizes recommendations for designing elementary, middle, and high school buildings that will result in 50% less energy use than conventional new schools built to minimum code requirements. The recommendations are drawn from the Advanced Energy Design Guide for K-12 School Buildings, an ASHRAE publication that provides comprehensive recommendations for designing low-energy-use school buildings (see sidebar). Designed as a stand-alone document, this fact sheet provides key principles and a set of prescriptive design recommendations appropriate for smaller schools with insufficient budgets to fully implement best practices for integrated design and optimized performance. The recommendations have undergone a thorough analysis and review process through ASHRAE, and have been deemed the best combination of measures to achieve 50% savings in the greatest number of schools.

  19. A keyword spotting model using perceptually significant energy features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umakanthan, Padmalochini

    The task of a keyword recognition system is to detect the presence of certain words in a conversation based on the linguistic information present in human speech. Such keyword spotting systems have applications in homeland security, telephone surveillance and human-computer interfacing. General procedure of a keyword spotting system involves feature generation and matching. In this work, new set of features that are based on the psycho-acoustic masking nature of human speech are proposed. After developing these features a time aligned pattern matching process was implemented to locate the words in a set of unknown words. A word boundary detection technique based on frame classification using the nonlinear characteristics of speech is also addressed in this work. Validation of this keyword spotting model was done using widely acclaimed Cepstral features. The experimental results indicate the viability of using these perceptually significant features as an augmented feature set in keyword spotting.

  20. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; van Ruijven, Bas J.; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2013-06-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US200565-86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially.

  1. Attitudes toward nuclear energy: One potential path for achieving scientific literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, Richard E.; Dulski, Rosalie E.; Raven, Ronald J.

    The widespread problem of the scientific literacy of the general public has been previously acknowledged. However, an uninformed populace can jeapordize the future direction of major science-related public policy issues, such as nuclear energy, by basing their support on generally emotional or nonfactual grounds. As part of a larger study aimed at concurrently identifying the attitudes of secondary school students toward several science-related topical areas (i.e., nuclear energy, environmental issues, energy concepts, science concepts, space exploration, and metrication), a nine-item Nuclear Attitude Instrument (NA!) was developed. This scale was subsequently validated and administered to a sample of grade 9 and 10 students (N = 172) of average achievement and ability, at a predominantly middle-class suburban high school in New York State. Yielding a coefficient alpha of O.87 and a corrected itemtotal correlation mean of O.61, the NAI responses displayed statistically significant topical area correlations (p < 0.01) with environmental issues (inverse), energy concepts (inverse) and space exploration (direct). Presented in the format of a factor analytic path model, nuclear energy Was also found to be incorporated in a distal rather than a proximal attitudinal structure among the respondents. These relationships bear educators' consideration during both course content material selection and curriculum design, for the purpose of positively enhancing students' attitudinal development toward science-related topical areas.

  2. Measuring Academic Achievement of Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities: Building Understanding of Alternate Assessment Scoring Criteria. Synthesis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Thompson, Sandra; Thurlow, Martha

    This report compares the assumptions and values embedded in scoring criteria used in five states (Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Oregon, and Vermont) for alternate assessments of students with significant cognitive disabilities. The five states use different alternate assessment approaches, including portfolio assessment, performance assessment,…

  3. 78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Rural Utilities Service Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact... (RUS) has made a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for implementing its new Energy Efficiency... 12 to authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to reduce demand on...

  4. Primary TKA Patients with Quantifiably Balanced Soft-Tissue Achieve Significant Clinical Gains Sooner than Unbalanced Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gustke, Kenneth A.; Golladay, Gregory J.; Roche, Martin W.; Elson, Leah C.; Anderson, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Although total knee arthroplasty has a high success rate, poor outcomes and early revision are associated with ligament imbalance. This multicenter evaluation was performed in order to provide 1-year followup of a previously reported group of patients who had sensor-assisted TKA, comparing the clinical outcomes of quantitatively balanced versus unbalanced patients. At 1 year, the balanced cohort scored 179.3 and 10.4 in KSS and WOMAC, respectively; the unbalanced cohort scored 156.1 and 17.9 in KSS and WOMAC (P < 0.001; P = 0.085). The average activity level scores of quantitatively balanced patients were 68.6 (corresponding to tennis, light jogging, and heavy yard work), while the average activity level of unbalanced patients was 46.7 (corresponding to light housework, and limited walking distances) (P = 0.015). Out of all confounding variables, a balanced articulation was the most significant contributing factor to improved postoperative outcomes (P < 0.001). PMID:25210632

  5. Significant Discrepancies between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement with a College Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, Shawn Amig; Salvia, John

    1986-01-01

    Significant differences were found between college freshmen science (N=50) and nonscience (N=50) majors who were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Revised (WAIS-R) and the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery, Part II: Tests of Achievement. (Author/CB)

  6. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  7. 76 FR 142 - Notice of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Final Determination for Russell City Energy Center

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... AGENCY Notice of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Final Determination for Russell City Energy... Petitions for Review of a Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permit issued to Russell City Energy Center, LLC by the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (``BAAQMD''). DATES:...

  8. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes. National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Marcus V.A.

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified by researchers from four national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes.

  9. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  10. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy.

  11. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  12. Carrots and Sticks: A Comprehensive Business Model for the Successful Achievement of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards Environmental Energy Technologies DivisionMarch 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Satchwell, Andrew; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2011-03-22

    Energy efficiency resource standards (EERS) are a prominent strategy to potentially achieve rapid and aggressive energy savings goals in the U.S. As of December 2010, twenty-six U.S. states had some form of an EERS with savings goals applicable to energy efficiency (EE) programs paid for by utility customers. The European Union has initiated a similar type of savings goal, the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive, where it is being implemented in some countries through direct partnership with regulated electric utilities. U.S. utilities face significant financial disincentives under traditional regulation which affects the interest of shareholders and managers in aggressively pursuing cost-effective energy efficiency. Regulators are considering some combination of mandated goals ('sticks') and alternative utility business model components ('carrots' such as performance incentives) to align the utility's business and financial interests with state and federal energy efficiency public policy goals. European countries that have directed their utilities to administer EE programs have generally relied on non-binding mandates and targets; in the U.S., most state regulators have increasingly viewed 'carrots' as a necessary condition for successful achievement of energy efficiency goals and targets. In this paper, we analyze the financial impacts of an EERS on a large electric utility in the State of Arizona using a pro-forma utility financial model, including impacts on utility earnings, customer bills and rates. We demonstrate how a viable business model can be designed to improve the business case while retaining sizable ratepayer benefits. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other countries looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own utility-administered EE programs.

  13. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  14. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  15. Challenges and Opportunities To Achieve 50% Energy Savings in Homes: National Laboratory White Papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, M. V. A.

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, researchers from four of the national laboratories involved in residential research (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) were asked to prepare papers focusing on the key longer term research challenges, market barriers, and technology gaps that must be addressed to achieve the longer term 50% saving goal for Building America to ensure coordination with the Building America industry teams who are focusing their research on systems to achieve the near-term 30% savings goal. Although new construction was included, the focus of the effort was on deep energy retrofits of existing homes. This report summarizes the key opportunities, gaps, and barriers identified in the national laboratory white papers.

  16. Significantly enhanced energy output from 3D ordered macroporous structured Fe2O3/Al nanothermite film.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenchao; Yin, Baoqing; Shen, Ruiqi; Ye, Jiahai; Thomas, Jason A; Chao, Yimin

    2013-01-23

    A three-dimensionally ordered macroporous Fe(2)O(3)/Al nanothermite membrane has been prepared with a polystyrene spheres template. The nanothermite, with an enhanced interfacial contact between fuel and oxidizer, outputs 2.83 kJ g(-1) of energy. This is significantly more than has been reported before. This approach, fully compatible with MEMS technology, provides an efficient way to produce micrometer thick three-dimensionally ordered nanostructured thermite films with overall spatial uniformity. These exciting achievements will greatly facilitate potential for the future development of applications of nanothermites. PMID:23276147

  17. Effect of the energy-environment simulator on achievement, attitudes, and behavior relative to energy-education concepts systematically replicated in higher education

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study was a systematic replication of a study by Stagliano (1981). Additional hypotheses concerning pretest, student major, and student section variance were tested. Achievement in energy knowledge and conservation attitudes attained by (a) lecture-discussion enriched with the Energy-Environment Simulator and (b) lecture-discussion methods of instruction were measured. Energy knowledge was measured on the Energy Knowledge Assessment Test (EKAT), and attitudes were measured on the Youth Energy Survey (YES), the Lecture-discussion simulation (LDS) used a two hour out-of-class activity in debriefing. The population consisted of 142 college student volunteers randomly selected, and assigned to one of two groups of 71 students for each treatment. Stagliano used three groups (n = 35), one group receiving an energy-game treatment. Both studies used the pretest-posttest true experimental design. The present study included 28 hypotheses, eight of which were found to be significant. Stagliano used 12 hypotheses, all of which were rejected. The present study hypothesized that students who received the LDS treatment would obtain significantly higher scores on the EKAT and the YES instruments. Results showed that significance was found (alpha level .05) on the EKAT and also found on the YES total subscale when covaried for effects of pretest, student major, and student section. When covarying the effects of pretest scores only, significance was found on the EKAT. All YES hypotheses were rejected.

  18. The quality transformation: A catalyst for achieving energy`s strategic vision

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the initial six corporate quality goals for DOE. It also includes accompanying performance measures which will help DOE determine progress towards meeting these goals. The six goals are: (1) There is effective use of performance measurement based on regular assessment of Energy operations using the Presidential Award for Quality, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, or equivalent criteria. (2) All managers champion continuous quality improvement training for all employees through planning, attendance, and active application. (3) The Department leadership has provided the environment in which employees are enabled to satisfy customer requirements and realize their full potential. (4) The Department management practices foster employee involvement, development and recognition. (5) The Department continuously improves customer service and satisfaction, and internal and external customers recognize Energy as an excellent service provider. (6) The Department has a system which aligns strategic and operational planning with strategic intent, ensures this planning drives resource allocation, provides for regular evaluation of results, and provides feedback.

  19. Is the Consumption of Energy Drinks Associated With Academic Achievement Among College Students?

    PubMed

    Champlin, Sara E; Pasch, Keryn E; Perry, Cheryl L

    2016-08-01

    Despite widely reported side effects, use of energy drinks has increased among college students, who report that they consume energy drinks to help them complete schoolwork. However, little is known about the association between energy drink use and academic performance. We explored the relationship between energy drink consumption and current academic grade point average (GPA) among first-year undergraduate students. Participants included 844 first-year undergraduates (58.1 % female; 50.7 % White). Students reported their health behaviors via an online survey. We measured energy drink consumption with two measures: past month consumption by number of drinks usually consumed in 1 month and number consumed during the last occasion of consumption. We used multiple linear regression modeling with energy drink consumption and current GPA, controlling for gender, race, weekend and weekday sleep duration, perceived stress, perceived stress management, media use, and past month alcohol use. We found that past month energy drink consumption quantity by frequency (p < 0.001), and energy drinks consumed during the last occasion (p < 0.001), were associated with a lower GPA. Energy drinks consumed during the last occasion of consumption (p = 0.01) remained significantly associated with a lower GPA when controlling for alcohol use. While students report using energy drinks for school-related reasons, our findings suggest that greater energy drink consumption is associated with a lower GPA, even after controlling for potential confounding variables. Longitudinal research is needed that addresses whether GPA declines after continued use of energy drinks or if students struggling academically turn to energy drinks to manage their schoolwork. PMID:27236788

  20. Domestic wastewater treatment as a net energy producer--can this be achieved?

    PubMed

    McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2011-09-01

    In seeking greater sustainability in water resources management, wastewater is now being considered more as a resource than as a waste-a resource for water, for plant nutrients, and for energy. Energy, the primary focus of this article, can be obtained from wastewater's organic as well as from its thermal content. Also, using wastewater's nitrogen and P nutrients for plant fertilization, rather than wasting them, helps offset the high energy cost of producing synthetic fertilizers. Microbial fuel cells offer potential for direct biological conversion of wastewater's organic materials into electricity, although significant improvements are needed for this process to be competitive with anaerobic biological conversion of wastewater organics into biogas, a renewable fuel used in electricity generation. Newer membrane processes coupled with complete anaerobic treatment of wastewater offer the potential for wastewater treatment to become a net generator of energy, rather than the large energy consumer that it is today. PMID:21749111

  1. Energy efficiency enhancements for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software achieved in cool silicon cluster project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, Frank; Mikolajick, Thomas; Fettweis, Gerhard; Hentschel, Dieter; Kolodinski, Sabine; Warnecke, Helmut; Reppe, Thomas; Tzschoppe, Christoph; Dohl, Jan; Carta, Corrado; Fritsche, David; Tretter, Gregor; Wiatr, Maciej; Detlef Kronholz, Stefan; Mikalo, Ricardo Pablo; Heinrich, Harald; Paulo, Robert; Wolf, Robert; Hübner, Johannes; Waltsgott, Johannes; Meißner, Klaus; Richter, Robert; Michler, Oliver; Bausinger, Markus; Mehlich, Heiko; Hahmann, Martin; Möller, Henning; Wiemer, Maik; Holland, Hans-Jürgen; Gärtner, Roberto; Schubert, Stefan; Richter, Alexander; Strobel, Axel; Fehske, Albrecht; Cech, Sebastian; Aßmann, Uwe; Pawlak, Andreas; Schröter, Michael; Finger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Walter, Dennis; Eisenreich, Holger; Schüffny, René

    2013-07-01

    An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at < 200 W/m2 irradiation; 0.99 power factor, 87% efficiency and 0.088 distortion factor for dc supplies; 1 ns synchronization resolution via Ethernet; database accelerators allowing 85% energy savings for servers; adaptive software yielding energy reduction of 73% for e-Commerce applications; processors and corresponding data links with 40% and 70% energy savings, respectively, by adaption of clock frequency and supply voltage in less than 20 ns; clock generator chip with tunable frequency from 83-666 MHz and 0.62-1.6 mW dc power; 90 Gb/s on-chip link over 6 mm and efficiency of 174 fJ/mm; dynamic biasing system doubling efficiency in power amplifiers; 60 GHz BiCMOS frontends with dc power to bandwidth ratio of 0.17 mW/MHz; driver assistance systems reducing energy consumption by 10% in cars Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  2. Attenuation of 10 MeV electron beam energy to achieve low doses does not affect Salmonella spp. inactivation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieke, Anne-Sophie Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh D.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV electron beam on Salmonella inactivation kinetics was investigated. No statistically significant differences were observed between the D10 values of either Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- or a Salmonella cocktail (S. 4,[5],12:i:-, Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Newport, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella) when irradiated with either a non-attenuated 10 MeV eBeam or an attenuated 10 MeV eBeam (~2.9±0.22 MeV). The results show that attenuating the energy of a 10 MeV eBeam to achieve low doses does not affect the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella spp. when compared to direct 10 MeV eBeam irradiation.

  3. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharski, Timothy J.; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M.; Zheng, Jennie O.; Nocera, Daniel G.; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol-1, and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  4. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain. PMID:24755597

  5. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharski, TJ; Ferralis, N; Kolpak, AM; Zheng, JO; Nocera, DG; Grossman, JC

    2014-04-13

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  6. Performance Achievements and Challenges for FELs based on Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2006-08-27

    During the past decade several groups have assembled free electron lasers based on energy recovered linacs (ERLs). Such arrangements have been built to obtain high average power electron and photon beams, by using high repetition rate beam pulses driving FEL oscillators. In this paper the performance of many existing and several proposed facilities from around the world are reviewed. Going forward, many questions must be addressed to achieve still better performance including: higher average current injectors, better optimized accelerating cavities, higher energy acceptance and lower loss beam recirculation systems, and better optical cavity designs for dealing with the optical beam power circulating in the ERL FELs. This paper presents some of the current thinking on each of these issues.

  7. Significance of Dynamic and Transient Analysis in the Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Mayank; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Hovsapian, Rob; Osorio, Julian D.

    2015-02-01

    Energy systems were historically designed and operated with a specific energy conversion objective, while managing loads and resources. In the recent years, the increased utilization of non-dispatchable renewable sources such as wind and solar has played a role in power quality and the reliability of power systems. In order to mitigate the risk associated with the non-dispatchable resources an integrated approach, such as Hybrid Energy Systems (HES), has to be taken, integrating the loads and resource management between the traditional thermal power plants and the non-dispatchable resources. As our electric energy becomes more diverse in its generation resources, the HES with its operational control system, its real-time view and its dynamic decisions making will become an essential part of the integrated energy systems and improve the overall grid reliability. The operational constraints of the energy sources on both the thermal power plants and the non-dispatchable resources in HES, plays a vital role in the planning and design stage. It is an established fact that the choice of energy source depends on the available natural resources and possible infrastructure. A critical component of decision-making depends on the complementary nature and controllability of the energy sources to supply the load demands with high reliability. Controllability of complex HES to achieve desired performance and flexibility is implemented via coordinated control systems while simultaneously generating electricity and other useful products such as useful heat or hydrogen. These systems are based on instrumentation, signal processing, control theory, and engineering system design. The entire HES along with the control systems are characterized by widely varying time constants. Hence, for a well-coordinated control and operation, we propose physics based modeling of the subsystems to assist in a dynamic and transient analysis. Dynamic and transient analysis in real and non-real time

  8. A Survey Study of Significent Achievements Accomplished By Snon-mainstreamt Seismologists In ¸ Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction Science In China Since 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I. W.

    Since 1990, the author, a British U Chinese consultant, has studied and followed the significant achievements accomplished by Snon-mainstreamT seismologists in & cedil;earthquake prediction in China since 1970. The scientific systems used include: (1) Astronomy-seismology: The relativity between special positions of certain planets (es- pecially the moon and another planet) relative to the seismic active areas on the earth and the occurrence time of major damaging earthquakes in these areas on the earth, the relativity between the dates of magnetic storms on the earth and the occurrence dates of major damaging earthquakes on the earth, as well as certain cycle relativity be- tween the occurrence dates of major historical earthquakes occurring in relative areas on the earth. (2) Precursor analysis: With own-developed sensors and instruments, nu- merous precursors were recorded. In most cases, these precursors can not be detected by conventional seismological sensors/instruments. Through exploratory practice and theoretical studies, various relativity between different characteristics of the precur- sors, and the occurrence time, epicenter location and magnitude of the developing earthquake were identified and can be calculated. Through approaches quite differ- ent to conventional methods, successful predictions of quite a large number of earth- quakes have been achieved, including earthquakes that occurred in mainland China, Taiwan and Japan. (3) Earthquake imminent affirmative confirmation: With a special instrument, the background of imminent state of earthquakes can be identified, and a universal earthquake imminent signal is further identified. It can be used to confirm if an earlier predicted earthquake is entering its imminent state, if it will definitely occur, or if an earlier prediction can be released. (4) 5km, 7km and 10km depth com- parative terrestrial stress survey measurement to identify earthquake focus zones in surveyed areas. Then, with an eight

  9. A Survey Study of Significent Achievements Accomplished By Snon-mainstreamt Seismologists In ¸ Earthquake Monitoring and Prediction Science In China Since 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I. W.

    Since 1990, the author, a British U Chinese consultant, has studied and followed the significant achievements accomplished by Snon-mainstreamT seismologists in ¸ earthquake prediction in China since 1970. The scientific systems used include: (1) Astronomy-seismology: The relativity between special positions of certain planets (es- pecially the moon and another planet) relative to the seismic active areas on the earth and the occurrence time of major damaging earthquakes in these areas on the earth, the relativity between the dates of magnetic storms on the earth and the occurrence dates of major damaging earthquakes on the earth, as well as certain cycle relativity be- tween the occurrence dates of major historical earthquakes occurring in relative areas on the earth. (2) Precursor analysis: With own-developed sensors and instruments, nu- merous precursors were recorded. In most cases, these precursors can not be detected by conventional seismological sensors/instruments. Through exploratory practice and theoretical studies, various relativity between different characteristics of the precur- sors, and the occurrence time, epicenter location and magnitude of the developing earthquake were identified and can be calculated. Through approaches quite differ- ent to conventional methods, successful predictions of quite a large number of earth- quakes have been achieved, including earthquakes that occurred in mainland China, Taiwan and Japan. (3) Earthquake imminent affirmative confirmation: With a special instrument, the background of imminent state of earthquakes can be identified, and a universal earthquake imminent signal is further identified. It can be used to confirm if an earlier predicted earthquake is entering its imminent state, if it will definitely occur, or if an earlier prediction can be released. (4) 5km, 7km and 10km depth com- parative terrestrial stress survey measurement to identify earthquake focus zones in surveyed areas. Then, with an eight

  10. Analytic Methods for Predicting Significant Multi-Quanta Effects in Collisional Molecular Energy Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bieniek, Ronald J.

    1996-01-01

    Collision-induced transitions can significantly affect molecular vibrational-rotational populations and energy transfer in atmospheres and gaseous systems. This, in turn. can strongly influence convective heat transfer through dissociation and recombination of diatomics. and radiative heat transfer due to strong vibrational coupling. It is necessary to know state-to-state rates to predict engine performance and aerothermodynamic behavior of hypersonic flows, to analyze diagnostic radiative data obtained from experimental test facilities, and to design heat shields and other thermal protective systems. Furthermore, transfer rates between vibrational and translational modes can strongly influence energy flow in various 'disturbed' environments, particularly where the vibrational and translational temperatures are not equilibrated.

  11. Flooded Underground Coal Mines: A Significant Source of Inexpensive Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E.

    2007-04-01

    Many mining regions in the United States contain extensive areas of flooded underground mines. The water within these mines represents a significant and widespread opportunity for extracting low-grade, geothermal energy. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce the annual costs for heating to over 70 percent compared to conventional heating methods (natural gas or heating oil). These same systems could reduce annual cooling costs by up to 50 percent over standard air conditioning in many areas of the country. (Formatted full-text version is released by permission of publisher)

  12. Wind energy as a significant source of electricity for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, R.G.

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses wind energy and its potential to significantly impact the generation of electricity within the US. The principles and the equipment used to convert wind energy to electricity are described, as is the status of current technology. Markets and production projections are given. There is discussion of the advances required to reduce the selling cost of electricity generated from the wind from today`s price of about $0.05 per kilowatt-hour to full cost-competitiveness with gas- and coal-based electricity.

  13. Achieving the 30% Goal: Energy and Cost Savings Analysis of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Wang, Weimin; Xie, YuLong; Zhang, Jian; Cho, Heejin; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Liu, Bing

    2011-05-24

    This Technical Support Document presents the energy and cost savings analysis that PNNL conducted to measure the potential energy savings of 90.1-2010 relative to 90.1-2004. PNNL conducted this analysis with inputs from many other contributors and source of information. In particular, guidance and direction was provided by the Simulation Working Group under the auspices of the SSPC90.1. This report documents the approach and methodologies that PNNL developed to evaluate the energy saving achieved from use of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010. Specifically, this report provides PNNL’s Progress Indicator process and methodology, EnergyPlus simulation framework, prototype model descriptions. This report covers the combined upgrades from 90.1-2004 to 90.1-2010, resulting in a total of 153 addenda. PNNL has reviewed and considered all 153 addenda for quantitative analysis in the Progress Indicator process. 53 of those are included in the quantitative analysis. This report provides information on the categorization of all of the addenda, a summary of the content, and deeper explanation of the impact and modeling of 53 identified addenda with quantitative savings.

  14. Achievement of Runaway Electron Energy Dissipation by High-Z Gas Injection in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, E. M.

    2014-10-01

    Disruption runaway electron (RE) formation followed by RE beam-wall strikes is a concern for future tokamaks, motivating the study of mitigation techniques to reduce the RE beam energy in a controlled manner. A promising approach for doing this is the injection of high-Z gas into the RE beam. Massive (100 torr-l) injection of high-Z gas into RE beams in DIII-D is shown to significantly dissipate both RE magnetic and kinetic energy. For example, injection of argon into a typical 300 kA current RE beam is observed to cause a drop in kinetic energy from 50 kJ to 10 kJ in 10 ms, thus rapidly reducing the damage-causing capability of the RE beam. Both the RE kinetic energy and pitch angle are important for determining the resulting wall damage, with high energy, high pitch angle electrons typically considered most dangerous. The RE energy distribution is found to be more skewed toward low energies than predicted by avalanche theory. The pitch angle is not found to be constant, as is frequently assumed, but is shown to drop from sin(θ) ~ 1 for energies less than 1 MeV to sin(θ) ~ 0 . 2 for energies greater than 10 MeV. Injection of high-Z impurities does not appear to change the overall shape of the energy or pitch angle distributions dramatically. The enhanced RE energy dissipation appears to be caused primarily via collisions with the cold plasma leading to line radiation. Synchrotron power loss only becomes significant in the absence of high-Z impurities, while radial transport loss of REs is seen to become dominant if the RE beam moves sufficiently close to the vessel walls. The experiments demonstrate that avalanche theory somewhat underestimates collisional dissipation of REs in the presence of high-Z atoms, even in the absence of radial transport losses, meaning that reducing RE wall damage in large tokamaks should be easier than previously expected. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-07ER54917 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  15. Achieving Land, Energy, and Environmental Compatibility: Utility-Scale Solar Energy Potential and Land-Use in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Field, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Solar energy is an archetype renewable energy technology with great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when substituted for carbon-intensive energy. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., > 1 MW) necessitates large quantities of space making the efficient use of land for USSE development critical to realizing its full potential. However, studies elucidating the interaction between land-use and utility-scale solar energy (USSE) are limited. In this study, we assessed 1) the theoretical and technical potential of terrestrial-based USSE systems, and 2) land-use and land-cover change impacts from actual USSE installations (> 20 MW; planned, under construction, operating), using California as a case study due to its early adoption of renewable energy systems, unique constraints on land availability, immense energy demand, and vast natural resources. We used topo-climatic (e.g., slope, irradiance), infrastructural (e.g., proximity to transmission lines), and ecological constraints (e.g., threatened and endangered species) to determine highly favorable, favorable, and unfavorable locations for USSE and to assess its technical potential. We found that the theoretical potential of photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) in California is 26,097 and 29,422 kWh/m2/day, respectively. We identified over 150 planned, under construction, and operating USSE installations in California, ranging in size from 20 to 1,000 MW. Currently, 29% are located on shrub- and scrublands, 23% on cultivated crop land, 13% on pasture/hay areas, 11% on grassland/herbaceous and developed open space, and 7% in the built environment. Understanding current land-use decisions of USSE systems and assessing its future potential can be instructive for achieving land, energy, and environmental compatibility, especially for other global regions that share similar resource demands and limitations.

  16. The perceptual significance of high-frequency energy in the human voice

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Brian B.; Hunter, Eric J.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Story, Brad H.

    2014-01-01

    While human vocalizations generate acoustical energy at frequencies up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy at frequencies above about 5 kHz has traditionally been neglected in speech perception research. The intent of this paper is to review (1) the historical reasons for this research trend and (2) the work that continues to elucidate the perceptual significance of high-frequency energy (HFE) in speech and singing. The historical and physical factors reveal that, while HFE was believed to be unnecessary and/or impractical for applications of interest, it was never shown to be perceptually insignificant. Rather, the main causes for focus on low-frequency energy appear to be because the low-frequency portion of the speech spectrum was seen to be sufficient (from a perceptual standpoint), or the difficulty of HFE research was too great to be justifiable (from a technological standpoint). The advancement of technology continues to overcome concerns stemming from the latter reason. Likewise, advances in our understanding of the perceptual effects of HFE now cast doubt on the first cause. Emerging evidence indicates that HFE plays a more significant role than previously believed, and should thus be considered in speech and voice perception research, especially in research involving children and the hearing impaired. PMID:24982643

  17. The perceptual significance of high-frequency energy in the human voice.

    PubMed

    Monson, Brian B; Hunter, Eric J; Lotto, Andrew J; Story, Brad H

    2014-01-01

    While human vocalizations generate acoustical energy at frequencies up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy at frequencies above about 5 kHz has traditionally been neglected in speech perception research. The intent of this paper is to review (1) the historical reasons for this research trend and (2) the work that continues to elucidate the perceptual significance of high-frequency energy (HFE) in speech and singing. The historical and physical factors reveal that, while HFE was believed to be unnecessary and/or impractical for applications of interest, it was never shown to be perceptually insignificant. Rather, the main causes for focus on low-frequency energy appear to be because the low-frequency portion of the speech spectrum was seen to be sufficient (from a perceptual standpoint), or the difficulty of HFE research was too great to be justifiable (from a technological standpoint). The advancement of technology continues to overcome concerns stemming from the latter reason. Likewise, advances in our understanding of the perceptual effects of HFE now cast doubt on the first cause. Emerging evidence indicates that HFE plays a more significant role than previously believed, and should thus be considered in speech and voice perception research, especially in research involving children and the hearing impaired. PMID:24982643

  18. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. PMID:26193310

  19. Design guidelines to achieve minimum energy operation for ultra low voltage tunneling FET logic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuketa, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Koichi; Mori, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroyuki; Takamiya, Makoto; Sakurai, Takayasu

    2015-04-01

    A tunneling field effect transistor (TFET) attracts attention, because TFET circuits can achieve better energy efficiency than conventional MOSFET circuits. Although design issues in ultra low voltage logic circuits, such as the minimum operatable voltage (VDDmin), have been investigated for MOSFET’s, VDDmin for TFET’s have not been discussed. In this paper, VDDmin of TFET logic circuits is evaluated for the first time and a closed-form expression of VDDmin is derived, which indicates that the within-die threshold voltage variation (σVT) strongly affects VDDmin. In addition, since it is not clear how much the energy of the logic circuits is quantitatively reduced when both the subthreshold swing (S) and the power supply voltage are reduced, an analytical equation of the minimum energy of TFET logic circuits is also derived. From the derived equations, the design guideline is presented for the device engineers of TFET’s that σVT should be reduced as S decreases.

  20. Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, J. J.; Clark, D. P.; Chilla, J. L. A.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.; Marconi, M. C.

    1996-11-01

    There is significant interest in the demonstration of compact soft x-ray amplifiers capable of generating pulses of substantial energy for applications. This motivates the demonstration of gain media generated by compact devices, that can be successfully scaled in length to reach gain saturation. To date, gain saturation had only been achieved in a few soft x-ray laser lines in plasmas generated by some of the world's largest laser facilities.(B. J. MacGowan et al.), Phys. Fluids B 4, 2326 (1992); A. Carillon et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 68, 2917 (1992);B. Rus et al., in AIP Conf. Proc. 332, X-ray lasers 1994, p. 152; S. Wang et al., ibid., p. 293. Previosly we reported large amplification at 46.9 nm in Ne-like argon in a plasma column generated by a fast capillary discharge.(J. J. Rocca et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2192 (1994). Herein we report the generation of laser pulse energies up to 30 μJ at 46.9 nm in such discharge and the first clear evidence of gain saturation of a table-top soft x-ray amplifier. Single pass amplification experiments yielded laser pulse energies up to 6 μJ and double pass amplification using an iridium mirror yielded 30 μJ. The observed saturation of the gain and laser pulse energy are in good agreement with the results of radiation transport calculations. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.

  1. Achieving cheap clean energy for all in the 21^st Century?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Rajan

    2006-11-01

    Energy is essential for modern life and is a critical resource that we take for granted. Unfortunately, we are increasingly confronted by many unsettling questions: Is there enough cheap oil and gas remaining and should we start changing our life styles towards energy efficiency? What will be the price of oil and gas next year and will we face shortages? Are rising prices reflective of greed and manipulation or geopolitics or of real constraints? Will renewable sources provide a significant fraction of our energy needs? Is global warming already happening and is it a result of our ``addiction to oil''? If the answer to these is ``yes'', then what can we, as individuals, do to help ourselves, the nation, and the world? This talk will attempt to answer these questions by examining the global oil, gas and other resources, emerging constraints and opportunities, and geopolitics.

  2. Fast Ignition: Physics Progress in the US Fusion Energy Program and Prospects for Achieving Ignition.

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M H; Andersen, C; Cowan, T; Fisch, N; Freeman, R; Hatchett, S; Hill, J; King, J; Koch, J; Lasinski, B; Langdon, B; MacKinnon, A; Parks, P; Rosenbluth, M; Ruhl, H; Snavely, R; Stephens, R; Tabak, M; Town, R

    2002-10-16

    Fast ignition (FI) has significant potential advantages for inertial fusion energy and it is therefore being studied as an exploratory concept in the US fusion energy program. FI is based on short pulse isochoric heating of pre-compressed DT by intense beams of laser accelerated MeV electrons or protons. Recent experimental progress in the study of these two heating processes is discussed. The goal is to benchmark new models in order to predict accurately the requirements for full-scale fast ignition. An overview is presented of the design and experimental testing of a cone target implosion concept for fast ignition. Future prospects and conceptual designs for larger scale FI experiments using planned high energy petawatt upgrades of major lasers in the US are outlined. A long-term roadmap for FI is defined.

  3. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    generation technologies will continue to exceed the price of US grid electricity in almost all locations. Strategies to minimize whole-house energy demand generally involve some combination of the following measures: optimization of surface (area) to volume ratio; optimization of solar orientation; reduction of envelope loads; systems-based engineering of high efficiency HVAC components, and on-site power generation. A 'Base Case' home energy model was constructed, to enable the team to quantitatively evaluate the merits of various home energy efficiency measures. This Base Case home was designed to have an energy use profile typical of most newly constructed homes in the Champaign-Urbana, Illinois area, where the competition is scheduled to be held. The model was created with the EnergyGauge USA software package, a front-end for the DOE-2 building energy simulation tool; the home is a 2,000 square foot, two-story building with an unconditioned basement, gas heating, a gas hot-water heater, and a family of four. The model specifies the most significant details of a home that can impact its energy use, including location, insulation values, air leakage, heating/cooling systems, lighting, major appliances, hot water use, and other plug loads. EFHC contestants and judges should pay special attention to the Base Case model's defined 'service characteristics' of home amenities such as lighting and appliances. For example, a typical home refrigerator is assumed to have a built-in freezer, automatic (not manual) defrost, and an interior volume of 26 cubic feet. The Base Case home model is described in more detail in Section IV and Appendix B.

  4. Furnace veneering systems of special design help achieve energy reduction goals at Armco

    SciTech Connect

    Caspersen, L.J.

    1982-12-01

    A steel company conserves energy by veneering reheat furnaces with a ceramic fiber modular system. The furnace lining system incorporates several grades of veneering materials (modules, cements, coatings) whose application is matched to the exact conditions in the furnace. Zoned linings utilize a combination of grades of alumina-silica modules to achieve thermally efficient yet durable performance. High temperature cements exhibit good tackiness, easy module penetration and high strength retention after firing. A protective coating is sprayed in a thin layer over the modules and can be easily reapplied at a later date should it be necessary. Benefits include greater thermal control (temperature responsiveness and heating uniformity), less over-firing, less fuel use, and less heat loss. Fuel efficiency is increased by 20 to 50%.

  5. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-02-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade students classified in three ability level tracks. Data were gathered through pre/posttest content knowledge assessments, daily classroom observations, and daily reflective meetings with the teacher. Findings indicated a significant increase in the energy content knowledge for all the students. Effect sizes were large for all three ability level tracks, with the middle and low track classes having larger effect sizes than the upper track class. Learners in all three tracks were highly engaged with the curriculum. Curriculum effectiveness and practical issues involved with using geospatial technologies to support science learning are discussed.

  6. Low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency of government office buildings: A case study in federal territory of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Ibrahim, Amlus

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study to achieve energy-efficient performance of conventional office buildings in Malaysia. Two multi-storey office buildings in Federal Territory of Malaysia have been selected. The aim is to study building energy saving potential then to highlight the appropriate measures that can be implemented. Data was collected using benchmarking method by comparing the measured consumption to other similar office buildings and a series of preliminary audit which involves interviews, a brief review of utility and operating data as well as a walkthrough in the buildings. Additionally, in order to get a better understanding of major energy consumption in the selected buildings, general audit have been conducted to collect more detailed information about building operation. In the end, this study emphasized low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency with significant results in some cases.

  7. On the maximum energy achievable in the first order Fermi acceleration at shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grozny, I.; Diamond, P.; Malkov, M.

    2002-11-01

    Astrophysical shocks are considered as the sites of cosmic ray (CR) production. The primary mechanism is the diffusive shock (Fermi) acceleration which operates via multiple shock recrossing by a particle. Its efficiency, the rate of energy gain, and the maximum energy are thus determined by the transport mechanisms (confinement to the shock) of these particles in a turbulent shock environment. The turbulence is believed to be generated by accelerated particles themselves. Moreover, in the most interesting case of efficient acceleration the entire MHD shock structure is dominated by their pressure. This makes this problem one of the challenging strongly nonlinear problems of astrophysics. We suggest a physical model that describes particle acceleration, shock structure and the CR driven turbulence on an equal footing. The key new element in this scheme is nonlinear cascading of the MHD turbulence on self-excited (via modulational and Drury instability) sound-like perturbations which gives rise to a significant enrichment of the long wave part of the MHD spectrum. This is critical for the calculation of the maximum energy.

  8. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-06-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively.

  9. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400-800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*10(5) tons of standard coal and 1.74*10(6) tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  10. Achieving waste to energy through sewage sludge gasification using hot slags: syngas production

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongqi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-01-01

    To relieve the environmental issues of sewage sludge (SS) disposal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in China, we proposed an integrated method for the first time to simultaneously deal with these two problems. The hot slags below 920 °C could act as a good heat carrier for sludge gasification and the increasing CO2 concentration in CO2/O2 atmospheres enhanced the production of CO and H2 at 400–800 °C. Three stages of syngas release were clearly identified by Gaussian fittings, i.e., volatile release, char transformation and fixed carbon reaction. Additionally, the effect of sulfur retention of slags and the synergy effect of the stabilization of toxic elements in the solid residuals were discovered in this study. Furthermore, a novel prototype of multiple industrial and urban systems was put forward, in which the produced CO + H2 could be utilized for direct reduced iron (DRI) production and the solid residuals of sludge ash and glassy slags would be applied as cementitious materials. For a steel plant with an annual production of crude steel of 10 million tons in China, the total annual energy saving and GHG emission reduction achieved are 3.31*105 tons of standard coal and 1.74*106 tons of CO2, respectively. PMID:26074060

  11. Sustainable energy for all. Technical report of task force 1 in support of the objective to achieve universal access to modern energy services by 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Birol, Fatih

    2012-04-15

    The UN Secretary General established the Sustainable Energy for All initiative in order to guide and support efforts to achieve universal access to modern energy, rapidly increase energy efficiency, and expand the use of renewable energies. Task forces were formed involving prominent energy leaders and experts from business, government, academia and civil society worldwide. The goal of the Task Forces is to inform the implementation of the initiative by identifying challenges and opportunities for achieving its objectives. This report contains the findings of Task Force One which is dedicated to the objective of achieving universal access to modern energy services by 2030. The report shows that universal energy access can be realized by 2030 with strong, focused actions set within a coordinated framework.

  12. A graph of dark energy significance on different spatial and mass scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerikorpi, P.; Heinämäki, P.; Nurmi, P.; Chernin, A. D.; Einasto, M.; Valtonen, M.; Byrd, G.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The current cosmological paradigm sees the formation and evolution of the cosmic large-scale structure as governed by the gravitational attraction of dark matter (DM) and the repulsion of dark energy (DE). Aims: We characterize the relative importance of uniform and constant dark energy, as given by the Λ term in the standard ΛCDM cosmology, in galaxy systems of different scales from groups to superclusters. Methods: An instructive "Λ significance graph" is introduced where the matter-DE density ratio ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ for different galaxy systems is plotted against the radius R. This presents gravitation- and DE-dominated regions and directly shows the zero velocity radius, the zero-gravity radius, and the Einstein-Straus radius for any fixed value of mass. Results: Example galaxy groups and clusters from the local universe illustrate the use of the Λ significance graph. These are generally located deep in the gravity-dominated region ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ> 2, and are virialized. Extended clusters and the main bodies of superclusters can reach down near the borderline between gravity-dominated and DE-dominated regions ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ = 2. The scale-mass relation from the standard two-point correlation function intersects this balance line near the correlation length. Conclusions: The log ⟨ ρM ⟩ /ρΛ vs. log R diagram is a useful and versatile way to characterize the dynamical state of systems of galaxies within the Λ-dominated expanding universe.

  13. Significant release of shear energy of the North Korean nuclear test on February 12, 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    On February 12, 2013 the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) carried out an announced nuclear test, which was the third after tests conducted in 2006 and 2009. An important task in discriminating a man-made explosion and a natural tectonic earthquake is the analysis of seismic waveforms. To determine the isotropic and non-isotropic characteristics of the detonation source, I invert long-period seismic data for the full seismic moment tensor to match the observed seismic signals by synthetic waveforms based on a 3D Earth model. Here, I show that the inversion of long-period seismic data of the 2013 test reveals a clear explosive (isotropic) component combined with a significant release of shear energy by the double-couple part of the moment tensor. While the isotropic part of the nuclear test in 2009 was similar to that in 2013, the double-couple part was lower by a factor of 0.55 compared to the explosion in 2013. Moreover, the ratio of the isotropic seismic moments of the 2013 and 2009 nuclear tests is 1.4 ± 0.1 and lower than published estimations of the yield ratio, which indicates the importance of considering the release of shear energy. The determined orientation of the double-couple fault plane is parallel to the dominating geologic fault structures NNE-SSW to NE-SW, but the calculated normal faulting mechanism does not correspond to the general tectonic strike-slip regime. Thus, explanations for the enhanced release of shear energy might be induced dip-slip motion pre-stressed by the previous test or near source damaging effects due to a changed containment of the nuclear explosion.

  14. The visualization of surgical smoke produced by energy delivery devices: significance and effectiveness of evacuation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; Klaessens, John

    2007-02-01

    Devices delivering energy to biological tissues (eg lasers, RF and ultrasound) can induce surgical smoke consisting of particles, vapor, gasses and aerosols. Besides interfering with the view of the surgeon, the smoke is a risk for the health of both the users and patients. In literature, it has been shown that surgical smoke can contain carcinogenic and harmful biological agents. However, the impact on health of the users and patients is widely debated. The use of smoke evacuation systems in the OR is usually governed by economical reason instead of safety issues. A special image enhancement technique is used to study the behavior of smoke and aerosols and the effectiveness of smoke evacuation systems. A back scatter illumination technique using 1 μs light flashes at video rate was applied to image the smoke production of various surgical devices without and with smoke evacuation while ablating biological tissues. The effectiveness of various smoke evacuation devices and strategies were compared. The ablative thermal devices produced smoke but also aerosols. If the thermal energy was delivered in high peak pulses, the presence of aerosols was more significant. Ultrasound based devices produce mainly aerosols. The distance to the target, the opening of the evacuation nozzle and the dimension of aerosols were leading for the effectiveness of the smoke evacuation. The smoke visualization technique has proven an effective tool for study the effectiveness of smoke and aerosols evacuation. The results can contribute to the necessity to use evacuation systems in the OR.

  15. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Leslie L; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43-47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  16. Dietary Mannoheptulose Does Not Significantly Alter Daily Energy Expenditure in Adult Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Leslie L.; Root-McCaig, Jared; Wright, David; Davenport, Gary M.; France, James; Shoveller, Anna Kate

    2015-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH), a sugar found in avocados that inhibits glycolysis in vitro, has been preliminarily investigated as a novel food ingredient for dogs. This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary MH, delivered as an extract of un-ripened avocado, on energy expenditure (EE) in healthy adult Labrador Retriever dogs (total of 12 dogs, 26.99 ± 0.634 kg, 4.9 ± 0.2 y). The study was a double-blind, cross-over with each dog receiving both dietary treatments, control (CON) and MH (400 mg/kg of diet; 6 mg/kg BW), in random order. Resting and post-prandial (10 h) EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) were determined by indirect calorimetry (d 42). The following day, body composition was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Continuous activity monitoring was conducted using an Atical® accelerometer (d 43–47). A vastus lateralis muscle biopsy was obtained prior to the morning meal (d 49) and 4 h after consumption of their meal (d 56) to determine the protein content and phosphorylation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Diet did not affect body weight, resting EE or skeletal muscle AMPK phosphorylation. Dogs fed MH had significantly lower post-prandial RQ (p = 0.02) and ratio of fat to lean body mass (p = 0.02). Physical activity during light time periods (but not dark) was lower in dogs fed MH (p < 0.05) during weekends, but not on weekdays. These results suggest that MH affects energy balance of adult dogs, but that these effects are not dose dependent and not due to physical activity. PMID:26656105

  17. Finding of no significant impact for the State Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), DOE/EA 1068, to assess the environmental impacts associated with the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). DOE previously funded SECP projects under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA). The State Energy Efficiency Programs Improvements Act of 1990 (SEEPIA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) amended EPCA to broaden the range of state initiatives qualifying for Federal assistance under the SECP. The PEA presents a general analysis of the potential environmental effects associated with broad types of projects that can be funded under the SECP. It does not analyze specific environmental effects or alternatives associated with individual energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy projects. Individual actions are to be evaluated in detail on a project-by-project basis to determine whether their impacts fall within the bounding analysis of the impacts analyzed in the SECP PEA.

  18. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  19. Achieving significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic efficiency using a polyelectrolyte: the composites of exfoliated titania nanosheets, graphene, and poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; An, Qi; Luan, Xinglong; Huang, Hongwei; Li, Xiaowei; Meng, Zilin; Tong, Wangshu; Chen, Xiaodong; Chu, Paul K.; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-08-01

    A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency.A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03256c

  20. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  1. Future US energy demands based upon traditional consumption patterns lead to requirements which significantly exceed domestic supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Energy consumption in the United States has risen in response to both increasing population and to increasing levels of affluence. Depletion of domestic energy reserves requires consumption modulation, production of fossil fuels, more efficient conversion techniques, and large scale transitions to non-fossile fuel energy sources. Widening disparity between the wealthy and poor nations of the world contributes to trends that increase the likelihood of group action by the lesser developed countries to achieve political and economic goals. The formation of anticartel cartels is envisioned.

  2. Geological subsurface will contribute significantly to the implementation of the energy policy towards renewables in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Sonja; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The demands to exploit the geological subsurface are increasing. In addition to the traditional production of raw materials such as natural gas and petroleum, or potable groundwater extraction the underground will most likely also be used to implement the climate and energy policy objectives in the context of the energy transition to renewables. These include the storage of energy from renewable sources (e.g. hydrogen and methane), the use of geothermal energy and possibly the long-term storage of carbon dioxide to reduce the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The presentation addresses the question which realistic contribution can be expected from the geo-resource subsurface for the energy revolution, the detachment of fossil and nuclear fuels as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions. The study of Henning and Palzer [1] that models the energy balance of the electricity and heat sector including all renewable energy converters, storage components and loads for a future German energy system shows that provision with 100% renewables is economically feasible by 2050. Based on their work, our estimates underline that already in 2015 more than 100% of the required methane storage capacities therein are available and more than 100% of the heat pump demands might be covered by shallow and deep geothermal energy production in the future. In addition we show that a newly developed energy storage system [2-3] could be applied to store 20-60% of the surplus energy from renewables expected for 2050 with integrated gas storage of methane and CO2. [1] Henning H-M, Palzer A (2014) A comprehensive model for the German electricity and heat sector in a future energy system with a dominant contribution from renewable energy technologies -- Part I: Methodology. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 30, 1003-1018. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.09.012 [2] Kühn M, Nakaten N, Streibel M, Kempka T (2014) CO2 geological storage and utilization for a carbon neutral "power

  3. Significance of medium-energy gamma-ray astronomy in the study of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Cheung, C. Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper examines the medium-energy (about 10-30 MeV) galactic gamma-ray radiation from primary and secondary electrons and calculates the expected gamma-ray distribution for the specific model of Bignami et al. (1975) on the assumption that the cosmic rays are correlated with the matter on the scale of galactic arms. The energy spectrum typical of regions near the galactic center indicates a dramatic shift from a predominantly cosmic-ray nucleonic mechanism at higher energies to a cosmic-ray electron mechanism at the lower energies. This provides a most important and direct means of probing the cosmic-ray electrons as a function of galactic position by making gamma-ray observations in the few to 40 MeV energy range. Medium-energy gamma-ray astronomy is shown to be a valuable tool in galactic research.

  4. Significance of medium energy gamma ray astronomy in the study of cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Cheung, C. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Medium energy (about 10 to 30 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides information on the product of the galactic electron cosmic ray intensity and the galactic matter to which the electrons are dynamically coupled by the magnetic field. Because high energy (greater than 100 MeV) gamma ray astronomy provides analogous information for the nucleonic cosmic rays and the relevant matter, a comparison between high energy and medium energy gamma ray intensities provides a direct ratio of the cosmic ray electrons and nucleons throughout the galaxy. A calculation of gamma ray production by electron bremsstrahlung shows that: bremsstrahlung energy loss is probably not negligible over the lifetime of the electrons in the galaxy; and the approximate bremsstrahlung calculation often used previously overestimates the gamma ray intensity by about a factor of two. As a specific example, expected medium energy gamma ray intensities are calculated for the speral arm model.

  5. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-01

    recently been proposed for energy production, is critically reviewed. There are major challenges remaining that are shortly outlined. Scientific/technical achievements that are required in the light of the Fukushima accident are highlighted.

  6. Nuclear energy acceptance and potential role to meet future energy demand. Which technical/scientific achievements are needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Roland

    2012-06-19

    have recently been proposed for energy production, is critically reviewed. There are major challenges remaining that are shortly outlined. Scientific/technical achievements that are required in the light of the Fukushima accident are highlighted.

  7. How America Can Look Within to Achieve Energy Security and Reduce Global Warming

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, Burton; Savitz, Maxine; Schlachter, Fred; Dawson, James; Crabtree, George; Greene, David L; Levine, Mark; Sperling, Daniel; Scofield, John; Glicksman, Leon; Goldstein, David; Goldston, David

    2008-01-01

    Making major gains in energy efficiency is one of the most economical and effective ways our nation can wean itself off its dependence on foreign oil and reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. Transportation and buildings, which account for two thirds of American energy usage, consume far more than they need to, but even though there are many affordable energy efficient technologies that can save consumers money, market imperfections inhibit their adoption. To overcome the barriers, the federal government must adopt policies that will transform the investments into economic and societal benefit. And the federal government must invest in research and development programs that target energy efficiency. Energy efficiency is one of America s great hidden energy reserves. We should begin tapping it now.

  8. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations.

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon "footprinting" and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  9. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals: A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  10. Using Renewable Energy Purchases to Achieve Institutional Carbon Goals. A Review of Current Practices and Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    With organizations and individuals increasingly interested in accounting for their carbon emissions, greater attention is being placed on how to account for the benefits of various carbon mitigation actions available to consumers and businesses. Generally, organizations can address their own carbon emissions through energy efficiency, fuel switching, on-site renewable energy systems, renewable energy purchased from utilities or in the form of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and carbon offsets. This paper explores the role of green power and carbon offsets in carbon footprinting and the distinctions between the two products. It reviews how leading greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting programs treat green power purchases and discusses key issues regarding how to account for the carbon benefits of renewable energy. It also discusses potential double counting if renewable energy generation is used in multiple markets.

  11. Growth behaviors of bacteria reveal the evolutionary significance of energy-efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken

    2015-03-01

    Microorganisms have evolved a mosaic of gene expression changes to adapt their growth behaviors to changing environmental conditions. The subset of genes coding for the protein translation machineries, the ribosomes, however display robust linear activities with growth rates. Such patterns are considered to be the source of growth itself. There is another robust growth law, observed by Monod in the 1940s, in which bacteria are able to scale their growth with food concentration before plateauing off to a constant value. To interlink these observed growth laws we derive an analytical network model that leverages metabolic data to capture how the cell manages its exchange of energy to support costly gene expression. The model explores the limits of energy allocation for function and reveals evolutionary principles. Among others, we find, in glucose medium the fastest growing E. coli operate close to their maximum energy-efficiency. Optimization of energy efficiency provides a quantitative limit to how much energy is allocated for protein synthesis and it is determined by evolutionarily selected structural and biophysical constants. We conclude that energy efficiency has played a key role in bacterial evolution. Supported by the Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology, SBU.

  12. Attitudes toward Nuclear Energy: One Potential Path for Achieving Scientific Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulski, Richard E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies the attitudes of secondary school students toward several science-related topical areas (i.e., nuclear energy, environmental issues, energy concepts, science concepts, space exploration, and metrication) for the purpose of enhancing students' attitudinal development toward science-related topical areas. Discusses respondents attitude…

  13. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit: Lessons from the University of Hawaii at Manoa

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  14. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  15. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planetary bodies, to techniques and instrument development for exploration.

  16. Achievable rate maximization for decode-and-forward MIMO-OFDM networks with an energy harvesting relay.

    PubMed

    Du, Guanyao; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the system achievable rate for the multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system with an energy harvesting (EH) relay. Firstly we propose two protocols, time switching-based decode-and-forward relaying (TSDFR) and a flexible power splitting-based DF relaying (PSDFR) protocol by considering two practical receiver architectures, to enable the simultaneous information processing and energy harvesting at the relay. In PSDFR protocol, we introduce a temporal parameter to describe the time division pattern between the two phases which makes the protocol more flexible and general. In order to explore the system performance limit, we discuss the system achievable rate theoretically and formulate two optimization problems for the proposed protocols to maximize the system achievable rate. Since the problems are non-convex and difficult to solve, we first analyze them theoretically and get some explicit results, then design an augmented Lagrangian penalty function (ALPF) based algorithm for them. Numerical results are provided to validate the accuracy of our analytical results and the effectiveness of the proposed ALPF algorithm. It is shown that, PSDFR outperforms TSDFR to achieve higher achievable rate in such a MIMO-OFDM relaying system. Besides, we also investigate the impacts of the relay location, the number of antennas and the number of subcarriers on the system performance. Specifically, it is shown that, the relay position greatly affects the system performance of both protocols, and relatively worse achievable rate is achieved when the relay is placed in the middle of the source and the destination. This is different from the MIMO-OFDM DF relaying system without EH. Moreover, the optimal factor which indicates the time division pattern between the two phases in the PSDFR protocol is always above 0.8, which means that, the common division of the total transmission time into two equal phases in

  17. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources. PMID:24530103

  18. Tapping Landfill Gas to Provide Significant Energy Savings and Greenhouse Gas Reductions - Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-30

    BroadRock Renewables, LLC built two high efficiency electricity generating facilities that utilize landfill gas in California and Rhode Island. The two projects received a total of $25 million in U.S. Department of Energy funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. Private-sector cost share for the projects totaled approximately $186 million.

  19. Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred from satellite altimeter data

    PubMed

    Egbert; Ray

    2000-06-15

    How and where the ocean tides dissipate their energy are long-standing questions that have consequences ranging from the history of the Moon to the mixing of the oceans. Historically, the principal sink of tidal energy has been thought to be bottom friction in shallow seas. There has long been suggestive evidence, however, that tidal dissipation also occurs in the open ocean through the scattering by ocean-bottom topography of surface tides into internal waves, but estimates of the magnitude of this possible sink have varied widely. Here we use satellite altimeter data from Topex/Poseidon to map empirically the tidal energy dissipation. We show that approximately 10(12) watts--that is, 1 TW, representing 25-30% of the total dissipation--occurs in the deep ocean, generally near areas of rough topography. Of the estimated 2 TW of mixing energy required to maintain the large-scale thermohaline circulation of the ocean, one-half could therefore be provided by the tides, with the other half coming from action on the surface of the ocean. PMID:10866194

  20. Significant Dissipation of Tidal Energy in the Deep Ocean Inferred from Satellite Altimeter Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egbert, G. D.; Ray, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    How and where the ocean tides dissipate their energy are longstanding questions that have consequences ranging from the history of the Moon to the mixing of the oceans. Historically, the principal sink of tidal energy has been thought to be bottom friction in shallow seas. There has long been suggestive however, that tidal dissipation also occurs in the open ocean through the scattering by ocean-bottom topography of surface tides into internal waves, but estimates of the magnitude of this possible sink have varied widely. Here we use satellite altimeter data from Topex/Poseidon to map empirically the tidal energy dissipation. We show that approximately 10(exp 12) watts-that is, 1 TW, representing 25-30% of the total dissipation-occurs in the deep ocean, generally near areas of rough topography. Of the estimated 2 TW of mixing energy required to maintain the large-scale thermohaline circulation of the ocean, one-half could therefore be provided by the tides, with the other half coming from action on the surface of the ocean.

  1. Energy audits reveal significant energy savings potential in India`s commercial air-conditioned building sector

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, G.; Presny, D.; Fafard, C.

    1997-12-31

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began its Energy Management Consultation and Training (EMCAT) project in India. The EMCAT project began in 1991 as a six-year (1991--1997) project to improve India`s technological and management capabilities for both the supply of energy and its efficient end use. The end-use component of EMCAT aims for efficient energy utilization by industries and other sectors such as the commercial sector. A specific task under the end-use component was to conduct energy surveys/audits in high energy-use sectors, such as air-conditioned (AC) buildings in the commercial sector, and to identify investment opportunities that could improve energy utilization. This article presents results of pre-investment surveys that were conducted at four commercial air-conditioned facilities in 1995. The four facilities included two luxury hotels in New Delhi, and one luxury hotel and a private hospital in Bombay. Energy conservation opportunities (ECOs) were explored in three major energy-using systems in these buildings: air-conditioning, lighting, and steam and domestic hot water systems.

  2. Advanced, Integrated Control for Building Operations to Achieve 40% Energy Saving

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yan; Song, Zhen; Loftness, Vivian; Ji, Kun; Zheng, Sam; Lasternas, Bertrand; Marion, Flore; Yuebin, Yu

    2012-10-15

    We developed and demonstrated a software based integrated advanced building control platform called Smart Energy Box (SEB), which can coordinate building subsystem controls, integrate variety of energy optimization algorithms and provide proactive and collaborative energy management and control for building operations using weather and occupancy information. The integrated control system is a low cost solution and also features: Scalable component based architecture allows to build a solution for different building control system configurations with needed components; Open Architecture with a central data repository for data exchange among runtime components; Extendible to accommodate variety of communication protocols. Optimal building control for central loads, distributed loads and onsite energy resource; uses web server as a loosely coupled way to engage both building operators and building occupants in collaboration for energy conservation. Based on the open platform of SEB, we have investigated and evaluated a variety of operation and energy saving control strategies on Carnegie Mellon University Intelligent Work place which is equipped with alternative cooling/heating/ventilation/lighting methods, including radiant mullions, radiant cooling/heating ceiling panels, cool waves, dedicated ventilation unit, motorized window and blinds, and external louvers. Based on the validation results of these control strategies, they were integrated in SEB in a collaborative and dynamic way. This advanced control system was programmed and computer tested with a model of the Intelligent Workplace's northern section (IWn). The advanced control program was then installed in the IWn control system; the performance was measured and compared with that of the state of the art control system to verify the overall energy savings great than 40%. In addition advanced human machine interfaces (HMI's) were developed to communicate both with building occupants and

  3. Energy saving achieved by limited filamentous bulking sludge under low dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Hua; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Peng, Cheng-Yao; Wang, Shu-Ying; Chen, Ying; Huang, Hui-Jun; Sun, Zhi-Rong

    2010-02-01

    Limited filamentous bulking caused by low dissolved oxygen (DO) was proposed to establish a low energy consumption wastewater treatment system. This method for energy saving was derived from two full-scale field observations, which showed pollutants removal would be enhanced and energy consumption could be reduced by at least 10% using limited filamentous bulking. Furthermore, preliminary investigation including the abundance evaluation and the identification of filamentous bacteria demonstrated that the limited filamentous bulking could be repeated steadily in a lab-scale anoxic-oxic reactor fed with domestic wastewater. The sludge loss did not occur in the secondary clarifier, while COD and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were improved by controlling DO for optimal filamentous bacterial population. Suspended solids in effluent were negligible and turbidity was lower than 2 NTU, which were distinctly lower than those under no bulking. Theoretical and experimental results indicated the aeration consumption could be saved by the application of limited filamentous bulking. PMID:19837583

  4. How America can look within to achieve energy security and reduce global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Burton; Goldston, David; Crabtree, George; Glicksman, Leon; Goldstein, David; Greene, David; Kammen, Dan; Levine, Mark; Lubell, Michael; Savitz, Maxine; Sperling, Daniel; Schlachter, Fred; Scofield, John; Dawson, James

    2008-10-01

    The American Physical Society regularly produces reports on issues of public import that require technical understanding and for which an objective and authoritative analysis would be of particular use to the public and policy makers. This report, entitled Energy Future: Think Efficiency, is the latest in the series and appears here as a special supplement issue of Reviews of Modern Physics, as have other such reports. It is hard to imagine a more timely study topic, given the urgent environmental, geopolitical, and economic incentives for improving energy efficiency at this juncture. Energy Future: Think Efficiency provides a valuable and broadly applicable guide to effective approaches, many of which employ existing technologies and, surprisingly, need not be difficult or expensive. In order to have the most immediate impact, an earlier version of Energy Future: Think Efficiency was issued at a press release in Washington, D.C. in September of 2008 in hard copy and online. Prior to its release a distinguished review panel examined the report and its conclusions. Thus the study has been rigorously refereed although this was outside of the usual review process employed by RMP. Except for adjustments in pagination, this version is unchanged from the earlier version. The report introduction contains full information on the study personnel, review panel members, and other acknowledgments, so these are not repeated here. What is repeated is an expression of deep appreciation to all those involved in the preparation of a revelatory report on a topic of critical importance.

  5. The Impact of a Geospatial Technology-Supported Energy Curriculum on Middle School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulo, Violet; Bodzin, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being integrated in science classrooms to foster learning. This study examined whether a Web-enhanced science inquiry curriculum supported by geospatial technologies promoted urban middle school students' understanding of energy concepts. The participants included one science teacher and 108 eighth-grade…

  6. Improved Student Achievement Using Personalized Online Homework for a Course in Material and Energy Balances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Personalized, online homework was used to supplement textbook homework, quizzes, and exams for one section of a course in material and energy balances. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that students using personalized, online homework earned better grades in the course. The online homework system asks the same questions of…

  7. Evolution and significance of the Lon gene family in Arabidopsis organelle biogenesis and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rigas, Stamatis; Daras, Gerasimos; Tsitsekian, Dikran; Alatzas, Anastasios; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2014-01-01

    Lon is the first identified ATP-dependent protease highly conserved across all kingdoms. Model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has a small Lon gene family of four members. Although these genes share common structural features, they have distinct properties in terms of gene expression profile, subcellular targeting and substrate recognition motifs. This supports the notion that their functions under different environmental conditions are not necessarily redundant. This article intends to unravel the biological role of Lon proteases in energy metabolism and plant growth through an evolutionary perspective. Given that plants are sessile organisms exposed to diverse environmental conditions and plant organelles are semi-autonomous, it is tempting to suggest that Lon genes in Arabidopsis are paralogs. Adaptive evolution through repetitive gene duplication events of a single archaic gene led to Lon genes with complementing sets of subfunctions providing to the organism rapid adaptability for canonical development under different environmental conditions. Lon1 function is adequately characterized being involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, modulating carbon metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and energy supply, all prerequisites for seed germination and seedling establishment. Lon is not a stand-alone proteolytic machine in plant organelles. Lon in association with other nuclear-encoded ATP-dependent proteases builds up an elegant nevertheless, tight interconnected circuit. This circuitry channels properly and accurately, proteostasis and protein quality control among the distinct subcellular compartments namely mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes. PMID:24782883

  8. On the Use of Energy Storage Technologies for Regulation Services in Electric Power Systems with Significant Penetration of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Bo; Makarov, Yuri V.; DeSteese, John G.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.; Nyeng, Preben; McManus, Bart; Pease, John

    2008-05-27

    Energy produced by intermittent renewable resources is sharply increasing in the United States. At high penetration levels, volatility of wind power production could cause additional problems for the power system balancing functions such as regulation. This paper reports some partial results of a project work, recently conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project proposes to mitigate additional intermittency with the help of Wide Area Energy Management System (WAEMS) that would provide a two-way simultaneous regulation service for the BPA and California ISO systems by using a large energy storage facility. The paper evaluates several utility-scale energy storage technology options for their usage as regulation resources. The regulation service requires a participating resource to quickly vary its power output following the rapidly and frequently changing regulation signal. Several energy storage options have been analyzed based on thirteen selection criteria. The evaluation process resulted in the selection of flywheels, pumped hydro electric power (or conventional hydro electric power) plant and sodium sulfur or nickel cadmium batteries as candidate technologies for the WAEMS project. A cost benefit analysis should be conducted to narrow the choice to one technology.

  9. Coupling Emitters and Silver Nanowires to Achieve Long-Range Plasmon-Mediated Fluorescence Energy Transfer.

    PubMed

    de Torres, Juan; Ferrand, Patrick; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Wenger, Jérôme

    2016-04-26

    The development of quantum plasmonic circuitry requires efficient coupling between quantum emitters and plasmonic waveguides. A major experimental challenge is to simultaneously maximize the surface plasmon propagation length, the coupling efficiency into the plasmonic mode, and the Purcell factor. Addressing this challenge is also the key to enabling long-range energy transfer between quantum nanoemitters. Here, we use a dual-beam scanning confocal microscope to carefully investigate the interactions between fluorescent nanoparticles and surface plasmons on single-crystalline silver nanowires. By exciting the fluorescent nanoparticles via nanowire surface plasmons, we maximize the light-matter interactions and reach coupling efficiencies up to 44% together with 24× lifetime reduction and 4.1 μm propagation lengths. This improved optical performance enables the demonstration of long-range plasmon-mediated fluorescence energy transfer between two nanoparticles separated by micrometer distance. Our results provide guidelines toward practical realizations of efficient long-range fluorescence energy transfer for integrated plasmonics and quantum nano-optics. PMID:27019008

  10. The Role of Occupant Behavior in Achieving Net Zero Energy: A Demonstration Project at Fort Carson

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Zalesny, Mary D.; Fernandez, Nicholas

    2013-09-30

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. General Services Administration’s Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, aimed to understand the potential for institutional and behavioral change to enhance the performance of buildings, through a demonstration project with the Department of Defense in five green buildings on the Fort Carson, Colorado, Army base. To approach this study, the research team identified specific occupant behaviors that had the potential to save energy in each building, defined strategies that might effectively support behavior change, and implemented a coordinated set of actions during a three-month intervention.

  11. Time-resolved photoemission apparatus achieving sub-20-meV energy resolution and high stability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Y.; Togashi, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Tanaka, M.; Kiss, T.; Otsu, T.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shin, S.

    2014-12-15

    The paper describes a time- and angle-resolved photoemission apparatus consisting of a hemispherical analyzer and a pulsed laser source. We demonstrate 1.48-eV pump and 5.92-eV probe measurements at the ⩾10.5-meV and ⩾240-fs resolutions by use of fairly monochromatic 170-fs pulses delivered from a regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire laser system operating typically at 250 kHz. The apparatus is capable to resolve the optically filled superconducting peak in the unoccupied states of a cuprate superconductor, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. A dataset recorded on Bi(111) surface is also presented. Technical descriptions include the followings: A simple procedure to fine-tune the spatio-temporal overlap of the pump-and-probe beams and their diameters; achieving a long-term stability of the system that enables a normalization-free dataset acquisition; changing the repetition rate by utilizing acoustic optical modulator and frequency-division circuit.

  12. Achieving sub-nanometre particle mapping with energy-filtered TEM.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Perez, S; de Castro Bernal, V; Nicholls, R J

    2009-09-01

    A combination of state-of-the-art instrumentation and optimized data processing has enabled for the first time the chemical mapping of sub-nanometre particles using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). Multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) generated reconstructed datasets where the signal from particles smaller than 1 nm in diameter was successfully isolated from the original noisy background. The technique has been applied to the characterization of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) reduced activation FeCr alloys, due to their relevance as structural materials for future fusion reactors. Results revealed that most nanometer-sized particles had a core-shell structure, with an Yttrium-Chromium-Oxygen-rich core and a nano-scaled Chromium-Oxygen-rich shell. This segregation to the nanoparticles caused a decrease of the Chromium dissolved in the matrix, compromising the corrosion resistance of the alloy. PMID:19505762

  13. Dark Energy, Black Holes and Exploding Stars: NASA's Chandra Observatory Marks Five Years of Scientific Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    On Aug. 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. The Marshall Center manages the Chandra program. On August 12, 1999, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory opened its sunshade doors for the first time, allowing celestial X-ray light to reach the observatory's mirrors. This one small step for the observatory proved to be a giant leap for science as Chandra began its mission to shed new light on a violent, mysterious universe invisible to the human eye. "Humans cannot see X-rays, but Chandra can," said Chandra project scientist Dr. Martin C. Weisskopf of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "And what the observatory has revealed in five short years has been nothing short of amazing. Thanks to Chandra, we've gleaned new information on dark energy, black holes, exploding stars and all other categories of astronomical objects." "Chandra's resolving power is equivalent to the ability to read a newspaper headline a half-mile away," said Chandra Program Manager Keith Hefner of the Marshall Center. "It's an engineering marvel that has performed nearly flawlessly and provided major science discoveries over the past five years." A Chandra timeline reveals some of its most noteworthy discoveries: * Chandra finds a ring around the Crab Nebula. After only two months in space, the observatory reveals a brilliant ring around the heart of the Crab Pulsar in the Crab Nebula - the remains of a stellar explosion - providing clues about how the nebula is energized by a pulsing neutron, or collapsed, star. (Sept. 28, 1999) * Chandra reveals a possible black hole in the Milky Way. Culminating 25 years of searching by astronomers, researchers say that a faint X-ray source, newly

  14. The use of ECDIS equipment to achieve an optimum value for energy efficiency operation index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acomi, N.; Acomi, O. C.; Stanca, C.

    2015-11-01

    To reduce air pollution produced by ships, the International Maritime Organization has developed a set of technical, operational and management measures. The subject of our research addresses the operational measures for minimizing CO2 air emissions and the way how the emission value could be influenced by external factors regardless of ship-owners’ will. This study aims to analyse the air emissions for a loaded voyage leg performed by an oil tanker. The formula that allows us to calculate the predicted Energy Efficiency Operational Index involves the estimation of distance and fuel consumption, while the quantity of cargo is known. The electronic chart display and information system, ECDIS Simulation Software, will be used for adjusting the passage plan in real time, given the predicted severe environmental conditions. The distance will be determined using ECDIS, while the prediction of the fuel consumption will consider the sea trial and the vessel experience records. That way it will be possible to compare the estimated EEOI value in the case of great circle navigation in adverse weather condition with the estimated EEOI value for weather navigation.

  15. Douglas Battery Mfg. Co. achieves outstanding air quality, energy savings - with dust collection/recirculating system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    Douglas Battery Manufacturing Company of Winston-Salem, NC has engineered a filtration system that not only delivers excellent air quality - it also reduces heating costs in the plant, since the filtered air is recirculated through the work area after it leaves the dust-collection unit. Douglas engineers reviewed several alternatives, including pulse jet baghouses, before selecting a Tenkay aspirated cartridge dust collection from Farr Company, El Segundo, CA. At present, Douglas is operating four Tenkay collectors. The average air to filter surface ratio of a Farr cartridge is 1.5:1. Two of the units handle 21,500 cfm each, the others handle 25,000 cfm each. Testing by U.S. EPA Reference Method 12 confirmed that the unit's emissions are significantly lower than those established by federal New Source Performance Standards.

  16. Many small consumers, one growing problem: Achieving energy savings for electronic equipment operating in low power modes

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher T.; Meier, Alan K.

    2004-08-24

    An increasing amount of electricity is used by equipment that is neither fully ''on'' nor fully ''off.'' We call these equipment states low power modes, or ''lopomos.'' ''Standby'' and ''sleep'' are the most familiar lopomos, but some new products already have many modes. Lopomos are becoming common in household appliances, safety equipment, and miscellaneous products. Ross and Meier (2000) reports that several international studies have found standby power to be as much as 10 percent of residential energy consumption. Lopomo energy consumption is likely to continue growing rapidly as products with lopomos that use significant amounts of energy penetrate the market. Other sectors such as commercial buildings and industry also have lopomo energy use, perhaps totaling more in aggregate than that of households, but no comprehensive measurements have been made. In this paper, we propose a research agenda for study of lopomo energy consumption. This agenda has been developed with input from over 200 interested parties. Overall, there is consensus that lopomo energy consumption is an important area for research. Many see this as a critical time for addressing lopomo issues. As equipment designs move from the binary ''on/off'' paradigm to one that encompasses multiple power modes, there is a unique opportunity to address the issue of low power mode energy consumption while technology development paths are still flexible.

  17. A new six-dimensional analytical potential up to chemically significant energies for the electronic ground state of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Bernd; Rizzo, Thomas R.; Luckhaus, David; Quack, Martin; Suhm, Martin A.

    1999-08-01

    We report calculations of the electronic ground state potential energy surface (PES) of hydrogen peroxide covering, in an almost global fashion, all six internal degrees of freedom by two different ab initio techniques. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the Becke 3 parameter Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) hybrid functional and multiconfigurational second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) calculations, both using large basis sets, are performed for a wide range of geometries (8145 DFT and 5310 CASPT2 single-point energies). We use a combined data set of mostly DFT with additional CASPT2 ab initio points and the complete CASPT2 surface to fit a total of four different 6D analytical representations. The resulting potentials contain 70-76 freely adjusted parameters and represent the ground state PES up to 40000 cm-1 above the equilibrium energy with a standard deviation of 100-107 cm-1 without any important artifacts. One of the model surfaces is further empirically refined to match the bond dissociation energy D0 for HOOH→2OH . The potentials are designed for energy regions accessible by vibrational fundamental and overtone spectroscopy including the dissociation channel into hydroxyl radicals. Characteristic properties of the model surfaces are investigated by means of stationary point analyses, torsional barrier heights, harmonic frequencies, low-dimensional cuts and minimum energy paths for dissociation. Overall good agreement with high-level ab initio calculations, especially for the CASPT2 based potentials, is achieved. The drastic change in geometry at intermediate O-O distances, which reflects the transition from covalent to hydrogen bonding, is reproduced quantitatively. We calculate fully 6D anharmonic zero point energies and ground state torsional splittings with the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo method in perfect agreement, within statistical error bars, with experiment for the CASPT2 based potentials. Variational vibrational calculations in the

  18. Significance of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) in the energy budget of the Southern Hemisphere tropics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrell, James W.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1987-01-01

    An in-depth investigation of the energetics, including boundary transports, was conducted on four equal-area regions in the tropical Southern Hemisphere during the SOP-1 period in 1979. The regions, each approximately centered on one of the wave axes of maximum warm rising air, include the SPCZ (115 deg W - 155 deg E) and the Australian (155-65 deg E), the African (65 deg E - 25 deg W), and the South American (25-115 deg W) regions. Daily variations of the energy conversions were examined, and time-averaged result of energy contents, conversions, and boundary transports were compiled for January 10-27. Results show that the eddy kinetic energy (KE) exceeds the eddy available potential energy (AE) in all four regions, with the largest excess being in the SPCZ. Of the conversion and flux terms, only the conversion of AE to KE is significant (again, with the greatest value in the SPCZ). An evaluation of boundary fluxes of KE indicates that the only significant transport between regions is a flow of KE from the SPCZ region into the South American region.

  19. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-15

    The proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project is a 21-megawatt (MW) wind generation project proposed by Florida Power and Light (FPL) Energy North Dakota Wind LLC (Dakota Wind) and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin). The proposed windfarm would be located in La Moure County, south central North Dakota, near the rural farming communities of Kulm and Edgeley. The proposed windfarm is scheduled to be operational by the end of 2003. Dakota Wind and other project proponents are seeking to develop the proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project to provide utilities and, ultimately, electric energy consumers with electricity from a renewable energy source at the lowest possible cost. A new 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line would be built to transmit power generated by the proposed windfarm to an existing US Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration (Western) substation located near Edgeley. The proposed interconnection would require modifying Western's Edgeley Substation. Modifying the Edgeley Substation is a Federal proposed action that requires Western to review the substation modification and the proposed windfarm project for compliance with Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332, and Department of Energy NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR Part 1021). Western is the lead Federal agency for preparation of this Environmental Assessment (EA). The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is a cooperating agency with Western in preparing the EA. This document follows regulation issued by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for implementing procedural provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and is intended to disclose potential impacts on the quality of the human environment resulting from the proposed project. If potential impacts are determined to be significant, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement would be required. If impacts are determined to be insignificant, Western would complete a Finding of No Significant

  20. Significant reduction in energy for plant-growth lighting in space using targeted LED lighting and spectral manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, L.; Massa, G. D.; Morrow, R. C.; Bourget, C. M.; Wheeler, R. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    2014-07-01

    Bioregenerative life-support systems involving photoautotrophic organisms will be necessary to sustain long-duration crewed missions at distant space destinations. Since sufficient sunlight will not always be available for plant growth at many space destinations, efficient electric-lighting solutions are greatly needed. The present study demonstrated that targeted plant lighting with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and optimizing spectral parameters for close-canopy overhead LED lighting allowed the model crop leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. 'Waldmann's Green') to be grown using significantly less electrical energy than using traditional electric-lighting sources. Lettuce stands were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber controlling temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 level. Several red:blue ratios were tested for growth rate during the lag phase of lettuce growth. In addition, start of the exponential growth phase was evaluated. Following establishment of a 95% red + 5% blue spectral balance giving the best growth response, the energy efficiency of a targeted lighting system was compared with that of two total coverage (untargeted) LED lighting systems throughout a crop-production cycle, one using the same proportion of red and blue LEDs and the other using white LEDs. At the end of each cropping cycle, whole-plant fresh and dry mass and leaf area were measured and correlated with the amount of electrical energy (kWh) consumed for crop lighting. Lettuce crops grown with targeted red + blue LED lighting used 50% less energy per unit dry biomass accumulated, and the total coverage white LEDs used 32% less energy per unit dry biomass accumulated than did the total coverage red + blue LEDs. An energy-conversion efficiency of less than 1 kWh/g dry biomass is possible using targeted close-canopy LED lighting with spectral optimization. This project was supported by NASA grant NNX09AL99G.

  1. Efficacy of a liquid low-energy formula diet in achieving preoperative target weight loss before bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lone V; Nielsen, Mette S; Schmidt, Julie B; Pedersen, Sue D; Sjödin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    A preoperative weight loss of 8 % is a prerequisite to undergo bariatric surgery (BS) in Denmark. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 7- or an 11-week low-energy diet (LCD) for achieving preoperative target weight before BS. A total of thirty obese patients (BMI 46·0 (sd 4·4) kg/m(2)) followed an LCD (Cambridge Weight Plan(®), 4184 kJ/d (1000 kcal/d)) for 7 or 11 weeks as preparation for BS. Anthropometric measurements including body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), blood parameters and blood pressure were assessed at weeks 0, 7 and 11. At week 7, the majority of patients (77 %) had reached their target weight, and this was achieved after 5·4 (sem 0·3) weeks. Mean weight loss was 9·3 (sem 0·5) % (P < 0·01) and consisted of 41·6 % fat-free mass (FFM) and 58·4 % fat mass. The weight loss was accompanied by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (7·1 (sem 2·3) and 7·3 (sem 1·8) mmHg, respectively, all P < 0·01) as well as an improved metabolic profile (8·2 (sem 1·8) % decrease in fasting glucose (P < 0·01), 28·6 (sem 6·4) % decrease in fasting insulin (P < 0·01), 23·1 (sem 2·2) % decrease in LDL (P < 0·01), and 9·7 (sem 4·7) % decrease in TAG (P < 0·05)). Weight, FFM and fat mass continued to decrease from week 7 to 11 (all P < 0·01), whereas no additional improvements was observed in the metabolic parameters. Severely obese patients can safely achieve preoperative target weight on an LCD within 7 weeks as part of preparation for BS. However, the considerable reduction in FFM in severely obese subjects needs further investigation. PMID:27293559

  2. Relative significance of heat transfer processes to quantify tradeoffs between complexity and accuracy of energy simulations with a building energy use patterns classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarinejad, Mohammad

    This dissertation develops rapid and accurate building energy simulations based on a building classification that identifies and focuses modeling efforts on most significant heat transfer processes. The building classification identifies energy use patterns and their contributing parameters for a portfolio of buildings. The dissertation hypothesis is "Building classification can provide minimal required inputs for rapid and accurate energy simulations for a large number of buildings". The critical literature review indicated there is lack of studies to (1) Consider synoptic point of view rather than the case study approach, (2) Analyze influence of different granularities of energy use, (3) Identify key variables based on the heat transfer processes, and (4) Automate the procedure to quantify model complexity with accuracy. Therefore, three dissertation objectives are designed to test out the dissertation hypothesis: (1) Develop different classes of buildings based on their energy use patterns, (2) Develop different building energy simulation approaches for the identified classes of buildings to quantify tradeoffs between model accuracy and complexity, (3) Demonstrate building simulation approaches for case studies. Penn State's and Harvard's campus buildings as well as high performance LEED NC office buildings are test beds for this study to develop different classes of buildings. The campus buildings include detailed chilled water, electricity, and steam data, enabling to classify buildings into externally-load, internally-load, or mixed-load dominated. The energy use of the internally-load buildings is primarily a function of the internal loads and their schedules. Externally-load dominated buildings tend to have an energy use pattern that is a function of building construction materials and outdoor weather conditions. However, most of the commercial medium-sized office buildings have a mixed-load pattern, meaning the HVAC system and operation schedule dictate

  3. Determination of the structure of {gamma}-alumina from interatomic potential and first-principles calculations: The requirement of significant numbers of nonspinel positions to achieve an accurate structural model

    SciTech Connect

    Paglia, Gianluca; Rohl, Andrew L.; Gale, Julian D.; Buckley, Craig E.

    2005-06-01

    We have performed an extensive computational study of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, beginning with the geometric analysis of approximately 1.47 billion spinel-based structural candidates, followed by derivative method energy minimization calculations of approximately 122 000 structures. Optimization of the spinel-based structural models demonstrated that structures exhibiting nonspinel site occupancy after simulation were more energetically favorable, as suggested in other computational studies. More importantly, none of the spinel structures exhibited simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This suggests that cations of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} are not exclusively held in spinel positions, that the spinel model of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} does not accurately reflect its structure, and that a representative structure cannot be achieved from molecular modeling when the spinel representation is used as the starting structure. The latter two of these three findings are extremely important when trying to accurately model the structure. A second set of starting models were generated with a large number of cations occupying c symmetry positions, based on the findings from recent experiments. Optimization of the new c symmetry-based structural models resulted in simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The modeling, conducted using supercells, yields a more accurate and complete determination of the defect structure of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} than can be achieved with current experimental techniques. The results show that on average over 40% of the cations in the structure occupy nonspinel positions, and approximately two-thirds of these occupy c symmetry positions. The structures exhibit variable occupancy in the site positions that follow local symmetry exclusion rules. This variation was predominantly represented by a migration of cations away from a symmetry positions to other

  4. Determination of the structure of γ -alumina from interatomic potential and first-principles calculations: The requirement of significant numbers of nonspinel positions to achieve an accurate structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paglia, Gianluca; Rohl, Andrew L.; Buckley, Craig E.; Gale, Julian D.

    2005-06-01

    We have performed an extensive computational study of γ-Al2O3 , beginning with the geometric analysis of approximately 1.47 billion spinel-based structural candidates, followed by derivative method energy minimization calculations of approximately 122 000 structures. Optimization of the spinel-based structural models demonstrated that structures exhibiting nonspinel site occupancy after simulation were more energetically favorable, as suggested in other computational studies. More importantly, none of the spinel structures exhibited simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of γ-Al2O3 . This suggests that cations of γ-Al2O3 are not exclusively held in spinel positions, that the spinel model of γ-Al2O3 does not accurately reflect its structure, and that a representative structure cannot be achieved from molecular modeling when the spinel representation is used as the starting structure. The latter two of these three findings are extremely important when trying to accurately model the structure. A second set of starting models were generated with a large number of cations occupying c symmetry positions, based on the findings from recent experiments. Optimization of the new c symmetry-based structural models resulted in simulated diffraction patterns that were characteristic of γ-Al2O3 . The modeling, conducted using supercells, yields a more accurate and complete determination of the defect structure of γ-Al2O3 than can be achieved with current experimental techniques. The results show that on average over 40% of the cations in the structure occupy nonspinel positions, and approximately two-thirds of these occupy c symmetry positions. The structures exhibit variable occupancy in the site positions that follow local symmetry exclusion rules. This variation was predominantly represented by a migration of cations away from a symmetry positions to other tetrahedral site positions during optimization which were found not to affect the diffraction

  5. A comparative study of the energy resolution achievable with digital signal processors in x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, A.; Zambusi, M.; Ripamonti, G.

    1996-04-01

    Interest for digital processing of signals from radiation detectors is subject to a growing attention due to its intrinsic adaptivity, easiness of calibration, etc. This work compares two digital processing methods: a multiple-delay-line (DL){sup N} filter and a least-mean-squares (LMS) adaptive filter for applications in high resolution X-ray spectroscopy. The signal pulse, as appears at the output of a proper analog conditioning circuit, is digitized; the samples undergo a digital filtering procedure. Both digital filters take advantage of the possibility of synthesizing the best possible weighting function with respect to the actual noise conditions. A noticeable improvement of more than 10% in energy resolution has been achieved with both systems with respect to state-of-the-art systems based on analog circuitry. In particular, the two digital processors are shown to be the best choice respectively; for on-line use with critical ballistic deficit conditions and for very-high-resolution spectroscopy systems, ultimately limited by 1/f noise.

  6. III. Cellular ultrastructures in situ as key to understanding tumor energy metabolism: biological significance of the Warburg effect

    PubMed Central

    Witkiewicz, Halina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the universality of metabolic pathways, malignant cells were found to have their metabolism reprogrammed to generate energy by glycolysis even under normal oxygen concentrations (the Warburg effect). Therefore, the pathway energetically 18 times less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation was implicated to match increased energy requirements of growing tumors. The paradox was explained by an abnormally high rate of glucose uptake, assuming unlimited availability of substrates for tumor growth in vivo. However, ultrastructural analysis of tumor vasculature morphogenesis showed that the growing tissue regions did not have continuous blood supply and intermittently depended on autophagy for survival. Erythrogenic autophagy, and resulting ATP generation by glycolysis, appeared critical to initiating vasculature formation where it was missing. This study focused on ultrastructural features that reflected metabolic switch from aerobic to anaerobic. Morphological differences between and within different types of cells were evident in tissue sections. In cells undergoing nucleo-cytoplasmic conversion into erythrosomes (erythrogenesis), gradual changes led to replacing mitochondria with peroxisomes, through an intermediate form connected to endoplasmic reticulum. Those findings related to the issue of peroxisome biogenesis and to the phenomenon of hemogenic endothelium. Mitochondria were compacted also during mitosis. In vivo, cells that lost and others that retained capability to use oxygen coexisted side-by-side; both types were important for vasculature morphogenesis and tissue growth. Once passable, the new vasculature segment could deliver external oxygen and nutrients. Nutritional and redox status of microenvironment had similar effect on metabolism of malignant and non-malignant cells demonstrating the necessity to maintain structure-energy equivalence in all living cells. The role of glycolysis in initiating vasculature formation, and in progression of

  7. Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

  8. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    SciTech Connect

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  9. Development of Polarizable Models for Molecular Mechanical Calculations II: Induced Dipole Models Significantly Improve Accuracy of Intermolecular Interaction Energies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junmei; Cieplak, Piotr; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun; Cai, Qin; Hsieh, MengJuei; Lei, Hongxing; Luo, Ray; Duan, Yong

    2011-01-01

    In the companion paper, we presented a set of induced dipole interaction models using four types of screening functions, which include the Applequist (no screening), the Thole linear, the Thole exponential model, and the Thole Tinker-like (another form of exponential screening function) functions. In this work, we evaluate the performance of polarizability models using large set of amino acid analog pairs that are frequently observed in protein structures as a benchmark. For each amino acid pair we calculated quantum mechanical interaction energies at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level with the basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction and compared them with molecular mechanics results. Encouragingly, all the polarizable models significantly outperform the additive F94 and F03 models (mimicking AMBER ff94/ff99 and ff03 force fields, respectively) in reproducing the BSSE-corrected quantum mechanical interaction energies. Particularly, the root-mean-square errors (RMSE) for three Thole models in Set A (where the 1–2 and 1–3 interactions are turned off and all 1–4 interactions are included) are 1.456, 1.417 and 1.406 kcal/mol for Model AL (Thole Linear), Model AE (Thole exponential) and Model AT (Thole Tinker-like), respectively. In contrast, the RMSE are 3.729 and 3.433 kcal/mol for F94 and F03 models, respectively. A similar trend was observed for the average unsigned errors (AUE), which are 1.057, 1.025, 1.011, 2.219 and 2.070 kcal/mol for AL, AE, AT, F94/ff99 and F03, respectively. Analyses based on the trend line slopes indicate that the two fixed charge models substantially underestimate the relative strengths of non-charge-charge interactions by 24% (F03) and 35% (F94), respectively, whereas the four polarizable models over-estimate the relative strengths by 5% (AT), 3% (AL, AE) and 13% (AA), respectively. Agreement was further improved by adjusting the van der Waals parameters. Judging from the notably improved accuracy in comparison to

  10. Development of polarizable models for molecular mechanical calculations II: induced dipole models significantly improve accuracy of intermolecular interaction energies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junmei; Cieplak, Piotr; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun; Cai, Qin; Hsieh, MengJuei; Lei, Hongxing; Luo, Ray; Duan, Yong

    2011-03-31

    In the companion paper, we presented a set of induced dipole interaction models using four types of screening functions, which include the Applequist (no screening), the Thole linear, the Thole exponential model, and the Thole Tinker-like (another form of exponential screening function) functions. In this work, we evaluate the performance of polarizability models using a large set of amino acid analog pairs in conformations that are frequently observed in protein structures as a benchmark. For each amino acid pair, we calculated quantum mechanical interaction energies at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level with the basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction and compared them with molecular mechanics results. Encouragingly, all polarizable models significantly outperform the additive F94 and F03 models (mimicking AMBER ff94/ff99 and ff03 force fields, respectively) in reproducing the BSSE-corrected quantum mechanical interaction energies. In particular, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for three Thole models in Set A (where the 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are turned off and all 1-4 interactions are included) are 1.456, 1.417, and 1.406 kcal/mol for model AL (Thole Linear), model AE (Thole exponential), and model AT (Thole Tinker-like), respectively. In contrast, the RMSEs are 3.729 and 3.433 kcal/mol for F94 and F03 models, respectively. A similar trend was observed for the average unsigned errors (AUEs), which are 1.057, 1.025, 1.011, 2.219, and 2.070 kcal/mol for AL, AE, AT, F94/ff99, and F03, respectively. Analyses based on the trend line slopes indicate that the two fixed charge models substantially underestimate the relative strengths of noncharge-charge interactions by 24 (F03) and 35% (F94), respectively, whereas the four polarizable models overestimate the relative strengths by 5 (AT), 3 (AL, AE), and 13% (AA), respectively. Agreement was further improved by adjusting the van der Waals parameters. Judging from the notably improved accuracy in

  11. Oxygen sensors and energy sensors act synergistically to achieve a graded alteration in gene expression: consequences for assessing the level of neuroprotection in response to stressors.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Gillian M C; Warburton, Joshua; Girjes, Adeeb

    2004-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are associated with switching to an autoprotected phenotype in response to environmental and physiological stress. Ubiquitous molecular chaperones from the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily confer neuronal protection that can be blocked by antibodies. Recent research has focused on the interactions between the molecular sensors that affect the increased expression of neuroprotective HSPs above constitutive levels. An examination of the conditions under which the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was up regulated in a hypoxia and anoxia tolerant tropical species, the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum), revealed that up-regulation was dependent on exceeding a stimulus threshold for an oxidative stressor. While hypoxic-preconditioning confers neuroprotective changes, there was no increase in the level of Hsp70 indicating that its increased expression was not associated with achieving a neuroprotected state in response to hypoxia in the epaulette shark. Conversely, there was a significant increase in Hsp70 in response to anoxic-preconditioning, highlighting the presence of a stimulus threshold barrier and raising the possibility that, in this species, Hsp70 contributes to the neuroprotective response to extreme crises, such as oxidative stress. Interestingly, there was a synergistic effect of coincident stressors on Hsp70 expression, which was revealed when metabolic stress was superimposed upon oxidative stress. Brain energy charge was significantly lower when adenosine receptor blockade, provided by treatment with aminophylline, was present prior to the final anoxic episode, under these circumstances, the level of Hsp70 induced was significantly higher than in the pair-matched saline treated controls. An understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis for neuroprotective switches, which result in an up-regulation of neuroprotective Hsp70 expression in the brain, is needed so that intervention strategies can be devised

  12. Fuel and vehicle technology choices for passenger vehicles in achieving stringent CO2 targets: connections between transportation and other energy sectors.

    PubMed

    Grahn, M; Azar, C; Williander, M I; Anderson, J E; Mueller, S A; Wallington, T J

    2009-05-01

    The regionalized Global Energy Transition (GET-R 6.0) model has been modified to include a detailed description of light-duty vehicle options and used to investigate the potential impact of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and concentrating solar power (CSP) on cost-effective fuel/vehicle technologies in a carbon-constrained world. Total CO2 emissions were constrained to achieve stabilization at 400-550 ppm, by 2100, at lowesttotal system cost The dominantfuel/vehicle technologies varied significantly depending on CO2 constraint future cost of vehicle technologies, and availability of CCS and CSP. For many cases, no one technology dominated on a global scale. CCS provides relatively inexpensive low-CO2 electricity and heatwhich prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs. CSP displaces fossil fuel derived electricity, prolongs the use of traditional ICEVs, and promotes electrification of passenger vehicles. In all cases considered, CCS and CSP availability had a major impact on the lowest cost fuel/vehicle technologies, and alternative fuels are needed in response to expected dwindling oil and natural gas supply potential by the end of the century. PMID:19534159

  13. Final Site-Wide Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: National Renewable Energy Laboratory's National Wind Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-05-31

    In accordance with the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5801), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) in 1977. SERI was designated as a national laboratory and became the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 1991. NREL was established to support DOE's mission to research and develop energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Among other responsibilities, NREL operates the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) located in Jefferson County, Colorado. The NWTC is a federally-owned, contractor-operated site. In accordance with the DOE National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations, DOE is required to evaluate existing Site-Wide Environmental Assessments (EA) every five years to determine whether the Site-Wide EA adequately addresses current agency plans, functions, programs and resource utilization. A Site-Wide EA for the NWTC was published in 1996 (DOE-EA-1127). DOE has determined that a new comprehensive EA should be prepared for the site to address new site development proposals and changes in the regional environment. DOE is the lead agency for this EA, and other federal, state, and local agencies and the public have been invited to participate in the environmental documentation process. The purpose of the Proposed Action is to support DOE's mission in the research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Alternative energy technology research is needed to improve technology designs, improve power generation efficiencies, increase economic competitiveness, and fully characterize and minimize environmental impacts from various technologies. The Proposed Action would provide and maintain enhanced facilities and infrastructure that would adequately support the site purpose of state-of-the-art alternative energy research, development, and demonstration.

  14. Small amplitude transverse waves on taut strings: exploring the significant effects of longitudinal motion on wave energy location and propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, David R.

    2013-03-01

    Introductory discussions of energy transport due to transverse waves on taut strings universally assume that the effects of longitudinal motion can be neglected, but this assumption is not even approximately valid unless the string is idealized to have a zero relaxed length, a requirement approximately met by the slinky spring. While making this additional idealization is probably the best approach to take when discussing waves on strings at the introductory level, for intermediate to advanced undergraduate classes in continuum mechanics and general wave phenomena where somewhat more realistic models of strings can be investigated, this paper makes the following contributions. First, various approaches to deriving the general energy continuity equation are critiqued and it is argued that the standard continuum mechanics approach to deriving such equations is the best because it leads to a conceptually clear, relatively simple derivation which provides a unique answer of greatest generality. In addition, a straightforward algorithm for calculating the transverse and longitudinal waves generated when a string is driven at one end is presented and used to investigate a cos2 transverse pulse. This example illustrates much important physics regarding energy transport in strings and allows the ‘attack waves’ observed when strings in musical instruments are struck or plucked to be approximately modelled and analysed algebraically. Regarding the ongoing debate as to whether the potential energy density in a string can be uniquely defined, it is shown by coupling an external energy source to a string that a suggested alternative formula for potential energy density requires an unphysical potential energy to be ascribed to the source for overall energy to be conserved and so cannot be considered to be physically valid.

  15. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  16. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies. Progress report, August 15, 1991--August 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T.R.

    1992-03-01

    These experiments apply multiple-laser spectroscopic techniques to investigate the bond energies, potential surface topologies, and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Infrared-optical double resonance pumping of light atom stretch vibrations in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and HN{sub 3} prepares reactant molecules in single rovibrational states above the unimolecular dissociation threshold on the ground potential surface, and laser induced fluorescence detection of the OH or NH fragments monitors the partitioning of energy into individual product quantum states. Product energy partitioning data from H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dissociation provide a stringent test of statistical theories as well as potential energy surface calculations. Ongoing work on HN{sub 3} seeks to determine the height of the barrier to dissociation on the singlet potential energy surface. Our most recently developed spectroscopic scheme allows the measurement of high vibrational overtone spectra of jet-cooled molecules. This approach uses CO{sub 2} laser infrared multiphoton dissociation followed by laser induced fluorescence product detection to measure weak vibrational overtone transitions in low pressure environments. Application of this scheme to record the {Delta}V{sub OH}=4 and {Delta}V{sub OH}=5 transitions of CH{sub 3}OH cooled in a supersonic free-jet demonstrates both its feasibility and its utility for simplifying high vibrational overtone spectra.

  17. Assembly of single molecular magnets from dinuclear to 2D Dy-compounds with significant change of relaxation energy barriers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Fang, Ming; Kang, Xiao-Min; Hou, Yin-Ling; Zhao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A dinuclear Dy(III) compound (1) was structurally and magnetically characterized, displaying a single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior with a relaxation energy barrier of 21(1) K. Interestingly, by only adding a suitable substituent on the ligand in , as an SMM building unit, can be further assembled into a two-dimensional (2D) framework (2), which possesses a typical SMM behavior and a high relaxation energy barrier of 68(2) K. The result implied that the assembly of an SMM can effectively tune the energy barrier. To our knowledge, a cluster-based SMM assembled into a new 2D framework with SMM behavior is seldom reported. PMID:26634233

  18. Problems in the Application of Thermal-based Energy Balance Models with Significant Sub-Pixel Variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A thermal infrared (TIR)-based two-source (soil + vegetation) energy balance (TSEB) model has been applied and validated using remotely sensed imagery at a variety of resolutions. TSEB model validation issues, potential model errors and inability to discriminate fluxes for diverse land cover types ...

  19. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  20. Turtles and culverts, and alternative energy development: an unreported but potentially significant mortality threat to the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, J.E.; Ennen, J.R.; Madrak, S.; Grover, B.

    2011-01-01

    Culverts are often used to increase the permeability of roaded landscapes for wildlife, including turtles. Although the benefits of culverts as safe passages for turtles are well documented, under some conditions culverts can entrap them and cause mortality. Here we report a culvert-related mortality in the federally threatened desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility in California and offer simple recommendations to mitigate the negative effects of culverts for wildlife in general.

  1. Significant Treasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Ian A.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a crossword puzzle with an answer key corresponding to the book entitled "Significant Treasures/Tresors Parlants" that is filled with color and black-and-white prints of paintings and artifacts from 131 museums and art galleries as a sampling of the 2,200 such Canadian institutions. (CMK)

  2. Compressed sensing embedded in an operational wireless sensor network to achieve energy efficiency in long-term monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, S. M.; Lynch, J. P.; Gilbert, A. C.

    2014-08-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) is a powerful new data acquisition paradigm that seeks to accurately reconstruct unknown sparse signals from very few (relative to the target signal dimension) random projections. The specific objective of this study is to save wireless sensor energy by using CS to simultaneously reduce data sampling rates, on-board storage requirements, and communication data payloads. For field-deployed low power wireless sensors that are often operated with limited energy sources, reduced communication translates directly into reduced power consumption and improved operational reliability. In this study, acceleration data from a multi-girder steel-concrete deck composite bridge are processed for the extraction of mode shapes. A wireless sensor node previously designed to perform traditional uniform, Nyquist rate sampling is modified to perform asynchronous, effectively sub-Nyquist rate sampling. The sub-Nyquist data are transmitted off-site to a computational server for reconstruction using the CoSaMP matching pursuit recovery algorithm and further processed for extraction of the structure’s mode shapes. The mode shape metric used for reconstruction quality is the modal assurance criterion (MAC), an indicator of the consistency between CS and traditional Nyquist acquired mode shapes. A comprehensive investigation of modal accuracy from a dense set of acceleration response data reveals that MAC values above 0.90 are obtained for the first four modes of a bridge structure when at least 20% of the original signal is sampled using the CS framework. Reduced data collection, storage and communication requirements are found to lead to substantial reductions in the energy requirements of wireless sensor networks at the expense of modal accuracy. Specifically, total energy reductions of 10-60% can be obtained for a sensor network with 10-100 sensor nodes, respectively. The reduced energy requirements of the CS sensor nodes are shown to directly result in

  3. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Presidential Permit Applications for Baja California Power, Inc. and Sempra Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2001-12-05

    In separate actions, Sempra Energy Resources (SER) and Baja California Power, Inc. (BCP) have applied to the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Presidential permits pursuant to Executive Order (EO) No. 10485, as amended by EO 12038, and 10 CFR Section 205.320 et seq. (2000), to construct, operate, maintain, and connect electric power transmission facilities crossing the international border between the Us and Mexico. SER and BCP each propose constructing separate new double-circuit, 230,000 volt (230 kV) transmission lines extending about six miles south from the Imperial Valley Substation (IV Substation), owned and operated by San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG and E), to the US/Mexico international border. In each case, the objective is to connect the proposed transmission lines to natural gas fueled electric generating plants being constructed in Mexico for the purpose of importing electrical power into the US onto the southern California electrical grid. The proposed transmission lines would traverse about six miles of federal land administered by the US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM).

  4. Comment on "Ribosome utilizes the minimum free energy changes to achieve the highest decoding rate and fidelity"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savir, Yonatan; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2016-05-01

    We examined [Y. Savir and T. Tlusty, Cell 153, 471 (2013), 10.1016/j.cell.2013.03.032] the decoding performance of tRNA by the ribosome. For this purpose, we specified the kinetics of tRNA decoding and the corresponding energy landscape, from which we calculated the steady-state decoding rate RC. Following our work, Xie reexamined [P. Xie, Phys. Rev. E 92, 022716 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.022716] the energy landscape of tRNA decoding. His analysis relies on an alternative expression for RC, while claiming that the expression we use is missing some terms. In this Comment we rederive in detail our expression for the steady-state decoding rate RC, show they hold, explain why the alternative expression for RC is inaccurate, and discuss the underlying intuition.

  5. Twisting the Phenyls in Aryl Diphosphenes (Ar-P=P-Ar). Significant Impact upon Lowest Energy Excited States

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Huo-Lei; Payton, John L.; Protasiewicz, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Aryl diphosphenes (Ar-P=P-Ar) possess features that may make them useful in photonic devices, including the possibility for photochemical E-Z isomerization. Development of good models guided by computations is hampered by poor correspondence between predicted and experimental UV/vis absorption spectra. An hypothesis that the phenyl twist angle (i.e. PPCC torsion) accounts for this discrepancy is explored, with positive findings. DFT and TDDFT (B3LYP) were applied to the phenyl-P=P-phenyl (Ph-P=P-Ph) model compound over a range of phenyl twist angles, and to the Ph-P=P-Ph cores of two crystallographically characterized diphosphenes: bis-(2,4,6-tBu3C6H2)-diphosphene (Mes*-P=P-Mes*) and bis-(2,6-Mes2C6H3)-diphosphene (Dmp-P=P-Dmp). A shallow PES is observed: the full range of phenyl twist angles is accessible for under 5 kcal/mol. The Kohn-Sham orbitals (KS-MOs) exhibit stabilization and mixing of the two highest energy frontier orbitals – the n+ and π localized primarily on the – P=P– unit. A simple, single-configuration model based upon this symmetry-breaking is shown to be consistent with the major features of the measured UV/vis spectra of several diphosphenes. Detailed evaluation of singlet excitations, transition energies and oscillator strengths with TDDFT showed that the lowest energy transition (S1 ← S0) does not always correspond to the LUMO ← HOMO configuration. Coupling between the phenyl rings and central –P=P– destabilizes the π-π* dominated state. Hence, the S1 is always n+-π* in nature, even with a π-type HOMO. This coupling of the ring and –P=P– π systems engenders complexity in the UV/vis absorption region, and may be the origin of the variety of photobehaviours observed in diphosphenes. PMID:19496568

  6. NOx emissions retrofit at Reliant Energy, W.A. Parish Generating Station, Unit 7: Achieving 0.15 lb/MBtu

    SciTech Connect

    Gessner, T.M.; Hoh, R.H.; Ray, B.; Dorazio, T.; Jennings, P.; Sikorski, K.

    1999-07-01

    The current Clean Air Act (CAA), Title 1 regulations require States to develop implementation plans (SIPs) which address NO{sub x} emissions as part of the ozone non-attainment requirements. The EPA has recommended NO{sub x} limits of 0.15 lb/MBtu for utility boilers. In this paper, Reliant Energy and ABB C-E Services, Inc. will discuss a project where 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/MBtu can be achieved with the TFS 2000{trademark} R firing system and highly reactive Powder River Basin (PRB) fuels. Reliant Energy will retrofit their W.A. Parish Unit 7 with this system in the first quarter of 1999. This is part of Reliant Energy's drive to lower NO{sub x} emissions and meet future air quality requirements at the W.Q. Parish station.

  7. Bubbles trapped at the coupling surface of the treatment head significantly reduce acoustic energy delivered in shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Beard, Spencer; Williams, James C.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2006-05-01

    The coupling efficiency of a "dry head" electromagnetic lithotripter (Dornier Compact Delta) was studied in vitro. A fiber-optic probe hydrophone (FOPH-500) was positioned in a test tank filled with degassed water. The tank was coupled through a semi-transparent latex membrane to the water-filled cushion of the lithotripter head, so that bubbles (air pockets) trapped between the two coupling surfaces could be easily observed and photographed. When gel was applied to both the latex membrane and the water cushion, numerous bubbles (some several millimeters in diameter) could be seen at the coupling interface. Hydrophone measurements in the geometric focus of the lithotripter showed that the acoustic pressure could be two times lower when bubbles were present than when they were manually removed. In our in vitro design, trapped bubbles could be easily observed and therefore removed from the acoustic path. However, during patient treatment with a dry-head lithotripter one cannot see whether bubbles are trapped against the skin. This study provides a demonstration of the dramatic effect that trapped bubbles can have on the amount of acoustic energy actually delivered for treatment.

  8. The significance of photovoltaics for a climatically benign energy supply in Baden-Wuerttemberg, a state in southern Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Moesslein, J.

    1994-12-31

    The contribution to the realization of a climatically benign energy supply in Middle Europe by the inland use of photovoltaics (PV) has been identified to serve as an assessment for political decisions. The roof area of Baden-Wuerttemberg is large enough to install a total PV power that generates at least 20% of the consumed electricity. For this share, the fluctuations of PV power do not cause more than 2% of the total electricity to be unused if no storage systems are used. The small size of the current world market for PV systems, as well as the comparably high prices for PV electricity will impede a fast extension of grid-connected PV systems mid-term. Therefore, public subsidies will still be needed to accelerate both demand and supply of PV systems. Given these boundary conditions a scenario where no more than maybe 100 MWp will be installed until the year 2005 is most probable. Then, the share of the electricity generation by PV will only be in the 0.1% range. Logistic functions for the PV market after the year 2005 show that only if they start to support the integration of PV systems in the electricity system already today, shares of the PV electricity in the 10--20% range will be obtainable around the year 2020.

  9. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy. PMID:23959505

  10. Varying protein source and quantity does not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This pilot study tested whether varying protein source and quantity in a reduced energy diet would result in significant differences in weight, body composition, and renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5 month weight reduction study, invol...

  11. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  12. Adaption of the LUCI framework to account for detailed farm management: a case study exploring potential for achieving locally and nationally significant greenhouse gas, flooding and nutrient mitigation without compromising livelihoods on New Zealand farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Bethanna; Trodahl, Martha; Maxwell, Deborah; Easton, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    This talk discusses recent progress in adapting the Land Utilisation and Capability Indicator (LUCI) framework to take account of the impact of detailed farm management on greenhouse gas emissions and on water, sediment and nutrient delivery to waterways. LUCI is a land management decision support framework which examines the impact of current and potential interventions on a variety of outcomes, including flood mitigation, water supply, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, erosion, sediment and nutrient delivery to waterways, and agricultural production. The potential of the landscape to provide benefits is a function of both the biophysical properties of individual landscape elements and their configuration. Both are respected in LUCI where possible. For example, the hydrology, sediment and chemical routing algorithms are based on physical principles of hillslope flow, taking information on the storage and permeability capacity of elements within the landscape from soil and land use data and honoring physical thresholds, mass and energy balance constraints. LUCI discretizes hydrological response units within the landscape according to similarity of their hydraulic properties and preserves spatially explicit topographical routing. Implications of keeping the "status quo" or potential scenarios of land management change can then be evaluated under different meteorological or climatic events (e.g. flood return periods, rainfall events, droughts), cascading water through the hydrological response units using a "fill and spill" approach. These and other component algorithms are designed to be fast-running while maintaining physical consistency and fine spatial detail. This allows it to operate from subfield level scale to catchment, or even national scale, simultaneously. It analyses and communicates the spatial pattern of individual provision and tradeoffs/synergies between desired outcomes at detailed resolutions and provides suggestions on where management

  13. Implementation of a compressive sampling scheme for wireless sensors to achieve energy efficiency in a structural health monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Sean M.; Lynch, Jerome P.; Gilbert, Anna C.

    2013-04-01

    Wireless sensors have emerged to offer low-cost sensors with impressive functionality (e.g., data acquisition, computing, and communication) and modular installations. Such advantages enable higher nodal densities than tethered systems resulting in increased spatial resolution of the monitoring system. However, high nodal density comes at a cost as huge amounts of data are generated, weighing heavy on power sources, transmission bandwidth, and data management requirements, often making data compression necessary. The traditional compression paradigm consists of high rate (>Nyquist) uniform sampling and storage of the entire target signal followed by some desired compression scheme prior to transmission. The recently proposed compressed sensing (CS) framework combines the acquisition and compression stage together, thus removing the need for storage and operation of the full target signal prior to transmission. The effectiveness of the CS approach hinges on the presence of a sparse representation of the target signal in a known basis, similarly exploited by several traditional compressive sensing applications today (e.g., imaging, MRI). Field implementations of CS schemes in wireless SHM systems have been challenging due to the lack of commercially available sensing units capable of sampling methods (e.g., random) consistent with the compressed sensing framework, often moving evaluation of CS techniques to simulation and post-processing. The research presented here describes implementation of a CS sampling scheme to the Narada wireless sensing node and the energy efficiencies observed in the deployed sensors. Of interest in this study is the compressibility of acceleration response signals collected from a multi-girder steel-concrete composite bridge. The study shows the benefit of CS in reducing data requirements while ensuring data analysis on compressed data remain accurate.

  14. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products, and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.

  15. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products,more » and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.« less

  16. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1975 - 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Developments in planetology research as reported at the 1976 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators' meeting are summarized. Topics range from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  17. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  18. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, H.E.

    1981-09-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  19. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1980 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution and comparative planetology to geologic processes active on other planetary bodies.

  20. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  1. Significant achievements in the planetary program, 1976 - 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1977 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  2. Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  3. The energetic significance of cooking.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

  4. Dispersion-correcting potentials can significantly improve the bond dissociation enthalpies and noncovalent binding energies predicted by density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    DiLabio, Gino A.; Koleini, Mohammad

    2014-05-14

    Dispersion-correcting potentials (DCPs) are atom-centered Gaussian functions that are applied in a manner that is similar to effective core potentials. Previous work on DCPs has focussed on their use as a simple means of improving the ability of conventional density-functional theory methods to predict the binding energies of noncovalently bonded molecular dimers. We show in this work that DCPs developed for use with the LC-ωPBE functional along with 6-31+G(2d,2p) basis sets are capable of simultaneously improving predicted noncovalent binding energies of van der Waals dimer complexes and covalent bond dissociation enthalpies in molecules. Specifically, the DCPs developed herein for the C, H, N, and O atoms provide binding energies for a set of 66 noncovalently bonded molecular dimers (the “S66” set) with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.21 kcal/mol, which represents an improvement of more than a factor of 10 over unadorned LC-ωPBE/6-31+G(2d,2p) and almost a factor of two improvement over LC-ωPBE/6-31+G(2d,2p) used in conjunction with the “D3” pairwise dispersion energy corrections. In addition, the DCPs reduce the MAE of calculated X-H and X-Y (X,Y = C, H, N, O) bond dissociation enthalpies for a set of 40 species from 3.2 kcal/mol obtained with unadorned LC-ωPBE/6-31+G(2d,2p) to 1.6 kcal/mol. Our findings demonstrate that broad improvements to the performance of DFT methods may be achievable through the use of DCPs.

  5. Using edge-preserving algorithm with non-local mean for significantly improved image-domain material decomposition in dual-energy CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Tianye; Xing, Lei; Xie, Yaoqin; Xiong, Guanglei; Elmore, Kimberly; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Luyao; Min, James K.

    2016-02-01

    Increased noise is a general concern for dual-energy material decomposition. Here, we develop an image-domain material decomposition algorithm for dual-energy CT (DECT) by incorporating an edge-preserving filter into the Local HighlY constrained backPRojection reconstruction (HYPR-LR) framework. With effective use of the non-local mean, the proposed algorithm, which is referred to as HYPR-NLM, reduces the noise in dual-energy decomposition while preserving the accuracy of quantitative measurement and spatial resolution of the material-specific dual-energy images. We demonstrate the noise reduction and resolution preservation of the algorithm with an iodine concentrate numerical phantom by comparing the HYPR-NLM algorithm to the direct matrix inversion, HYPR-LR and iterative image-domain material decomposition (Iter-DECT). We also show the superior performance of the HYPR-NLM over the existing methods by using two sets of cardiac perfusing imaging data. The DECT material decomposition comparison study shows that all four algorithms yield acceptable quantitative measurements of iodine concentrate. Direct matrix inversion yields the highest noise level, followed by HYPR-LR and Iter-DECT. HYPR-NLM in an iterative formulation significantly reduces image noise and the image noise is comparable to or even lower than that generated using Iter-DECT. For the HYPR-NLM method, there are marginal edge effects in the difference image, suggesting the high-frequency details are well preserved. In addition, when the search window size increases from 11× 11 to 19× 19 , there are no significant changes or marginal edge effects in the HYPR-NLM difference images. The reference drawn from the comparison study includes: (1) HYPR-NLM significantly reduces the DECT material decomposition noise while preserving quantitative measurements and high-frequency edge information, and (2) HYPR-NLM is robust with respect to parameter selection.

  6. The metabolic cost of changing walking speeds is significant, implies lower optimal speeds for shorter distances, and increases daily energy estimates.

    PubMed

    Seethapathi, Nidhi; Srinivasan, Manoj

    2015-09-01

    Humans do not generally walk at constant speed, except perhaps on a treadmill. Normal walking involves starting, stopping and changing speeds, in addition to roughly steady locomotion. Here, we measure the metabolic energy cost of walking when changing speed. Subjects (healthy adults) walked with oscillating speeds on a constant-speed treadmill, alternating between walking slower and faster than the treadmill belt, moving back and forth in the laboratory frame. The metabolic rate for oscillating-speed walking was significantly higher than that for constant-speed walking (6-20% cost increase for ±0.13-0.27 m s(-1) speed fluctuations). The metabolic rate increase was correlated with two models: a model based on kinetic energy fluctuations and an inverted pendulum walking model, optimized for oscillating-speed constraints. The cost of changing speeds may have behavioural implications: we predicted that the energy-optimal walking speed is lower for shorter distances. We measured preferred human walking speeds for different walking distances and found people preferred lower walking speeds for shorter distances as predicted. Further, analysing published daily walking-bout distributions, we estimate that the cost of changing speeds is 4-8% of daily walking energy budget. PMID:26382072

  7. Physicochemical state of the nanotopographic surface of commercially pure titanium following anodization-hydrothermal treatment reveals significantly improved hydrophilicity and surface energy profiles.

    PubMed

    Takebe, Jun; Ito, Shigeki; Miura, Shingo; Miyata, Kyohei; Ishibashi, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    A method of coating commercially pure titanium (cpTi) implants with a highly crystalline, thin hydroxyapatite (HA) layer using discharge anodic oxidation followed by hydrothermal treatment (Spark discharged Anodic oxidation treatment ; SA-treated cpTi) has been reported for use in clinical dentistry. We hypothesized that a thin HA layer with high crystallinity and nanostructured anodic titanium oxide film on such SA-treated cpTi implant surfaces might be a crucial function of their surface-specific potential energy. To test this, we analyzed anodic oxide (AO) cpTi and SA-treated cpTi disks by SEM and AFM. Contact angles and surface free energy of each disk surface was measured using FAMAS software. High-magnification SEM and AFM revealed the nanotopographic structure of the anodic titanium oxide film on SA-treated cpTi; however, this was not observed on the AO cpTi surface. The contact angle and surface free energy measurements were also significantly different between AO cpTi and SA-treated cpTi surfaces (Tukey's, P<0.05). These data indicated that the change of physicochemical properties of an anodic titanium oxide film with HA crystals on an SA-treated cpTi surface may play a key role in the phenomenon of osteoconduction during the process of osseointegration. PMID:23177772

  8. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  9. Non-Friedmann cosmology for the Local Universe, significance of the universal Hubble constant, and short-distance indicators of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Baryshev, Yu. V.

    2006-09-01

    Based on the increasing evidence of the cosmological relevance of the local Hubble flow, we consider a simple analytical cosmological model for the Local Universe. This is a non-Friedmann model with a non-uniform static space-time. The major dynamical factor controlling the local expansion is the antigravity produced by the omnipresent and permanent dark energy of the cosmic vacuum (or the cosmological constant). The antigravity dominates at larger distances than 1-2 Mpc from the center of the Local group. The model gives a natural explanation of the two key quantitative characteristics of the local expansion flow, which are the local Hubble constant and the velocity dispersion of the flow. The observed kinematical similarity of the local and global flows of expansion is clarified by the model. We analytically demonstrate the efficiency of the vacuum cooling mechanism that allows one to see the Hubble law this close to the Local group. The "universal Hubble constant" HV (≈60 km s-1 Mpc-1), depending only on the vacuum density, has special significance locally and globally. The model makes a number of verifiable predictions. It also unexpectedly shows that the dwarf galaxies of the local flow with the shortest distances and lowest redshifts may be the most sensitive indicators of dark energy in our neighborhood.

  10. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  11. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  12. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  13. Nontargeted Stressful Effects in Normal Human Fibroblast Cultures Exposed to Low Fluences of High Charge, High Energy (HZE) Particles: Kinetics of Biologic Responses and Significance of Secondary Radiations

    PubMed Central

    Gonon, Géraldine; Groetz, Jean-Emmanuel; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Howell, Roger W.; Fromm, Michel; Azzam, Edouard I.

    2014-01-01

    The induction of nontargeted stressful effects in cell populations exposed to low fluences of high charge (Z) and high energy (E) particles is relevant to estimates of the health risks of space radiation. We investigated the up-regulation of stress markers in confluent normal human fibroblast cultures exposed to 1,000 MeV/u iron ions [linear energy transfer (LET) ~151 keV/μm] or 600 MeV/u silicon ions (LET ~50 keV/μm) at mean absorbed doses as low as 0.2 cGy, wherein 1–3% of the cells were targeted through the nucleus by a primary particle. Within 24 h postirradiation, significant increases in the levels of phospho-TP53 (serine 15), p21Waf1 (CDKN1A), HDM2, phospho-ERK1/2, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation were detected, which suggested participation in the stress response of cells not targeted by primary particles. This was supported by in situ studies that indicated greater increases in 53BP1 foci formation, a marker of DNA damage. than expected from the number of primary particle traversals. The effect was expressed as early as 15 min after exposure, peaked at 1 h and decreased by 24 h. A similar tendency occurred after exposure of the cell cultures to 0.2 cGy of 3.7 MeV α particles (LET ~109 keV/μm) that targets ~1.6% of nuclei, but not after 0.2 cGy from 290 MeV/u carbon ions (LET ~13 keV/μm) by which, on average, ~13% of the nuclei were hit, which highlights the importance of radiation quality in the induced effect. Simulations with the FLUKA multi-particle transport code revealed that fragmentation products, other than electrons, in cell cultures exposed to HZE particles comprise <1% of the absorbed dose. Further, the radial spread of dose due to secondary heavy ion fragments is confined to approximately 10–20 μm. Thus, the latter are unlikely to significantly contribute to stressful effects in cells not targeted by primary HZE particles. PMID:23465079

  14. Achieving high power efficiency and low roll-off OLEDs based on energy transfer from thermally activated delayed excitons to fluorescent dopants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shipan; Zhang, Yuewei; Chen, Weiping; Wei, Jinbei; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yue

    2015-08-01

    Achieving high power efficiencies at high-brightness levels is still an important issue for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) mechanism. Herein, enhanced electroluminescence efficiencies were achieved in fluorescent OLEDs using a TADF molecule, (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN), as a host and quinacridone derivatives (QA) as fluorescent dopants. PMID:26120606

  15. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  16. Metaldyne. Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Effciency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Sigificant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  17. Building Eco-Informatics: Examining the Dynamics of Eco-Feedback Design and Peer Networks to Achieve Sustainable Reductions in Energy Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Rishee K.

    2013-01-01

    The built environment accounts for a substantial portion of energy consumption in the United States and in many parts of the world. Due to concerns over rising energy costs and climate change, researchers and practitioners have started exploring the area of eco-informatics to link information from the human, natural and built environments.…

  18. Energy - 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Board of Regents, Topeka.

    A checklist of energy consumption reduction measures for universities is provided with the intent of achieving rapid and significant energy savings at minimal cost. Measures described should be within the scope of accomplishment by regular university operating and maintenance personnel. The measures involve non-technical actions such as adjusting…

  19. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  20. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  1. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  2. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  3. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  4. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  5. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  6. A Critical Review of Thermodiffusion Models: Role and Significance of the Heat of Transport and the Activation Energy of Viscous Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Saghir, M. Ziad

    2009-06-01

    In this paper thermodiffusion models developed to estimate the thermal diffusion factor in nonideal liquid mixtures are reviewed; the merits and shortcomings of each model are discussed in detail. Most of these models are multicomponent in principle; however our focus here is on binary mixtures. Two rather different groups of models are identified: models needing a matching parameter to be obtained usually from the outside of thermodynamics, and the self-contained or independent models. Derivation of the matching parameter models using linear non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the details of how to find the matching parameters are investigated. The physical meaning of parameters such as the net heat of transport and the activation energy of viscous flow is elucidated, as the literature is overwhelmed with confusing and misleading information. The so-called dynamic and static models and their relations to the matching and non-matching parameter models are also discussed. We conclude that modeling the net heat of transport by the activation energy of self-diffusion may provide better results than approximating it by the activation energy of viscous flow. Nonetheless, the matching parameter models, which use the activation energy of viscous flow, are more dynamic and predict the thermal diffusion factor better than the non-matching parameter or static models, such as those of Kempers and Haase.

  7. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate: Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.; Sherwin, J.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  8. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit – in a humid, temperate climate – lessons from the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa

    SciTech Connect

    Regnier, Cindy; Harding, Ari; Robinson, Alastair

    2015-07-01

    The University of Hawai’i at Mānoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Hawai`i Clean Energy Initiative to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program1. Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft²).

  9. Achieving Very High Efficiency and Net Zero Energy in an Existing Home in a Hot-Humid Climate. Long-Term Utility and Monitoring Data

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.

    2012-10-01

    This study summarizes the first six months of detailed data collected on a single family home that experienced a series of retrofits targeting reductions in energy use. The project was designed to develop data on how envelope modifications and renewable measures can result in considerable energy reductions and potentially net zero energy for an existing home. Originally published in February 2012, this revised version of the report contains further research conducted on the Parker residence. Key updates include one full year of additional data, an analysis of cooling performance of the mini-split heat pump, an evaluation of room-to-room temperature distribution, and an evaluation of plug-in automobile charging performance, electricity consumption, and load shape.

  10. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  11. Teacher Certification and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Patricia Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine if there is a significant difference between the achievement of students who are taught by traditionally prepared teachers and that of students who are taught by alternatively prepared teachers. The study further addressed the perspectives of both groups of teachers regarding selected…

  12. Achieving Safety through Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, John

    Whilst the achievement of safety objectives may not be possible purely through the administration of an effective Information Security Management System (ISMS), your job as safety manager will be significantly eased if such a system is in place. This paper seeks to illustrate the point by drawing a comparison between two of the prominent standards within the two disciplines of security and safety management.

  13. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  14. Trophic strategies in carnivorous fishes: their significance in energy transfer in the deep-sea benthic ecosystem (Meriadzek Terrace — Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaut, Marie-Laure; Geistdoerfer, Patrick; Sibuet, Myriam

    Trophic relationships between fish species have been analyzed as a contribution to the construction of an energy transfer model between various groups in the benthic ecosystem of Meriadzek Terrace, located at 170 miles off the west French coast at a depth of 2100m. Attention was given to the carnivorous megafaunal compartment. The importance of the carnivore megafaunal biomass and its part in energy transfer is still unresolved. On the Meriadzek Terrace, numerous Chondrichthyes (sharks and chimeroids) were frequently observed from the manned submersible Cyana or by baited camera; their biomass appears to be exceptionally large. Results of a photographic survey conducted using the unmanned free vehicle Epaulard have given estimates of 22 per 10 4m 2 of teleost fishes (belonging to 8 different families and one suborder) but included no Chondrichthyes (except one specimen of Rajidae). From baited camera observations, however, we conclude that carcasses falling to the bottom on the Terrace are exploited only by selacians as the bait was never seen to be eaten by macrourids, morids or synaphobranchids although they always attended the baits before the arrival of large scavengers. Trophic specialization strategies occur in this deep-sea ecosystem and our further studies on the energy transfer model for the Meriadzek Terrace will differentiate between strategies exploiting two sources of organic input to the bottom environment: organic particles and large carcasses. In one case, carbon transfer is via the whole benthic food web in which each link is specified by size and trophic behaviour. This pathway ends in the carnivorous megafaunal compartment, which includes benthic fishes, consumers of the local epibenthic and sometimes inbenthic, macro- and megafauna. The second pathway originates with carcass falls, and carbon transfer is direct to the benthopelagic scavengers observed frequently at the Meriadzek Terrace.

  15. Controlling the energy transfer via multi luminescent centers to achieve white light/tunable emissions in a single-phased X2-type Y2SiO5:Eu(3+),Bi(3+) phosphor for ultraviolet converted LEDs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Fengwen; Zhang, Yi; Peng, Mingying

    2015-02-16

    So far, more than 1000 UV converted phosphors have been reported for potential application in white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs), but most of them (e.g., Y2O2S:Eu, YAG:Ce or CaAlSiN3:Eu) suffer from intrinsic problems such as thermal instability, color aging or re-absorption by commixed phosphors in the coating of the devices. In this case, it becomes significant to search a single-phased phosphor, which can efficiently convert UV light to white lights. Herein, we report a promising candidate of a white light emitting X2-type Y2SiO5:Eu(3+),Bi(3+) phosphor, which can be excitable by UV light and address the problems mentioned above. Single Bi(3+)-doped X2-type Y2SiO5 exhibits three discernible emission peaks at ∼355, ∼408, and ∼504 nm, respectively, upon UV excitation due to three types of bismuth emission centers, and their relative intensity depends tightly on the incident excitation wavelength. In this regard, proper selection of excitation wavelength can lead to tunable emissions of Y2SiO5:Bi(3+) between blue and green, which is partially due to the energy transfer among the Bi centers. As a red emission center Eu(3+) is codoped into Y2SiO5:Bi(3+), energy transfer has been confirmed happening from Bi(3+) to Eu(3+) via an electric dipole-dipole (d-d) interaction. Our experiments reveal that it is easily realizable to create the white or tunable emissions by adjusting the Eu(3+) content and the excitation schemes. Moreover, a single-phased white light emission phosphor, X2-type Y1.998SiO5:0.01Eu(3+),0.01 Bi(3+), has been achieved with excellent resistance against thermal quenching and a QE of 78%. At 200 °C, it preserves >90% emission intensity of that at 25 °C. Consequent three time yoyo experiments of heating-cooling prove no occurrence of thermal degradation. A WLED lamp has been successfully fabricated with a CIE chromaticity coordinate (0.3702, 0.2933), color temperature 4756 K, and color rendering index of 65 by applying the phosphor onto a UV LED

  16. Self-Efficacy and Achievement Goals as Motivational Links between Perceived Contexts and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yi; Song, Juyeon; Lee, Minhye; Bong, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate (a) how the subjectively perceived achievement goals of significant others would predict the academic self-efficacy and achievement goals of Korean adolescents and (b) how those self-efficacy and achievement goals in turn predicted their achievement. We also compared these predictive…

  17. School District Organization and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidwell, Charles E.; Kasarda, John D.

    1975-01-01

    Study examines determinants of organizational effectiveness. Results indicate that pupil-teacher ratio and administrative intensity depress median levels of achievement; whereas, staff qualifications foster student achievement. The percentage of non-whites is said to have a consistently significant direct effect on median achievement level.…

  18. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  19. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  20. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  1. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  2. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  3. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  17. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  18. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  19. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  2. Skeletal lesions in the broiler, with special reference to dyschondroplasia (osteochondrosis). Pathology, frequency and clinical significance in two strains of birds on high and low energy feed.

    PubMed

    Poulos, P W; Reiland, S; Elwinger, K; Olsson, S E

    1978-01-01

    The material consisted of 2,950 broilers of the variety Hybro Compact of two lines. An equal number of birds of both lines were given either a high energy feed (H) or a low energy feed (L), containing all nutrients known to be required by broilers. During the first 3 weeks, H and L starter feeds were given and thereafter H and L finishing feeds. At 21, 35, and 45 days of age, the birds were weighed in groups, and feed conversion calculated. At 21 days of age, the frequency of crooked toes and swollen hocks was registered. Birds were taken from each group for necropsy at regular intervals. Both clinically normal birds and those with locomotor disturbances were selected for necropsy, including radiographic examination. With the exception of 240 birds, which were kept for a long-term study, the birds on the H feed were slaughtered at 42 days of age and the ones on the L feed at 49 days of age. The long-term birds were slaughtered at regular intervals, weighed, and necropsied. The last birds were slaughtered at 134 days of age. A large number of skeletal lesions were found. They were: Twisted legs, slipped tendons, crooked toes, bowing of the proximal tibia, dyschondroplasia at different sites, fracture of the fibula, deformity of the spine, deviated sternum (with breast blisters), arthritis, and osteomyelitis. Leg weakness was found to be almost synonymous with skeletal deformities. Other causes were rare. The normal development and morphology of the skeleton and the morphology of tibial dyschondroplasia were the same as those previously described in the turkey. Dyschondroplasia was found not only in the proximal tibia but also in the distal tibia, proximal tarsometatarsus, proximal and distal femur, and to some extent also in the costochondral junction. Tibial dyschondroplasia was more common in the birds on the H feed than in the birds on the L feed. Hence, tibial dyschondroplasia was correlated with rapid growth. The other skeletal lesions did not differ in

  3. Significant reduction in NiO band gap upon formation of Lix Ni1-x O alloys: applications to solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Alidoust, Nima; Toroker, Maytal Caspary; Keith, John A; Carter, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Long-term sustainable solar energy conversion relies on identifying economical and versatile semiconductor materials with appropriate band structures for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications (e.g., band gaps of ∼ 1.5-2.0 eV). Nickel oxide (NiO) is an inexpensive yet highly promising candidate. Its charge-transfer character may lead to longer carrier lifetimes needed for higher efficiencies, and its conduction band edge is suitable for driving hydrogen evolution via water-splitting. However, NiO's large band gap (∼ 4 eV) severely limits its use in practical applications. Our first-principles quantum mechanics calculations show band gaps dramatically decrease to ∼ 2.0 eV when NiO is alloyed with Li2O. We show that Lix Ni1-x O alloys (with x=0.125 and 0.25) are p-type semiconductors, contain states with no impurity levels in the gap and maintain NiO's desirable charge-transfer character. Lastly, we show that the alloys have potential for photoelectrochemical applications, with band edges well-placed for photocatalytic hydrogen production and CO2 reduction, as well as in tandem dye-sensitized solar cells as a photocathode. PMID:24265209

  4. Quantum dots arrangement and energy transfer control via charge-transfer complex achieved on poly(phenylene ethynylene)/schizophyllan nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Tomohiro; Haraguchi, Shuichi; Tsuchiya, Youichi; Shinkai, Seiji

    2009-09-01

    Assemblies of organic and inorganic compounds in the nanoscale region have contributed to the development of novel functional materials toward future applications, including sensors and opto-electronics. We succeed in fabricating hybrid nanowires composed of a conjugated polymer and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) by a supramolecular assembly technique. The 1-D fashion of the nanowire structure is obtained by the polymer wrapping of cationic poly(phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) with helix-forming polysaccharide schizophyllan (SPG). The electrostatic interaction between cationic PPE and anionic QDs affords the nanowires decorated with QDs. Upon addition of an acceptor molecule, tetranitrofluorenone (TNF), the charge-transfer (CT) complex between PPE and TNF is formed, resulting in energy transfer from the QDs to PPE arising from the induced spectral overlap. Furthermore, the employment of the conjugated polymer allows highly sensitive quenching of the QD's emission by raising the transmission efficiency to the CT complexed electron deficient sites along the polymer backbone. PMID:19629958

  5. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  6. Significant enhancement of optical absorption through nano-structuring of copper based oxide semiconductors: possible future materials for solar energy applications.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Anagh; Shearin, Austin M; Patel, Rishi; Ghosh, Kartik

    2014-06-14

    The optical absorption coefficient is a crucial parameter in determining solar cell efficiency under operational conditions. It is well known that inorganic nanocrystals are a benchmark model for solar cell nanotechnology, given that the tunability of optical properties and stabilization of specific phases are uniquely possible at the nanoscale. A hydrothermal method was employed to fabricate nanostructured copper oxides where the shape, size and phase were tailored by altering the growth parameters, namely the base media used, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time. The nano crystalline structures, phases, morphology, molecular vibrational modes, and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and UV-vis spectroscopy. A significantly large optical absorption coefficient, of the order of twice that of Si in the visible range, was observed in a particular phase mixture of nanostructured copper oxides. An optical absorption coefficient of 7.05 10(+5) cm(-1) at 525 nm was observed in a particular nanostructured phase mixture of copper oxides which is appreciably larger than commercially pure CuO (1.19 10(+5) cm(-1)) and Si (1.72 10(+5) cm(-1)). A possible mechanism of formation of phase mixtures and morphology of copper oxides has also been discussed, which opens up a roadmap in synthesis of similar morphology nanostructures for efficient solar cells. PMID:24777390

  7. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1984-01-01

    This developmental study was designed to examine the effects of field dependence-independence and level of operational development on the reading achievement of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders. Field dependence-independence had no significant effect on reading achievement, but high-operational students scored significantly higher than…

  8. Studies on design of 351  nm focal plane diagnostic system prototype and focusing characteristic of SGII-upgraded facility at half achievable energy performance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong; Ji, Lailin; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Dongfeng; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Dong; Zhu, Baoqiang; Lin, Zunqi

    2016-04-01

    In order to obtain the intensity distribution of a 351 nm focal spot and smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) focal plane profile of a SGII-upgraded facility, a type of off-axis imaging system with three spherical mirrors, suitable for a finite distance source point to be imaged near the diffraction limit has been designed. The quality factor of the image system is 1.6 times of the diffraction limit tested by a 1053 nm point source. Because of the absence of a 351 nm point source, we can use a Collins diffraction imaging integral with respect to λ=351  nm, corresponding to a quality factor that is 3.8 times the diffraction limit at 351 nm. The calibration results show that at least the range of ±10  mrad of view field angle and ±50  mm along the axial direction around the optimum object distance can be satisfied with near diffraction limited image that is consistent with the design value. Using this image system, the No. 2 beam of the SGII-upgraded facility has been tested. The test result of the focal spot of final optics assembly (FOA) at 351 nm indicates that about 80% of energy is encompassed in 14.1 times the diffraction limit, while the output energy of the No. 2 beam is 908 J at 1053 nm. According to convolution theorem, the true value of a 351 nm focal spot of FOA is about 12 times the diffraction limit because of the influence of the quality factor. Further experimental studies indicate that the RMS value along the smoothing direction is less than 15.98% in the SSD spot test experiment. Computer simulations show that the quality factor of the image system used in the experiment has almost no effect on the SSD focal spot test. The image system can remarkably distort the SSD focal spot distribution under the circumstance of the quality factor 15 times worse than the diffraction limit. The distorted image shows a steep slope in the contour of the SSD focal spot along the smoothing direction that otherwise has a relatively flat top region

  9. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  10. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  11. The Effects of the SUN Project on Teacher Knowledge and Self-Efficacy Regarding Biological Energy Transfer Are Significant and Long-Lasting: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Batiza, Ann Finney; Gruhl, Mary; Zhang, Bo; Harrington, Tom; Roberts, Marisa; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Knopp, Jonathan; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Hagedorn, Eric; Marcey, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Nelson, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Biological energy flow has been notoriously difficult to teach. Our approach to this topic relies on abiotic and biotic examples of the energy released by moving electrons in thermodynamically spontaneous reactions. A series of analogical model-building experiences was supported with common language and representations including manipulatives. These materials were designed to help learners understand why electrons move in a hydrogen explosion and hydrogen fuel cell, so they could ultimately understand the rationale for energy transfer in the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. High school biology teachers attended a 2-wk Students Understanding eNergy (SUN) workshop during a randomized controlled trial. These treatment group teachers then took hydrogen fuel cells, manipulatives, and other materials into their regular biology classrooms. In this paper, we report significant gains in teacher knowledge and self-efficacy regarding biological energy transfer in the treatment group versus randomized controls. Significant effects on treatment group teacher knowledge and self-efficacy were found not only post–SUN workshop but even 1 yr later. Teacher knowledge was measured with both a multiple-choice exam and a drawing with a written explanation. Teacher confidence in their ability to teach biological energy transfer was measured by a modified form of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument, In-Service A. Professional development implications regarding this topic are discussed. PMID:23737635

  12. The effects of the SUN project on teacher knowledge and self-efficacy regarding biological energy transfer are significant and long-lasting: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Batiza, Ann Finney; Gruhl, Mary; Zhang, Bo; Harrington, Tom; Roberts, Marisa; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Knopp, Jonathan; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Hagedorn, Eric; Marcey, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Nelson, Dave

    2013-06-01

    Biological energy flow has been notoriously difficult to teach. Our approach to this topic relies on abiotic and biotic examples of the energy released by moving electrons in thermodynamically spontaneous reactions. A series of analogical model-building experiences was supported with common language and representations including manipulatives. These materials were designed to help learners understand why electrons move in a hydrogen explosion and hydrogen fuel cell, so they could ultimately understand the rationale for energy transfer in the mitochondrion and the chloroplast. High school biology teachers attended a 2-wk Students Understanding eNergy (SUN) workshop during a randomized controlled trial. These treatment group teachers then took hydrogen fuel cells, manipulatives, and other materials into their regular biology classrooms. In this paper, we report significant gains in teacher knowledge and self-efficacy regarding biological energy transfer in the treatment group versus randomized controls. Significant effects on treatment group teacher knowledge and self-efficacy were found not only post-SUN workshop but even 1 yr later. Teacher knowledge was measured with both a multiple-choice exam and a drawing with a written explanation. Teacher confidence in their ability to teach biological energy transfer was measured by a modified form of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument, In-Service A. Professional development implications regarding this topic are discussed. PMID:23737635

  13. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  14. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively), fat (both P values <0.001), and sucrose (P<0.001 and P=0.050). At 12 weeks, total carbohydrates were reduced (P<0.001). A majority of women in all groups reported low intakes of vitamin D, folate, and/or iron. In conclusion, a novel dietary treatment led to reduced intake of fat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with

  15. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  16. Significant Steps Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuta, Theresa; Mauricio, David

    2012-01-01

    Three years ago, the authors accepted positions as high school principals in Buffalo City (NY) Schools after serving as elementary school principals in the district for many years. In their new positions, they were to lead schools that were designated by the New York State Department of Education as "persistently lowest achieving," better known…

  17. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  18. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  19. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  20. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  1. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  2. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  3. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  4. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  5. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  6. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  7. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  8. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  9. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  10. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  11. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  12. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  13. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  14. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  15. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  16. Parenting Style and Parental Involvement: Relations with Adolescent Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Sharon E.

    1994-01-01

    Eighty ninth-grade students completed questionnaires regarding their parents' demandingness, responsiveness, school involvement, and commitment to achievement. Boys' reports of both maternal and paternal parenting significantly predicted their achievement, with parental values toward achievement significantly predicting achievement in boys above…

  17. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  18. The significance of sex.

    PubMed

    Annila, Arto; Annila, Erkki

    2012-12-01

    Sexual and asexual modes of proliferation are associated with advantages and disadvantages, yet a profound percept that would account for both ways of reproduction is missing. On the basis of the 2nd law of thermodynamics we find that both sexual and asexual reproduction can be regarded as a means to consume free energy in least time. Parthenogenesis is a fast way to consume a rich repository of free energy, e.g., an ample stock of food with a large number of individuals, whereas sexual reproduction is a fast way to consume diverse and dispersed resources with a large variety of individuals. Most organisms have adapted to their surroundings accordingly and some organisms switch from one mode of reproduction to the other depending on the amount and dispersion of free-energy sources. We conclude that the least-time free energy consumption in respective surroundings, as the general criterion of natural selection, determines also sexual and asexual modes of reproduction. PMID:23063598

  19. Mathematics Achievement: Do Teachers Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Ahmad Farid; Ismail, Noor Azina

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of gender of teachers, teachers' qualification, experience and training on mathematics achievement among eighth grade students in Malaysia using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003. Only gender of teachers has significant influence on student's achievement in mathematics.

  20. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  1. Motivation and Achievement: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret E.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1979-01-01

    To estimate correlation between motivation and achievement, correlations from a calibration sample of 22 studies and a validation sample of 18 studies were analyzed using analysis of variance and regression techniques. Grade level was the only significant student characteristic; motivation and achievement were more highly correlated in later…

  2. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  3. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  4. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  5. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this…

  6. The Energy Misers: Part One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Shows how ducted air systems can be designed to provide a direct means of controlling and redistributing the heat generated by lighting fixtures. Suggests ways to achieve significant reductions in energy use and operating expense. (Author)

  7. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  8. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  9. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-11-15

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels.

  10. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  11. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  12. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  13. Significant Reading Experiences of Superior English Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Robert S.

    1964-01-01

    Superior high school students (975 finalists in the NCTE Achievement Awards Program) were surveyed to find what one book was most significant to each of them in their high school experiences, and the reason for the significance. In response to questionnaires, the students cited 416 different titles, 72% of which were novels. The top 10 books were…

  14. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  15. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  16. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

  17. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  18. van Hiele Levels and Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    1989-01-01

    Secondary geometry students were tested for van Hiele level of thinking, geometry knowledge and achievement, and proof-writing achievement. Proof-writing achievement correlated significantly with van Hiele level entering geometry knowledge and geometry achievement. The predictive validity of the van Hiele model was supported. (Author/DC)

  19. Academic Achievement of NCAA Division III Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Kathy A.; Hickey, Ann

    2014-01-01

    A study of 215 athletes at a small private liberal arts Division III college revealed that athletes (a) begin their college experience with SATs no different from non-athletes; (b) attain GPAs that do not significantly differ from those of nonathletes; (c) achieve GPAs that do not significantly differ between their "in-season" semester…

  20. Cognitive Style, Operativity, and Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined the effects of field dependence/independence and the level of operational development on the mathematics achievement of 450 students in grades 6-8. Field-independent students scored significantly higher on total mathematics, concepts, and problem-solving tests. High-operational students scored significantly higher on all tests.…

  1. Explaining Math Achievement: Personality, Motivation, and Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic-Bebek, Ebru

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the statistical significance of student trust next to the well-tested constructs of personality and motivation to determine whether trust is a significant predictor of course achievement in college math courses. Participants were 175 students who were taking undergraduate math courses in an urban public university. The…

  2. Psychological Barriers to Achievement in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lois S.

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among birth order, number of course credits achieved, and personality integration for 56 women graduate students. No evidence of significant stress was found as these women approached career choice points, nor was there a significant effect from birth order. (Author/RD)

  3. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  4. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency. PMID:16846117

  5. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  6. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  7. Achieving TASAR Operational Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept for aircraft operations featuring a NASA-developed cockpit automation tool, the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), which computes traffic/hazard-compatible route changes to improve flight efficiency. The TAP technology is anticipated to save fuel and flight time and thereby provide immediate and pervasive benefits to the aircraft operator, as well as improving flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for TASAR-equipped aircraft, and a flight trial of the TAP software application in the National Airspace System has demonstrated its technical viability. This paper reviews previous and ongoing activities to prepare TASAR for operational use.

  8. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  9. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  10. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  11. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Achieving production..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, MARITIME ADMINISTRATION) § 321.4 Achieving production readiness. (a) In order to achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war,...

  12. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  13. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  14. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  15. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  16. Acetic acid treatment in S. cerevisiae creates significant energy deficiency and nutrient starvation that is dependent on the activity of the mitochondrial transcriptional complex Hap2-3-4-5

    PubMed Central

    Kitanovic, Ana; Bonowski, Felix; Heigwer, Florian; Ruoff, Peter; Kitanovic, Igor; Ungewiss, Christin; Wölfl, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic pathways play an indispensable role in supplying cellular systems with energy and molecular building blocks for growth, maintenance and repair and are tightly linked with lifespan and systems stability of cells. For optimal growth and survival cells rapidly adopt to environmental changes. Accumulation of acetic acid in stationary phase budding yeast cultures is considered to be a primary mechanism of chronological aging and induction of apoptosis in yeast, which has prompted us to investigate the dependence of acetic acid toxicity on extracellular conditions in a systematic manner. Using an automated computer controlled assay system, we investigated and model the dynamic interconnection of biomass yield- and growth rate-dependence on extracellular glucose concentration, pH conditions and acetic acid concentration. Our results show that toxic concentrations of acetic acid inhibit glucose consumption and reduce ethanol production. In absence of carbohydrates uptake, cells initiate synthesis of storage carbohydrates, trehalose and glycogen, and upregulate gluconeogenesis. Accumulation of trehalose and glycogen, and induction of gluconeogenesis depends on mitochondrial activity, investigated by depletion of the Hap2-3-4-5 complex. Analyzing the activity of glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate kinase (PYK), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) we found that while high acetic acid concentration increased their activity, lower acetic acids concentrations significantly inhibited these enzymes. With this study we determined growth and functional adjustment of metabolism to acetic acid accumulation in a complex range of extracellular conditions. Our results show that substantial acidification of the intracellular environment, resulting from accumulation of dissociated acetic acid in the cytosol, is required for acetic acid toxicity, which creates a state of energy deficiency and nutrient starvation. PMID:23050242

  17. Student academic achievement in college chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabibzadeh, Kiana S.

    General Chemistry is required for variety of baccalaureate degrees, including all medical related fields, engineering, and science majors. Depending on the institution, the prerequisite requirement for college level General Chemistry varies. The success rate for this course is low. The purpose of this study is to examine the factors influencing student academic achievement and retention in General Chemistry at the college level. In this study student achievement is defined by those students who earned grades of "C" or better. The dissertation contains in-depth studies on influence of Intermediate Algebra as a prerequisite compared to Fundamental Chemistry for student academic achievement and student retention in college General Chemistry. In addition the study examined the extent and manner in which student self-efficacy influences student academic achievement in college level General Chemistry. The sample for this part of the study is 144 students enrolled in first semester college level General Chemistry. Student surveys determined student self-efficacy level. The statistical analyses of study demonstrated that Fundamental Chemistry is a better prerequisite for student academic achievement and student retention. The study also found that student self-efficacy has no influence on student academic achievement. The significance of this study will be to provide data for the purpose of establishing a uniform and most suitable prerequisite for college level General Chemistry. Finally the variables identified to influence student academic achievement and enhance student retention will support educators' mission to maximize the students' ability to complete their educational goal at institutions of higher education.

  18. A significant hardening and rising shape detected in the MeV/GeV νFν spectrum from the recently discovered very-high-energy blazar S4 0954+65 during the bright optical flare in 2015 February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Becerra Gonzalez, Josefa; Itoh, Ryosuke; Finke, Justin D.; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ojha, Roopesh; Carpenter, Bryce; Lindfors, Elina; Krauß, Felicia; Desiante, Rachele; Shiki, Kensei; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Longo, Francesco; McEnery, Julie E.; Buson, Sara; Nilsson, Kari; Fallah Ramazani, Vandad; Reinthal, Riho; Takalo, Leo; Pursimo, Tapio; Boschin, Walter

    2016-08-01

    We report on Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and multi-wavelength results on the recently discovered very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) blazar S4 0954+65 (z = 0.368) during an exceptionally bright optical flare in 2015 February. During the time period (2015 February 13/14, or MJD 57067) when the MAGIC telescope detected VHE γ-ray emission from the source, the Fermi-LAT data indicated a significant spectral hardening at GeV energies, with a power-law photon index of 1.8 ± 0.1-compared with the 3FGL (The Fermi LAT 4-Year Point Source Catalog) value (averaged over four years of observation) of 2.34 ± 0.04. In contrast, Swift X-Ray Telescope data showed a softening of the X-ray spectrum, with a photon index of 1.72 ± 0.08 (compared with 1.38 ± 0.03 averaged during the flare from MJD 57066 to 57077), possibly indicating a modest contribution of synchrotron photons by the highest-energy electrons superposed on the inverse Compton component. Fitting of the quasi-simultaneous (<1 d) broad-band spectrum with a one-zone synchrotron plus inverse-Compton model revealed that GeV/TeV emission could be produced by inverse-Compton scattering of external photons from the dust torus. We emphasize that a flaring blazar showing high flux of ≳1.0 × 10-6 photons cm-2 s-1 (E > 100 MeV) and a hard spectral index of ΓGeV < 2.0 detected by Fermi-LAT on daily timescales is a promising target for TeV follow-up by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes to discover high-redshift blazars, investigate their temporal variability and spectral features in the VHE band, and also constrain the intensity of the extragalactic background light.

  19. A significant hardening and rising shape detected in the MeV/GeV νFν spectrum from the recently discovered very-high-energy blazar S4 0954+65 during the bright optical flare in 2015 February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Becerra Gonzalez, Josefa; Itoh, Ryosuke; Finke, Justin D.; Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Ojha, Roopesh; Carpenter, Bryce; Lindfors, Elina; Krauß, Felicia; Desiante, Rachele; Shiki, Kensei; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Longo, Francesco; McEnery, Julie E.; Buson, Sara; Nilsson, Kari; Fallah Ramazani, Vandad; Reinthal, Riho; Takalo, Leo; Pursimo, Tapio; Boschin, Walter

    2016-05-01

    We report on Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and multi-wavelength results on the recently discovered very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) blazar S4 0954+65 (z = 0.368) during an exceptionally bright optical flare in 2015 February. During the time period (2015 February 13/14, or MJD 57067) when the MAGIC telescope detected VHE γ-ray emission from the source, the Fermi-LAT data indicated a significant spectral hardening at GeV energies, with a power-law photon index of 1.8 ± 0.1-compared with the 3FGL (The Fermi LAT 4-Year Point Source Catalog) value (averaged over four years of observation) of 2.34 ± 0.04. In contrast, Swift X-Ray Telescope data showed a softening of the X-ray spectrum, with a photon index of 1.72 ± 0.08 (compared with 1.38 ± 0.03 averaged during the flare from MJD 57066 to 57077), possibly indicating a modest contribution of synchrotron photons by the highest-energy electrons superposed on the inverse Compton component. Fitting of the quasi-simultaneous (<1 d) broad-band spectrum with a one-zone synchrotron plus inverse-Compton model revealed that GeV/TeV emission could be produced by inverse-Compton scattering of external photons from the dust torus. We emphasize that a flaring blazar showing high flux of ≳1.0 × 10-6 photons cm-2 s-1 (E > 100 MeV) and a hard spectral index of ΓGeV < 2.0 detected by Fermi-LAT on daily timescales is a promising target for TeV follow-up by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes to discover high-redshift blazars, investigate their temporal variability and spectral features in the VHE band, and also constrain the intensity of the extragalactic background light.

  20. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  1. Achieving the Promise: The Significant Role of Schools in Transforming Children's Mental Health in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechtenberger, DeAnn; Mullins, Frank Edward; Greenword, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Teacher preparation programs can play an essential role in disseminating information on children's mental health and design curricula that teach the skills necessary for promoting good mental health in schools to preservice and inservice professionals from diverse backgrounds and disciplines. The strategies presented in this article will provide…

  2. The Significance of Career Narrative in Examining a High-Achieving Woman's Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elley-Brown, Margaret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the career journey of one New Zealand woman was analysed. Three key findings emerged: the power of narrative as a vehicle for this woman's story, her movement towards greater authenticity and spiritual fulfilment as a mature woman, and the ongoing struggle for concurrent fulfilment from communal and agentic perspectives.…

  3. Is It Really Possible to Test All Educationally Significant Achievements with High Levels of Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PISA claims that it can extend its reach from its current core subjects of Reading, Science, Maths and problem-solving. Yet given the requirement for high levels of reliability for PISA, especially in the light of its current high stakes character, proposed widening of its subject coverage cannot embrace some important aspects of the social and…

  4. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program. [geologic processes, comparative planetology, and solar system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included.

  5. Black Hegemony, a Significant Influence in the School Success of High-Achieving African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jean C.

    This is an interpretive study of the influence of Black Hegemony on the academic success of three successful African Americans: Clifton L. Taulbert, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Margaret Morgan Lawrence. All three spent their youth in southern communities strongly influenced by Jim Crow laws and customs, and their academic accomplishments were…

  6. The Significance of Relationships: Academic Engagement and Achievement among Newcomer Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Pimentel, Allyson; Martin, Margary

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Newcomer immigrant students are entering schools in the United States in unprecedented numbers. As they enter new school contexts, they face a number of challenges in their adjustment. Previous literature suggested that relationships in school play a particularly crucial role in promoting socially competent behavior in the…

  7. The Significance of the Interculturally Competent School Psychologist for Achieving Equitable Education Outcomes for Migrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranchi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This article examines procedures and processes that result in the over-referral of migrant students to separate special education programmes and, as a consequence, their exclusion from general education. The particular focus is on the role of the school psychologist in this process. The empirical study is a comparison of Swiss teachers' and…

  8. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  9. Hot spot conditions achieved in DT implosions on the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, P. K.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Dittrich, T. R.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Ma, T.; Macphee, A. G.; Pak, A. E.; Park, H. S.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Spears, B.; Springer, P. T.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S.

    2014-10-01

    We describe a 1D model that uses experimentally measured data to derive the thermodynamic conditions at stagnation of the hot spot, dense fuel, and ablator, in deuterium-tritium (DT) layered implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Neutron measurements--spectrally, spatially and temporally resolved--are used to infer the hot spot burn-averaged pressure, density, areal density, ion temperature, volume, and internal energy. X-ray spectral measurements are used to infer electron temperature, radiative energy loss, and the presence of ablator mix in the hot spot. In addition, we can calculate the fraction of alpha-particle energy trapped in the hot spot and, hence, estimate the degree of self-heating. Recent DT layered implosions using the high-foot design [Hurricane et al., Nature 506, 343 (2014)] have achieved areal densities and temperatures in the hot spot whereby a significant fraction of the internal energy at stagnation can be attributed to alpha-particle self-heating. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. The Achiever. Volume 4, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This Achiever contains a brief summary on the results of two major international studies: (1) 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS); and (2) 2003 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). In the 2003 TIMSS, American fourth- and eighth-graders significantly outperformed many of their international peers. In…

  11. Sickle Cell Trait and Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Yvonne; Ayrer, James

    1974-01-01

    In a preliminary study, no significant interaction effects were found between scholastic achievement and sickle cell trait in black children currently in eight and ninth grades, as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills over a consecutive period of four years, 1968 through 1971, grades four through seven. (EH)

  12. Multilingualism, Mathematics Achievement and Instructional Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Rachel Singal

    2010-01-01

    A significant and growing proportion of students in the United States speak primarily a non-English language at home. This dissertation contributes to the understanding of academic achievement patterns among language minority students in the United States. The first essay uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey Kindergarten Class…

  13. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  14. Science Achievement of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sara Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this quantitative descriptive and correlational study were to describe the science achievements of secondary agricultural education students and determine if the number of agricultural education courses passed, FFA involvement, and SAE participation would statistically significantly improve students' performance on science…

  15. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  16. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  17. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  18. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and natural…

  19. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  20. Attitudes and achievement of Bruneian science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. The results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. These differences were at moderate level. In single-sex schools, the girls achieved moderately better in science than the boys despite their attitudes were only marginally better than the boys. However, there were no gender differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of students in coeducational schools. The attitudes towards and achievement in science of girls in single-sex schools were moderately better than those of girls in coeducational schools. Whereas the attitudes towards and achievement in science of boys in single-sex schools were only marginally better than the boys in coeducational schools. However, further research to investigate (a) if these differences are repeated at other levels as well as in other subjects, and (b) the extent to which school type contributed towards these differences is recommended.

  1. Achievement of Bevalac rapid mode switching

    SciTech Connect

    Lothrop, F.; Stevenson, R.; Miller, R.; Alonso, J.

    1985-05-01

    Rapid changes of ion, intensity, beam line, and output energy between two modes have been achieved. The techniques for switching among the Bevalac's several injectors are described. Energy level limits at the output (for q/A = 1/2) are 470 to 2100 MeV/n (high power) or 50 to 1050 MeV/n (low power). Depending on specific field value differences, the total time required for a mode change is less than one minute. This mode of operation greatly improves program efficiency in interleaving medical and nuclear science programs at the Bevalac.

  2. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  4. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  5. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  6. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  7. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  8. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  11. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  12. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  13. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  14. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  15. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  16. Stretching Energy Dollars for Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angerame, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    When financial savings are critical to every institution, facility managers demand even more from their energy systems while looking to spend less. One way to achieve significant energy savings and healthy schools without making a substantial capital investment is through energy monitoring and chiller plant optimization. The greatest energy…

  17. Predicting genetics achievement in nonmajors college biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Angela; Lawson, Anton E.

    Students enrolled in a non-majors college biology course were pretested to determine their level of intellectual development, degree of field independence, mental capacity, amount of prior genetics knowledge, and amount of fluid intelligence. They were then taught a unit on Mendelian genetics. The only student variables found to not account for a significant amount of variance on a test of reading comprehension and/or a test of genetics achievement was amount of prior genetics knowledge. Developmental level was found to be the most consistent predictor of performance, suggesting that a lack of general hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability is a major factor limiting achievement among these students.

  18. Framework for Energy Neutral Treatment for the 21st Century Through Energy Efficient Aeration (WERF Report INFR2R12)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aeration is commonly identified as the most significant energy use in the treatment of wastewater and therefore garners significant focus in reducing energy use in the ultimate aspirational goal of achieving net energy neutrality for water resource recovery. This research establi...

  19. The Effects of the SUN Project on Teacher Knowledge and Self-Efficacy regarding Biological Energy Transfer Are Significant and Long-Lasting: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batiza, Ann Finney; Gruhl, Mary; Zhang, Bo; Harrington, Tom; Roberts, Marisa; LaFlamme, Donna; Haasch, Mary Anne; Knopp, Jonathan; Vogt, Gina; Goodsell, David; Hagedorn, Eric; Marcey, David; Hoelzer, Mark; Nelson, Dave

    2013-01-01

    Biological energy flow has been notoriously difficult to teach. Our approach to this topic relies on abiotic and biotic examples of the energy released by moving electrons in thermodynamically spontaneous reactions. A series of analogical model-building experiences was supported with common language and representations including manipulatives.…

  20. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  1. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  2. The Ten Outstanding Engineering Achievements of the Past 50 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, George

    1984-01-01

    Describes the outstanding achievement in each of 10 major engineering categories. These categories include synthetic fibers, nuclear energy, computers, solid state electronics, jet aircraft, biomedical engineering, lasers, communications satellites, the United States space program, and automation and control systems. (JN)

  3. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  4. Central Iowa Low Achiever Mathematics Project - Low Achiever Motivational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joseph T.

    The materials in this booklet are designed especially for the low achieving student in mathematics. Containing some materials from a course in general mathematics, the booklet is intended to be used in conjunction with conventional textbook materials and is designed to serve as a source of new ideas for teachers and to relieve the teacher of much…

  5. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  6. 31 CFR 561.328 - Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reduce significantly, significantly reduced, and significant reduction. 561.328 Section 561.328 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... IRANIAN FINANCIAL SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.328 Reduce significantly,...

  7. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  8. Foundry energy conservation workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The foundry industry is a significant user of energy, and therefore, a natural candidate for efforts to save energy and improve efficiency by both governmental agencies and technical/trade associations. These efforts are designed to both improve the national energy position and improve the industry's efficiency and profitability. Increased energy cost and the reduced availability of fossil fuels at certain times have provided the incentive to curb waste and to utilize purchased energy wisely. Energy costs now approach and sometimes exceed 10% of the sales dollar of many foundries. Although energy use by foundries has gradually decreased on a per/ton basis in recent years, the foundry industry must continue to find ways to utilize energy more efficiently. This workbook provides ways to achieve this goal.

  9. Preschoolers' Maternal Support and Cognitive Competencies as Predictors of Elementary Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiedemann, Joachim; Faber, Gunter

    1992-01-01

    Reports a longitudinal study of the link between home variables (mainly maternal support), cognitive prerequisites of preschoolers, and later school achievement (spelling, reading, and arithmetic). Maternal support significantly affected competencies and academic achievement. Cognitive competencies predicted later academic achievement; achievement…

  10. The Achievement Gap: Factors That Influenced the Achievement of Successful Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kwame R., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The academic underperformance of Black students when compared to their White peers has confounded educators nationwide. This discrepancy in academic performance commonly referred to as the achievement gap has become a national crisis which has led to one of the most significant educational reforms undertaken in the United States of America in the…

  11. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  12. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  13. The Achievement-Assessment Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    The recent recession, school budget cuts, and predictions of school libraries' demise because of technology advances put pressure on school librarians to prove the utility, relevance, and value of school libraries to student learning. While national studies document that school libraries increase student achievement, school librarians must…

  14. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  15. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  16. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  17. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  18. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  19. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  20. Measuring and Recording Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Measuring and Recording Student Achievement Scoping Group was established by Universities UK and the Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP), with the support of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in October 2003 to review the recommendations from the UK Government White Paper "The Future of Higher Education" relating…

  1. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  2. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  3. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  4. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  5. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  6. Believing and Achieving. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerald, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    This research brief takes a look at the role of teacher efficacy-how teachers' beliefs in their own abilities affect student achievement. The brief examines the influence of perceived efficacy and building teacher confidence (social persuasion, collegiality, and shared decision making). It concludes by asserting that more positive steps must be…

  7. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  8. Achieving Ideological Change within Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Dennis R.

    Psychologists who are interested in the nature of ideology and the achievement of social change generally focus their primary theoretical and empirical attention on those people outside academia who are trying to change or to prevent change in one political sphere or another. There may be some value in looking at psychology and psychologists as…

  9. Five Standards and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, R. William; Hilberg, R. Soleste; Pinal, America; Tharp, Roland G.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examine the influence of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy on student achievement gains. Participants were 15 teachers and 266 students (grades 3 to 5) in a public elementary school serving predominantly low-income Latino English Language Learners (ELLs). Implications for teaching practice and research are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  10. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  11. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  12. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  13. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  14. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  15. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  16. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  17. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial transaction. 561.404 Section 561.404 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  18. Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-01-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

  19. Energy.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2012-01-01

    Energy is the capacity to do the things we are capable of and desire to accomplish. Most often this is thought of in terms of PEP--personal energy potential--a reservoir of individual vivacity and zest for work. Like a battery, energy can be conceived of as a resource that is alternatively used and replenished. Transitions between activities, variety of tasks, and choices of what to spend energy on are part of energy management. Energy capacity can be thought of at four levels: (a) so little that harm is caused and extraordinary steps are needed for recovery, (b) a deficit that slightly impairs performance but will recover naturally, (c) the typical range of functioning, and (d) a surplus that may or may not be useful and requires continual investment to maintain. "Flow" is the experience of optimal energy use when challenges balance capacity as a result of imposing order on our environment. There are other energy resources in addition to personal vim. Effective work design reduces demands on energy. Money, office design, and knowledge are excellent substitutes for personal energy. PMID:22856055

  20. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  1. Mechanical Vapor Recompression for waste energy recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, F.E.; Zakak, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes energy recovery in petroleum refineries utilizing mechanical vapor recompression. Several examples illustrating recompression of waste steam or vapors from turbine exhausts, vents and distillation towers are presented. The advantages of the Mechanical Vapor Recompression System (MVRS) using a screw compressor are discussed in detail. Significant energy savings can be achieved by integration of the MVRS into the steam flow loop. Attractive simple payback periods, often less than two years, can be achieved.

  2. Using Manipulative Materials to Increase Student Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lett, Steven W.

    2007-01-01

    This is an action research project to test a null hypothesis, which states that the use of manipulative materials within the context of mathematics instruction will not yield a significant increase in student achievement. Based on the research, using manipulative materials should have a positive impact on student achievement. Allowing students to…

  3. A Two-Dimensional Analysis of Achievement Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, David E.

    1985-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between college student achievement and two other dimensions: cognitive complexity and the concreteness or abstractness of selected concepts. Although the level of abstractness alone did not influence achievement, the cognitive complexity of the item and the interaction of the two main effects was significant.…

  4. The Impact of Learning Time on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jez, Su Jin; Wassmer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    As schools aim to raise student academic achievement levels and districts wrangle with decreased funding, it is essential to understand the relationship between learning time and academic achievement. Using regression analysis and a data set drawn from California's elementary school sites, we find a statistically significant and positive…

  5. The Achievement Impacts of Arkansas Open-Enrollment Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jonathan N.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impacts of Arkansas charter schools on the academic achievement of participating students. Our findings are that charter schools have small but statistically significant, negative impacts on student achievements for both math and literacy. Such negative effects, however, tend to decline with the number of years of charter…

  6. The Importance of Physical Activity in Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; VanHeest, Jaci L.

    2007-01-01

    The most significant concern within the US educational community is the academic achievement gap. Investigation of the achievement gap reveals that minority students across all levels of education are not meeting the same academic measures as their non-Hispanic White peers. In addition, a disproportionate number of minority children are identified…

  7. Differences in Middle School Science Achievement by School District Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Matthew James; Maxwell, Gerri M.; Holland, Glenda

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in Texas middle school student achievement in science by school district enrollment size. Quantitative research utilized analysis of variance to determine whether significant differences existed between student achievement on the 2010 Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills 8th grade science results and four school…

  8. Robert M. Finley Middle School: Building Community, Respect, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features Robert M. Finley Middle School, a school that is considered by the entire Glen Cove, New York, community as important and successful. Gaps in student achievement have decreased significantly and all student achievement has improved over the last five years in this school, where nearly half of the 652 students are from…

  9. Student Participation and Parental Involvement in Relation to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niia, Anna; Almqvist, Lena; Brunnberg, Elinor; Granlund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that students, teachers, and parents in Swedish schools ascribe differing meanings and significance to students' participation in school in relation to academic achievement. Students see participation as mainly related to social interaction and not academic achievement, whilst teachers view students' participation as more closely…

  10. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  11. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

  12. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  13. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  14. Achieving the Benefits of Safeguards by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard; Robert Bean; David Hebditch; Jim Morgan; Bruce Meppen; Scott DeMuth; Michael Ehinger; John Hockert

    2008-07-01

    The overarching driver for developing a formalized process to achieve safeguards by design is to support the global growth of nuclear power while reducing ‘nuclear security’ risks. This paper discusses an institutional approach to the design process for a nuclear facility, for designing proliferation resistance, international safeguards and U.S. national safeguards and security into new nuclear facilities. In the United States, the need exists to develop a simple, concise, formalized, and integrated approach for incorporating international safeguards and other non-proliferation considerations into the facility design process. An effective and efficient design process is one which clearly defines the functional requirements at the beginning of the project and provides for the execution of the project to achieve a reasonable balance among competing objectives in a cost effective manner. Safeguards by Design is defined as “the integration of international and national safeguards, physical security and non-proliferation features as full and equal partners in the design process of a nuclear energy system or facility,” with the objective to achieve facilities that are intrinsically more robust while being less expensive to safeguard and protect. This Safeguards by Design process has been developed such that it: • Provides improved safeguards, security, and stronger proliferation barriers, while reducing the life cycle costs to the operator and regulatory agencies, • Can be translated to any international context as a model for nuclear facility design, • Fosters a culture change to ensure the treatment of ‘nuclear security’ considerations as “full and equal” partners in the design process, • Provides a useful tool for the project manager responsible for the design, construction, and start-up of nuclear facilities, and • Addresses the key integration activities necessary to efficiently incorporate International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards into

  15. A Historically Significant Shield for In Vivo Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Timothy P.

    2007-08-01

    Due to the ubiquitous nature of ionizing radiation, in vivo measurement systems designed to measure low levels of radionuclides in people are usually enclosed within a high density shield. Lead, steel, earth, and water are just some of the materials that have been and are being used to shield the detectors from radiations of cosmic, atmospheric, and terrestrial origin. At many Department of Energy sites, the counting room shields are constructed of pre-world War II steel to reduce the background levels to achieve measurements with low minimum detectable activities (MDA). This is one example of what is commonly called low background steel in the in vivo industry vernacular. The name arises from the fact the steel was manufactured prior to the beginning of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons in the 1940s. Consequently, the steel is not likely to be contaminated with fission or activation products from fallout. For high energy photons (600 keV significantly reduces the background levels. This is the story "swords-to-plowshare" of the unique steel that now forms a shielded room used at the In Vivo Radioassay and Research Facility (IVRRF) in Richland, Washington.

  16. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  17. Quantifying Significance of MHC II Residues.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Lu, Ruoshui; Wang, Lusheng; Andreatta, Massimo; Li, Shuai Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a cell-surface protein mediating immune recognition, plays important roles in the immune response system of all higher vertebrates. MHC molecules are highly polymorphic and they are grouped into serotypes according to the specificity of the response. It is a common belief that a protein sequence determines its three dimensional structure and function. Hence, the protein sequence determines the serotype. Residues play different levels of importance. In this paper, we quantify the residue significance with the available serotype information. Knowing the significance of the residues will deepen our understanding of the MHC molecules and yield us a concise representation of the molecules. In this paper we propose a linear programming-based approach to find significant residue positions as well as quantifying their significance in MHC II DR molecules. Among all the residues in MHC II DR molecules, 18 positions are of particular significance, which is consistent with the literature on MHC binding sites, and succinct pseudo-sequences appear to be adequate to capture the whole sequence features. When the result is used for classification of MHC molecules with serotype assigned by WHO, a 98.4 percent prediction performance is achieved. The methods have been implemented in java (http://code.google.com/p/quassi/). PMID:26355503

  18. Coherent diffractive imaging: towards achieving atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Dietze, S H; Shpyrko, O G

    2015-11-01

    The next generation of X-ray sources will feature highly brilliant X-ray beams that will enable the imaging of local nanoscale structures with unprecedented resolution. A general formalism to predict the achievable spatial resolution in coherent diffractive imaging, based solely on diffracted intensities, is provided. The coherent dose necessary to reach atomic resolution depends significantly on the atomic scale structure, where disordered or amorphous materials require roughly three orders of magnitude lower dose compared with the expected scaling of uniform density materials. Additionally, dose reduction for crystalline materials are predicted at certain resolutions based only on their unit-cell dimensions and structure factors. PMID:26524315

  19. A Comparison of Formal Features of Written Language of Learning Disabled, Low-Achieving and Achieving Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Mary Ross

    The written language characteristics of 26 learning disabled (LD), 26 low achieving (LA), and 26 achieving (ACH) students in grades 7 through 10 were measured using paragraph writing and topic sentence tasks. Tests of differences between LD and LA Ss revealed that spelling was the only formal feature which was significantly higher in the LA group.…

  20. Birth Order and Achievement: A Study of the Effects of Family Constellation and Related Variables on the Achievement of Officer Students at the Naval Postgraduate School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, William J.; Murphy, Timothy A.

    The findings suggest that there may be no significant difference between the achievement of first-, only-, and last-born children. While middle-born children appeared to do less well in academic achievement, their occupational achievement did not differ significantly from the other birth-order groups. The findings suggest further that…

  1. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  2. Clinical significance of adaptive thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Major, G C; Doucet, E; Trayhurn, P; Astrup, A; Tremblay, A

    2007-02-01

    The epidemic of obesity is developing faster than the scientific understanding of an efficient way to overcome it, as reflected by the low success rate of short- and long-term weight loss interventions. From a clinical standpoint, this suggests that the body tends to defend a set point of possible genetic origin in the context of a weight-reducing program. As described in this paper, this limited therapeutic success may depend on adaptive thermogenesis, which represents in this case the decrease in energy expenditure (EE) beyond what could be predicted from the changes in fat mass or fat-free mass under conditions of standardized physical activity in response to a decrease in energy intake. This issue has been documented in recent studies that have shown in obese individuals adhering to a weight reduction program a greater than predicted decrease in EE, which in some cases was quantitatively sufficient to overcome the prescribed energy restriction, suggesting a role for adaptive thermogenesis in unsuccessful weight loss interventions and reduced body weight maintenance. As also discussed in this paper, this 'adaptive thermogenesis' can be influenced by environmental factors, which have not been frequently considered up to now. This is potentially the case for plasma organochlorine concentration and oxygen desaturation in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. It is concluded that health professionals should be aware that in some vulnerable individuals, adaptive thermogenesis can be multi-causal, and has the capacity to compensate, at least partly, for the prescribed energy deficit, possibly going beyond any good compliance of some patients. PMID:17260010

  3. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski. PMID:20624042

  4. Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) office of Research and Evaluation presents Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82 (BSA). The BSA answers the following questions: (1) How does AISD student achievement compare to student achievement nationwide? (2) How does AISD's 1981-82 student achievement compare to the achievement of students in past…

  5. Significant results: statistical or clinical?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The null hypothesis significance test method is popular in biological and medical research. Many researchers have used this method for their research without exact knowledge, though it has both merits and shortcomings. Readers will know its shortcomings, as well as several complementary or alternative methods, as such the estimated effect size and the confidence interval. PMID:27066201

  6. The Most Significant Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Daniel E.

    1972-01-01

    A reexamination of the significant research done in the decade from 1956-1966 and a revision of this list to include work up to 1971. Human characteristics, equality of educational opportunity, development of the individual, nature of intelligence, methodology of educational research, and principles of learning are some of the areas covered. (RB)

  7. Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Implementation of a Comprehensive Management Program for the Storage, Transportation, and Disposition of Potentially Reusable Uranium Materials

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-10-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to implement a comprehensive management program to safely, efficiently, and effectively manage its potentially reusable low enriched uranium (LEU), normal uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU). Uranium materials, which are presently located at multiple sites, are to be consolidated by transporting the materials to one or several storage locations, to facilitate ultimate disposition. Management would include the storage, transport, and ultimate disposition of these materials. This action is needed because of DOE's current missions and functions; increasing budget pressures; the continuing need for good stewardship of resources, including materials in inventory; and continuing DOE attention to considerations of environment, safety, and health. Also, increased pressure on the federal budget requires that DOE take a closer look at materials management in order to ensure maximum cost effectiveness. This includes an examination of feasible uses of this material, consistent with DOE's mission, as well as an examination of management methods that are consistent with environmental requirements and budgetary constraints. DOE needs to implement a long-term (greater than 20 years) management plan for its inventory of potentially reusable LEU, NU, and DU.

  8. Sex differences in educational encouragement and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aqeel

    2012-08-01

    Sex differences in educational encouragement and their predictiveness of academic achievement were examined among 442 secondary school students (M age = 13.2 yr., SD = 1.9). Education-related encouragement received from mothers, fathers, friends, and teachers was assessed. Academic achievement was based on student self-reports and grades. Female adolescents reported receiving statistically significantly more educational encouragement from their mothers, fathers, friends, and teachers than did male adolescents. In regression, sex and educational encouragement from parents, friends, and teachers were found to be significant predictors of academic achievement. PMID:23045856

  9. Academic Achievement in Children With Oral Clefts Versus Unaffected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Barron, Sheila; Romitti, Paul A.; Ansley, Timothy N.; Speltz, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare academic achievement in children with oral-facial clefts (OFC) with their unaffected siblings. Methods 256 children with OFC were identified from the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders, and 387 unaffected siblings were identified from birth certificates. These data were linked to Iowa Testing Programs achievement data. We compared academic achievement in children with OFC with their unaffected siblings using linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. In post hoc analyses, we explored modifiers of siblings’ academic performance. Results Achievement scores were similar between children with OFC and their siblings. Children with cleft palate only were significantly more likely to use special education than their unaffected siblings. Siblings’ academic achievement was inversely related to distance in birth order and age from the affected child. Conclusion Children with OFC and their siblings received similar achievement scores. Younger siblings, in particular, may share a vulnerability to poor academic outcomes. PMID:24993102

  10. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  11. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  12. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  13. Classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie

    2011-12-01

    Classroom context and school engagement are significant predictors of academic achievement. These factors are especially important for academically at-risk students. Grounded in an ecological systems perspective, this study examined links between classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement among early adolescents. We took a multidimensional approach to the measurement of classroom context and school engagement, incorporating both observational and self-reported assessments of various dimensions of classroom context (instruction quality, social/emotional climate, and student-teacher relationship) and school engagement (psychological and behavioral engagement). Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we tested whether school engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement among 5th grade students, and whether these pathways were the same for students with previous achievement difficulties identified in 3rd grade. Participants included 1,014 children (50% female) in 5th grade (mean age = 11). The majority of the participants were white (77%) and 23% were children of color. Results indicated that psychological and behavioral engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement for students without previous achievement difficulties. However, for students with previous achievement difficulties psychological and behavioral engagement did not mediate the link between classroom context and academic achievement. These results suggest that improving classroom quality may not be sufficient to improve student engagement and achievement for students with previous achievement difficulties. Additional strategies may be needed for these students. PMID:21400208

  14. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  15. Addressing concerns and achieving expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.

    1995-12-01

    Approximately 2-1/2 years ago many of us were gathered here in Prague at a similar conference with a similar name, {open_quotes}Energy and Environment: Transitions in Eastern Europe.{close_quotes} Over 300 professionals from 26 nations attended. The objective of the conference was to: Facilitate the Solution of Long and Short Term Energy and Environmental Problems in Eastern Europe by Bringing Together People, ideas and technologies which could be applied to specific problems in a logical step-by-step manner. It was conceded at the time that the long term solution would consist of thoughtfully integrated steps and that the conference was the first step. We are here in the Czech Republic again this week to continue what was started. As before, this conference continues to: (1) Provide a forum to identify and discuss cost-effective environmentally acceptable energy and environmental technology options and their associated socioeconomic issues. (2) Stimulate the Formation of business partnerships (3) Identify key barrier issues hindering technology applications and identify implementation pathways that eliminate or avoid obstacles to progress.

  16. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.

  17. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase inmore » the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.« less

  18. Can 250 fusions per muon be achieved

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes can be induced by negative muons ( ) in reactions such as: + d + t + n + . This reaction is analagous to the nuclear fusion reaction achieved in stars in which hydrogen isotopes (such as deuterium, d, and tritium, t) at very high temperatures first penetrate the Coulomb repulsive barrier and then fuse together to produce an alpha particle ( ) and a neutron (n), releasing energy. The muon in general reappears after inducing fusion so that the reaction can be repeated many (N) times. Thus, the muon may serve as an effective catalyst for nuclear fusion. Muon-catalozed fusion is unique in that it proceeds rapidly in deuterium-tritium mixtures at relatively cold temperatures, e.g., room temperature. The need for plasma temperatures to initiate fusion is overcome by the presence of the muon.

  19. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32... Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant impact will: (1) Identify the proposed action; (2) State that the Commission...

  20. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32... Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of no significant impact will: (1) Identify the proposed action; (2) State that the Commission...

  1. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a business development strategy. (d) Nexus. The proximity between the foreign financial institution... (b)(3) of that section. For example, a transaction or financial service in which a foreign financial... significance than a transaction or financial service a foreign financial institution conducts for or...

  2. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... part of a pattern of conduct or the result of a business development strategy. (d) Nexus. The proximity... service in which a foreign financial institution provides brokerage or clearing services to, or maintains... generally would be of greater significance than a transaction or financial service a foreign...

  3. A Men's Support Group for Significant Others of Rape Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Lawrence I.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the trauma experienced by women rape victims and focuses on a men's support group for male-significant-others of women who have been raped. Describes the developmental phases through which the male significant others of rape victims achieve resolution and the impact of the male's response upon the relationship. (Author)

  4. Where boosted significances come from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and tt¯H searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

  5. Achieving consensus in environmental programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kurstedt, Jr., H. A.; Jones, R. M.; Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the US Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). We define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of our planned applied research, we first discuss Nominal Group Technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and we conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established at Virginia Tech to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities. 10 refs.

  6. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  7. Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fulei

    The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students' professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

  8. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development. PMID:27139354

  9. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  10. Academic Achievement Among Juvenile Detainees.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, Elena L; Macomber, Donna; Hart, Lesley; Naples, Adam; Chapman, John; Geib, Catherine F; Chart, Hilary; Tan, Mei; Wolhendler, Baruch; Wagner, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The literature has long pointed to heightened frequencies of learning disabilities (LD) within the population of law offenders; however, a systematic appraisal of these observations, careful estimation of these frequencies, and investigation of their correlates and causes have been lacking. Here we present data collected from all youth (1,337 unique admissions, mean age 14.81, 20.3% females) placed in detention in Connecticut (January 1, 2010-July 1, 2011). All youth completed a computerized educational screener designed to test a range of performance in reading (word and text levels) and mathematics. A subsample (n = 410) received the Wide Range Achievement Test, in addition to the educational screener. Quantitative (scale-based) and qualitative (grade-equivalence-based) indicators were then analyzed for both assessments. Results established the range of LD in this sample from 13% to 40%, averaging 24.9%. This work provides a systematic exploration of the type and severity of word and text reading and mathematics skill deficiencies among juvenile detainees and builds the foundation for subsequent efforts that may link these deficiencies to both more formal, structured, and variable definitions and classifications of LD, and to other types of disabilities (e.g., intellectual disability) and developmental disorders (e.g., ADHD) that need to be conducted in future research. PMID:24064502

  11. Competency-Based Achievement System

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N.; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents’ competence in “soft” skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. Objective of program To develop a method to assess residents’ competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. Program description The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents’ knowledge of and competence in important skills. Conclusion By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence. PMID:21918129

  12. Achievements and Lessons from Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider was the centerpiece of the world's high energy physics program - beginning operation in December of 1985 until it was overtaken by LHC in 2011. The aim of the this unique scientific instrument was to explore the elementary particle physics reactions with center of mass collision energies of up to 1.96 TeV. The initial design luminosity of the Tevatron was 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, however as a result of two decades of upgrades, the accelerator has been able to deliver 430 times higher luminosities to each of two high luminosity experiments, CDF and D0. Tevatron will be shut off September 30, 2011. The collider was arguably one of the most complex research instruments ever to reach the operation stage and is widely recognized for many technological breakthroughs and numerous physics discoveries. Below we briefly present the history of the Tevatron, major advances in accelerator physics, and technology implemented during the long quest for better and better performance. We also discuss some lessons learned from our experience.

  13. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  14. 10 CFR 1021.322 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 1021.322 Section 1021.322 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING... this part; (2) Any “Statement of Findings” required by 10 CFR part 1022, “Compliance with...

  15. 10 CFR 1021.322 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 1021.322 Section 1021.322 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING... this part; (2) Any “Statement of Findings” required by 10 CFR part 1022, “Compliance with...

  16. 10 CFR 1021.322 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 1021.322 Section 1021.322 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING... this part; (2) Any “Statement of Findings” required by 10 CFR part 1022, “Compliance with...

  17. 10 CFR 1021.322 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Findings of no significant impact. 1021.322 Section 1021.322 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING... this part; (2) Any “Statement of Findings” required by 10 CFR part 1022, “Compliance with...

  18. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  19. Yawning and its physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu

    2013-01-01

    Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored field. PMID:23776833

  20. The functional significance of stereopsis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anna R; Birch, Eileen E; Anderson, Susan; Draper, Hayley

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Development or restoration of binocular vision is one of the key goals of strabismus management; however, the functional impact of stereoacuity has largely been neglected. Methods. Subjects aged 10 to 30 years with normal, reduced, or nil stereoacuity performed three tasks: Purdue pegboard (measured how many pegs placed in 30 seconds), bead threading (with two sizes of bead, to increase the difficulty; measured time taken to thread a number of beads), and water pouring (measured both accuracy and time). All tests were undertaken both with and without occlusion of one eye. Results. One hundred forty-three subjects were recruited, 32.9% (n = 47) with a manifest deviation. Performances on the pegboard and bead tasks were significantly worse in the nil stereoacuity group when compared with that of the normal stereoacuity group. On the large and small bead tasks, those with reduced stereoacuity were better than those with nil stereoacuity (when the Preschool Randot Stereoacuity Test [Stereo Optical Co, Inc., Chicago, IL] results were used to determine stereoacuity levels). Comparison of the short-term monocular conditions (those with normal stereoacuity but occluded) with nil stereoacuity showed that, on all measures, the performance was best in the nil stereoacuity group and was statistically significant for the large and small beads task, irrespective of which test result was used to define the stereoacuity levels. Conclusions. Performance on motor skills tasks was related to stereoacuity, with subjects with normal stereoacuity performing best on all tests. This quantifiable degradation in performance on some motor skill tasks supports the need to implement management strategies to maximize development of high-grade stereoacuity. PMID:19933184

  1. Transforming the U.S. Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible and economic in the world. On the other hand, the U.S. energy infrastructure is excessively reliant on foreign sources of energy, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG). This report presents a Technology Based Strategy to achieve a full transformation of the U.S. energy infrastructure that corrects these negative factors while retaining the positives.

  2. The Cognitive Determinants of Achieving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    A cognitive explanation of achievement-related behavior is developed. It is suggested that high and low achievers diverge behaviorally in the achievement situation because they conceptualize the causes of success and failure in different ways. The results of a study are presented which show that subjects high in achievement needs tend to attribute…

  3. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  4. Affiliation Motivation and Hawaiian-American Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Ronald

    1974-01-01

    Fantasy "n" affiliation (nAff) was correlated with reading achievement test scores, but not math achievement test scores, for a sample of 67 Hawaiian-American high school students. There was no relationship between "n" Ach and achievement test scores. The process linking "n" Aff and Hawaiian American achievement was suggested to involve…

  5. Closing the Achievement Gap: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robards, Shirley N.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap between low- and high-achieving public school students is an important goal of public education. This article explores background information and research and discusses examples of best practices to close the achievement gap. Several plans have been proposed as ways to enhance the achievement of under-represented…

  6. THE EDUCATIONAL MOTIVATION PATTERNS OF SUPERIOR STUDENTS WHO DO AND DO NOT ACHIEVE IN HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PIERCE, JAMES V.

    THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO DISCOVER AND ANALYZE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVATIONAL PATTERNS AND THE EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF TALENTED STUDENTS. THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO DETERMINE--(1) THE DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVATION TOWARD ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT BETWEEN THOSE WHO ACHIEVE AND THOSE WHO DO NOT, (2) THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ACHIEVERS AND NONACHIEVERS IN…

  7. Achievement-related perceptions of children with learning disabilities and normal achievement: group and developmental differences.

    PubMed

    Bear, G G; Minke, K M; Griffin, S M; Deemer, S A

    1998-01-01

    Self-perceptions of teacher feedback, social comparison of reading competence, reading satisfaction, and general self-worth were assessed among third and sixth graders with learning disabilities and normal achievement (n = 247). Relations among these variables and mean differences were examined within the and across grades. As predicted, in both grades teacher feedback was the most common criterion children used to judge their academic performance. In both achievement groups, perceived teacher feedback and reading satisfaction were less favorable among sixth than third graders. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that perceived teacher feedback was the best predictor of reading satisfaction; however, in sixth grade, social comparison also contributed significantly to the prediction. The importance of perceived feedback also was demonstrated in the relation to self-worth, which was generally positive among both achievement groups and within each grade. Through its relation to reading satisfaction, perceived teacher feedback contributed significantly to prediction of self-worth. Developmental differences and classroom factors that may explain these findings are discussed. PMID:9455180

  8. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  9. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement. PMID:26357049

  10. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  11. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  12. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  13. Clinical significance of monocyte heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Brian K; Ingram, David A

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are primitive hematopoietic cells that primarily arise from the bone marrow, circulate in the peripheral blood and give rise to differentiated macrophages. Over the past two decades, considerable attention to monocyte diversity and macrophage polarization has provided contextual clues into the role of myelomonocytic derivatives in human disease. Until recently, human monocytes were subdivided based on expression of the surface marker CD16. "Classical" monocytes express surface markers denoted as CD14(++)CD16(-) and account for greater than 70% of total monocyte count, while "non-classical" monocytes express the CD16 antigen with low CD14 expression (CD14(+)CD16(++)). However, recognition of an intermediate population identified as CD14(++)CD16(+) supports the new paradigm that monocytes are a true heterogeneous population and careful identification of specific subpopulations is necessary for understanding monocyte function in human disease. Comparative studies of monocytes in mice have yielded more dichotomous results based on expression of the Ly6C antigen. In this review, we will discuss the use of monocyte subpopulations as biomarkers of human disease and summarize correlative studies in mice that may yield significant insight into the contribution of each subset to disease pathogenesis. PMID:25852821

  14. [The significance of antiphospholipid antibodies].

    PubMed

    Fojtík, Z

    2004-04-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (APLA) present very heterogeneous groups of antibodies which can significantly influence processes on different levels of coagulation cascade depending on effects of phospholipid surfaces on blood coagulation. This usually leads to a particular level of thrombophylia. Clinical syndrome accompanying positive APLA, such as antiphospholipid syndrome, was defined by clinical and laboratory symptoms. This clinical syndrome can be a primary syndrome, if other disorders with ability to induce generation of antibodies can be excluded, or a secondary syndrome. The most often in cases of systemic tissue disease. APLA can be divided according to the presence of lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. According to a definition lupus anticoagulants are antibodies able to inhibit and prolong in vitro one or more blood clotting processes dependent on phospholipid surfaces. Anticardiolipin antibodies are antibodies measured by ELISA method with cardiolipin used as an antibody. Findings show that some APLA are directed against proteins bound to phospholipid surfaces. Main cofactor proteins include beta 2-GPI and prothrombin. Because of their heterogeneous specificity, APLA are directed against negative phospholipids or proteins bound to phospholipid surfaces and have important pathophysiology role in development of antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:15214303

  15. Impact of Chemistry Teachers' Knowledge and Practices on Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    Professional development programs promoting inquiry-based teaching are challenged with providing teachers content knowledge and using pedagogical approaches that model standards based instruction. Inquiry practices are also important for undergraduate students. This paper focuses on the evaluation of an extensive professional development program for chemistry teachers that included chemistry content tests for students and the teachers and the impact of undergraduate research experiences on college students' attitudes towards chemistry. Baseline results for the students showed that there were no gender differences on the achievement test but white students scored significantly higher than non-white students. However, parent/adult involvement with chemistry homework and projects, was a significant negative predictor of 11th grade students' test chemistry achievement score. This paper will focus on students' achievement and attitude results for teachers who are mid-way through the program providing evidence that on-going, sustained professional development in content and pedagogy is critical for improving students' science achievement.

  16. Upside-Down Solar Cell Achieves Record Efficiencies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    The inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cell is an exercise in efficient innovation - literally, as the technology boasted the highest demonstrated efficiency for converting sunlight into electrical energy at its debut in 2005. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) inverted the conventional photovoltaic (PV) structure to revolutionary effect, achieving solar conversion efficiencies of 33.8% and 40.8% under one-sun and concentrated conditions, respectively.

  17. A Year of Exceptional Achievements FY 2008

    SciTech Connect

    devore, L; Chrzanowski, P

    2008-11-06

    2008 highlights: (1) Stockpile Stewardship and Complex Transformation - LLNL achieved scientific breakthroughs that explain some of the key 'unknowns' in nuclear weapons performance and are critical to developing the predictive science needed to ensure the safety, reliability, and security of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. In addition, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) passed 99 percent completion, an LLNL supercomputer simulation won the 2007 Gordon Bell Prize, and a significant fraction of our inventory of special nuclear material was shipped to other sites in support of complex transformation. (2) National and Global Security - Laboratory researchers delivered insights, technologies, and operational capabilities that are helping to ensure national security and global stability. Of particular note, they developed advanced detection instruments that provide increased speed, accuracy, specificity, and resolution for identifying and characterizing biological, chemical, nuclear, and high-explosive threats. (3) Exceptional Science and Technology - The Laboratory continued its tradition of scientific excellence and technical innovation. LLNL scientists made significant contributions to Nobel Prize-winning work on climate change. LLNL also received three R&D 100 awards and six Nanotech 50 awards, and dozens of Laboratory scientists and engineers were recognized with professional awards. These honors provide valuable confirmation that peers and outside experts recognize the quality of our staff and our work. (4) Enhanced Business and Operations - A major thrust under LLNS is to make the Laboratory more efficient and cost competitive. We achieved roughly $75 million in cost savings for support activities through organizational changes, consolidation of services, improved governance structures and work processes, technology upgrades, and systems shared with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We realized nonlabor cost savings of $23 million. Severe

  18. The low energy booster project status

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, G.W.

    1993-05-01

    In order to achieve the required injection momentum, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) has an accelerator chain comprised of a Linear Accelerator and three synchrotrons. The Low Energy Booster (LEB) is the first synchrotron in this chain. The LEB project has made significant progress in the development of major subsystems and conventional construction. This paper briefly reviews the performance requirements of the LEB and describes significant achievements in each of the major subsystem areas. Highlighted among these achievements are the LEB foreign collaborations with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) located in Novosibirsk, Russia.

  19. Academic resilience in education: the role of achievement goal orientations

    PubMed Central

    JOWKAR, BAHRAM; KOJURI, JAVAD; KOHOULAT, NAEIMEH; HAYAT, ALI ASGHAR

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the past 2 decades, research findings established achievement goal theory as a powerful framework for conceptualizing difference in the quality of student's engagement, persistence on task, and academic resilience. So the present study examined the relationship between achievement goal orientations and academic resilience. Method: Participants were 606 students (307 girls and 297 boys) selected from Shiraz high schools. They completed the Achievement Goals Questionnaire and Youth development Module Scale (RYDM). To analyze the data, the relationships between variables were examined, using Pearson product–moment correlations. Also simulanteous multiple regression was performed to investigate the prediction of academic resilience by achievement goal orientations. To examine the reliability and the validity of measures Cronbach alpha coefficient and factor analysis method were applied, respectively. Results: Simultaneous multiple regression of achievement goal orientations on academic resilience showed that "mastery-approach" was a significant positive predictor of the "home care/high" and "peer care" subscales. Also, "performance-approach" was a significant, positive predictor of "home care/high", and "school/community meaningful" was predicted by "performance-avoidance" positively. Conclusion: According to the findings, it seems that achievement goal orientation has a critical role in students’ academic achievement. Implications of the results are discussed in more details.  PMID:25512916

  20. The relationship among mathematics achievement, affective variables and home background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ngai-Ying

    1993-10-01

    One thousand seven hundred and sixty six secondary school students in Hong Kong participated in the present study, in which the relationship among mathematics achievement, affective variables and home background was investigated. It was found that mathematics achievement was most closely related with self-concept, academic self-concept and attitudes towards mathematics. Self- and parental expectations were the most influential factors to these affective variables. It was also found that Hong Kong students spent, on the average, over 33% of homework time on mathematics homework. The time spend on homework, however, did not exhibit significant correlation with mathematics achievement.