Science.gov

Sample records for achieve significant performance

  1. SOARing Into Strategic Planning: Engaging Nurses to Achieve Significant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Barbara; Felton, Fiona; Linus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a new system chief nursing officer engaged the nursing leaders and staff in an Appreciative Inquiry process utilizing strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR), and a Journey of Excellence to assess and understand the current environment. The ultimate goal was to engage all nurses in strategic planning and goal setting to connect their patient care to the system strategic initiatives. This work led to the creation of a nursing vision, a revised professional practice model and greater council alignment, resulting in significant positive change and ongoing advancement throughout the system. The shared decision-making structure was key to the process with a direct connection of each council's goals, leading to the successful achievement of 34 of the 36 goals in 2 years. This article outlines the process, tools, and staff engagement strategies used to achieve system-wide success. This methodology has improved the outcomes across the organization in both small and system-wide work groups. This work can easily be replicated and adapted to help disparate staffs brought together through mergers or acquisitions to become aligned as a new team. This process, model, and framework, provides structure and results in significant outcomes that recognizes and celebrates the work of individual entities while aligning future strategies and goals.

  2. SOARing Into Strategic Planning: Engaging Nurses to Achieve Significant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Barbara; Felton, Fiona; Linus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a new system chief nursing officer engaged the nursing leaders and staff in an Appreciative Inquiry process utilizing strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR), and a Journey of Excellence to assess and understand the current environment. The ultimate goal was to engage all nurses in strategic planning and goal setting to connect their patient care to the system strategic initiatives. This work led to the creation of a nursing vision, a revised professional practice model and greater council alignment, resulting in significant positive change and ongoing advancement throughout the system. The shared decision-making structure was key to the process with a direct connection of each council's goals, leading to the successful achievement of 34 of the 36 goals in 2 years. This article outlines the process, tools, and staff engagement strategies used to achieve system-wide success. This methodology has improved the outcomes across the organization in both small and system-wide work groups. This work can easily be replicated and adapted to help disparate staffs brought together through mergers or acquisitions to become aligned as a new team. This process, model, and framework, provides structure and results in significant outcomes that recognizes and celebrates the work of individual entities while aligning future strategies and goals. PMID:27584888

  3. Type A Performance Standards and Goal Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Clay H.

    Achievement striving is a central dimension of the Type A behavior pattern. To investigate the relationship between Type A behavior pattern, personal performance goals, and goal achievement on two general information tests, 126 undergraduates participated in a two-phase study. First, behavior patterns were assessed using the Framingham Type A…

  4. Interactions Between Teaching Performance and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yi-Ming; White, William F.

    There are two purposes for this study: first, to examine the relationship between college students' achievement and their ratings of instructors; second, to validate the two selected evaluation instruments that were designed specially for assessing teaching performance at the higher education level. Two evaluation inventories were selected for…

  5. Emotional Intelligence Skills: Significant Factors in Freshmen Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Darwin B.; Nelson, Kaye W.

    This study investigated the role of emotional skills in the academic achievement and retention of university freshmen. The research group was a randomly selected sample of first semester freshmen students (N=165), and cumulative grade point average was used as the criterion for academic success. The study was designed to investigate: (a) the…

  6. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  7. Boise Inc. St. Helens Paper Mill Achieves Significant Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-01

    This case study describes how the Boise Inc. paper mill in St. Helens, Oregon, achieved annual savings of approximately 154,000 MMBtu and more than $1 million. This was accomplished after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

  8. Full-Day Kindergarten Results in Significant Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskin, Candace F.; Haar, Jean M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, after an in-depth review of student achievement data for over 4,000 students, the administration of a school district in southern Minnesota identified the following challenges: (1) above-state-average number of special education students; (2) increasing number of English as Second Language (ESL) students; (3) increasing number of students…

  9. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  10. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  11. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  12. Achieving scale strategies for sustained competitive performance.

    PubMed

    Grube, Mark E; Gish, Ryan S; Tkach, Sasha N

    2008-05-01

    Growth to achieve scale requires the following strategic initiatives: Having a clear understanding of what the organization is and what it wants to become. Ensuring a structured and rigorous growth process. Leveraging size to achieve benefits of scale. Recognizing the importance of physicians, ambulatory care, and primary care. Establishing and maintaining accountability as growth occurs.

  13. Plasma performance in JET: Achievements and projections

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, A.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of recent experimental advances on JET, especially as they relate to fusion performance. Scaling relations are used to identify the critical parameters which need to be optimized to secure the best fusion performance. Finally the established best performance of JET is used as a base to project the performance to be expected in future D-T operation. 13 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Achievement Components of Stanford-Binet Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Ernest D.; And Others

    A curriculum was devised by working backward from Stanford-Binet items to specification of a universe of content for which the Stanford-Binet could serve as a content-valid achievement test. It was reasoned that this curriculum should home. This curriculum was tested on 20 4-year-old disadvantaged children in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. The…

  15. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  16. Using the 2 x 2 Framework of Achievement Goals to Predict Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has established how achievement emotions are related to the trichotomous model of achievement goals, and how they predict academic performance. In our study we examine relations using an additional, mastery-avoidance goal, and whether outcome-focused emotions are predicted by mastery as well as performance goals. Results showed that…

  17. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: Testing a Model of Their Joint Relations with Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were…

  18. Conservation and Achievement Test Performance among Fifth-Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliphant, Virginia M.; Cox, David L.

    The relationship between conservation and achievement is examined on specific tests and test items on the Stanford Achievement Test Battery used in the elementary years. Specifically, performance on two tests (Word Meaning and Arithmetic Concepts) were analyzed according to subjects level of thinking (concrete or formal) for total score,…

  19. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGES

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  20. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  1. Gender-Based Differential Item Performance in Mathematics Achievement Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Allen E.

    A procedure for the detection of differential item performance (DIP) is used to investigate the relationships between characteristics of mathematics achievement items and gender differences in performance. Eight randomly equivalent samples of high school seniors were each given a unique form of the ACT Assessment Mathematics Usage Test (ACTM).…

  2. Achieving High Performance on the i860 Microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, King; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The i860 is a high performance microprocessor used in the Intel Touchstone project. This paper proposes a paradigm for programming the i860 that is modelled on the vector instructions of the Cray computers. Fortran callable assembler subroutines were written that mimic the concurrent vector instructions of the Cray. Cache takes the place of vector registers. Using this paradigm we have achieved twice the performance of compiled code on a traditional solve.

  3. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  4. Effects of Motivational and Situational Variables on Achievement Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boker, John R.; Games, Paul A.

    Problem-solving performance and goal-setting behavior were investigated in 156 undergraduates who, on Mehrabian's Achievement Scales, demonstrated either the motive to approach success or the motive to avoid failure. Different expectations of success or failure were induced by fictitious preperformance information. The degree of success or failure…

  5. Factors significantly related to science achievement of Malaysian middle school students: An analysis of TIMSS 1999 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokshein, Siti Eshah

    The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that

  6. Metrics help rural hospitals achieve world-class performance.

    PubMed

    Goodspeed, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the emerging trend of using metrics in rural hospitals to achieve world-class performance. This trend is a response to the fact that rural hospitals have small patient volumes yet must maintain a profit margin in order to fulfill their mission to the community. The conceptual idea for this article is based largely on Robert Kaplan and David Norton's Balanced Scorecard articles in the Harvard Business Review. The ideas also come from the experiences of the 60-plus rural hospitals that are using the Balanced Scorecard and their implementation of metrics to influence performance and behavior. It is indeed possible for rural hospitals to meet and exceed the unique needs of patients and physicians (customers), to achieve healthy profit margins, and to be the rural hospital of choice that employees are proud to work for. PMID:17518021

  7. The Effects of Gender and Attributions on Achievement Motivation and Subsequent Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael

    One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…

  8. Some methods for achieving more efficient performance of fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltenko, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    More efficient operation of reactor plant fuel assemblies can be achieved through the use of new technical solutions aimed at obtaining more uniform distribution of coolant over the fuel assembly section, more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces, and higher values of departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR). Technical solutions using which it is possible to obtain more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces and higher DNBR values in reactor plant fuel assemblies are considered. An alternative heat removal arrangement is described using which it is possible to obtain a significantly higher power density in a reactor plant and essentially lower maximal fuel rod temperature.

  9. Assessment of physician performance in Alberta: the Physician Achievement Review

    PubMed Central

    Hall, W; Violato, C; Lewkonia, R; Lockyer, J; Fidler, H; Toews, J; Jennett, P; Donoff, M; Moores, D

    1999-01-01

    The College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta, in collaboration with the Universities of Calgary and Alberta, has developed a program to routinely assess the performance of physicians, intended primarily for quality improvement in medical practice. The Physician Achievement Review (PAR) provides a multidimensional view of performance through structured feedback to physicians. The program will also provide a new mechanism for identifying physicians for whom more detailed assessment of practice performance or medical competence may be needed. Questionnaires were created to assess an array of performance attributes, and then appropriate assessors were designated--the physician himself or herself (self-evaluation), patients, medical peers, consultants and referring physicians, and non-physician coworkers. A pilot study with 308 physician volunteers was used to evaluate the psychometric and statistical properties of the questionnaires and to develop operating policies. The pilot surveys showed good statistical validity and technical reliability of the PAR questionnaires. For only 28 (9.1%) of the physicians were the PAR results more than one standard deviation from the peer group means for 3 or more of the 5 major domains of assessment (self, patients, peers, consultants and coworkers). In post-survey feedback, two-thirds of the physicians indicated that they were considering or had implemented changes to their medical practice on the basis of their PAR data. The estimated operating cost of the PAR program is approximately $200 per physician. In February 1999, on the basis of the operating experience and the results of the pilot survey, the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta implemented this innovative program, in which all Alberta physicians will be required to participate every 5 years. PMID:10420867

  10. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included…

  11. Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Cates, J. W.; Levin, C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of 232+/- 2 ps for a single 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A 4× 4 array of 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of 278+/- 7 ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout.

  12. A Hybrid Actuation System Demonstrating Significantly Enhanced Electromechanical Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji; Xu, Tian-Bing; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Zhang, Qiming

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid actuation system (HYBAS) utilizing advantages of a combination of electromechanical responses of an electroactive polymer (EAP), an electrostrictive copolymer, and an electroactive ceramic single crystal, PZN-PT single crystal, has been developed. The system employs the contribution of the actuation elements cooperatively and exhibits a significantly enhanced electromechanical performance compared to the performances of the device made of each constituting material, the electroactive polymer or the ceramic single crystal, individually. The theoretical modeling of the performances of the HYBAS is in good agreement with experimental observation. The consistence between the theoretical modeling and experimental test make the design concept an effective route for the development of high performance actuating devices for many applications. The theoretical modeling, fabrication of the HYBAS and the initial experimental results will be presented and discussed.

  13. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases.

  14. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  15. Performance-based alternative assessments as a means of eliminating gender achievement differences on science tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Norman Merrill

    1998-09-01

    Historically, researchers have reported an achievement difference between females and males on standardized science tests. These differences have been reported to be based upon science knowledge, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical abilities, and cultural and social phenomena. This research was designed to determine how mastery of specific science content from public school curricula might be evaluated with performance-based assessment models, without producing gender achievement differences. The assessment instruments used were Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement's GOALSsp°ler: A Performance-Based Measure of Achievement and the performance-based portion of the Stanford Achievement Testspcopyright, Ninth Edition. The identified independent variables were test, gender, ethnicity, and grade level. A 2 x 2 x 6 x 12 (test x gender x ethnicity x grade) factorial experimental design was used to organize the data. A stratified random sample (N = 2400) was selected from a national pool of norming data: N = 1200 from the GOALSsp°ler group and N = 1200 from the SAT9spcopyright group. The ANOVA analysis yielded mixed results. The factors of test, gender, ethnicity by grade, gender by grade, and gender by grade by ethnicity failed to produce significant results (alpha = 0.05). The factors yielding significant results were ethnicity, grade, and ethnicity by grade. Therefore, no significant differences were found between female and male achievement on these performance-based assessments.

  16. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  17. Separation of Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Achievement Goals : A Broader Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J.; Yamagata, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    In the literature on achievement goals, performance-approach goals (striving to do better than others) and performance-avoidance goals (striving to avoid doing worse than others) tend to exhibit a moderate to high correlation, raising questions about whether the 2 goals represent distinct constructs. In the current article, we sought to examine…

  18. Developmental Changes in Adolescents' Olfactory Performance and Significance of Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Klötze, Paula; Gerber, Friederike; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the current work was to examine developmental changes in adolescents’ olfactory performance and personal significance of olfaction. In the first study olfactory identification abilities of 76 participants (31 males and 45 females aged between 10 and 18 years; M = 13.8, SD = 2.3) was evaluated with the Sniffin Stick identification test, presented in a cued and in an uncued manner. Verbal fluency was additionally examined for control purpose. In the second study 131 participants (46 males and 85 females aged between 10 and 18 years; (M = 14.4, SD = 2.2) filled in the importance of olfaction questionnaire. Odor identification abilities increased significantly with age and were significantly higher in girls as compared to boys. These effects were especially pronounced in the uncued task and partly related to verbal fluency. In line, the personal significance of olfaction increased with age and was generally higher among female compared to male participants. PMID:27332887

  19. Enhancing reproductive performance in dairy buffalo: major constraints and achievements.

    PubMed

    Nanda, A S; Brar, P S; Prabhakar, S

    2003-01-01

    Buffalo are of high economic importance for farmers in several developing countries but reproductive performance is poor. A large proportion of heifers attain puberty at 3-5 years of age. A good quality diet supplemented with extra nutrients reduces the age of puberty, whereas the effects of administration of exogenous GnRH or equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) are equivocal. The incidence of anoestrus in buffalo ranges from 20 to 80% depending on season. Most buffalo cease ovarian cyclicity during hot summers probably due to the combined effects of nutrition, environment and management. Keeping buffalo cool by wallowing, water sprinklers or shade improves fertility. Supplementary feeding with Urea Molasses Multi-nutrient Blocks (UMMB) for 60 days before calving enhances the early onset of postpartum oestrus. Regular UMMB supplementation also improves pregnancy rates in anoestrous non-pregnant buffalo. Prepartum vaginal prolapse is hereditary and eradication can be achieved by genetic selective breeding programmes. Treatment with calcium, phosphorus and progesterone gives only transient relief to clinical cases. Uterine torsion is the most common cause of dystocia (70%). Deployment of Sharma's detorsion method and anti-stress measures increase survival rates in cases presented within 36 h. In conclusion, greater understanding about the effects of better year-round nutrition, improved management and markers for logical breeding programmes are essential to curtail the incidence of the reproductive disorders that reduce buffalo fertility.

  20. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  1. A practice-specificity-based model of arousal for achieving peak performance.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Sheikh, Mahmood; Bagherzadeh, Fazlolah; Hemayattalab, Rasool; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    The authors propose a practice-specificity-based model of arousal for achieving peak performance. The study included 37 healthy male physical education students whom they randomly assigned to a high-arousal (n = 19) or low-arousal group (n = 18). To manipulate participants' level of arousal, the authors used motivational techniques. They used heart rate and the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (R. Martens, 1977) to measure the level of arousal that participants achieved. At the determined and given arousal state, the 2 groups performed the task (basketball free throws) for 18 sessions. Both groups performed a retention test at the 2 arousal levels immediately after the last exercise session, in the posttest, and after 10 days. Results showed that both groups learned the task similarly and achieved their peak performance at their experienced arousal level. When tested at an arousal level that differed from the one that they experienced throughout practice sessions, participants' performance had deteriorated significantly. Performance of the task seemed to have integrated with the arousal level of the participants during the task learning. The findings of this study suggest a practice-specificity-based explanation for achieving peak performance.

  2. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  3. Student Achievement and Education System Performance in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Hok, Ung Ngo; Tinon, Souer; Veasna, Meung; Nissay, Put

    2012-01-01

    The global spread of national assessment testing activities, and the growing pressure to move beyond basic measures of participation in educational monitoring, means that student achievement measures are likely to become increasingly relevant indicators of systemic progress in the developing world. Using data from the CESSP project in Cambodia,…

  4. Achievement Goals, Motivation, and Performance: A Closer Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urdan, Tim; Pajares, Frank; Lapin, Amy Z.

    An achievement goal theory framework was used to examine the relations among goals and a number of other motivational constructs in a sample of middle school students. Participants were 189 eighth graders from a public school in the south. In one session students completed the attitude measures and in another session they completed a mathematics…

  5. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  6. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  7. Achieving intelligent performance in autonomous on-road driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenoff, Craig I.; Evans, John M.; Barbera, Anthony J.; Albus, James S.; Messina, Elena R.; Balakirsky, Stephen B.

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes NIST"s efforts in evaluating what it will take to achieve autonomous human-level driving skills in terms of time and funding. NIST has approached this problem from several perspectives: considering the current state-of-the-art in autonomous navigation and extrapolating from there, decomposing the tasks identified by the Department of Transportation for on-road driving and comparing that with accomplishments to date, analyzing computing power requirements by comparison with the human brain, and conducting a Delphi Forecast using the expert researchers in the field of autonomous driving. A detailed description of each of these approaches is provided along with the major finding from each approach and an overall picture of what it will take to achieve human level driving skills in autonomous vehicles.

  8. Orchestrating ACO success: how top performers achieve shared savings.

    PubMed

    Harris, John M; Elizondo, Idette; Brown, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Leaders of the top-performing accountable care organizations in the Medicare Shared Savings Program attribute the success of their organizations in large part to seven strategies: Seek action-oriented leadership. Transform primary care physician practices. Keep patients out of the emergency department. Ensure all transitions are smooth. Make effective use of available data. Share information on physician performance. Keep patients engaged.

  9. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  10. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  11. Orchestrating ACO success: how top performers achieve shared savings.

    PubMed

    Harris, John M; Elizondo, Idette; Brown, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Leaders of the top-performing accountable care organizations in the Medicare Shared Savings Program attribute the success of their organizations in large part to seven strategies: Seek action-oriented leadership. Transform primary care physician practices. Keep patients out of the emergency department. Ensure all transitions are smooth. Make effective use of available data. Share information on physician performance. Keep patients engaged. PMID:27183758

  12. S-index: Measuring significant, not average, citation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2009-03-01

    We recently [1] introduced the ``citation density curve'' (or cumulative impact factor curve) that captures the full citation performance of a journal: its size, impact factor, the maximum number of citations per paper, the relative size of the different-cited portions of the journal, etc. The citation density curve displays a universal behavior across journals. We exploit this universality to extract a simple metric (the ``S-index'') to characterize the citation impact of ``significant'' papers in each journal. In doing so, we go beyond the journal impact factor, which only measures the impact of the average paper. The conventional wisdom of ranking journals according to their impact factors is thus challenged. Having shown the utility and robustness of the S-index in comparing and ranking journals of different sizes but within the same field, we explore the concept further, going beyond a single field, and beyond journals. Can we compare different scientific fields, departments, or universities? And how should one generalize the citation density curve and the S-index to address these questions? [1] M. Antonoyiannakis and S. Mitra, ``Is PRL too large to have an `impact'?'', Editorial, Physical Review Letters, December 2008.

  13. Comparing standardized measures of diligence and achievement with dental student academic performance.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, Joseph; Lindemann, Robert

    2005-04-01

    Utilizing a reliable and valid instrument to measure a student's application of energy and effort towards a goal (diligence) or the ability to reach goals (achievement) would enable dental educators to anticipate academic performance. This knowledge could be used to better distribute faculty and educational resources, as additional tutors could be provided for students who score low on diligence and achievement instruments. In this study, fourth-year dental students completed the Diligence Inventory and the NachNaff Scale (which measures desire to achieve) immediately prior to graduation. The scores from both inventories were correlated with nine measures of academic performance. For males, the NachNaff Scale positively correlated (p<.05) only with the quantity of exceptional performance reports (EPR) and for females negatively correlated only with science DAT scores. The modest positive correlations, which differ for gender, suggest that the NachNaff may be of limited use to predict dental student performance. For males, the Total Diligence mean positively correlated with EPR and National Board Parts I and II scores. For females, the Total Diligence mean positively correlated with EPR and a predental biology-chemistry-physics grade composite. Given the simplicity of the Diligence Inventory and its significant correlations with academic performance demonstrated in this study, it appears to be a useful tool to gain insight into students' diligence in striving to obtain goals.

  14. Achieving Transformational Materials Performance in a New Era of Science

    ScienceCinema

    John Sarrao

    2016-07-12

    The inability of current materials to meet performance requirements is a key stumbling block for addressing grand challenges in energy and national security. Fortunately, materials research is on the brink of a new era - a transition from observation and validation of materials properties to prediction and control of materials performance. In this talk, I describe the nature of the current challenge, the prospects for success, and a specific facility concept, MaRIE, that will provide the needed capabilities to meet these challenges, especially for materials in extreme environments. MaRIE, for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes, is Los Alamos' concept to realize this vision of 21st century materials research. This vision will be realized through enhancements to the current LANSCE accelerator, development of a fourth-generation x-ray light source co-located with the proton accelerator, and a comprehensive synthesis and characterization facility focused on controlling complex materials and the defect/structure link to materials performance.

  15. The negative influence of significant others on high academic achieving school pupils' choice of nursing as a career.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Gavin R; McNally, Jim

    2013-03-01

    The International Council of Nurses proposes that the shortage of nurses is global in scale and is expected to become much worse in the years ahead. A major factor impacting on the worldwide nursing shortage is the diminishing number of young people choosing nursing as a career (International Council of Nurses, 2008). One important dimension of the school pupils' career choice process is their interactions with significant others and the influence of these significant others (Hodkinson and Sparkes, 1997). As Schools/Departments of Nursing endeavour to attract more intellectual school leavers it is important to examine what advice and opinions are significant others giving regarding nursing as a career choice and how influential is this advice. This paper is based on interview data from 20 high academic achieving 5th and 6th year school pupils in Scotland, paradigmatic cases from a larger sample, who had considered nursing as a possible career choice within their career preference cluster, but then later disregarded nursing and decided to pursue medicine or another health care profession. The data was particularly striking in revealing the negative influence of significant others on high academic achieving school pupils' choice of nursing as a career. The influence of significant others, these being specifically parents, guardians, guidance teachers and career advisors was very apparent in the data in that they had a very negative view regarding nursing as a career choice for high academic achieving school pupils. PMID:22464633

  16. Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

  17. The Effects of Parental Involvement on Student Achievement in Three Michigan Performance Contracting Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillum, Ronald M.; And Others

    Reading achievement of students in second to sixth grade in three school districts participating in a performance-contracting program was tested, using the Stanford Achievement Test and the Metropolitan Achievement Test, at the beginning and the end of the school year. The performance contract for each of the districts included a…

  18. Achieving high sustained performance in an unstructured mesh CFD application

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D E; Anderson, W K; Gropp, W D; Kaushik, D K; Smith, B F

    1999-12-10

    This paper highlights a three-year project by an interdisciplinary team on a legacy F77 computational fluid dynamics code, with the aim of demonstrating that implicit unstructured grid simulations can execute at rates not far from those of explicit structured grid codes, provided attention is paid to data motion complexity and the reuse of data positioned at the levels of the memory hierarchy closest to the processor, in addition to traditional operation count complexity. The demonstration code is from NASA and the enabling parallel hardware and (freely available) software toolkit are from DOE, but the resulting methodology should be broadly applicable, and the hardware limitations exposed should allow programmers and vendors of parallel platforms to focus with greater encouragement on sparse codes with indirect addressing. This snapshot of ongoing work shows a performance of 15 microseconds per degree of freedom to steady-state convergence of Euler flow on a mesh with 2.8 million vertices using 3072 dual-processor nodes of ASCI Red, corresponding to a sustained floating-point rate of 0.227 Tflop/s.

  19. The effects of achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a novel motor task.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Morris, Rebecca L; Ring, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effects of trichotomous achievement goals on performance, enjoyment, and practice of a golf-putting task. Male (n = 39) and female (n = 63) undergraduate students participated in the experiment in exchange for course credit. Participants were assigned to a mastery, performance-approach, or performance-avoidance goal condition and completed seven blocks of 10 trials (one for baseline, four for the experimental phase, and two for the transfer phase) of a golf-putting task. Distance from the target was measured and performance measures of accuracy and consistency were calculated. Self-reported enjoyment during the baseline and experimental phases and practice during a 5-min period before and following the experimental task were also assessed. Performance accuracy and consistency improved similarly among the three groups. Individuals in all three conditions reported enjoying the task to the same extent. Mastery participants practiced for longer than performance-approach participants during the practice period. Performance-avoidance participants did not differ significantly from the other two groups. The three goals were equally effective in promoting performance and enjoyment of the golf-putting task. The differential practice results for the two performance goals suggest that they should be considered separately. PMID:19735037

  20. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.1 Section 3055.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  1. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodic reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.30 Section 3055.30 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  2. 39 CFR 3055.2 - Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements. 3055.2 Section 3055.2 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  3. A Comprehensive Review of the Literature on the Effects of Breakfast on Mental Performance and Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, James P.

    A review of the literature on the effects of breakfast on mental performance and scholastic achievement reveals a dichotomy between the theoretical and the empirical literature. Whereas theoretical considerations maintain that breakfast makes a significant difference in mental performance in the late morning hours, empirical evidence can be…

  4. Boredom in Achievement Settings: Exploring Control-Value Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of a Neglected Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    The linkages of achievement-related boredom with students' appraisals and performance outcomes were examined in a series of 5 exploratory, cross-sectional, and predictive investigations. Studies 1 and 2 assessed students' boredom in a single achievement episode (i.e., state achievement boredom); Studies 3, 4, and 5 focused on their habitual…

  5. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions are explored. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement made by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  6. Students' Achievement Goals, Emotion Perception Ability and Affect and Performance in the Classroom: A Multilevel Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassiou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Andreou, Eleni; Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Performance at school is affected not only by students' achievement goals but also by emotional exchanges among classmates and their teacher. In this study, we investigated relationships between students' achievement goals and emotion perception ability and class affect and performance. Participants were 949 Greek adolescent students in 49 classes…

  7. A Comparison of Low Performing Students' Achievements in Factoring Cubic Polynomials Using Three Different Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbonnaya, Ugorji I.; Mogari, David L.; Machisi, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this study, repeated measures design was employed to compare low performing students' achievements in factoring cubic polynomials using three strategies. Twenty-five low-performing Grade 12 students from a secondary school in Limpopo province took part in the study. Data was collected using achievement test and was analysed using repeated…

  8. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  9. Significantly Increasing the Ductility of High Performance Polymer Semiconductors through Polymer Blending.

    PubMed

    Scott, Joshua I; Xue, Xiao; Wang, Ming; Kline, R Joseph; Hoffman, Benjamin C; Dougherty, Daniel; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Bazan, Guillermo; O'Connor, Brendan T

    2016-06-01

    Polymer semiconductors based on donor-acceptor monomers have recently resulted in significant gains in field effect mobility in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). These polymers incorporate fused aromatic rings and have been designed to have stiff planar backbones, resulting in strong intermolecular interactions, which subsequently result in stiff and brittle films. The complex synthesis typically required for these materials may also result in increased production costs. Thus, the development of methods to improve mechanical plasticity while lowering material consumption during fabrication will significantly improve opportunities for adoption in flexible and stretchable electronics. To achieve these goals, we consider blending a brittle donor-acceptor polymer, poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-alt-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine] (PCDTPT), with ductile poly(3-hexylthiophene). We found that the ductility of the blend films is significantly improved compared to that of neat PCDTPT films, and when the blend film is employed in an OTFT, the performance is largely maintained. The ability to maintain charge transport character is due to vertical segregation within the blend, while the improved ductility is due to intermixing of the polymers throughout the film thickness. Importantly, the application of large strains to the ductile films is shown to orient both polymers, which further increases charge carrier mobility. These results highlight a processing approach to achieve high performance polymer OTFTs that are electrically and mechanically optimized. PMID:27200458

  10. Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

  11. Cognitive Performance, School Behavior, and Achievement of Children from One-Parent Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetherington, E. Mavis; And Others

    This report reviews the research literature on the effects of divorce and one-parent childrearing on academic achievement and intellectual functioning in children. Life changes following the decision to separate are described along with scholastic achievement measured by IQ and aptitude tests and patterns of cognitive performance. Factors…

  12. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  13. College Performance of New Maryland High School Graduates. Student Outcome and Achievement Report (SOAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 SOAR (Student Outcome and Achievement Report) relies upon two sets of data, the academic performance data (which are collected directly from the colleges and universities) and the SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test)/ACT (American College Testing Program) data, to examine the relationship between students' academic achievements and…

  14. A methodology to assess performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a methodology to assess system performance of human-robotic systems in achievement of collective tasks such as habitat construction, geological sampling, and space exploration.

  15. Performance-Based Assessment, Science Festival Exhibit Presentations, and Elementary Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Verilette A.; Gerber, Brian L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the effective use of performance-based assessment for evaluating fifth- and sixth-grade student achievement as demonstrated by student exhibit presentations at a science festival. Individual evaluation scores and group negotiated evaluations were consistent. (Author/MM)

  16. Academic task persistence of normally achieving ADHD and control boys: performance, self-evaluations, and attributions.

    PubMed

    Hoza, B; Pelham, W E; Waschbusch, D A; Kipp, H; Owens, J S

    2001-04-01

    The authors examined academic task persistence, pretask expectancies, self-evaluations, and attributions of boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared with control boys. Participants were 83 ADHD boys and 66 control boys, all normally achieving. Prior to the task, performance expectancies were assessed. After a success-failure manipulation with find-a-word puzzles, performance on subsequent trials, self-evaluations, and attributions were evaluated. Compared with controls, ADHD boys solved fewer test puzzles, quit working more often, and found fewer words on a generalization task. Consistent with these behavioral findings, research assistants rated ADHD boys as less effortful and less cooperative than control boys. Although ADHD boys did not differ significantly from controls in their posttask self-evaluations, they did differ significantly from controls in some aspects of their attributions. Attributional data indicated that ADHD boys endorsed luck as a reason for success more strongly and lack of effort as a reason for failure less strongly than controls. PMID:11393604

  17. Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Classroom Goals and the Adoption of Personal Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Background: Students' perceptions of classroom goals influence their adoption of personal goals. To assess different forms of classroom goals, recent studies have favoured an overall measure of performance classroom goals, compared to a two-dimensional assessment of performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals (PAVCG). Aims: This…

  18. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Self-Reported Achievement Goals and Nonself-Report Performance across Three Achievement Domains (Work, Sports, and Education)

    PubMed Central

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual’s drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that – overall – approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of

  20. A meta-analysis of self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance across three achievement domains (work, sports, and education).

    PubMed

    Van Yperen, Nico W; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of performance

  1. The relationship between medical students’ epistemological beliefs and achievement on a clinical performance examination

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sun-A; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong; Kevin, Deiter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the relationship between clinical performance examination (CPX) achievement and epistemological beliefs to investigate the potentials of epistemological beliefs in ill-structured medical problem solving tasks. Methods: We administered the epistemological beliefs questionnaire (EBQ) to fourth-year medical students and correlated the results with their CPX scores. The EBQ comprised 61 items reflecting five belief systems: certainty of knowledge, source of knowledge, rigidity of learning, ability to learn, and speed of knowledge acquisition. The CPX included scores for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Results: The higher epistemological beliefs group obtained significantly higher scores on the CPX with regard to history taking and patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores on certainty of knowledge and source of knowledge were significantly positively correlated with patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores for ability to learn were significantly positively correlated with those for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Conclusion: Students with more sophisticated and advanced epistemological beliefs stances used more comprehensive and varied approaches in the patient-physician interaction. Therefore, educational efforts that encourage discussions pertaining to epistemological views should be considered to improve clinical reasoning and problem-solving competence in the clinic setting. PMID:26838566

  2. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  3. Universal Factors of Student Achievement in High-Performing Eastern and Western Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates whether a common set of student attitudes and behavioral tendencies can account for academic achievement across different, especially high-performing, countries via analysis of the PISA 2009 international data set. The 13 countries examined are 5 of the top-performing Eastern countries/systems, namely Shanghai China, South…

  4. 39 CFR 3055.31 - Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements. 3055.31 Section 3055.31 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service...

  5. The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2013-01-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not…

  6. Boasts are a boost: achievement prime self-reactivity predicts subsequent academic performance.

    PubMed

    Gramzow, Richard H; Johnson, Camille S; Willard, Greg

    2014-03-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that self-reactivity following an achievement prime reflects the strength of achievement goals and is a predictor of future goal-relevant performance. In Studies 1-3, undergraduates reported their grade-point averages (GPAs) following either an achievement goal prime or a control prime. Academic exaggeration (higher self-reported than official GPA) was the indicator of self-reactivity to the prime. Study 1 involved a direct achievement goal prime, whereas Studies 2 and 3 involved indirect priming techniques. In all 3 experiments, greater academic exaggeration following the achievement goal prime (but not the control prime) predicted better academic performance a semester later (based on official records). Study 4 demonstrated that the magnitude of students' GPA goals mediated the association between academic exaggeration and subsequent performance (1 year later). The fact that self-reactivity to a single achievement goal prime in the lab predicted later performance in "real life" suggests that individual differences in reactivity to a specific prime can signal much broader motivational orientations related to the primed goal. PMID:24588092

  7. Student Achievement for Whom? High-Performing and Still "Playing the Game," the Meaning of School Achievement among High Achieving African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggan, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The preponderance of the research on African American students has generally focused on issues of school failure and underperformance. While the literature on high achieving Black students is sparse, very little is known about these students' school experiences and the meanings that they assign to achievement. Using student-based inquiry…

  8. Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: the role of passion and achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals.

  9. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional windows.

  10. Achievement goals, task performance, and interest: why perceived goal difficulty matters.

    PubMed

    Senko, Corwin; Harackiewicz, Judith M

    2005-12-01

    In field studies, mastery goals, which focus on developing skill, often predict task interest but not actual performance. Performance-approach goals, which focus on outperforming others, instead often predict strong performance but not interest. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that these distinct goal effects trace to goal difficulty perceptions. In each study, participants assigned to a performance-approach goal perceived their goal to be harder, and therefore felt more performance pressure, than those assigned to a mastery goal. Among participants low in dispositional achievement orientation, this experience translated into lower task interest when pursuing the performance-approach goal. However, participants in both studies also performed the activity better when pursuing this goal instead of a standard mastery goal, although this was not mediated by self-reported goal difficulty perceptions. Finally, further demonstrating the role of goal difficulty, a mastery goal manipulated to appear more difficult than a standard mastery goal produced effects matching the performance-approach goal.

  11. Alabama's Education Report Card, 2000: Significant Predictors of Student Achievement at the District and School Level. Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Whitehead, Marie

    This paper examines Alabama's State Education Report Card for the year 2000. It identifies predictors for student academic achievement at both the district and school levels for 128 public school systems and 1,272 public schools. Separate analyses were conducted for 61 city and 67 county school systems. The variables included number of students,…

  12. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-01

    The U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, MN, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  13. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    This case study describes how the U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  14. Quantitative Guidance for Stove Usage and Performance to Achieve Health and Environmental Targets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ranyee A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Displacing the use of polluting and inefficient cookstoves in developing countries is necessary to achieve the potential health and environmental benefits sought through clean cooking solutions. Yet little quantitative context has been provided on how much displacement of traditional technologies is needed to achieve targets for household air pollutant concentrations or fuel savings. Objectives This paper provides instructive guidance on the usage of cooking technologies required to achieve health and environmental improvements. Methods We evaluated different scenarios of displacement of traditional stoves with use of higher performing technologies. The air quality and fuel consumption impacts were estimated for these scenarios using a single-zone box model of indoor air quality and ratios of thermal efficiency. Results Stove performance and usage should be considered together, as lower performing stoves can result in similar or greater benefits than a higher performing stove if the lower performing stove has considerably higher displacement of the baseline stove. Based on the indoor air quality model, there are multiple performance–usage scenarios for achieving modest indoor air quality improvements. To meet World Health Organization guidance levels, however, three-stone fire and basic charcoal stove usage must be nearly eliminated to achieve the particulate matter target (< 1–3 hr/week), and substantially limited to meet the carbon monoxide guideline (< 7–9 hr/week). Conclusions Moderate health gains may be achieved with various performance–usage scenarios. The greatest benefits are estimated to be achieved by near-complete displacement of traditional stoves with clean technologies, emphasizing the need to shift in the long term to near exclusive use of clean fuels and stoves. The performance–usage scenarios are also provided as a tool to guide technology selection and prioritize behavior change opportunities to maximize impact. Citation

  15. [The major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries and their significance for the near future].

    PubMed

    Lisitsyn, Iu P; Zhuravleva, T V

    2012-01-01

    Among major achievements of medicine in XX-early XXI centuries considered as the most outstanding contribution are the development of theory of system of control of functions of organism and its integrity by I.P. Pavlov and his disciples and followers: the concept of psycho-somatic medicine by Z. Freud and social psychology; the theory of stress and general adaptive syndrome by H. Selye and the discovering of nature of many infectious and parasitic diseases. Then establishment of pathogenic impact of extra-environmental factors, decoding of gene chromosomal structure of organism, development of genetic engineering, effective pharmaceuticals, and techniques of treatment and prevention of various inherent and acquired diseases also can be put into this category. The achievements and discoveries in the area of public health, social medicine and hygiene and development of concept of healthy life-style are discussed too. PMID:23350086

  16. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  17. Immigrant Children's Educational Achievement in Western Countries: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects on Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levels, Mark; Dronkers, Jaap; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which macro-level characteristics of destination countries, origin countries, and immigrant communities help explain differences in immigrant children's educational achievement. Using data from the 2003 PISA survey, we analyze the mathematical performance of 7,403 pupils from 35 different origin countries in 13…

  18. Relationships Among Simple Measures of Reading and Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deno, Stanley L.; And Others

    Three concurrent validity studies were conducted to determine the relationship between performances on formative measures of reading and standardized achievement measures of reading. Correlational analyses for five formative measures and three standardized measures provided evidence for the validity of Words in Isolation, Words in Context, and…

  19. Improving Achievement in Low-Performing Schools: Key Results for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Randolph E.; Burke, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    As accountability in schools becomes more crucial, educators are looking for comprehensive and innovative management practices that respond to challenges and realities of student academic achievement. In order to improve academic performance and the quality of instruction, the entire school community needs to be involved. This book provides six…

  20. Academic Performance in African American Undergraduates: Effects of Cultural Mistrust, Educational Value, and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Taisha; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined achievement motivation, the value of education, cultural mistrust, and academic performance in 202 African American college students attending both Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and a Predominately White Institution (PWI). Results using hierarchical multiple regression established that the three…

  1. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  2. Reading Achievement, Mastery, and Performance Goal Structures among Students with Learning Disabilities: A Nonlinear Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Antoniou, Faye

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that a nonlinear relationship exists between a performance-classroom climate and the reading achievement of adolescent students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants were 62 students with LD (Grades 5-9) from public elementary schools in northern Greece. Classroom climate was…

  3. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  4. Performance Concern, Contingent Self-Worth, and Responses to Repeated Achievement Failure in Second Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Patricia A.; Coulson, Sheri L.; Greene, Joelle K.; Bono, Katherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in emotion, cognitions, and task choice following achievement failure are found among four- to seven-year-olds. However, neither performance deterioration during failure nor generalization after failure--aspects of the helpless pattern in 10-year-olds--have been reliably demonstrated in this age group. In the present study,…

  5. Teaching to the Tails: Teacher Performance Pay and the Distribution of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyalka, Prashant; Sylvia, Sean; Liu, Chengfang; Chu, James; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that teachers in developing countries often have weak or misaligned incentives for improving student outcomes. In response, policymakers and researchers have proposed performance pay as a way to improve student outcomes by tying concrete measures like achievement scores to teacher pay. While evidence from randomized…

  6. Marked for Success: Secondary School Performance and University Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Keith; Broght, Erik; Sampson, Kaylene

    2011-01-01

    Building on Shulruf, Hattie and Tumen (2008), this work examines the capacity of various National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA)-derived models to predict first-year performance in Biological Sciences at a New Zealand university. We compared three models: (1) the "best-80" indicator as used by several New Zealand…

  7. Setting Student Performance Standards: The Role of Achievement Level Descriptions in the Standard Setting Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Mary Lyn

    This paper looks at using descriptions of subject matter content to assist in the development and interpretation of student performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). These descriptions of content, called achievement level descriptions (ALDs), were initially conceptualized as exemplary statements of the knowledge and…

  8. A hydrological modeling framework for defining achievable performance standards for pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Alain N; Lafrance, Pierre; Lavigne, Martin-Pierre; Savary, Stéphane; Konan, Brou; Quilbé, Renaud; Jiapizian, Paul; Amrani, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a hydrological modeling framework to define achievable performance standards (APSs) for pesticides that could be attained after implementation of recommended management actions, agricultural practices, and available technologies (i.e., beneficial management practices [BMPs]). An integrated hydrological modeling system, Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé, was used to quantify APSs for six Canadian watersheds for eight pesticides: atrazine, carbofuran, dicamba, glyphosate, MCPB, MCPA, metolachlor, and 2,4-D. Outputs from simulation runs to predict pesticide concentration under current conditions and in response to implementation of two types of beneficial management practices (reduced pesticide application rate and 1- to 10-m-wide edge-of-field and/or riparian buffer strips, implemented singly or in combination) showed that APS values for scenarios with BMPs were less than those for current conditions. Moreover, APS values at the outlet of watersheds were usually less than ecological thresholds of good condition, when available. Upstream river reaches were at greater risk of having concentrations above a given ecological thresholds because of limited stream flows and overland loads of pesticides. Our integrated approach of "hydrological modeling-APS estimation-ecotoxicological significance" provides the most effective interpretation possible, for management and education purposes, of the potential biological impact of predicted pesticide concentrations in rivers.

  9. Expressing International Educational Achievement in Terms of U.S. Performance Standards: Linking NAEP Achievement Levels to TIMSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    Educators, researchers, and policymakers have considerable interest in how the American educational system compares to those in other countries. One major index for comparison is student academic achievement. This paper links the scale of the "National Assessment of Educational Progress" ("NAEP") to the scale of the "Third International…

  10. How to achieve performance portable code using OpenACC compiler directives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapillonne, Xavier; Fuhrer, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    In view of adapting the weather and climate model COSMO to future architectures a new version of the model capable of running on graphics processing units (GPUs) has been developed. A large part of the code has been ported using compiler directives based on the OpenACC programming model. In order to achieve the best performance on GPUs several optimizations have been introduced for time critical components, mostly in the so-called physical parameterizations. Some of these modifications unfortunately degrade performance on traditional CPUs. Being a large community code, the COSMO model is required to perform well on both hybrid and CPU-only supercomputers. The current practical solution is to have separate source files for GPU and CPU execution, which may in the long-term result in maintenance issues. Considering the physical parameterization responsible for the atmospheric radiative transfer computations, we first present the restructuring techniques necessary to achieve performance on the GPU. We then show that some parts of the code are compute bound on the CPU while memory bound limited on the GPU, leading to different requirements in terms of optimization. We finally discuss various solutions to achieve a portable and maintainable code, both in terms of possible improvement of the OpenACC standard or in terms of programming strategy.

  11. Associations between Achievement Goal Orientations and Academic Performance Among Students at a UK Pharmacy School

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Hanna, Alan; Hall, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To ascertain goal orientations of pharmacy students and establish whether associations exist between academic performance, gender, or year of study. Methods. Goal orientations were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Respondents were categorized as high or low performers based on university grades. Associations and statistical significance were ascertained using parametric and nonparametric tests and linear regression, as appropriate. Results. A response rate of 60.7% was obtained. High performers were more likely to be female than male. The highest mean score was for mastery approach; the lowest for work avoidance. The mean score for work avoidance was significantly greater for low performers than for high performers and for males than for females. First-year students were most likely to have top scores in mastery and performance approaches. Conclusion. It is encouraging that the highest mean score was for mastery approach orientation, as goal orientation may play a role in academic performance of pharmacy students. PMID:26396273

  12. Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance while Reducing Achievement Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Pennebaker, James W.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Ferrell, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901) brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935). Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses. PMID:24278176

  13. Structuralized box-trainer laparoscopic training significantly improves performance in complex virtual reality laparoscopic tasks

    PubMed Central

    Stefaniak, Tomasz J.; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Proczko, Monika; Gruca, Zbigniew; Śledziński, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In the era of flowering minimally invasive surgical techniques there is a need for new methods of teaching surgery and supervision of progress in skills and expertise. Virtual and physical box-trainers seem especially fit for this purpose, and allow for improvement of proficiency required in laparoscopic surgery. Material and methods The study included 34 students who completed the authors‘ laparoscopic training on physical train-boxes. Progress was monitored by accomplishment of 3 exercises: moving pellets from one place to another, excising and clipping. Analysed parameters included time needed to complete the exercise and right and left hand movement tracks. Students were asked to do assigned tasks prior to, in the middle and after the training. Results The duration of the course was 28 h in total. Significant shortening of the time to perform each exercise and reduction of the left hand track were achieved. The right hand track was shortened only in exercise number 1. Conclusions Exercises in the laboratory setting should be regarded as an important element of the process of skills acquisition by a young surgeon. Virtual reality laparoscopic training seems to be a new, interesting educational tool, and at the same time allows for reliable control and assessment of progress. PMID:23255997

  14. Locus of Control and Achievement Motivation as Moderators of the Expectancy-Academic Performance Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batlis, Nick C.; Waters, L. K.

    1973-01-01

    Expectancy theory predictions of course performance were tested for a sample of 195 undergraduates; significant prediction was attained for the total sample using a log linear expectancy model. (Author)

  15. The effect of workshop groups on achievement goals and performance in biology: An outcome evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Wendi Kay

    This two-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on performance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students in a three-course series and investigated motivational explanations for performance differences. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992) at the University of California. Majority volunteers randomly assigned to workshops (n = 61) performed between 1/2 and 1 standard deviation better than those assigned to the control group (n = 60; p < .05) in each quarter without spending more time studying. During Quarter 1, workshop minority students (n = 25) showed a pattern of increasing exam performance in comparison to historic control minority students (n = 21), who showed a decreasing pattern (p < .05). Although sex differences in biology performance were a focus of investigation, none were detected. Motivational predictions derived from the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation (Elliot & Church, 1997) were partially supported. Self-report survey measures of achievement goals, modeled after those used by Elliot and colleagues, were requested from all enrolled students. Volunteers (n = 121) reported higher average levels of approach and avoidance goals than nonvolunteers (n = 439; p < .05) and the relationship of goals to performance was moderated by volunteer status. Performance of volunteers was negatively related to avoidance of failure goals (r = .41, p < .01) and unrelated to performance approach goals. Performance of nonvolunteers was unrelated to avoidance of failure goals and positively related to performance approach goals (r = .28, p < .01). Mastery goals were unrelated to performance for all students. Results were inconsistent with Dweck and Leggett's (1988) theory of mastery vs. performance orientation, but were similar to results found by Elliot and colleagues. Contrary to hypotheses, motivational goals did not mediate performance for

  16. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.

  17. Statistically significant performance results of a mine detector and fusion algorithm from an x-band high-resolution SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Arnold C.; Pachowicz, Peter W.

    2004-09-01

    Current mine detection research indicates that no single sensor or single look from a sensor will detect mines/minefields in a real-time manner at a performance level suitable for a forward maneuver unit. Hence, the integrated development of detectors and fusion algorithms are of primary importance. A problem in this development process has been the evaluation of these algorithms with relatively small data sets, leading to anecdotal and frequently over trained results. These anecdotal results are often unreliable and conflicting among various sensors and algorithms. Consequently, the physical phenomena that ought to be exploited and the performance benefits of this exploitation are often ambiguous. The Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision Laboratory and Electron Sensors Directorate has collected large amounts of multisensor data such that statistically significant evaluations of detection and fusion algorithms can be obtained. Even with these large data sets care must be taken in algorithm design and data processing to achieve statistically significant performance results for combined detectors and fusion algorithms. This paper discusses statistically significant detection and combined multilook fusion results for the Ellipse Detector (ED) and the Piecewise Level Fusion Algorithm (PLFA). These statistically significant performance results are characterized by ROC curves that have been obtained through processing this multilook data for the high resolution SAR data of the Veridian X-Band radar. We discuss the implications of these results on mine detection and the importance of statistical significance, sample size, ground truth, and algorithm design in performance evaluation.

  18. High performances CNTFETs achieved using CNT networks for selective gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorintin, Louis; Bondavalli, Paolo; Legagneux, Pierre; Pribat, Didier

    2009-08-01

    Our study deals with the utilization of carbon nanotubes networks based transistors with different metal electrodes for highly selective gas sensing. Indeed, carbon nanotubes networks can be used as semi conducting materials to achieve good performances transistors. These devices are extremely sensitive to the change of the Schottky barrier heights between Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) and drain/source metal electrodes: the gas adsorption creates an interfacial dipole that modifies the metal work function and so the bending and the height of the Schottky barrier at the contacts. Moreover each gas interacts specifically with each metal identifying a sort of electronic fingerprinting. Using airbrush technique for deposition, we have been able to achieve uniform random networks of carbon nanotubes suitable for large area applications and mass production such as fabrication of CNT based gas sensors. These networks enable us to achieve transistors with on/off ratio of more than 5 orders of magnitude. To reach these characteristics, the density of the CNT network has been adjusted in order to reach the percolation threshold only for semi-conducting nanotubes. These optimized devices have allowed us to tune the sensitivity (improving it) of our sensors for highly selective detection of DiMethyl-Methyl-Phosphonate (DMMP, a sarin stimulant), and even volatile drug precursors using Pd, Au and Mo electrodes.

  19. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  20. Performance Achievements and Challenges for FELs based on Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2006-08-27

    During the past decade several groups have assembled free electron lasers based on energy recovered linacs (ERLs). Such arrangements have been built to obtain high average power electron and photon beams, by using high repetition rate beam pulses driving FEL oscillators. In this paper the performance of many existing and several proposed facilities from around the world are reviewed. Going forward, many questions must be addressed to achieve still better performance including: higher average current injectors, better optimized accelerating cavities, higher energy acceptance and lower loss beam recirculation systems, and better optical cavity designs for dealing with the optical beam power circulating in the ERL FELs. This paper presents some of the current thinking on each of these issues.

  1. Evaluation of additional cooking procedures to achieve lethality microbiological performance standards for large, intact meat products.

    PubMed

    Haneklaus, A N; Harris, K B; Cuervo, M P; Ilhak, O I; Lucia, L M; Castillo, A; Hardin, M D; Osburn, W N; Savell, J W

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) has a specific lethality performance standard for ready-to-eat products. To assist meat processing establishments in meeting the performance standard, USDA-FSIS developed Appendix A, which provides guidelines for cooking temperatures, times, and relative humidity. This project determined whether the USDA-FSIS performance standards for lethality were met when using parameters other than those identified in Appendix A to cook large hams and beef inside rounds. The effects of alternative lethality parameters on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and coliforms and on the toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated. Large (9- to 12-kg) cured bone-in hams (n = 80) and large (8- to 13-kg) uncured beef inside rounds (n = 80) were used in this study. The products were subjected to 1 of 10 treatments defined by combinations of final internal product temperatures (48.9, 54.4, 60.0, 65.6, or 71.1°C) and batch oven relative humidities (50 or 90 % ). For all treatments, at least a 6.5-log reduction in Salmonella Typhimurium was achieved. The coliform counts were also substantially reduced for both hams and rounds. Across all treatments for both products, S. aureus toxin production was not detected. The relative humidity did not alter the lethality effectiveness for any of the treatments. The final internal temperatures and relative humidity combinations used in this project achieved the lethality performance standard established by USDA-FSIS for fully cooked, ready-to-eat products. PMID:22004824

  2. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  3. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L; Smith, Gregory M; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-11

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m(2) with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today's OLEDs in performance.

  4. Correlations among Six Learner Variables and the Performance of a Sample of Jamaican Eleventh-Graders on an Achievement Test on Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Pinnock, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing if the level of performance of 500 Jamaican Grade 11 students on an achievement test on the concept of respiration was satisfactory (mean = 28 or 70% and above) or not (less than 70%); if there were statistically significant differences in their performance on the concept linked to their gender, cognitive abilities…

  5. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  6. A Comparison of Performance in Solving Arithmetical Word Problems by Children with Different Levels of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikeras, Elin K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Performance in consistent arithmetical word problems was assessed in 941 pupils aged eight (N = 415), ten (N = 274), and thirteen (N = 252) classified in four achievement groups by standardised achievement tests: low achievement in both mathematics and reading (MLRL), in mathematics only (ML-only), in reading only (RL-only), and normal achievement…

  7. Effects of Audio- and Videotape Models on Performance Achievement of Beginning Clarinetists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linklater, Fraser

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects on home practice of three different types of cassette tapes (a videotape, a modeling audiotape, and a nonmodeling audiotape) on the performance of beginning clarinet students. Finds no significant impact on amount of weekly practice, of practice using tapes, or of parental help based on tape type. (DSK)

  8. On the achievable performance using variable geometry active secondary suspension systems in commercial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, Willem-Jan; Besselink, Igo; Teerhuis, Arjan; Nijmeijer, Henk

    2011-10-01

    There is a need to further improve driver comfort in commercial vehicles. The variable geometry active suspension offers an interesting option to achieve this in an energy efficient way. However, the optimal control strategy and the overal performance potential remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to quantify the level of performance improvement that can theoretically be obtained by replacing a conventional air sprung cabin suspension design with a variable geometry active suspension. Furthermore, the difference between the use of a linear quadratic (LQ) optimal controller and a classic skyhook controller is investigated. Hereto, an elementary variable geometry actuator model and experimentally validated four degrees of freedom quarter truck model are adopted. The results show that the classic skyhook controller gives a relatively poor performance while a comfort increase of 17-28% can be obtained with the LQ optimal controller, depending on the chosen energy weighting. Furthermore, an additional 75% comfort increase and 77% energy cost reduction can be obtained, with respect to the fixed gain energy optimal controller, using condition-dependent control gains. So, it is concluded that the performance potential using condition-dependent controllers is huge, and that the use of the classic skyhook control strategy should, in general, be avoided when designing active secondary suspensions for commercial vehicles.

  9. Achieving realistic performance and decison-making capabilities in computer-generated air forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.; Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Zurita, Vincent B.; Benslay, James L., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    For a computer-generated force (CGF) system to be useful in training environments, it must be able to operate at multiple skill levels, exhibit competency at assigned missions, and comply with current doctrine. Because of the rapid rate of change in distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and the expanding set of performance objectives for any computer- generated force, the system must also be modifiable at reasonable cost and incorporate mechanisms for learning. Therefore, CGF applications must have adaptable decision mechanisms and behaviors and perform automated incorporation of past reasoning and experience into its decision process. The CGF must also possess multiple skill levels for classes of entities, gracefully degrade its reasoning capability in response to system stress, possess an expandable modular knowledge structure, and perform adaptive mission planning. Furthermore, correctly performing individual entity behaviors is not sufficient. Issues related to complex inter-entity behavioral interactions, such as the need to maintain formation and share information, must also be considered. The CGF must also be able to acceptably respond to unforeseen circumstances and be able to make decisions in spite of uncertain information. Because of the need for increased complexity in the virtual battlespace, the CGF should exhibit complex, realistic behavior patterns within the battlespace. To achieve these necessary capabilities, an extensible software architecture, an expandable knowledge base, and an adaptable decision making mechanism are required. Our lab has addressed these issues in detail. The resulting DIS-compliant system is called the automated wingman (AW). The AW is based on fuzzy logic, the common object database (CODB) software architecture, and a hierarchical knowledge structure. We describe the techniques we used to enable us to make progress toward a CGF entity that satisfies the requirements presented above. We present our design and

  10. A comprehensive approach to decipher biological computation to achieve next generation high-performance exascale computing.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Conrad D.; Schiess, Adrian B.; Howell, Jamie; Baca, Michael J.; Partridge, L. Donald; Finnegan, Patrick Sean; Wolfley, Steven L.; Dagel, Daryl James; Spahn, Olga Blum; Harper, Jason C.; Pohl, Kenneth Roy; Mickel, Patrick R.; Lohn, Andrew; Marinella, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    The human brain (volume=1200cm3) consumes 20W and is capable of performing > 10^16 operations/s. Current supercomputer technology has reached 1015 operations/s, yet it requires 1500m^3 and 3MW, giving the brain a 10^12 advantage in operations/s/W/cm^3. Thus, to reach exascale computation, two achievements are required: 1) improved understanding of computation in biological tissue, and 2) a paradigm shift towards neuromorphic computing where hardware circuits mimic properties of neural tissue. To address 1), we will interrogate corticostriatal networks in mouse brain tissue slices, specifically with regard to their frequency filtering capabilities as a function of input stimulus. To address 2), we will instantiate biological computing characteristics such as multi-bit storage into hardware devices with future computational and memory applications. Resistive memory devices will be modeled, designed, and fabricated in the MESA facility in consultation with our internal and external collaborators.

  11. Quality of education predicts performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading subtest.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S; Dean, Andy C; Thames, April D

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature.

  12. Achieving supercomputer performance for neural net simulation with an array of digital signal processors

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, U.A.; Baumle, B.; Kohler, P.; Gunzinger, A.; Guggenbuhl, W.

    1992-10-01

    Music, a DSP-based system with a parallel distributed-memory architecture, provides enormous computing power yet retains the flexibility of a general-purpose computer. Reaching a peak performance of 2.7 Gflops at a significantly lower cost, power consumption, and space requirement than conventional supercomputers, Music is well suited to computationally intensive applications such as neural network simulation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Recognition of staff nurse job performance and achievements: staff and manager perceptions.

    PubMed

    Cronin, S N; Becherer, D

    1999-01-01

    Recognition for job performance is central to staff nurse morale. However, little research has been done to identify recognition methods most valued by nurses themselves. The authors report results of a multisite survey conducted to compare staff and manager perceptions of meaningful recognition behaviors. They provide data for developing management interventions that may help to improve morale and increase retention. Given the financial constraints of the current environment, the nonmonetary recognition practices identified are of particular significance.

  14. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  15. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  16. Performance feedback, paraeducators, and literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities.

    PubMed

    Westover, Jennifer M; Martin, Emma J

    2014-12-01

    Literacy skills are fundamental for all learners. For students with significant disabilities, strong literacy skills provide a gateway to generative communication, genuine friendships, improved access to academic opportunities, access to information technology, and future employment opportunities. Unfortunately, many educators lack the knowledge to design or implement appropriate evidence-based literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities. Furthermore, students with significant disabilities often receive the majority of their instruction from paraeducators. This single-subject design study examined the effects of performance feedback on the delivery skills of paraeducators during systematic and explicit literacy instruction for students with significant disabilities. The specific skills targeted for feedback were planned opportunities for student responses and correct academic responses. Findings suggested that delivery of feedback on performance resulted in increased pacing, accuracy in student responses, and subsequent attainment of literacy skills for students with significant disabilities. Implications for the use of performance feedback as an evaluation and training tool for increasing effective instructional practices are provided. PMID:25271082

  17. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions. MDRC Working Papers on Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  18. The Achievement Motivation-Performance Relationship as Moderated by Sex-Role Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Steven

    1976-01-01

    The moderating effect of sex-role attitudes in relation to the predictive validity of Mehrabian's achievement tendency scale for females is examined. The scale predicts better for academic achievement with females classified as non-traditional in sex-role orientation, and in social achievement for females classified as traditional. (Author/JKS)

  19. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

  20. Measuring Emotions in Students' Learning and Performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Barchfeld, Petra; Perry, Raymond P.

    2011-01-01

    Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students' achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in…

  1. Believe, and you will achieve: changes over time in self-efficacy, engagement, and performance.

    PubMed

    Ouweneel, Else; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Le Blanc, Pascale M

    2013-07-01

    In order to answer the question whether changes in students' self-efficacy levels co-vary with similar changes in engagement and performance, a field study and an experimental study were conducted among university students. In order to do this, we adopted a subgroup approach. We created "natural" (Study 1) and manipulated (Study 2) subgroups based upon their change in self-efficacy over time and examined whether these subgroups showed similar changes over time in engagement and performance. The results of both studies are partly in line with Social Cognitive Theory, in that they confirm that changes in self-efficacy may have a significant impact on students' changes in cognition and motivation (i.e. engagement), as well as behavior (i.e. performance). More specifically, our results show that students' increases/decreases in self-efficacy were related to corresponding increases/decreases in their study engagement and task performance over time. Examining the consequences of changes in students' self-efficacy levels seems promising, both for research and practice.

  2. Monitoring the performance of community forestry to achieve REDD+ goals through geospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, H.; Krishna Gautam, S.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Koju, U. A.; Uddin, K.; Karky, B.

    2014-11-01

    Measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) is included in the Cancun, Mexico, in 2010 under climate change agreements, as one of the most critical elements necessary for the successful implementation of any reducing of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) mechanism. Community forestry is recognised as a successful model for conserving forests, raising awareness among local people and decentralising the forest governance practices. In the world, Nepal is considered as a leader in community-based forest management. This study conducted in 16 community forests (2384.76 ha) of Kayar Khola watershed (8002 ha) of Chitwan district, Nepal. In this paper, satellite images IKONOS-2 (2002) and GeoEye-1 (2009 & 2012) were used which have 1 m and 0.5 m ground spatial distance (GSD) respectively. Geographic information system (GIS) participatory approach was embraced for the boundaries delineation of community forests. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) classification technique was performed and overall accuracy 94 % with 92.91 % producer's and 96.2 % user's accuracies. Through change matrix method, 25.49 ha and 1.08 ha area deforested while 179.84 ha and 33.24 ha reforested in two time periods 2002-2009 and 2009-2012 respectively. Overall within 16 community forests, "Close broadleaved to Open broadleaved" 4.42 ha and 4 ha area is transferred between 2002-2009 and 2009-2012 respectively. While "Open broadleaved to Close broadleaved" 29.25 ha and 31.1 ha area is converted in seven years (2002-2009) and in three years (2009-2012) respectively. Coefficient of determination (R2) 0.833 achieved through a line-intercept transect between number of segmented and observed tree crowns. Maximum numbers of the counted trees exist below 20 m2, which show the forest of the study area is not mature and has capacity to

  3. Achieving Equivalent Academic Performance Between Campuses Using a Distributed Education Model

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Kenneth L.; Raehl, Cynthia L.; Smith, Quentin R.; Lockman, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate that students in competency-based anatomy and pharmaceutical calculations courses performed similarly whether enrolled in the classes through distance education or face-to-face lectures. Methods Student outcomes data including module examination scores, final course grades, and student demographics data were collected, merged, and analyzed. Results Mean module examination final scores and final course grades did not significantly differ between students at the lecture site and students at the remote site. Conclusions The competency-based anatomy and pharmaceutical calculations courses, whether remote or at the lecture site, provided equitable learning opportunities and roughly equivalent learning outcomes for students. PMID:19777103

  4. On the Value of Intrinsic Rather than Traditional Achievement Goals for Performing Artists: A Short-Term Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacaille, Natalie; Koestner, Richard; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Educational researchers have examined the effect of achievement goals on student performance, and suggest that both mastery goals and performance-approach goals are beneficial, whereas performance-avoidance goals are harmful. Recent research proposes that these results may not be generalized in the domain of music. The purpose of the present study…

  5. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task.

    PubMed

    van de Pol P, K C; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals' achievement motivation. PMID:23204359

  6. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  7. Achievement First: Developing a Teacher Performance Management System That Recognizes Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are the single most important school-related factor in students' learning, and improving student learning is the single most important goal at Achievement First (AF), a fast-growing public charter school network in the Northeast. To achieve this goal, the AF team has worked to establish a common understanding of effective instructional…

  8. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  9. How Do Relationships Influence Student Achievement? Understanding Student Performance from a General, Social Psychological Standpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspelin, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the influence of relationships on student achievement by examining empirical evidence and by adopting a social psychological theory. Initially, the issue is addressed from a national, Swedish context. Thereafter, two general questions are raised: (1) What is the influence of relationships on student achievement, according to…

  10. Performance-Based Music Ensembles' Effects on Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Timothy Francis

    2013-01-01

    As increasing student achievement levels for all learners continues to drive the focus of education, identifying strategies and opportunities to accomplish this goal becomes progressively more important. This study explored the concepts of self-efficacy, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, and self-efficacy for academic achievement in…

  11. The European Academy laparoscopic “Suturing Training and Testing’’ (SUTT) significantly improves surgeons’ performance

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Z.; Tanos, V.; Van Belle, Y.; Carvalho, J.L.; Campo, R.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of suturing training and testing (SUTT) model by laparoscopy was evaluated, measuring the suturingskill acquisition of trainee gynecologists at the beginning and at the end of a teaching course. During a workshop organized by the European Academy of Gynecological Surgery (EAGS), 25 participants with three different experience levels in laparoscopy (minor, intermediate and major) performed the 4 exercises of the SUTT model (Ex 1: both hands stitching and continuous suturing, Ex 2: right hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 3: left hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 4: dominant hand stitching, tissue approximation and intracorporeal knotting). The time needed to perform the exercises is recorded for each trainee and group and statistical analysis used to note the differences. Overall, all trainees achieved significant improvement in suturing time (p < 0.005) as measured before and after completion of the training. Similar significantly improved suturing time differences (p < 0.005) were noted among the groups of trainees with different laparoscopic experience. In conclusion a short well-guided training course, using the SUTT model, improves significantly surgeon’s laparoscopic suturing ability, independently of the level of experience in laparoscopic surgery. Key words: Endoscopy, laparoscopic suturing, psychomotor skills, surgery, teaching, training suturing model. PMID:26977264

  12. Diabetes is associated with impaired myocardial performance in patients without significant coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have high risk of heart failure. Whether some of the risk is directly linked to metabolic derangements in the myocardium or whether the risk is primarily caused by coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension is incompletely understood. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging was therefore performed in DM patients without significant CAD to examine whether DM per se influenced cardiac function. Methods Patients with a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) > 35% and without significant CAD, prior myocardial infarction, cardiac pacemaker, atrial fibrillation, or significant valve disease were identified from a tertiary invasive center register. DM patients were matched with controls on age, gender and presence of hypertension. Results In total 31 patients with diabetes and 31 controls were included. Mean age was 58 ± 12 years, mean LVEF was 51 ± 7%, and 48% were women. No significant differences were found in LVEF, left atrial end systolic volume, or left ventricular dimensions. The global longitudinal strain was significantly reduced in patients with DM (15.9 ± 2.9 vs. 17.7 ± 2.9, p = 0.03), as were peak longitudinal systolic (S') and early diastolic (E') velocities (5.7 ± 1.1 vs. 6.4 ± 1.1 cm/s, p = 0.02 and 6.1 ± 1.7 vs. 7.7 ± 2.0 cm/s, p = 0.002). In multivariable regression analyses, DM remained significantly associated with impairments of S' and E', respectively. Conclusion In patients without significant CAD, DM is associated with an impaired systolic longitudinal LV function and global diastolic dysfunction. These abnormalities are likely to be markers of adverse prognosis. PMID:20082690

  13. Relationships of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies to mathematics achievement in four high-performing East Asian education systems.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  14. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction - a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Cristina T; Tamm, Eric P; Cody, Dianna D; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas; Rong, X John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative recontruction (ASiR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low-dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat-equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back-projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low-contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were con-firmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five-fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high-contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial resolution for MBIR

  15. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? What are the

  16. Significantly enhanced robustness and electrochemical performance of flexible carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors by electrodepositing polypyrrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanli; Du, Lianhuan; Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Yu, Xiang; Mai, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report robust, flexible CNT-based supercapacitor (SC) electrodes fabricated by electrodepositing polypyrrole (PPy) on freestanding vacuum-filtered CNT film. These electrodes demonstrate significantly improved mechanical properties (with the ultimate tensile strength of 16 MPa), and greatly enhanced electrochemical performance (5.6 times larger areal capacitance). The major drawback of conductive polymer electrodes is the fast capacitance decay caused by structural breakdown, which decreases cycling stability but this is not observed in our case. All-solid-state SCs assembled with the robust CNT/PPy electrodes exhibit excellent flexibility, long lifetime (95% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles) and high electrochemical performance (a total device volumetric capacitance of 4.9 F/cm3). Moreover, a flexible SC pack is demonstrated to light up 53 LEDs or drive a digital watch, indicating the broad potential application of our SCs for portable/wearable electronics.

  17. Proper nozzle location, bit profile, and cutter arrangement affect PDC-bit performance significantly

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Gavito, D.; Azar, J.J.

    1994-09-01

    During the past 20 years, the drilling industry has looked to new technology to halt the exponentially increasing costs of drilling oil, gas, and geothermal wells. This technology includes bit design innovations to improve overall drilling performance and reduce drilling costs. These innovations include development of drag bits that use PDC cutters, also called PDC bits, to drill long, continuous intervals of soft to medium-hard formations more economically than conventional three-cone roller-cone bits. The cost advantage is the result of higher rates of penetration (ROP's) and longer bit life obtained with the PDC bits. An experimental study comparing the effects of polycrystalline-diamond-compact (PDC)-bit design features on the dynamic pressure distribution at the bit/rock interface was conducted on a full-scale drilling rig. Results showed that nozzle location, bit profile, and cutter arrangement are significant factors in PDC-bit performance.

  18. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  19. Significant Performance Enhancement in Asymmetric Supercapacitors based on Metal Oxides, Carbon nanotubes and Neutral Aqueous Electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2015-01-01

    Amongst the materials being investigated for supercapacitor electrodes, carbon based materials are most investigated. However, pure carbon materials suffer from inherent physical processes which limit the maximum specific energy and power that can be achieved in an energy storage device. Therefore, use of carbon-based composites with suitable nano-materials is attaining prominence. The synergistic effect between the pseudocapacitive nanomaterials (high specific energy) and carbon (high specific power) is expected to deliver the desired improvements. We report the fabrication of high capacitance asymmetric supercapacitor based on electrodes of composites of SnO2 and V2O5 with multiwall carbon nanotubes and neutral 0.5 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. The advantages of the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitors are compared with the results published in the literature. The widened operating voltage window is due to the higher over-potential of electrolyte decomposition and a large difference in the work functions of the used metal oxides. The charge balanced device returns the specific capacitance of ~198 F g−1 with corresponding specific energy of ~89 Wh kg−1 at 1 A g−1. The proposed composite systems have shown great potential in fabricating high performance supercapacitors. PMID:26494197

  20. Significant Performance Enhancement in Asymmetric Supercapacitors based on Metal Oxides, Carbon nanotubes and Neutral Aqueous Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2015-10-01

    Amongst the materials being investigated for supercapacitor electrodes, carbon based materials are most investigated. However, pure carbon materials suffer from inherent physical processes which limit the maximum specific energy and power that can be achieved in an energy storage device. Therefore, use of carbon-based composites with suitable nano-materials is attaining prominence. The synergistic effect between the pseudocapacitive nanomaterials (high specific energy) and carbon (high specific power) is expected to deliver the desired improvements. We report the fabrication of high capacitance asymmetric supercapacitor based on electrodes of composites of SnO2 and V2O5 with multiwall carbon nanotubes and neutral 0.5 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. The advantages of the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitors are compared with the results published in the literature. The widened operating voltage window is due to the higher over-potential of electrolyte decomposition and a large difference in the work functions of the used metal oxides. The charge balanced device returns the specific capacitance of ~198 F g-1 with corresponding specific energy of ~89 Wh kg-1 at 1 A g-1. The proposed composite systems have shown great potential in fabricating high performance supercapacitors.

  1. The Relationship Between Achievement and Laboratory Skills to the Number of Experiments Performed by the High School Chemistry Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosmark, Jay Waldo

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of doubling the laboratory experiments and time in the laboratory on student achievement, performance on laboratory skills, and attitude toward high school chemistry. One hundred forty-three students were assigned either of two treatments. All students performed the same basic…

  2. The Influence of the Antecedent Variable on the Teachers' Performance through Achievement Motivation in Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…

  3. Using Performance Management To Achieve Quality Program Results. A Technical Assistance Guide. Research Report 89-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laventhol & Horwath, Philadelphia, PA.

    This guide provides assistance in using two primary management tools--the performance standards and performance-based, fixed unit price contracts--to achieve satisfactory results in Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) programs. The guide is organized in six chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the original purpose of the JTPA and introduces the investment…

  4. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  5. Monitoring the hydraulic performance of a containment system with significant barometric pressure effects.

    PubMed

    Hare, P W; Morse, R E

    1999-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, wells in unconfined aquifers can display significant water level fluctuations in response to changes in barometric pressure. This is illustrated by Hare and Morse (1997) at a site where a portion of the unconfined aquifer is isolated by a soil-bentonite cutoff wall and clay cap. A relief well located within the containment system displays water level fluctuations that mirror barometric pressure changes. Water levels fluctuated 0.37 m in response to barometric pressure changes of 2.87 centimeters mercury (cm-Hg), representing a barometric efficiency of 93.6%. As described in this paper, the short-term variability in water level elevations inside the containment system had to be considered to develop a reliable post-enhancement performance monitoring program. The approach that was ultimately selected involves correcting the water level elevations obtained in the relief well within the containment system for the effects of barometric pressure changes prior to comparison with the water level elevations in an observation well in the aquifer outside the system. The reliability of the post-enhancement performance monitoring program is improved further by simply requiring that any decision to enhance the containment system be based on the water level measurements obtained during two consecutive months. Using this approach, the probability that the containment system's performance will erroneously be deemed unacceptable is low. The post-enhancement performance monitoring program also requires no extra field work and does not involve any specialized equipment, which helps to keep operation and maintenance costs to a minimum.

  6. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: (1) What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? (2) What are the differences in optimal or near-optimal interrogator designs between noise-limited environments and interference-limited environments? (3) What are the performance characteristics of different interrogator designs in term of parameters such as transmitter power level, range, and number of interfering tags? In this paper, we will present the results of a research effort aimed at providing at least partial answers to all of these questions.

  7. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively.

  8. Balance the Carrier Mobility To Achieve High Performance Exciplex OLED Using a Triazine-Based Acceptor.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Chiang, Pin-Yi; Lin, Shih-Wei; Tang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Shih-Hung; Chou, Pi-Tai; Hung, Yi-Tzu; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2016-02-01

    A star-shaped 1,3,5-triazine/cyano hybrid molecule CN-T2T was designed and synthesized as a new electron acceptor for efficient exciplex-based OLED emitter by mixing with a suitable electron donor (Tris-PCz). The CN-T2T/Tris-PCz exciplex emission shows a high ΦPL of 0.53 and a small ΔET-S = -0.59 kcal/mol, affording intrinsically efficient fluorescence and highly efficient exciton up-conversion. The large energy level offsets between Tris-PCz and CN-T2T and the balanced hole and electron mobility of Tris-PCz and CN-T2T, respectively, ensuring sufficient carrier density accumulated in the interface for efficient generation of exciplex excitons. Employing a facile device structure composed as ITO/4% ReO3:Tris-PCz (60 nm)/Tris-PCz (15 nm)/Tris-PCz:CN-T2T(1:1) (25 nm)/CN-T2T (50 nm)/Liq (0.5 nm)/Al (100 nm), in which the electron-hole capture is efficient without additional carrier injection barrier from donor (or acceptor) molecule and carriers mobilities are balanced in the emitting layer, leads to a highly efficient green exciplex OLED with external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 11.9%. The obtained EQE is 18% higher than that of a comparison device using an exciplex exhibiting a comparable ΦPL (0.50), in which TCTA shows similar energy levels but higher hole mobility as compared with Tris-PCz. Our results clearly indicate the significance of mobility balance in governing the efficiency of exciplex-based OLED. Exploiting the Tris-PCz:CN-T2T exciplex as the host, we further demonstrated highly efficient yellow and red fluorescent OLEDs by doping 1 wt % Rubrene and DCJTB as emitter, achieving high EQE of 6.9 and 9.7%, respectively. PMID:26820247

  9. Achieving significantly enhanced visible-light photocatalytic efficiency using a polyelectrolyte: the composites of exfoliated titania nanosheets, graphene, and poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; An, Qi; Luan, Xinglong; Huang, Hongwei; Li, Xiaowei; Meng, Zilin; Tong, Wangshu; Chen, Xiaodong; Chu, Paul K.; Zhang, Yihe

    2015-08-01

    A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency.A high-performance visible-light-active photocatalyst is prepared using the polyelectrolyte/exfoliated titania nanosheet/graphene oxide (GO) precursor by flocculation followed by calcination. The polyelectrolyte poly(diallyl-dimethyl-ammonium chloride) serves not only as an effective binder to precipitate GO and titania nanosheets, but also boosts the overall performance of the catalyst significantly. Unlike most titania nanosheet-based catalysts reported in the literature, the composite absorbs light in the UV-Vis-NIR range. Its decomposition rate of methylene blue is 98% under visible light. This novel strategy of using a polymer to enhance the catalytic performance of titania nanosheet-based catalysts affords immense potential in designing and fabricating next-generation photocatalysts with high efficiency. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03256c

  10. The Relationship of Laboratory Performance Ratings, Information Achievement and Pencil-Paper Performance Test Scores in College-Level Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Charles E.

    In this study, a pencil paper performance test (PPPT) was developed and administered to an experimental group of 46 students and a control group of 48 students to determine: (1) the difference between laboratory performance and the successful completion of a laboratory course in electricity, (2) the relationship between laboratory performance as…

  11. Injection Temperature Significantly Affects In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of Collagen-Platelet Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, M.P.; Abreu, E.L.; Mastrangelo, A.; Murray, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Collagen-platelet composites have recently been successfully used as scaffolds to stimulate anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) wound healing in large animal models. These materials are typically kept on ice until use to prevent premature gelation; however, with surgical use, placement of a cold solution then requires up to an hour while the solution comes to body temperature (at which point gelation occurs). Bringing the solution to a higher temperature before injection would likely decrease this intra-operative wait; however, the effects of this on composite performance are not known. The hypothesis tested here was that increasing the temperature of the gel at the time of injection would significantly decrease the time to gelation, but would not significantly alter the mechanical properties of the composite or its ability to support functional tissue repair. Primary outcome measures included the maximum elastic modulus (stiffness) of the composite in vitro and the in vivo yield load of an ACL transection treated with an injected collagen-platelet composite. In vitro findings were that injection temperatures over 30°C resulted in a faster visco-elastic transition; however, the warmed composites had a 50% decrease in their maximum elastic modulus. In vivo studies found that warming the gels prior to injection also resulted in a decrease in the yield load of the healing ACL at 14 weeks. These studies suggest that increasing injection temperature of collagen-platelet composites results in a decrease in performance of the composite in vitro and in the strength of the healing ligament in vivo and this technique should be used only with great caution. PMID:19030174

  12. The case of the missing supercomputer performance : achieving optimal performance on the 8, 192 processors of ASCI Q

    SciTech Connect

    Petrini, F.; Kerbyson, D. J.; Pakin, S. D.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe how we improved the effective performance of ASCI Q, the world's second-fastest supercomputer, to meet our expectations. Using an arsenal of performance-analysis techniques including analytical models, custom microbenchmarks, full applications, and simulators, we succeeded in observing a serious-but previously undetectable-performance problem. We identified the source of the problem, eliminated the problem, and 'closed the loop' by demonstrating improved application performance. We present our methodology and provide insight into performance analysis that is immediately applicable to other large-scale cluster-based supercomputers.

  13. Amorphous Semiconductor Nanowires Created by Site-Specific Heteroatom Substitution with Significantly Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Zu, Lianhai; Zhang, Yan; Mao, Chengliang; Xu, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Jinhu; Yang, Shihe

    2016-08-23

    Semiconductor nanowires that have been extensively studied are typically in a crystalline phase. Much less studied are amorphous semiconductor nanowires due to the difficulty for their synthesis, despite a set of characteristics desirable for photoelectric devices, such as higher surface area, higher surface activity, and higher light harvesting. In this work of combined experiment and computation, taking Zn2GeO4 (ZGO) as an example, we propose a site-specific heteroatom substitution strategy through a solution-phase ions-alternative-deposition route to prepare amorphous/crystalline Si-incorporated ZGO nanowires with tunable band structures. The substitution of Si atoms for the Zn or Ge atoms distorts the bonding network to a different extent, leading to the formation of amorphous Zn1.7Si0.3GeO4 (ZSGO) or crystalline Zn2(GeO4)0.88(SiO4)0.12 (ZGSO) nanowires, respectively, with different bandgaps. The amorphous ZSGO nanowire arrays exhibit significantly enhanced performance in photoelectrochemical water splitting, such as higher and more stable photocurrent, and faster photoresponse and recovery, relative to crystalline ZGSO and ZGO nanowires in this work, as well as ZGO photocatalysts reported previously. The remarkable performance highlights the advantages of the ZSGO amorphous nanowires for photoelectric devices, such as higher light harvesting capability, faster charge separation, lower charge recombination, and higher surface catalytic activity.

  14. Amorphous Semiconductor Nanowires Created by Site-Specific Heteroatom Substitution with Significantly Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Zu, Lianhai; Zhang, Yan; Mao, Chengliang; Xu, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Jinhu; Yang, Shihe

    2016-08-23

    Semiconductor nanowires that have been extensively studied are typically in a crystalline phase. Much less studied are amorphous semiconductor nanowires due to the difficulty for their synthesis, despite a set of characteristics desirable for photoelectric devices, such as higher surface area, higher surface activity, and higher light harvesting. In this work of combined experiment and computation, taking Zn2GeO4 (ZGO) as an example, we propose a site-specific heteroatom substitution strategy through a solution-phase ions-alternative-deposition route to prepare amorphous/crystalline Si-incorporated ZGO nanowires with tunable band structures. The substitution of Si atoms for the Zn or Ge atoms distorts the bonding network to a different extent, leading to the formation of amorphous Zn1.7Si0.3GeO4 (ZSGO) or crystalline Zn2(GeO4)0.88(SiO4)0.12 (ZGSO) nanowires, respectively, with different bandgaps. The amorphous ZSGO nanowire arrays exhibit significantly enhanced performance in photoelectrochemical water splitting, such as higher and more stable photocurrent, and faster photoresponse and recovery, relative to crystalline ZGSO and ZGO nanowires in this work, as well as ZGO photocatalysts reported previously. The remarkable performance highlights the advantages of the ZSGO amorphous nanowires for photoelectric devices, such as higher light harvesting capability, faster charge separation, lower charge recombination, and higher surface catalytic activity. PMID:27494205

  15. Nanoporosity Significantly Enhances the Biological Performance of Engineered Glass Tissue Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaojie; Kowal, Tia J.; Marei, Mona K.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporosity is known to impact the performance of implants and scaffolds such as bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds, either by providing a higher concentration of bioactive chemical species from enhanced surface area, or due to inherent nanoscale topology, or both. To delineate the role of these two characteristics, BG scaffolds have been fabricated with nearly identical surface area (81 and 83±2 m2/g) but significantly different pore size (av. 3.7 and 17.7 nm) by varying both the sintering temperature and the ammonia concentration during the solvent exchange phase of the sol-gel fabrication process. In vitro tests performed with MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells on such scaffolds show that initial cell attachment is increased on samples with the smaller nanopore size, providing the first direct evidence of the influence of nanopore topography on cell response to a bioactive structure. Furthermore, in vivo animal tests in New Zealand rabbits (subcutaneous implantation) indicate that nanopores promote colonization and cell penetration into these scaffolds, further demonstrating the favorable effects of nanopores in tissue-engineering-relevant BG scaffolds. PMID:23427819

  16. The effect of retesting on end-of-semester performance in high school chemistry at three levels of previous science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, George E.

    To determine the effect of retesting on student learning in chemistry, three questions were addressed by means of a 3 × 2 (achievement level X treatment) factorial design: (1) Does retesting affect differently the end-of-semester mastery of course objectives of students who are grouped according to their previous achievement in science? (2) Do students who are given an opportunity to take retests merely delay their studying and perform at a lower level on initial tests than nonretested students? (3) Is the procrastination of retested students (if it exists) affected by their achievement level? The results showed that for one of four units low ability students who were retested demonstrated greater learning gains than low ability students who were not retested, and that procrastination, if it was present, did not have significant effects on student learning at any achievement level. Results were discussed in terms of the students' room for improvement, motivation to improve, and ability to improve.

  17. Predicting End-of-Year Achievement Test Performance: A Comparison of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kurz, Alexander; Zigmond, Naomi; Lemons, Christopher J.; Kloo, Amanda; Shrago, Jacqueline; Beddow, Peter A.; Williams, Leila; Bruen, Charles; Lupp, Lynda; Farmer, Jeanie; Mosiman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the multiple-measures clause of recent federal policy regarding student eligibility for alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MASs), this study examined how scores or combinations of scores from a diverse set of assessments predicted students' end-of-year proficiency status on statewide…

  18. The Relationship between Victimization at School and Achievement: The Cusp Catastrophe Model for Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Antoniou, Faye; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Morgan, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between victimization and academic achievement from a nonlinear perspective using a cusp catastrophe model. Participants were 62 students with identified learning disabilities (LD) using statewide criteria in Greece. Students participated in a 2-year cohort-sequential design. Reading assessments involved measures of…

  19. The Relationship Between Teacher Performance Evaluation Scores and Student Achievement: Evidence From Cincinnati

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    In this article, I present the results of an analysis of the relationship between teacher evaluation scores and student achievement on district and state tests in reading, mathematics, and science in a large Midwestern U.S. school district. Within a value-added framework, I correlated the difference between predicted and actual student achievement…

  20. Performance Report for Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study) 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xue-mei

    Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), a federally-funded program, introduced the study of Chinese language and culture at Queen Ka'ahumanu Elementary School (Hawaii), forming the foundation of an instructional program to be continued through middle and high school, to meet state foreign language standards. It was…

  1. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  2. Quality After-School Programming and Its Relationship to Achievement-Related Behaviors and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassi, Annemarie M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between quality social support networks developed through high quality afterschool programming and achievement amongst middle school and high school aged youth. This study seeks to develop a deeper understanding of how quality after-school programs influence a youth's developmental…

  3. Improving Low Achievers' Academic Performance at University by Changing the Social Value of Mastery Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…

  4. Performance Report for Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xue-mei

    Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), a federally-funded program, introduced the study of Chinese language and culture at Queen Ka'ahumanu Elementary School (Hawaii), forming the foundation of an instructional program to be continued through middle and high school, to meet state foreign language standards. In its…

  5. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  6. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-01-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation. PMID:26832603

  7. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-02-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation.

  8. [Similarity of monozygotic twins regarding vocal performance and acoustic markers and possible clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M; Oeken, J; Hotopp, T; Täschner, R; Hentschel, B; Behrendt, W

    2000-06-01

    Auditory similarities in voices of monozygotic twins have already been described in the literature. However, is there a clinical relevance? Thus, the present study was designed to identify parameters of vocal performance and acoustic features which are significantly more similar in monozygotic twins than in non-related persons. In our hypothesis, comparable prerequisites for an increased vocal load in a profession or in an artistic education of the voice could be due to these similarities. We compared intra-pair differences with data from a control group. Moreover, we examined the correlation of intra-pair differences with the age of the monozygotic twins. A greater difference in older twin pairs than in younger pairs could show the effect of an exogene influence. In addition to the few phoniatric studies in twins in the literature, we used current methods for acoustic analysis. We examined seven parameters of vocal performance and three acoustic features in 31 monozygotic twin pairs (median age 36 years, range 18-75 years) and compared them with 30 control group pairs, which consisted of non-related persons of the same age and sex, newly combined from the group of monozygotic twins ("statistical twins"). We found significant differences in seven of ten parameters (vocal range, highest and lowest vocal fundamental frequency, fundamental speaking frequency, maximum voice intensity, number of partials, vibrato of intensity; U-test by Mann-Whitney). No correlation of the differences of the identical twins with age was found in the examined parameters. The voices of identical twins are significantly more similar than those of non-related persons regarding the above mentioned features. Thus, the suitability of the voices of monozygotic twins for professions with a high demand on voice is comparable. Results of the group comparison correlate largely with the literature. The missing correlation with age could be due to the fact that the environmental effects were not

  9. Nursing to achieve organizational performance: Consider the role of nursing intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    The success and performance of healthcare organizations relies on the strategic management of knowledge. Nursing Intellectual Capital (NIC) has emerged as a concept involving nursing knowledge resources that create value in healthcare organizations. This article aims to discuss the importance of considering knowledge resources in the context of healthcare performance, with specific reference to NIC. Reflections are then provided on how leaders can look to advance NIC for improved performance. PMID:27060807

  10. Achieving high performance polymer optoelectronic devices for high efficiency, long lifetime and low fabrication cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinsong

    This thesis described three types of organic optoelectronic devices: polymer light emitting diodes (PLED), polymer photovoltaic solar cell, and organic photo detector. The research in this work focuses improving their performance including device efficiency, operation lifetime simplifying fabrication process. With further understanding in PLED device physics, we come up new device operation model and improved device architecture design. This new method is closely related to understanding of the science and physics at organic/metal oxide and metal oxide/metal interface. In our new device design, both material and interface are considered in order to confine and balance all injected carriers, which has been demonstrated very be successful in increasing device efficiency. We created two world records in device efficiency: 18 lm/W for white emission fluorescence PLED, 22 lm/W for red emission phosphorescence PLED. Slow solvent drying process has been demonstrated to significantly increase device efficiency in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixture polymer solar cell. From the mobility study by time of flight, the increase of efficiency can be well correlated to the improved carrier transport property due to P3HT crystallization during slow solvent drying. And it is found that, similar to PLED, balanced carrier mobility is essential in high efficient polymer solar cell. There is also a revolution in our device fabrication method. A unique device fabrication method is presented by an electronic glue based lamination process combined with interface modification as a one-step polymer solar cell fabrication process. It can completely skip the thermal evaporation process, and benefit device lifetime by several merits: no air reactive. The device obtained is metal free, semi-transparent, flexible, self-encapsulated, and comparable efficiency with that by regular method. We found the photomultiplication (PM) phenomenon in C

  11. The Effect of Performance Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…

  12. Predicting arithmetical achievement from neuro-psychological performance: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fayol, M; Barrouillet, P; Marinthe, C

    1998-08-01

    In this article, we show that the performances of 5- to 6-year-old children in arithmetic tests can be predicted from their performances in neuro-psychological tests administered a number of months in advance, independently of their level of development. PMID:9818514

  13. Achievement Investment Prowess: Identifying Cost Efficient Higher Performing Maine Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Ida A.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the United States the debate has been frequent, intense, and at times adversarial over how to fund education adequately. Maine has been trying to identify higher performing schools in the hope that practices that contribute to success at higher performing schools can be adapted at similar schools throughout the state. The 1997…

  14. Task Goal Attributes, n Achievement, and Supervisory Performance. Technical Report No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steers, Richard M.

    A review of the research literature on goal-setting in organizational settings reveals that goal-setting on an individual job results in better task performance. However, the processes behind their effectiveness is unclear. For example, how are various job attributes of task goals related to performance, and how do various individual differences…

  15. Patterns and predictors of adolescent academic achievement and performance in a sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Molina, Brooke S G; Arnold, L Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn age = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also tested to determine whether ADHD medication use, receipt of special education services, classroom performance, homework completion, or homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic outcomes. Childhood predictors of adolescent achievement differed from those for performance. Classroom performance and homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of inattention and academic outcomes. PMID:21722025

  16. High-Performance and Omnidirectional Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Modules Achieved by 3D Geometry Design.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongliang; Yin, Min; Lu, Linfeng; Zhang, Hanzhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Xufei; Che, Jianfei; Li, Dongdong

    2015-11-01

    High-performance thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells are achieved by combining macroscale 3D tubular substrates and nanoscaled 3D cone-like antireflective films. The tubular geometry delivers a series of advantages for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics, such as omnidirectional performance, easier encapsulation, decreased wind resistance, and easy integration with a second device inside the glass tube. PMID:26418573

  17. Swine herds achieve high performance by culling low lifetime efficiency sows in early parity.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Ariko; McTaggart, Iain; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2011-11-01

    Sow lifetime performance and by-parity performance were analyzed using a 3 by 3 factorial design, comprising 3 herd productivity groups and 3 sow efficiency groups. Data was obtained from 101 Japanese herds, totaling 173,526 parity records of 34,929 sows, for the years 2001 to 2006. Sows were categorized into 3 groups based on the lower and upper 25th percentiles of the annualized lifetime pigs born alive: low lifetime efficiency sows (LE sows), intermediate lifetime efficiency sows or high lifetime efficiency sows. Herds were grouped on the basis of the upper and lower 25th percentiles of pigs weaned per mated female per year, averaged over 6 years: high-, intermediate- or low-performing herds. Mixed-effects models were used for comparisons. LE sows in high-performing herds had 57.8 fewer lifetime nonproductive days and 0.5 earlier parity at removal than those in low-performing herds (P<0.05). The number of pigs born alive of LE sows continuously decreased from parity 1 to 5, whereas those of high lifetime efficiency sows gradually increased from parity 1 to 4 before decreasing up to parity ≥ 6 (P<0.05). In conclusion, the LE sows have a performance pattern of decreasing number of pigs born alive across parity. The present study also indicates that high-performing herds culled potential LE sows earlier than the other herds.

  18. Children's Achievement Expectations and Performance as a Function of Two Consecutive Reinforcement Experiences, Sex of Subject, and Sex of Experimenter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanelli, Dale Soderman; Hill, Kennedy T.

    1969-01-01

    Presents research patterned on two earlier studies by the Crandalls 1963, 1964 on the effects of praise, criticism, and nonreaction on 10-year-old children involved in a marble-dropping task. The subjects tended to increase in performance and decrease in achievement expectancy when criticized. Table, graphs, and bibliography. (RW)

  19. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma I.

    This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…

  20. Why IEP Teams Assign Low Performers with Mild Disabilities to the Alternate Assessment Based on Alternate Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Kingston, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine teachers' rationales for assigning students with mild disabilities to alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). In interviews, special educators stated that their primary considerations in making the assignments were low academic performance, student use of extended…

  1. Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

  2. The Relationship between Students' Reading Performance on Diagnostic Assessments and the Third Grade Reading Achievement Test in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…

  3. Relationships of Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Mathematics Achievement in Four High-Performing East Asian Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education…

  4. Instructional Resources as Determinants of English Language Performance of Secondary School High-Achieving Students in Ibadan, Oyo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelodun, Gboyega Adelowo; Asiru, Abdulahi Babatunde

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role played by instructional resources in enhancing performance of students, especially that of high-achievers, in English Language. The study is descriptive in nature and it adopted a survey design. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of fifty (50) SSI-SSIII students from five schools in Ibadan…

  5. Conscientiousness, Achievement Striving, and Intelligence as Performance Predictors in a Sample of German Psychology Students: Always a Linear Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Knogler, Maximilian; Buhner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the interface between cognitive ability (intelligence) and personality in the prediction of academic performance have yielded mixed results so far. Especially an interaction between conscientiousness (and its facet achievement striving) and intelligence has been investigated. The hypothesis is that conscientiousness enhances the impact…

  6. Pilot Study: EatFit Impacts Sixth Graders' Academic Performance on Achievement of Mathematics and English Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…

  7. The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories…

  8. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  9. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also…

  10. Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

  11. The potential influence of perception of achievement on performance in volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trials.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Ross; Babraj, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this short communication was to report the findings of an investigation of the potential influence of spontaneous goal setting on subjects undertaking maximal fitness testing. Subjects were asked to complete a single incremental volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trial. The final minute of the trial, after the last increase in increment in resistance, was broken down into six 10-second intervals and a frequency count made of how many subjects stopped within each interval. A chi-square test was used to determine that there was a significant difference between the expected and the observed frequencies (p < 0.05), with 45% of subjects stopping in the first interval (0-10 seconds) and 0% within the last interval (51-60 seconds). Reflections of the subjects revealed that those who were close to exhaustion but near to reaching the next increment of resistance were more likely to "push on." However, despite having been told to keep going as long as they could, subjects upon reaching that increment stopped almost immediately as they believed they could not manage to reach the next increment. This suggests a potential psychological element related to goal achievement that influences performance in incremental volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trials. Practically, this means that the information participants have available on which to base goals (level of increment, time, etc.) needs to be minimized to prevent spontaneous goal setting.

  12. Assessing Medicare's hospital pay-for-performance programs and whether they are achieving their goals.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Charles N; Ault, Thomas; Potetz, Lisa; Walke, Thomas; Chambers, Jayne Hart; Burch, Samantha

    2015-08-01

    Three separate pay-for-performance programs affect the amount of Medicare payment for inpatient services to about 3,400 US hospitals. These payments are based on hospital performance on specified measures of quality of care. A growing share of Medicare hospital payments (6 percent by 2017) are dependent upon how hospitals perform under the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, the Value-Based Purchasing Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program. In 2015 four of five hospitals subject to these programs will be penalized under one or more of them, and more than one in three major teaching hospitals will be penalized under all three. Interactions among these programs should be considered going forward, including overlap among measures and differences in scoring performance. PMID:26240240

  13. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  14. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students-that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status-a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals-as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison-the higher the students' WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  15. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  16. Performance of Students in Project-Based Science Classrooms on a National Measure of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Rebecca M.; Krajcik, Joseph; Marx, Ronald W.; Soloway, Elliot

    2002-01-01

    Explores the performance of n=142 high schools students at the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science test who are enrolled in a project based science (PBS) program as compared to a national sample of students. Recommends using inquiry-based approach such as PBS to implement reform in schools. (Contains 32 references.)…

  17. Initial Teacher Education: Does Self-Efficacy Influence Candidate Teacher Academic Achievement and Future Career Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative investigation examined the influence of low and high self-efficacy on candidate teacher academic performance in a foreign language teaching methodology course through testing the speculation that high self-efficacy levels would improve pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). Positivism guided the research design at the levels of…

  18. Relationships among Reading Performance, Locus of Control and Achievement for Marginal Admission Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Roger S.; Drexler, John A., Jr.

    The first phase of the study was a 2 x 2 factorial design, with locus of control and instructional method (lecture and demonstration) as independent variables and honor point average (HPA) as the dependent variable. The second phase used correlational techniques to test the extent to which reading performance and traditional predictors of…

  19. "High" Achievers? Cannabis Access and Student Performance. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1340

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, Olivier; Zölitz, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals' nationality. We apply a difference-in-difference approach using administrative panel data on over 54,000 course grades of local…

  20. Mayoral Governance and Student Achievement: How Mayor-Led Districts Are Improving School and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.

    2013-01-01

    Mayoral control and accountability is one of very few major education reforms that aim at governance coherence in this nation's highly fragmented urban school systems. A primary feature of mayoral governance is that it holds the office of the mayor accountable for school performance. As an institutional redesign, mayoral governance integrates…

  1. Aural Dictation Affects High Achievement in Sight Singing, Performance and Composition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The nature of skill acquisition has long been of interest to music educators. This study considers the research context for relationships between aural dictation, sight singing, performance and composition skills. Then, relationships between these skill areas are quantitatively investigated using data from the Australian New South Wales Music 2…

  2. Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillier, James

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to correct for perceived deficiencies in the No Child Left Behind Act, value-added models were proposed as a way to find out how much students learned in schools and classrooms throughout the school year. What has garnered much controversy regarding the value-added model, however, is the attempt to link pay and tenure to performance.…

  3. Teacher Performance Pay Signals and Student Achievement: Are Signals Accurate, and How well Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzeske, David; Garland, Marshall; Williams, Ryan; West, Benjamin; Kistner, Alexandra Manzella; Rapaport, Amie

    2016-01-01

    High-performing teachers tend to seek out positions at more affluent or academically challenging schools, which tend to hire more experienced, effective educators. Consequently, low-income and minority students are more likely to attend schools with less experienced and less effective educators (see, for example, DeMonte & Hanna, 2014; Office…

  4. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Student Achievement Using Standardized and Performance-Based Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinter, Brad; Matchock, Robert L.; Charles, Eric P.; Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Three groups of undergraduates (42 senior graduating psychology majors, 27 first-year premajors taking introductory psychology, and 24 first-year, high-performing nonmajors taking introductory psychology) completed the Psychology Major Field Test (MFT) and a short-answer (SA) essay test on reasoning about core knowledge in psychology. Graduating…

  5. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Effects of Group Composition on High-Achieving Students' Science Assessment Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…

  6. Both Patient and Facility Contribute to Achieving the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Pay-for-Performance Target for Dialysis Adequacy

    PubMed Central

    Tighiouart, Hocine; Meyer, Klemens B.; Miskulin, Dana C.

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) designated the achieved urea reduction ratio (URR) as a pay-for-performance measure, but to what extent this measure reflects patient characteristics and adherence instead of its intent to reflect facility performance is unknown. Here, we quantified the contributions of patient case-mix and adherence to the variability in achieving URR targets across dialysis facilities. We found that 92% of 10,069 hemodialysis patients treated at 173 facilities during the last quarter of 2004 achieved the target URR ≥65%. Mixed-effect models with random intercept for dialysis facility revealed a significant facility effect: 11.5% of the variation in achievement of target URR was attributable to the facility level. Adjusting for patient case-mix reduced the proportion of variation attributable to the facility level to 6.7%. Patient gender, body surface area, dialysis access, and adherence with treatment strongly associated with achievement of the URR target. We could not identify specific facility characteristics that explained the remaining variation between facilities. These data suggest that if adherence is not a modifiable patient characteristic, providers could be unfairly penalized for caring for these patients under current CMS policy. These penalties may have unintended consequences. PMID:22025629

  7. Both patient and facility contribute to achieving the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' pay-for-performance target for dialysis adequacy.

    PubMed

    Tangri, Navdeep; Tighiouart, Hocine; Meyer, Klemens B; Miskulin, Dana C

    2011-12-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) designated the achieved urea reduction ratio (URR) as a pay-for-performance measure, but to what extent this measure reflects patient characteristics and adherence instead of its intent to reflect facility performance is unknown. Here, we quantified the contributions of patient case-mix and adherence to the variability in achieving URR targets across dialysis facilities. We found that 92% of 10,069 hemodialysis patients treated at 173 facilities during the last quarter of 2004 achieved the target URR ≥65%. Mixed-effect models with random intercept for dialysis facility revealed a significant facility effect: 11.5% of the variation in achievement of target URR was attributable to the facility level. Adjusting for patient case-mix reduced the proportion of variation attributable to the facility level to 6.7%. Patient gender, body surface area, dialysis access, and adherence with treatment strongly associated with achievement of the URR target. We could not identify specific facility characteristics that explained the remaining variation between facilities. These data suggest that if adherence is not a modifiable patient characteristic, providers could be unfairly penalized for caring for these patients under current CMS policy. These penalties may have unintended consequences.

  8. Athlete Atypicity on the Edge of Human Achievement: Performances Stagnate after the Last Peak, in 1988

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Tafflet, Muriel; El Helou, Nour; Len, Stéphane; Escolano, Sylvie; Guillaume, Marion; Nassif, Hala; Tolaïni, Julien; Thibault, Valérie; Desgorces, François Denis; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    The growth law for the development of top athletes performances remains unknown in quantifiable sport events. Here we present a growth model for 41351 best performers from 70 track and field (T&F) and swimming events and detail their characteristics over the modern Olympic era. We show that 64% of T&F events no longer improved since 1993, while 47% of swimming events stagnated after 1990, prior to a second progression step starting in 2000. Since then, 100% of swimming events continued to progress. We also provide a measurement of the atypicity for the 3919 best performances (BP) of each year in every event. The secular evolution of this parameter for T&F reveals four peaks; the most recent (1988) followed by a major stagnation. This last peak may correspond to the most recent successful attempt to push forward human physiological limits. No atypicity trend is detected in swimming. The upcoming rarefaction of new records in sport may be delayed by technological innovations, themselves depending upon economical constraints. PMID:20098706

  9. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery, Shelly; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farritor, Shane; Joyce, James; Rebrovich, Barb

    2003-01-01

    Condensing five years of significant work into a brief narrative fitting PPR requirements gave the affiliates of the Nebraska Space Grant a valuable chance for reflection. Achievements of Space Grant in Nebraska were judiciously chosen for this document that best illustrate the resultant synergism of this consortium, keeping in mind that these examples are only a representation of greater activity throughout the state. Following are highlights of many of the finer and personal achievements for Nebraska Space Grant. The Consortium welcomes inquiries to elaborate on any of these accomplishments.

  10. 50% duty cycle may be inappropriate to achieve a sufficient chest compression depth when cardiopulmonary resuscitation is performed by female or light rescuers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Jae; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Bae, Jinkun; Kim, Eui Chung; Choi, Sung Wook; Kim, Ok Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend chest compressions (CC) during 50% of the duty cycle (DC) in part because of the ease with which individuals may learn to achieve it with practice. However, no consideration has been given to a possible interaction between DC and depth of CC, which has been the subject of recent study. Our aim was to determine if 50% DC is inappropriate to achieve sufficient chest compression depth for female and light rescuers. Methods Previously collected CC data, performed by senior medical students guided by metronome sounds with various down-stroke patterns and rates, were included in the analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the association between average compression depth (ACD) with average compression rate (ACR), DC, and physical characteristics of the performers. Expected ACD was calculated for various settings. Results DC, ACR, body weight, male sex, and self-assessed physical strength were significantly associated with ACD in multivariate analysis. Based on our calculations, with 50% of DC, only men with ACR of 140/min or faster or body weight over 74 kg with ACR of 120/min can achieve sufficient ACD. Conclusion A shorter DC is independently correlated with deeper CC during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The optimal DC recommended in current guidelines may be inappropriate for achieving sufficient CD, especially for female or lighter-weight rescuers.

  11. When performance-approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: a social value approach.

    PubMed

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Research on achievement goal promotion at University has shown that performance-approach goals are perceived as a means to succeed at University (high social utility) but are not appreciated (low social desirability). We argue that such a paradox could explain why research has detected that performance-approach goals consistently predict academic grades. First-year psychology students answered a performance-approach goal scale with standard, social desirability and social utility instructions. Participants' grades were recorded at the end of the semester. Results showed that the relationship between performance-approach goals and grades was inhibited by the increase of these goals' social desirability and facilitated by the increase of their social utility, revealing that the predictive validity of performance-approach goals depends on social value.

  12. Achieving superior MEBES performance through the use of SPC programs and state-of-the-art facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braz, Linda A.

    1993-06-01

    A MEBES III system can perform at levels that far exceed those published by the manufacturer. To achieve this, the photomask facility must be capable of maintaining extremely tight temperature controls. In addition, noise free power must be utilized and Class 10 cleanliness maintained. Through the use of a statistical process control (SPC) program generated at Etec, the MEBES performance can be monitored. Anomalies in system performance can be immediately identified and corrected without losing production masks. Impending system problems such as needed gun changes, gun centering, aperture changes, and charging of plates can be recognized and corrected before MEBES system performance would exceed our specifications. This paper also describes some of the unique facility designs/controls and demonstrated, through results, how these contribute to the MEBES performance.

  13. Motivation and Performance within a Collaborative Computer-Based Modeling Task: Relations between Students' Achievement Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, Cognitive Processing, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sins, Patrick H. M.; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In order to test the model, group measures of…

  14. A conceptual framework for achieving performance enhancing drug compliance in sport.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Robert J; Egger, Garry; Kapernick, Vicki; Mendoza, John

    2002-01-01

    There has been, and continues to be, widespread international concern about athletes' use of banned performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). This concern culminated in the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in November 1999. To date, the main focus on controlling the use of PEDs has been on testing athletes and the development of tests to detect usage. Although athletes' beliefs and values are known to influence whether or not an athlete will use drugs, little is known about athletes' beliefs and attitudes, and the limited empirical literature shows little use of behavioural science frameworks to guide research methodology, results interpretation, and intervention implications. Mindful of this in preparing its anti-doping strategy for the 2000 Olympics, the Australian Sports Drug Agency (ASDA) in 1997 commissioned a study to assess the extent to which models of attitude-behaviour change in the public health/injury prevention literature had useful implications for compliance campaigns in the sport drug area. A preliminary compliance model was developed from three behavioural science frameworks: social cognition models; threat (or fear) appeals; and instrumental and normative approaches. A subsequent review of the performance enhancing drug literature confirmed that the overall framework was consistent with known empirical data, and therefore had at least face validity if not construct validity. The overall model showed six major inputs to an athlete's attitudes and intentions with respect to performance enhancing drug usage: personality factors, threat appraisal, benefit appraisal, reference group influences, personal morality and legitimacy. The model demonstrated that a comprehensive, fully integrated programme is necessary for maximal effect, and provides anti-doping agencies with a structured framework for strategic planning and implementing interventions. Programmes can be developed in each of the six major areas, with allocation of resources to each

  15. A conceptual framework for achieving performance enhancing drug compliance in sport.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Robert J; Egger, Garry; Kapernick, Vicki; Mendoza, John

    2002-01-01

    There has been, and continues to be, widespread international concern about athletes' use of banned performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). This concern culminated in the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in November 1999. To date, the main focus on controlling the use of PEDs has been on testing athletes and the development of tests to detect usage. Although athletes' beliefs and values are known to influence whether or not an athlete will use drugs, little is known about athletes' beliefs and attitudes, and the limited empirical literature shows little use of behavioural science frameworks to guide research methodology, results interpretation, and intervention implications. Mindful of this in preparing its anti-doping strategy for the 2000 Olympics, the Australian Sports Drug Agency (ASDA) in 1997 commissioned a study to assess the extent to which models of attitude-behaviour change in the public health/injury prevention literature had useful implications for compliance campaigns in the sport drug area. A preliminary compliance model was developed from three behavioural science frameworks: social cognition models; threat (or fear) appeals; and instrumental and normative approaches. A subsequent review of the performance enhancing drug literature confirmed that the overall framework was consistent with known empirical data, and therefore had at least face validity if not construct validity. The overall model showed six major inputs to an athlete's attitudes and intentions with respect to performance enhancing drug usage: personality factors, threat appraisal, benefit appraisal, reference group influences, personal morality and legitimacy. The model demonstrated that a comprehensive, fully integrated programme is necessary for maximal effect, and provides anti-doping agencies with a structured framework for strategic planning and implementing interventions. Programmes can be developed in each of the six major areas, with allocation of resources to each

  16. Adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple improves the closed loop system performance significantly

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, T.

    1998-12-31

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of LLRF control system for LEDA. The authors propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and a control law which is based on PID control and adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple. The control law reduces the effect of the deterministic cathode ripple that is due to high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points.

  17. Achieving Reproducible Performance of Electrochemical, Folding Aptamer-Based Sensors on Microelectrodes: Challenges and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Combining specific recognition capabilities with the excellent spatiotemporal resolution of small electrodes represents a promising methodology in bioanalytical and chemical sensing. In this paper, we report the development of reproducible electrochemical, aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors on a gold microelectrode platform. Specifically, we develop microscale sensors (25 μm diameter) for two representative small molecule targets–adenosine triphosphate and tobramycin. Furthermore, we report on the challenges encountered at this size scale including small-magnitude signals and interference from the irreversible reduction of dissolved oxygen and present methods to circumvent these challenges. Through the electrochemical deposition of dendritic gold nanostructures, we demonstrate microscale sensors with improved performance by increasing signal-to-noise and consequently sensitivity. Finally, we report on the use of the nonspecific adsorption of serum proteins as an additional layer of surface passivation for stable sensor performance. The sensor development here represents general guidelines for fabricating electrochemical, folding aptamer-based sensors on small-scale electrodes. PMID:25337781

  18. Achieving high performance in numerical computations on RISC workstations and parallel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goedecker, S.; Hoisie, A.

    1997-08-20

    The nominal peak speeds of both serial and parallel computers is raising rapidly. At the same time however it is becoming increasingly difficult to get out a significant fraction of this high peak speed from modern computer architectures. In this tutorial the authors give the scientists and engineers involved in numerically demanding calculations and simulations the necessary basic knowledge to write reasonably efficient programs. The basic principles are rather simple and the possible rewards large. Writing a program by taking into account optimization techniques related to the computer architecture can significantly speedup your program, often by factors of 10--100. As such, optimizing a program can for instance be a much better solution than buying a faster computer. If a few basic optimization principles are applied during program development, the additional time needed for obtaining an efficient program is practically negligible. In-depth optimization is usually only needed for a few subroutines or kernels and the effort involved is therefore also acceptable.

  19. Tuning interactions between zeolite and supported metal by physical-sputtering to achieve higher catalytic performances

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Gang; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Jian; Xian, Hui; Tan, Yi-Sheng; Jiang, Zheng; Taguchi, Akira; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu; Abe, Takayuki; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2013-01-01

    To substitute for petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an environmentally benign process to produce synthetic diesel (n-paraffin) from syngas. Industrially, the synthetic gasoline (iso-paraffin) can be produced with a FTS process followed by isomerization and hydrocracking processes over solid-acid catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate a cobalt nano-catalyst synthesized by physical-sputtering method that the metallic cobalt nano-particles homogeneously disperse on the H-ZSM5 zeolite support with weak Metal-Support Interactions (MSI). This catalyst performed the high gasoline-range iso-paraffin productivity through the combined FTS, isomerization and hydrocracking reactions. The weak MSI results in the easy reducibility of the cobalt nano-particles; the high cobalt dispersion accelerates n-paraffin diffusion to the neighboring acidic sites on the H-ZSM5 support for isomerization and hydrocracking. Both factors guarantee its high CO conversion and iso-paraffin selectivity. This physical-sputtering technique to synthesize the supported metallic nano-catalyst is a promising way to solve the critical problems caused by strong MSI for various processes. PMID:24085106

  20. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  1. Evidence That Bimanual Motor Timing Performance Is Not a Significant Factor in Developmental Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilger, Allison I.; Zelaznik, Howard; Smith, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stuttering involves a breakdown in the speech motor system. We address whether stuttering in its early stage is specific to the speech motor system or whether its impact is observable across motor systems. Method: As an extension of Olander, Smith, and Zelaznik (2010), we measured bimanual motor timing performance in 115 children: 70…

  2. High-performance partially aligned semiconductive single-walled carbon nanotube transistors achieved with a parallel technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilei; Pillai, Suresh Kumar Raman; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2013-09-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are widely thought to be a strong contender for next-generation printed electronic transistor materials. However, large-scale solution-based parallel assembly of SWNTs to obtain high-performance transistor devices is challenging. SWNTs have anisotropic properties and, although partial alignment of the nanotubes has been theoretically predicted to achieve optimum transistor device performance, thus far no parallel solution-based technique can achieve this. Herein a novel solution-based technique, the immersion-cum-shake method, is reported to achieve partially aligned SWNT networks using semiconductive (99% enriched) SWNTs (s-SWNTs). By immersing an aminosilane-treated wafer into a solution of nanotubes placed on a rotary shaker, the repetitive flow of the nanotube solution over the wafer surface during the deposition process orients the nanotubes toward the fluid flow direction. By adjusting the nanotube concentration in the solution, the nanotube density of the partially aligned network can be controlled; linear densities ranging from 5 to 45 SWNTs/μm are observed. Through control of the linear SWNT density and channel length, the optimum SWNT-based field-effect transistor devices achieve outstanding performance metrics (with an on/off ratio of ~3.2 × 10(4) and mobility 46.5 cm(2) /Vs). Atomic force microscopy shows that the partial alignment is uniform over an area of 20 × 20 mm(2) and confirms that the orientation of the nanotubes is mostly along the fluid flow direction, with a narrow orientation scatter characterized by a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of <15° for all but the densest film, which is 35°. This parallel process is large-scale applicable and exploits the anisotropic properties of the SWNTs, presenting a viable path forward for industrial adoption of SWNTs in printed, flexible, and large-area electronics.

  3. Significant Returns in Engagement and Performance with a Free Teaching App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogical research shows that teaching methods other than traditional lectures may result in better outcomes. However, lecture remains the dominant method in economics, likely due to high implementation costs of methods shown to be effective in the literature. In this article, the author shows significant benefits of using a teaching app for…

  4. The cosmological and performative significance of a Thai cult of healing through meditation.

    PubMed

    Tambiah, S J

    1977-04-01

    A cult of healing through meditation that was observed in Bangkok, Thailand in 1974 is described, and the cult is interpreted in terms of two axes, the cosmological and the performative, and the dialectical, reciprocal and complementary relations between them. The various ramifications of the cosmology are discussed--the categorization of the cosmos itself as a hierarchical scheme, the relations between man and non-human forms of existence, the ideas concerning power and its manner of acquisition and use, the relation between power and restraint, etc. The epistemological basis of the cult, which attempts cure through meditation, and the features of the ritual as they contribute to its performative efficacy are highlighted. The essay concludes by suggesting that there is a single scheme (episteme) underlying religious ideas and applications of knowledge such as meditation, medicine, alchemy, and astrology.

  5. FOCUSED R&D FOR ELECTROCHROMIC SMART WINDOWS: SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE AND YIELD ENHANCEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus Milling

    2004-09-23

    Developments made under this program will play a key role in underpinning the technology for producing EC devices. It is anticipated that the work begun during this period will continue to improve materials properties, and drive yields up and costs down, increase durability and make manufacture simpler and more cost effective. It is hoped that this will contribute to a successful and profitable industry, which will help reduce energy consumption and improve comfort for building occupants worldwide. The first major task involved improvements to the materials used in the process. The improvements made as a result of the work done during this project have contributed to the enhanced performance, including dynamic range, uniformity and electrical characteristics. Another major objective of the project was to develop technology to improve yield, reduce cost, and facilitate manufacturing of EC products. Improvements directly attributable to the work carried out as part of this project and seen in the overall EC device performance, have been accompanied by an improvement in the repeatability and consistency of the production process. Innovative test facilities for characterizing devices in a timely and well-defined manner have been developed. The equipment has been designed in such a way as to make scaling-up to accommodate higher throughput necessary for manufacturing relatively straightforward. Finally, the third major goal was to assure the durability of the EC product, both by developments aimed at improving the product performance, as well as development of novel procedures to test the durability of this new product. Both aspects have been demonstrated, both by carrying out a number of different durability tests, both in-house and by independent third-party testers, and also developing several novel durability tests.

  6. In surgeons performing cardiothoracic surgery is sleep deprivation significant in its impact on morbidity or mortality?

    PubMed

    Asfour, Leila; Asfour, Victoria; McCormack, David; Attia, Rizwan

    2014-09-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is there a difference in cardiothoracic surgery outcomes in terms of morbidity or mortality of patients operated on by a sleep-deprived surgeon compared with those operated by a non-sleep-deprived surgeon? Reported search criteria yielded 77 papers, of which 15 were deemed to represent the best evidence on the topic. Three studies directly related to cardiothoracic surgery and 12 studies related to non-cardiothoracic surgery. Recommendations are based on 18 121 cardiothoracic patients and 214 666 non-cardiothoracic surgical patients. Different definitions of sleep deprivation were used in the studies, either reviewing surgeon's sleeping hours or out-of-hours operating. Surgical outcomes reviewed included: mortality rate, neurological, renal, pulmonary, infectious complications, length of stay, length of intensive care stay, cardiopulmonary bypass times and aortic-cross-clamp times. There were no significant differences in mortality or intraoperative complications in the groups of patients operated on by sleep-deprived versus non-sleep-deprived surgeons in cardiothoracic studies. One study showed a significant increase in the rate of septicaemia in patients operated on by severely sleep-deprived surgeons (3.6%) compared with the moderately sleep-deprived (0.9%) and non-sleep-deprived groups (0.8%) (P = 0.03). In the non-cardiothoracic studies, 7 of the 12 studies demonstrated statistically significant higher reoperation rate in trauma cases (P <0.02) and kidney transplants (night = 16.8% vs day = 6.4%, P <0.01), as well as higher overall mortality (P = 0.028) and morbidity (P <0.0001). There is little direct evidence in the literature demonstrating the effect of sleep deprivation in cardiothoracic surgeons on morbidity or mortality. However, overall the non-cardiothoracic studies have demonstrated that operative time and sleep deprivation can have a

  7. The significance and the necessity of routinely performing lung ultrasound in the neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Cao, Hai-Ying; Wang, Xin-Ling; Xiao, Li-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Various lung diseases are the most common conditions and the leading cause of hospital admission and death in newborns. Historically, the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung diseases primarily relied on conventional chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scans, however, chest X-ray and CT scans suffer from obvious limitations, while lung ultrasound has many kinds of advantages for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung diseases. The significance and the necessity of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of neonatal lung diseases will be introduced in this paper.

  8. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate achievements along…

  9. Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of Nanostructured Bi2Te3 through Significant Phonon Scattering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Hong, Min; Han, Guang; Zou, Jin

    2015-10-28

    N-type Bi2Te3 nanostructures were synthesized using a solvothermal method and in turn sintered using sparking plasma sintering. The sintered n-type Bi2Te3 pellets reserved nanosized grains and showed an ultralow lattice thermal conductivity (∼0.2 W m(-1) K(-1)), which benefits from high-density small-angle grain boundaries accommodated by dislocations. Such a high phonon scattering leads an enhanced ZT of 0.88 at 400 K. This study provides an efficient method to enhance thermoelectric performance of thermoelectric nanomaterials through nanostructure engineering, making the as-prepared n-type nanostructured Bi2Te3 as a promising candidate for room-temperature thermoelectric power generation and Peltier cooling. PMID:26451626

  10. Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of Nanostructured Bi2Te3 through Significant Phonon Scattering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Hong, Min; Han, Guang; Zou, Jin

    2015-10-28

    N-type Bi2Te3 nanostructures were synthesized using a solvothermal method and in turn sintered using sparking plasma sintering. The sintered n-type Bi2Te3 pellets reserved nanosized grains and showed an ultralow lattice thermal conductivity (∼0.2 W m(-1) K(-1)), which benefits from high-density small-angle grain boundaries accommodated by dislocations. Such a high phonon scattering leads an enhanced ZT of 0.88 at 400 K. This study provides an efficient method to enhance thermoelectric performance of thermoelectric nanomaterials through nanostructure engineering, making the as-prepared n-type nanostructured Bi2Te3 as a promising candidate for room-temperature thermoelectric power generation and Peltier cooling.

  11. Postexercise Glycogen Recovery and Exercise Performance is Not Significantly Different Between Fast Food and Sport Supplements.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Michael J; Dumke, Charles L; Hailes, Walter S; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-10-01

    A variety of dietary choices are marketed to enhance glycogen recovery after physical activity. Past research informs recommendations regarding the timing, dose, and nutrient compositions to facilitate glycogen recovery. This study examined the effects of isoenergetic sport supplements (SS) vs. fast food (FF) on glycogen recovery and exercise performance. Eleven males completed two experimental trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen depletion ride followed by a 4-hr recovery period. Absolute amounts of macronutrients (1.54 ± 0.27 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.24 ± 0.04 g·kg fat-1, and 0.18 ±0.03g·kg protein-1) as either SS or FF were provided at 0 and 2 hr. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis at 0 and 4 hr post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min post exercise for insulin and glucose, with blood lipids analyzed at 0 and 240 min. A 20k time-trial (TT) was completed following the final muscle biopsy. There were no differences in the blood glucose and insulin responses. Similarly, rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ± 1.7 and 7.9 ± 2.4 mmol·kg wet weight- 1·hr-1 for SS and FF, respectively). There was also no difference across the diets for TT performance (34.1 ± 1.8 and 34.3 ± 1.7 min for SS and FF, respectively. These data indicate that short-term food options to initiate glycogen resynthesis can include dietary options not typically marketed as sports nutrition products such as fast food menu items.

  12. Light-concentrating plasmonic Au superstructures with significantly visible-light-enhanced catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinhu; Li, Ying; Zu, Lianhai; Tong, Lianming; Liu, Guanglei; Qin, Yao; Shi, Donglu

    2015-04-22

    Noble metals are well-known for their surface plasmon resonance effect that enables strong light absorption typically in the visible regions for gold and silver. However, unlike semiconductors, noble metals are commonly considered incapable of catalyzing reactions via photogenerated electron-hole pairs due to their continuous energy band structures. So far, photonically activated catalytic system based on pure noble metal nanostructures has seldom been reported. Here, we report the development of three different novel plasmonic Au superstructures comprised of Au nanoparticles, multiple-twinned nanoparticles and nanoworms assembling on the surfaces of SiO2 nanospheres respectively via a well-designed synthetic strategy. It is found that these novel Au superstructures show enhanced broadband visible-light absorption due to the plasmon resonance coupling within the superstructures, and thus can effectively focus the energy of photon fluxes to generate much more excited hot electrons and holes for promoting catalytic reactions. Accordingly, these Au superstructures exhibit significantly visible-light-enhanced catalytic efficiency (up to ∼264% enhancement) for the commercial reaction of p-nitrophenol reduction. PMID:25840556

  13. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  14. Multimedia OC12 parallel interface using VCSEL array to achieve high-performance cost-effective optical interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Edward S.

    1996-09-01

    ribbon cable, and MT connectors to achieve a high-performance, low-cost parallel link. A logical model of a multimedia server with parallel connections to an ATM switch, and to clients is presented. The design of the parallel optical link is analyzed. Furthermore, the link configured for testing, the test method, and test results are presented to confirm the analysis and to assure reliable link performance.

  15. The Effect of Retesting on End-of-Semester Performance in High School Chemistry at Three Levels of Previous Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deboer, George E.

    1981-01-01

    Examines whether retesting: (1) affects achievement of students (N=95) grouped according to previous achievement in science; and (2) influences students to delay studying and perform at a low level on initial tests. Also examines whether procrastination of retested students is affected by their achievement level. (DS)

  16. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  17. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  18. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  19. Effects of heat exposure and 3% dehydration achieved via hot water immersion on repeated cycle sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Justin A; Green, James M; Bishop, Phillip A; Richardson, Mark T; Neggers, Yasmin H; Leeper, James D

    2011-03-01

    This study examined effects of heat exposure with and without dehydration on repeated anaerobic cycling. Males (n = 10) completed 3 trials: control (CT), water-bath heat exposure (∼39°C) to 3% dehydration (with fluid replacement) (HE), and similar heat exposure to 3% dehydration (DEHY). Hematocrit increased significantly from pre to postheat immersion in both HE and DEHY. Participants performed 6 × 15s cycle sprints (30s active recovery). Mean Power (MP) was significantly lower vs. CT (596 ± 66 W) for DEHY (569 ± 72 W), and the difference approached significance for HE (582 ± 76 W, p = 0.07). Peak Power (PP) was significantly lower vs. CT (900 ± 117 W) for HE (870 ± 128 W) and approached significance for DEHY (857 ± 145 W, p = 0.07). Postsprint ratings of perceived exertion was higher during DEHY (6.4 ± 2.0) and HE (6.3 ± 1.6) than CT (5.7 ± 2.1). Combined heat and dehydration impaired MP and PP (decrements greatest in later bouts) with HE performance intermediate to CT and DEHY.

  20. Functional Organosulfide Electrolyte Promotes an Alternate Reaction Pathway to Achieve High Performance in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuru; Dai, Fang; Gordin, Mikhail L; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gao, Yue; Song, Jiangxuan; Wang, Donghai

    2016-03-18

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently received great attention because they promise to provide energy density far beyond current lithium ion batteries. Typically, Li-S batteries operate by conversion of sulfur to reversibly form different soluble lithium polysulfide intermediates and insoluble lithium sulfides through multistep redox reactions. Herein, we report a functional electrolyte system incorporating dimethyl disulfide as a co-solvent that enables a new electrochemical reduction pathway for sulfur cathodes. This pathway uses soluble dimethyl polysulfides and lithium organosulfides as intermediates and products, which can boost cell capacity and lead to improved discharge-charge reversibility and cycling performance of sulfur cathodes. This electrolyte system can potentially enable Li-S batteries to achieve high energy density.

  1. The impact of nursing students' chemistry learning performance assessment in Taiwan: competitive versus non-competitive student team achievement division approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior college in northern Taiwan during the first semester (totaling 18 weeks) of the 2008 academic year. Results: The findings reveal that both a heterogeneous group with external pressure (involving competitive STAD) and a friendship group with affective pressure (involving traditional learning) enhance group cohesion and assist students' meaningful learning; the heterogeneous group without extra pressure (involving non-competitive STAD), by contrast, fails because of apathy and lassitude. Moreover, learning effectiveness will obviously predominate until the learning strategy continues for a long period or at least one semester. Conclusions: This study revealed that the learning performance level of the competitive STAD group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group; and the learning performance level of the traditional group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group. Both the competitive STAD group and traditional group of medium ability students are significantly different from the non-competitive STAD group. Low-ability students from the competitive STAD group are significantly different from those of the non-competitive STAD, though no significant differences were found in learning perception. However, both a lack of friendship and a lack of ability in using algorithms may affect students' chemistry learning. Furthermore, gender imbalance, educational culture, and group emotions are factors that may influence student learning performance. Further study should focus on the use of grouping, improve responsibility in group discussion, and investigate group interaction

  2. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  3. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  4. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research.

    PubMed

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  5. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  6. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies.

  7. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    PubMed

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.01), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05) were more likely to achieve puberty by 251 days of age. Thirty-six percent of the lambs conceived and, at the estimated date of conception, the average live weight was 46.9 ± 0.6 kg and average age was 273 days. Fertility, fecundity and reproductive rate were positively related to PWT (P < 0.05) and thus live weight at the start of mating (P < 0.001). Reproductive performance was not correlated with blood concentrations of ghrelin, leptin or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Many ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable.

  8. The Classroom Performance System (CPS): Effects on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2011-12-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology tool that increases student performance and addresses different learning styles. Instructional technologies are used to promote active learning; however, student embarrassment issue in a multicultural setting is not addressed. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College, where the first spoken language is not English. Quantitative method and quasi-experimental design were employed and comparative statistic methods and pre-post tests were used to collect the data. Participants were college students and sections of study were selected by convenient sampling. Participation was 100% during most of the lectures held and participation rate did not strike above 68% in control group. Attendance was significantly higher in CPS sections than the control group as shown by t-tests. Experimental sections had a higher increase in the pre-post test scores and student averages on lecture exams increased at a higher rate as compared to the control group. Therefore, the CPS increased student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes. The CPS can be studied in other settings where the first spoken language is English or in other programs, such as special education programs. Additionally, other variables can be studied and other methodologies can be employed.

  9. Predictive Indicators of High Performing Schools: A Study of Evaluative Inquiry and the Effective Use of Achievement Test Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing research suggests a link between evaluative inquiry (EI) and student achievement, where EI is defined as the practice of analyzing student achievement data to identify ways to improve instruction. However, researchers lacked empirical evidence regarding the relationship between specific EI indicators and student achievement. The purpose…

  10. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planetary bodies, to techniques and instrument development for exploration.

  11. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  12. Substantial Improvements in Performance Indicators Achieved in a Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cryopreservation Quality Assurance Program Using Single Donor Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Wayne B.; Pett, Sarah L.; Sullivan, John S.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A.; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Lloyd, Andrew; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2007-01-01

    Storage of high-quality cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is often a requirement for multicenter clinical trials and requires a reproducibly high standard of practice. A quality assurance program (QAP) was established to assess an Australia-wide network of laboratories in the provision of high-quality PBMC (determined by yield, viability, and function), using blood taken from single donors (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and HIV negative) and shipped to each site for preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC. The aim of the QAP was to provide laboratory accreditation for participation in clinical trials and cohort studies which require preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC and to assist all laboratories to prepare PBMC with a viability of >80% and yield of >50% following thawing. Many laboratories failed to reach this standard on the initial QAP round. Interventions to improve performance included telephone interviews with the staff at each laboratory, two annual wet workshops, and direct access to a senior scientist to discuss performance following each QAP round. Performance improved substantially in the majority of sites that initially failed the QAP (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001 for viability and yield, respectively). In a minority of laboratories, there was no improvement (n = 2), while a high standard was retained at the laboratories that commenced with adequate performance (n = 3). These findings demonstrate that simple interventions and monitoring of PBMC preparation and cryopreservation from multiple laboratories can significantly improve performance and contribute to maintenance of a network of laboratories accredited for quality PBMC fractionation and cryopreservation. PMID:17050740

  13. Sex Differences in Performance Attributions, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in Mathematics: If I'm So Smart, Why Don't I Know It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Walsh, John; Yailagh, Manizheh Shehni

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we tested the claim that sex differences in mathematics achievement are related to boys' and girls' differing achievement-related beliefs. We compared the mathematics report card grades, 2001 Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) Numeracy subtest scores, performance attributions, and self-efficacy of 161 British Columbian public school…

  14. Achievement Gaps: How Hispanic and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Highlights. NCES 2011-485

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a detailed portrait of Hispanic and White academic achievement gaps and how students' performance has changed over time at both the national and state levels. The report presents achievement gaps using reading and mathematics assessment data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for the 4th- and 8th-grade…

  15. Effects of Explicit Teaching and Peer Tutoring on the Reading Achievement of Learning-Disabled and Low-Performing Students in Regular Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined effects of explicit teaching and peer tutoring on reading achievement of learning-disabled students and nondisabled, low-performing readers in academically integrated classrooms. Found that explicit-teaching students did not achieve reliably better than controls; students in the explicit teaching plus peer tutoring condition scored higher…

  16. Performance on a computerized shopping task significantly predicts real world functioning in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Laloyaux, Julien; Pellegrini, Nadia; Mourad, Haitham; Bertrand, Hervé; Domken, Marc-André; Van der Linden, Martial; Larøi, Frank

    2013-12-15

    Persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder often suffer from cognitive impairments. However, little is known concerning how these cognitive deficits impact their real world functioning. We developed a computerized real-life activity task, where participants are required to shop for a list of grocery store items. Twenty one individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 21 matched healthy controls were administered the computerized shopping task. Moreover, the patient group was assessed with a battery of cognitive tests and clinical scales. Performance on the shopping task significantly differentiated patients and healthy controls for two variables: Total time to complete the shopping task and Mean time spent to consult the shopping list. Moreover, in the patient group, performance on these variables from the shopping task correlated significantly with cognitive functioning (i.e. processing speed, verbal episodic memory, planning, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition) and with clinical variables including duration of illness and real world functioning. Finally, variables from the shopping task were found to significantly explain 41% of real world functioning of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. These findings suggest that the shopping task provides a good indication of real world functioning and cognitive functioning of persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

  17. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  18. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma Irene

    After establishing reliability for an associative verbal encoding (a/v/e) test, the relationship between children's a/v/e and their reading achievement was investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) a/v/e will improve with training, and (2) associated with improved a/v/e will be concomitant improvement in reading achievement. The subjects…

  19. Development and Validation of a Physics Achievement Test to Identify Instructor Variables Associated with Students' Physics Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacambra, Wilfredo T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common ways of detecting whether an improvement is achieved by an education institution is through measuring the students' achievement in a test. Testing is generally thought of as a means of assessing the knowledge and skills students have acquired through learning (Du-chastel and Nungester, 1998). Test results, besides assisting…

  20. A Multi-Institutional Study of the Relationship between High School Mathematics Achievement and Performance in Introductory College Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Danielle N.; Medhanie, Amanuel; Harwell, Michael; LeBeau, Brandon; Monson, Debra; Post, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of prior mathematics achievement and completion of a commercially developed, National Science Foundation-funded, or University of Chicago School Mathematics Project high school mathematics curriculum on achievement in students' first college statistics course. Specifically, we examined the relationship between…

  1. Pt-decorated GaN nanowires with significant improvement in H2 gas-sensing performance at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Q N; Yam, F K; Hassan, Z; Bououdina, M

    2015-12-15

    Superior sensitivity towards H2 gas was successfully achieved with Pt-decorated GaN nanowires (NWs) gas sensor. GaN NWs were fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) route. Morphology (field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) and crystal structure (high resolution X-ray diffraction) characterizations of the as-synthesized nanostructures demonstrated the formation of GaN NWs having a wurtzite structure, zigzaged shape and an average diameter of 30-166nm. The Pt-decorated GaN NWs sensor shows a high response of 250-2650% upon exposure to H2 gas concentration from 7 to 1000ppm respectively at room temperature (RT), and then increases to about 650-4100% when increasing the operating temperature up to 75°C. The gas-sensing measurements indicated that the Pt-decorated GaN NWs based sensor exhibited efficient detection of H2 at low concentration with excellent sensitivity, repeatability, and free hysteresis phenomena over a period of time of 100min. The large surface-to-volume ratio of GaN NWs and the catalytic activity of Pt metal are the most influential factors leading to the enhancement of H2 gas-sensing performances through the improvement of the interaction between the target molecules (H2) and the sensing NWs surface. The attractive low-cost, low power consumption and high-performance of the resultant decorated GaN NWs gas sensor assure their uppermost potential for H2 gas sensor working at low operating temperature.

  2. WWC Review of the Report "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Daily Online Testing in Large Classes: Boosting College Performance While Reducing Achievement Gaps," examined the impact of frequent online testing and immediate feedback on the academic performance of college students. The study was conducted at the University of Texas in the fall of 2008 and 2011. Researchers found…

  3. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun; Wang, Xianghao; Zhu, Benpeng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 104 J/m3 and 10 × 104 J/m3, the output performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between -330 Oe and 330 Oe to between -650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2-20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance.

  4. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du Hong; Wang Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-07-15

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 {mu}m. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 {mu}m pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of {approx}80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 {mu}m pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or

  5. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    PubMed Central

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du, Hong; Wang, Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and∕or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  6. Functional relationships between plasmids and their significance for metabolism and symbiotic performance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, Grażyna; Mazur, Andrzej; Wielbo, Jerzy; Marczak, Małgorzata; Zebracki, Kamil; Koper, Piotr; Skorupska, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii TA1 (RtTA1) is a soil bacterium establishing a highly specific symbiotic relationship with clover, which is based on the exchange of molecular signals between the host plant and the microsymbiont. The RtTA1 genome is large and multipartite, composed of a chromosome and four plasmids, which comprise approximately 65 % and 35 % of the total genome, respectively. Extrachromosomal replicons were previously shown to confer significant metabolic versatility to bacteria, which is important for their adaptation in the soil and nodulation competitiveness. To investigate the contribution of individual RtTA1 plasmids to the overall cell phenotype, metabolic properties and symbiotic performance, a transposon-based elimination strategy was employed. RtTA1 derivatives cured of pRleTA1b or pRleTA1d and deleted in pRleTA1a were obtained. In contrast to the in silico predictions of pRleTA1b and pRleTA1d, which were described as chromid-like replicons, both appeared to be completely curable. On the other hand, for pRleTA1a (symbiotic plasmid) and pRleTA1c, which were proposed to be unessential for RtTA1 viability, it was not possible to eliminate them at all (pRleTA1c) or entirely (pRleTA1a). Analyses of the phenotypic traits of the RtTA1 derivatives obtained revealed the functional significance of individual plasmids and their indispensability for growth, certain metabolic pathways, production of surface polysaccharides, autoaggregation, biofilm formation, motility and symbiotic performance. Moreover, the results allow us to suggest broad functional cooperation among the plasmids in shaping the phenotypic properties and symbiotic capabilities of rhizobia.

  7. Performance of a New Rapid Immunoassay Test Kit for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Significant Bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Ann E; Cox, Marsha E; DiNello, Robert K; Geisberg, Mark; Abbott, April; Roberts, Pacita L; Hooton, Thomas M

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently encountered in clinical practice and most commonly caused by Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative uropathogens. We tested RapidBac, a rapid immunoassay for bacteriuria developed by Silver Lake Research Corporation (SLRC), compared with standard bacterial culture using 966 clean-catch urine specimens submitted to a clinical microbiology laboratory in an urban academic medical center. RapidBac was performed in accordance with instructions, providing a positive or negative result in 20 min. RapidBac identified as positive 245/285 (sensitivity 86%) samples with significant bacteriuria, defined as the presence of a Gram-negative uropathogen or Staphylococcus saprophyticus at ≥10(3) CFU/ml. The sensitivities for Gram-negative bacteriuria at ≥10(4) CFU/ml and ≥10(5) CFU/ml were 96% and 99%, respectively. The specificity of the test, detecting the absence of significant bacteriuria, was 94%. The sensitivity and specificity of RapidBac were similar on samples from inpatient and outpatient settings, from male and female patients, and across age groups from 18 to 89 years old, although specificity was higher in men (100%) compared with that in women (92%). The RapidBac test for bacteriuria may be effective as an aid in the point-of-care diagnosis of UTIs especially in emergency and primary care settings. PMID:26063858

  8. Student Achievement Gaps in High-Performing Schools: Differences as a Function of the Professional Staff as a Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Kimberly S.; Meehan, Merrill L.

    This study investigated differences among professional staff members' commitment to continuous learning and improvement in high-performing schools differentiated by student academic performance and disaggregated by race and socioeconomic status. A total of 48 high-performing schools were identified by Kentucky Department of Education staff based…

  9. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  10. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Summer School Program to Accelerate the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ramon Michael

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing disparity in educational outcomes among economically and racially different groups of students, summer school has received attention from school reformers as a means to close the achievement gap. Given the interest in this topic by educators, researchers, and policymakers, there is little research on the impact of summer school…

  11. Five Social Disadvantages That Depress Student Performance: Why Schools Alone Can't Close Achievement Gaps. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Leila; Rothstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    That students' social and economic characteristics shape their cognitive and behavioral outcomes is well established, yet policymakers typically resist accepting that non-school disadvantages necessarily depress outcomes. Rather, they look to better schools and teachers to close achievement gaps, and consistently come up short. This report…

  12. Predicting Performance on State Achievement Tests Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading: A Multilevel Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Seungsoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the relationship between Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and statewide achievement tests in reading. A multilevel meta-analysis was used to calculate the correlation coefficient of the population for 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Results showed an overall large correlation coefficient…

  13. A Comparison of Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) Performance across Grade, Gender, Ethnicity, and Educational Program Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Kathryn; Kellow, Tom; Ye, Renmin

    This study compared Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-9) academic subtest scores by students' grade, gender, and ethnicity and across different educational programs (e.g., Title I and special education). The study sample consisted of 144,701 students from public schools in a large city in the Southwest United States (grades 1-11). Raw data were taken…

  14. The Relationship between Student Achievement of At-Risk Students and the Georgia Performance Standards in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Loralee Ann

    2012-01-01

    Educational leaders continue to be challenged in terms of accountability measures for increased student achievement, as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). In particular, schools must show adequate yearly progress (AYP) reaching 100% proficiency levels for all students in the areas of English language arts and mathematics by…

  15. Staying with the Text: The Contribution of Gender, Achievement Orientations, and Interest to Students' Performance on a Literacy Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jedda; Tisher, Ruth; Ainley, Mary; Kennedy, Gregor

    2008-01-01

    This study addresses concerns about boys' underperformance on literacy tasks compared to girls, by investigating male and females students' responses to narrative texts. Participants were 142 Grade 9 and 10 students. Achievement orientations, including goals, self-efficacy, and self-handicapping, were measured and approach and avoidance factors…

  16. The Effects of Socioeconomic Strata, Sex and Reading Achievement Level on the Auditory-Visual Integration Performance of Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Michael Duane

    This study investigates the differences between the auditory-visual integration ability of 80 sixth grade students when such variables as socioeconomic status, sex, intelligence, conservation ability, and reading achievement were controlled. Socioeconomic Strata were determined by Hollingshead's Four Factor Index of Social Position. The California…

  17. Comparing the Reading Performance of High-Achieving Adolescents: Computer-Based Testing versus Paper/Pencil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eno, Linda Peet

    2011-01-01

    Literacy is moving into the digital context. Many of the literacy tasks associated with higher education, the workplace, and civic life now take place in the digital world. Literacy in high school, however, languishes in the text world. This study compared the text literacy of a group of high-achieving 10th-grade students, to their digital…

  18. The Impact of AP® Achievement Institute I on Students' AP Performance. Research Report No. 2012-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Laitusis, Vytas

    2012-01-01

    The AP Achievement Institute I (APAI I) is a four-day professional development program offered to teachers and administrators by EXCELerator™, a district reform program operated by the College Board. The APAI I program is designed to help teachers develop effective AP instructional strategies for a diverse student body and to help district,…

  19. The Effect of Performance-Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement. Working Paper 2008-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay P.; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…

  20. Making Performance Accountability Work: English Lessons for U.S. Community Colleges: An Achieving the Dream Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquette, Ozan

    2006-01-01

    Most states have experimented with performance accountability as a way to drive improvement in public higher education institutions and systems. However, efforts to implement performance funding in the United States have yielded mixed results. This policy brief describes the reforms that dramatically changed the policy landscape in England and…

  1. Long-term costs of inflated self-estimate on academic performance among adolescent students: a case of second-language achievements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.

  2. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  3. Beating the Odds: A City-by-City Analysis of Student Performance and Achievement Gaps on State Assessments. Results from the 2003-2004 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Council of the Great City Schools has prepared this fifth edition of "Beating the Odds" ("Beating the Odds V)" to give the nation another look at how inner-city schools are performing on the academic goals and standards set by the states for our children. This analysis examines student achievement in math and reading through spring 2004. It…

  4. How Does the Science Writing Heuristic Approach Affect Students' Performances of Different Academic Achievement Levels? A Case for High School Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer; Gunel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), known as an argumentation-based science inquiry approach, on Grade 9 students' performance on a post-test in relation to their academic achievement levels. Four intact classes taught by 2 chemistry teachers from a Turkish public high school were selected for the study; one…

  5. The Impact of a State Takeover on Academic Achievement, School Performance, and School Leadership in a Rural South Carolina School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Janice Zissette

    2009-01-01

    This case study on the impact of a state takeover in one of South Carolina's most rural school districts ("referred to as the County School District") was completed using a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to examine the impact on academic achievement, school performance, and school leadership as a result of the South Carolina Department of…

  6. A Comparative Case Study of Factors Distinguishing between High and Low-Performance on Reading Achievement in Elementary Rural Appalachian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jennifer; Hausman, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative comparative case study identified factors that distinguish between high and low-performance on reading achievement in elementary rural Appalachian schools. This study determined the most effective instructional reading strategies, as well as other influential factors, implemented by school districts in the rural Appalachia area…

  7. A Comparative Case Study of Factors Distinguishing between High and Low-Performance on Reading Achievement in Elementary Rural Appalachian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative comparative case study identified factors that distinguish between high and low-performance on reading achievement in elementary rural Appalachian schools. This study determined the most effective instructional reading strategies, as well as other influential factors, implemented by school districts in the rural Appalachia area…

  8. The Effect of Performance Assessment-Driven Instruction on the Attitude and Achievement of Senior High School Students in Mathematics in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arhin, Ato Kwamina

    2015-01-01

    The study was a quasi-experimental research project conducted to investigate the effect of performance assessment-driven instructions on the attitude and achievement in mathematics of senior high school students in Ghana at Ghana National College in Cape Coast. Two Form 1 science classes were used for the study and were assigned as experimental…

  9. Building trust through promises and performance. Can your organization achieve the stellar results and employee loyalty found at Southwest Airlines?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Edward J; Annison, Michael H

    2002-01-01

    Establishing a trusting relationship with your employees can help you transform your organization into a top performer. Examine how well-defined visions and goals are some of the keys to building that trust. PMID:11806234

  10. Employing low-temperature barriers to achieve strain-relaxed and high-performance GaN-based LEDs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhiting; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenliang; Lin, Yunhao; Yang, Meijuan; Chen, Shuqi; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-05-30

    The epitaxial structure design of low-temperature barriers has been adopted to promote strain relaxation in multiple quantum well (MQWs) and achieve high-efficient GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With these barriers, the relaxation value of wells increases from 0 to 4.59%. The strain-relaxed mechanism of low-temperature barriers is also discussed. The LED chip with the barriers grown at the TMIn flow of 75 sccm and the growth temperature of 830 °C has an optimal strain relaxation value of 1.53% in wells, and exhibits the largest light output power of 63.83 mW at the injection current of 65 mA, which is higher than that of conventional LED (51.89 mW) by 23%. In-depth studies reveal that the optimal low-temperature barriers remarkably promote the strain relaxation in wells without forming large density of crystalline defects. This achievement of high-efficiency LEDs sheds light on the future solid-state lighting applications. PMID:27410111

  11. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  12. Significance of ground-water chemistry in performance of North Sahara Tube wells in Algeria and Tunisia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, Frank Eldridge; Jones, Blair F.

    1972-01-01

    Nine ground-water samples from the principal shallow and deep North Sahara aquifers of Algeria and Tunisia were examined to determine the relation of their chemical composition to corrosion and mineral encrustation thought to be contributing to observed decline in well capacities within a UNESCO/UNDP Special Fund Project area. Although the shallow and deep waters differ significantly in certain quality factors, all are sulfochloride types with corrosion potentials ranging from moderate to extreme. None appear to be sufficiently supersaturated with troublesome mineral species to cause rapid or severe encrustation of filter pipes or other well parts. However, calcium carbonate encrustation of deep-well cooling towers and related irrigation pipes can be expected because of loss of carbon dioxide and water during evaporative cooling. Corrosion products, particularly iron sulfide, can be expected to deposit in wells producing waters from the deep aquifers. This could reduce filterpipe openings and increase casing roughness sufficiently to cause significant reduction in well capacity. It seems likely, however, that normal pressure reduction due to exploitation of the artesian systems is a more important control of well performance. If troublesome corrosion and related encrustation are confirmed by downhole inspection, use of corrosion-resisting materials, such as fiber-glass casing and saw-slotted filter pipe (shallow wells only), or stainless-steel screen, will minimize the effects of the waters represented by these samples. A combination of corrosion-resisting stainless steel filter pipe electrically insulated from the casing with a nonconductive spacer and cathodic protection will minimize external corrosion of steel casing, if this is found to be a problem. However, such installations are difficult to make in very deep wells and difficult to control in remote areas. Both the shallow waters and the deep waters examined in this study will tend to cause soil

  13. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  14. How can we achieve and maintain high-quality performance of health workers in low-resource settings?

    PubMed

    Rowe, Alexander K; de Savigny, Don; Lanata, Claudio F; Victora, Cesar G

    In low and middle income countries, health workers are essential for the delivery of health interventions. However, inadequate health-worker performance is a very widespread problem. We present an overview of issues and evidence about the determinants of performance and strategies for improving it. Health-worker practices are complex behaviours that have many potential influences. Reviews of intervention studies in low and middle income countries suggest that the simple dissemination of written guidelines is often ineffective, that supervision and audit with feedback is generally effective, and that multifaceted interventions might be more effective than single interventions. Few interventions have been evaluated with rigorous cost-effectiveness trials, and such studies are urgently needed to guide policy. We propose an international collaborative research agenda to generate knowledge about the true determinants of performance and about the effectiveness of strategies to improve performance. Furthermore, we recommend that ministries of health and international organisations should actively help translate research findings into action to improve health-worker performance, and thereby improve health.

  15. Optimizing Performance on Linux Clusters Using Advanced Communication Protocols: Achieving Over 10 Teraflops on a 8.6 Teraflops Linpack-Rated Linux Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2005-04-26

    Advancements in high-performance networks (Quadrics, Infiniband or Myrinet) continue to improve the efficiency of modern clusters. However, the average application efficiency is as small fraction of the peak as the system’s efficiency. This paper describes techniques for optimizing application performance on Linux clusters using Remote Memory Access communication protocols. The effectiveness of these optimizations is presented in the context of an application kernel, dense matrix multiplication. The result was achieving over 10 teraflops on HP Linux cluster on which LINPACK performance is measured as 8.6 teraflops.

  16. Technology for monitoring shot-level light source performance data to achieve high-optimization of lithography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Masato; Ochiai, Hideyuki; Watabe, Yoshinobu; Ishida, Keisuke; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Youichi; Kumazaki, Takahito; Kurosu, Akihiko; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2014-03-01

    Gigaphoton has developed a new monitoring system that provides shot-level light source performance data to FDC systems during exposure time. The system provides basic monitoring data (e.g. Energy, Wavelength, Bandwidth, etc.) and beam performance data, such as Beam Profile, Pointing, Divergence, Polarization can also be monitored using a new metrology tool called the Beam Performance Monitor (BPM) module. During exposure time the system automatically identifies the start and end timing of the wafer and each shot based on the burst of firing signals from the scanner, and stores the measured data in sequence. The stored data is sorted by wafer or by shot, and sent to REDeeM Piece which in turn converts the data to the user's protocol and send it to the FDC system. The user also has the option to directly view or download the stored data using a GUI. Through this monitoring system, users can manage light sources data at the shot or reticle level to facilitate optimization of performance and running cost of the light source for each process. This monitoring system can be easily retrofitted to Gigaphoton's current ArF laser light sources. The beam splitter of the BPM was specially designed to bend only a small fraction of the source beam, so we are able to simply install the BPM without the need for special optical alignment.

  17. A Descriptive-Comparative Study of Teacher Performance Evaluation on Student Achievement in a Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, William Howard

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the federal government increased accountability expectations by placing more emphasis on monitoring teacher performance. Using a model that focuses on the New York State teacher evaluation system, that is comprised of a rubric for observation, local student assessment scores, and student state assessment scores, this…

  18. Failure Is Not an Option (TM). Six Principles That Guide Student Achievement in High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankstein, Alan M.

    2004-01-01

    The author builds upon a foundation which identifies courageous school leadership and the professional learning community as the center of effective school reform. The author offers six guiding principles steps for creating and sustaining a high-performing school: (1) Common mission, vision, values, and goals: (2) Systems for prevention and…

  19. The Influence of Parenting Styles, Achievement Motivation, and Self-Efficacy on Academic Performance in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Erlanger A.; Chandler, Megan; Heffer, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting styles have consistently been shown to relate to various outcomes such as youth psychopathology, behavior problems, and academic performance. Building on the research in the parenting style literature, along with examining components of self-determination theory, the present study examined the relations among authoritative parenting…

  20. Inverse modeling of surface-water discharge to achieve restoration salinity performance measures in Florida Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; James, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of numerical modeling to evaluate regional water-management practices involves the simulation of various alternative water-delivery scenarios, which typically are designed intuitively rather than analytically. These scenario simulations are used to analyze how specific water-management practices affect factors such as water levels, flows, and salinities. In lieu of testing a variety of scenario simulations in a trial-and-error manner, an optimization technique may be used to more precisely and directly define good water-management alternatives. A numerical model application in the coastal regions of Florida Bay and Everglades National Park (ENP), representing the surface- and ground-water hydrology for the region, is a good example of a tool used to evaluate restoration scenarios. The Southern Inland and Coastal System (SICS) model simulates this area with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic surface-water model and a three-dimensional ground-water model, linked to represent the interaction of the two systems with salinity transport. This coastal wetland environment is of great interest in restoration efforts, and the SICS model is used to analyze the effects of alternative water-management scenarios. The SICS model is run within an inverse modeling program called UCODE. In this application, UCODE adjusts the regulated inflows to ENP while SICS is run iteratively. UCODE creates parameters that define inflow within an allowable range for the SICS model based on SICS model output statistics, with the objective of matching user-defined target salinities that meet ecosystem restoration criteria. Preliminary results obtained using two different parameterization methods illustrate the ability of the model to achieve the goals of adjusting the range and reducing the variance of salinity values in the target area. The salinity variance in the primary zone of interest was reduced from an original value of 0.509 psu2 to values 0.418 psu2 and 0.342 psu2 using different

  1. Jigsaw in a College Classroom: Effect on Student Achievement and Impact on Student Evaluations of Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Jesse; Johnson, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    Examines a cooperative learning technique called Jigsaw that was used to determine whether college-level students taught by this method scored higher on a posttest than students who were not. Results showed no significant difference between those taught by the Jigsaw technique and those who were not. (GG)

  2. Some Suggested Techniques for Achieving Required Main Ring Low Level RF Performance for the Tevatron I Program

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.E.; MacLachlan, J.

    1984-05-01

    These techniques are derived from experience with the existing low level rf system and from the results of accelerator experiments directed at the Tev I requirements which were performed using a specially modified low level rf system. The techniques suggested here are not necessarily unique and other techniques may be acceptable. It is important to realize that certain performance requirements on the Booster and Main Ring are substantially different in the Tev I program from those which have been acceptable in the fixed target program. For example, the longitudinal emittance of the bunches has been routinely and intentionally blown up by the 'bunch spreader' during acceleration to improve the smoothness of the spill. In the Tev I case, the 'bunch narrowing' procedure preceding {bar p} production and in bunch coalescing is facilitated by maintaining the smallest possible longitudinal emittance (i.e. the largest possible longitudinal phase space density). Also, during fixed target physics the Main Ring is essentially full (i.e. approx. 1090 of 1113 buckets occupied) so transient beam loading of the rf system is negligible except during injection, whereas for {bar p} production a single high intensity Booster batch (approx. 83 bunches) is to be accelerated causing substantial transient beam induced phase shift of the rf voltage during each passage. The low level phase and position error signals are normally derived from an essentially full ring during fixed target operation whereas in the Tev I program the systems must perform adequately with as few as ten adjacent buckets occupied. Because of the differences in emphasis between fixed target operation and Tevatron I operation is seems sensible to use separate low level rf systems for these two modes of operation. If a single low level system were to be used for both modes of operation some compromises may be necessary which might cause performance in either mode to be less than adequate. Because of the severe demands

  3. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  4. The Development and Testing of Laboratory Performance Tasks for the Assessment of Achievement in High School Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boorman, Joan Marie

    The quest to stem "the rising tide of mediocrity" described in A Nation at Risk has prompted a myriad of changes in secondary science instruction. Appropriate assessments of these changes in curriculum are crucial to a meaningful evaluation of their effectiveness. Because the nature of many of the improvements has been to engage students in higher order thinking skills, simple paper and pencil tests are often inconclusive evaluation measures. Research has shown a more definitive assessment of a student's ability to apply higher order thinking skills is possible with tests of performance in problem-solving tasks in a science laboratory. The Physics Laboratory Skills Test (PLST) was developed as a prototype assessment instrument for evaluation of student ability to perform a range of process skills in the high school physics laboratory setting. The PLST included seven different items based on topics presented in a typical high school physics course. Each item constituted a separate laboratory performance test and was completed by individual students in a 40 minute class period. A sample of 219 physics students from rural, urban, public, and private schools in NY and PA were tested with the PLST in May 1990. Results of this study show that the PLST has usability, validity, and reliability as an assessment of basic skills (measuring and reporting) and higher order skills (planning and analysis). Participating teachers determined the PLST to be an appropriate and useful tool in evaluating individual student abilities. Content validity was established via evaluation by 'expert' high school physics teachers. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to verify construct validity (r =.49) and inter-rater reliability (r =.81). The Cronbach Coefficient Alpha, which was used to determine internal consistency of each item, yielded strong positive results for the PLST. The outcomes of this study will be of particular interest to curriculum developers and classroom teachers

  5. WISC-R Verbal and Performance IQ Discrepancy in an Unselected Cohort: Clinical Significance and Longitudinal Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; Silva, P. A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined children whose Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) verbal and performance Intelligence Quotient discrepancies placed them beyond the 90th percentile. Longitudinal study showed 23 percent of the discrepant cases to be discrepant at two or more ages. Studied frequency of perinatal difficulties, early childhood…

  6. The Functional Effect of Teacher Positive and Neutral Affect on Task Performance of Students with Significant Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sungho; Singer, George H. S.; Gibson, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The study uses an alternating treatment design to evaluate the functional effect of teacher's affect on students' task performance. Tradition in special education holds that teachers should engage students using positive and enthusiastic affect for task presentations and praise. To test this assumption, we compared two affective conditions. Three…

  7. The Relative Significance of Syntactic Knowledge and Vocabulary Breadth in the Prediction of Reading Comprehension Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiotsu, Toshihiko; Weir, Cyril J.

    2007-01-01

    In the componential approach to modelling reading ability, a number of contributory factors have been empirically validated. However, research on their relative contribution to explaining performance on second language reading tests is limited. Furthermore, the contribution of knowledge of syntax has been largely ignored in comparison with the…

  8. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; Grigoriev, Maxim; Haro, Felipe; Nazir, Fawad; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our detection

  9. Thiophene-thiazolothiazole copolymers: significant impact of side chain composition on backbone orientation and solar cell performances.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Itaru; Saito, Masahiko; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Takimiya, Kazuo

    2014-01-15

    The backbone orientation in the thiophene-thiazolothiazole (TzTz) copolymer system can be altered by tuning of the alky side chain composition. We highlight that the orientation significantly impact their solar cell efficiency in particular when using thicker active layers.

  10. Strategies to optimize lithium-ion supercapacitors achieving high-performance: Cathode configurations, lithium loadings on anode, and types of separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wanjun; Li, Yangxing; Fitch, Brian; Shih, Jonathan; Doung, Tien; Zheng, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The Li-ion capacitor (LIC) is composed of a lithium-doped carbon anode and an activated carbon cathode, which is a half Li-ion battery (LIB) and a half electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). LICs can achieve much more energy density than EDLC without sacrificing the high power performance advantage of capacitors over batteries. LIC pouch cells were assembled using activated carbon (AC) cathode and hard carbon (HC) + stabilized lithium metal power (SLMP®) anode. Different cathode configurations, various SLMP loadings on HC anode, and two types of separators were investigated to achieve the optimal electrochemical performance of the LIC. Firstly, the cathode binders study suggests that the PTFE binder offers improved energy and power performances for LIC in comparison to PVDF. Secondly, the mass ratio of SLMP to HC is at 1:7 to obtain the optimized electrochemical performance for LIC among all the various studied mass ratios between lithium loading amounts and active anode material. Finally, compared to the separator Celgard PP 3501, cellulose based TF40-30 is proven to be a preferred separator for LIC.

  11. Precision feeding can significantly reduce lysine intake and nitrogen excretion without compromising the performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Radünz, J

    2016-07-01

    This study was developed to assess the impact on performance, nutrient balance, serum parameters and feeding costs resulting from the switching of conventional to precision-feeding programs for growing-finishing pigs. A total of 70 pigs (30.4±2.2 kg BW) were used in a performance trial (84 days). The five treatments used in this experiment were a three-phase group-feeding program (control) obtained with fixed blending proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); against four individual daily-phase feeding programs in which the blending proportions of feeds A and B were updated daily to meet 110%, 100%, 90% or 80% of the lysine requirements estimated using a mathematical model. Feed intake was recorded automatically by a computerized device in the feeders, and the pigs were weighed weekly during the project. Body composition traits were estimated by scanning with an ultrasound device and densitometer every 28 days. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretions were calculated by the difference between retention (obtained from densitometer measurements) and intake. Feeding costs were assessed using 2013 ingredient cost data. Feed intake, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, body fat mass and serum contents of total protein and phosphorus were similar among treatments. Feeding pigs in a daily-basis program providing 110%, 100% or 90% of the estimated individual lysine requirements also did not influence BW, body protein mass, weight gain and nitrogen retention in comparison with the animals in the group-feeding program. However, feeding pigs individually with diets tailored to match 100% of nutrient requirements made it possible to reduce (P<0.05) digestible lysine intake by 26%, estimated nitrogen excretion by 30% and feeding costs by US$7.60/pig (-10%) relative to group feeding. Precision feeding is an effective approach to make pig production more sustainable without compromising growth performance.

  12. An examination of yearly and daily temperature change and its significance to the evaluation of sealant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lacasse, M.A.; Margeson, J.C.; Giffin, G.B.

    1998-12-31

    Standard test methods to assess the degree of movement capability of sealants are currently based on extreme values of amplitude, rate of movement and temperature change. The selection and derivation of these test parameters on the basis of field observations has yet to be fully explained. It appears that these parameters are not based on an understanding of the degree to which sealants undergo cyclic movement on buildings nor the likelihood of occurrence of extreme events. Although joint failure due to cyclic movement has been investigated, there is a need to consider how such models of deterioration can be used to establish test criteria for assessing the long-term performance of sealant products. To address some of these issues, a study was conducted to determine the nature of temperature fluctuations in a northerly climate. Hourly temperature data from the Ottawa international airport for a period of forty years was subjected to probability analysis. The analysis considered the likelihood of occurrence of periods of increasing or decreasing temperature. The occurrence of particular amplitudes ranges and rates of temperature change were also determined on both a seasonal and a yearly basis. Moreover, the annual and multi-year probability of temperature fluctuations at or above extreme values of either rate or amplitude were also assessed. In addition, the maximum and minimum temperatures of the 40 yearly periods were subjected to extremal analysis to determine the likelihood of annual periods covering larger than average temperature ranges. This analysis provides a basis from which to select test parameters.

  13. Interpreting the Evidence for Effective Interventions to Increase the Academic Performance of Students with ADHD: Relevance of the Statistical Significance Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith; Thompson, Bruce; Vannest, Kimberly J.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on interventions targeting the academic performance of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and does so within the context of the statistical significance testing controversy. Both the arguments for and against null hypothesis statistical significance tests are reviewed. Recent standards…

  14. The Role of Lithium Conditioning in Achieving High Performance, Long Pulse H-mode Discharges in the NSTX and EAST Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, Rajesh; Mansfield, D. K.; Gong, X. Z.; Sun, Z.; Bell, M. G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the role of lithium wall conditioning on the achievement of high performance, long pulse discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is documented. Common observations include recycling reduction and elimination of ELMs. In NSTX, lithium conditioning typically resulted in ELM-free operation with impurity accumulation, which was ameliorated e.g. with pulsed 3D fields to trigger controlled ELMs. Active lithium conditioning in EAST discharges has overcome this problem, producing an ELM-free Hmode with controlled density and impurities.

  15. Describing Assay Precision – Reciprocal of Variance is correct, not CV percent: its use should significantly improve laboratory performance

    PubMed Central

    Jelliffe, Roger W.; Schumitzky, Alan; Bayard, David; Fu, Xiaowei; Neely, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Describing assay error as percent coefficient of variation (CV%) fails as measurements approach zero [1]. Results are censored if below some arbitrarily chosen lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). CV% gives incorrect weighting to data obtained by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), with incorrect parameter values in the resulting pharmacokinetic models, and incorrect dosage regimens for patient care. Methods CV% was compared with the reciprocal of the variance (1/var) of each assay measurement. This method [2] has not been considered by the laboratory community. A simple description of assay standard deviation (SD) as a polynomial function of the assay measurement over its working range was developed, the reciprocal of the assay variance determined, and its results compared with CV%. Results CV% does not provide correct weighting of measured serum concentrations as required for optimal TDM. It does not permit optimally individualized models of the behavior of a drug in a patient, resulting in incorrect dosage regimens. The assay error polynomial described here, using 1/var, provides correct weighting of such data, all the way down to and including zero. There is no need to censor low results, and no need to set any arbitrary lower limit of quantification (LLOQ). Conclusion Reciprocal of variance is the correct measure of assay precision, and should replace CV%. The information is easily stored as an assay error polynomial. The laboratory can serve the medical community better. There is no longer any need for LLOQ, a significant improvement. Regulatory agencies should implement this more informed policy. PMID:25970509

  16. Concave Pit-Containing Scaffold Surfaces Improve Stem Cell-Derived Osteoblast Performance and Lead to Significant Bone Tissue Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cusella-De Angelis, Maria Gabriella; Laino, Gregorio; Piattelli, Adriano; Pacifici, Maurizio; De Rosa, Alfredo; Papaccio, Gianpaolo

    2007-01-01

    Background Scaffold surface features are thought to be important regulators of stem cell performance and endurance in tissue engineering applications, but details about these fundamental aspects of stem cell biology remain largely unclear. Methodology and Findings In the present study, smooth clinical-grade lactide-coglyolic acid 85:15 (PLGA) scaffolds were carved as membranes and treated with NMP (N-metil-pyrrolidone) to create controlled subtractive pits or microcavities. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy revealed that the NMP-treated membranes contained: (i) large microcavities of 80–120 µm in diameter and 40–100 µm in depth, which we termed primary; and (ii) smaller microcavities of 10–20 µm in diameter and 3–10 µm in depth located within the primary cavities, which we termed secondary. We asked whether a microcavity-rich scaffold had distinct bone-forming capabilities compared to a smooth one. To do so, mesenchymal stem cells derived from human dental pulp were seeded onto the two types of scaffold and monitored over time for cytoarchitectural characteristics, differentiation status and production of important factors, including bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We found that the microcavity-rich scaffold enhanced cell adhesion: the cells created intimate contact with secondary microcavities and were polarized. These cytological responses were not seen with the smooth-surface scaffold. Moreover, cells on the microcavity-rich scaffold released larger amounts of BMP-2 and VEGF into the culture medium and expressed higher alkaline phosphatase activity. When this type of scaffold was transplanted into rats, superior bone formation was elicited compared to cells seeded on the smooth scaffold. Conclusion In conclusion, surface microcavities appear to support a more vigorous osteogenic response of stem cells and should be used in the design of therapeutic substrates to improve bone repair and

  17. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  18. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  19. Unravelling the correlation between the aspect ratio of nanotubular structures and their electrochemical performance to achieve high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanyan; Deng, Jiyang; Qi, Dianpeng; Leow, Wan Ru; Wei, Jiaqi; Yin, Shengyan; Dong, Zhili; Yazami, Rachid; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    The fundamental understanding of the relationship between the nanostructure of an electrode and its electrochemical performance is crucial for achieving high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, the relationship between the nanotubular aspect ratio and electrochemical performance of LIBs is elucidated for the first time. The stirring hydrothermal method was used to control the aspect ratio of viscous titanate nanotubes, which were used to fabricate additive-free TiO2 -based electrode materials. We found that the battery performance at high charging/discharging rates is dramatically boosted when the aspect ratio is increased, due to the optimization of electronic/ionic transport properties within the electrode materials. The proof-of-concept LIBs comprising nanotubes with an aspect ratio of 265 can retain more than 86 % of their initial capacity over 6000 cycles at a high rate of 30 C. Such devices with supercapacitor-like rate performance and battery-like capacity herald a new paradigm for energy storage systems.

  20. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on completion of Phase I and Phase II activities. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. During this reporting period, optimization tests were performed to evaluate system performance and identify optimum operating conditions for the installed equipment. The overfire air system process design activities and preliminary engineering design were completed.

  1. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on Phase I and Phase II activities. The furnace sensors were procured and installed in February 2003. Baseline testing was performed following the sensor installation. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. Process design activities were performed to support design of the equipment installed and to develop specifications for the overfire air system. The overfire air system preliminary engineering design was initiated.

  2. Academic Momentum at University/College: Exploring the Roles of Prior Learning, Life Experience, and Ongoing Performance in Academic Achievement across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Wilson, Rachel; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Ginns, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the context of "academic momentum," a longitudinal study of university students (N = 904) showed high school achievement and ongoing university achievement predicted subsequent achievement through university. However, the impact of high school achievement diminished, while additive effects of ongoing university achievement continued.…

  3. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  4. Achieving highly effective non-biofouling performance for polypropylene membranes modified by UV-induced surface graft polymerization of two oppositely charged monomers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Ying; Wee, Kin-Ho; Bai, Renbi

    2010-02-25

    A major problem in membrane technology for applications such as wastewater treatment or desalination is often the loss of membrane permeability due to biofouling initiated from protein adsorption and biofilm formation on the membrane surface. In this study, we developed a relatively simple and yet versatile approach to prepare polypropylene (PP) membrane with highly effective non-biofouling performance. Copolymer brushes were grafted to the surface of PP membrane through UV-induced polymerization of two oppositely charged monomers, i.e., [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (TM) and 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SA), with varying TM:SA molar ratios. Surface analysis with scanning electron microscope (SEM) clearly showed the grafted copolymer brushes on the membrane surfaces and that with X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) revealed a similar TM:SA ratio of the grafted copolymer brushes to that of the monomer solution used for the polymerization. Water contact angle measurements indicated that the hydrophilicity of the membrane surfaces was remarkably improved by the grafting of the TM/SA copolymer brushes, with the lowest water contact angle of 27 degrees being achieved at the TM:SA ratio of around 1:1. Experiments for antiprotein adsorption with bovine serum album (BSA) and lysozyme (LYZ) and antibiofilm formation with Escherichia coli (E. coli) demonstrated a great dependence of the membrane performance on the TM:SA ratios of the grafted copolymer brushes. It was found that the characteristics of the surface charges of the membrane surfaces played a very important role in the non-biofouling performance, and the membrane surface with balanced positive and negative charges showed the best non-biofouling performance for the proteins and bacteria tested in this study.

  5. The Value of Extracurricular Support in Increased Student Achievement: An Assessment of a Pupil Personnel Model Including School Counselors and School Psychologists Concerning Student Achievement as Measured by an Academic Performance Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Greg S.; Young, I. Phillip

    2006-01-01

    This study examined two models of extra-curricular support for enhancing the academic achievement of students as measured by state mandated test scores. One management model includes the use of school counselors as enhancers of the educational process while the other model addresses the contribution of school psychologists. To differentiate…

  6. Using silica nanoparticles for modifying sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) membrane for direct methanol fuel cell: A significant improvement on cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Huei; Liu, Ying-Ling; Sun, Yi-Ming; Lai, Juin-Yih; Guiver, Michael D.; Gao, Yan

    Sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (sPPEK) with a degree of sulfonation of 1.23 was mixed with silica nanoparticles to form hybrid materials for using as proton exchange membranes. The nanoparticles were found homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix and a high 30 phr (parts per hundred resin) loading of silica nanoparticles can be achieved. The hybrid membranes exhibited improved swelling behavior, thermal stability, and mechanical properties. The methanol crossover behavior of the membrane was also depressed such that these membranes are suitable for a high methanol concentration in feed (3 M) in cell test. The membrane with 5 phr silica nanoparticles showed an open cell potential of 0.6 V and an optimum power density of 52.9 mW cm -2 at a current density of 264.6 mA cm -2, which is better than the performance of the pristine sPPEK membrane and Nafion ® 117.

  7. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2005-09-30

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

  8. An analysis of factors correlated with the achievement of the goal standard for the science portion of the Connecticut Academic Performance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmetz, Barbara Fotta

    2001-07-01

    This study sought to identify factors that could be used to predict the success of students on the science portion of the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Test (CAPT). While the Connecticut State Department of Education measures student achievement in mathematics, reading and writing in grades 4, 6, and 8, science is assessed only in the grade ten CAPT. Since the CAPT science test does not identify specific areas in need of improvement, it is not possible to determine causes for low test scores. To address this, the study investigated the predictive values of the grade eight Mastery Tests in mathematics and reading, the student ability scores of the Otis-Lennon School Ability Index, and grades in prior science courses. The research sample consisted of five hundred and twenty-five students, member of the graduating classes of 2000 and 2001 in a large suburban high school. Students in the study had participated in the district testing program and their scores for the grade seven Otis-Lennon School Ability Test (OLSAT), the grade eight Connecticut Mastery Tests (CMT) and the grade ten Connecticut Academic Performance Tests (CAPT) were available for analysis. This study investigated correlations between student achievement on the CMT and the science subtest of the CAPT, between OLSAT scores and the CAPT science scores, and between grades in ninth grade science and CAPT science scores. Scores were disaggregated by gender and by course level. Hypotheses 1, 2, 3 and 4 investigated the Pearson Product Moment Correlations of the OLSAT, CMT and course grades with scores on the science portion of the CAPT. Hypothesis 5 compared the scores of male and female students, using the t-test of independent sample means. Calculations showed moderate correlations for hypotheses 1--4, and the hypotheses were accepted. Hypothesis 5 was accepted for one class and rejected for the other. On the whole, female students received higher course grades and lower standardized test

  9. There are lots of big fish in this pond: The role of peer overqualification on task significance, perceived fit, and performance for overqualified employees.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Erdogan, Berrin; Bauer, Talya N; Jiang, Kaifeng; Liu, Songbo; Li, Yuhui

    2015-07-01

    Research has uncovered mixed results regarding the influence of overqualification on employee performance outcomes, suggesting the existence of boundary conditions for such an influence. Using relative deprivation theory (Crosby, 1976) as the primary theoretical basis, in the current research, we examine the moderating role of peer overqualification and provide insights to the questions regarding whether, when, and how overqualification relates to employee performance. We tested the theoretical model with data gathered across three phases over 6 months from 351 individuals and their supervisors in 72 groups. Results showed that when working with peers whose average overqualification level was high, as opposed to low, employees who felt overqualified for their jobs perceived greater task significance and person-group fit, and demonstrated higher levels of in-role and extra-role performance. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications for overqualification at the individual level and within the larger group context.

  10. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-01-01

    Background Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. Methods The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. Results In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Conclusion Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form. PMID:18671882

  11. Activities on Realization of High-Power and Steady-State ECRH System and Achievement of High Performance Plasmas in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ikeda, R.; Tamura, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Takita, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Minami, R.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Idei, H.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.

    2009-11-26

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) has contributed to the achievement of high performance plasma production, high electron temperature plasmas and sustainment of steady-state plasmas in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Our immediate targets of upgrading the ECRH system are 5 MW several seconds and 1 MW longer than one hour power injection into LHD. The improvement will greatly extend the plasma parameter regime. For that purpose, we have been promoting the development and installation of 77 GHz/1-1.5 MW/several seconds and 0.3 MW/CW gyrotrons in collaboration with University of Tsukuba. The transmission lines are re-examined and improved for high and CW power transmission. In the recent experimental campaign, two 77 GHz gyrotrons were operated. One more gyrotron, which was designed for 1.5 MW/2 s output, was constructed and is tested. We have been promoting to improve total ECRH efficiency for efficient gyrotron-power use and efficient plasma heating, e.g. a new waveguide alignment method and mode-content analysis and the feedback control of the injection polarization. In the last experimental campaign, the 77 GHz gyrotrons were used in combination with the existing 84 GHz range and 168 GHz gyrotrons. Multi-frequency ECRH system is more flexible in plasma heating experiments and diagnostics. A lot of experiments have been performed in relation to high electron temperature plasmas by realization of the core electron-root confinement (CERC), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), Electron Bernstein Wave heating, and steady-state plasma sustainment. Some of the experimental results are briefly described.

  12. U.S. Math Performance in Global Perspective: How Well Does Each State Do at Producing High-Achieving Students? PEPG Report No.: 10-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Peterson, Paul E.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    To see how well U.S. schools do at producing high-achieving math students, the authors compare the percentage of U.S. public and private school students in the graduating Class of 2009 who were highly accomplished in mathematics in each of the 50 states and in 10 urban districts to percentages of high achievers in 56 other countries. Their…

  13. The Academic Achievement and Functional Performance of Youth with Disabilities. A Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2006-3000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Newman, Lynn; Cameto, Renee; Levine, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    Background: To provide a national picture of the academic achievements of American students, the National Center for Education Statistics has administered the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) periodically since 1969, but there has been no similar national picture of the academic achievement of youth with disabilities. Purpose: To…

  14. The Predictability of Enrolment and First-Year University Results from Secondary School Performance: The New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive correlations between results from the New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA), a standards-based qualification, and university grade point averages achieved by first-year students in one large New Zealand University (and, for comparison purposes, also presents correlations from the…

  15. Chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles: combining hydrogen bonds and anion-π interactions to achieve optimum performance.

    PubMed

    Sabek, Jad; Adriaenssens, Louis; Guinovart, Tomàs; Parra, Enrique J; Rius, F Xavier; Ballester, Pablo; Blondeau, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The performance of chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles and multiwall carbon nanotubes is presented. The calix[4]pyrrole receptors bear two phenyl groups at opposite meso-positions. When the meso-phenyl groups are decorated with strong electron-withdrawing substituents, attractive anion-π interactions may exist between the receptor's aromatic walls and the sandwiched anion. These anion-π interactions are shown to significantly affect the selectivity of the electrodes. Calix[4]pyrrole, bearing a p-nitro withdrawing group on each of the meso-phenyl rings, afforded sensors that display anti-Hofmeister behavior against the lipophilic salicylate and nitrate anions. Based on the experimental data, a series of principles that help in predicting the suitability of synthetic receptors for use as anion-specific ionophores is discussed. Finally, the sensors deliver excellent results in the direct detection of chloride in bodily fluids.

  16. Science Achievement of Secondary Agricultural Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sara Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this quantitative descriptive and correlational study were to describe the science achievements of secondary agricultural education students and determine if the number of agricultural education courses passed, FFA involvement, and SAE participation would statistically significantly improve students' performance on science…

  17. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  18. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  19. Adaption of the LUCI framework to account for detailed farm management: a case study exploring potential for achieving locally and nationally significant greenhouse gas, flooding and nutrient mitigation without compromising livelihoods on New Zealand farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Bethanna; Trodahl, Martha; Maxwell, Deborah; Easton, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    change could be most efficiently targeted to meet water quality targets while maintaining production. Historically, LUCI has inferred land management from nationally available land cover categorisations, so lacked the capacity to discriminate between differences in more detailed management (tillage information, type of irrigation system, stocking numbers and type, etc). However, recently a collaboration with a farmer cooperative has commenced. LUCI is being further developed to take in a range of more detailed management information, which can be entered directly to LUCI or easily integrated via existing farm management files. Example output using a variety of management scenarios and ongoing "validation" of LUCI's performance at the farm scale will be presented using New Zealand crop, beef and dairy farms as case studies.

  20. Diagnostic performance of quantitative coronary computed tomography angiography and quantitative coronary angiography to predict hemodynamic significance of intermediate-grade stenoses.

    PubMed

    Ghekiere, Olivier; Dewilde, Willem; Bellekens, Michel; Hoa, Denis; Couvreur, Thierry; Djekic, Julien; Coolen, Tim; Mancini, Isabelle; Vanhoenacker, Piet K; Dendale, Paul; Nchimi, Alain

    2015-12-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) during invasive coronary angiography has become an established tool for guiding treatment. However, only one-third of intermediate-grade coronary artery stenosis (ICAS) are hemodynamically significant and require coronary revascularization. Additionally, the severity of stenosis visually established by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) does not reliably correlate with the functional severity. Therefore, additional angiographic morphologic descriptors affecting hemodynamic significance are required. To evaluate quantitative stenosis analysis and plaque descriptors by CCTA in predicting the hemodynamic significance of ICAS and to compare it with quantitative catheter coronary angiography (QCA). QCA was performed in 65 patients (mean age 63 ± 9 years; 47 men) with 76 ICAS (40-70%) on CCTA. Plaque descriptors were determined including circumferential extent of calcification, plaque composition, minimal lumen diameter (MLD) and area, diameter stenosis percentage (Ds %), area stenosis percentage and stenosis length on CCTA. MLD and Ds % were also analyzed on QCA. FFR was measured on 52 ICAS lesions on CCTA and QCA. The diagnostic values of the best CCTA and QCA descriptors were calculated for ICAS with FFR ≤ 0.80. Of the 76 ICAS on CCTA, 52 (68%) had a Ds % between 40 and 70% on QCA. Significant intertechnique correlations were found between CCTA and QCA for MLD and Ds % (p < 0.001). In 17 (33%) of the 52 ICAS lesions on QCA, FFR values were ≤ 0.80. Calcification circumference extent (p = 0.50) and plaque composition assessment (p = 0.59) did not correlate with the hemodynamic significance. Best predictors for FFR ≤ 0.80 stenosis were ≤ 1.35 mm MLD (82% sensitivity, 66% specificity), and ≤ 2.3 mm(²) minimal lumen area (88% sensitivity, 60% specificity) on CCTA, and ≤ 1.1 mm MLD (59% sensitivity, 77% specificity) on QCA. Quantitative CCTA and QCA poorly predict hemodynamic significance of ICAS, though CCTA seems to

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  2. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  3. Ga doping to significantly improve the performance of all-electrochemically fabricated Cu2O-ZnO nanowire solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiale; Guo, Chunxian; Li, Chang Ming

    2013-10-14

    Cu2O-ZnO nanowire solar cells have the advantages of light weight and high stability while possessing a large active material interface for potentially high power conversion efficiencies. In particular, electrochemically fabricated devices have attracted increasing attention due to their low-cost and simple fabrication process. However, most of them are "partially" electrochemically fabricated by vacuum deposition onto a preexisting ZnO layer. There are a few examples made via all-electrochemical deposition, but the power conversion efficiency (PCE) is too low (0.13%) for practical applications. Herein we use an all-electrochemical approach to directly deposit ZnO NWs onto FTO followed by electrochemical doping with Ga to produce a heterojunction solar cell. The Ga doping greatly improves light utilization while significantly suppressing charge recombination. A 2.5% molar ratio of Ga to ZnO delivers the best performance with a short circuit current density (Jsc) of 3.24 mA cm(-2) and a PCE of 0.25%, which is significantly higher than in the absence of Ga doping. Moreover, the use of electrochemically deposited ZnO powder-buffered Cu2O from a mixed Cu(2+)-ZnO powder solution and oxygen plasma treatment could reduce the density of defect sites in the heterojunction interface to further increase Jsc and PCE to 4.86 mA cm(-2) and 0.34%, respectively, resulting in the highest power conversion efficiency among all-electrochemically fabricated Cu2O-ZnO NW solar cells. This approach offers great potential for a low-cost solution-based process to mass-manufacture high-performance Cu2O-ZnO NW solar cells. PMID:23945632

  4. Nanoscale Polysulfides Reactors Achieved by Chemical Au-S Interaction: Improving the Performance of Li-S Batteries on the Electrode Level.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Ying; Xiao, Pin; Li, Huan-Huan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Wu, Xing-Long; Xie, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2015-12-23

    In this work, the chemical interaction of cathode and lithium polysulfides (LiPSs), which is a more targeted approach for completely preventing the shuttle of LiPSs in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, has been established on the electrode level. Through simply posttreating the ordinary sulfur cathode in atmospheric environment just for several minutes, the Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) were well-decorated on/in the surface and pores of the electrode composed of commercial acetylene black (CB) and sulfur powder. The Au NPs can covalently stabilize the sulfur/LiPSs, which is advantageous for restricting the shuttle effect. Moreover, the LiPSs reservoirs of Au NPs with high conductivity can significantly control the deposition of the trapped LiPSs, contributing to the uniform distribution of sulfur species upon charging/discharging. The slight modification of the cathode with <3 wt % Au NPs has favorably prospered the cycle capacity and stability of Li-S batteries. Moreover, this cathode exhibited an excellent anti-self-discharge ability. The slight decoration for the ordinary electrode, which can be easily accessed in the industrial process, provides a facile strategy for improving the performance of commercial carbon-based Li-S batteries toward practical application.

  5. Significant performance enhancement of yttrium-doped barium cerate proton conductor as electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells through a Pd ingress-egress approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Ran, Ran; Li, Sidian; Jiao, Yong; Tade, Moses O.; Shao, Zongping

    2014-07-01

    Proton-conducting perovskite oxides are excellent electrolyte materials for SOFCs that may improve power density at reduced temperatures and increase fuel efficiency, thus encouraging the widespread implementation of this attractive technology. The main challenges in the application of these oxides in SOFCs are difficult sintering and insufficient conductivity in real cells. In this study, we propose a novel method to significantly enhance the performance of a yttrium-doped barium cerate proton conductor as an electrolyte for SOFCs through a Pd ingress-egress approach to the development of BaCe0.8Y0.1Pd0.1O3-δ (BCYP10). The capability of the Pd egress from the BCYP10 perovskite lattice is demonstrated by H2-TPR, XRD, EDX mapping of STEM and XPS. Significant improvement in the sinterability is observed after the introduction of Pd due to the increased ionic conductivity and the sintering aid effect of egressed Pd. The formation of a B-site cation defect structure after Pd egress and the consequent modification of perovskite grain boundaries with Pd nanoparticles leads to a proton conductivity of BCYP10 that is approximately 3 times higher than that of BCY under a reducing atmosphere. A single cell with a thin film BCYP10 electrolyte reaches a peak power density as high as 645 mA cm-2 at 700 °C.

  6. Students' Accounts of School-Performance Stress: A Qualitative Analysis of a High-Achieving Setting in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Almquist, Ylva B.; Östberg, Viveca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 49). Using qualitative…

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Medium of Instruction on the Science Learning of Hong Kong Secondary Students: Performance on the Science Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan; Tsang, Wing Kwong; Cheung, Sin Pui

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the effects of a new Hong Kong policy requiring Chinese as the language of instruction on secondary students' learning of science. Science achievement test scores at 100 secondary schools indicate that previous use of English to teach science may have hampered students' ability to grasp material due to the high-level thinking…

  8. Are Physical Activity and Academic Performance Compatible? Academic Achievement, Conduct, Physical Activity and Self-Esteem of Hong Kong Chinese Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, C. C. W.; Chan, Scarlet; Cheng, Frances; Sung, R. Y. T.; Hau, Kit-Tai

    2006-01-01

    Education is so strongly emphasized in the Chinese culture that academic success is widely regarded as the only indicator of success, while too much physical activity is often discouraged because it drains energy and affects academic concentration. This study investigated the relations among academic achievement, self-esteem, school conduct and…

  9. Achieving Teacher Education Standards through a Mathematics Performance-Based Assessment: A Case Study of Five Colorado Preservice-Teachers on Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Julie

    2005-01-01

    A range of factors has impinged on the provision of teacher education programs in the last decade. Largely emanating from governmental demands for increased accountability, these have included the setting of standards for student achievement, proof of program impact, and state and national testing. These legislative reforms and school district…

  10. Feelings and Performance in the First Year at University: Learning-Related Emotions as Predictors of Achievement Outcomes in Mathematics and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niculescu, Alexandra C.; Templelaar, Dirk; Leppink, Jimmie; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the predictive value of four learning-related emotions--Enjoyment, Anxiety, Boredom and Hopelessness for achievement outcomes in the first year of study at university. Method: We used a large sample (N = 2337) of first year university students enrolled over three consecutive academic years in a mathematics and…

  11. Autonomy Support and Achievement Goals as Predictors of Perceived School Performance and Life Satisfaction in the Transition between Lower and Upper Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun

    2014-01-01

    A self-determination theory perspective on motivation assumes that basic need support is a prerequisite for motivation, achievement, and well-being in several domains of life. In the present cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 2.594 Norwegian students in their final year of lower secondary education and their first year of upper…

  12. Achieving Professional Excellence: Proceedings of a National Conference on Performance-Based Approaches to Training (Little Rock, Arkansas, October 8-10, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Lois G., Comp.; Kalamas, David J., Comp.

    This document contains 47 presentations which focus on professional preparation of personnel in vocational-technical education and industry as an essential step in achieving excellence in educational and industrial training programs. The presentations include "Critical Issues Facing Vocational Teacher Education" (Zellner, Parrish); "A Call for…

  13. Keeping Your Kids Out Front without Kicking Them from Behind: How To Nurture High-Achieving Athletes, Scholars, and Performing Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofler, Ian; DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy

    Pressuring gifted children into achieving parents' own unfulfilled longings for glory and success can cheat children of a normal childhood. This commonsense guide for parents of talented and gifted children offers guidance for establishing healthy boundaries between parents' ambitions and the needs of their talented children and provides clear-cut…

  14. Testing a Multi-Stage Screening System: Predicting Performance on Australia's National Achievement Test Using Teachers' Ratings of Academic and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Davies, Michael; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the predictive validity of results from a screening system of academic enablers, with a sample of Australian elementary school students, when the criterion variable is end-of-year achievement. The investigation included (a) comparing the predictive validity of a brief criterion-referenced nomination system with more…

  15. The Impact of Nursing Students' Chemistry Learning Performance Assessment in Taiwan: Competitive versus Non-Competitive Student Team Achievement Division Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior…

  16. High Performing Schools in High Risk Environments: A Study on Leadership, School Safety, and Student Achievement at Two Urban Middle Schools in Los Angeles County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frias, Gus

    2010-01-01

    In the United States of America, all students and staff have a constitutional right to attend schools that are safe, secure, and successful. Despite this right, at many public schools, education leaders have failed to ensure the safety and high academic achievement of all students. The purpose of this research study is to expand knowledge about…

  17. Significant photoinduced Kerr rotation achieved in semiconductor microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherbunin, R. V.; Vladimirova, M.; Kavokin, K. V.; Mikhailov, A. V.; Kopteva, N. E.; Lagoudakis, P. G.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    Giant Kerr rotation and ellipticity are observed and investigated in an asymmetric planar microcavity with a quantum well in the active region. Rotation angle of the polarization plane as well as ellipticity were determined from time- and frequency-resolved measurements of the Stokes vector components of reflected light. It was found that in a small range of the cavity mode detunings the polarized pump pulse creates a large splitting of the lower polariton branch while leaving its linewidth almost the same. This fact gives a possibility to observe at such detunings the Kerr rotation angle and ellipticity, close to their extremes. A theoretical analysis shows that the decisive role in reaching extreme polarization rotation angles is played by the structure asymmetry. Comprehensive analysis of the polarization state of the light in this regime shows that both renormalization of the exciton energy and the saturation of the excitonic resonance contribute to the observed optical nonlinearities.

  18. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  19. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, H. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1980 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution and comparative planetology to geologic processes active on other planetary bodies.

  20. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1975 - 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Developments in planetology research as reported at the 1976 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators' meeting are summarized. Topics range from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  1. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program, 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  2. Significant achievements in the Planetary Geology Program, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, H.E.

    1981-09-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1981 NASA Planetary Geology Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. The evolution of the solar system, comparative planetology, and geologic processes active on other planets are considered. Galilean satellites and small bodies, Venus, geochemistry and regoliths, volcanic and aeolian processes and landforms, fluvial and periglacial processes, and planetary impact cratering, remote sensing, and cartography are discussed.

  3. Significant achievements in the planetary program, 1976 - 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in planetology research as reported at the 1977 NASA Planetology Program Principal Investigators meeting are summarized. Important developments are summarized in topics ranging from solar system evolution, comparative planetology, and geologic processes, to techniques and instrument development for future exploration.

  4. The significant effect of the thickness of Ni film on the performance of the Ni/Au Ohmic contact to p-GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. J.; Zhao, D. G. Jiang, D. S.; Liu, Z. S.; Chen, P.; Zhu, J. J.; Le, L. C.; Yang, J.; He, X. G.; Zhang, S. M.; Zhang, B. S.; Liu, J. P.; Yang, H.

    2014-10-28

    The significant effect of the thickness of Ni film on the performance of the Ohmic contact of Ni/Au to p-GaN is studied. The Ni/Au metal films with thickness of 15/50 nm on p-GaN led to better electrical characteristics, showing a lower specific contact resistivity after annealing in the presence of oxygen. Both the formation of a NiO layer and the evolution of metal structure on the sample surface and at the interface with p-GaN were checked by transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that a too thin Ni film cannot form enough NiO to decrease the barrier height and get Ohmic contact to p-GaN, while a too thick Ni film will transform into too thick NiO cover on the sample surface and thus will also deteriorate the electrical conductivity of sample.

  5. Music training and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Cheek, J M; Smith, L R

    1999-01-01

    Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) mathematics scores of eighth graders who had received music instruction were compared according to whether the students were given private lessons. Comparisons also were made between students whose lessons were on the keyboard versus other music lessons. Analyses indicated that students who had private lessons for two or more years performed significantly better on the composite mathematics portion of the ITBS than did students who did not have private lessons. In addition, students who received lessons on the keyboard had significantly higher ITBS mathematics scores than did students whose lessons did not involve the keyboard. These results are discussed in relation to previous research on music training and mathematics achievement.

  6. 1974-75 Philadelphia City-Wide Testing Program; February 1975 Achievement Testing Program. School Performance Distributions: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosswald, Jules

    This is a report of pupil performance in Philadelphia schools based upon the February 1975 Philadelphia City-Wide Testing Program involving all pupils in kindergarten through grade 12. School performance distributions show the combined percentages of pupils in each school scoring within various national percentile rank ranges. The performance…

  7. Improving Teacher Effectiveness: An Examination of a Pay for Performance Plan for Boosting Student Academic Achievement in Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Sylvester

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the United States, educational organizations are striving to find more effective ways to improve teacher performance and student learning. The increased pressure to improve teacher effectiveness in the classroom has led many public school districts to adopt a pay for performance system as a strategic compensation option for enhancing…

  8. Significant Improvements in Cognitive Performance Post-Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Open-Protocol Study

    PubMed Central

    Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H.; Martin, Paula I.; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Meehan, William P.; Baker, Errol H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26–62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm2) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm2). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1–5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest

  9. Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.

    PubMed

    Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

    2014-06-01

    This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo

  10. Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.

    PubMed

    Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

    2014-06-01

    This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo

  11. Which Feedback Is More Effective for Pursuing Multiple Goals of Differing Importance? The Interaction Effects of Goal Importance and Performance Feedback Type on Self-Regulation and Task Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how performance feedback type (progress vs. distance) affects Korean college students' self-regulation and task achievement according to relative goal importance in the pursuit of multiple goals. For this study, 146 students participated in a computerised task. The results showed the interaction effects of goal importance and…

  12. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For the 2014 study, "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition," researchers investigated the impact of attending a moderated panel on incoming freshmen's adjustment to college. The panel…

  13. Achieving ICME with Multiscale Modeling: The Effects of Constituent Properties and Processing on the Performance of Laminated Polymer Matrix Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) is a useful approach for tailoring the performance of a material. For fiber-reinforced composites, not only do the properties of the constituents of the composite affect the performance, but so does the architecture (or microstructure) of the constituents. The generalized method of cells is demonstrated to be a viable micromechanics tool for determining the effects of the microstructure on the performance of laminates. The micromechanics is used to predict the inputs for a macroscale model for a variety of different fiber volume fractions, and fiber architectures. Using this technique, the material performance can be tailored for specific applications by judicious selection of constituents, volume fraction, and architectural arrangement given a particular manufacturing scenario

  14. The Achievement Gap: Factors That Influenced the Achievement of Successful Black Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Kwame R., Sr.

    2011-01-01

    The academic underperformance of Black students when compared to their White peers has confounded educators nationwide. This discrepancy in academic performance commonly referred to as the achievement gap has become a national crisis which has led to one of the most significant educational reforms undertaken in the United States of America in the…

  15. Closing the social-class achievement gap: a difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin

    2014-04-01

    College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement).

  16. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  17. Achieving high performance non-fullerene organic solar cells through tuning the numbers of electron deficient building blocks of molecular acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Yusheng; Chen, Shangshang; Dong, Tao; Deng, Wei; Lv, Lei; Yang, Saina; Yan, He; Huang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Two analogous dimer and tetramer compounds, SF-PDI2 and SF-PDI4, were designed, theoretically calculated, synthesized, and developed as electron acceptors for organic solar cells. The effects of the number of the electron deficient building blocks on the optical absorption, energy levels, charge transport, morphology, crystallinity, and photovoltaic performance of the molecules were investigated. In combination with two different donors, PTB7-Th and PffBT4T-2OD, the results showed that increasing the numbers of PDI building blocks is beneficial to photovoltaic performance and leads to efficiency over 5%.

  18. Predicting genetics achievement in nonmajors college biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Angela; Lawson, Anton E.

    Students enrolled in a non-majors college biology course were pretested to determine their level of intellectual development, degree of field independence, mental capacity, amount of prior genetics knowledge, and amount of fluid intelligence. They were then taught a unit on Mendelian genetics. The only student variables found to not account for a significant amount of variance on a test of reading comprehension and/or a test of genetics achievement was amount of prior genetics knowledge. Developmental level was found to be the most consistent predictor of performance, suggesting that a lack of general hypothetico-deductive reasoning ability is a major factor limiting achievement among these students.

  19. An Investigation of Linguistic, Cognitive, and Affective Factors that Impact English Language Learners' Performance on a State Standardized Reading Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strebel Halpern, Carine S.

    2009-01-01

    The explicit teaching of reading comprehension strategies has been proposed as a means to better prepare secondary school-aged students for today's information-dense, fast-paced, fast-changing global society, and to improve the academic performance of struggling adolescent readers. This proposition of a direct and positive impact of reading…

  20. Good and Bad News about Florida Student Achievement: Performance Trends on Multiple Indicators Since Passage of the A+ Legislation. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2004-01-01

    What is the news on Florida's student performance since the passage of the A+ legislation? This brief presents a review of long-term data on five state and national indicators. It verifies outcomes and trends and examines the main premise of the A+ mandate that, given appropriate schooling, students will have equitable outcomes and access to…

  1. The Effects of Cognitive Training on Private Speech and Task Performance during Problem Solving among Learning Disabled and Normally Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.

    To investigate task performance and the use of private speech and to examine the effects of a cognitive training approach, 30 learning disabled (LD) and 30 nonLD Ss (7 to 8 years old) were given a 17 piece wooden puzzle rigged so that it could not be completed correctly. Six variables were measured: (1) proportion of private speech that was task…

  2. The Effect of Evaluation on Performance: Evidence from Longitudinal Student Achievement Data of Mid-Career Teachers. NBER Working Paper No. 16877

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of evaluation on employee performance is traditionally studied in the context of the principal-agent problem. Evaluation can, however, also be characterized as an investment in the evaluated employee's human capital. We study a sample of mid-career public school teachers where we can consider these two types of evaluation effect…

  3. Are Academic Discounting and Devaluing Double-Edged Swords? Their Relations to Global Self-Esteem, Achievement Goals, and Performance among Stigmatized Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loose, Florence; Regner, Isabelle; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Dumas, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Often taken for granted, the coexistence of benefits and costs of discounting and devaluing has never been tested. Yet, not only are there inconsistent findings about the relations between these processes and global self-esteem, but little is known about their relations to motivation and performance. Here we simultaneously examined how academic…

  4. A Comparative Case Study of Veteran Superintendent's Leadership and Organizational Processes in Addressing the Academic Achievement of Students in Low Performing School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Catherine Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This research study investigated the leadership behaviors and organizational frames utilized by two veteran superintendents of medium sized school districts in California to address issues of academic performance in their respective districts as perceived by the superintendents and their respective board members and principals. Current…

  5. In vivo polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in the living rat hippocampus does not cause a significant loss of performance in a delayed alternation task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Liangqi; Shaw, Crystal L.; Kuo, Chin-chen; Griffin, Amy L.; Martin, David C.

    2014-04-01

    -polymerization time intervals, the polymerization did not cause significant deficits in performance of the DA task, suggesting that hippocampal function was not impaired by PEDOT deposition. However, GFAP+ and ED-1+ cells were also found at the deposition two weeks after the polymerization, suggesting potential secondary scarring. Therefore, less extensive deposition or milder deposition conditions may be desirable to minimize this scarring while maintaining decreased system impedance.

  6. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  7. Enhanced in Vitro and in Vivo Performance of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd Alloy Achieved with APTES Pretreatment for Drug-Eluting Vascular Stent Application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Pei; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Qiuping; Xi, Tingfei; Chen, Ming; Guan, Shaokang

    2016-07-20

    Bioabsorbable magnesium alloys are becoming prominent as temporary functional implants, as they avoid the risks generated by permanent metallic implants such as persistent inflammation and late restenosis. Nevertheless, the overfast corrosion of Mg alloys under physiological conditions hinders their wider application as medical implant materials. Here we investigate a simple one-step process to introduce a cross-linked 3-amino-propyltrimethoxysilane (APTES) silane physical barrier layer on the surface of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloys prior to electrostatic spraying with rapamycin-eluting poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) layer. Surface microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Nanoscratch test verified the superior adhesion strength of PLGA coating in the group pretreated with APTES. Electrochemical tests combined with long-term immersion results suggested that the preferable in vitro anticorrosion behavior could be achieved by dense APTES barrier. Cell morphology and proliferation data demonstrated that APTES pretreated group resulted in remarkably preferable compatibility for both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. On the basis of excellent in vitro mechenical property, the animal study on the APTES pretreated Mg-Zn-Y-Nd stent implanted into porcine coronary arteries confirmed benign tissue compatibility as well as re-endothelialization without thrombogenesis or in-stent restenosis at six-month followup. PMID:27331417

  8. Highly Functional TNTs with Superb Photocatalytic, Optical, and Electronic Performance Achieving Record PV Efficiency of 10.1% for 1D-Based DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Li, Yuewen; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Mengal, Naveed; Memon, Anam Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Different nanostructures of TiO2 play an important role in the photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have received increasing attention for these applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. Focusing on highly functional TNTs (HF-TNTs) for photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications, this study describes the facile hydrothermal synthesis of HF-TNTs by using commercial and cheaper materials for cost-effective manufacturing. To prove the functionality and applicability, these TNTs are used as scattering structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photocatalytic, optical, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), electrochemical impedance spectrum, incident-photon-to-current efficiency, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy characterizations are proving the functionality of HF-TNTs for DSSCs. HF-TNTs show 50% higher photocatalytic degradation rate and also 68% higher dye loading ability than conventional TNTs (C-TNTs). The DSSCs having HF-TNT and its composite-based multifunctional overlayer show effective light absorption, outstanding light scattering, lower interfacial resistance, longer electron lifetime, rapid electron transfer, and improved diffusion length, and consequently, J SC , quantum efficiency, and record photoconversion efficiency of 10.1% using commercial N-719 dye is achieved, for 1D-based DSSCs. These new and highly functional TNTs will be a concrete fundamental background toward the development of more functional applications in fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, Li-ion batteries, photocatalysis process, ion-exchange/adsorption process, and photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27432775

  9. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  10. A Causal-Comparative Study: Determining the Diffference in Principals' Beliefs Regarding Order of Change for Closing Achievement Gaps High-Performing Schools as Compared to Low-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Student achievement is inconsistent when comparing subgroups of students in public schools (Finn, 1999; Spellings, 2008; Teale, Paciga, & Hoffman, 2007). According to research, effective school principals believe that the problem is internal and subject to their control to effect change by addressing inequities. The changes required in closing…

  11. Management and non-supervisory perceptions surrounding the implementation and significance of high-performance work practices in a nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbridge, Gayle Ann

    Change management has become an imperative for organizations as they move into the 21st century; up to 75 percent of change initiatives fail. Nuclear power plants face the same challenges as industrial firms with the added challenge of deregulation. Faced with this challenge, restructuring the electric utility has raised a number of complex issues. Under traditional cost-of-service regulation, electric utilities were able to pass on their costs to consumers who absorbed them. In the new competitive environment, customers will now choose their suppliers based on the most competitive price. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of congruence between non-supervisory and supervisory personnel regarding the perceived implementation of high performance workplace practices at a nuclear power plant. This study used as its foundation the practices identified in the Road to High Performance Workplaces: A Guide to Better Jobs and Better Business Results by the U.S. Department of Labor's Office of the American Workplace (1994). The population for this study consisted of organizational members at one nuclear power plant. Over 300 individuals completed surveys on high performance workplace practices. Two surveys were administered, one to non-supervisory personnel and one to first line supervisors and above. The determination of implementation levels was accomplished through descriptive statistical analysis. Results of the study revealed 32 areas of noncongruence between non-supervisory and supervisory personnel in regard to the perceived implementation level of the high performance workplace practices. Factor analysis further revealed that the order in which the respondents place emphasis on the variables varies between the two groups. This study provides recommendations that may improve the nuclear power plants alignment of activities. Recommendations are also provided for additional research on high-performance work practices.

  12. Performance Requirements to Achieve Cost-Effectiveness of Point-of-Care Tests for Sepsis Among Patients with Febrile Illness in Low-Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Penno, Erin C; Crump, John A; Baird, Sarah J

    2015-10-01

    Bacterial sepsis is an important cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries, yet distinguishing patients with sepsis from those with other illnesses remains a challenge. Currently, management decisions are based on clinical assessment using algorithms such as Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness. Efforts to develop and evaluate point-of-care tests (POCTs) for sepsis to guide decisions on the use of antimicrobials are underway. To establish the minimum performance characteristics of such a test, we varied the characteristics of a hypothetical POCT for sepsis required for it to be cost-effective and applied a decision tree model to a population of febrile patients presenting at the district hospital level in a low-resource setting. We used a case fatality probability of 20% for appropriately treated sepsis and of 50% for inappropriately treated sepsis. On the basis of clinical assessment for sepsis with established sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.62, we found that a POCT for sepsis with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.94 was cost-effective, resulting in parity in survival but costing $1.14 less per live saved. A POCT with accuracy equivalent to the best malaria rapid diagnostic test was cheaper and more effective than clinical assessment. PMID:26195467

  13. Achieving high performance electric field induced strain: a rational design of hyperbranched aromatic polyamide functionalized graphene-polyurethane dielectric elastomer composites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Qiu, Jinhao; Zhu, Kongjun; Li, Jinhuan; Wang, Jingwen; Li, Shuqin; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2015-03-26

    Dielectric elastomers have great potentials as flexible actuators in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) due to their large deformation, light weight, mechanical compliancy, and low cost. The low dielectric constant of these elastomers requires a rather high voltage electric field, which has greatly limited their applications. In this work, a diaphragm-type flexible microactuator comprising a hyperbranched aromatic polyamide functionalized graphene (HAPFG) filler embedded into the polyurethane (PU) dielectric elastomer matrix is described. The rational designed HAPFG sheets exhibits uniform dispersion in PU matrix and strong adhesion with the matrix by hydrogen-bond coupling. Consequently, the HAPFG-PU composites possess high dielectric performance and low loss modulus. The effect of hyperbranched aromatic polyamide functionalized graphene on high voltage electric field induced strain was experimentally investigated using the Fotonic sensor. The high electric field response of the composite was discussed by applying different kinds of alternating-current field. In addition, a comparison of the breakdown strength between the HAPFG-PU composite and the pure PU was carried out. PMID:25741878

  14. Performance Requirements to Achieve Cost-Effectiveness of Point-of-Care Tests for Sepsis among Patients with Febrile Illness in Low-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Penno, Erin C.; Crump, John A.; Baird, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial sepsis is an important cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries, yet distinguishing patients with sepsis from those with other illnesses remains a challenge. Currently, management decisions are based on clinical assessment using algorithms such as Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness. Efforts to develop and evaluate point-of-care tests (POCTs) for sepsis to guide decisions on the use of antimicrobials are underway. To establish the minimum performance characteristics of such a test, we varied the characteristics of a hypothetical POCT for sepsis required for it to be cost-effective and applied a decision tree model to a population of febrile patients presenting at the district hospital level in a low-resource setting. We used a case fatality probability of 20% for appropriately treated sepsis and of 50% for inappropriately treated sepsis. On the basis of clinical assessment for sepsis with established sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.62, we found that a POCT for sepsis with a sensitivity of 0.83 and a specificity of 0.94 was cost-effective, resulting in parity in survival but costing $1.14 less per live saved. A POCT with accuracy equivalent to the best malaria rapid diagnostic test was cheaper and more effective than clinical assessment. PMID:26195467

  15. Performance of Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities on Early-Grade Curriculum-Based Measures of Word and Passage Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Christopher J.; Zigmond, Naomi; Kloo, Amanda M.; Hill, David R.; Mrachko, Alicia A.; Paterra, Matthew F.; Bost, Thomas J.; Davis, Shawn M.

    2013-01-01

    Alternate assessments have been used for the last 10 years to evaluate schools' efforts to teach children with significant cognitive disabilities. However, few studies have examined the reading skills of children who participate in these assessments. The purpose of this study was to extend understanding of the reading skills of this…

  16. Soft-Etching Copper and Silver Electrodes for Significant Device Performance Improvement toward Facile, Cost-Effective, Bottom-Contacted, Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongrui; Dong, Huanli; Zou, Ye; Zhao, Qiang; Tan, Jiahui; Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiuqiang; Xiao, Jinchong; Zhang, Qichun; Hu, Wenping

    2016-03-01

    Poor charge injection and transport at the electrode/semiconductor contacts has been so far a severe performance hurdle for bottom-contact bottom-gate (BCBG) organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we have developed a simple, economic, and effective method to improve the carrier injection efficiency and obtained high-performance devices with low cost and widely used source/drain (S/D) electrodes (Ag/Cu). Through the simple electrode etching process, the work function of the electrodes is more aligned with the semiconductors, which reduces the energy barrier and facilitates the charge injection. Besides, the formation of the thinned electrode edge with desirable micro/nanostructures not only leads to the enlarged contact side area beneficial for the carrier injection but also is in favor of the molecular self-organization for continuous crystal growth at the contact/active channel interface, which is better for the charge injection and transport. These effects give rise to the great reduction of contact resistance and the amazing improvement of the low-cost bottom-contact configuration OFETs performance.

  17. Achieving extremely concentrated aqueous dispersions of graphene flakes and catalytically efficient graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids with flavin mononucleotide as a high-performance stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Ayán-Varela, M; Paredes, J I; Guardia, L; Villar-Rodil, S; Munuera, J M; Díaz-González, M; Fernández-Sánchez, C; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2015-05-20

    The stable dispersion of graphene flakes in an aqueous medium is highly desirable for the development of materials based on this two-dimensional carbon structure, but current production protocols that make use of a number of surfactants typically suffer from limitations regarding graphene concentration or the amount of surfactant required to colloidally stabilize the sheets. Here, we demonstrate that an innocuous and readily available derivative of vitamin B2, namely the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide (FMNS), is a highly efficient dispersant in the preparation of aqueous dispersions of defect-free, few-layer graphene flakes. Most notably, graphene concentrations in water as high as ∼50 mg mL(-1) using low amounts of FMNS (FMNS/graphene mass ratios of about 0.04) could be attained, which facilitated the formation of free-standing graphene films displaying high electrical conductivity (∼52000 S m(-1)) without the need of carrying out thermal annealing or other types of post-treatment. The excellent performance of FMNS as a graphene dispersant could be attributed to the combined effect of strong adsorption on the sheets through the isoalloxazine moiety of the molecule and efficient colloidal stabilization provided by its negatively charged phosphate group. The FMNS-stabilized graphene sheets could be decorated with nanoparticles of several noble metals (Ag, Pd, and Pt), and the resulting hybrids exhibited a high catalytic activity in the reduction of nitroarenes and electroreduction of oxygen. Overall, the present results should expedite the processing and implementation of graphene in, e.g., conductive inks, composites, and hybrid materials with practical utility in a wide range of applications. PMID:25915172

  18. Achieving extremely concentrated aqueous dispersions of graphene flakes and catalytically efficient graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids with flavin mononucleotide as a high-performance stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Ayán-Varela, M; Paredes, J I; Guardia, L; Villar-Rodil, S; Munuera, J M; Díaz-González, M; Fernández-Sánchez, C; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2015-05-20

    The stable dispersion of graphene flakes in an aqueous medium is highly desirable for the development of materials based on this two-dimensional carbon structure, but current production protocols that make use of a number of surfactants typically suffer from limitations regarding graphene concentration or the amount of surfactant required to colloidally stabilize the sheets. Here, we demonstrate that an innocuous and readily available derivative of vitamin B2, namely the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide (FMNS), is a highly efficient dispersant in the preparation of aqueous dispersions of defect-free, few-layer graphene flakes. Most notably, graphene concentrations in water as high as ∼50 mg mL(-1) using low amounts of FMNS (FMNS/graphene mass ratios of about 0.04) could be attained, which facilitated the formation of free-standing graphene films displaying high electrical conductivity (∼52000 S m(-1)) without the need of carrying out thermal annealing or other types of post-treatment. The excellent performance of FMNS as a graphene dispersant could be attributed to the combined effect of strong adsorption on the sheets through the isoalloxazine moiety of the molecule and efficient colloidal stabilization provided by its negatively charged phosphate group. The FMNS-stabilized graphene sheets could be decorated with nanoparticles of several noble metals (Ag, Pd, and Pt), and the resulting hybrids exhibited a high catalytic activity in the reduction of nitroarenes and electroreduction of oxygen. Overall, the present results should expedite the processing and implementation of graphene in, e.g., conductive inks, composites, and hybrid materials with practical utility in a wide range of applications.

  19. Diagnostic Performance of Intravascular Ultrasound-Derived Minimal Lumen Area to Predict Functionally Significant Non-Left Main Coronary Artery Disease: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Cheol; Bae, Jong Seok; Jin, Han-Young; Seo, Jeong-Sook; Yang, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Kyeong; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Bo-Hyun; Park, Yong Hyun; Je, Hyung-Gon; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention frequently results in unnecessary stenting due to the low positive predictive value of IVUS-derived minimal lumen area (MLA) for identification of functionally significant coronary stenosis. We appraised the diagnostic accuracy of IVUS-derived MLA compared with the fractional flow reserve (FFR) to assess intermediate coronary stenosis. Subjects and Methods We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane databases for studies using IVUS and FFR methods to establish the best MLA cut-off values to predict significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. Summary estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. Results The 17 studies used in our analysis enrolled 3920 patients with 4267 lesions. The weighted overall mean MLA cut-off value was 2.58 mm2. The pooled MLA sensitivity that predicted functionally significant coronary stenosis was 0.75 (confidence interval [CI]: 0.72 to 0.77) and the specificity was 0.66 (CI: 0.64 to 0.68). The positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 2.33 (CI: 2.06 to 2.63) and LR (-) was 0.33 (CI: 0.26 to 0.42). The pooled diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was 7.53 (CI: 5.26 to 10.76) and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve for all the trials was 0.782 with a Q point of 0.720. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that an FFR cut-off point of 0.75 was associated with a four times higher diagnostic accuracy compared to that of 0.80 (relative DOR: 3.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 12.34). Conclusion IVUS-derived MLA has limited diagnostic accuracy and needs careful interpretation to correlate with functionally significant non-left main coronary artery stenosis. PMID:27721852

  20. Performance of a Cartridge-Based Assay for Detection of Clinically Significant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection: Lessons from VALGENT (Validation of HPV Genotyping Tests).

    PubMed

    Cuschieri, Kate; Geraets, Daan; Cuzick, Jack; Cadman, Louise; Moore, Catherine; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Padalko, Elisaveta; Quint, Wim; Arbyn, Marc

    2016-09-01

    The Validation of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping Tests (VALGENT) studies offer an opportunity to clinically validate HPV assays for use in primary screening for cervical cancer and also provide a framework for the comparison of analytical and type-specific performance. Through VALGENT, we assessed the performance of the cartridge-based Xpert HPV assay (Xpert HPV), which detects 14 high-risk (HR) types and resolves HPV16 and HPV18/45. Samples from women attending the United Kingdom cervical screening program enriched with cytologically abnormal samples were collated. All had been previously tested by a clinically validated standard comparator test (SCT), the GP5+/6+ enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert HPV for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or higher (CIN2+) and CIN3+ relative to those of the SCT were assessed as were the inter- and intralaboratory reproducibilities according to international criteria for test validation. Type concordance for HPV16 and HPV18/45 between the Xpert HPV and the SCT was also analyzed. The Xpert HPV detected 94% of CIN2+ and 98% of CIN3+ lesions among all screened women and 90% of CIN2+ and 96% of CIN3+ lesions in women 30 years and older. The specificity for CIN1 or less (≤CIN1) was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80 to 85%) in all women and 88% (95% CI, 86 to 91%) in women 30 years and older. Inter- and intralaboratory agreements for the Xpert HPV were 98% and 97%, respectively. The kappa agreements for HPV16 and HPV18/45 between the clinically validated reference test (GP5+/6+ LMNX) and the Xpert HPV were 0.92 and 0.91, respectively. The clinical performance and reproducibility of the Xpert HPV are comparable to those of well-established HPV assays and fulfill the criteria for use in primary cervical cancer screening.

  1. New Processing and Characterization Approaches for Achieving Full Performance of High Temperature Superconducting Tapes of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox

    SciTech Connect

    E.E. Hellstrom; D.C. Larbalestier

    2006-03-22

    The thrust of this research was to identify and understand current limiting mechanisms (CLMs) that limit the current carrying capacity of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (2223) in Ag-sheathed wire. Our program concentrated on developing new methods to identify CLMs at the micrometer scale and new processing techniques to eliminate CLMs. All of the DOE Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI) programs are using 2223 wire, so increasing the critical current density (Jc) in the wire can improve the technical performance of the demonstration projects, and at the same time it can decrease the cost of the wire. The important cost metric for superconducting wire is $/kAm, so increasing Jc, which is in the denominator, decreases the wire cost. The obvious CLMs were micrometer size obstacles in the 2223 ceramic that block current flow, including: misaligned grains, cracks, pores, and nonsuperconducting phases. Pores and cracks - regions where there is no superconductor or the grains are not physically connected to one another ? cannot carry supercurrent, so they were the first CLMs we tried to eliminate with improved processing. Prior to the contract, we had started investigating overpressure (OP) processing with Williams at ORNL to heal cracks and remove pores. OP processing, which is a variant of hot isostatic pressing (HIP), uses an Ar/O2 gas mixture to apply a high pressure (up to 200 atm) to compress the sample and to set the oxygen partial pressure (pO2) to form 2223. Williams had a static pressure system we used to demonstrate that OP processing healed cracks and densified the wire, but the static system limited the processing parameters we could investigate. We proposed building a new gas-flow OP system to expand the experimental capabilities and to investigate new processing routes using the gas-flow OP system. Using the gas-flow OP system, we established new world records in 2003 for Jc and Ic. These records were finally matched by Sumitomo Electric Company in early

  2. Assessing the performance characteristics and clinical forces in simulated shape memory bone staple surgical procedure: The significance of SMA material model.

    PubMed

    Saleeb, A F; Dhakal, B; Owusu-Danquah, J S

    2015-07-01

    This work is focused on the detailed computer simulation of the key stages involved in a shape memory alloy (SMA) osteosynthesis bone stapling procedure. To this end, a recently developed three-dimensional constitutive SMA material model was characterized from test data of three simple uniaxial-isothermal-tension experiments for powder metallurgically processed nickel-rich NiTi (PM/NiTi-P) material. The calibrated model was subsequently used under the complex, thermomechanical loading conditions involved in the surgical procedure using the body-temperature-activated PM/NiTi-P bone staple. Our aim here is to assess the immediate and post-surgical performance characteristics of the stapling operation using the material model. From this study: (1) it was found that adequate compressive forces were developed by the PM/NiTi-P bone staple, with the tendency of this force to even increase under sustained thermal loading due to the intrinsic "inverse relaxation phenomena" in the SMA material, (2) the simulation results correlated well with those from experimental measurements, (3) the body-temperature-activated PM/NiTi-P staple was proved to be clinically viable, providing a stable clamping force needed for speedy coaptation of the fractured bones, and (4) these realistic assessments crucially depend on the use of suitable and comprehensive SMA material models.

  3. Academic Achievement in Children With Oral Clefts Versus Unaffected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Barron, Sheila; Romitti, Paul A.; Ansley, Timothy N.; Speltz, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare academic achievement in children with oral-facial clefts (OFC) with their unaffected siblings. Methods 256 children with OFC were identified from the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders, and 387 unaffected siblings were identified from birth certificates. These data were linked to Iowa Testing Programs achievement data. We compared academic achievement in children with OFC with their unaffected siblings using linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. In post hoc analyses, we explored modifiers of siblings’ academic performance. Results Achievement scores were similar between children with OFC and their siblings. Children with cleft palate only were significantly more likely to use special education than their unaffected siblings. Siblings’ academic achievement was inversely related to distance in birth order and age from the affected child. Conclusion Children with OFC and their siblings received similar achievement scores. Younger siblings, in particular, may share a vulnerability to poor academic outcomes. PMID:24993102

  4. Significantly Enhanced Dielectric Performance of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropylene)-based Composites Filled with Hierarchical Flower-like TiO₂ Particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nuoxin; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Qilong; Xiao, Xingrong; Yang, Hui; Yu, Enjie

    2015-12-16

    In this study, we report a feasible strategy for fabricating high-dielectric-constant polymer composites for applications in energy storage devices and embedded capacitors. Hierarchical flower-like TiO2 particles were prepared via a facile solvothermal process and incorporated into the P(VDF-HFP) matrix. The temperature and frequency dependent dielectric properties of flower-like TiO2/P(VDF-HFP) composites as well as commercial TiO2/P(VDF-HFP) composites were investigated. The results reveal that the flower-like TiO2 particles are more effective in increasing the dielectric constant of P(VDF-HFP) when compared with commercial TiO2. Typically, the dielectric constant of the P(VDF-HFP) composite filled with 20 vol % flower-like TiO2 reaches 83.1 at 100 Hz, in contrast to 43.4 for the composite filled with 20 vol % commercial TiO2 and 11.3 for pristine P(VDF-HFP). Also, the flower-like TiO2-filled composites exhibit similar characteristic breakdown strengths to their commercial TiO2-filled counterparts. The significant improvement in the dielectric constant could be attributed to the enhancement of Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization, which originates from the sophisticated morphology of flower-like TiO2 particles.

  5. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  6. Significant Improvement of Semiconducting Performance of the Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Quaterthiophene Conjugated Polymer through Side-Chain Engineering via Hydrogen-Bonding.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jingjing; Yu, Chenmin; Liu, Zitong; Luo, Hewei; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Guanxin; Zhang, Deqing

    2016-01-13

    Three diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-quaterthiophene conjugated polymers, pDPP4T-1, pDPP4T-2, and pDPP4T-3, in which the molar ratios of the urea-containing alkyl chains vs branching alkyl chains are 1:30, 1:20, and 1:10, respectively, were prepared and investigated. In comparison with pDPP4T without urea groups in the alkyl side chains and pDPP4T-A, pDPP4T-B, and pDPP4T-C containing both linear and branched alkyl chains, thin films of pDPP4T-1, pDPP4T-2, and pDPP4T-3 exhibit higher hole mobilities; thin-film mobility increases in the order pDPP4T-1 < pDPP4T-2 < pDPP4T-3, and hole mobility of a thin film of pDPP4T-3 can reach 13.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after thermal annealing at just 100 °C. The incorporation of urea groups in the alkyl side chains also has an interesting effect on the photovoltaic performances of DPP-quaterthiophene conjugated polymers after blending with PC71BM. Blended thin films of pDPP4T-1:PC71BM, pDPP4T-2:PC71BM, and pDPP4T-3:PC71BM exhibit higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) than pDPP4T:PC71BM, pDPP4T-A:PC71BM, pDPP4T-B:PC71BM, and pDPP4T-C:PC71BM. The PCE of pDPP4T-1:PC71BM reaches 6.8%. Thin films of pDPP4T-1, pDPP4T-2, and pDPP4T-3 and corresponding thin films with PC71BM were characterized with AFM, GIXRD, and STEM. The results reveal that the lamellar packing order of the alkyl chains is obviously enhanced for thin films of pDPP4T-1, pDPP4T-2, and pDPP4T-3; after thermal annealing, slight inter-chain π-π stacking emerges for pDPP4T-2 and pDPP4T-3. Blends of pDPP4T-1, pDPP4T-2, and pDPP4T-3 with PC71BM show a more pronounced micro-phase separation. These observations suggest that the presence of urea groups may further facilitate the assemblies of these conjugated polymers into nanofibers and ordered aggregation of PC71BM. PMID:26669732

  7. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  8. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  9. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  10. Position Paper: Applying Machine Learning to Software Analysis to Achieve Trusted, Repeatable Scientific Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Prowell, Stacy J; Symons, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Producing trusted results from high-performance codes is essential for policy and has significant economic impact. We propose combining rigorous analytical methods with machine learning techniques to achieve the goal of repeatable, trustworthy scientific computing.

  11. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  12. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  13. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  14. A Call to Action to Raise Achievement for African American Students. Student Achievement Policy Brief #1: African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    One out of every six public school students in the U.S. is African American. The achievement of African American students as a group will have a significant impact on the nation's economic strength and social well-being. This brief looks at the performance of African American students on state reading and mathematics tests and considers the policy…

  15. Self-Beliefs and Student Goal Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caroline J.; Derrer-Rendall, Nicola M.

    2011-01-01

    Two preliminary studies are presented investigating the self-beliefs that may affect goal achievement in a student population. In Study 1, goal achievement on an abstract task, where goals are externally set by others, is considered in relation to students' levels of optimism. In Study 2, goal achievement on academic performance, where goals are…

  16. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  17. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  18. Perlman receives Sustained Achievement Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Charles; Perlman, David

    David Perlman was awarded the Sustained Achievement Award at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 10, 1997, in San Francisco, California. The award recognizes a journalist who has made significant, lasting, and consistent contributions to accurate reporting or writing on the geophysical sciences for the general public.

  19. The Relationship between Arithmetic and Reading Achievement and Visual Pattern Recognition in First Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragman, Ruth; Hardy, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Results from testing 20 first graders in a remedial class in Maryland indicated that: same pattern recognition was significantly higher than reverse pattern recognition; identical pattern recognition did not affect performance on reading and arithmetic achievement; reverse pattern recognition significantly affected performance on reading and…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  18. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  19. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  20. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  1. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  2. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  3. The Adolescent with Spina Bifida: Academic Achievement and Employment Prospects. Research Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tew, Brian

    1986-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 52 adolescents with spina bifida reveals information about their intelligence and attainments at age 16, achievement examinations, the relationship between IQ and academic achievement, and employment at 18 years. Among findings are significantly lower performance among Ss with shunts and intracranial complications. (CL)

  4. Coping Mediates the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Carolyn; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Zeidner, Moshe; Roberts, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Research examining the relationships between performance measures of emotional intelligence (EI), coping styles, and academic achievement is sparse. Two studies were designed to redress this imbalance. In each of these studies, both EI and coping styles were significantly related to academic achievement. In Study 1, 159 community college students…

  5. Personality Traits, Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement in Secondary School Students in Campania, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troncone, Alda; Drammis, Maria Letizia; Labella, Alida

    2014-01-01

    For years educators have attempted to identify the effective predictors of scholastic achievement and several personality variables were described as significantly correlated with grade performance. Since one of the crucial practical implications of identifying the factors involved in academic achievement is to facilitate the teaching-learning…

  6. Competence with fractions predicts gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C

    2012-11-01

    Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth and seventh grades (N=212). The cross-lagged effects indicated that performance on the sixth grade fractions concepts measure predicted 1-year gains in mathematics achievement (ß=.14, p<.01), controlling for the central executive component of working memory and intelligence, but sixth grade mathematics achievement did not predict gains on the fractions concepts measure (ß=.03, p>.50). In a follow-up assessment, we demonstrated that measures of fluency with computational fractions significantly predicted seventh grade mathematics achievement above and beyond the influence of fluency in computational whole number arithmetic, performance on number fluency and number line tasks, central executive span, and intelligence. Results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that competence with fractions underlies, in part, subsequent gains in mathematics achievement. PMID:22832199

  7. Competence with fractions predicts gains in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara; Geary, David C

    2012-11-01

    Competence with fractions predicts later mathematics achievement, but the codevelopmental pattern between fractions knowledge and mathematics achievement is not well understood. We assessed this codevelopment through examination of the cross-lagged relation between a measure of conceptual knowledge of fractions and mathematics achievement in sixth and seventh grades (N=212). The cross-lagged effects indicated that performance on the sixth grade fractions concepts measure predicted 1-year gains in mathematics achievement (ß=.14, p<.01), controlling for the central executive component of working memory and intelligence, but sixth grade mathematics achievement did not predict gains on the fractions concepts measure (ß=.03, p>.50). In a follow-up assessment, we demonstrated that measures of fluency with computational fractions significantly predicted seventh grade mathematics achievement above and beyond the influence of fluency in computational whole number arithmetic, performance on number fluency and number line tasks, central executive span, and intelligence. Results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that competence with fractions underlies, in part, subsequent gains in mathematics achievement.

  8. MPQC: Performance Analysis and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Sarje, Abhinav; Williams, Samuel; Bailey, David

    2012-11-30

    MPQC (Massively Parallel Quantum Chemistry) is a widely used computational quantum chemistry code. It is capable of performing a number of computations commonly occurring in quantum chemistry. In order to achieve better performance of MPQC, in this report we present a detailed performance analysis of this code. We then perform loop and memory access optimizations, and measure performance improvements by comparing the performance of the optimized code with that of the original MPQC code. We observe that the optimized MPQC code achieves a significant improvement in the performance through a better utilization of vector processing and memory hierarchies.

  9. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  10. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  11. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  12. Using the Achieving Success Everyday (ASE) Group Model to Promote Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement for English as a Second Language (ESL) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Qi; Steen, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The Achieving Success Everyday (ASE) group model is used to promote self-esteem and academic performance of English as a second language (ESL) students. The findings from the preliminary data indicated that the participants' self-esteem was significantly improved after participation in the group. There was no significant improvement in the total…

  13. Relationship Between Attainment of Recommended Physical Activity Guidelines and Academic Achievement: Undergraduate Students in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Walid El; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We assessed and compared by gender, students’ achievement of recommended guidelines of four PA forms, and the association between guideline achievement of each of the four PA forms and students’ academic performance. Methods: Data (2009-2010) comprised 3,271 students (11 faculties) at Assiut University, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire measured: moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), muscle-strengthening PA; five socio-demographic variables (gender, age, year of study, father’s education, living arrangements during semester); self-rated health; and, academic performance. We compared the levels of four PA forms, socio-demographic variables, and academic performance by gender. Binary logistic regression examined the factors associated with achieving the guidelines of the four PA forms. Linear regression examined the association between frequency of four PA forms and level of academic performance. Results: Nearly equal proportions of males and females (37%, 36%) achieved the MPA guidelines. Significantly more males achieved the VPA, MVPA, and muscle strengthening PA guidelines. Father’s education was positively associated with achieving all four PA guidelines (with each increasing educational achievement of the father, student’s odds of achieving PA guidelines increased by 7-9%). Students living with their parents or room mates off campus were more likely to achieve the VPA and MVPA guidelines. Students who achieved VPA and MVPA guidelines were more likely to report better academic performance. For all PA forms (except MPA), increasing academic achievement was positively associated with increasing frequency of PA, but standardised Beta (0.05-0.07) suggested a modest correlation between academic achievement and PA frequency. Conclusion: The linear association between frequency of PA and academic achievement, and the finding that the proportions of students who achieved the recommended levels of several

  14. Antecedents of students' achievement in statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaludin, Izyan Syazana; Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Harris, Hezlin; Selamat, Zarehan

    2015-02-01

    The applications of statistics in most fields have been vast. Many degree programmes at local universities require students to enroll in at least one statistics course. The standard of these courses varies across different degree programmes. This is because of students' diverse academic backgrounds in which some comes far from the field of statistics. The high failure rate in statistics courses for non-science stream students had been concerning every year. The purpose of this research is to investigate the antecedents of students' achievement in statistics. A total of 272 students participated in the survey. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the relationship between the factors and achievement. We found that statistics anxiety was a significant predictor of students' achievement. We also found that students' age has significant effect to achievement. Older students are more likely to achieve lowers scores in statistics. Student's level of study also has a significant impact on their achievement in statistics.

  15. Achieving energy efficiency during collective communications

    SciTech Connect

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav; Sosonkina, Masha; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-09-13

    Energy consumption has become a major design constraint in modern computing systems. With the advent of petaflops architectures, power-efficient software stacks have become imperative for scalability. Techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (called DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (called throttling) are often used to reduce the power consumption of the compute nodes. To avoid significant performance losses, these techniques should be used judiciously during parallel application execution. For example, its communication phases may be good candidates to apply the DVFS and CPU throttling without incurring a considerable performance loss. They are often considered as indivisible operations although little attention is being devoted to the energy saving potential of their algorithmic steps. In this work, two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather, are investigated as to their augmentation with energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. The experiments prove the viability of such a fine-grain approach. They also validate a theoretical power consumption estimate for multicore nodes proposed here. While keeping the performance loss low, the obtained energy savings were always significantly higher than those achieved when DVFS or throttling were switched on across the entire application run

  16. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  17. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  18. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  19. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  20. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  1. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  2. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  3. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  4. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  5. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  6. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  7. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  8. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  9. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  10. Can the Academic Achievement of Korean Students Be Portrayed as a Product of "Shadow Achievement"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of private tutoring expenditure on two types of Korean students' academic achievements as measured by standardized test achievement and by school performance achievement, applying 5-year data from Korean Educational Longitudinal Study (KELS). It was found that private tutoring…

  11. Achievement Gaps: How Hispanic and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2011-459

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, F. Cadelle; Vanneman, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This report provides detailed information on the size of the achievement gaps between Hispanic and White public school students at the national and state levels and describes how those achievement gaps have changed over time. Additional information about race/ethnicity in NAEP is given in Appendix A. Most of the data in this report is derived from…

  12. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  13. Academic Achievement Survey and Educational Assessment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The recent "Nationwide academic achievement and study situation survey" was clearly influenced by the idea of "authentic assessment", an educational assessment perspective focused on "quality" and "engagement". However, when "performance assessment", the assessment method corresponding to this focus, is adopted in academic achievement surveys, it…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps between…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps between…

  17. Teaching for Successful Intelligence Raises School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Torff, Bruce; Grigorenko, Elena

    1998-01-01

    A "successful intelligence" intervention improved school achievement for a group of 225 ethnically diverse third-graders, both on performance assessments measuring analytical, creative, and practical achievements and on conventional multiple-choice memory assessments. Teaching for triarchic thinking facilitates factual recall, because learning…

  18. Teacher Perception of Creativity, Intelligence and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the study involving 573 third graders was to explicate the relationships between student test performance on standardized intelligence, achievement, and creativity tests and teacher perceptions of these abilities. (Author)

  19. Anxiety: An Achievement Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Doris B.; Burnett, David D.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated association between performance on tests measuring complex thinking and the impairment that may be caused by various forms of anxiety in a group of sixth- and seventh-grade students (N=55). Results indicated that low levels of both state and trait anxiety were associated moderately with high performance on measures of verbal and…

  20. Achievement Goal Orientation and Differences in Self-Reported Copying Behaviour across Academic Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songsriwittaya, Alisa; Koul, Ravinder; Kongsuwan, Sak

    2010-01-01

    This survey study investigated the relationship between achievement goal orientation and self-reported copying behaviour among college students (N = 2007) enrolled in five different academic programmes in Thailand. Results of statistical analysis showed several significant findings: performance approach goal orientation, performance avoidance goal…