Science.gov

Sample records for achieve similar results

  1. Different clinical electrodes achieve similar electrical nerve conduction block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, Adam; Bhadra, Narendra; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. We aim to evaluate the suitability of four electrodes previously used in clinical experiments for peripheral nerve electrical block applications. Approach. We evaluated peripheral nerve electrical block using three such clinical nerve cuff electrodes (the Huntington helix, the Case self-sizing Spiral and the flat interface nerve electrode) and one clinical intramuscular electrode (the Memberg electrode) in five cats. Amplitude thresholds for the block using 12 or 25 kHz voltage-controlled stimulation, onset response, and stimulation thresholds before and after block testing were determined. Main results. Complete nerve block was achieved reliably and the onset response to blocking stimulation was similar for all electrodes. Amplitude thresholds for the block were lowest for the Case Spiral electrode (4 ± 1 Vpp) and lower for the nerve cuff electrodes (7 ± 3 Vpp) than for the intramuscular electrode (26 ± 10 Vpp). A minor elevation in stimulation threshold and reduction in stimulus-evoked urethral pressure was observed during testing, but the effect was temporary and did not vary between electrodes. Significance. Multiple clinical electrodes appear suitable for neuroprostheses using peripheral nerve electrical block. The freedom to choose electrodes based on secondary criteria such as ease of implantation or cost should ease translation of electrical nerve block to clinical practice.

  2. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  3. Creating Birds of Similar Feathers: Leveraging Similarity to Improve Teacher-Student Relationships and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Brinkworth, Maureen E.; King, Aaron M.; Hsu, Laura M.; McIntyre, Joseph; Rogers, Todd

    2016-01-01

    When people perceive themselves as similar to others, greater liking and closer relationships typically result. In the first randomized field experiment that leverages actual similarities to improve real-world relationships, we examined the affiliations between 315 9th grade students and their 25 teachers. Students in the treatment condition…

  4. Getting to Results. Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Tory

    2008-01-01

    The "Closing the Achievement Gap" series explores the Casey Foundation's education investments and presents stories, results, and lessons learned. This publication describes efforts to develop a flexible but rigorous results measurements system that enables the Foundation and its grantees to reflect on practice and course-correct as needed to…

  5. Sharing Leadership Responsibilities Results in Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    2010-01-01

    Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…

  6. Gender and Achievement--Understanding Gender Differences and Similarities in Mathematics Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liru; Manon, Jon

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate overall patterns of gender differences and similarities of test performance in mathematics. To achieve that objective, observed test scores on the Delaware standards-based assessment were analyzed to examine: (1) gender differences and similarities across grades 3, 5, 8 and 10 over 2 years;…

  7. Results of scientific achievements for production

    SciTech Connect

    Primachenko, V.V.

    1988-07-01

    During recent years the Aluminosilicate Refractory Laboratory of the Ukrainian Scientific-Research Institute for Refractories together with refractory, metallurgical, and other plants has solved a number of problems on the technology and service of refractories. This paper reviews those achievements. A method for producing refractories, vibrocasting, was developed and was found to increase labor productivity by two or three times. The properties of vibrocast refractory parts and materials are discussed and compared to those of pressed and pneumatically rammed refractories. A number of new high-quality forms of refractory production were introduced for fused mullite and heat-resistant mullite-corundum refractories. Increasing the service life of coke oven doors by using an unreinforced block liner and mechanizing their installation and removal was also discussed. The economic savings obtained via these and other developments are cited.

  8. Similarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  9. Similarity preserving snippet-based visualization of web search results.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Nieto, Erick; San Roman, Frizzi; Pagliosa, Paulo; Casaca, Wallace; Helou, Elias S; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina F; Nonato, Luis Gustavo

    2014-03-01

    Internet users are very familiar with the results of a search query displayed as a ranked list of snippets. Each textual snippet shows a content summary of the referred document (or webpage) and a link to it. This display has many advantages, for example, it affords easy navigation and is straightforward to interpret. Nonetheless, any user of search engines could possibly report some experience of disappointment with this metaphor. Indeed, it has limitations in particular situations, as it fails to provide an overview of the document collection retrieved. Moreover, depending on the nature of the query--for example, it may be too general, or ambiguous, or ill expressed--the desired information may be poorly ranked, or results may contemplate varied topics. Several search tasks would be easier if users were shown an overview of the returned documents, organized so as to reflect how related they are, content wise. We propose a visualization technique to display the results of web queries aimed at overcoming such limitations. It combines the neighborhood preservation capability of multidimensional projections with the familiar snippet-based representation by employing a multidimensional projection to derive two-dimensional layouts of the query search results that preserve text similarity relations, or neighborhoods. Similarity is computed by applying the cosine similarity over a "bag-of-words" vector representation of collection built from the snippets. If the snippets are displayed directly according to the derived layout, they will overlap considerably, producing a poor visualization. We overcome this problem by defining an energy functional that considers both the overlapping among snippets and the preservation of the neighborhood structure as given in the projected layout. Minimizing this energy functional provides a neighborhood preserving two-dimensional arrangement of the textual snippets with minimum overlap. The resulting visualization conveys both a global

  10. Initial results of SEPAC scientific achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obayashi, T.; Kawashima, N.; Sasaki, S.; Yanagisawa, M.; Kuriki, K.; Nagatomo, M.; Ninomiya, K.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Williamson, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    Electron beam injection of 5 keV, 300 mA (1.5 kW) and MPD arcjet plasma injection of 2 kJ/shot were successfully performed together with various kinds of diagnostic instruments including a high sensitivity TV camera observation in the Spacelab 1. Major scientific results obtained are studies of: (1) vehicle charge-up due to the electron beam emission and its neutralization by the MPD arcjet plasma; (2) beam-plasma interaction including the plasma wave excitation; (3) beam-atmosphere interaction such as the verification of critical velocity ionization effect; and (4) anomalous enhancement of ionization associated with a neutral gas injection into space.

  11. TEG® and ROTEM® in trauma: similar test but different results?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Transfusion in trauma is often empiric or based on traditional lab tests. Viscoelastic tests such as thromboelastography (TEG®) and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) have been proposed as superior to traditional lab tests. Due to the similarities between the two tests, general opinion seems to consider them equivalent with interchangeable interpretations. However, it is not clear whether the results can be similarly interpreted. This review evaluates the comparability between TEG and ROTEM and performs a descriptive review of the parameters utilized in each test in adult trauma patients. Methods PUBMED database was reviewed using the keywords “thromboelastography” and “compare”, between 2000 and 2011. Original studies directly comparing TEG® with ROTEM® in any area were retrieved. To verify the individual test parameter used in studies involving trauma patients, we further performed a review using the keywords “thromboelastography” and “trauma” in the PUBMED database. Results Only 4 studies directly compared TEG® with ROTEM®. One in liver transplantation found that transfusion practice could differ depending on the device in use. Another in cardiac surgery concluded that all measurements are not completely interchangeable. The third article using commercially available plasma detected clinically significant differences in the results from the two devices. The fourth one was a head-to-head comparison of the technical aspects. The 24 articles reporting the use of viscoelastic tests in trauma patients, presented considerable heterogeneity. Conclusion Both tests are potentially useful as means to rapidly diagnose coagulopathy, guide transfusion and determine outcome in trauma patients. Differences in the activators utilized in each device limit the direct comparability. Standardization and robust clinical trials comparing the two technologies are needed before these tests can be widely recommended for clinical use in trauma. PMID

  12. Mice and rats achieve similar levels of performance in an adaptive decision-making task

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Santiago; Zador, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Two opposing constraints exist when choosing a model organism for studying the neural basis of adaptive decision-making: (1) experimental access and (2) behavioral complexity. Available molecular and genetic approaches for studying neural circuits in the mouse fulfill the first requirement. In contrast, it is still under debate if mice can perform cognitive tasks of sufficient complexity. Here we compare learning and performance of mice and rats, the preferred behavioral rodent model, during an acoustic flexible categorization two-alternative choice task. The task required animals to switch between two categorization definitions several times within a behavioral session. We found that both species achieved similarly high performance levels. On average, rats learned the task faster than mice, although some mice were as fast as the average rat. No major differences in subjective categorization boundaries or the speed of adaptation between the two species were found. Our results demonstrate that mice are an appropriate model for the study of the neural mechanisms underlying adaptive decision-making, and suggest they might be suitable for other cognitive tasks as well. PMID:25278849

  13. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement: Is Writing an Exception to the Gender Similarities Hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Scheiber, Caroline; Hajovsky, Daniel B; Schwartz, Bryanna; Kaufman, Alan S

    2015-01-01

    The gender similarities hypothesis by J. S. Hyde ( 2005 ), based on large-scale reviews of studies, concludes that boys and girls are more alike than different on most psychological variables, including academic skills such as reading and math (J. S. Hyde, 2005 ). Writing is an academic skill that may be an exception. The authors investigated gender differences in academic achievement using a large, nationally stratified sample of children and adolescents ranging from ages 7-19 years (N = 2,027). Achievement data were from the conormed sample for the Kaufman intelligence and achievement tests. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause, and multigroup mean and covariance structure models were used to test for mean differences. Girls had higher latent reading ability and higher scores on a test of math computation, but the effect sizes were consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. Conversely, girls scored higher on spelling and written expression, with effect sizes inconsistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. The findings remained the same after controlling for cognitive ability. Girls outperform boys on tasks of writing. PMID:26135387

  14. Mismatched partners that achieve postpairing behavioral similarity improve their reproductive success

    PubMed Central

    Laubu, Chloé; Dechaume-Moncharmont, François-Xavier; Motreuil, Sébastien; Schweitzer, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral similarity between partners is likely to promote within-pair compatibility and to result in better reproductive success. Therefore, individuals are expected to choose a partner that is alike in behavioral type. However, mate searching is very costly and does not guarantee finding a matching partner. If mismatched individuals pair, they may benefit from increasing their similarity after pairing. We show in a monogamous fish species—the convict cichlid—that the behavioral similarity between mismatched partners can increase after pairing. This increase resulted from asymmetrical adjustment because only the reactive individual became more alike its proactive partner, whereas the latter did not change its behavior. The mismatched pairs that increased their similarity not only improved their reproductive success but also raised it up to the level of matched pairs. While most studies assume that assortative mating results from mate choice, our study suggests that postpairing adjustment could be an alternative explanation for the high behavioral similarity between partners observed in the field. It also explains why interindividual behavioral differences can be maintained within a given population. PMID:26973869

  15. An investigation of urban boundary layer towards achieving similarity criteria in a short wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazid, A. W. M.; Che Sidik, N. A.; Mansor, S.; Rahman, A. B. Abdul; Ishak, I. S.; Dahalan, N.

    2015-12-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in an effort to artificially thicken the boundary layer which has the characteristics of an urban boundary layer in a short wind tunnel. Turbulence grid was developed and then systematically tested to quantitatively investigate the formation of a thick and uniform boundary layer over location of interest. Investigated parameters were the mean velocity and turbulence intensity to assess the similarity of the simulated boundary layer. The measurement analysis shows that the current design provides the desired boundary layer profile under fully rough conditions at just 1.5 m downstream of the test section inlet, which allows for the building models to be placed over turntable. However, the roughness length value is high which reflects the determination of the model scale while the turbulence intensities levels is low which is not desirable characteristics of an urban boundary layer. The results presented here may facilitate future improvements in the design of the turbulence grid and measurement techniques.

  16. School Counselors: Closing Achievement Gaps and Writing Results Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartline, Julie; Cobia, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Charged with closing the achievement gap for marginalized students, school counselors need to be able to identify gaps, develop interventions, evaluate effectiveness, and share results. This study examined 100 summary results reports submitted by school counselors after having received four days of training on the ASCA National Model. Findings…

  17. Why different gas flux velocity parameterizations result in so similar flux results in the North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskozub, Jacek; Wróbel, Iwona

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic is a crucial region for both ocean circulation and the carbon cycle. Most of ocean deep waters are produced in the basin making it a large CO2 sink. The region, close to the major oceanographic centres has been well covered with cruises. This is why we have performed a study of net CO2 flux dependence upon the choice of gas transfer velocity k parameterization for this very region: the North Atlantic including European Arctic Seas. The study has been a part of a ESA funded OceanFlux GHG Evolution project and, at the same time, a PhD thesis (of I.W) funded by Centre of Polar Studies "POLAR-KNOW" (a project of the Polish Ministry of Science). Early results have been presented last year at EGU 2015 as a PICO presentation EGU2015-11206-1. We have used FluxEngine, a tool created within an earlier ESA funded project (OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases) to calculate the North Atlantic and global fluxes with different gas transfer velocity formulas. During the processing of the data, we have noticed that the North Atlantic results for different k formulas are more similar (in the sense of relative error) that global ones. This was true both for parameterizations using the same power of wind speed and when comparing wind squared and wind cubed parameterizations. This result was interesting because North Atlantic winds are stronger than the global average ones. Was the flux result similarity caused by the fact that the parameterizations were tuned to the North Atlantic area where many of the early cruises measuring CO2 fugacities were performed? A closer look at the parameterizations and their history showed that not all of them were based on North Atlantic data. Some of them were tuned to the South Ocean with even stronger winds while some were based on global budgets of 14C. However we have found two reasons, not reported before in the literature, for North Atlantic fluxes being more similar than global ones for different gas transfer velocity parametrizations

  18. Male Learners' Vocabulary Achievement through Concept Mapping and Mind Mapping: Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarkashvand, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    While learning English plays an essential role in today's life, vocabulary achievement is helpful to overcome the difficulties of commanding the language. Drawing on data from three months experimental work, this article explores how two mapping strategies affect the learning vocabularies in EFL male learners. While females were studied before,…

  19. Finland and Singapore in PISA 2009: Similarities and Differences in Achievements and School Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2014-01-01

    In PISA 2009, Finland and Singapore were both ranked high among the participating nations and have caught much attention internationally. However, a secondary analysis of the means for Reading achievement show that the differences are rather small and are attributable to spurious precision. Hence, the two nations should be considered as being on…

  20. Socially Oriented Motivational Goals and Academic Achievement: Similarities between Native and Anglo Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Jinnat; McInerney, Dennis M.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; King, Ronnel B.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between two socially oriented dimensions of student motivation and academic achievement of Native (Navajo) American and Anglo American students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a multidimensional and hierarchical model was found to explain the relations between performance and social goals. Four first-order…

  1. Two- and Three-Year Achievement Results from the Memphis Restructuring Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Sanders, William L.; Wright, S. Paul; Stringfield, Sam; Wang, L. Weiping; Alberg, Marty

    2001-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of student achievement, using a value-added testing technique, after 3 years of Memphis Restructuring Initiative. Findings show positive achievement gains in reform schools compared to demographically similar control schools, though strength of gains varied by type of reform and community poverty levels. (Contains…

  2. Physical Attrativeness, Perceived Attitude Similarity, and Academic Achievement as Contributors to Interpersonal Attraction among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavior, Norman N.; Dokecki, Paul R.

    1973-01-01

    Fifth- and eleventh-grade males and females who knew each other ( knowers'') judged classmates' photographs on physical attractiveness, perceived attitude similarity, and interpersonal attraction. Nonknowers'' (male and female classmates in different schools in the same grades) judged the same photographs on physical attractiveness. (Editor)

  3. Fewer Doses of HPV Vaccine Result in Immune Response Similar to Three-Dose Regimen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Releases NCI News Note Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose ... that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody ...

  4. A Theoretical Framework for Defining Similarity Measures for Boolean Search Request Formulations, Including Some Experimental Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki, Tadeusz

    1985-01-01

    Reports research results into a methodology for determining similarity between queries characterized by Boolean search request formulations and discusses similarity measures for Boolean combinations of index terms. Rationale behind these measures is outlined, and conditions ensuring their equivalence are identified. Results of an experiment…

  5. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2008. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  6. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the principle vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with…

  7. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  8. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's system of higher education. Since 2000, the report has been the primary vehicle for reporting higher education's progress toward achieving six, statutorily-defined state goals: (1) To enhance student learning and promote academic excellence; (2) To join with elementary…

  9. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  10. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction. PMID:27606585

  11. Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen.

  12. Manufacturing of glassy thin shell for adaptive optics: results achieved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutriquet, F.; Rinchet, A.; Carel, J.-L.; Leplan, H.; Ruch, E.; Geyl, R.; Marque, G.

    2012-07-01

    Glassy thin shells are key components for the development of adaptive optics and are part of future & innovative projects such as ELT. However, manufacturing thin shells is a real challenge. Even though optical requirements for the front face - or optical face - are relaxed compared to conventional passive mirrors, requirements concerning thickness uniformity are difficult to achieve. In addition, process has to be completely re-defined as thin mirror generates new manufacturing issues. In particular, scratches and digs requirement is more difficult as this could weaken the shell, handling is also an important issue due to the fragility of the mirror. Sagem, through REOSC program, has recently manufactured different types of thin shells in the frame of European projects: E-ELT M4 prototypes and VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror (VLT DSM).

  13. A Uniqueness Result for Self-Similar Profiles to Smoluchowski's Coagulation Equation Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niethammer, B.; Throm, S.; Velázquez, J. J. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this note we indicate how to correct the proof of a uniqueness result in [6] for self-similar solutions to Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for kernels K=K(x,y) that are homogeneous of degree zero and close to constant in the sense that begin{aligned} -\\varepsilon le K(x,y)-2 le \\varepsilon Big ( Big (x/yBig )^{α } + Big (y/xBig )^{α }Big ) for α in [0,1/2). Under the additional assumption, in comparison to [6], that K has an analytic extension to mathbb {C}{setminus } (-infty ,0] and that the precise asymptotic behaviour of K at the origin is prescribed, we prove that self-similar solutions with given mass are unique if \\varepsilon is sufficiently small. The complete details of the proof are available in [4]. In addition, we give here the proof of a uniqueness result for a related but simpler problem that appears in the description of self-similar solutions for x → infty.

  14. A Uniqueness Result for Self-Similar Profiles to Smoluchowski's Coagulation Equation Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niethammer, B.; Throm, S.; Velázquez, J. J. L.

    2016-06-01

    In this note we indicate how to correct the proof of a uniqueness result in [6] for self-similar solutions to Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for kernels K=K(x,y) that are homogeneous of degree zero and close to constant in the sense that -ɛ ≤ K(x,y)-2 ≤ ɛ Big ( Big (x/yBig )^{α } + Big (y/xBig )^{α }Big ) for α in [0,1/2) . Under the additional assumption, in comparison to [6], that K has an analytic extension to {C}{setminus } (-∞ ,0] and that the precise asymptotic behaviour of K at the origin is prescribed, we prove that self-similar solutions with given mass are unique if ɛ is sufficiently small. The complete details of the proof are available in [4]. In addition, we give here the proof of a uniqueness result for a related but simpler problem that appears in the description of self-similar solutions for x → ∞.

  15. Similarity-based restoration of metrical information: different listening experiences result in different perceptual inferences.

    PubMed

    Creel, Sarah C

    2012-09-01

    How do perceivers apply knowledge to instances they have never experienced before? On one hand, listeners might use idealized representations that do not contain specific details. On the other, they might recognize and process information based on more detailed memory representations. The current study examined the latter possibility with respect to musical meter perception, previously thought to be computed based on highly-idealized (isochronous) internal representations. In six experiments, listeners heard sets of metrically-ambiguous melodies. Each melody was played in a simultaneous musical context with unambiguous metrical cues (3/4 or 6/8). Cross-melody similarity was manipulated by pairing certain cues-timbre (musical instrument) and motif content (2-6-note patterns)-with each meter, or distributing cues across meters. After multiple exposures, listeners heard each melody without context, and judged metrical continuations (all Experiments) or familiarity (Experiments 5-6). Responses were assessed for "metrical restoration"-the tendency to make metrical judgments that fit the melody's previously-heard metrical context. Cross-melody similarity affected the presence and degree of metrical restoration, and timbre affected familiarity. Results suggest that metrical processing may be calculated based on fairly detailed representations rather than idealized isochronous pulses, and is dissociated somewhat from familiarity judgments. Implications for theories of meter perception are discussed. PMID:22659582

  16. Similar English Learner Students, Different Results: Why Do Some Schools Do Better? Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes a research analysis examining instructional practices for positive impact on achievement of low-income, English learner students as measured by the English Learner Academic Performance Index (EL-API) and other achievement tests. The report provides additional interpretive information. Based on research that surveyed teachers…

  17. Implantation of peritoneal catheters by laparotomy: nephrologists obtained similar results to general surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Cesar A; Buitrago, Carlos Alberto; Holguin, Cielo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the complications and costs of minilaparotomies performed by a nephrologist (group A) compared with conventional laparotomies performed by a surgeon (group B) for peritoneal catheter implantation. Setting Two university hospitals (Santa Sofia and Caldas) in Manizales, Caldas, Colombia. Methods The study included stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients, with indication of renal replacement therapy, who were candidates for peritoneal dialysis and gave informed consent for a peritoneal catheter implant. Minilaparotomies were performed by a nephrologist in a minor surgery room under local anesthesia. Conventional laparotomies were performed by a surgeon in an operating room under general anesthesia. Results Two nephrologists inserted 157 peritoneal catheters, and seven general surgeons inserted 185 peritoneal catheters. The groups had similar characteristics: the mean age was 55 years, 49.5% were men, and the primary diagnoses were diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, and unknown etiology. The implant was successful for 98.09% of group A and 99.46% of group B. There was no procedure-related mortality. The most frequent complications in the first 30 days postsurgery in group A versus group B, respectively, were: peritonitis (6.37% versus 3.78%), exit-site infection (3.82% versus 2.16%), tunnel infection (0% versus 0.54%), catheter entrapment by omentum (1.27% versus 3.24%), peritoneal effluent spillover (1.91% versus 2.16%), draining failure (4.46% versus 6.49%), hematoma (0% versus 1.08%), catheter migration with kinking (3.18% versus 2.70%), hemoperitoneum (1.27% versus 0%), and hollow viscera accidental puncture (1.91% versus 0.54%). There were no statistically significant differences in the number of complications between groups. In 2013, the cost of a surgeon-implanted peritoneal dialysis catheter in Colombia was US $366 (666,000 COP), whereas the cost of a nephrologist-implanted catheter was US $198 (356,725 COP). Conclusion

  18. Similar herpes zoster incidence across Europe: results from a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and mainly affects individuals aged ≥50 years. The forthcoming European launch of a vaccine against HZ (Zostavax®) prompts the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of HZ in Europe. Therefore the aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available data on HZ incidence in Europe and to describe age-specific incidence. Methods The Medline database of the National Library of Medicine was used to conduct a comprehensive literature search of population-based studies of HZ incidence published between 1960 and 2010 carried out in the 27 member countries of the European Union, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. The identified articles were reviewed and scored according to a reading grid including various quality criteria, and HZ incidence data were extracted and presented by country. Results The search identified 21 studies, and revealed a similar annual HZ incidence throughout Europe, varying by country from 2.0 to 4.6/1 000 person-years with no clearly observed geographic trend. Despite the fact that age groups differed from one study to another, age-specific HZ incidence rates seemed to hold steady during the review period, at around 1/1 000 children <10 years, around 2/1 000 adults aged <40 years, and around 1–4/1 000 adults aged 40–50 years. They then increased rapidly after age 50 years to around 7–8/1 000, up to 10/1 000 after 80 years of age. Our review confirms that in Europe HZ incidence increases with age, and quite drastically after 50 years of age. In all of the 21 studies included in the present review, incidence rates were higher among women than men, and this difference increased with age. This review also highlights the need to identify standardized surveillance methods to improve the comparability of data within European Union Member States and to monitor the impact of VZV immunization on the epidemiology of HZ. Conclusions

  19. Performance as a Function of Resultant Achievement Motivation (Perceived Ability) and Perceived Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    1974-01-01

    Data confirmed Kukla's attributional theory of performance. When a task is perceived to be difficult, high resultant achievers perform better than low resultant achievers, whereas the low motive group proves to be superior to the high group when the task is perceived as easy. (Author/RK)

  20. Results of analysis of galaxy clusters from the standpoint of similarity and dimensional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golitsyn, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of galaxy clusters enable the evolution of the Universe at various stages of its life to be traced. The luminosities, sizes, temperatures, and masses of clusters are measured during their observations. Clusters are bound by gravitation with the universal constant G into a single whole. All these quantities are defined by three units of measurement: mass, length, and time. Therefore, there are two dimensionless parameters in the system usually called similarity parameters. One of them is the virial ratio of the potential and kinetic energies.

  1. The Effects of CSCOPE on Student Achievement as Measured by Both TAKS and STAAR Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Maricela Robledo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CSCOPE curriculum on student achievement. CSCOPE is a curriculum management system used in 750 of the 1,039 school districts in the state of Texas. Student achievement is based on the results acquired from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the new version of the state…

  2. Distinct stress conditions result in aggregation of proteins with similar properties.

    PubMed

    Weids, Alan J; Ibstedt, Sebastian; Tamás, Markus J; Grant, Chris M

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation is the abnormal association of proteins into larger aggregate structures which tend to be insoluble. This occurs during normal physiological conditions and in response to age or stress-induced protein misfolding and denaturation. In this present study we have defined the range of proteins that aggregate in yeast cells during normal growth and after exposure to stress conditions including an oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide), a heavy metal stress (arsenite) and an amino acid analogue (azetidine-2-carboxylic acid). Our data indicate that these three stress conditions, which work by distinct mechanisms, promote the aggregation of similar types of proteins probably by lowering the threshold of protein aggregation. The proteins that aggregate during physiological conditions and stress share several features; however, stress conditions shift the criteria for protein aggregation propensity. This suggests that the proteins in aggregates are intrinsically aggregation-prone, rather than being proteins which are affected in a stress-specific manner. We additionally identified significant overlaps between stress aggregating yeast proteins and proteins that aggregate during ageing in yeast and C. elegans. We suggest that similar mechanisms may apply in disease- and non-disease settings and that the factors and components that control protein aggregation may be evolutionary conserved. PMID:27086931

  3. Distinct stress conditions result in aggregation of proteins with similar properties

    PubMed Central

    Weids, Alan J.; Ibstedt, Sebastian; Tamás, Markus J.; Grant, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation is the abnormal association of proteins into larger aggregate structures which tend to be insoluble. This occurs during normal physiological conditions and in response to age or stress-induced protein misfolding and denaturation. In this present study we have defined the range of proteins that aggregate in yeast cells during normal growth and after exposure to stress conditions including an oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide), a heavy metal stress (arsenite) and an amino acid analogue (azetidine-2-carboxylic acid). Our data indicate that these three stress conditions, which work by distinct mechanisms, promote the aggregation of similar types of proteins probably by lowering the threshold of protein aggregation. The proteins that aggregate during physiological conditions and stress share several features; however, stress conditions shift the criteria for protein aggregation propensity. This suggests that the proteins in aggregates are intrinsically aggregation-prone, rather than being proteins which are affected in a stress-specific manner. We additionally identified significant overlaps between stress aggregating yeast proteins and proteins that aggregate during ageing in yeast and C. elegans. We suggest that similar mechanisms may apply in disease- and non-disease settings and that the factors and components that control protein aggregation may be evolutionary conserved. PMID:27086931

  4. Different methods to define utility functions yield similar results but engage different neural processes.

    PubMed

    Heldmann, Marcus; Vogt, Bodo; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas F

    2009-01-01

    Although the concept of utility is fundamental to many economic theories, up to now a generally accepted method determining a subject's utility function is not available. We investigated two methods that are used in economic sciences for describing utility functions by using response-locked event-related potentials in order to assess their neural underpinnings. For determining the certainty equivalent, we used a lottery game with probabilities to win p = 0.5, for identifying the subjects' utility functions directly a standard bisection task was applied. Although the lottery tasks' payoffs were only hypothetical, a pronounced negativity was observed resembling the error related negativity (ERN) previously described in action monitoring research, but this occurred only for choices far away from the indifference point between money and lottery. By contrast, the bisection task failed to evoke an remarkable ERN irrespective of the responses' correctness. Based on these findings we are reasoning that only decisions made in the lottery task achieved a level of subjective relevance that activates cognitive-emotional monitoring. In terms of economic sciences, our findings support the view that the bisection method is unaffected by any kind of probability valuation or other parameters related to risk and in combination with the lottery task can, therefore, be used to differentiate between payoff and probability valuation. PMID:19893764

  5. Some Correlates of Net Gain Resultant from Answer Changing on Objective Achievement Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Daniel J.; Schwedel, Allan

    1975-01-01

    Determines the relationship of sex, answer-changing incidence, and total score to net changes in total score resulting from changing answers, by examining the answer-changing behavior of graduate students responding to achievement test items. (Author/RC)

  6. Subduction in fancy: stripping young slabs as a result of similar crust-mantle rheologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agard, Philippe; Yamato, Philippe; Soret, Mathieu; Prigent, Cécile; Guillot, Stéphane; Plunder, Alexis; Dubacq, Benoît; Monié, Patrick; Chauvet, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Understanding subduction rheology in both space and time has been a challenge since the advent of plate tectonics. We herein focus on "subduction infancy", which corresponds to the first ~0-2 My immediately following subduction nucleation, when a newly born slab penetrates into the overriding plate mantle and heats up. The only remnants of this critical, yet elusive, geodynamic step are thin metamorphic soles, commonly found beneath pristine, 100-1000 km long portions of oceanic lithosphere emplaced on top of continents (i.e., ophiolites). In this study, we show how, during subduction infancy, transient mechanical properties of both the mantle and crust across the subduction plate interface (during ~100s ky) control and hinder the penetration of tectonic plates into the mantle, and how this results in strong peaks of resistance and even slicing of their surface - leaving behind thin, chopped-off metamorphic slivers (i.e., metamorphic soles). These findings constrain the mechanical behaviour of the subduction plate interface (with implications for coupling processes and earthquake generation) as well as the properties of the crust and mantle. They also highlight the role of fluids in enabling subduction to overcome this early resistance.

  7. School Achievement and Personality. Description of School Achievement in Terms of Ability, Trait, Situational and Background Variables. I: Design and Hypotheses; IV: Results and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskanen, Erkki A.

    This monograph, done in Helsinki, Finland, contains the first and fourth sections dealing with design, hypotheses, results, and discussion, describing school achievement in terms of ability, trait, situational, and background variables. The report (1) investigates the structure of school achievement, (2) describes school achievement in terms of…

  8. The Study of Student Achievement as a Result of Modification of Certain Identifiable Teacher Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widell, Waldo R.; And Others

    This study found no significant difference in student achievement as a result of change in identified teacher behaviors in an American History course. The behaviors were those identified in the Stanford Teacher Competence Appraisal Guide. Behavior change was effected through the use of a microteaching teach-reteach cycle with feedback from…

  9. Missing Data and Mixed Results: The Effects of Teach For America on Student Achievement Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Emily K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits existing experimental work on Teach For America (TFA) and extends it by examining treatment effects across the distribution of student achievement. TFA is a rapidly expanding teacher preparation program that currently serves over half a million students in low-income districts across the country. Previous research results did…

  10. Identifying learning disabilities through a cognitive deficit framework: can verbal memory deficits explain similarities between learning disabled and low achieving students?

    PubMed

    Callinan, Sarah; Theiler, Stephen; Cunningham, Everarda

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, students with learning disabilities (LD) have been identified using an aptitude-achievement discrepancy or response to intervention approach. As profiles of the cognitive deficits of discrepancy-defined students with LD have already been developed using these approaches, these deficits can in turn be used to identify LD using the discrepancy approach as a benchmark for convergent validity. Australian Grade 3 (N = 172) students were administered cognitive processing tests to ascertain whether scores in these tests could accurately allocate students into discrepancy-defined groups using discriminant function analysis. Results showed that 77% to 82% of students could be correctly allocated into LD, low achievement, and regular achievement groups using only measures of phonological processing, rapid naming, and verbal memory. Furthermore, verbal memory deficits were found, along with phonological processing and rapid naming deficits, in students that would be designated as low achieving by the discrepancy method. Because a significant discrepancy or lack of response to intervention is a result of cognitive deficits rather than the other way around, it is argued that LD should be identified via cognitive deficits. PMID:23886581

  11. Next Generation Scientists, Next Opportunities: EPA's Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M.

    2004-12-01

    Scientific research is one of the most powerful tools we have for understanding and protecting our environment. It provides the foundation for what we know about our planet, how it has changed, and how it could be altered in the future. The National Center for Environmental Research (NCER) in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) supports high-quality, extramural research by the nation's leading scientists and engineers to strengthen the basis for decisions about local and national environmental issues. NCER works with academia, state and local governments, other federal agencies, and scientists in EPA to increase human knowledge of how to protect our health and natural resources through its three major programs: · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Grants · Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) · Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Fellowships STAR, NCER's primary program, funds research grants and graduate fellowships in environmental science and engineering. Developing the next generation of environmental scientists and engineers is one of NCER's most important objectives. Each year, NCER helps between 80 and 160 students achieve Master's or Ph.D. degrees in environmental science and engineering through its STAR and Greater Research Opportunities (GRO) fellowships. Some of these students have moved on to careers in government while others are now full-time professors and researchers. Still others are working for state environmental agencies or furthering their studies through postdoctoral positions at universities. Since the inception of the NCER program, STAR fellowships (along with grants and SBIR projects) have been awarded in every state in the country. With the help of STAR, current and future scientists and engineers have been able to explore ways to preserve and protect human health and our precious resources.

  12. A Meta-Analytic Review of Achievement Goal Measures: Different Labels for the Same Constructs or Different Constructs with Similar Labels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Bodmann, Shawn M.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    This meta-analysis addresses whether achievement goal researchers are using different labels for the same constructs or putting the same labels on different constructs. We systematically examined whether conceptual and methodological differences in the measurement of achievement goals moderated achievement goal intercorrelations and relationships…

  13. Results from D-T Experiments on TFTR and Implications for Achieving an Ignited Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J. and the TFTR Group

    1998-07-14

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enabled not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. As a result of the worldwide research on tokamaks, the scientific and technical issues for achieving an ignited plasma are better understood and the remaining questions more clearly defined. The principal research topics which have been studied on TFTR are transport, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and energetic particle confinement. The integration of separate solutions to problems in each of these research areas has also been of major interest. Although significant advances, such as the reduction of turbulent transport by means of internal transport barriers, identification of the theoretically predicted bootstrap current, and the study of the confinement of energetic fusion alpha-particles have been made, interesting and important scientific and technical issues remain for achieving a magnetic fusion energy reactor. In this paper, the implications of the TFTR experiments for overcoming these remaining issues will be discussed.

  14. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  15. Taking advantage of ground data systems attributes to achieve quality results in testing software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.; Hageman, Barbara H.

    1994-01-01

    During the software development life cycle process, basic testing starts with the development team. At the end of the development process, an acceptance test is performed for the user to ensure that the deliverable is acceptable. Ideally, the delivery is an operational product with zero defects. However, the goal of zero defects is normally not achieved but is successful to various degrees. With the emphasis on building low cost ground support systems while maintaining a quality product, a key element in the test process is simulator capability. This paper reviews the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) test tool that is used in the acceptance test process for unmanned satellite operations control centers. The TASS is designed to support the development, test and operational environments of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) operations control centers. The TASS uses the same basic architecture as the operations control center. This architecture is characterized by its use of distributed processing, industry standards, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components, and reusable software. The TASS uses much of the same TPOCC architecture and reusable software that the operations control center developer uses. The TASS also makes use of reusable simulator software in the mission specific versions of the TASS. Very little new software needs to be developed, mainly mission specific telemetry communication and command processing software. By taking advantage of the ground data system attributes, successful software reuse for operational systems provides the opportunity to extend the reuse concept into the test area. Consistency in test approach is a major step in achieving quality results.

  16. Near-wall similarity in three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers. I - Model review. II - Pressure-driven flow results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, F. J.; Mcallister, J. E.; Tennant, M. H.

    1982-01-01

    Eleven proposed models for near-wall similarity for three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer flows are reviewed. Six of these models are comparatively simple scalar models and five are more complex and/or two-component vector models. Ten of the models can be tested as to their validity or predictive capability with the aid of measured mean velocity field, wall pressure field, and direct wall shear stress field (magnitude and direction) data. One of the models cannot be tested owing to its dependence on two parameters that are at present extremely difficult (if not impossible) to measure. Ten three-dimensional near-wall similarity models are then evaluated with direct wall shear, velocity field, and pressure gradient data from a three-dimensional pressure-driven boundary layer flow. In a primary focus of the interval where y+ is between 50 and 300, graphical results suggest that six simpler models and the freestream component of one complex model are adequate for profiles with monotone increasing skew up to about 15 deg.

  17. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Resulting as Picometer Interactions with Similarity to K-Shell Electron Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, H.; Miley, G. H.; Li, X. Z.; Kelly, J. C.; Osman, F.

    2006-02-01

    Since the appeal by Brian Josephson at the meeting of the Nobel Laureates July 2004, it seems to be indicated to summarize the following serious, reproducible and confirmed observations on reactions of protons or deuterons incorporated in host metals such as palladium. Some reflections to Rutherford's discovery of nuclear physics, the Cockroft-Oliphant discovery of anomalous low-energy fusion reactions and the chemist Hahn's discovery of fission had to be included. Using gaseous atmosphere or discharges between palladium targets, rather significant results were seen e.g. from the "life after death" heat production of such high values per host atom that only nuclear reactions can be involved. This supports the earlier evaluation of neutron generation in fully reversible experiments with gas discharges hinting that a reasonable screening effect - preferably in the swimming electron layer - may lead to reactions at nuclear distances d of picometers with reaction probability times U of about megaseconds similar to the K-shell capture radioactivity. Further electrolytic experiments led to low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) where the involvement of pollution could be excluded from the appearance of very seldom rare earth elements. A basically new theory for DD cross-sections is used to confirm the picometer-megasecond reactions of cold fusion. Other theoretical aspects are given from measured heavy element distributions similar to the standard abundance distribution, SAD, in the Universe with consequences on endothermic heavy nuclei generation, magic numbers and to quark-gluon plasmas.

  18. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-09-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PMID:25198617

  19. Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: how to achieve optimal results with simple punch technique.

    PubMed

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Tabatabaii Mohammadi, Sayed Ziaeddin; Sontou, Alain Fabrice; Farajzadeh Deroee, Armin; Boroojerdi, Masoud

    2012-05-01

    Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EEDCR) has been popularized as a minimally invasive technique. Although preliminary reports revealed less success in comparison with external approaches, recent endonasal endoscopic surgeries on various types of DCR have preserved advantages of this technique while diminishing the failures. We described our experience on EEDCR, including the main advantages and disadvantages of it. Hundred consecutive cases of lachrymal problems underwent EEDCR utilizing simple punch removal of bone, instead of powered instrumentation or lasers. The medial aspect of the sac was removed in all of patients, while preserving normal mucosa around the sac. Hundred cases of EEDCR were performed on 81 patients, with 19 bilateral procedures. Nine procedures were performed under local anesthesia. Based on a mean 14 months follow-up, 95 cases were free of symptoms, revealing 95% success rate. The punch technique diminishes the expenses of powered or laser instrumentation with comparable results. It seems that preserving normal tissues and creating a patent rhinostomy with least surgical trauma and less subsequent scar, plays the most important role in achieving desirable results. PMID:22065173

  20. A Study of the Generalizability of the Results of a Standardized Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelavin, Sol H.; Barker, Pierce

    A standardized achievement testing program was begun in Alum Rock, California in the fall of 1972 as part of an evaluation of an Educational Voucher Demonstration. During each of the first three years of the demonstration both the form of test administration and the particular level of the standardized achievement test that a student is assigned…

  1. Achievement Goal Validation among African American High School Students: CFA and Rasch Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Caroline O.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Jones, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Achievement goal theory helps describe how and why students engage in various academic behaviors. Historically, achievement goals have been examined almost exclusively with undergraduate, nonminority samples, and predominately with factor analytic techniques. The present study adds to a growing literature by providing initial validation of a…

  2. Does Lengthening the School Day Increase Students' Academic Achievement? Results from a Natural Experiment in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    This study (an impact evaluation of the Chilean full school day program) uses difference-in-differences to estimate the effect of a large increase in instructional time on high school students' academic achievement. The main findings are (i) the program had a positive effect on students' achievement in both mathematics and language; (ii) the…

  3. Results from D-T experiments on TFTR and implications for achieving an ignited plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Blanchard, W.; Batha, S.

    1998-07-01

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enable not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. As a result of the worldwide research on tokamaks, the scientific and technical issues for achieving an ignited plasma are better understood and the remaining questions more clearly defined. The principal research topics which have been studied on TFTR are transport, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and energetic particle confinement. The integration of separate solutions to problems in each of these research areas has also been of major interest. Although significant advances, such as the reduction of turbulent transport by means of internal transport barriers, identification of the theoretically predicted bootstrap current, and the study of the confinement of energetic fusion alpha-particles have been made, interesting and important scientific and technical issues remain. In this paper, the implications for the TFTR experiments for overcoming these remaining issues will be discussed.

  4. Similar English Learner Students, Different Results: Why Do Some Schools Do Better? A Summary of a Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes a research analysis examining which instructional practices had a positive relationship with the achievement of low-income, English learner students as measured by the English Learner Academic Performance Index (EL-API) and other achievement tests. Based on a research study that surveyed teachers and principals in 237…

  5. Two Measurement Methods of Leaf Dry Matter Content Produce Similar Results in a Broad Range of Species

    PubMed Central

    Vaieretti, María Victoria; Díaz, Sandra; Vile, Denis; Garnier, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf dry matter content (LDMC) is widely used as an indicator of plant resource use in plant functional trait databases. Two main methods have been proposed to measure LDMC, which basically differ in the rehydration procedure to which leaves are subjected after harvesting. These are the ‘complete rehydration’ protocol of Garnier et al. (2001, Functional Ecology 15: 688–695) and the ‘partial rehydration’ protocol of Vendramini et al. (2002, New Phytologist 154: 147–157). Methods To test differences in LDMC due to the use of different methods, LDMC was measured on 51 native and cultivated species representing a wide range of plant families and growth forms from central-western Argentina, following the complete rehydration and partial rehydration protocols. Key Results and Conclusions The LDMC values obtained by both methods were strongly and positively correlated, clearly showing that LDMC is highly conserved between the two procedures. These trends were not altered by the exclusion of plants with non-laminar leaves. Although the complete rehydration method is the safest to measure LDMC, the partial rehydration procedure produces similar results and is faster. It therefore appears as an acceptable option for those situations in which the complete rehydration method cannot be applied. Two notes of caution are given for cases in which different datasets are compared or combined: (1) the discrepancy between the two rehydration protocols is greatest in the case of high-LDMC (succulent or tender) leaves; (2) the results suggest that, when comparing many studies across unrelated datasets, differences in the measurement protocol may be less important than differences among seasons, years and the quality of local habitats. PMID:17353207

  6. Mathematics beliefs and achievement of adolescent students in Japan: results from the TIMSS 1999 assessment.

    PubMed

    House, J Daniel

    2005-12-01

    A recent study (1) of undergraduate students in a precalculus course indicated that they expressed slightly positive attitudes toward mathematics. It is important, however, to examine relationships between students' initial attitudes and achievement outcomes. The present purpose was to assess the relationship between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a large national sample of students from the TIMSS 1999 international sample (eighth graders) from Japan. Several significant relationships between mathematics beliefs and test scores were noted. In addition, the overall multiple regression equation that assessed the joint significance of the complete set of self-belief variables was significant (F7.65 = 159.48, p < .001) and explained 20.6% of the variance in mathematics achievement test scores. PMID:16512286

  7. BEAUTY: an enhanced BLAST-based search tool that integrates multiple biological information resources into sequence similarity search results.

    PubMed

    Worley, K C; Wiese, B A; Smith, R F

    1995-09-01

    BEAUTY (BLAST enhanced alignment utility) is an enhanced version of the NCBI's BLAST data base search tool that facilitates identification of the functions of matched sequences. We have created new data bases of conserved regions and functional domains for protein sequences in NCBI's Entrez data base, and BEAUTY allows this information to be incorporated directly into BLAST search results. A Conserved Regions Data Base, containing the locations of conserved regions within Entrez protein sequences, was constructed by (1) clustering the entire data base into families, (2) aligning each family using our PIMA multiple sequence alignment program, and (3) scanning the multiple alignments to locate the conserved regions within each aligned sequence. A separate Annotated Domains Data Base was constructed by extracting the locations of all annotated domains and sites from sequences represented in the Entrez, PROSITE, BLOCKS, and PRINTS data bases. BEAUTY performs a BLAST search of those Entrez sequences with conserved regions and/or annotated domains. BEAUTY then uses the information from the Conserved Regions and Annotated Domains data bases to generate, for each matched sequence, a schematic display that allows one to directly compare the relative locations of (1) the conserved regions, (2) annotated domains and sites, and (3) the locally aligned regions matched in the BLAST search. In addition, BEAUTY search results include World-Wide Web hypertext links to a number of external data bases that provide a variety of additional types of information on the function of matched sequences. This convenient integration of protein families, conserved regions, annotated domains, alignment displays, and World-Wide Web resources greatly enhances the biological informativeness of sequence similarity searches. BEAUTY searches can be performed remotely on our system using the "BCM Search Launcher" World-Wide Web pages (URL is < http:/ /gc.bcm.tmc.edu:8088/ search

  8. High School Size, Achievement Equity, and Cost: Robust Interaction Effects and Tentative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Howley, Craig; Williams, Tony; Glascock, Catherine

    Research has revealed interactive effects of school size and socioeconomic status--as school size increases, the mean measured achievement of schools with disadvantaged students declines. The larger the number of less advantaged students attending a school, the greater the decline. The same school-level interactions have been found in California,…

  9. Some Results and Comments on Using Latent Structure Models to Measure Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1980-01-01

    Technical problems in achievement testing associated with using latent structure models to estimate the probability of guessing correct responses by examinees is studied; also the lack of problems associated with using Wilcox's formula score. Maximum likelihood estimates are derived which may be applied when items are hierarchically related.…

  10. Do Teacher Characteristics Matter? New Results on the Effects of Teacher Preparation on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla-Acevedo, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Research fairly consistently demonstrates that teachers are an important measurable factor in student learning, yet few teacher characteristics are shown to be consistently related to student achievement. Using a state administrative dataset that matches individual students to their teachers over time, I find that math teachers' undergraduate…

  11. Influences on Academic Achievement: A Comparison of Results from Uganda and More Industrialized Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    Findings in industrialized countries, such as those of Jencks and Coleman, indicate that socioeconomic status has a strong influence on academic achievement and that school effects are of lesser importance. This study of socioeconomic influences and school influences on the performance of 23,615 Ugandan children taking the Primary Leaving…

  12. Usage of Computers and Calculators and Students' Achievement: Results from TIMSS 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonijevic, Radovan

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the facts obtained from TIMSS 2003 (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study). This international comparative study, which includes 47 participant countries worldwide, explores dependence between eighth grade students' achievement in the areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and geography, and basic…

  13. BOY SCOUT 5 A DAY ACHIEVEMENT BADGE: OUTCOME RESULTS OF A TROOP & INTERNET INTERVENTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: A Boy Scout Five-A-Day Achievement Badge program (SAD), with both troop and Internet-based activities was developed and implemented, and its effect on fruit-juice (FJ) and low-fat vegetable (LV) consumption and psychosocial mediators evaluated. Methods: The nine-week program included 20 ...

  14. 5 A DAY ACHIEVEMENT BADGE FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN BOY SCOUTS: PILOT OUTCOME RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boy Scouts are an important channel to complement school-based programs to enable boys to eat more fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables (FJV) for chronic disease prevention. The "5 a Day Achievement Badge" program was presented on a pilot study basis to African-American Boy Scout troops in Houston. Tro...

  15. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  16. Improving Achievement in Low-Performing Schools: Key Results for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Randolph E.; Burke, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    As accountability in schools becomes more crucial, educators are looking for comprehensive and innovative management practices that respond to challenges and realities of student academic achievement. In order to improve academic performance and the quality of instruction, the entire school community needs to be involved. This book provides six…

  17. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  18. Paternal DNA damage resulting from various sperm treatments persists after fertilization and is similar before and after DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M; Ward, Monika A

    2012-01-01

    In spite of its highly condensed state, sperm DNA is vulnerable to damage that can originate from oxidative stress, the activity of sperm-specific nucleases, or both. After fertilization, in the oocyte, paternal chromatin undergoes dramatic changes, and during this extensive remodeling, it can be both repaired and degraded, and these processes can be linked to DNA synthesis. Here, we analyzed sperm response to damage-inducing treatments both before and after fertilization and before or after zygotic DNA replication. Epididymal mouse spermatozoa were either frozen without cryoprotection (FT) or treated with detergent Triton X-100 coupled with dithiothreitol (TX+DTT) to induce DNA damage. Fresh, untreated sperm served as control. Immediately after preparation, spermatozoa from 3 groups were taken for comet assay, or for intracytoplasmic sperm injection into prometaphase I oocytes to visualize prematurely condensed single-chromatid chromosomes, or into mature metaphase II oocytes to visualize chromosomes after DNA replication. Comet assay revealed increased DNA fragmentation in treated sperm when compared with control, with FT sperm more severely affected. Chromosome analysis demonstrated paternal DNA damage in oocytes injected with treated, but not with fresh, sperm, with FT and TX+DTT groups now yielding similar damage. There were no differences in the incidence of abnormal paternal karyoplates before and after DNA synthesis in all examined groups. This study provides evidence that subjecting sperm to DNA damage-inducing treatments results in degradation of highly condensed sperm chromatin when it is still packed within the sperm head, and that this DNA damage persists after fertilization. The difference in DNA damage in sperm subjected to 2 treatments was ameliorated in the fertilized oocytes, suggesting that some chromatin repair might have occurred. This process, however, was independent of DNA synthesis and took place during oocyte maturation. PMID:21546611

  19. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  20. How similar are the changes in neural activity resulting from mindfulness practice in contrast to spiritual practice?

    PubMed

    Barnby, Joseph M; Bailey, Neil W; Chambers, Richard; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2015-11-01

    Meditation and spiritual practices are conceptually similar, eliciting similar subjective experiences, and both appear to provide similar benefits to the practicing individuals. However, no research has examined whether the mechanism of action leading to the beneficial effects is similar in both practices. This review examines the neuroimaging research that has focused on groups of meditating individuals, groups who engage in religious/spiritual practices, and research that has examined groups who perform both practices together, in an attempt to assess whether this may be the case. Differences in the balance of activity between the parietal and prefrontal cortical activation were found between the three groups. A relative prefrontal increase was reflective of mindfulness, which related to decreased anxiety and improved well-being. A relative decrease in activation of the parietal cortex, specifically the inferior parietal cortex, appears to be reflective of spiritual belief, whether within the context of meditation or not. Because mindful and spiritual practices differ in focus regarding the 'self' or 'other' (higher being), these observations about neurological components that reflect spirituality may continue work towards understanding how the definition of 'self' and 'other' is represented in the brain, and how this may be reflected in behaviour. Future research can begin to use cohorts of participants in mindfulness studies which are controlled for using the variable of spirituality to explicitly examine how functional and structural similarities and differences may arise. PMID:26172520

  1. Mathematics Instruction and Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students in Korea: Results from the TIMSS 2007 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J, Daniel; Telese, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective teaching practice for improving student achievement in mathematics is a critical area for instructional design. Further, results from international assessments of mathematics achievement have indicated that students in Korea typically earned test scores higher then international averages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  2. Are patterns of bone loss in anorexic and postmenopausal women similar? Preliminary results using high resolution peripheral computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Milos, Gabriella; Häuselmann, Hans-Jörg; Krieg, Marc-Antoine; Rüegsegger, Peter; Gallo, Luigi M

    2014-01-01

    This study intended to compare bone density and architecture in three groups of women: young women with anorexia nervosa (AN), an age-matched control group of young women, and healthy late postmenopausal women. Three-dimensional peripheral quantitative high resolution computed-tomography (HR-pQCT) at the ultradistal radius, a technology providing measures of cortical and trabecular bone density and microarchitecture, was performed in the three cohorts. Thirty-six women with AN aged 18-30 years (mean duration of AN: 5.8 years), 83 healthy late postmenopausal women aged 70-81 as well as 30 age-matched healthy young women were assessed. The overall cortical and trabecular bone density (D100), the absolute thickness of the cortical bone (CTh), and the absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) were significantly lower in AN patients compared with healthy young women. The absolute number of trabecules per area (TbN) in AN and postmenopausal women was similar, but significantly lower than in healthy young women. The comparison between AN patients and post-menopausal women is of interest because the latter reach bone peak mass around the middle of the fertile age span whereas the former usually lose bone before reaching optimal bone density and structure. This study shows that bone mineral density and bone compacta thickness in AN are lower than those in controls but still higher than those in postmenopause. Bone compacta density in AN is similar as in controls. However, bone inner structure in AN is degraded to a similar extent as in postmenopause. This last finding is particularly troubling. PMID:24084384

  3. Moderate-intensity intermittent work in the heat results in similar low-level dehydration in young and older males.

    PubMed

    Wright, Heather E; Larose, Joanie; McLellan, Tom M; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-01-01

    Older individuals may be more susceptible to the negative thermal and cardiovascular consequences of dehydration during intermittent work in the heat. This study examined the hydration, thermal, and cardiovascular responses to intermittent exercise in the heat in 14 Young (Y, Mean ± SE; 25.8 ± 0.8 years), Middle-age (MA, 43.6 ± 0.9 years), and Older (O, 57.2 ± 1.5 years) healthy, non-heat acclimated males matched for height, mass, body surface area, and percent body fat. Rectal temperature (Tre), heart rate (HR), local sweat rate (LSR), and hydration indices were measured during 4 × 15-min moderate to heavy cycling bouts at 400 W heat production, each followed by a 15-min rest period, in Warm/Dry (35°C, 20% relative humidity [RH]) and Warm/Humid (35°C, 60% RH) heat. No differences were observed between the age groups for Tre, Tre change, HR, LSR, mass change, urine specific gravity, and plasma protein concentration in either condition, irrespective of the greater level of thermal and cardiovascular strain experienced in the Warm/Humid environment. Plasma volume changes (Dry Y: -5.4 ± 0.7, MA: -6.2 ± 0.9, O: -5.7 ± 0.9%, Humid Y: -7.3 ± 1.0, MA: -7.9 ± 0.8, O: -8.4 ± 1.0%) were similar between groups, as were urine specific gravity and plasma protein concentrations. Thus, physically active Young, Middle-age, and Older males demonstrate similar hydration, thermal, and cardiovascular responses during moderate- to high-intensity intermittent exercise in the heat. PMID:24521064

  4. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  5. Are New Technologies Influencing the Academic Results Achieved by Students? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargallo-Castel, Ana; Esteban-Salvador, Luisa; Marzo-Navarro, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) within tertiary education in a Spanish University. We analyze the results of a new initiative developed by the University of Zaragoza through an innovative project for a virtual campus called "Anillo Digital Docente." Data relating to…

  6. Neighborhoods and Academic Achievement: Results from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 11909

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Families originally living in public housing were assigned housing vouchers by lottery, encouraging moves to neighborhoods with lower poverty rates. Although we had hypothesized that reading and math test scores would be higher among children in families offered vouchers (with larger effects among younger children), the results show no significant…

  7. Neighborhoods and Academic Achievement: Results from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    Families originally living in public housing were assigned housing vouchers by lottery, encouraging moves to neighborhoods with lower poverty rates. Although we had hypothesized that reading and math test scores would be higher among children in families offered vouchers (with larger effects among younger children), the results show no significant…

  8. So What's Different? Student Achievement and Attitude Results from Instructional Development Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, J. Nicholls; Van Horn, Kathleen L.

    Reported are the results of instructional development projects at Utah State University, funded under mini grants, faculty development grants, or developmental grants to departments. These projects involve redesign of courses in media production, library resources, pattern design and fitting, counselling psychology, quantitative methods,…

  9. Is the Presence of a Results-Oriented Professional Learning Community Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between teacher collaboration practices known as working as a professional learning community (PLC) and student performance. Through a review of the current literature, an operational framework of PLCs was developed that distinguished results-oriented from inquiry-oriented PLCs. The study considered the…

  10. Student Achievement in Private Schools: Results From NAEP 2000-2005. NCES 2006-459

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report is the first to focus on private school students' performance on NAEP assessments. It provides results in reading, mathematics, science, and writing in 2000, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Specifically, it focuses on the three private school types that combined enroll the greatest proportion of private school students (Catholic, Lutheran, and…

  11. "STEPS" Avionics for Exploration Systems the Achieved Results and the Next "STEPS-2"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelli, Andrea; Perino, Maria Antonietta; Gaia, Enrico; Paccagnini, Carlo

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the STEPS project reached results in the avionics domains like: vision-based GNC for Mars Descent & Landing, Hazard avoidance and complete spacecraft autonomy; Autonomous Rover Navigation, based on perception, 3D map reconstruction and path planning; Mobility & Mechanisms providing an Integrated Ground Mobility System, Rendezvous & Docking equipment, and protection from Environment effects; Human-machine interface features of a predictive Command and Control System;; novel Design & Development Tools, such as a Rover S/W simulator and prototypes of the DEM viewer and of a S/W Rock Creator/visualizator. This paper presents also the STEPS 2 project that started January 2013 and is aimed at improving the development of the most promising technologies, selected from the results of the first STEP phase, and addressing the needs of the exploration missions as defined in the 2012 ministerial conference, with the ultimate goal of an in-flight validation within next five years.

  12. Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.

    PubMed

    Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2011-07-01

    Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (< 3 mm and ≥ 3 mm) from prepubertal goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ≥ 3 mm and < 3 mm (68.6%, 80.8% and 73.6%, respectively). In conclusion, IVP of blastocysts coming from follicles larger than 3 mm of goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality. PMID:21295839

  13. Memories of traumatic events in childhood fade after experiencing similar less stressful events: results from two natural experiments.

    PubMed

    Weems, Carl F; Russell, Justin D; Banks, Donice M; Graham, Rebecca A; Neill, Erin L; Scott, Brandon G

    2014-10-01

    The long-term stability of youth reports of traumatic events is largely unknown. Translational animal research suggests that there may be an alteration of memories for traumatic events via memory reconsolidation processes, whereas clinical research suggests memory alteration may occur through augmentation by negative emotions. In this report, 2 natural experiments test reconsolidation model and augmentation model predictions about the course of traumatic memories in youth. Data are from 2 prospective studies that assessed reports of an initial traumatic event (Hurricane Katrina) and tested recall both pre and post a similar event (Hurricane Gustav). In the 1st (Sample 1; n = 94, initial Grade 9 followed to 11), youth were assessed at 4 time points: Times 1-3 were 13, 20, and 26 months post-Katrina and then Time 4 was 5 months post-Hurricane Gustav. In the 2nd (Sample 2; n = 141, Grades 4 through 8), youth were assessed at 12 months pre-Gustav (Time 1; 24 months post-Katrina) and then again at 1 month (Time 2) and 8 months (Time 3) post-Gustav. Those with relatively high Gustav exposure showed more stability in their reports of Katrina exposure events, whereas in those with low Gustav exposure, reports of Katrina events decreased. Time spans between recall, age, gender, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, or cognitive/learning ability did not explain changes in the reports. The study provides the 1st long-term data on the consistency of youth reports of disaster-related experiences and provides initial evidence for the ecological validity of memory reconsolidation theory applied to traumatic events in youth. PMID:25068536

  14. Achieving Higher Diagnostic Results in Stereotactic Brain Biopsy by Simple and Novel Technique

    PubMed Central

    Gulsen, Salih

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurosurgeons have preferred to perform the stereotactic biopsy for pathologic diagnosis when the intracranial pathology located eloquent areas and deep sites of the brain. AIM: To get a higher ratio of definite pathologic diagnosis during stereotactic biopsy and develop practical method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We determined at least two different target points and two different trajectories to take brain biopsy during stereotactic biopsy. It is a different way from the conventional stereotactic biopsy method in which one point has been selected to take a biopsy. We separated our patients into two groups, group 1 (N=10), and group 2 (N= 19). We chose one target to take a biopsy in group 1, and two different targets and two different trajectories in group 2. In group 2, one patient underwent craniotomy due to hemorrhage at the site of the biopsy during tissue biting. However, none of the patients in both groups suffered any neurological complication related biopsy procedure. RESULTS: In group 1, two of 10 cases, and, in group 2, fourteen of 19 cases had positive biopsy harvesting. These results showed statistically significant difference between group 1 and group 2 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Regarding these results, choosing more than one trajectories and taking at least six specimens from each target provides higher diagnostic rate in stereotaxic biopsy taking method.

  15. Correlation Between Geometric Similarity of Ice Shapes and the Resulting Aerodynamic Performance Degradation: A Preliminary Investigation Using WIND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Chung, James

    1999-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance calculations were performed using WIND on ten experimental ice shapes and the corresponding ten ice shapes predicted by LEWICE 2.0. The resulting data for lift coefficient and drag coefficient are presented. The difference in aerodynamic results between the experimental ice shapes and the LEWICE ice shapes were compared to the quantitative difference in ice shape geometry presented in an earlier report. Correlations were generated to determine the geometric features which have the most effect on performance degradation. Results show that maximum lift and stall angle can be correlated to the upper horn angle and the leading edge minimum thickness. Drag coefficient can be correlated to the upper horn angle and the frequency-weighted average of the Fourier coefficients. Pitching moment correlated with the upper horn angle and to a much lesser extent to the upper and lower horn thicknesses.

  16. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  17. Interprofessional curriculum development achieves results: Initial evidence from a dementia-care protocol.

    PubMed

    Annear, Michael James; Goldberg, Lynette R; Lo, Amanda; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This report describes the outcomes of a five-day, protocol-based interprofessional education (IPE) initiative to prepare undergraduate medical, nursing, and paramedic students for collaborative work with adults with dementia. Clinical placements provided a structured and supervised IPE experience for 127 students in two Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) in Hobart, Australia, during 2013 and 2014. The IPE activity was based on a seven-step protocol formulated by an interprofessional team of educators and aged care practitioners that revolved around collaborative assessments of adults with complex health needs. This article describes the IPE protocol and presents the results of a pre- and post-placement attitude questionnaire and knowledge quiz administered to evaluate student attitudes towards IPE and knowledge of dementia. Data suggest that a five-day, supervised, and protocol-based IPE experience in a dementia-care setting can inculcate positive changes in student attitudes about collaborative practice and may encourage dementia-related learning outcomes. PMID:27029913

  18. The South America VLF Network - SAVNET: Achievements, Latest Results and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present recent results obtained by the South America VLF Network (SAVNET). The use of the VLF technique by tracking subionospheric propagation anomalies appears as a very promising tool to study various aspects of Space Weather disturbances. On long timescales it is possible to indirectly monitor the solar Lyman-alpha radiation along the solar cycles. Short time phenomena like solar explosive events can be observed with 100% probability, even for the small intensity events. The effect of high-energy precipitating solar particles can be tracked in the low ionosphere. The same technique is also relevant to study the ionospheric perturbations caused by geomagnetic storms on typical timescales of a day to few days. Extra solar and terrestrial high-energy phenomena are naturally detected in the very sensitive low ionospheric plasma, as Gamma-ray bursts and Soft Gamma-ray repeaters. Finally, the remote sensing of the low ionosphere is also used to search for seismic-electromagnetic effects prior to Earthquakes. At the present time, SAVNET is composed of nine (9) tracking receiver stations in Brazil, Peru, Argentina and Mexico. In this presentation we will describe our future plans for expanding the array. Eastern Europe, Ecuador and Asia are good host candidates to participate in these forthcoming activities. The array expansion is necessary to improve the probability detection of very high-energy remote phenomena, and to demonstrate that these processes of great astrophysical importance can be easily detected using a cheap and simple technique.

  19. Similar Clinical and Surgical Outcomes Achieved with Early Compared to Late Anti-TNF Induction in Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, Darryl K.; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Halloran, Brendan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha are effective in the management of ulcerative colitis (UC), but their use is often postponed until after failure of other treatment modalities. Objectives. We aim to determine if earlier treatment with infliximab or adalimumab alters clinical and surgical outcomes in UC patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating UC outpatients treated with infliximab or adalimumab from 2003 to 2014. Patients were stratified by time to first anti-TNF exposure; early initiation was defined as starting treatment within three years of diagnosis. Primary outcomes were colectomy, UC-related hospitalization, and clinical secondary loss of response. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess time to the primary outcomes. Results. 115 patients were included (78 infliximab, 37 adalimumab). Median follow-up was 175.6 weeks (IQR 72.4–228.4 weeks). Fifty-seven (49.6%) patients received early anti-TNF therapy; median time to treatment in this group was 38.1 (23.3–91.0) weeks compared to 414.0 (254.0–561.3) weeks in the late initiator cohort (p < 0.0001). Patients treated with early anti-TNF therapy had more severe endoscopic disease at induction (mean Mayo endoscopy subscore 2.46 (SD ± 0.66) versus 1.86 (±0.67), p < 0.001) and trended towards increased risk of colectomy (17.5% versus 8.6%, p = 0.16) and UC-related hospitalization (43.9% versus 27.6%, p = 0.07). In multivariate regression analysis, early anti-TNF induction was not associated with colectomy (HR 2.02 [95% CI: 0.57–7.20]), hospitalization (HR 1.66 [0.84–3.30]), or secondary loss of response (HR 0.86 [0.52–1.42]). Conclusions. Anti-TNF therapy is initiated earlier in patients with severe UC but earlier treatment does not prevent hospitalization, colectomy, or secondary loss of response. PMID:27478817

  20. The Valid Use of NAEP Achievement Level Scores to Confirm State Test Results in the No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2007-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act sanctions the use of NAEP scores to confirm state testing results. The U.S. Department of Education, as test developer, is responsible to set forth how NAEP scores are to be interpreted and used. Thus far, the Department has not published a clear set of guidelines for using NAEP achievement level scores to conduct a…

  1. Acute leukemias of different lineages have similar MLL gene fusions encoding related chimeric proteins resulting from chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, J.; Forster, A.; Thompson, S.; Rabbitts, T.H. ); Lampert, F. ); Kaneko, Y. ); Slater, R.; Kroes, W.G. ); Van Der Schoot, C.E. ); Ludwig, W.D. ); Karpas, A. ); Pocock, C.; Cotter, F. )

    1993-09-15

    The MLL gene, on human chromosome 11q23, undergoes chromosomal translocation in acute leukemias, resulting in gene fusion with AF4 (chromosome 4) and ENL (chromosome 19). The authors report here translocation of MLL with nine different chromosomes and two paracentric chromosome 11 deletions in early B cell, B- or T-cell lineage, or nonlymphocytic acute leukemias. The mRNA translocation junction from 22t(4;11) patients, including six adult leukemias, and nine t(11;19) tumors reveals a remarkable conservation of breakpoints within MLL, AF4, or ENL genes, irrespective of tumor phenotype. Typically, the breakpoints are upstream of the zinc-finger region of MLL, and deletion of this region can accompany translocation, supporting the der(11) chromosome as the important component in leukemogenesis. Partial sequence of a fusion between MLL and the AFX1 gene from chromosome X shows the latter to be rich in Ser/Pro codons, like the ENL mRNA. These data suggest that the heterogeneous 11q23 abnormalities might cause attachment of Ser/Pro-rich segments to the NH[sub 2] terminus of MLL, lacking the zinc-finger region, and that translocation occurs in early hematopoietic cells, before commitment to distinct lineages. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Similar Results in Children with Asthma for Steady State Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Ciclesonide Inhaled with or without Spacer

    PubMed Central

    Boss, H.; Minic, P.; Nave, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ciclesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid administered by a metered dose inhaler (MDI) to treat bronchial asthma. After inhalation, the inactive ciclesonide is converted by esterases in the airways to active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC). Aim: To compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of des-CIC in children after administration of therapeutic dose of ciclesonide with and without spacer (AeroChamber Plus™). Methods: Open-label, 3 period, cross over, repeated dose, PK study in 37 children with mild to moderate stable asthma (age: 6–11 y; body weight: 20–53 kg). During each 7-day treatment period, ciclesonide was inhaled once in the morning: A) 160 μg MDI with spacer, B) 80 μg MDI with spacer, and C) 160 μg MDI without spacer. Serum PK parameters of ciclesonide and des-CIC were determined on Day 7 of each period. The primary PK parameters were the AUCτ and Cmax for des-CIC. Results: Inhaling ciclesonide with spacer led to a dose proportional systemic exposure (AUCτ) of des-CIC (0.316 μg*h/L for 80 μg and 0.663 μg*h/L for 160 μg). The dose-normalized systemic exposure for des-CIC (based on AUCτ) was 27% higher after inhalation of ciclesonide 80 μg or 160 μg with spacer than without spacer; the corresponding Cmax values for des-CIC were, respectively, 63% and 55% higher with spacer. No clinically relevant abnormalities or adverse drug reactions were observed. Conclusions: Inhalation of therapeutic ciclesonide dose with spacer led to a slight increase in the systemic exposure of des-CIC, which does not warrant dose adjustment. PMID:23761990

  3. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery, Shelly; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farritor, Shane; Joyce, James; Rebrovich, Barb

    2003-01-01

    Condensing five years of significant work into a brief narrative fitting PPR requirements gave the affiliates of the Nebraska Space Grant a valuable chance for reflection. Achievements of Space Grant in Nebraska were judiciously chosen for this document that best illustrate the resultant synergism of this consortium, keeping in mind that these examples are only a representation of greater activity throughout the state. Following are highlights of many of the finer and personal achievements for Nebraska Space Grant. The Consortium welcomes inquiries to elaborate on any of these accomplishments.

  4. Safety Observations Achieve Results

    2000-01-16

    The SOAR web application provides a multi-checklist capability where focused observations can be created to address risk-likely work environments, tasks, etc. The SOAR web application has numerous reports to sort the data by key word, multiple factors (i.e., location, team, behavior, checklist, work environment, etc.), and the highest frequency of behaviors and error-likely predecessors, etc. Other performance indicators are also provided.

  5. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  6. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  7. Different Methods, Different Results: Examining the Implications of Methodological Divergence and Implicit Processes for Achievement Goal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Laura; Remedios, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal theory is one of the most popular theories of achievement motivation. Techniques researchers have used to assess goals include standardized questionnaires and interviews. One curious finding is that participants whose self-report questionnaire responses strongly indicate they operate with a performance goal do not make performance…

  8. Classroom Instruction and Science Achievement in Japan, Hong Kong, and Chinese Taipei: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The Third International Mathematics and Science Study represents the most comprehensive international assessment of educational contexts and student achievement yet conducted. As part of the examination of the effects of contextual factors on student achievement, a model was constructed that considered the effects of variables such as…

  9. Preliminary Results of Bioactive Amniotic Suspension with Allograft for Achieving One and Two-Level Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Eubulus J.; Utter, Philip A.; Cavanaugh, David A.; Frank, Kelly A.; Moody, Devan; McManus, Brian; Stone, Marcus B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone graft material for lumbar fusion was historically autologous bone graft (ABG). In recent years alternatives such as allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM), ceramics, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) have gained favor, although the complications of these are not fully understood. Bioactive amniotic suspension (BAS) with allograft is a new class of material derived from human amniotic tissue. Methods Eligible patients receiving a one or two level lumbar interbody fusion with Nucel, a BAS with allograft, were contacted and scheduled for a mininmim 12 month follow-up visit. Patients were evaluated for fusion using CT's and plain radiographs. Clincal outcomes, including ODI, VAS back and leg were collected, as well as comorbidities including BMI, smoking status, diabetes and previous lumbar surgery. Results One-level patients (N=38) were 71.1% female with mean age of 58.4 ± 12.7 and mean BMI of 30.6 ± 6.08. Two-level patients (N=34) were 58.8% female with mean age of 49.3 ±10.9 and mean BMI of 30.1 ± 5.82. Kinematic fusion was achieved in 97.4% of one-level patients and 100% of two-level patients. Baseline comorbidities were present in 89.5% of one-level patients and 88.2% of two-level patients. No adverse events related to BAS were reported in this study. Conclusion Fusion status is evaluated with many different biologics and varying methods in the literature. BAS with allograft in this study demonstrated high fusion rates with no complications within a largely comorbid population. Although a small population, BAS with allograft results were encouraging for one and two-level lumbar interbody fusion in this study. Further prospective studies should be conducted to investigate safety and efficacy in a larger population. PMID:27162714

  10. Similar Districts with Different Results: Using the Baldrige Scale to Understand Outcome Differences in Rural School Districts in the Lower Rio Grande Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    The research for this study describes the organizational characteristics and the personnel behaviors distinctive to high-achieving rural school districts. A comparison between two rural school districts, one high-achieving and the other low-achieving was completed using a survey instrument. The Baldrige National Quality Program instrument was…

  11. Similar names for similar biologics.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Nicole; Felix, Thomas; Strober, Bruce E; Warnock, David G

    2014-10-01

    Approval of the first biosimilar in the USA may occur by the end of 2014, yet a naming approach for biosimilars has not been determined. Biosimilars are highly similar to their biologic reference product but are not identical to it, because of their structural complexity and variations in manufacturing processes among companies. There is a need for a naming approach that can distinguish a biosimilar from its reference product and other biosimilars and ensure accurate tracing of adverse events (AEs) to the administered product. In contrast, generic small-molecule drugs are identical to their reference product and, therefore, share the same nonproprietary name. Clinical trials required to demonstrate biosimilarity for approval may not detect rare AEs or those occurring after prolonged use, and the incidence of such events may differ between a biosimilar and its reference product. The need for precise biologic identification is further underscored by the possibility of biosimilar interchangeability, a US designation that will allow substitution without prescriber intervention. For several biologics, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has used a naming approach that adds a prefix to a common root nonproprietary name, enabling healthcare providers to distinguish between products, avoid medication errors, and facilitate pharmacovigilance. We recommend that the FDA implement a biosimilars naming policy that likewise would add a distinguishable prefix or suffix to the root nonproprietary name of the reference product. This approach would ensure that a biosimilar could be distinguished from its reference product and other biosimilars in patient records and pharmacovigilance databases/reports, facilitating accurate attribution of AEs. PMID:25001080

  12. Breast cancer early diagnosis experience in Florence: can a self referral policy achieve the results of service screening?

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, D; Paci, E; Zappa, M; Rosselli del Turco, M

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To assess the impact of a breast clinic on a specific target population and evaluate early diagnosis performance indicators for breast cancer in the presence of a self referral policy. DESIGN--Women living in Florence between 1980 and 1989 who had undergone mammography at a self referral breast clinic were studied. Main outcome measures were the use of mammography in relation to age, symptoms, and the interval between two subsequent tests, and early diagnosis performance indicators were the detection rate (DR), the prevalence/incidence ratio, and the proportion of early detected cancers. Performance indicators were compared with those from formal screening programmes. SETTING--Florence, Italy. PATIENTS--All mammograms performed at the clinic from 1980-89 in 40-69 year old women living in Florence were examined (n = 42,226). Records included the date of birth and of the examination, the reason for testing (asymptomatic/presence of pain/presence of symptoms other than pain), and the TNM classification for breast cancer cases. MAIN RESULTS--The total number of mammograms performed per annum increased by 70% over the decade, but much of this was routine repeat mammography (54.1% in 1989). Rates of first examinations in asymptomatic women increased in the second half of the decade from 17 per 1000 in 1985 to 31 per 1000 in 1989. Mammographic coverage decreased with increasing age from 12.6% in 40-49 year olds to 6.0% in 60-69 years old. Performance indicators of the activity in asymptomatic women were comparable with those expected in service screening. The proportion of not advanced cancers detected in asymptomatic women was 62.3% with a DR of 5.3 per 1000, and the average prevalence/incidence ratio was 2.9. CONCLUSIONS--High quality mammography performed in a breast clinic in self referred asymptomatic women can achieve as good results as a formal invitation screening service. Only a few of these women will benefit, but those who do are likely to be

  13. Evolution of the concept of Capacity-building, results achieved during the past years and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laffaiteur, M.; Camacho, S.

    -faring countries and developing countries. A strategy has been presented by the Action Team in order to implement a strategy aimed at increasing again the impact of the various initiatives already going on. The promotion of the sharing of educational materials and information could be facilitated by a network of bodies in UN Member States, dedicated organizations and UN regional centres. This presentation will aim to show the current status of this issue and to present results already achieved and the way forward.

  14. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  15. The Economy-Wide Benefits of Increasing the Proportion of Students Achieving Year 12 Equivalent Education: Modelling Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This study analyzed the economic benefits of an increase in the proportion of Australian students achieving a 12th-grade equivalent education. Earlier research examined the direct costs and benefits of a program that increased 12th grade equivalent education for the five-year cohort 2003-2007. This study built on that by incorporating the indirect…

  16. The Impact of Every Classroom, Every Day on High School Student Achievement: Results from a School-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Diane M.; Berg, Juliette K.; Alicea, Stacey; Si, Yajuan; Aber, J. Lawrence; Ryan, Richard M.; Deci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Every Classroom, Every Day (ECED) is a set of instructional improvement interventions designed to increase student achievement in math and English/language arts (ELA). ECED includes three primary components: (a) systematic classroom observations by school leaders, (b) intensive professional development and support for math teachers and…

  17. Vertex similarity in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leicht, E. A.; Holme, Petter; Newman, M. E. J.

    2006-02-01

    We consider methods for quantifying the similarity of vertices in networks. We propose a measure of similarity based on the concept that two vertices are similar if their immediate neighbors in the network are themselves similar. This leads to a self-consistent matrix formulation of similarity that can be evaluated iteratively using only a knowledge of the adjacency matrix of the network. We test our similarity measure on computer-generated networks for which the expected results are known, and on a number of real-world networks.

  18. Exploring the Achievement Gap between White and Minority Students in Texas: A Comparison of the 1996 and 2000 NAEP and TAAS Eighth Grade Mathematics Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linton, Thomas H.; Kester, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Compared scores for Texas eighth graders on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) and National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to study the achievement gap in mathematics in 1996 and 2000. Results show the likelihood of a ceiling effect impacting students' TAAS scores that created the illusion the achievement gap had narrowed.…

  19. Elementary School Achievement Profiles. A School-by-School Report of Basic Skills, Test Results, and School/Student/Staff Data. School Year 1983-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This report presents the 1983-84 summary achievement profiles of the 82 Portland, Oregon, elementary schools for use by school staffs, administrators, and the community for planning, goal setting, and evaluation. The profiles contain Portland Achievement Level Tests results plus data on the physical facility, school personnel, student enrollment,…

  20. The Predictability of Enrolment and First-Year University Results from Secondary School Performance: The New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Tumen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive correlations between results from the New Zealand National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA), a standards-based qualification, and university grade point averages achieved by first-year students in one large New Zealand University (and, for comparison purposes, also presents correlations from the…

  1. Laser thermokeratoplasty: analysis of in-vitro results and refractive changes achieved in a first clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Ralf; Geerling, Gerd; Kampmeier, Juergen; Koop, Norbert; Radt, Benno; Birngruber, Reginald

    1997-12-01

    Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) is a minimally invasive method to correct hyperopia and astigmatism. A cw mid-IR laser diode emitting at wavelengths around 1.86 micrometers was used to perform LTK on a first clinical trial. The coagulations were applied to the cornea by means of a specially designed focusing handpiece which was introduced into a corneal application mask fixed by a suction ring. Coagulation patterns consisting of 8 spots per ring were performed with a laser power between 100 - 150 mW and an irradiation time of 10 seconds both on single and on double rings. Significant refractive changes up to 19 D could initially be achieved followed by a strong regression within the first month. Three months post LTK, refractive changes achieved with the single and double ring have stabilized, yielding 1.2 and 1.8 D on the average, respectively. The method reveals only little adverse effects limited to the first days post-op. Force measurements were performed on corneal stripes, which were submerged for 10 s into an oil bath of constant temperature in order to investigate the absolute temperatures required for corneal collagen contraction. Only temperatures exceeding 90 degree(s)C induced a significant force. Analyzing the clinically used LTK parameters by temperature calculations revealed that only a small part of the heated stromal volume experienced sufficient high temperatures to induce significant collagen shrinkage.

  2. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Centers for Water Research on National Priorities Related to a Systems View of Nutrient Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster describes the missions and objectives of four newly-awarded Science to Achieve Results (STAR) Centers. There is also a description of how the projects fit together to meet solicitation research questions.

  3. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catia; Kazakova, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Mehus, Ingar; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bard; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT) inducing only half the energy deficit on a cycle ergometer, on body weight and composition, cardiovascular fitness, resting metabolism rate (RMR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), nonexercise physical activity (PA) levels and fasting and postprandial insulin response in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women), with a mean BMI of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 and a mean age of 34.4 ± 8.8 years were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: HIIT (n = 16), MICT (n = 14) or 1/2HIIT (n = 16) and exercise was performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Overall, there was a significant reduction in body weight, waist (p < .001) and hip (p < .01) circumference,, trunk and leg fat mass (FM; p < .01) and an increase in trunk and leg fat free mass (FFM; p < .01) and cardiovascular fitness (VO2max in ml/kg/min; p < .001) with exercise. However, no significant differences were observed between groups. There was no significant change in RMR, RER, nonexercise PA levels, fasting insulin or insulin sensitivity with exercise or between groups. There was a tendency for a reduction in AUC insulin with exercise (p = .069), but no differences between groups. These results indicate that isocaloric training protocols of HIIT or MICT (or 1/2HIIT inducing only half the energy deficit) exert similar metabolic and cardiovascular improvements in sedentary obese individuals. PMID:26479856

  4. Occupational health nurses’ achievement of competence and comfort in respiratory protection and preferred learning methods results of a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara J; Novak, Debra A; Carpenter, Holly Elizabeth; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann M; Taormina, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Additional findings are presented from a 2012 nationwide survey of 2,072 occupational health nurses regarding how they achieved competence in respiratory protection, their preferred methods of learning, and how they motivated employees to use respiratory protection. On-the-job training, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course, or attending professional conferences were the primary ways occupational health nurses gained respiratory protection knowledge. Attending professional conferences was the preferred method of learning, varying by type of industry and years of occupational health nurse experience. Employee motivational strategies were not widely used; the most common strategy was to tailor respiratory protection training to workplace culture. Designing training methods that match learning preferences, within the context of the organization's safety and quality improvement culture, is a key recommendation supported by the literature and these findings. Including respiratory protection content and competencies in all levels of academic nursing education is an additional recommendation. Additional research is needed to link training strategies with consistent and correct use of respiratory protection by employees. PMID:24812690

  5. Impacting Teachers' Understanding of Geometric Similarity: Results from Field Testing of the Learning and Teaching Geometry Professional Development Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seago, Nanette M.; Jacobs, Jennifer K.; Heck, Daniel J.; Nelson, Courtney L.; Malzahn, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the Learning and Teaching Geometry project is to build professional development materials that provide opportunities for teachers to learn about mathematical similarity through the use of videocases, in which specific and increasingly complex mathematical ideas are presented within the dynamics of classroom practice. The central…

  6. The Contribution of the Responsive Classroom Approach on Children's Academic Achievement: Results from a Three Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Fan, Xitao; Chiu, Yu-Jen; You, Wenyi

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental study on the contribution of the Responsive Classroom ("RC") Approach to elementary school children's reading and math performance over one-, two-, and three-year periods. All children enrolled in six schools (3 intervention and 3 control schools in a single district) were the participants in…

  7. Preventing Underage Drinking: Using Getting to Outcomes with the SAMHSA Strategic Prevention Framework to Achieve Results. RAND Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imm, Pamela; Chinman, Matthew; Wandersman, Abraham; Rosenbloom, David; Guckenburg, Sarah; Leis, Roberta

    2007-01-01

    Underage drinking is a significant problem in the United States: Alcohol is the primary contributor to the leading causes of death among adolescents. As a result, communitywide strategies to prevent underage drinking are more important than ever. Such strategies depend on the involvement and education of adolescents, parents, law enforcement …

  8. Expanding the results of a high throughput screen against an isochorismate-pyruvate lyase to enzymes of a similar scaffold or mechanism.

    PubMed

    Meneely, Kathleen M; Luo, Qianyi; Riley, Andrew P; Taylor, Byron; Roy, Anuradha; Stein, Ross L; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Lamb, Audrey L

    2014-11-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing health concern, and new avenues of antimicrobial drug design are being actively sought. One suggested pathway to be targeted for inhibitor design is that of iron scavenging through siderophores. Here we present a high throughput screen to the isochorismate-pyruvate lyase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an enzyme required for the production of the siderophore pyochelin. Compounds identified in the screen are high nanomolar to low micromolar inhibitors of the enzyme and produce growth inhibition in PAO1 P. aeruginosa in the millimolar range under iron-limiting conditions. The identified compounds were also tested for enzymatic inhibition of Escherichia coli chorismate mutase, a protein of similar fold and similar chemistry, and of Yersinia enterocolitica salicylate synthase, a protein of differing fold but catalyzing the same lyase reaction. In both cases, subsets of the inhibitors from the screen were found to be inhibitory to enzymatic activity (mutase or synthase) in the micromolar range and capable of growth inhibition in their respective organisms (E. coli or Y. enterocolitica). PMID:25282647

  9. Achievements and bottlenecks in humanitarian demining EU-funded research: final results from the EC DELVE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, Hichem; Bruschini, Claudio; Van Kempen, Luc; Schleijpen, Ric; den Breejen, Eric

    2008-04-01

    The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology Development (RTD) situation from early 1990 until 2006. The situation at the European level was analyzed with emphasis on activities sponsored by the European Commission (EC). This was also done for four European countries and Japan, with emphasis on national activities. The developments in HD during the last 10 years underline the fact that in a number of cases demining related developments have been terminated or at least put on hold. The study also showed that the funding provided by the EC under the Framework Program for RTD has led directly to the creation of an extensive portfolio of Humanitarian Demining technology development projects. The latter provided a range of research and supporting measures addressing the critical issues identified as a result of the regulatory policies developed in the field of Humanitarian Demining over the last ten years. However, the range of instruments available to the EC to finance the necessary research and development were limited, to pre-competitive research. The EC had no tools or programs to directly fund actual product development. As a first consequence, the EC funding program for development of technology for Humanitarian Demining unfortunately proved to be largely unsuitable for the small-scale development needed in a field where there is only a very limited market. As a second consequence, most of the research has been demonstrator-oriented. Moreover, the timeframe for RTD in Humanitarian Demining has not been sufficiently synchronized with the timeframe of the EC policies and regulations. The separation of the Mine Action and RTD funding streams in the EC did also negatively affect the take-up of new technologies. As a

  10. Oocyte maturation and fertilization in marine nemertean worms: using similar sorts of signaling pathways as in mammals, but often with differing results.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Stephen A; Cline, Cory; Goodrich, David

    2013-08-01

    In marine worms belonging to the phylum Nemertea, oocyte maturation and fertilization are regulated by the same general kinds of signals that control such processes in mammals. However, unlike mammalian oocytes that develop within follicles, nemertean oocytes characteristically lack a surrounding sheath of follicle cells and often respond differently to maturation-related cues than do mammalian oocytes. For example, elevators of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels promote the resumption of meiotic maturation (=germinal vesicle breakdown, GVBD) in nemertean oocytes, whereas increasing intraoocytic cAMP and cGMP typically blocks GVBD in mammals. Similarly, AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) signaling keeps nemertean oocytes from maturing, but in mouse oocytes, AMPK activation triggers GVBD. In addition, protein kinase C (PKC) activity is required for seawater-induced GVBD in nemerteans, whereas some PKCs have been shown to inhibit GVBD in mammals. Furthermore, although fertilization causes both types of oocytes to reorganize their endoplasmic reticulum and generate calcium oscillations that can involve soluble sperm factor activity and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling, some discrepancies in the spatiotemporal patterns and underlying mechanisms of fertilization are also evident in nemerteans versus mammals. Thus, to characterize differences and similarities in gamete biology more fully, aspects of oocyte maturation and fertilization in marine nemertean worms are reviewed and briefly compared with related findings that have been published for mammalian oocytes. In addition, possible causes of the alternative responses displayed by oocytes in these two animal groups are addressed. PMID:23995739

  11. Effects of Problem-Based Learning Model versus Expository Model and Motivation to Achieve for Student's Physic Learning Result of Senior High School at Class XI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prayekti

    2016-01-01

    "Problem-based learning" (PBL) is one of an innovative learning model which can provide an active learning to student, include the motivation to achieve showed by student when the learning is in progress. This research is aimed to know: (1) differences of physic learning result for student group which taught by PBL versus expository…

  12. Social and Musical Objectives or Experiences School Music Teachers Anticipate Their Students Will Achieve as a Result of Attending a Summer Music Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Eric W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate specific social and musical objectives or experiences school music teachers anticipate their students will achieve as a result of attending a summer music camp. A survey instrument was developed to collect demographic data and responses to questions regarding 14 specific musical and social variables.…

  13. Beating the Odds II: A City-By-City Analysis of Student Performance and Achievement Gaps on State Assessments, Spring 2001 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    This report presents district-by-district achievement data on 57 major city school systems in reading and mathematics. State assessment results were collected from state Web sites, reports, and databases. Data were analyzed by race/ethnicity when reported. Overall, the Great City Schools have made meaningful gains in math scores on state…

  14. The Efforts to Improve Mathematics Learning Achievement Results of High School Students as Required by Competency-Based Curriculum and Lesson Level-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidabutar, Ropinus

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the effect of various, innovated teaching models to improved the student's achievement in various topic in Mathematics. The study was conduct experiment by using innovated teaching with contextual, media and web which are the compared. with conventional teaching method. The result showed the innovation in the…

  15. Mathematics Beliefs and Achievement of Elementary School Students in Japan and the United States: Results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, J. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Student self-beliefs are significantly related to several types of academic achievement. In addition, results from international assessments have indicated that students in Japan have typically scored above international averages (D. L. Kelly, I. V. S. Mullis, & M. O. Martin, 2000). In this study, the author examined relationships between…

  16. X-RAY SELECTED AGN HOST GALAXIES ARE SIMILAR TO INACTIVE GALAXIES OUT TO z = 3: RESULTS FROM CANDELS/CDF-S

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, D. J.; Wuyts, S.; Nandra, K.; Mozena, M.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, D. C.; Koekemoer, A.; Ferguson, H.; Grogin, N.; McGrath, E.; Hathi, N. P.; Dekel, A.; Donley, J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Giavalisco, M.; Guo, Y.; Kocevski, D. D.; Laird, E.; Rangel, C.; Newman, J.; and others

    2013-01-20

    We use multi-band spatially resolved photometry from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Legacy Survey in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South to explore the nuclear and extended colors, color gradients, and stellar populations of the host galaxies of X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) out to z = 3. Based on a study of their central light, we develop X-ray based criteria to exclude objects with strong AGN contamination. We use stellar masses from the FIREWORKS database to understand and account for stellar mass selection effects and carefully study, for the first time, the resolved host galaxy properties of AGNs at z {approx} 2 in their rest-frame optical light without substantial nuclear contamination. AGN hosts span a sizable range of stellar masses, colors, and color gradients at these redshifts. Their colors, color gradients, and stellar population properties are very similar to inactive galaxies of the same stellar mass. At z {approx} 1, we find a slightly narrower range in host colors compared to inactive galaxies, as well as hints of more recent star formation. These differences are weaker or non-existent among AGN hosts at z {approx} 2. We discuss the importance of AGN-driven feedback in the quenching of galaxies at z {approx}> 1 and speculate on possible evolution in the relationship between black hole accretion and the host galaxy toward high redshifts.

  17. Exposure of first-feeding cod larvae to dispersed crude oil results in similar transcriptional and metabolic responses as food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Lie, Kai K; Størseth, Trond R; Nordtug, Trond; Altin, Dag; Olsvik, Pål A

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of first-feeding cod larvae (Gadus morhua) to dispersed oil results in reduced feeding during an important transition period. First-feeding cod larvae were subjected to a 4-d treatment of food deprivation and sampled for microarray analyses. These microarray data were combined with data from cod larvae treated with mechanically and chemically dispersed oil in an attempt to understand to what extent starvation might explain some of the effects observed in first-feeding cod larvae during oil exposure. Transcriptional profiling of cod larvae suggested that the influence of oil exposure was almost as dramatic as being completely deprived of food. Protein and cellular degradation and loss of amino acids and glucose appear to be concomitant responses to both oil exposure and starvation. Fluorescence imaging of gut content indicated low uptake of food, and reduced growth (decrease in dry weight and in carbon and nitrogen content) was also noted in oil-exposed larvae, providing phenotypic anchoring of microarray data. The study displays the importance in combining use of high-throughput molecular tools with assessment of fitness-related endpoints in order to provide a greater understanding of toxicant-induced responses. This combined-approach investigation suggests that reduction of food uptake is an important process to be included when predicting effects of accidental oil spills. Finally, when comparing data from two oil treatments, exposure to chemically dispersed oil did not appear to result in greater toxicity than exposure to mechanically dispersed oil. PMID:27484138

  18. E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth M; Clapp, Phillip W; Rebuli, Meghan E; Pawlak, Erica A; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Benowitz, Neal L; Fry, Rebecca C; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is known to result in impaired host defense responses and immune suppressive effects. However, the effects of new and emerging tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, on the immune status of the respiratory epithelium are largely unknown. We conducted a clinical study collecting superficial nasal scrape biopsies, nasal lavage, urine, and serum from nonsmokers, cigarette smokers, and e-cigarette users and assessed them for changes in immune gene expression profiles. Smoking status was determined based on a smoking history and a 3- to 4-wk smoking diary and confirmed using serum cotinine and urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) levels. Total RNA from nasal scrape biopsies was analyzed using the nCounter Human Immunology v2 Expression panel. Smoking cigarettes or vaping e-cigarettes resulted in decreased expression of immune-related genes. All genes with decreased expression in cigarette smokers (n = 53) were also decreased in e-cigarette smokers. Additionally, vaping e-cigarettes was associated with suppression of a large number of unique genes (n = 305). Furthermore, the e-cigarette users showed a greater suppression of genes common with those changed in cigarette smokers. This was particularly apparent for suppressed expression of transcription factors, such as EGR1, which was functionally associated with decreased expression of 5 target genes in cigarette smokers and 18 target genes in e-cigarette users. Taken together, these data indicate that vaping e-cigarettes is associated with decreased expression of a large number of immune-related genes, which are consistent with immune suppression at the level of the nasal mucosa. PMID:27288488

  19. Silencing of a metaphase I-specific gene results in a phenotype similar to that of the Pairing homeologous 1 (Ph1) gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Ramanjot; Nagarajan, Ragupathi; Bennypaul, Harvinder; Sidhu, Gaganpreet K; Sidhu, Gaganjot; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Gill, Kulvinder S

    2014-09-30

    Although studied extensively since 1958, the molecular mode of action of the Pairing homeologous 1 (Ph1) gene is still unknown. In polyploid wheat, the diploid-like chromosome pairing is principally controlled by the Ph1 gene via preventing homeologous chromosome pairing (HECP). Here, we report a candidate Ph1 gene (C-Ph1) present in the Ph1 locus, transient as well as stable silencing of which resulted in a phenotype characteristic of the Ph1 gene mutants, including HECP, multivalent formation, and disrupted chromosome alignment on the metaphase I (MI) plate. Despite a highly conserved DNA sequence, the C-Ph1 gene homeologues showed a dramatically different structure and expression pattern, with only the 5B copy showing MI-specific expression, further supporting our claim for the Ph1 gene. In agreement with the previous reports about the Ph1 gene, the predicted protein of the 5A copy of the C-Ph1 gene is truncated, and thus perhaps less effective. The 5D copy is expressed around the onset of meiosis; thus, it may function during the earlier stages of chromosome pairing. Along with alternate splicing, the predicted protein of the 5B copy is different from the protein of the other two copies because of an insertion. These structural and expression differences among the homeologues concurred with the previous observations about Ph1 gene function. Stable RNAi silencing of the wheat gene in Arabidopsis showed multivalents and centromere clustering during meiosis I. PMID:25232038

  20. Silencing of a metaphase I-specific gene results in a phenotype similar to that of the Pairing homeologous 1 (Ph1) gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Ramanjot; Nagarajan, Ragupathi; Bennypaul, Harvinder; Sidhu, Gaganpreet K.; Sidhu, Gaganjot; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Gill, Kulvinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Although studied extensively since 1958, the molecular mode of action of the Pairing homeologous 1 (Ph1) gene is still unknown. In polyploid wheat, the diploid-like chromosome pairing is principally controlled by the Ph1 gene via preventing homeologous chromosome pairing (HECP). Here, we report a candidate Ph1 gene (C-Ph1) present in the Ph1 locus, transient as well as stable silencing of which resulted in a phenotype characteristic of the Ph1 gene mutants, including HECP, multivalent formation, and disrupted chromosome alignment on the metaphase I (MI) plate. Despite a highly conserved DNA sequence, the C-Ph1 gene homeologues showed a dramatically different structure and expression pattern, with only the 5B copy showing MI-specific expression, further supporting our claim for the Ph1 gene. In agreement with the previous reports about the Ph1 gene, the predicted protein of the 5A copy of the C-Ph1 gene is truncated, and thus perhaps less effective. The 5D copy is expressed around the onset of meiosis; thus, it may function during the earlier stages of chromosome pairing. Along with alternate splicing, the predicted protein of the 5B copy is different from the protein of the other two copies because of an insertion. These structural and expression differences among the homeologues concurred with the previous observations about Ph1 gene function. Stable RNAi silencing of the wheat gene in Arabidopsis showed multivalents and centromere clustering during meiosis I. PMID:25232038

  1. Achieving an Undetectable PSA After Radiotherapy for Biochemical Progression After Radical Prostatectomy Is an Independent Predictor of Biochemical Outcome-Results of a Retrospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegel, Thomas Lohm, Gunnar; Bottke, Dirk; Hoecht, Stefan; Miller, Kurt; Siegmann, Alessandra; Schostak, Martin; Neumann, Konrad; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Salvage radiotherapy (SRT) is commonly used to treat patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). Retrospective series have demonstrated biochemical response in approximately 60-75% of patients, but only a significantly lower rate of patients achieves a response with a decrease of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) to a value below the limits of detectability. Therefore, long-term response at 10 years is only about 20-25% in all of these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine prognostic factors with impact on achieving the undetectable PSA range after SRT and to define the role of this end point. Methods and Materials: Between 1997 and 2004, 162 patients received SRT at the Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin. No patient had hormonal treatment before SRT and 90% of the patients (143) had a SRT dose of 66 Gy. We analyzed the impact of nine potential risk factors on achieving an undetectable PSA after RT and on biochemical relapse-free survival (bNED) after SRT. Results: Median follow-up time was 41.5 months and median PSA pre-RT was 0.33 ng/mL. Calculated bNED for 3.5 years was 54%. A total of 60% of the patients achieved an undetectable PSA after SRT. Univariate analysis demonstrated statistically significant predictors of biochemical progression after SRT: Gleason score (p = 0.01), PSA pre-SRT (p = 0.031), tumor stage (p = 0.047), and persistent detectable PSA after RT (p < 0.00005). In multivariate analysis, margin status (p = 0.017) and PSA pre-SRT (p = 0.002) were significant predictors of an undetectable PSA after SRT. The most significant independent predictor of bNED was 'PSA undetectable after RT' (p < 0.0005) with a hazard ratio of 8.4, thus leading to a calculated bNED at 3.5 years of 75% compared with only 18% for those patients, who did not achieve an undetectable PSA after SRT. The rate of severe Grade 3-4 side effects was below 2.5%. Conclusions: The study represents one of the largest retrospective

  2. Multivariate Hypergeometric Similarity Measure

    PubMed Central

    Kaddi, Chanchala D.; Parry, R. Mitchell; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a similarity measure based on the multivariate hypergeometric distribution for the pairwise comparison of images and data vectors. The formulation and performance of the proposed measure are compared with other similarity measures using synthetic data. A method of piecewise approximation is also implemented to facilitate application of the proposed measure to large samples. Example applications of the proposed similarity measure are presented using mass spectrometry imaging data and gene expression microarray data. Results from synthetic and biological data indicate that the proposed measure is capable of providing meaningful discrimination between samples, and that it can be a useful tool for identifying potentially related samples in large-scale biological data sets. PMID:24407308

  3. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on children's attendance, academic achievement and short-term hunger: results from a stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Delvina; Turley, Maria; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Free school breakfast programmes (SBPs) exist in a number of high-income countries, but their effects on educational outcomes have rarely been evaluated in randomised controlled trials. Methods A 1-year stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 New Zealand schools in low socioeconomic resource areas. Participants were 424 children, mean age 9±2 years, 53% female. The intervention was a free daily SBP. The primary outcome was children's school attendance. Secondary outcomes were academic achievement, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, behaviour, short-term hunger, breakfast habits and food security. Results There was no statistically significant effect of the breakfast programme on children's school attendance. The odds of children achieving an attendance rate <95% was 0.76 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.02) during the intervention phase and 0.93 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.31) during the control phase, giving an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.11), p=0.19. There was a significant decrease in children's self-reported short-term hunger during the intervention phase compared with the control phase, demonstrated by an increase of 8.6 units on the Freddy satiety scale (95% CI 3.4 to 13.7, p=0.001). There were no effects of the intervention on any other outcome. Conclusions A free SBP did not have a significant effect on children's school attendance or academic achievement but had significant positive effects on children's short-term satiety ratings. More frequent programme attendance may be required to influence school attendance and academic achievement. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR)—ACTRN12609000854235. PMID:23043203

  4. Research on similarity measurement for texture image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhengli; Zhao, Chunxia; Hou, Yingkun

    2012-01-01

    A complete texture image retrieval system includes two techniques: texture feature extraction and similarity measurement. Specifically, similarity measurement is a key problem for texture image retrieval study. In this paper, we present an effective similarity measurement formula. The MIT vision texture database, the Brodatz texture database, and the Outex texture database were used to verify the retrieval performance of the proposed similarity measurement method. Dual-tree complex wavelet transform and nonsubsampled contourlet transform were used to extract texture features. Experimental results show that the proposed similarity measurement method achieves better retrieval performance than some existing similarity measurement methods. PMID:23049785

  5. Similarity of molecular shape.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A Y; Richards, W G

    1991-10-01

    The similarity of one molecule to another has usually been defined in terms of electron densities or electrostatic potentials or fields. Here it is expressed as a function of the molecular shape. Formulations of similarity (S) reduce to very simple forms, thus rendering the computerised calculation straightforward and fast. 'Elements of similarity' are identified, in the same spirit as 'elements of chirality', except that the former are understood to be variable rather than present-or-absent. Methods are presented which bypass the time-consuming mathematical optimisation of the relative orientation of the molecules. Numerical results are presented and examined, with emphasis on the similarity of isomers. At the extreme, enantiomeric pairs are considered, where it is the dissimilarity (D = 1 - S) that is of consequence. We argue that chiral molecules can be graded by dissimilarity, and show that D is the shape-analog of the 'chirality coefficient', with the simple form of the former opening up numerical access to the latter. PMID:1770379

  6. Predictors and outcomes of sustained, intermittent or never achieving remission in patients with recent onset inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael J.; Diffin, Janet; Scirè, Carlo A.; Lunt, Mark; MacGregor, Alex J.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Early remission is the current treatment strategy for patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and RA. Our objective was to identify baseline factors associated with achieving remission: sustained (SR), intermittent (IR) or never (NR) over a 5-year period in patients with early IP. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of patients with IP recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) were obtained at baseline and years 1, 2, 3 and 5. Remission was defined as no tender or swollen joints (out of 51). Patients were classified as NR or PR, respectively, if they were in remission at: no assessment or ⩾3 consecutive assessments after baseline, and IR otherwise. Ordinal regression and a random effects model, respectively, were used to examine the association between baseline factors, remission group and HAQ scores over time. Results. A total of 868 patients (66% female) were included. Of these, 54%, 34% and 12% achieved NR, IR and SR, respectively. In multivariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio, OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.63), higher tender joint count (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93, 0.96), higher HAQ (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.74), being obese (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.99), hypertensive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.90) or depressed (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.00) at baseline were independent predictors of being in a lower remission group. IR and SR were associated with lower HAQ scores over time and lower DAS28 at year 5. Conclusion. Women with higher tender joint count and disability at baseline, depression, obesity and hypertension were less likely to achieve remission. This information could help when stratifying patients for more aggressive therapy. PMID:27220594

  7. Is There a Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement? Positive Results from Public School Children in the Northeastern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomitz, Virginia R.; Slining, Meghan M.; McGowan, Robert J.; Mitchell, Suzanne E.; Dawson, Glen F.; Hacker, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine relationships between physical fitness and academic achievement in diverse, urban public school children. Methods: This cross-sectional study used public school data from 2004 to 2005. Academic achievement was assessed as a passing score on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) achievement tests in…

  8. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership; Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  9. Wear Independent Similarity.

    PubMed

    Steele, Adam; Davis, Alexander; Kim, Joohyung; Loth, Eric; Bayer, Ilker S

    2015-06-17

    This study presents a new factor that can be used to design materials where desired surface properties must be retained under in-system wear and abrasion. To demonstrate this factor, a synthetic nonwetting coating is presented that retains chemical and geometric performance as material is removed under multiple wear conditions: a coarse vitrified abradant (similar to sanding), a smooth abradant (similar to rubbing), and a mild abradant (a blend of sanding and rubbing). With this approach, such a nonwetting material displays unprecedented mechanical durability while maintaining desired performance under a range of demanding conditions. This performance, herein termed wear independent similarity performance (WISP), is critical because multiple mechanisms and/or modes of wear can be expected to occur in many typical applications, e.g., combinations of abrasion, rubbing, contact fatigue, weathering, particle impact, etc. Furthermore, these multiple wear mechanisms tend to quickly degrade a novel surface's unique performance, and thus many promising surfaces and materials never scale out of research laboratories. Dynamic goniometry and scanning electron microscopy results presented herein provide insight into these underlying mechanisms, which may also be applied to other coatings and materials. PMID:26018058

  10. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  11. An Experimental Study on the Iso-Content-Based Angle Similarity Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin; Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2002-01-01

    Retrieval performance of the iso-content-based angle similarity measure within the angle, distance, conjunction, disjunction, and ellipse retrieval models is compared with retrieval performance of the distance similarity measure and the angle similarity measure. Results show the iso-content-based angle similarity measure achieves satisfactory…

  12. Explaining the Achievement Gap between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students: An Analysis of PISA 2009 Results for Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Steve; Perry, Laura B.; McConney, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relative roles of home and school variables in accounting for achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students in Australia and New Zealand. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] 2009, our findings show that achievement gaps between Indigenous and non-Indigenous…

  13. Effects of a Universally Free, In-Classroom School Breakfast Program: Results from the Second Year of the Maryland Meals for Achievement Evaluation. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, J. Michael; Rankin, Emunah; Feeney, Kelly; Kenney, Leigh; Kleinman, Ron

    Noting that many children in the United States are not well nourished despite the recent economic boom, the state of Maryland began the Maryland Meals for Achievement (MMFA) program, a demonstration project to see if providing a classroom breakfast free to all students can improve student nutrition and academic achievement. This interim report…

  14. Large-Scale Student Assessment Studies Measure the Results of Processes of Knowledge Acquisition: Evidence in Support of the Distinction between Intelligence and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumert, Jurgen; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Brunner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Given the relatively high intercorrelations observed between mathematics achievement, reading achievement, and cognitive ability, it has recently been claimed that student assessment studies (e.g., TIMSS, PISA) and intelligence tests measure a single cognitive ability that is practically identical to general intelligence. The present article uses…

  15. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  16. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Building Industry Research Alliance; Building Science Consortium; Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings; Davis Energy Group; Florida Solar Energy Center; IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center; National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  17. SU-E-T-357: Semi-Automated Knowledge-Based Radiation Therapy (KBRT) Planning for Head-And-Neck Cancer (HNC): Can KBRT Plans Achieve Better Results Than Manual Planning?

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzky, C; Grzetic, S; Lo, J; Das, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Knowledge Based Radiation Therapy Treatment (KBRT) planning can be used to semi-automatically generate IMRT plans for new patients using constraints derived from previously manually-planned, geometrically similar patients. We investigate whether KBRT plans can achieve greater dose sparing than manual plans using optimized, organspecific constraint weighting factors. Methods: KBRT planning of HNC radiotherapy cases geometrically matched each new (query) case to one of the 105 clinically approved plans in our database. The dose distribution of the planned match was morphed to fit the querys geometry. Dose-volume constraints extracted from the morphed dose distribution were used to run the IMRT optimization with no user input. In the first version, all constraints were multiplied by a weighting factor of 0.7. The weighting factors were then systematically optimized (in order of OARs with increasing separation from the target) to maximize sparing to each OAR without compromising other OARs. The optimized, second version plans were compared against the first version plans and the clinically approved plans for 45 unilateral/bilateral target cases using the dose metrics: mean, median and maximum (brainstem and cord) doses. Results: Compared to the first version, the second version significantly reduced mean/median contralateral parotid doses (>2Gy) for bilateral cases. Other changes between the two versions were not clinically meaningful. Compared to the original clinical plans, both bilateral and unilateral plans in the second version had lower average dose metrics for 5 of the 6 OARs. Compared to the original plans, the second version achieved dose sparing that was at least as good for all OARs and better for the ipsilateral parotid (bilateral) and oral cavity (bilateral/unilateral). Differences in planning target volume coverage metrics were not clinically significant. Conclusion: HNC-KBRT planning generated IMRT plans with at least equivalent dose sparing to

  18. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM

    PubMed Central

    Pannullo, Susan C.; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A.Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 – 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 – 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 – 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 – 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  19. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM.

    PubMed

    Jia, Angela; Pannullo, Susan C; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 - 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 - 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 - 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 - 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  20. Optimum Cycle Length and Discharge Burnup for Nuclear Fuel; Phase II: Results Achievable with Enrichments Greater than 5 w/o

    SciTech Connect

    J. Secker, et al

    2002-09-30

    The report evaluates increasing enrichment to achieve lower fuel cycle costs. Increasing enrichment 6 w/o does not reach the optimum point. Further increase is possible before the optimum will be reached.

  1. Do Laboratory Results Concerning High-Viscosity Glass-Ionomers versus Amalgam for Tooth Restorations Indicate Similar Effect Direction and Magnitude than that of Controlled Clinical Trials? - A Meta-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Mickenautsch, Steffen; Yengopal, Veerasamy

    2015-01-01

    Background A large percentage of evidence concerning dental interventions is based on laboratory research. The apparent wealth of laboratory evidence is sometimes used as basis for clinical inference and recommendations for daily dental practice. In this study two null-hypotheses are tested: whether trial results from laboratory and controlled clinical trials concerning the comparison of high-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (HVGIC) to amalgam for restorations placed in permanent posterior teeth have: (i) similar effect direction and (ii) similar effect magnitude. Methods 7 electronic databases were searched, as well as reference lists. Odds ratios (OR) and Standardised Mean Differences (SMD) with 95% Confidence intervals were computed for extracted dichotomous and continuous data, respectively. Pooled effect estimates for laboratory and clinical data were computed to test for effect direction. Odds ratios were converted into SMDs. SMDs from laboratory and clinical data were statistically compared to test for differences in effect magnitude. The analysed results were further investigated within the context of potential influencing or confounding factors using a Directed acyclic graph. Results Of the accepted eight laboratory and nine clinical trials, 13 and 21 datasets could be extracted, respectively. The pooled results of the laboratory datasets were highly statistically significant in favor of amalgam. No statistically significant differences, between HVGICs and amalgam, were identified for clinical data. For effect magnitude, statistically significant differences between clinical and laboratory trial results were found. Both null-hypotheses were rejected. Conclusion Laboratory results concerning high-viscosity glass-ionomers versus amalgam for tooth restorations do not indicate similar effect direction and magnitude than that of controlled clinical trials. PMID:26168274

  2. Self Similar Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zheng-Xuan

    This research proposes Self Similar optical fiber (SSF) as a new type of optical fiber. It has a special core that consists of self similar structure. Such a structure is obtained by following the formula for generating iterated function systems (IFS) in Fractal Theory. The resulted SSF can be viewed as a true fractal object in optical fibers. In addition, the method of fabricating SSF makes it possible to generate desired structures exponentially in numbers, whereas it also allows lower scale units in the structure to be reduced in size exponentially. The invention of SSF is expected to greatly ease the production of optical fiber when a large number of small hollow structures are needed in the core of the optical fiber. This dissertation will analyze the core structure of SSF based on fractal theory. Possible properties from the structural characteristics and the corresponding applications are explained. Four SSF samples were obtained through actual fabrication in a laboratory environment. Different from traditional conductive heating fabrication system, I used an in-house designed furnace that incorporated a radiation heating method, and was equipped with automated temperature control system. The obtained samples were examined through spectrum tests. Results from the tests showed that SSF does have the optical property of delivering light in a certain wavelength range. However, SSF as a new type of optical fiber requires a systematic research to find out the theory that explains its structure and the associated optical properties. The fabrication and quality of SSF also needs to be improved for product deployment. As a start of this extensive research, this dissertation work opens the door to a very promising new area in optical fiber research.

  3. Adapting Document Similarity Measures for Ligand-Based Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Himmat, Mubarak; Salim, Naomie; Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Saeed, Faisal; Ahmed, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the similarity of molecules is considered one of the major tasks in virtual screening. There are many similarity measures that have been proposed for this purpose, some of which have been derived from document and text retrieving areas as most often these similarity methods give good results in document retrieval and can achieve good results in virtual screening. In this work, we propose a similarity measure for ligand-based virtual screening, which has been derived from a text processing similarity measure. It has been adopted to be suitable for virtual screening; we called this proposed measure the Adapted Similarity Measure of Text Processing (ASMTP). For evaluating and testing the proposed ASMTP we conducted several experiments on two different benchmark datasets: the Maximum Unbiased Validation (MUV) and the MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR). The experiments have been conducted by choosing 10 reference structures from each class randomly as queries and evaluate them in the recall of cut-offs at 1% and 5%. The overall obtained results are compared with some similarity methods including the Tanimoto coefficient, which are considered to be the conventional and standard similarity coefficients for fingerprint-based similarity calculations. The achieved results show that the performance of ligand-based virtual screening is better and outperforms the Tanimoto coefficients and other methods. PMID:27089312

  4. Achieving Consensus for the Design and Delivery of an Online Intervention to Support Midwives in Work-Related Psychological Distress: Results From a Delphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Clyne, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Background Some midwives are known to experience both professional and organizational sources of psychological distress, which can manifest as a result of the emotionally demanding midwifery work, and the traumatic work environments they endure. An online intervention may be one option midwives may engage with in pursuit of effective support. However, the priorities for the development of an online intervention to effectively support midwives in work-related psychological distress have yet to be explored. Objective The aim of this study was to explore priorities in the development of an online intervention to support midwives in work-related psychological distress. Methods A two-round online Delphi study was conducted. This study invited both qualitative and quantitative data from experts recruited via a scoping literature search and social media channels. Results In total, 185 experts were invited to participate in this Delphi study. Of all participants invited to contribute, 35.7% (66/185) completed Round 1 and of those who participated in this first round, 67% (44/66) continued to complete Round 2. Out of 39 questions posed over two rounds, 18 statements (46%) achieved consensus, 21 (54%) did not. Participants were given the opportunity to write any additional comments as free text. In total, 1604 free text responses were collected and categorized into 2446 separate statements of opinion, creating a total of 442 themes. Overall, participants agreed that in order to effectively support midwives in work-related psychological distress, online interventions should make confidentiality and anonymity a high priority, along with 24-hour mobile access, effective moderation, an online discussion forum, and additional legal, educational, and therapeutic components. It was also agreed that midwives should be offered a simple user assessment to identify those people deemed to be at risk of either causing harm to others or experiencing harm themselves, and direct them to

  5. Biosimilar insulins: how similar is similar?

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Lutz; Hompesch, Marcus

    2011-05-01

    Biosimilar insulins (BIs) are viewed as commercially attractive products by a number of companies. In order to obtain approval in the European Union or the United States, where there is not a single BI currently on the market, a manufacturer needs to demonstrate that a given BI has a safety and efficacy profile that is similar to that of the "original" insulin formulation that is already on the market. As trivial as this may appear at first glance, it is not trivial at all for a good number of reasons that will be discussed in this commentary. As with protein manufacturing, modifications in the structure of the insulin molecule can take place (which can have serious consequences for the biological effects induced), so a rigid and careful assessment is absolutely necessary. The example of Marvel's failed application with the European Medicines Agency provides insights into the regulatory and clinical challenges surrounding the matter of BI. Although a challenging BI approval process might be regarded as a hurdle to keep companies out of certain markets, it is fair to say that the potential safety and efficacy issues surrounding BI are substantial and relevant and do warrant a careful and evidence-driven approval process. PMID:21722590

  6. Cross-National Comparisons of the Association between Student Motivation for Learning Mathematics and Achievement Linked with School Contexts: Results from TIMSS 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liou, Pey-Yan

    2010-01-01

    The goals of this dissertation were as follows: (1) application of quantitative methods to large-scale databases, (2) investigation of relationships between student mathematics achievement and student motivational attitudes for learning mathematics at the macro level (i.e., national level) and at the micro level (i.e., student level), (3)…

  7. Coping Styles and Achievement: A Cross-National Study of School Children. Volume I of V Volumes: The Theory, Design, and Validation Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Robert F.

    This study undertook to develop an improved conceptual system for explaining effective behavior; to build reliable measures of the components of that behavior; to develop and apply the measures internationally; and to validate the measures and concepts against objective criteria of achievement. An eight-nation team defined three sets of components…

  8. Principal Perceptions and Student Achievement in Reading in Korea, Mexico, and the United States: Educational Leadership, School Autonomy, and Use of Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Seon-Hi; Slater, Charles L.; Backhoff, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This study compared PISA 2009 student reading literacy scores with principal perceptions across three countries with varying levels of student performance: Korea, Mexico, and the United States. Seventy-five countries participated in PISA 2009, which measured 15-year-old children's reading achievement and principal perceptions. The study…

  9. The Effects of Research-Based Curriculum Materials and Curriculum-Based Professional Development on High School Science Achievement: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Joseph; Kowalski, Susan; Getty, Stephen; Wilson, Christopher; Carlson, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Effective instructional materials can be valuable interventions to improve student interest and achievement in science (National Research Council [NRC], 2007); yet, analyses indicate that many science instructional materials and curricula are fragmented, lack coherence, and are not carefully articulated through a sequence of grade levels (AAAS,…

  10. Who Are the Students Who May Qualify for an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS)?: Focus Group Results. Synthesis Report 79

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Sandra; Ebben, Barbara; Kubinski, Eva; Sim, Grant; Liu, Kristin; Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha; Christian, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, federal regulations to two major education laws gave state departments of education the option to develop an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) for some students with disabilities. The regulations stated that the AA-MAS was intended for students who were being instructed in the grade-level…

  11. Illinois Community College System Selected Programs and Services for Underrepresented Groups. Focus Area: Academic Achievement Promoting Positive Results and Highlighting Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community College Board, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Through the Underrepresented Groups Report, community colleges have an opportunity to report on initiatives and strategies aimed at increasing participation and achievement among individuals with Disabilities, Women, and Minorities. Underrepresented Groups Report production is an important annual statutory responsibility (Public Act 85-283) for…

  12. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917

  13. Similarity by compression.

    PubMed

    Melville, James L; Riley, Jenna F; Hirst, Jonathan D

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple and effective method for similarity searching in virtual high-throughput screening, requiring only a string-based representation of the molecules (e.g., SMILES) and standard compression software, available on all modern desktop computers. This method utilizes the normalized compression distance, an approximation of the normalized information distance, based on the concept of Kolmogorov complexity. On representative data sets, we demonstrate that compression-based similarity searching can outperform standard similarity searching protocols, exemplified by the Tanimoto coefficient combined with a binary fingerprint representation and data fusion. Software to carry out compression-based similarity is available from our Web site at http://comp.chem.nottingham.ac.uk/download/zippity. PMID:17238245

  14. Multivariate Time Series Similarity Searching

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jimin; Zhu, Yuelong; Li, Shijin; Wan, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searching method. Several experiments, which used the classification accuracy as a measure, were performed on six datasets from the UCI KDD Archive to validate the method. The results show the advantage of the approach compared to the traditional similarity measures, such as Euclidean distance (ED), cynamic time warping (DTW), point distribution (PD), PCA similarity factor (SPCA), and extended Frobenius norm (Eros), for MTS datasets in some ways. Our experiments also demonstrate that no measure can fit all datasets, and the proposed measure is a choice for similarity searches. PMID:24895665

  15. Multivariate time series similarity searching.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jimin; Zhu, Yuelong; Li, Shijin; Wan, Dingsheng; Zhang, Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series (MTS) datasets are very common in various financial, multimedia, and hydrological fields. In this paper, a dimension-combination method is proposed to search similar sequences for MTS. Firstly, the similarity of single-dimension series is calculated; then the overall similarity of the MTS is obtained by synthesizing each of the single-dimension similarity based on weighted BORDA voting method. The dimension-combination method could use the existing similarity searching method. Several experiments, which used the classification accuracy as a measure, were performed on six datasets from the UCI KDD Archive to validate the method. The results show the advantage of the approach compared to the traditional similarity measures, such as Euclidean distance (ED), cynamic time warping (DTW), point distribution (PD), PCA similarity factor (SPCA), and extended Frobenius norm (Eros), for MTS datasets in some ways. Our experiments also demonstrate that no measure can fit all datasets, and the proposed measure is a choice for similarity searches. PMID:24895665

  16. The Qualitative Similarity Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Peter V.; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within…

  17. Coupled attribute similarity learning on categorical data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Can; Dong, Xiangjun; Zhou, Fei; Cao, Longbing; Chi, Chi-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Attribute independence has been taken as a major assumption in the limited research that has been conducted on similarity analysis for categorical data, especially unsupervised learning. However, in real-world data sources, attributes are more or less associated with each other in terms of certain coupling relationships. Accordingly, recent works on attribute dependency aggregation have introduced the co-occurrence of attribute values to explore attribute coupling, but they only present a local picture in analyzing categorical data similarity. This is inadequate for deep analysis, and the computational complexity grows exponentially when the data scale increases. This paper proposes an efficient data-driven similarity learning approach that generates a coupled attribute similarity measure for nominal objects with attribute couplings to capture a global picture of attribute similarity. It involves the frequency-based intra-coupled similarity within an attribute and the inter-coupled similarity upon value co-occurrences between attributes, as well as their integration on the object level. In particular, four measures are designed for the inter-coupled similarity to calculate the similarity between two categorical values by considering their relationships with other attributes in terms of power set, universal set, joint set, and intersection set. The theoretical analysis reveals the equivalent accuracy and superior efficiency of the measure based on the intersection set, particularly for large-scale data sets. Intensive experiments of data structure and clustering algorithms incorporating the coupled dissimilarity metric achieve a significant performance improvement on state-of-the-art measures and algorithms on 13 UCI data sets, which is confirmed by the statistical analysis. The experiment results show that the proposed coupled attribute similarity is generic, and can effectively and efficiently capture the intrinsic and global interactions within and between

  18. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies. Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research. PMID:19649320

  19. Simvastatin Hydroxy Acid Fails to Attain Sufficient Central Nervous System Tumor Exposure to Achieve a Cytotoxic Effect: Results of a Preclinical Cerebral Microdialysis Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh T; Jacus, Megan O; Davis, Abigail D; Boulos, Nidal; Turner, David C; Vuppala, Pradeep K; Freeman, Burgess B; Gilbertson, Richard J; Stewart, Clinton F

    2016-04-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors were potent hits against a mouse ependymoma cell line, but their effectiveness against central nervous system tumors will depend on their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and attain a sufficient exposure at the tumor. Among 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors that had activity in vitro, we prioritized simvastatin (SV) as the lead compound for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies based on its potential for central nervous system penetration as determined from in silico models. Furthermore, we performed systemic plasma disposition and cerebral microdialysis studies of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in a murine model of ependymoma to characterize plasma and tumor extracellular fluid (tECF) pharmacokinetic properties. The murine dosage of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was equivalent to the maximum tolerated dose in patients (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) based on equivalent plasma exposure of simvastatin acid (SVA) between the two species. SV is rapidly metabolized in murine plasma with 15 times lower exposure compared with human plasma. SVA exposure in tECF was <33.8 ± 11.9 µg/l per hour, whereas the tumor to plasma partition coefficient of SVA was <0.084 ± 0.008. Compared with in vitro washout IC50 values, we did not achieve sufficient exposure of SVA in tECF to suggest tumor growth inhibition; therefore, SV was not carried forward in subsequent preclinical efficacy studies. PMID:26802130

  20. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  1. Renewing the respect for similarity

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Shimon; Shahbazi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemming from its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problem at hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, by surveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preserving associative lookup and dimensionality reduction—critical components of many cognitive functions, as well as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing family of algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, and on the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-based ideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included in the core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience. In support of this stance, the present paper (1) offers a discussion of conceptual, mathematical, computational, and empirical aspects of similarity, as applied to the problems of visual object and scene representation, recognition, and interpretation, (2) mentions some key computational problems arising in attempts to put similarity to use, along with their possible solutions, (3) briefly states a previously developed similarity-based framework for visual object representation, the Chorus of Prototypes, along with the empirical support it enjoys, (4) presents new mathematical insights into the effectiveness of this framework, derived from its relationship to locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) and to concomitant statistics, (5) introduces a new model, the Chorus of Relational Descriptors (ChoRD), that extends this framework to scene representation and interpretation, (6) describes its implementation and testing, and finally (7) suggests possible directions in which the present research program can be

  2. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  3. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.; Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  4. Solubility and speciation results from oversaturation experiments on neptunium, plutonium and americium in a neutral electrolyte with a total carbonate similar to water from Yucca Mountain Region Well UE- 25p No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Torretto, P.; Becraft, K.; Prussin, T.; Roberts, K.; Carpenter, S.; Hobart, D.; Nitsche, H.

    1995-12-01

    Solubility and speciation are important in understanding aqueous radionuclide transport through the geosphere. They define the source term for transport retardation processes such as sorption and colloid formation. Solubility and speciation data are useful in verifying the validity of geochemical codes that are a part of predictive transport models. Solubility experiments will approach solution equilibrium from both oversaturation and undersaturation. In these experiments, we have approached the solubility equilibrium from oversaturation, Results are given for solubility and speciation experiments from oversaturation of {sup 237} NpO{sub 2}{sup +} {sup 239}Pu{sup 4+}, and {sup 241}Am{sup 3+}/Nd{sup 3+} in a neutral electrolyte containing a total carbonate concentration similar to groundwater from the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada, which is being investigated as a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site, at 25{degrees}C and three pH values. In these experiments, the solubilitycontrolling steady-state solids were identified and the speciation and/or oxidation states present in the supernatant solutions were determined.

  5. High-Dose Continuous Oxacillin Infusion Results in Achievement of Pharmacokinetics Targets in Critically Ill Patients with Deep Sternal Wound Infections following Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Launey, Yoann; Malherbe, Alexandre; Dermu, Marine; Piau, Caroline; Flécher, Erwan; Tribut, Olivier; Mallédant, Yannick; Seguin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge regarding antimicrobial therapy strategies in deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) following cardiac surgery is limited. Therefore, we aimed to determine the steady-state plasma and mediastinal concentrations of oxacillin administered by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with DSWI and to compare these concentrations with the susceptibility of staphylococci recovered. A continuous infusion of oxacillin (150 to 200 mg/kg of body weight/24 h) was administered after a loading dose (50 mg/kg). Plasma and mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin were determined 4 h after the loading dose (H4) and then at day 1 (H24) and day 2 (H48). Twelve patients were included. Nine patients exhibited bacteremia, 5 were in septic shock, 8 were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 4 were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci. The median MIC (first to third interquartile range) was 0.25 (0.24 to 0.41) mg/liter. Median plasma concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 64.4 (41.4 to 78.5) and 20.4 (12.4 to 30.4) mg/liter, 56.9 (31.4 to 80.6) and 21.7 (6.5 to 27.3) mg/liter, and 57.5 (32.2 to 85.1) and 20 (14.3 to 35.7) mg/liter. The median mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 2.3 (0.7 to 25.9) and 0.9 (<0.5 to 15) mg/liter, 29.1 (19.7 to 38.2) and 12.6 (5.9 to 19.8) mg/liter, and 31.6 (14.9 to 42.9) and 17.1 (6.7 to 26.7) mg/liter. High-dose oxacillin delivered by continuous infusion is a valuable strategy to achieve our pharmacokinetic target (4× MIC) at the site of action at H24. But concerns remain in cases of higher MICs, emphasizing the need for clinicians to obtain the MICs for the bacteria and to monitor oxacillin concentrations, especially the unbound forms, at the target site. PMID:24982092

  6. High-dose continuous oxacillin infusion results in achievement of pharmacokinetics targets in critically ill patients with deep sternal wound infections following cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Nesseler, Nicolas; Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Launey, Yoann; Malherbe, Alexandre; Dermu, Marine; Piau, Caroline; Flécher, Erwan; Tribut, Olivier; Mallédant, Yannick; Seguin, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge regarding antimicrobial therapy strategies in deep sternal wound infections (DSWI) following cardiac surgery is limited. Therefore, we aimed to determine the steady-state plasma and mediastinal concentrations of oxacillin administered by continuous infusion in critically ill patients with DSWI and to compare these concentrations with the susceptibility of staphylococci recovered. A continuous infusion of oxacillin (150 to 200 mg/kg of body weight/24 h) was administered after a loading dose (50 mg/kg). Plasma and mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin were determined 4 h after the loading dose (H4) and then at day 1 (H24) and day 2 (H48). Twelve patients were included. Nine patients exhibited bacteremia, 5 were in septic shock, 8 were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 4 were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococci. The median MIC (first to third interquartile range) was 0.25 (0.24 to 0.41) mg/liter. Median plasma concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 64.4 (41.4 to 78.5) and 20.4 (12.4 to 30.4) mg/liter, 56.9 (31.4 to 80.6) and 21.7 (6.5 to 27.3) mg/liter, and 57.5 (32.2 to 85.1) and 20 (14.3 to 35.7) mg/liter. The median mediastinal concentrations of total and unbound oxacillin at H4, H24, and H48 were, respectively, 2.3 (0.7 to 25.9) and 0.9 (<0.5 to 15) mg/liter, 29.1 (19.7 to 38.2) and 12.6 (5.9 to 19.8) mg/liter, and 31.6 (14.9 to 42.9) and 17.1 (6.7 to 26.7) mg/liter. High-dose oxacillin delivered by continuous infusion is a valuable strategy to achieve our pharmacokinetic target (4× MIC) at the site of action at H24. But concerns remain in cases of higher MICs, emphasizing the need for clinicians to obtain the MICs for the bacteria and to monitor oxacillin concentrations, especially the unbound forms, at the target site. PMID:24982092

  7. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE RESULTS ACHIEVED IN ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION WITH TWO KINDS OF AUTOLOGOUS GRAFTS: PATELLAR TENDON VERSUS SEMITENDINOUS AND GRACILIS

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Monteiro, Diego Antico; Dias, Leonardo; Correia, Dárcio Maurício; Cohen, Moisés; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to compare the arthrometric and isokinetic examination results from two types of autologous grafts: the central third of the patellar ligament and a graft formed by the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, within the same rehabilitation protocol, six months after the surgery. Methods: the results from examinations carried out on 63 patients were analyzed. These patients were divided in two groups: one group of 30 patients who received a patellar tendon graft and another group of 33 patients who received a graft from the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles. Both the grafts were attached in the same way, with Endobutton™ for suspensory fixation to the femur and a bioabsorbable interference screw for fixation in the tibial tunnel. Results: arthrometry 30 did not present any statistical difference between the two study groups. On the other hand, the isokinetic evaluation showed that the patellar tendon group had a larger mean peak torque of flexion and greater extension deficit, while the semitendinosus/gracilis group had a better mean flexion/extension ratio and greater percentage of flexion deficit. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups when measuring peak torque extension. Conclusion: therefore, when the patellar tendon was used, there was greater extensor deficit and, when the semitendinosus/gracilis tendons were used, there was greater flexor deficit. PMID:27004173

  8. Minor counterclockwise rotation of the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) as derived from paleomagnetic results achieved in hematite-bearing Lower Triassic sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szaniawski, Rafał; Ludwiniak, Mirosław; Rubinkiewicz, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    Paleomagnetic studies accompanied with tectonic fieldworks have been carried out within hematite-bearing Lower Triassic red beds from the Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians) in order to determine tectonic rotations of regional scale. The studied rocks contain primary remanent magnetization recorded by hematite and display both polarities. The obtained inclination is slightly lower than expected for stable Europe, which could imply either minor latitudinal separation or come from the inclination error. The results from six sampling sites representing rocks situated in autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement and inclined only during the Neogene uplift imply 19° counterclockwise rotation. Considering the tectonic position of the studied rocks, this rotation could be attributed to the entire Tatra Block. In turn, results from rocks tilted in two tectonic events: during Late Cretaceous compression and further in Neogene uplift requires double tectonic correction as normal unfolding procedure results in spurious declination. It is suggested that the latter mechanism together with local rotations of allochthonous nappes may explain part of variable rotations reported in previous paleomagnetic studies of Mesozoic rocks from the Central Western Carpathians.

  9. The qualitative similarity hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Paul, Peter V; Lee, Chongmin

    2010-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the qualitative similarity hypothesis (QSH) with respect to children and adolescents who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing. The primary focus is on the development of English language and literacy skills, and some information is provided on the acquisition of English as a second language. The QSH is briefly discussed within the purview of two groups of cognitive models: those that emphasize the cognitive development of individuals and those that pertain to disciplinary or knowledge structures. It is argued that the QSH has scientific merit with implications for classroom instruction. Future research should examine the validity of the QSH in other disciplines such as mathematics and science and should include perspectives from social as well as cognitive models. PMID:20415280

  10. Achieving a Healthy Zoning Policy in Baltimore: Results of a Health Impact Assessment of the TransForm Baltimore Zoning Code Rewrite

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Amelia; Fichtenberg, Caroline M.; Feingold, Beth J.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Jennings, Jacky M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The social determinants of health (SDH) include factors apart from genes and biology that affect population health. Zoning is an urban planning tool that influences neighborhood built environments. We describe the methods and results of a health impact assessment (HIA) of a rezoning effort in Baltimore, Maryland, called TransForm Baltimore. We highlight findings specific to physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. Methods We conducted a multistage HIA of TransForm Baltimore using HIA practice guidelines. Key informant interviews identified focus areas for the quantitative assessment. A literature review and a zoning code analysis evaluated potential impacts on neighborhood factors including physical activity, violent crime, and obesity. We estimated potential impacts in high- and low-poverty neighborhoods. The findings resulted in recommendations to improve the health-promoting potential of TransForm Baltimore. Results Mixed-use and transit-oriented development were key goals of TransForm Baltimore. Health impacts identified by stakeholders included walkability and healthy communities. For Baltimore residents, we estimated that (1) the percentage of people living in districts allowing mixed-use and off-premise alcohol outlets would nearly triple, (2) 18% would live in transit-oriented development zones, and (3) all residents would live in districts with new lighting and landscaping guidelines. Limiting the concentration of off-premise alcohol outlets represented an opportunity to address health promotion. Conclusions Changes to Baltimore's zoning code could improve population health including decreasing violent crime. HIAs are an important platform for applying SDH to public health practice. This HIA specifically linked municipal zoning policy with promoting healthier neighborhoods. PMID:24179284

  11. Achievements and Challenges upon the Implementation of a Program for National Control of Congenital Chagas in Bolivia: Results 2004–2009

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Vega, Cristina; Billot, Claire; Torrico, Faustino

    2013-01-01

    Bolivia is one of the most endemic countries for Chagas disease. Data of 2005 shows that incidence is around 1.09‰ inhabitants and seroprevalence in children under 15 ranged from 10% in urban areas to 40% in rural areas. In this article, we report results obtained during the implementation of the congenital Chagas program, one of the biggest casuistry in congenital Chagas disease, led by National Program of Chagas and Belgian cooperation from 2004 to 2009. The program strategy was based on serological results during pregnancy and on the follow up of children born from positive mothers until one year old; if positive, treatment was done with Benznidazole, 10 mg/Kg/day/30 days with one post treatment control 6 months later. Throughout the length of the program, a total of 318,479 pregnant women were screened and 23.31% were detected positive. 42,538 children born from positive mothers were analyzed at birth by micromethod, of which 1.43% read positive. 10,120 children returned for their second micromethod control of which 2.29% read positive, 7,650 children returned for the serological control, of which 3.32% turned out positive. From the 1,093 positive children, 70% completed the 30 day-treatment and 122 returned for post treatment control with 96% showing a negative result. It has been seen that maternal-fetal transmission rates vary between 2% and 4%, with an average of 2.6% (about half of previously reported studies that reached 5%). In this work, we show that it is possible to implement, with limited resources, a National Congenital Chagas Program and to integrate it into the Bolivian health system. Keys of success are population awareness, health personnel motivation, and political commitment at all levels. PMID:23875039

  12. Glycolic Acid Peels/Azelaic Acid 20% Cream Combination and Low Potency Triple Combination Lead to Similar Reduction in Melasma Severity in Ethnic Skin: Results of a Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Rahul; Kanwar, Amrinder Jit; Parsad, Davinder; Kumaran, Muthu Sendhil; Sharma, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous therapeutic options have been tried in the management of melasma. Aims and Objectives: This prospective randomized study was planned to assess the efficacy of low potency triple combination (TC) cream (TC-hydroquinone 2%/tretinoin 0.05%/fluocinolone 0.01%) versus glycolic acid (GA) peels/azelaic acid (AA) 20% cream (GA/AA) combination in melasma. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with melasma were recruited into this study and randomized into two groups. Group A consisting 20 patients received TC cream once a day for night time application for 3 months. Group B comprising of 20 patients received GA/AA 20% cream combination for 3 months. The disease severity was monitored with digital photography, melasma area and severity index (MASI) score, which was calculated at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks, and visual analog scale (VAS) score, which was calculated at baseline and 12 weeks. Results: Of 40 patients, 38 were completed the study. A significant reduction in MASI and VAS was recorded after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment in both groups A and B (P = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the mean MASI scores between the two groups at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Similarly, there was no difference in the mean VAS scores between the two groups at baseline and 12 weeks. Four patients in group A and 3 in group B experienced adverse effects such as irritation, dryness, and photosensitivity. Conclusion: Both low potency TC cream and GA/AA 20% cream combination are effective in treating melasma among Indian patients. PMID:25814702

  13. Achievement of Optimal Medical Therapy Goals for US Adults with Coronary Artery Disease: Results from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Todd M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Bittner, Vera; Brenner, David A.; Cushman, Mary; Goff, David C.; Glasser, Stephen; Muntner, Paul; Tabereaux, Paul B.; Safford, Monika M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In a non-clinical trial setting, to determine the proportion of individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) with optimal risk factor levels based on the Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive DruG Evaluation (COURAGE) trial. Background In COURAGE, the addition of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to optimal medical therapy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction in stable CAD patients but resulted in more revascularization procedures. Methods REGARDS is a national prospective cohort study of 30,239 African American and White community-dwelling individuals aged >45 years enrolled in 2003-7. We calculated the proportion of 3,167 participants with self-reported CAD meeting 7 risk factor goals based on COURAGE: 1) aspirin use, 2) systolic blood pressure <130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure <85 mmHg (<80 mmHg if diabetic), 3) low density lipoprotein cholesterol <85 mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 mg/dL, and triglycerides <150 mg/dL, 4) fasting glucose <126 mg/dL, 5) nonsmoking status, 6) body mass index <25 kg/m,2 and 7) exercise ≥4 days per week. Results The mean age of participants was 69±9 years, 33% were African American, and 35% were female. Overall, the median number of goals met was 4. Less than a quarter met ≥5 of the 7 goals, and 16% met all 3 goals for aspirin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. Older age, white race, higher income, more education, and higher physical functioning were independently associated with meeting more goals. Conclusions There is substantial room for improvement in risk factor reduction among US individuals with CAD. PMID:24534599

  14. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  15. Early results from an effort to downscale a global dissolved inorganic nitrogen model to achieve a regional assessment of nitrogen dynamics in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. C.; Harrison, J.

    2013-12-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) export to coastal systems has increased dramatically since the early 20th century. The increase in N has been linked to significant environmental impacts such as eutrophication, fish kills, and harmful algal blooms and is caused in part by the increasing use and quantity of synthetic fertilizer on farmland. Significant portions of both the Willamette River Valley in Oregon and the Palouse region of eastern Washington are agricultural land, approximately 20% and 57% respectively. Nitrogen in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) can leach from farms and pasture land into ground and surface water systems. This leaching, combined with DIN in runoff, contributes to the environmental degradation of both waterways (i.e. streams, rivers) and coastal estuaries. Because of this it is important to understand what effects changes in DIN application will have on water quality and DIN export to the coast. DIN export data, retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, was analyzed for 23 major subbasins in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) and estimates DIN export (per area yield) ranging from 5.0 to 883.1 kg N km-2 yr-1. Here we present early results from our effort to downscale the Global Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (Global NEWS) DIN model for application within the Columbia River Basin (CRB). This first attempt at downscaling Global NEWS is missing some key higher-resolution N inputs for the model as well as accurate dam retention and runoff factors which could account for the low correlation between model output and observed data (R2 = 0.21).Our regional model predicts DIN yields ranging from 7.9 to 1146.6 kg N km-2 yr-1. Both the model output and observed data predict the highest per area DIN yields occurring in the Willamette river subbasin. Total DIN export to the coast was modeled as 0.06 Tg N yr-1 compared to 0.07 Tg N yr-1 calculated from the measured data. Based on current model inputs biological N2

  16. Short-term antidiabetic treatment with insulin or metformin has a similar impact on the components of metabolic syndrome in women with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring antidiabetic agents: results of a prospective, randomised study.

    PubMed

    Zawiejska, A; Wender-Ozegowska, E; Grewling-Szmit, K; Brazert, M; Brazert, J

    2016-04-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased prevalence of fetal and maternal complications primarily caused by maternal hyperglycemia, which results in abnormal fetal growth. Diet modification is a common first step in the treatment of GDM, followed by antidiabetic pharmacotherapy if this approach fails. Insulin therapy is generally accepted; however, oral hypoglycemic agents have been used in this population. In this prospective, randomised study, we compared maternal metabolic status after treatment with insulin or metformin. Pregnant women (gestational age: ≥ 20 weeks) with GDM requiring medical hypoglycemic treatment were randomly allocated to the Metformin (n = 35) or Insulin (n = 43) Groups. Maternal metabolic status - assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c) level, glycemic profile, insulin concentration, Homeostatic Model Assessment - Insulin Resistance index, and lipids - was recorded at booking and throughout pregnancy. The characteristics of the study group were: maternal age 33.5 ± 5.9 years, gestational age at baseline 28.5 ± 3.5 weeks, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) 32.2 ± 3.5 kg/m(2), HbA1c at baseline 5.6 ± 0.6%, and average daily glycemia 5.9 ± 0.6 mmol/dl. Fasting glycemia at term was significantly lower in the Insulin Group but there were no significant differences in mean daily glycemia, HbA1c and BMI at term between the groups. Longitudinally, there was a small but significant increase in BMI and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the Insulin Group and a significant increase in the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and a trend towards higher triglycerides in the Metformin Group. Both fasting and average daily glycemia were significantly reduced following treatment in both groups. No such change was evident for HbA1c. In a relative risk analysis, metformin treatment was associated with an insignificant elevated risk of HbA1c, triglycerides and lipid indices falling within the

  17. Nonrigid image registration using an entropic similarity.

    PubMed

    Khader, Mohammed; Ben Hamza, A

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a nonrigid image registration technique by optimizing a generalized information-theoretic similarity measure using the quasi-Newton method as an optimization scheme and cubic B-splines for modeling the nonrigid deformation field between the fixed and moving 3-D image pairs. To achieve a compromise between the nonrigid registration accuracy and the associated computational cost, we implement a three-level hierarchical multiresolution approach such that the image resolution is increased in a coarse to fine fashion. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the registration accuracy of our approach. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated on a 3-D magnetic resonance data volume and also on clinically acquired 4-D CT image datasets. PMID:21690017

  18. Elementary School Achievement Profiles. Portland Public Schools. A School-by-School Report of Basic Skills Test Results and School/Student/Staff Data: School Year 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This report contains Portland Achievement Levels Tests results for 61 elementary schools, 18 middle schools, and one special program school in the Portland School District for the 1986-87 school year. Twelve different grade-level configurations are represented, from pre-kindergarten to grade 12. Tests are designed to be administered in accordance…

  19. Human Capital: Building the Information Technology Workforce To Achieve Results. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    The Comptroller General of the United States testified before Congress regarding the General Accounting Office's (GAO's) framework for building the information technology (IT) work force to achieve results. The following were among the key points of his testimony: (1) the federal government is facing pervasive human capital challenges that are…

  20. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the 2014 report, "Closing the Achievement Gap Through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten," researchers examined the impacts of "Tools of the Mind" on cognitive and academic…

  1. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2011. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report, issued by the Connecticut Department of Higher Education, reports on trends in higher education for the year 2011. Six goals are presented, each with at least two indicators. Each indicator is broken down into the following subsections: About This Indicator; Highlights; and In the Future. Most indicators also include statistical…

  2. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  3. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  4. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  5. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The measures…

  6. Converting customer expectations into achievable results.

    PubMed

    Landis, G A

    1999-11-01

    It is not enough in today's environment to just meet customers' expectations--we must exceed them. Therefore, one must learn what constitutes expectations. These needs have expanded during the past few years from just manufacturing the product and looking at the outcome from a provincial standpoint. Now we must understand and satisfy the entire supply chain. To manage this process and satisfy the customer, the process now involves the supplier, the manufacturer, and the entire distribution system. PMID:10623140

  7. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An

    2015-01-01

    Node similarity significantly contributes to the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed epidemic spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct the underlying networks hosting the propagation. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops nearly to zero. To improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we propose a temporal similarity metric which takes into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method. PMID:26086198

  8. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An

    2015-01-01

    Node similarity significantly contributes to the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed epidemic spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct the underlying networks hosting the propagation. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops nearly to zero. To improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we propose a temporal similarity metric which takes into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method. PMID:26086198

  9. Results, Results, Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dale

    2000-01-01

    Given the amount of time, energy, and money devoted to provincial achievement exams in Canada, it is disturbing that Alberta students and teachers feel so pressured and that the exams do not accurately reflect what students know. Research shows that intelligence has an (untested) emotional component. (MLH)

  10. FRESCO: Referential compression of highly similar sequences.

    PubMed

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In many applications, sets of similar texts or sequences are of high importance. Prominent examples are revision histories of documents or genomic sequences. Modern high-throughput sequencing technologies are able to generate DNA sequences at an ever-increasing rate. In parallel to the decreasing experimental time and cost necessary to produce DNA sequences, computational requirements for analysis and storage of the sequences are steeply increasing. Compression is a key technology to deal with this challenge. Recently, referential compression schemes, storing only the differences between a to-be-compressed input and a known reference sequence, gained a lot of interest in this field. In this paper, we propose a general open-source framework to compress large amounts of biological sequence data called Framework for REferential Sequence COmpression (FRESCO). Our basic compression algorithm is shown to be one to two orders of magnitudes faster than comparable related work, while achieving similar compression ratios. We also propose several techniques to further increase compression ratios, while still retaining the advantage in speed: 1) selecting a good reference sequence; and 2) rewriting a reference sequence to allow for better compression. In addition,we propose a new way of further boosting the compression ratios by applying referential compression to already referentially compressed files (second-order compression). This technique allows for compression ratios way beyond state of the art, for instance,4,000:1 and higher for human genomes. We evaluate our algorithms on a large data set from three different species (more than 1,000 genomes, more than 3 TB) and on a collection of versions of Wikipedia pages. Our results show that real-time compression of highly similar sequences at high compression ratios is possible on modern hardware. PMID:24524158

  11. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  12. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  13. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  14. Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium Resulted in Significantly Higher Tissue Chromium Burden Compared With Trivalent Chromium Following Similar Oral Doses to Male F344/N Rats and Female B6C3F1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Bradley J.; Stout, Matthew D.; Levine, Keith E.; Kissling, Grace E.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Walden, Ramsey; Abdo, Kamal; Pritchard, John B.; Fernando, Reshan A.; Burka, Leo T.; Hooth, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    In National Toxicology Program 2-year studies, hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] administered in drinking water was clearly carcinogenic in male and female rats and mice, resulting in small intestine epithelial neoplasms in mice at a dose equivalent to or within an order of magnitude of human doses that could result from consumption of chromium-contaminated drinking water, assuming that dose scales by body weight3/4 (body weight raised to the 3/4 power). In contrast, exposure to trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] at much higher concentrations may have been carcinogenic in male rats but was not carcinogenic in mice or female rats. As part of these studies, total chromium was measured in tissues and excreta of additional groups of male rats and female mice. These data were used to infer the uptake and distribution of Cr(VI) because Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) in vivo, and no methods are available to speciate tissue chromium. Comparable external doses resulted in much higher tissue chromium concentrations following exposure to Cr(VI) compared with Cr(III), indicating that a portion of the Cr(VI) escaped gastric reduction and was distributed systemically. Linear or supralinear dose responses of total chromium in tissues were observed following exposure to Cr(VI), indicating that these exposures did not saturate gastric reduction capacity. When Cr(VI) exposure was normalized to ingested dose, chromium concentrations in the liver and glandular stomach were higher in mice, whereas kidney concentrations were higher in rats. In vitro studies demonstrated that Cr(VI), but not Cr(III), is a substrate of the sodium/sulfate cotransporter, providing a partial explanation for the greater absorption of Cr(VI). PMID:20843897

  15. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980–2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  16. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories. PMID:27137462

  17. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  18. Exemplar Similarity and Rule Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ulrike; Prat-Sala, Merce; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Brumby, Duncan P.

    2010-01-01

    We report four experiments examining effects of instance similarity on the application of simple explicit rules. We found effects of similarity to illustrative exemplars in error patterns and reaction times. These effects arose even though participants were given perfectly predictive rules, the similarity manipulation depended entirely on…

  19. Acoustic Similarity and Dichotic Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Peter

    1978-01-01

    An experiment tests conjectures that right ear advantage (REA) has an auditory origin in competition or interference between acoustically similar stimuli and that feature-sharing effect (FSE) has its origin in assignment of features of phonetically similar stimuli. No effect on the REA for acoustic similarity, and a clear effect of acoustic…

  20. Stimulus-based similarity and the recognition of spoken words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Edward T.

    2003-10-01

    Spoken word recognition has been hypothesized to be achieved via a competitive process amongst perceptually similar lexical candidates in the mental lexicon. In this process, lexical candidates are activated as a function of their perceived similarity to the spoken stimulus. The evidence supporting this hypothesis has largely come from studies of auditory word recognition. In this talk, evidence from our studies of visual spoken word recognition will be reviewed. Visual speech provides the opportunity to highlight the importance of stimulus-driven perceptual similarity because it presents a different pattern of segmental similarity than is afforded by auditory speech degraded by noise. Our results are consistent with stimulus-driven activation followed by competition as general spoken word recognition mechanism. In addition, results will be presented from recent investigations of the direct prediction of perceptual similarity from measurements of spoken stimuli. High levels of correlation have been observed between the predicted and perceptually obtained distances for a large set of spoken consonants. These results support the hypothesis that the perceptual structure of English consonants and vowels is predicted by stimulus structure without the need for an intervening level of abstract linguistic representation. [Research supported by NSF IIS 9996088 and NIH DC04856.

  1. RAPSearch: a fast protein similarity search tool for short reads

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is producing enormous corpuses of short DNA reads, affecting emerging fields like metagenomics. Protein similarity search--a key step to achieve annotation of protein-coding genes in these short reads, and identification of their biological functions--faces daunting challenges because of the very sizes of the short read datasets. Results We developed a fast protein similarity search tool RAPSearch that utilizes a reduced amino acid alphabet and suffix array to detect seeds of flexible length. For short reads (translated in 6 frames) we tested, RAPSearch achieved ~20-90 times speedup as compared to BLASTX. RAPSearch missed only a small fraction (~1.3-3.2%) of BLASTX similarity hits, but it also discovered additional homologous proteins (~0.3-2.1%) that BLASTX missed. By contrast, BLAT, a tool that is even slightly faster than RAPSearch, had significant loss of sensitivity as compared to RAPSearch and BLAST. Conclusions RAPSearch is implemented as open-source software and is accessible at http://omics.informatics.indiana.edu/mg/RAPSearch. It enables faster protein similarity search. The application of RAPSearch in metageomics has also been demonstrated. PMID:21575167

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children’s engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  3. Walking on a user similarity network towards personalized recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gan, Mingxin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommender systems have been receiving more and more attention in addressing the serious problem of information overload accompanying the rapid evolution of the world-wide-web. Although traditional collaborative filtering approaches based on similarities between users have achieved remarkable success, it has been shown that the existence of popular objects may adversely influence the correct scoring of candidate objects, which lead to unreasonable recommendation results. Meanwhile, recent advances have demonstrated that approaches based on diffusion and random walk processes exhibit superior performance over collaborative filtering methods in both the recommendation accuracy and diversity. Building on these results, we adopt three strategies (power-law adjustment, nearest neighbor, and threshold filtration) to adjust a user similarity network from user similarity scores calculated on historical data, and then propose a random walk with restart model on the constructed network to achieve personalized recommendations. We perform cross-validation experiments on two real data sets (MovieLens and Netflix) and compare the performance of our method against the existing state-of-the-art methods. Results show that our method outperforms existing methods in not only recommendation accuracy and diversity, but also retrieval performance. PMID:25489942

  4. Walking on a User Similarity Network towards Personalized Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Mingxin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommender systems have been receiving more and more attention in addressing the serious problem of information overload accompanying the rapid evolution of the world-wide-web. Although traditional collaborative filtering approaches based on similarities between users have achieved remarkable success, it has been shown that the existence of popular objects may adversely influence the correct scoring of candidate objects, which lead to unreasonable recommendation results. Meanwhile, recent advances have demonstrated that approaches based on diffusion and random walk processes exhibit superior performance over collaborative filtering methods in both the recommendation accuracy and diversity. Building on these results, we adopt three strategies (power-law adjustment, nearest neighbor, and threshold filtration) to adjust a user similarity network from user similarity scores calculated on historical data, and then propose a random walk with restart model on the constructed network to achieve personalized recommendations. We perform cross-validation experiments on two real data sets (MovieLens and Netflix) and compare the performance of our method against the existing state-of-the-art methods. Results show that our method outperforms existing methods in not only recommendation accuracy and diversity, but also retrieval performance. PMID:25489942

  5. DDE Transposases: Structural Similarity and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Nesmelova, Irina V.; Hackett, Perry B.

    2010-01-01

    DNA transposons are mobile DNA elements that can move from one DNA molecule to another and thereby deliver genetic information into human chromosomes in order to confer a new function or replace a defective gene. This process requires a transposase enzyme. During transposition DD[E/D]-transposases undergo a series of conformational changes. We summarize the structural features of DD[E/D]-transposases for which three-dimensional structures are available and that relate to transposases, which are being developed for use in mammalian cells. Similar to other members of the polynucleotidyl transferase family, the catalytic domains of DD[E/D]-transposases share a common feature: an RNase H-like fold that draws three catalytically active residues, the DDE motif, into close proximity. Beyond this fold, the structures of catalytic domains vary considerably, and the DD[E/D]-transposases display marked structural diversity within their DNA-binding domains. Yet despite such structural variability, essentially the same end result is achieved. PMID:20615441

  6. A framework for profile similarity: integrating similarity, normativeness, and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Furr, R Michael

    2008-10-01

    Many questions in personality psychology lend themselves to the analysis of profile similarity. A profile approach to issues such as personality judgment, personality similarity, behavioral consistency, developmental stability, and person-environment fit is intuitively appealing. However, it entails conceptual and statistical challenges arising from the overlap among profile similarity and normativeness, which presents potential confounds and potential opportunities. This article describes the normativeness problem, articulating the need to evaluate profile similarity alongside normativeness and distinctiveness. It presents conceptual and psychometric foundations of a framework differentiating these elements for pairs of profiles. It derives two models from this framework, and it discusses the application of their components to a variety of research domains. Finally, it presents recommendations and implications regarding the use of these components and profile similarity more generally. This approach can reveal and manage potential confounds, and it can provide theoretical insights that might otherwise be overlooked. PMID:18705644

  7. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  8. Similarity Measures for Boolean Search Request Formulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki, Tadeusz

    1982-01-01

    Proposes a means for determining the similarity between search request formulations in online information retrieval systems, and discusses the use of similarity measures for clustering search formulations and document files in such systems. Experimental results using the proposed methods are presented in three tables. A reference list is provided.…

  9. Some Effects of Similarity Self-Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin C.; Strong, Stanley R.

    1972-01-01

    College males were interviewed about how college had altered their friendships, values, and plans. The interviewers diclosed experiences and feelings similar to those revealed by the students. Results support Byrne's Law of Similarity in generating interpersonal attraction in the interview and suggest that the timing of self-disclosures is…

  10. Thermodynamic similarity of physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccariello, Salvino

    2016-02-01

    Two different physical systems A and B are said to be thermodynamically similar if one of the thermodynamic potentials of system A is proportional to the corresponding potential of B after expressing the state variables of system A in terms of those of B by a transformation reversible throughout the state variables' domain. The thermodynamic similarity has a transitive nature so that physical systems divide into classes of thermodynamically similar systems that have similar phase diagrams. Considering the simplest physical systems, one finds that a class of thermodynamically similar systems is formed by the ideal classical gas, the Fermi and the Bose ideal quantum gases, whatever the dimensions of the confining spaces, and the one dimensional hard rod gas. Another class is formed by the physical systems characterized by interactions that coincide by a scaling of the distance and the coupling constant.

  11. Does Language about Similarity Play a Role in Fostering Similarity Comparison in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcaliskan, Seyda; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Gentner, Dedre; Mylander, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Commenting on perceptual similarities between objects stands out as an important linguistic achievement, one that may pave the way towards noticing and commenting on more abstract relational commonalities between objects. To explore whether having a conventional linguistic system is necessary for children to comment on different types of…

  12. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  13. Privacy-preserving matching of similar patients.

    PubMed

    Vatsalan, Dinusha; Christen, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The identification of similar entities represented by records in different databases has drawn considerable attention in many application areas, including in the health domain. One important type of entity matching application that is vital for quality healthcare analytics is the identification of similar patients, known as similar patient matching. A key component of identifying similar records is the calculation of similarity of the values in attributes (fields) between these records. Due to increasing privacy and confidentiality concerns, using the actual attribute values of patient records to identify similar records across different organizations is becoming non-trivial because the attributes in such records often contain highly sensitive information such as personal and medical details of patients. Therefore, the matching needs to be based on masked (encoded) values while being effective and efficient to allow matching of large databases. Bloom filter encoding has widely been used as an efficient masking technique for privacy-preserving matching of string and categorical values. However, no work on Bloom filter-based masking of numerical data, such as integer (e.g. age), floating point (e.g. body mass index), and modulus (numbers wrap around upon reaching a certain value, e.g. date and time), which are commonly required in the health domain, has been presented in the literature. We propose a framework with novel methods for masking numerical data using Bloom filters, thereby facilitating the calculation of similarities between records. We conduct an empirical study on publicly available real-world datasets which shows that our framework provides efficient masking and achieves similar matching accuracy compared to the matching of actual unencoded patient records. PMID:26707453

  14. Efficient Set Similarity Joins Using Min-prefixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Leonardo A.; Härder, Theo

    Identification of all objects in a dataset whose similarity is not less than a specified threshold is of major importance for management, search, and analysis of data. Set similarity joins are commonly used to implement this operation; they scale to large datasets and are versatile to represent a variety of similarity notions. Most set similarity join methods proposed so far present two main phases at a high level of abstraction: candidate generation producing a set of candidate pairs and verification applying the actual similarity measure to the candidates and returning the correct answer. Previous work has primarily focused on the reduction of candidates, where candidate generation presented the major effort to obtain better pruning results. Here, we propose an opposite approach. We drastically decrease the computational cost of candidate generation by dynamically reducing the number of indexed objects at the expense of increasing the workload of the verification phase. Our experimental findings show that this trade-off is advantageous: we consistently achieve substantial speed-ups as compared to previous algorithms.

  15. Achieving ideal breast aesthetics with autologous reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Achieving ideal breast aesthetic has become a top priority for women considering breast reconstruction following mastectomy. The use of autologous tissue is generally regarded as providing the most natural results because donor tissues quality and consistency is similar to that of the native breast. There are several donor sites that are particularly useful for autologous reconstruction that include the abdomen, gluteal region, posterior thorax, and the thigh. Traditional and microsurgical techniques can be used. Shaping is a critical component and involves a basic understanding of the footprint, conus, and skin envelope. This manuscript will review many aspects of breast shaping in-order to achieve aesthetically pleasing results in a predictable manner. PMID:26005645

  16. Activity-relevant similarity values for fingerprints and implications for similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A largely unsolved problem in chemoinformatics is the issue of how calculated compound similarity relates to activity similarity, which is central to many applications. In general, activity relationships are predicted from calculated similarity values. However, there is no solid scientific foundation to bridge between calculated molecular and observed activity similarity. Accordingly, the success rate of identifying new active compounds by similarity searching is limited. Although various attempts have been made to establish relationships between calculated fingerprint similarity values and biological activities, none of these has yielded generally applicable rules for similarity searching. In this study, we have addressed the question of molecular versus activity similarity in a more fundamental way. First, we have evaluated if activity-relevant similarity value ranges could in principle be identified for standard fingerprints and distinguished from similarity resulting from random compound comparisons. Then, we have analyzed if activity-relevant similarity values could be used to guide typical similarity search calculations aiming to identify active compounds in databases. It was found that activity-relevant similarity values can be identified as a characteristic feature of fingerprints. However, it was also shown that such values cannot be reliably used as thresholds for practical similarity search calculations. In addition, the analysis presented herein helped to rationalize differences in fingerprint search performance. PMID:27127620

  17. Self-similar aftershock rates.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise-an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes-the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting. PMID:27627324

  18. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Clara E.; O’Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection—identification of seismic events in continuous data—is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact “fingerprints” of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes. PMID:26665176

  19. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Clara E; O'Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J; Beroza, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection-identification of seismic events in continuous data-is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact "fingerprints" of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes. PMID:26665176

  20. Representation is representation of similarities.

    PubMed

    Edelman, S

    1998-08-01

    Advanced perceptual systems are faced with the problem of securing a principled (ideally, veridical) relationship between the world and its internal representation. I propose a unified approach to visual representation, addressing the need for superordinate and basic-level categorization and for the identification of specific instances of familiar categories. According to the proposed theory, a shape is represented internally by the responses of a small number of tuned modules, each broadly selective for some reference shape, whose similarity to the stimulus it measures. This amounts to embedding the stimulus in a low-dimensional proximal shape space spanned by the outputs of the active modules. This shape space supports representations of distal shape similarities that are veridical as Shepard's (1968) second-order isomorphisms (i.e., correspondence between distal and proximal similarities among shapes, rather than between distal shapes and their proximal representations). Representation in terms of similarities to reference shapes supports processing (e.g., discrimination) of shapes that are radically different from the reference ones, without the need for the computationally problematic decomposition into parts required by other theories. Furthermore, a general expression for similarity between two stimuli, based on comparisons to reference shapes, can be used to derive models of perceived similarity ranging from continuous, symmetric, and hierarchical ones, as in multidimensional scaling (Shepard 1980), to discrete and nonhierarchical ones, as in the general contrast models (Shepard & Arabie 1979; Tversky 1977). PMID:10097019

  1. Two perspectives on similarity between words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Stefan A.

    2003-10-01

    This presentation examines the similarity between words from both bottom up (phonetic) and top down (phonological/psycholinguistic) perspectives. From the phonological perspective, the influence of structure on similarity is explored using metalinguistic acceptability judgments for multisyllabic nonwords. Results from an experiment suggest that subjects try to align novel words with known words in order to maximize similarities while minimizing dissimilarities. This finding parallels results from psychology on similarity judgments for visual scenes. From the phonetic perspective, the influence of similar gestures on speech error rates is examined using ultrasound measurement of tongue position. In a pilot experiment, subjects, produced tongue twisters containing words where onset and vowel phonemes had similar gestures (e.g., tip, comb) and where the onset and vowel had dissimilar gestures (e.g., tube, keep). Preliminary results suggest that misarticulations are more frequent in the context of dissimilar gestures (e.g., in the tongue twister tip cape keep tape, error rates are higher for /k/ than /t/). These errors appear to be gestural interactions rather than errors at the phonemic or featural level of phonological spellout. Together, these two experiments indicate that similarity relations between words are found at multiple levels, any which are potentially relevant to the structure of phonological systems.

  2. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  3. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  4. Stability of similarity measurements for bipartite networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Hou, Lei; Pan, Xue; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental measure in network analyses and machine learning algorithms, with wide applications ranging from personalized recommendation to socio-economic dynamics. We argue that an effective similarity measurement should guarantee the stability even under some information loss. With six bipartite networks, we investigate the stabilities of fifteen similarity measurements by comparing the similarity matrixes of two data samples which are randomly divided from original data sets. Results show that, the fifteen measurements can be well classified into three clusters according to their stabilities, and measurements in the same cluster have similar mathematical definitions. In addition, we develop a top-n-stability method for personalized recommendation, and find that the unstable similarities would recommend false information to users, and the performance of recommendation would be largely improved by using stable similarity measurements. This work provides a novel dimension to analyze and evaluate similarity measurements, which can further find applications in link prediction, personalized recommendation, clustering algorithms, community detection and so on. PMID:26725688

  5. Stability of similarity measurements for bipartite networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Hou, Lei; Pan, Xue; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental measure in network analyses and machine learning algorithms, with wide applications ranging from personalized recommendation to socio-economic dynamics. We argue that an effective similarity measurement should guarantee the stability even under some information loss. With six bipartite networks, we investigate the stabilities of fifteen similarity measurements by comparing the similarity matrixes of two data samples which are randomly divided from original data sets. Results show that, the fifteen measurements can be well classified into three clusters according to their stabilities, and measurements in the same cluster have similar mathematical definitions. In addition, we develop a top-n-stability method for personalized recommendation, and find that the unstable similarities would recommend false information to users, and the performance of recommendation would be largely improved by using stable similarity measurements. This work provides a novel dimension to analyze and evaluate similarity measurements, which can further find applications in link prediction, personalized recommendation, clustering algorithms, community detection and so on. PMID:26725688

  6. Stability of similarity measurements for bipartite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Hou, Lei; Pan, Xue; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental measure in network analyses and machine learning algorithms, with wide applications ranging from personalized recommendation to socio-economic dynamics. We argue that an effective similarity measurement should guarantee the stability even under some information loss. With six bipartite networks, we investigate the stabilities of fifteen similarity measurements by comparing the similarity matrixes of two data samples which are randomly divided from original data sets. Results show that, the fifteen measurements can be well classified into three clusters according to their stabilities, and measurements in the same cluster have similar mathematical definitions. In addition, we develop a top-n-stability method for personalized recommendation, and find that the unstable similarities would recommend false information to users, and the performance of recommendation would be largely improved by using stable similarity measurements. This work provides a novel dimension to analyze and evaluate similarity measurements, which can further find applications in link prediction, personalized recommendation, clustering algorithms, community detection and so on.

  7. Self-similar mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Oiwa, Nestor N; Glazier, James A

    2004-01-01

    We show that repeated sequences, like palindromes (local repetitions) and homologies between two different nucleotide sequences (motifs along the genome), compose a self-similar (fractal) pattern in mitochondrial DNA. This self-similarity comes from the looplike structures distributed along the genome. The looplike structures generate scaling laws in a pseudorandom DNA walk constructed from the sequence, called a Lévy flight. We measure the scaling laws from the generalized fractal dimension and singularity spectrum for mitochondrial DNA walks for 35 different species. In particular, we report characteristic loop distributions for mammal mitochondrial genomes. PMID:15371639

  8. Gait Recognition Using Image Self-Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenAbdelkader, Chiraz; Cutler, Ross G.; Davis, Larry S.

    2004-12-01

    Gait is one of the few biometrics that can be measured at a distance, and is hence useful for passive surveillance as well as biometric applications. Gait recognition research is still at its infancy, however, and we have yet to solve the fundamental issue of finding gait features which at once have sufficient discrimination power and can be extracted robustly and accurately from low-resolution video. This paper describes a novel gait recognition technique based on the image self-similarity of a walking person. We contend that the similarity plot encodes a projection of gait dynamics. It is also correspondence-free, robust to segmentation noise, and works well with low-resolution video. The method is tested on multiple data sets of varying sizes and degrees of difficulty. Performance is best for fronto-parallel viewpoints, whereby a recognition rate of 98% is achieved for a data set of 6 people, and 70% for a data set of 54 people.

  9. What Difference Reveals about Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagi, Eyal; Gentner, Dedre; Lovett, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Detecting that two images are different is faster for highly dissimilar images than for highly similar images. Paradoxically, we showed that the reverse occurs when people are asked to describe "how" two images differ--that is, to state a difference between two images. Following structure-mapping theory, we propose that this disassociation arises…

  10. Similarity Measures for Comparing Biclusterings.

    PubMed

    Horta, Danilo; Campello, Ricardo J G B

    2014-01-01

    The comparison of ordinary partitions of a set of objects is well established in the clustering literature, which comprehends several studies on the analysis of the properties of similarity measures for comparing partitions. However, similarity measures for clusterings are not readily applicable to biclusterings, since each bicluster is a tuple of two sets (of rows and columns), whereas a cluster is only a single set (of rows). Some biclustering similarity measures have been defined as minor contributions in papers which primarily report on proposals and evaluation of biclustering algorithms or comparative analyses of biclustering algorithms. The consequence is that some desirable properties of such measures have been overlooked in the literature. We review 14 biclustering similarity measures. We define eight desirable properties of a biclustering measure, discuss their importance, and prove which properties each of the reviewed measures has. We show examples drawn and inspired from important studies in which several biclustering measures convey misleading evaluations due to the absence of one or more of the discussed properties. We also advocate the use of a more general comparison approach that is based on the idea of transforming the original problem of comparing biclusterings into an equivalent problem of comparing clustering partitions with overlapping clusters. PMID:26356865

  11. Mean Similarity Analysis Version 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEANSIM6 contains software for Mean Similarity Analysis, a method of assessing the strength of a classification of many objects (sites) into a relatively small number of groups. Classification strength is measured by the extent to which sites within the same groups are more simil...

  12. Fuzzy similarity index for discrimination of EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a new approach based on the computation of fuzzy similarity index was presented for discrimination of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The EEG, a highly complex signal, is one of the most common sources of information used to study brain function and neurological disorders. The analyzed EEG signals were consisted of five sets (set A-healthy volunteer, eyes open; set B-healthy volunteer, eyes closed; set C-seizure-free intervals of five patients from hippocampal formation of opposite hemisphere; set D-seizure-free intervals of five patients from epileptogenic zone; set E-epileptic seizure segments). The EEG signals were considered as chaotic signals and this consideration was tested successfully by the computation of Lyapunov exponents. The computed Lyapunov exponents were used to represent the EEG signals. The aim of the study is discriminating the EEG signals by the combination of Lyapunov exponents and fuzzy similarity index. Toward achieving this aim, fuzzy sets were obtained from the feature sets (Lyapunov exponents) of the signals under study. The results demonstrated that the similarity between the fuzzy sets of the studied signals indicated the variabilities in the EEG signals. Thus, the fuzzy similarity index could discriminate the healthy EEG segments (sets A and B) and the other three types of segments (sets C, D, and E) recorded from epileptic patients. PMID:17945895

  13. Identification and sorting of regular textures according to their similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández Mesa, Pilar; Anastasiadis, Johannes; Puente León, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Regardless whether mosaics, material surfaces or skin surfaces are inspected their texture plays an important role. Texture is a property which is hard to describe using words but it can easily be described in pictures. Furthermore, a huge amount of digital images containing a visual description of textures already exists. However, this information becomes useless if there are no appropriate methods to browse the data. In addition, depending on the given task some properties like scale, rotation or intensity invariance are desired. In this paper we propose to analyze texture images according to their characteristic pattern. First a classification approach is proposed to separate regular from non-regular textures. The second stage will focus on regular textures suggesting a method to sort them according to their similarity. Different features will be extracted from the texture in order to describe its scale, orientation, texel and the texel's relative position. Depending on the desired invariance of the visual characteristics (like the texture's scale or the texel's form invariance) the comparison of the features between images will be weighted and combined to define the degree of similarity between them. Tuning the weighting parameters allows this search algorithm to be easily adapted to the requirements of the desired task. Not only the total invariance of desired parameters can be adjusted, the weighting of the parameters may also be modified to adapt to an application-specific type of similarity. This search method has been evaluated using different textures and similarity criteria achieving very promising results.

  14. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  15. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  16. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  17. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  18. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  19. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  20. Does language about similarity play a role in fostering similarity comparison in children?

    PubMed Central

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Gentner, Dedre; Mylander, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Commenting on perceptual similarities between objects stands out as an important linguistic achievement, one that may pave the way towards noticing and commenting on more abstract relational commonalities between objects. To explore whether having a conventional linguistic system is necessary for children to comment on different types of similarity comparisons, we observed four children who had not been exposed to usable linguistic input—deaf children whose hearing losses prevented them from learning spoken language and whose hearing parents had not exposed them to sign language. These children developed gesture systems that have language-like structure at many different levels. Here we ask whether the deaf children used their gestures to comment on similarity relations and, if so, which types of relations they expressed. We found that all four deaf children were able to use their gestures to express similarity comparisons (POINT TO CAT+POINT TO TIGER) resembling those conveyed by 40 hearing children in early gesture+speech combinations (cat+POINT TO TIGER). However, the two groups diverged at later ages. Hearing children, after acquiring the word like, shifted from primarily expressing global similarity (as in cat/tiger) to primarily expressing single-property similarity (as in crayon is brown like my hair). In contrast, the deaf children, lacking an explicit term for similarity, continued to primarily express global similarity. The findings underscore the robustness of similarity comparisons in human communication, but also highlight the importance of conventional terms for comparison as likely contributors to routinely expressing more focused similarity relations. PMID:19524220

  1. The baryonic self similarity of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alard, C.

    2014-06-20

    The cosmological simulations indicates that dark matter halos have specific self-similar properties. However, the halo similarity is affected by the baryonic feedback. By using momentum-driven winds as a model to represent the baryon feedback, an equilibrium condition is derived which directly implies the emergence of a new type of similarity. The new self-similar solution has constant acceleration at a reference radius for both dark matter and baryons. This model receives strong support from the observations of galaxies. The new self-similar properties imply that the total acceleration at larger distances is scale-free, the transition between the dark matter and baryons dominated regime occurs at a constant acceleration, and the maximum amplitude of the velocity curve at larger distances is proportional to M {sup 1/4}. These results demonstrate that this self-similar model is consistent with the basics of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) phenomenology. In agreement with the observations, the coincidence between the self-similar model and MOND breaks at the scale of clusters of galaxies. Some numerical experiments show that the behavior of the density near the origin is closely approximated by a Einasto profile.

  2. Gait Signal Analysis with Similarity Measure

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Seungsoo

    2014-01-01

    Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons. PMID:25110724

  3. A Comparative Study of Achievement in Project Physics by Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Reports the results of a study relating to the most appropriate secondary grade level to enroll in physics, the reliability of standardized achievement scores in algebra and physics as predictors of success in high school physics, and the similarities in background and achievement of college and secondary physics students. (JR)

  4. Low and High Mathematics Achievement in Japanese, Chinese, and American Elementary-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    First and fifth grade students who scored high or low on a mathematics test were tested for intellectual ability and reading achievement. Students and their mothers were interviewed. Results indicated that factors associated with levels of achievement in mathematics operate in a similar fashion across three cultures that differ greatly in their…

  5. On self-similarity of crack layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botsis, J.; Kunin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The crack layer (CL) theory of Chudnovsky (1986), based on principles of thermodynamics of irreversible processes, employs a crucial hypothesis of self-similarity. The self-similarity hypothesis states that the value of the damage density at a point x of the active zone at a time t coincides with that at the corresponding point in the initial (t = 0) configuration of the active zone, the correspondence being given by a time-dependent affine transformation of the space variables. In this paper, the implications of the self-similarity hypothesis for qusi-static CL propagation is investigated using polystyrene as a model material and examining the evolution of damage distribution along the trailing edge which is approximated by a straight segment perpendicular to the crack path. The results support the self-similarity hypothesis adopted by the CL theory.

  6. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  7. The Cognitive Determinants of Achieving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andy

    A cognitive explanation of achievement-related behavior is developed. It is suggested that high and low achievers diverge behaviorally in the achievement situation because they conceptualize the causes of success and failure in different ways. The results of a study are presented which show that subjects high in achievement needs tend to attribute…

  8. Mechanisms for similarity matching in disparity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Goutcher, Ross; Hibbard, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Early neural mechanisms for the measurement of binocular disparity appear to operate in a manner consistent with cross-correlation-like processes. Consequently, cross-correlation, or cross-correlation-like procedures have been used in a range of models of disparity measurement. Using such procedures as the basis for disparity measurement creates a preference for correspondence solutions that maximize the similarity between local left and right eye image regions. Here, we examine how observers’ perception of depth in an ambiguous stereogram is affected by manipulations of luminance and orientation-based image similarity. Results show a strong effect of coarse-scale luminance similarity manipulations, but a relatively weak effect of finer-scale manipulations of orientation similarity. This is in contrast to the measurements of depth obtained from a standard cross-correlation model. This model shows strong effects of orientation similarity manipulations and weaker effects of luminance similarity. In order to account for these discrepancies, the standard cross-correlation approach may be modified to include an initial spatial frequency filtering stage. The performance of this adjusted model most closely matches human psychophysical data when spatial frequency filtering favors coarser scales. This is consistent with the operation of disparity measurement processes where spatial frequency and disparity tuning are correlated, or where disparity measurement operates in a coarse-to-fine manner. PMID:24409163

  9. Hydrologic similarity, comparative hydrology and hydrologic extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, T.; Laaha, G.; Koffler, D.; Singh, R.

    2012-04-01

    Recent years have brought a renewed focus on the issue of hydrologic similarity. What makes two catchments similar and what can we do with this understanding? The reason for this issue being so important lies at least partially in the need for generalization of results in a scientific field, which is limited through the large heterogeneity in our environment. The issue of hydrologic similarity is of course as old as hydrology itself, however, we believe that taking stock is needed from time to time to guide comparative hydrology efforts that have the potential to bring structure into the field of catchment hydrology. Apart from that, catchment similarity is the rational behind any attempt of predicting streamflow at ungauged basins, and a better understanding and definition of hydrologic similarity will enhance our ability to estimate water resources in absence of stream gauges. In this talk we focus on signatures of hydrologic extremes, i.e. flood and low flow characteristics of streamflow. Can similarity concepts relate catchment behavior under both high and low flow extremes? In how far do our understanding and our predictive capability regarding hydrologic extremes benefit from a holistic few of individual catchments, and from a comparative analysis between catchment? We will review different studies and present a meta analysis to highlight the proven and the potential benefit of taking a broader view.

  10. Sustainable weight loss among overweight and obese lactating women is achieved with an energy-reduced diet in line with dietary recommendations: results from the LEVA randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Fredrik; Winkvist, Anna; Brekke, Hilde K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary changes during and after a dietary treatment shown to result in significant and sustained weight loss among lactating overweight and obese women. This is crucial before clinical implementation. Data were collected from the LEVA (in Swedish: Livsstil för Effektiv Viktminskning under Amning [Lifestyle for Effective Weight Loss During Lactation]) randomized controlled factorial trial with a 12-week intervention and a 1-year follow up. At 10 to 14 weeks postpartum, 68 lactating Swedish women with a prepregnancy body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 25 to 35 were randomized to structured dietary treatment, physical exercise treatment, combined treatment, or usual care (controls) for a 12-week intervention, with a 1-year follow-up. Dietary intake was assessed with 4-day weighed dietary records. Recruitment took place between 2007 and 2010. The main outcome measures were changes in macro- and micronutrient intake from baseline to 12 weeks and 1 year. Main and interaction effects of the treatments were analyzed by a 2×2 factorial approach using a General Linear Model adjusted for relevant covariates (baseline intake and estimated underreporting). It was found that at baseline, the women had an intake of fat and sucrose above, and an intake of total carbohydrates and fiber below, recommended levels. At 12 weeks and 1 year, the dietary treatment led to reduced intake of energy (P<0.001 and P=0.005, respectively), fat (both P values <0.001), and sucrose (P<0.001 and P=0.050). At 12 weeks, total carbohydrates were reduced (P<0.001). A majority of women in all groups reported low intakes of vitamin D, folate, and/or iron. In conclusion, a novel dietary treatment led to reduced intake of fat and carbohydrates. Diet composition changed to decreased proportions of fat and sucrose, and increased proportions of complex carbohydrates, protein and fiber. Weight loss through dietary treatment was achieved with a diet in line with

  11. Information filtering by similarity-preferential diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, An; Vidmer, Alexandre; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Recommender systems provide a promising way to address the information overload problem which is common in online systems. Based on past user preferences, a recommender system can find items that are likely to be relevant to a given user. Two classical physical processes, mass diffusion and heat conduction, have been used to design recommendation algorithms and a hybrid process based on them has been shown to provide accurate and diverse recommendation results. We modify both processes as well as their hybrid by introducing a parameter which can be used to enhance or suppress the weight of users who are most similar to the target user for whom the recommendation is done. Evaluation on two benchmark data sets demonstrates that both recommendation accuracy and diversity are improved for a wide range of parameter values. Threefold validation indicates that the achieved results are robust and the new recommendation methods are thus applicable in practice.

  12. Semantically enabled image similarity search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casterline, May V.; Emerick, Timothy; Sadeghi, Kolia; Gosse, C. A.; Bartlett, Brent; Casey, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Georeferenced data of various modalities are increasingly available for intelligence and commercial use, however effectively exploiting these sources demands a unified data space capable of capturing the unique contribution of each input. This work presents a suite of software tools for representing geospatial vector data and overhead imagery in a shared high-dimension vector or embedding" space that supports fused learning and similarity search across dissimilar modalities. While the approach is suitable for fusing arbitrary input types, including free text, the present work exploits the obvious but computationally difficult relationship between GIS and overhead imagery. GIS is comprised of temporally-smoothed but information-limited content of a GIS, while overhead imagery provides an information-rich but temporally-limited perspective. This processing framework includes some important extensions of concepts in literature but, more critically, presents a means to accomplish them as a unified framework at scale on commodity cloud architectures.

  13. Diversity and similarity of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution of comets from an early stage where they were all similar, to the later diversity is reviewed. The elemental abundances of all pristine comets are likely to be primitive, that is in solar abundance ratios for all elements including C, N, O, S, but with the exception of H (and assumedly He and Ne) that are severely depleted. The solid phase was originally in very fine grains, typically 0.1 micron or less, eventually sintered into larger grain clusters. The volatile phase contains H, C, N, O, and S molecules frozen in the pores of the grain clusters; cosmic ray plus solar irradiation changes the volatile to refractory ratio of the crust. Differences in dust tails, in plasma tails, in photometry between young and old comets, and in the variable carbon depletion of the gas phase seem to be induced by the decay processes.

  14. Classification of wheat: Badhwar profile similarity technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Badwar profile similarity classification technique used successfully for classification of corn was applied to spring wheat classifications. The software programs and the procedures used to generate full-scene classifications are presented, and numerical results of the acreage estimations are given.

  15. Modified principal component analysis: an integration of multiple similarity subspace models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zizhu; Xu, Yong; Zuo, Wangmeng; Yang, Jian; Tang, Jinhui; Lai, Zhihui; Zhang, David

    2014-08-01

    We modify the conventional principal component analysis (PCA) and propose a novel subspace learning framework, modified PCA (MPCA), using multiple similarity measurements. MPCA computes three similarity matrices exploiting the similarity measurements: 1) mutual information; 2) angle information; and 3) Gaussian kernel similarity. We employ the eigenvectors of similarity matrices to produce new subspaces, referred to as similarity subspaces. A new integrated similarity subspace is then generated using a novel feature selection approach. This approach needs to construct a kind of vector set, termed weak machine cell (WMC), which contains an appropriate number of the eigenvectors spanning the similarity subspaces. Combining the wrapper method and the forward selection scheme, MPCA selects a WMC at a time that has a powerful discriminative capability to classify samples. MPCA is very suitable for the application scenarios in which the number of the training samples is less than the data dimensionality. MPCA outperforms the other state-of-the-art PCA-based methods in terms of both classification accuracy and clustering result. In addition, MPCA can be applied to face image reconstruction. MPCA can use other types of similarity measurements. Extensive experiments on many popular real-world data sets, such as face databases, show that MPCA achieves desirable classification results, as well as has a powerful capability to represent data. PMID:25050950

  16. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  17. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  18. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  19. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  20. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  1. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  15. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  16. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  17. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  20. Mathematical Thinking of Kindergarten Boys and Girls: Similar Achievement, Different Contributing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Pnina S.; Adi-Japha, Esther; Hakak-Benizri, Simcha

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the relations between verbal, spatial, mathematics, and teacher-child mathematics interaction variables. Kindergarten children (N = 80) were videotaped playing games that require mathematical reasoning in the presence of their teachers. The children's mathematics, spatial, and verbal…

  1. Reliance on luck: identifying which achievement goals elicit superstitious behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamerman, Eric J; Morewedge, Carey K

    2015-03-01

    People often resort to superstitious behavior to facilitate goal achievement. We examined whether the specific type of achievement goal pursued influences the propensity to engage in superstitious behavior. Across six studies, we found that performance goals were more likely than learning goals to elicit superstitious behavior. Participants were more likely to engage in superstitious behavior at high than at low levels of chronic performance orientation, but superstitious behavior was not influenced by chronic learning orientation (Studies 1 and 2). Similarly, participants exhibited stronger preferences for lucky items when primed to pursue performance goals rather than learning goals (Studies 3 and 4). As uncertainty of goal achievement increased, superstitious behavior increased when participants pursued performance goals but not learning goals (Study 5). Finally, assignment to use a lucky (vs. unlucky) item resulted in greater confidence of achieving performance goals but not learning goals (Study 6). PMID:25617118

  2. Does a patient-managed insulin intensification strategy with insulin glargine and insulin glulisine provide similar glycemic control as a physician-managed strategy? Results of the START (Self-Titration With Apidra to Reach Target) Study: a randomized noninferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stewart B; Yale, Jean-François; Berard, Lori; Stewart, John; Abbaszadeh, Babak; Webster-Bogaert, Susan; Gerstein, Hertzel C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes self-management is universally regarded as a foundation of diabetes care. We determined whether comparable glycemic control could be achieved by self-titration versus physician titration of a once-daily bolus insulin dose in patients with type 2 diabetes who are unable to achieve optimal glycemia control with a basal insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients with type 2 diabetes, an HbA1c level >7% (53 mmol/mol), and either nocturnal hypoglycemia episodes or an insufficient basal insulin glargine level (with or without oral agents) to achieve a fasting plasma glucose level ≤6 mmol/L (108 mg/dL) were studied. Participants all had bolus insulin glulisine added at breakfast and were allocated to either algorithm-guided patient self-titration or physician titration. The primary outcome was an HbA1c level ≤7% (53 mmol/mol) without severe hypoglycemia. RESULTS After a mean (SD) follow-up of 159.4 days (36.2 days), 28.4% of participants in the self-titration arm vs. 21.2% in the physician titration arm achieved an HbA1c level of ≤7% (53 mmol/mol) without severe hypoglycemia (between-group absolute difference 7.2%; 95% CI -3.2 to 17.7). The lower end of this 95% confidence interval was within the predetermined noninferiority boundary of -5% (P noninferiority = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS In stable patients with type 2 diabetes who are receiving doses of basal insulin glargine who require bolus insulin, a simple bolus insulin patient-managed titration algorithm is as effective as a physician-managed algorithm. PMID:24170757

  3. Similarity in seismogeodynamics on different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzhich, V. V.; Psakhie, S. G.; Levina, E. A.; Dimaki, A. V.; Astafurov, S. V.; Shilko, E. V.

    2015-10-01

    Long-term research in the preparation of earthquakes of different energies with M = 3.5-7.9 within the Baikal rift zones shows that they are similar to each other and to microquakes with E = 1-103 J initiated on tectonic fault fragments in natural experiments. Moreover, detailed studies of slickensides of dimensions 1-103 m2 in tectonic faults also demonstrate their physicomechanical similarity to each other and to nano- and microscale contact patches of different materials in laboratory experiments. The research results confirm the conclusion that there exists a similarity in the laws of contact interaction of different solids, including their stick-to-dynamic slip transition, from nanoscopic to geodynamic scales.

  4. Percolation in Self-Similar Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, M. Ángeles; Krioukov, Dmitri; Boguñá, Marián

    2011-01-01

    We provide a simple proof that graphs in a general class of self-similar networks have zero percolation threshold. The considered self-similar networks include random scale-free graphs with given expected node degrees and zero clustering, scale-free graphs with finite clustering and metric structure, growing scale-free networks, and many real networks. The proof and the derivation of the giant component size do not require the assumption that networks are treelike. Our results rely only on the observation that self-similar networks possess a hierarchy of nested subgraphs whose average degree grows with their depth in the hierarchy. We conjecture that this property is pivotal for percolation in networks.

  5. Self-Similar Compressible Free Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonEllenrieder, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Lie group methods are used to find both exact and numerical similarity solutions for compressible perturbations to all incompressible, two-dimensional, axisymmetric vortex reference flow. The reference flow vorticity satisfies an eigenvalue problem for which the solutions are a set of two-dimensional, self-similar, incompressible vortices. These solutions are augmented by deriving a conserved quantity for each eigenvalue, and identifying a Lie group which leaves the reference flow equations invariant. The partial differential equations governing the compressible perturbations to these reference flows are also invariant under the action of the same group. The similarity variables found with this group are used to determine the decay rates of the velocities and thermodynamic variables in the self-similar flows, and to reduce the governing partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. The ODE's are solved analytically and numerically for a Taylor vortex reference flow, and numerically for an Oseen vortex reference flow. The solutions are used to examine the dependencies of the temperature, density, entropy, dissipation and radial velocity on the Prandtl number. Also, experimental data on compressible free vortex flow are compared to the analytical results, the evolution of vortices from initial states which are not self-similar is discussed, and the energy transfer in a slightly-compressible vortex is considered.

  6. Predicting missing links via structural similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Guo-Dong; Fan, Chang-Jun; Yu, Lian-Fei; Xiu, Bao-Xin; Zhang, Wei-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Predicting missing links in networks plays a significant role in modern science. On the basis of structural similarity, our paper proposes a new node-similarity-based measure called biased resource allocation (BRA), which is motivated by the resource allocation (RA) measure. Comparisons between BRA and nine well-known node-similarity-based measures on five real networks indicate that BRA performs no worse than RA, which was the best node-similarity-based index in previous researches. Afterwards, based on localPath (LP) and Katz measure, we propose another two improved measures, named Im-LocalPath and Im-Katz respectively. Numerical results show that the prediction accuracy of both Im-LP and Im-Katz measure improve compared with the original LP and Katz measure. Finally, a new path-similarity-based measure and its improved measure, called LYU and Im-LYU measure, are proposed and especially, Im-LYU measure is shown to perform more remarkably than other mentioned measures.

  7. Image fusion using bi-directional similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chunshan; Luo, Xiaoyan

    2015-05-01

    Infrared images are widely used in the practical applications to capture abundant information. However, it is still challenging to enhance the infrared image by the visual image. In this paper, we propose an effective method using bidirectional similarity. In the proposed method, we aim to find an optimal solution from many feasible solutions without introducing intermediate image. We employ some priori constraints to meet the requirements of image fusion which can be detailed to preserve both good characteristics in the infrared image and spatial information in the visual image. In the iterative step, we use the matrix with the square of the difference between images to integrate the image holding most information. We call this matrix the bidirectional similarity distance. By the bidirectional similarity distance, we can get the transitive images. Then, we fuse the images according to the weight. Experimental results show that, compared to the traditional image fusion algorithm, fusion images from bidirectional similarity fusion algorithm have greatly improved in the subjective vision, entropy, structural similarity index measurement. We believe that the proposed scheme can have a wide applications.

  8. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  9. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  10. Accurate Prediction of Docked Protein Structure Similarity.

    PubMed

    Akbal-Delibas, Bahar; Pomplun, Marc; Haspel, Nurit

    2015-09-01

    One of the major challenges for protein-protein docking methods is to accurately discriminate nativelike structures. The protein docking community agrees on the existence of a relationship between various favorable intermolecular interactions (e.g. Van der Waals, electrostatic, desolvation forces, etc.) and the similarity of a conformation to its native structure. Different docking algorithms often formulate this relationship as a weighted sum of selected terms and calibrate their weights against specific training data to evaluate and rank candidate structures. However, the exact form of this relationship is unknown and the accuracy of such methods is impaired by the pervasiveness of false positives. Unlike the conventional scoring functions, we propose a novel machine learning approach that not only ranks the candidate structures relative to each other but also indicates how similar each candidate is to the native conformation. We trained the AccuRMSD neural network with an extensive dataset using the back-propagation learning algorithm. Our method achieved predicting RMSDs of unbound docked complexes with 0.4Å error margin. PMID:26335807

  11. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  12. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  13. Quantifying the similarities within fold space.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Andrew; Pearl, Frances; Mott, Richard; Thornton, Janet; Orengo, Christine

    2002-11-01

    We have used GRATH, a graph-based structure comparison algorithm, to map the similarities between the different folds observed in the CATH domain structure database. Statistical analysis of the distributions of the fold similarities has allowed us to assess the significance for any similarity. Therefore we have examined whether it is best to represent folds as discrete entities or whether, in fact, a more accurate model would be a continuum wherein folds overlap via common motifs. To do this we have introduced a new statistical measure of fold similarity, termed gregariousness. For a particular fold, gregariousness measures how many other folds have a significant structural overlap with that fold, typically comprising 40% or more of the larger structure. Gregarious folds often contain commonly occurring super-secondary structural motifs, such as beta-meanders, greek keys, alpha-beta plait motifs or alpha-hairpins, which are matching similar motifs in other folds. Apart from one example, all the most gregarious folds matching 20% or more of the other folds in the database, are alpha-beta proteins. They also occur in highly populated architectural regions of fold space, adopting sandwich-like arrangements containing two or more layers of alpha-helices and beta-strands.Domains that exhibit a low gregariousness, are those that have very distinctive folds, with few common motifs or motifs that are packed in unusual arrangements. Most of the superhelices exhibit low gregariousness despite containing some commonly occurring super-secondary structural motifs. In these folds, these common motifs are combined in an unusual way and represent a small proportion of the fold (<10%). Our results suggest that fold space may be considered as continuous for some architectural arrangements (e.g. alpha-beta sandwiches), in that super-secondary motifs can be used to link neighbouring fold groups. However, in other regions of fold space much more discrete topologies are observed with

  14. Measuring community similarity with phylogenetic networks.

    PubMed

    Parks, Donovan H; Beiko, Robert G

    2012-12-01

    Environmental drivers of biodiversity can be identified by relating patterns of community similarity to ecological factors. Community variation has traditionally been assessed by considering changes in species composition and more recently by incorporating phylogenetic information to account for the relative similarity of taxa. Here, we describe how an important class of measures including Bray-Curtis, Canberra, and UniFrac can be extended to allow community variation to be computed on a phylogenetic network. We focus on phylogenetic split systems, networks that are produced by the widely used median network and neighbor-net methods, which can represent incongruence in the evolutionary history of a set of taxa. Calculating β diversity over a split system provides a measure of community similarity averaged over uncertainty or conflict in the available phylogenetic signal. Our freely available software, Network Diversity, provides 11 qualitative (presence-absence, unweighted) and 14 quantitative (weighted) network-based measures of community similarity that model different aspects of community richness and evenness. We demonstrate the broad applicability of network-based diversity approaches by applying them to three distinct data sets: pneumococcal isolates from distinct geographic regions, human mitochondrial DNA data from the Indonesian island of Nias, and proteorhodopsin sequences from the Sargasso and Mediterranean Seas. Our results show that major expected patterns of variation for these data sets are recovered using network-based measures, which indicates that these patterns are robust to phylogenetic uncertainty and conflict. Nonetheless, network-based measures of community similarity can differ substantially from measures ignoring phylogenetic relationships or from tree-based measures when incongruent signals are present in the underlying data. Network-based measures provide a methodology for assessing the robustness of β-diversity results in light of

  15. Similarity theory of lubricated Hertzian contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeijer, J. H.; Eggers, J.; Venner, C. H.

    2013-10-01

    We consider a heavily loaded, lubricated contact between two elastic bodies at relative speed U, such that there is substantial elastic deformation. As a result of the interplay between hydrodynamics and non-local elasticity, a fluid film develops between the two solids, whose thickness scales as U3/5. The film profile h is selected by a universal similarity solution along the upstream inlet. Another similarity solution is valid at the outlet, which exhibits a local minimum in the film thickness. The two solutions are connected by a hyperbolic problem underneath the contact. Our asymptotic results for a soft sphere pressed against a hard wall are shown to agree with both experiment and numerical simulations.

  16. Comparison of Two ``Document Similarity Search Engines''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poinçot, Phillipe; Lesteven, Soizick; Murtagh, Fionn

    We have developed and used the ``CDS document map'' based on neural networks (Kohonen maps) http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/A+A/map.pl In this self-organizing map, documents are gradually clustered by subject themes. The tool is based on keywords associated with the documents. For one selected document, we locate it on the CDS document map and retrieve articles clustered in the same area. The second search engine, used by the ADS (NASA Astrophysics Data System http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr http://adswww.harvard.edu http://ads.nao.ac.jp, has the capability to find all similar abstracts in the ADS database, with ``keyword request''. We have compared the results of the document similarity search engines, using the same set of documents. One example will be described and results will be discussed.

  17. Fuzzy similarity measures for ultrasound tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emara, Salem M.; Badawi, Ahmed M.; Youssef, Abou-Bakr M.

    1995-03-01

    Computerized ultrasound tissue characterization has become an objective means for diagnosis of diseases. It is difficult to differentiate diffuse liver diseases, namely cirrhotic and fatty liver from a normal one, by visual inspection from the ultrasound images. The visual criteria for differentiating diffused diseases is rather confusing and highly dependent upon the sonographer's experience. The need for computerized tissue characterization is thus justified to quantitatively assist the sonographer for accurate differentiation and to minimize the degree of risk from erroneous interpretation. In this paper we used the fuzzy similarity measure as an approximate reasoning technique to find the maximum degree of matching between an unknown case defined by a feature vector and a family of prototypes (knowledge base). The feature vector used for the matching process contains 8 quantitative parameters (textural, acoustical, and speckle parameters) extracted from the ultrasound image. The steps done to match an unknown case with the family of prototypes (cirr, fatty, normal) are: Choosing the membership functions for each parameter, then obtaining the fuzzification matrix for the unknown case and the family of prototypes, then by the linguistic evaluation of two fuzzy quantities we obtain the similarity matrix, then by a simple aggregation method and the fuzzy integrals we obtain the degree of similarity. Finally, we find that the similarity measure results are comparable to the neural network classification techniques and it can be used in medical diagnosis to determine the pathology of the liver and to monitor the extent of the disease.

  18. Finding Protein and Nucleotide Similarities with FASTA.

    PubMed

    Pearson, William R

    2016-01-01

    The FASTA programs provide a comprehensive set of rapid similarity searching tools (fasta36, fastx36, tfastx36, fasty36, tfasty36), similar to those provided by the BLAST package, as well as programs for slower, optimal, local, and global similarity searches (ssearch36, ggsearch36), and for searching with short peptides and oligonucleotides (fasts36, fastm36). The FASTA programs use an empirical strategy for estimating statistical significance that accommodates a range of similarity scoring matrices and gap penalties, improving alignment boundary accuracy and search sensitivity. The FASTA programs can produce "BLAST-like" alignment and tabular output, for ease of integration into existing analysis pipelines, and can search small, representative databases, and then report results for a larger set of sequences, using links from the smaller dataset. The FASTA programs work with a wide variety of database formats, including mySQL and postgreSQL databases. The programs also provide a strategy for integrating domain and active site annotations into alignments and highlighting the mutational state of functionally critical residues. These protocols describe how to use the FASTA programs to characterize protein and DNA sequences, using protein:protein, protein:DNA, and DNA:DNA comparisons. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27010337

  19. Measuring structural similarity in large online networks.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongren; Macy, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Structural similarity based on bipartite graphs can be used to detect meaningful communities, but the networks have been tiny compared to massive online networks. Scalability is important in applications involving tens of millions of individuals with highly skewed degree distributions. Simulation analysis holding underlying similarity constant shows that two widely used measures - Jaccard index and cosine similarity - are biased by the distribution of out-degree in web-scale networks. However, an alternative measure, the Standardized Co-incident Ratio (SCR), is unbiased. We apply SCR to members of Congress, musical artists, and professional sports teams to show how massive co-following on Twitter can be used to map meaningful affiliations among cultural entities, even in the absence of direct connections to one another. Our results show how structural similarity can be used to map cultural alignments and demonstrate the potential usefulness of social media data in the study of culture, politics, and organizations across the social and behavioral sciences. PMID:27480374

  20. Explosion Source Similarity Analysis via SVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, Matthew; Ben Horin, Yochai; Margrave, Gary

    2016-04-01

    An important seismological ingredient for establishing a regional seismic nuclear discriminant is the similarity analysis of a sequence of explosion sources. To investigate source similarity, we are fortunate to have access to a sequence of 1805 three-component recordings of quarry blasts, shot from March 2002 to January 2015. The centroid of these blasts has an estimated location 36.3E and 29.9N. All blasts were detonated by JPMC (Jordan Phosphate Mines Co.) All data were recorded at the Israeli NDC, HFRI, located at 30.03N and 35.03E. Data were first winnowed based on the distribution of maximum amplitudes in the neighborhood of the P-wave arrival. The winnowed data were then detrended using the algorithm of Cleveland et al (1990). The detrended data were bandpass filtered between .1 to 12 Hz using an eighth order Butterworth filter. Finally, data were sorted based on maximum trace amplitude. Two similarity analysis approaches were used. First, for each component, the entire suite of traces was decomposed into its eigenvector representation, by employing singular-valued decomposition (SVD). The data were then reconstructed using 10 percent of the singular values, with the resulting enhancement of the S-wave and surface wave arrivals. The results of this first method are then compared to the second analysis method based on the eigenface decomposition analysis of Turk and Pentland (1991). While both methods yield similar results in enhancement of data arrivals and reduction of data redundancy, more analysis is required to calibrate the recorded data to charge size, a quantity that was not available for the current study. References Cleveland, R. B., Cleveland, W. S., McRae, J. E., and Terpenning, I., Stl: A seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess, Journal of Official Statistics, 6, No. 1, 3-73, 1990. Turk, M. and Pentland, A., Eigenfaces for recognition. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 3(1), 71-86, 1991.

  1. Evaluating semantic relatedness and similarity measures with Standardized MedDRA Queries.

    PubMed

    Bill, Robert W; Liu, Ying; McInnes, Bridget T; Melton, Genevieve B; Pedersen, Ted; Pakhomov, Serguei

    2012-01-01

    A potential use of automated concept similarity and relatedness measures is to improve automatic detection of clinical text that relates to a condition indicative of an adverse drug reaction. This is also one of the purposes of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Standardized Queries (SMQ). An expert panel evaluates SMQs for their ability to detect a condition of interest and thus qualifies them as a reference standard for evaluating automated approaches. We compare similarity and relatedness measurement methods on rates of correctly identifying intra-category and inter-category concept pairs from SMQ data to create ROC curves of each method's sensitivity and specificity. Results indicate an information content measure, specifically the Resnik method, achieved the highest results as measured by area under the curve, but using two different measures as predictors, Resnik and Lin, obtained the highest score. Overall, using SMQ data resulted in a productive method of evaluating automated semantic relatedness and similarity scores. PMID:23304271

  2. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  3. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  4. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  5. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  6. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  7. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  8. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  9. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  10. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  11. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  12. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  13. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  14. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  15. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  16. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  17. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  18. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  19. School District Organization and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidwell, Charles E.; Kasarda, John D.

    1975-01-01

    Study examines determinants of organizational effectiveness. Results indicate that pupil-teacher ratio and administrative intensity depress median levels of achievement; whereas, staff qualifications foster student achievement. The percentage of non-whites is said to have a consistently significant direct effect on median achievement level.…

  20. Changes in Achievement Motivation among University Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresel, Markus; Grassinger, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Changes in achievement motivation over the first semester of university studies were examined with N = 229 freshmen, who were surveyed twice in the present study. Students' academic self-concepts, achievement goals, and subjective values were chosen as theoretically central components of achievement motivation. The results indicated significant…

  1. Semantic Similarity for Automatic Classification of Chemical Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, João D.; Couto, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing amount of data made available in the chemical field, there is a strong need for systems capable of comparing and classifying chemical compounds in an efficient and effective way. The best approaches existing today are based on the structure-activity relationship premise, which states that biological activity of a molecule is strongly related to its structural or physicochemical properties. This work presents a novel approach to the automatic classification of chemical compounds by integrating semantic similarity with existing structural comparison methods. Our approach was assessed based on the Matthews Correlation Coefficient for the prediction, and achieved values of 0.810 when used as a prediction of blood-brain barrier permeability, 0.694 for P-glycoprotein substrate, and 0.673 for estrogen receptor binding activity. These results expose a significant improvement over the currently existing methods, whose best performances were 0.628, 0.591, and 0.647 respectively. It was demonstrated that the integration of semantic similarity is a feasible and effective way to improve existing chemical compound classification systems. Among other possible uses, this tool helps the study of the evolution of metabolic pathways, the study of the correlation of metabolic networks with properties of those networks, or the improvement of ontologies that represent chemical information. PMID:20885779

  2. Learning based saliency weighted structural similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoliang; Liu, Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    Image quality assessment (IQA) is a critical issue in image processing applications, but commonly used criterions for image quality assessment do not map well with perceived quality. The recently proposed structural similarity (SSIM) is regarded as an excellent work in image quality assessment criterions, but it only consider local information and ignore some important global concepts. Based on the SSIM image quality assessment criterion and the detection of visual saliency in image, this paper proposes a learning based saliency weighted structural similarity IQA criterion. The algorithm combines the SSIM index and saliency map in a machine learning framework to learn a mapping from these features to perceived image quality. Experiments on a standard image quality assessment database show that our algorithm performs better than commonly used criterions, and our algorithm captures results which correlate well with subjective judgments of image quality.

  3. Dependency Similarity, Attraction and Perceived Happiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Janak

    1978-01-01

    Subjects were asked to evaluate either a similar personality or a dissimilar personality. Subjects rated similar others more positively than dissimilar others and, additionally, perceived similar others as more helpful and sympathetic than dissimilar others. (Author)

  4. Accurate similarity index based on activity and connectivity of node for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjie; Qian, Lvjian; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Shishun; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the increasing of available network data; however, much of those data is incomplete. Link prediction, which can find the missing links of a network, plays an important role in the research and analysis of complex networks. Based on the assumption that two unconnected nodes which are highly similar are very likely to have an interaction, most of the existing algorithms solve the link prediction problem by computing nodes' similarities. The fundamental requirement of those algorithms is accurate and effective similarity indices. In this paper, we propose a new similarity index, namely similarity based on activity and connectivity (SAC), which performs link prediction more accurately. To compute the similarity between two nodes, this index employs the average activity of these two nodes in their common neighborhood and the connectivities between them and their common neighbors. The higher the average activity is and the stronger the connectivities are, the more similar the two nodes are. The proposed index not only commendably distinguishes the contributions of paths but also incorporates the influence of endpoints. Therefore, it can achieve a better predicting result. To verify the performance of SAC, we conduct experiments on 10 real-world networks. Experimental results demonstrate that SAC outperforms the compared baselines.

  5. Propagation, structural similarity, and image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Jorge; Mas, David; Espinosa, Julián; Vázquez, Carmen; Illueca, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    Retinal image quality is usually analysed through different parameters typical from instrumental optics, i.e, PSF, MTF and wavefront aberrations. Although these parameters are important, they are hard to translate to visual quality parameters since human vision exhibits some tolerance to certain aberrations. This is particularly important in postsurgery eyes, where non-common aberration are induced and their effects on the final image quality is not clear. Natural images usually show a strong dependency between one point and its neighbourhood. This fact helps to the image interpretation and should be considered when determining the final image quality. The aim of this work is to propose an objective index which allows comparing natural images on the retina and, from them, to obtain relevant information abut the visual quality of a particular subject. To this end, we propose a individual eye modelling. The morphological data of the subject's eye are considered and the light propagation through the ocular media is calculated by means of a Fourier-transform-based method. The retinal PSF so obtained is convolved with the natural scene under consideration and the obtained image is compared with the ideal one by using the structural similarity index. The technique is applied on 2 eyes with a multifocal corneal profile (PresbyLasik) and can be used to determine the real extension of the achieved pseudoaccomodation.

  6. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  7. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  8. Hierarchical similarity transformations between Gaussian mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rigas, George; Nikou, Christophoros; Goletsis, Yorgos; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the density of a data space represented by a geometric transformation of an initial Gaussian mixture model. The geometric transformation is hierarchical, and it is decomposed into two steps. At first, the initial model is assumed to undergo a global similarity transformation modeled by translation, rotation, and scaling of the model components. Then, to increase the degrees of freedom of the model and allow it to capture fine data structures, each individual mixture component may be transformed by another, local similarity transformation, whose parameters are distinct for each component of the mixture. In addition, to constrain the order of magnitude of the local transformation (LT) with respect to the global transformation (GT), zero-mean Gaussian priors are imposed onto the local parameters. The estimation of both GT and LT parameters is obtained through the expectation maximization framework. Experiments on artificial data are conducted to evaluate the proposed model, with varying data dimensionality, number of model components, and transformation parameters. In addition, the method is evaluated using real data from a speech recognition task. The obtained results show a high model accuracy and demonstrate the potential application of the proposed method to similar classification problems. PMID:24808615

  9. Challenged Schools, Remarkable Results: Three Lessons from California's Highest Achieving High Schools. A Report on Findings from Year Two of the California Best Practices Study Conducted by Springboard Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberman, Ida

    2005-01-01

    In the year 1998, California began a massive experiment that focused on testing students and holding teachers and administrators accountable for results. The goal: dramatic, system-wide improvement. Schools' performance began to be measured using California's Academic Performance Index (API). In 2001, with passage of No Child Left Behind (NCLB),…

  10. Semantic Clustering of Search Engine Results

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Sara Saad; El-Sayed, Maged F.; Hassan, Yasser F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for search engine results clustering that relies on the semantics of the retrieved documents rather than the terms in those documents. The proposed approach takes into consideration both lexical and semantics similarities among documents and applies activation spreading technique in order to generate semantically meaningful clusters. This approach allows documents that are semantically similar to be clustered together rather than clustering documents based on similar terms. A prototype is implemented and several experiments are conducted to test the prospered solution. The result of the experiment confirmed that the proposed solution achieves remarkable results in terms of precision. PMID:26933673

  11. Noise suppression for energy-resolved CT using similarity-based non-local filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Joe; Wang, Tonghe; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei

    2016-03-01

    In energy-resolved CT, images are reconstructed independently at different energy levels, resulting in images with different qualities but the same structures. We propose a similarity-based non-local filtration method to extract structural information from these images for noise suppression. For each pixel, we calculate its similarity to other pixels based on CT number. The calculation is repeated on each image at different energy levels and similarity values are averaged to generate a similarity matrix. Noise suppression is achieved by multiplying the image vector by the similarity matrix. Multiple scans on a tabletop CT system are used to simulate 6-channel energy-resolved CT, with energies ranging from 75 to 125 kVp. Phantom studies show that the proposed method improves average contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of seven materials on the 75 kVp image by a factor of 22. Compared with averaging CT images for noise suppression, our method achieves a higher CNR and reduces the CT number error of iodine solutions from 16.5% to 3.5% and the overall image root of mean-square error (RMSE) from 3.58% to 0.93%. On the phantom with line-pair structures, our algorithm reduces noise standard deviation (STD) by a factor of 23 while maintaining 7 lp/cm spatial resolution. Additionally, anthropomorphic head phantom studies show noise STD reduction by a factor or 26 with no loss of spatial resolution. The noise suppression achieved by the similarity-based method is clinically attractive, especially for CNRs of iodine in contrast-enhanced CT.

  12. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone), a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for decapod neuropeptides

  13. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone), a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for decapod neuropeptides

  14. Manifold Learning for Multivariate Variable-Length Sequences With an Application to Similarity Search.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shen-Shyang; Dai, Peng; Rudzicz, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Multivariate variable-length sequence data are becoming ubiquitous with the technological advancement in mobile devices and sensor networks. Such data are difficult to compare, visualize, and analyze due to the nonmetric nature of data sequence similarity measures. In this paper, we propose a general manifold learning framework for arbitrary-length multivariate data sequences driven by similarity/distance (parameter) learning in both the original data sequence space and the learned manifold. Our proposed algorithm transforms the data sequences in a nonmetric data sequence space into feature vectors in a manifold that preserves the data sequence space structure. In particular, the feature vectors in the manifold representing similar data sequences remain close to one another and far from the feature points corresponding to dissimilar data sequences. To achieve this objective, we assume a semisupervised setting where we have knowledge about whether some of data sequences are similar or dissimilar, called the instance-level constraints. Using this information, one learns the similarity measure for the data sequence space and the distance measures for the manifold. Moreover, we describe an approach to handle the similarity search problem given user-defined instance level constraints in the learned manifold using a consensus voting scheme. Experimental results on both synthetic data and real tropical cyclone sequence data are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of our manifold learning framework and the robustness of performing similarity search in the learned manifold. PMID:25781959

  15. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  16. Similarity Rules for Scaling Solar Sail Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Stephen L.; Peddieson, John; Garbe, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Future science missions will require solar sails on the order of 200 square meters (or larger). However, ground demonstrations and flight demonstrations must be conducted at significantly smaller sizes, due to limitations of ground-based facilities and cost and availability of flight opportunities. For this reason, the ability to understand the process of scalability, as it applies to solar sail system models and test data, is crucial to the advancement of this technology. This paper will approach the problem of scaling in solar sail models by developing a set of scaling laws or similarity criteria that will provide constraints in the sail design process. These scaling laws establish functional relationships between design parameters of a prototype and model sail that are created at different geometric sizes. This work is applied to a specific solar sail configuration and results in three (four) similarity criteria for static (dynamic) sail models. Further, it is demonstrated that even in the context of unique sail material requirements and gravitational load of earth-bound experiments, it is possible to develop appropriate scaled sail experiments. In the longer term, these scaling laws can be used in the design of scaled experimental tests for solar sails and in analyzing the results from such tests.

  17. Analysis of perceived similarity between pairs of microcalcification clusters in mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Juan; Jing, Hao; Wernick, Miles N.; Yang, Yongyi; Nishikawa, Robert M.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Content-based image retrieval aims to assist radiologists by presenting example images with known pathology that are visually similar to the case being evaluated. In this work, the authors investigate several fundamental issues underlying the similarity ratings between pairs of microcalcification (MC) lesions on mammograms as judged by radiologists: the degree of variability in the similarity ratings, the impact of this variability on agreement between readers in retrieval of similar lesions, and the factors contributing to the readers’ similarity ratings. Methods: The authors conduct a reader study on a set of 1000 image pairs of MC lesions, in which a group of experienced breast radiologists rated the degree of similarity between each image pair. The image pairs are selected, from among possible pairings of 222 cases (110 malignant, 112 benign), based on quantitative image attributes (features) and the results of a preliminary reader study. Next, the authors apply analysis of variance (ANOVA) to quantify the level of variability in the readers’ similarity ratings, and study how the variability in individual reader ratings affects consistency between readers. The authors also measure the extent to which readers agree on images which are most similar to a given query, for which the Dice coefficient is used. To investigate how the similarity ratings potentially relate to the attributes underlying the cases, the authors study the fraction of perceptually similar images that also share the same benign or malignant pathology as the query image; moreover, the authors apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to embed the cases according to their mutual perceptual similarity in a two-dimensional plot, which allows the authors to examine the manner in which similar lesions relate to one another in terms of benign or malignant pathology and clustered MCs. Results: The ANOVA results show that the coefficient of determination in the reader similarity ratings is 0

  18. Visual similarity effects in categorical search.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Robert G; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    We asked how visual similarity relationships affect search guidance to categorically defined targets (no visual preview). Experiment 1 used a web-based task to collect visual similarity rankings between two target categories, teddy bears and butterflies, and random-category objects, from which we created search displays in Experiment 2 having either high-similarity distractors, low-similarity distractors, or "mixed" displays with high-, medium-, and low-similarity distractors. Analysis of target-absent trials revealed faster manual responses and fewer fixated distractors on low-similarity displays compared to high-similarity displays. On mixed displays, first fixations were more frequent on high-similarity distractors (bear = 49%; butterfly = 58%) than on low-similarity distractors (bear = 9%; butterfly = 12%). Experiment 3 used the same high/low/mixed conditions, but now these conditions were created using similarity estimates from a computer vision model that ranked objects in terms of color, texture, and shape similarity. The same patterns were found, suggesting that categorical search can indeed be guided by purely visual similarity. Experiment 4 compared cases where the model and human rankings differed and when they agreed. We found that similarity effects were best predicted by cases where the two sets of rankings agreed, suggesting that both human visual similarity rankings and the computer vision model captured features important for guiding search to categorical targets. PMID:21757505

  19. Effect of course coordinator behavior and motivation on students’ achievement: Results from five curriculum blocks of two undergraduate student cohorts at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alwan, Ibrahim; Baig, Lubna Ansari; Badri, Motasim; Magzoub, Mohi Eldin; Alyousif, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between students’ perception of course/block coordinators performance and attributes with students’ assessment scores in respective courses. Methods: This retrospective data based study was conducted at the College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University of Health Sciences (KSAU-HS). It was started in March 2013 and completed in June 2013 after the graduation of the fourth cohort. Exam score of 3rd and 4th cohort of students from the courses taught in the last two years of medical school were correlated with faculty and block evaluation done by the students. Scores from mid-block MCQs, portfolio scores, OSCEs and end-of-block MCQs were obtained. Results: The Mean scores of all the assessments for all five blocks were not significantly different for both batches. There was significant difference between block coordinators for students’ score on portfolio, midterm exam and the final written exam. The students’ Score in OSCE had significantly strong correlation with quality of station monitors, coverage of content and flow between stations. Student’s perception of the commitment and motivation of the coordinator was strongly correlated with block organization, availability of clinical cases, performance of block coordinator, cooperation with students, and organization of clinical activities. Conclusions: Block coordinator’s motivation and commitment affects quality of block organization and student`s success. Faculty training programs should include block management competencies and components identified through self-determination theory for improving the intrinsic motivation for students success. PMID:26101511

  20. On the similarity of variable viscosity flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voivenel, L.; Danaila, L.; Varea, E.; Renou, B.; Cazalens, M.

    2016-08-01

    Turbulent mixing is ubiquitous in both nature and industrial applications. Most of them concern different fluids, therefore with variable physical properties (density and/or viscosity). The focus here is on variable viscosity flows and mixing, involving density-matched fluids. The issue is whether or not these flows may be self-similar, or self-preserving. The importance of this question stands on the predictability of these flows; self-similar dynamical systems are easier tractable from an analytical viewpoint. More specifically, self-similar analysis is applied to the scale-by-scale energy transport equations, which represent the transport of energy at each scale and each point of the flow. Scale-by-scale energy budget equations are developed for inhomogeneous and anisotropic flows, in which the viscosity varies as a result of heterogeneous mixture or temperature variations. Additional terms are highlighted, accounting for the viscosity gradients, or fluctuations. These terms are present at both small and large scales, thus rectifying the common belief that viscosity is a small-scale quantity. Scale-by-scale energy budget equations are then adapted for the particular case of a round jet evolving in a more viscous host fluid. It is further shown that the condition of self-preservation is not necessarily satisfied in variable-viscosity jets. Indeed, the jet momentum conservation, as well as the constancy of the Reynolds number in the central region of the jet, cannot be satisfied simultaneously. This points to the necessity of considering less stringent conditions (with respect to classical, single-fluid jets) when analytically tackling these flows and reinforces the idea that viscosity variations must be accounted for when modelling these flows.

  1. The Impact of Personal Digital Assistants on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    A positive correlation has been found between laptops and student achievement. Laptops are similar to Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) in many respects. This study seeks to determine the effect of PDA usage on high school student academic achievement. It was hypothesized that a positive correlation between PDA usage and academic achievement in…

  2. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  3. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  4. The Determinants of Student Achievement in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, M. A.; Uysal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent achievement test results show that Turkish students have been performing poorly compared to students from other countries. Using science literacy results from the PISA 2006 survey, we aim to measure the determinants of student achievement in Turkey within the education production function framework. We find that program types have large…

  5. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  6. Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities

    MedlinePlus

    ... and COPD: differences and similarities Share | Asthma and COPD: Differences and Similarities This article has been reviewed ... you could have asthma, or you could have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) , such as emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Because ...

  7. Modeling listener perception of speaker similarity in dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Kaitlin L; Berisha, Visar; Utianski, Rene L

    2016-06-01

    The current investigation contributes to a perceptual similarity-based approach to dysarthria characterization by utilizing an innovative statistical approach, multinomial logistic regression with sparsity constraints, to identify acoustic features underlying each listener's impressions of speaker similarity. The data-driven approach also permitted an examination of the effect of clinical experience on listeners' impressions of similarity. Listeners, irrespective of level of clinical experience, were found to rely on similar acoustic features during the perceptual sorting task, known as free classification. Overall, the results support the continued advancement of a similarity-based approach to characterizing the communication disorders associated with dysarthria. PMID:27369174

  8. Individual and social dimensions of Filipino students' achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Allan B I

    2008-10-01

    Achievement goal theory assumes that self-instrumental (mastery) achievement goals are associated with academic achievement, whereas social-instrumental (performance) goals are not. However, research on Asian students shows that both mastery and performance-approach goals are positively related to achievement; possibly because achievement motivation in Asian cultures is socially oriented and not individually oriented. The current study explored the structure of the social and individual achievement motivation orientations, and how these achievement orientations and achievement goals were related to achievement of Filipino university students. The results showed two dimensions of social-oriented achievement motivations-parent-oriented and teacher-oriented motivations-and two dimensions of individual-oriented achievement motivations-personal performance standards and personal goal choice. However, these achievement motivation orientations were not associated with achievement. Instead mastery and performance-approach goals were both positively associated with academic achievement, personal performance standards, and parent-oriented achievement motivation. PMID:22022793

  9. Phonological similarity effect in complex span task.

    PubMed

    Camos, Valérie; Mora, Gérôme; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that two systems are involved in verbal working memory; one is specifically dedicated to the maintenance of phonological representations through verbal rehearsal while the other would maintain multimodal representations through attentional refreshing. This theoretical framework predicts that phonologically related phenomena such as the phonological similarity effect (PSE) should occur when the domain-specific system is involved in maintenance, but should disappear when concurrent articulation hinders its use. Impeding maintenance in the domain-general system by a concurrent attentional demand should impair recall performance without affecting PSE. In three experiments, we manipulated the concurrent articulation and the attentional demand induced by the processing component of complex span tasks in which participants had to maintain lists of either similar or dissimilar words. Confirming our predictions, PSE affected recall performance in complex span tasks. Although both the attentional demand and the articulatory requirement of the concurrent task impaired recall, only the induction of an articulatory suppression during maintenance made the PSE disappear. These results suggest a duality in the systems devoted to verbal maintenance in the short term, constraining models of working memory. PMID:23419012

  10. Similarity and scale in catchment storm response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Beven, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, very little progress had been made in understanding the relationship between small-scale variability of topography, soil, and rainfalls and the storm response seen at the catchment scale. The work reviewed here represents the first attempt at a systematic theoretical framework for such understanding in the context of surface runoff generation by different processes. The parameterization of hydrological processes over a range of scales is examined, and the concept of the 'representative elementary area' (REA) is introduced. The REA is a fundamental scale for catchment modeling at which continuum assumptions can be applied for the spatially variable controls and parameters, and spatial patterns no longer have to be considered explicitly. The investigation of scale leads into the concept of hydrologic similarity in which the effects of the environmental controls on runoff generation and flood frequency response be investigated independently of catchment scale. The paper reviews the authors' initial results and hopefully will motivate others to also investigate the issues of hydrologic scale and similarity.

  11. Pharmacophore-Based Similarity Scoring for DOCK

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein–ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK. PMID:25229837

  12. Reconstructing of a Sequence Using Similar Sequences

    1995-11-28

    SIMSEQ reconstructs sequences from oligos. Similar known sequences are used as a reference. At present, simulated data are being used to develop the algorithm. SIMSEQ generates an initial random sequence, then generates a second sequence that is 60 to 90 percent similar to the first. Next, the second sequence is chopped into its appropriate oligos. All possible sequences are reconstructed to determine the most similar. Those with the highest similarity are printed as output.

  13. Determination of subjective similarity for pairs of masses and pairs of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms: Comparison of similarity ranking scores and absolute similarity ratings

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert A.; Shiraishi, Junji; Suzuki, Kenji; Newstead, Gillian M.; Doi, Kunio

    2007-07-15

    very high (0.92 and 0.96), which implies that the observers were able to compare the similarity of a mass pair with that of a calcification pair consistently. These results provide evidence that the concept of similarity for pairs of images is robust, even across different lesion types, and that radiologists are able to reliably determine subjective similarity for pairs of breast lesions.

  14. Thematic Relations Affect Similarity via Commonalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Sabrina; Estes, Zachary

    2009-01-01

    Thematic relations are an important source of perceived similarity. For instance, the "rowing" theme of boats and oars increases their perceived similarity. The mechanism of this effect, however, has not been specified previously. The authors investigated whether thematic relations affect similarity by increasing commonalities or by decreasing…

  15. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  16. Busted Butte: Achieving the Objectives and Numerical Modeling Results

    SciTech Connect

    W.E. Soll; M. Kearney; P. Stauffer; P. Tseng; H.J. Turin; Z. Lu

    2002-10-07

    The Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT) at Busted Butte is a mesoscale field/laboratory/modeling investigation designed to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport in the UZ site-process models for Yucca Mountain. The UZTT test facility is located approximately 8 km southeast of the potential Yucca Mountain repository area. The UZTT was designed in two phases, to address five specific objectives in the UZ: the effect of heterogeneities, flow and transport (F&T) behavior at permeability contrast boundaries, migration of colloids , transport models of sorbing tracers, and scaling issues in moving from laboratory scale to field scale. Phase 1A was designed to assess the influence of permeability contrast boundaries in the hydrologic Calico Hills. Visualization of fluorescein movement , mineback rock analyses, and comparison with numerical models demonstrated that F&T are capillary dominated with permeability contrast boundaries distorting the capillary flow. Phase 1B was designed to assess the influence of fractures on F&T and colloid movement. The injector in Phase 1B was located at a fracture, while the collector, 30 cm below, was placed at what was assumed to be the same fracture. Numerical simulations of nonreactive (Br) and reactive (Li) tracers show the experimental data are best explained by a combination of molecular diffusion and advective flux. For Phase 2, a numerical model with homogeneous unit descriptions was able to qualitatively capture the general characteristics of the system. Numerical simulations and field observations revealed a capillary dominated flow field. Although the tracers showed heterogeneity in the test block, simulation using heterogeneous fields did not significantly improve the data fit over homogeneous field simulations. In terms of scaling, simulations of field tracer data indicate a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude higher than measured in the laboratory. Simulations of Li, a weakly sorbing tracer, indicate less retardation than predicted from laboratory batch measurements.

  17. Managing Conversations: The Medium for Achieving "Breakthrough" Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolton, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Unlike traditional management development, use of conversations in coaching high-performance work teams addresses core processes of speaking and listening. Management of conversations aims to create learning that will lead to breakthroughs in team performance. (SK)

  18. Retrieving Similar Styles to Parse Clothing.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kota; Kiapour, M Hadi; Ortiz, Luis E; Berg, Tamara L

    2015-05-01

    Clothing recognition is a societally and commercially important yet extremely challenging problem due to large variations in clothing appearance, layering, style, and body shape and pose. In this paper, we tackle the clothing parsing problem using a retrieval-based approach. For a query image, we find similar styles from a large database of tagged fashion images and use these examples to recognize clothing items in the query. Our approach combines parsing from: pre-trained global clothing models, local clothing models learned on the fly from retrieved examples, and transferred parse-masks (Paper Doll item transfer) from retrieved examples. We evaluate our approach extensively and show significant improvements over previous state-of-the-art for both localization (clothing parsing given weak supervision in the form of tags) and detection (general clothing parsing). Our experimental results also indicate that the general pose estimation problem can benefit from clothing parsing. PMID:26353326

  19. Image Steganalysis with Binary Similarity Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avcıbaş, İsmail; Kharrazi, Mehdi; Memon, Nasir; Sankur, Bülent

    2005-12-01

    We present a novel technique for steganalysis of images that have been subjected to embedding by steganographic algorithms. The seventh and eighth bit planes in an image are used for the computation of several binary similarity measures. The basic idea is that the correlation between the bit planes as well as the binary texture characteristics within the bit planes will differ between a stego image and a cover image. These telltale marks are used to construct a classifier that can distinguish between stego and cover images. We also provide experimental results using some of the latest steganographic algorithms. The proposed scheme is found to have complementary performance vis-à-vis Farid's scheme in that they outperform each other in alternate embedding techniques.

  20. Social values as arguments: similar is convincing.

    PubMed

    Maio, Gregory R; Hahn, Ulrike; Frost, John-Mark; Kuppens, Toon; Rehman, Nadia; Kamble, Shanmukh

    2014-01-01

    Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., "equality leads to freedom"). Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness. PMID:25147529

  1. Hepatic venous outflow obstruction: Three similar syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Ulas Darda; Seren, Soley; Bayraktar, Yusuf

    2007-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a detailed review of veno-occlusive disease (VOD), Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), and congestive hepatopathy (CH), all of which results in hepatic venous outflow obstruction. This is the first article in which all three syndromes have been reviewed, enabling the reader to compare the characteristics of these disorders. The histological findings in VOD, BCS, and CH are almost identical: sinusoidal congestion and cell necrosis mostly in perivenular areas of hepatic acini which eventually leads to bridging fibrosis between adjacent central veins. Tender hepatomegaly with jaundice and ascites is common to all three conditions. However, the clinical presentation depends mostly on the extent and rapidity of the outflow obstruction. Although the etiology and treatment are completely different in VOD, BCS, and CH; the similarities in clinical manifestations and liver histology may suggest a common mechanism of hepatic injury and adaptation in response to increased sinusoidal pressure. PMID:17461490

  2. Social values as arguments: similar is convincing

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Gregory R.; Hahn, Ulrike; Frost, John-Mark; Kuppens, Toon; Rehman, Nadia; Kamble, Shanmukh

    2014-01-01

    Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., “equality leads to freedom”). Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness. PMID:25147529

  3. Similarities between protein folding and granular jamming

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Prasanth P; Andricioaei, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    Grains and glasses, widely different materials, arrest their motions upon decreasing temperature and external load, respectively, in common ways, leading to a universal jamming phase diagram conjecture. However, unified theories are lacking, mainly because of the disparate nature of the particle interactions. Here we demonstrate that folded proteins exhibit signatures common to both glassiness and jamming by using temperature- and force-unfolding molecular dynamics simulations. Upon folding, proteins develop a peak in the interatomic force distributions that falls on a universal curve with experimentally measured forces on jammed grains and droplets. Dynamical signatures are found as a dramatic slowdown of stress relaxation upon folding. Together with granular similarities, folding is tied not just to the jamming transition, but a more nuanced picture of anisotropy, preparation protocol and internal interactions emerges. Results have implications for designing stable polymers and can open avenues to link protein folding to jamming theory. PMID:23093180

  4. Genetic similarity and hatching success in birds.

    PubMed Central

    Spottiswoode, Claire; Møller, Anders Pape

    2004-01-01

    The ecological correlates of fitness costs of genetic similarity in free-living, large populations of organisms are poorly understood. Using a dataset of genetic similarity as reflected by band-sharing coefficients of minisatellites, we show that bird species with higher genetic similarity experience elevated hatching failure of eggs, increasing by a factor of six across 99 species. Island distributions and cooperative breeding systems in particular were associated with elevated genetic similarity. These findings provide comparative evidence of detrimental fitness consequences of high genetic similarity across a wide range of species, and help to identify ecological factors potentially associated with increased risk of extinction. PMID:15058437

  5. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert

    2013-12-01

    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born females, and immigrant females on their scores on teacher-assigned grades in science and on the SAIP science literacy test, and across a range of dispositions, beliefs, and behaviors suggested in the literature as predictive of achievement in science. Study findings show that Canadian-born students, particularly boys, have higher performance in the science literacy test despite their lower achievement in the science classroom and the least investments of time in doing science homework. In contrast, immigrant female students demonstrate the highest academic effort and achievement in science courses which are not matched by similar results in the science literacy test. We discuss these results in relation to different socialization experiences with science and technology that limit female and immigrant students' abilities to transfer knowledge to new situations that have not been learned in the classroom.

  6. Similarity Grouping and Repetition Blindness are Both Influenced by Attention

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Bianca; Rorden, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported seemingly conflicting results regarding how the amount of stimulus similarity between two simultaneously presented target stimuli impacts perceptual performance. There are many reports of ‘repetition blindness’, where individuals do worse when shown two similar stimuli relative to two different stimuli. On the other hand, there are reports of ‘similarity grouping’, where participants perform better when identifying two similar objects relative to two different objects. This manuscript posits that repetition blindness and similarity grouping coexist and can be elicited in the same subjects in a single task. This not only explains the previous opposite effects of stimulus similarity on task performance, but also provides a unique opportunity to directly compare these opposite effects of stimulus similarity with respect to susceptibility to a modulating factor. Since previous studies have provided inconclusive results on whether attentional relevance can modulate the effect of stimulus similarity on task performance, the current manuscript aims to compare repetition blindness and similarity grouping with respect to their susceptibility to attentional relevance. The results of the first experiment confirmed that both repetition blindness and similarity grouping can be elicited in the same experiment, suggesting that repetition blindness and similarity grouping coexist. The results of the second experiment suggest that both repetition blindness and similarity grouping can be modulated by attentional relevance. These results support the explanation of repetition blindness as a token individuation failure. Furthermore, these results suggest that supposedly pre-attentional grouping mechanisms might not operate as independently from top-down attentional modulations as traditionally thought. PMID:20300466

  7. Using Reaction Mechanism to Measure Enzyme Similarity

    PubMed Central

    O’Boyle, Noel M.; Holliday, Gemma L.; Almonacid, Daniel E.; Mitchell, John B.O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The concept of reaction similarity has been well-studied in terms of the overall transformation associated with a reaction, but not in terms of mechanism. We present the first method to give a quantitative measure of the similarity of reactions based upon their explicit mechanisms. Two approaches are presented to measure the similarity between individual steps of mechanisms: a fingerprint-based approach which incorporates relevant information on each mechanistic step, and an approach based only on bond formation, cleavage and changes in order. The overall similarity for two reaction mechanisms is then calculated using the Needleman-Wunsch alignment algorithm. An analysis of MACiE, a database of enzyme mechanisms, using our measure of similarity identifies some examples of convergent evolution of chemical mechanism. In many cases mechanism similarity is not reflected by similarity according to the EC system of enzyme classification. In particular, little mechanistic information is conveyed by the class level of the EC. PMID:17400244

  8. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  9. On self-preservation and log-similarity in a slightly heated axisymmetric mixing layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiesset, F.; Schaeffer, V.; Djenidi, L.; Antonia, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of self-preservation for one- and two-point statistics in a slightly heated axisymmetric mixing layer. Results indicate that the longitudinal velocity fluctuation u seems to approach self-preservation more rapidly than either the transverse velocity fluctuation v or the scalar fluctuation θ. The Reynolds number Reδ = U0δ/ν (U0 being the jet inlet velocity and δ the momentum thickness) that ought to be achieved for the one-point statistics to behave in a self-similar fashion is assessed. Second, the relevance of different sets of similarity variables for normalizing the energy spectra and structure functions is explored. In particular, a new set of shear similarity variables, emphasizing the range of scales influenced by the mean velocity and temperature gradient, is derived and tested. Since the Reynolds number based on the Taylor microscale increases with respect to the streamwise distance, complete self-preservation cannot be satisfied; instead, the range of scales over which spectra and structure functions comply with self-preservation depends on the particular choice of similarity variables. A similarity analysis of the two-point transport equation, which features the large scale production term, is performed and confirms this. Log-similarity, which implicitly accounts for the variation of the Reynolds number, is also proposed and appears to provide a reasonable approximation to self-preservation, at least for u and θ.

  10. Using Scientific Publications to Identify People with Similar Interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Stanley; Lorenzi, Fabiana; Granada, Roger; Lichtnow, Daniel; Wives, Leandro Krug; Palazzo Moreira de Oliveira, José

    In many situations, related to some types of systems or organizations' tasks, it is necessary to identify people with similar profiles. In the case of a collaborative recommender system, items to be recommended are those associated to similar users. Another example, in the academic environment, is to identify new members to be part of a research group (people with similar profiles). This task of identifying people with similar profiles can be time-consuming. In this sense, this work considers that scientific papers written by people can be used to identify users with similar profiles. Considering this assumption, we have done some experiments to identify which parts of papers, which type of indexes (terms or concepts) and which type of similarity functions (Jaccard or a Fuzzy function) are more suitable to identify similar people. The paper presents the results of some experiments and some application scenarios considering academic environments.

  11. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  12. Personalized Mortality Prediction Driven by Electronic Medical Data and a Patient Similarity Metric

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon; Maslove, David M.; Dubin, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical outcome prediction normally employs static, one-size-fits-all models that perform well for the average patient but are sub-optimal for individual patients with unique characteristics. In the era of digital healthcare, it is feasible to dynamically personalize decision support by identifying and analyzing similar past patients, in a way that is analogous to personalized product recommendation in e-commerce. Our objectives were: 1) to prove that analyzing only similar patients leads to better outcome prediction performance than analyzing all available patients, and 2) to characterize the trade-off between training data size and the degree of similarity between the training data and the index patient for whom prediction is to be made. Methods and Findings We deployed a cosine-similarity-based patient similarity metric (PSM) to an intensive care unit (ICU) database to identify patients that are most similar to each patient and subsequently to custom-build 30-day mortality prediction models. Rich clinical and administrative data from the first day in the ICU from 17,152 adult ICU admissions were analyzed. The results confirmed that using data from only a small subset of most similar patients for training improves predictive performance in comparison with using data from all available patients. The results also showed that when too few similar patients are used for training, predictive performance degrades due to the effects of small sample sizes. Our PSM-based approach outperformed well-known ICU severity of illness scores. Although the improved prediction performance is achieved at the cost of increased computational burden, Big Data technologies can help realize personalized data-driven decision support at the point of care. Conclusions The present study provides crucial empirical evidence for the promising potential of personalized data-driven decision support systems. With the increasing adoption of electronic medical record (EMR) systems, our

  13. Response to Comment on "Math at home adds up to achievement in school".

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Talia; Schaeffer, Marjorie W; Rozek, Christopher S; Maloney, Erin A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2016-03-11

    Frank presents an alternative interpretation of our data, yet reports largely similar results to those in our original Report. A critical difference centers on how to interpret and test interaction effects. Frank finds no mistakes in our analyses. We stand by our original conclusions of meaningful effects of the Bedtime Learning Together (BLT) math app on children's math achievement. PMID:26965620

  14. Effect of Textbook Readability on Student Achievement in High School Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, D. Neil

    2001-01-01

    Notes the readability level of many high school chemistry textbooks is far above students' reading levels. Conducts two separate studies, making every effort to keep the two classes as similar as possible in all aspects except text. Finds strong evidence that changing the chemistry textbook resulted in an increase in student achievement. Suggests…

  15. HMMER web server: interactive sequence similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Robert D.; Clements, Jody; Eddy, Sean R.

    2011-01-01

    HMMER is a software suite for protein sequence similarity searches using probabilistic methods. Previously, HMMER has mainly been available only as a computationally intensive UNIX command-line tool, restricting its use. Recent advances in the software, HMMER3, have resulted in a 100-fold speed gain relative to previous versions. It is now feasible to make efficient profile hidden Markov model (profile HMM) searches via the web. A HMMER web server (http://hmmer.janelia.org) has been designed and implemented such that most protein database searches return within a few seconds. Methods are available for searching either a single protein sequence, multiple protein sequence alignment or profile HMM against a target sequence database, and for searching a protein sequence against Pfam. The web server is designed to cater to a range of different user expertise and accepts batch uploading of multiple queries at once. All search methods are also available as RESTful web services, thereby allowing them to be readily integrated as remotely executed tasks in locally scripted workflows. We have focused on minimizing search times and the ability to rapidly display tabular results, regardless of the number of matches found, developing graphical summaries of the search results to provide quick, intuitive appraisement of them. PMID:21593126

  16. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  17. Protein-protein interface prediction based on hexagon structure similarity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Ding, Yijie; Li, Shuai Cheng; Shen, Chao; Wang, Lusheng

    2016-08-01

    Studies on protein-protein interaction are important in proteome research. How to build more effective models based on sequence information, structure information and physicochemical characteristics, is the key technology in protein-protein interface prediction. In this paper, we study the protein-protein interface prediction problem. We propose a novel method for identifying residues on interfaces from an input protein with both sequence and 3D structure information, based on hexagon structure similarity. Experiments show that our method achieves better results than some state-of-the-art methods for identifying protein-protein interface. Comparing to existing methods, our approach improves F-measure value by at least 0.03. On a common dataset consisting of 41 complexes, our method has overall precision and recall values of 63% and 57%. On Benchmark v4.0, our method has overall precision and recall values of 55% and 56%. On CAPRI targets, our method has overall precision and recall values of 52% and 55%. PMID:26936323

  18. Teacher perception, lesson study and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Whitney E.

    The purpose of this research was to explore group differences between teachers participating in North Cascades Olympic Science Partnership (NCOSP) activities and a matched group of non-NCOSP teachers. Specifically, the study explored potential differences between groups on: (a) science achievement as measured by the science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL), (b) teacher perception of knowledge, experience and confidence with lesson study, a collaborative professional development model, (c) teacher perception of knowledge with curriculum, and (d) teacher perception of knowledge and experience with pedagogy. Further, in order todemonstrate group similarities, demographic data for each group were described and considered in the areas of teacher gender, school grade span, school enrollment, percent of students receiving free and reduced meal benefits, percent of female students, percent of students who are an ethnic minority, and percent of students who are identified as special education. A total of 206 science teachers were randomly selected for this population. The experimental (NCOSP science teachers) and comparison (non-NCOSP science teachers) groups were both initially comprised of 103 participants. Data collected from 55 NCOSP teachers and 32 non-NCOSP teachers were valid and used in the statistical analyses. Descriptive and inferential analyses were completed. To ensure the NCOSP and matched groups were statistically similar, chi-square tests for independence were computed. A one-way Hotelling's T2, the equivalent of a MANOVA for two groups, was computed using the SPSS general linear model. The procedure simultaneously compared the independent variable (Group: NCOSP teachers and non-NCOSP teachers) across the seven dependent variables, student science achievement as measured by science WASL, curriculum knowledge, pedagogy knowledge, pedagogy confidence, lesson study knowledge, lesson study experience, and lesson study confidence. Results for the

  19. The Influence of Contour on Similarity Perception of Star Glyphs.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Johannes; Isenberg, Petra; Bezerianos, Anastasia; Fischer, Fabian; Bertini, Enrico

    2014-12-01

    We conducted three experiments to investigate the effects of contours on the detection of data similarity with star glyph variations. A star glyph is a small, compact, data graphic that represents a multi-dimensional data point. Star glyphs are often used in small-multiple settings, to represent data points in tables, on maps, or as overlays on other types of data graphics. In these settings, an important task is the visual comparison of the data points encoded in the star glyph, for example to find other similar data points or outliers. We hypothesized that for data comparisons, the overall shape of a star glyph--enhanced through contour lines--would aid the viewer in making accurate similarity judgments. To test this hypothesis, we conducted three experiments. In our first experiment, we explored how the use of contours influenced how visualization experts and trained novices chose glyphs with similar data values. Our results showed that glyphs without contours make the detection of data similarity easier. Given these results, we conducted a second study to understand intuitive notions of similarity. Star glyphs without contours most intuitively supported the detection of data similarity. In a third experiment, we tested the effect of star glyph reference structures (i.e., tickmarks and gridlines) on the detection of similarity. Surprisingly, our results show that adding reference structures does improve the correctness of similarity judgments for star glyphs with contours, but not for the standard star glyph. As a result of these experiments, we conclude that the simple star glyph without contours performs best under several criteria, reinforcing its practice and popularity in the literature. Contours seem to enhance the detection of other types of similarity, e. g., shape similarity and are distracting when data similarity has to be judged. Based on these findings we provide design considerations regarding the use of contours and reference structures on star

  20. Evaluating Whole Chemical Mixtures and Sufficient Similarity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This powerpoint presentation supports apresentation describing dose-response assessment for complex chemical mixtures including deriving reference doses for mixtures evaluating sufficient similarity among chemical mixtures.

  1. The Literacy Achievement of Norwegian Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Rita; Roe, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the literacy achievement of Norwegian minority students, their reading habits, and their enjoyment of reading based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 study. Aspects of their family background and attitudes towards school are related to literacy achievement results. A comparison between Denmark,…

  2. Attitudes and Achievement of Bruneian Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. Results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. (Contains 46 references.)…

  3. The Achiever. Volume 6, Number 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Nicole, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "The Achiever" is a monthly publication for parents and community leaders from the Office of Communications and Outreach, U.S. Department of Education. This issue contains the following articles: (1) President Seeks to Build on Law's Results; (2) Bridging the Gap: Ohio Charter School Surmounts Age, Achievement Barriers; (3) Spellings'…

  4. Motivation and Achievement: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret E.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    Using analysis of variance and regression techniques, the authors analyzed the results of 40 studies that were conducted between 1953 and 1976 and contained 232 correlations between various measures of motivation and achievement. The motivation variables were restricted to students' achievement motivation, locus-of-control perceptions, and general…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps between…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Michigan showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Missouri showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. Results on achievement gaps were mixed. Comparable data were…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This year the Center on Education Policy (CEP) analyzed data on the achievement of different groups of students in two distinct ways. First, it looked at grade 4 test results to determine whether the performance of various groups improved at three achievement levels--basic and above, proficient and above, and advanced. Second, it looked at gaps…

  12. Here's looking at you: Visual similarity exacerbates the Moses illusion for semantically similar celebrities.

    PubMed

    Davis, Danielle K; Abrams, Lise

    2016-01-01

    When people read questions like "How many animals of each kind did Moses take on the ark?", many mistakenly answer "2" despite knowing that Noah sailed the ark. This "Moses illusion" occurs when names share semantic features. Two experiments examined whether shared visual concepts (facial features) exacerbate Moses illusions for celebrity names. Questions contained an unrelated distractor name or a semantic distractor name that was visually similar or dissimilar to the correct target name. Both experiments revealed more Moses illusions occurred for questions containing a visually similar semantic distractor compared with either visually dissimilar or unrelated distractors. Furthermore, presenting a picture of the target (Experiment 1) or the visually similar distractor (Experiment 2) before the question increased accurate detection of the illusion, independent of distractor type. Results challenge theoretical explanations of the Moses illusion as resulting from purely shallow semantic processing and demonstrate the importance of visual information in processing proper names, even when presented in written form. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26147668

  13. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Relations found between human memories and similar neural patterns Double Star Program Received the IAA Laurels for Team Achievement Award Prof. Piao's Review Paper Published in Nature Arsenic Trioxide Controls the Fate of the PML-RARα Oncoprotein by Directly Binding PML Setdb2 restricts dorsal organizer territory and regulates left-right asymmetry through suppressing fgf8 activity Short-range scattering in quantum dots Single-molecule magnets may find their use in microelectronics β-Arrestin1 Regulates Zebrafish Hematopoiesis through Binding to YY1 and Relieving Polycomb Group Repression Studies shown gene present and absent complementation may contribute to the heterosis of maize Low frequency genetic variation may determine complex diseases Cation-π interaction playing vital roles in the regulation of integrin affinity, signaling, and biological functions Soybean diversity map may provide important basis for breeding Mutations related to Alzheimer's and rare skin disease

  14. Raising Achievement through Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, Swedish authorities introduced open publication of comparisons of students' results at the end of compulsory school. In this study, we investigated a municipality that had succeeded in breaking a negative trend from a bottom position in the ranking in 2007 to a top position in 2010, apparently through inclusive practices. The purpose…

  15. Determinants of Education Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Charles; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A model is tested of the determinants of educational attainment among peasants on Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, involving family background, personal characteristics (including IQ), and years of schooling available. Results indicate that the model explains much of the variance in educational attainment, and that IQ is only a minor determinant. (RW)

  16. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  17. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  18. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  19. Documents Similarity Measurement Using Field Association Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlam, El-Sayed; Fuketa, M.; Morita, K.; Aoe, Jun-ichi

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of text analysis and information retrieval and measurement of document similarity focuses on a new text manipulation system called FA (field association)-Sim that is useful for retrieving information in large heterogeneous texts and for recognizing content similarity in text excerpts. Discusses recall and precision, automatic indexing…

  20. Marking Student Programs Using Graph Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, Kevin A.; Greyling, Jean H.; Vogts, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the automated marking of student programming assignments. Our technique quantifies the structural similarity between unmarked student submissions and marked solutions, and is the basis by which we assign marks. This is accomplished through an efficient novel graph similarity measure ("AssignSim"). Our experiments…

  1. Perceived Similarity, Proactive Adjustment, and Organizational Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.; Livingston, Beth A.; Liao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores how perceived demographic and attitudinal similarity can influence proactive behavior among organizational newcomers. We propose that newcomers who perceive themselves as similar to their co-workers will be more willing to seek new information or build relationships, which in turn will lead to better long-term…

  2. Attitude Similarity, Topic Importance, and Psychotherapeutic Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Thomas

    1975-01-01

    The effect of attitude similarity and topic importance on attraction was studied by exposing 75 prison inmates, incarcerated for public intoxication, to varying attitudes of a psychotherapist. Subjects were more attracted to the therapist after receiving alcohol items regardless of degree of similarity expressed. (Author)

  3. Observational Learning and the Effects of Model-Observer Similarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaksma, Martine A. H.; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; van den Bergh, Huub

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the effects of similarity in competence between model and observer on the effectiveness of observational learning in argumentative writing. Results are consistent with the similarity hypothesis: weak learners learn more from focusing their observations on weak models, whereas better learners learn more from focusing on good…

  4. Sample selection in foreign similarity regions for multicrop experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, J. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The selection of sample segments in the U.S. foreign similarity regions for development of proportion estimation procedures and error modeling for Argentina, Australia, Brazil, and USSR in AgRISTARS is described. Each sample was chosen to be similar in crop mix to the corresponding indicator region sample. Data sets, methods of selection, and resulting samples are discussed.

  5. Similarity and Reciprocity in the Friendships of Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, M. L.; Drewry, Debra L.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the effect of similarity and reciprocity on dyadic friendship choices in third- and sixth-grade students. Reciprocal (mutual) friendships were more similar in proximity, popularity, and self-concept than those in nonreciprocal (nonmutual) dyads. Results are discussed in relation to the interpersonal attraction theories. (Author/DST)

  6. Similarity is closeness: Metaphorical mapping in a conceptual task.

    PubMed

    Boot, Inge; Pecher, Diane

    2010-05-01

    The conceptual metaphor theory states that abstract concepts are represented by image schemas from concrete domains. In the present study we investigated the mapping for SIMILARITY IS CLOSENESS using tasks with nonlinguistic materials. In Experiments 1 and 2 participants decided whether two squares were similar or dissimilar in colour. The spatial distance between the squares was varied. Performance to similar colours was better at shorter distances, whereas performance to dissimilar colours was better at longer distances. In Experiments 3 and 4 participants made distance decisions to similar and dissimilar colours squares. Performance was not affected by similarity. These results show that metaphorical mappings can be found even beyond the context of linguistic metaphors and that the mapping between SIMILARITY and CLOSENESS is asymmetrical. PMID:19731189

  7. Similarity-based global optimization of buildings in urban scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Quansheng; Zhang, Jing; Jiang, Wanshou

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, an approach for the similarity-based global optimization of buildings in urban scene is presented. In the past, most researches concentrated on single building reconstruction, making it difficult to reconstruct reliable models from noisy or incomplete point clouds. To obtain a better result, a new trend is to utilize the similarity among the buildings. Therefore, a new similarity detection and global optimization strategy is adopted to modify local-fitting geometric errors. Firstly, the hierarchical structure that consists of geometric, topological and semantic features is constructed to represent complex roof models. Secondly, similar roof models can be detected by combining primitive structure and connection similarities. At last, the global optimization strategy is applied to preserve the consistency and precision of similar roof structures. Moreover, non-local consolidation is adapted to detect small roof parts. The experiments reveal that the proposed method can obtain convincing roof models and promote the reconstruction quality of 3D buildings in urban scene.

  8. Perceptual similarity of regional dialects of American English

    PubMed Central

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Levi, Susannah V.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on the perception of dialect variation has measured the perceptual similarity of talkers based on regional dialect using only indirect methods. In the present study, a paired comparison similarity ratings task was used to obtain direct measures of perceptual similarity. Naive listeners were asked to make explicit judgments about the similarity of a set of talkers based on regional dialect. The talkers represented four regional varieties of American English and both genders. Results revealed an additive effect of gender and dialect on mean similarity ratings and two primary dimensions of perceptual dialect similarity: geography (northern versus southern varieties) and dialect markedness (many versus few characteristic properties). The present findings are consistent with earlier research on the perception of dialect variation, as well as recent speech perception studies which demonstrate the integral role of talker gender in speech perception. PMID:16454310

  9. Criteria for dynamic similarity in bouncing gaits.

    PubMed

    Bullimore, Sharon R; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2008-01-21

    Animals of different sizes tend to move in a dynamically similar manner when travelling at speeds corresponding to equal values of a dimensionless parameter (DP) called the Froude number. Consequently, the Froude number has been widely used for defining equivalent speeds and predicting speeds of locomotion by extinct species and on other planets. However, experiments using simulated reduced gravity have demonstrated that equality of the Froude number does not guarantee dynamic similarity. This has cast doubt upon the usefulness of the Froude number in locomotion research. Here we use dimensional analysis of the planar spring-mass model, combined with Buckingham's Pi-Theorem, to demonstrate that four DPs must be equal for dynamic similarity in bouncing gaits such as trotting, hopping and bipedal running. This can be reduced to three DPs by applying the constraint of maintaining a constant average speed of locomotion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that all of these DPs are important for predicting dynamic similarity. We show that the reason humans do not run in a dynamically similar manner at equal Froude number in different levels of simulated reduced gravity is that dimensionless leg stiffness decreases as gravity increases. The reason that the Froude number can predict dynamic similarity in Earth gravity is that dimensionless leg stiffness and dimensionless vertical landing speed are both independent of size. In conclusion, although equal Froude number is not sufficient for dynamic similarity, it is a necessary condition. Therefore, to detect fundamental differences in locomotion, animals of different sizes should be compared at equal Froude number, so that they can be as close to dynamic similarity as possible. More generally, the concept of dynamic similarity provides a powerful framework within which similarities and differences in locomotion can be interpreted. PMID:17983630

  10. The impact of environmental education on sixth-grade students' science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, Katherine Gillespie

    This study investigated the relationship between student involvement in environmental education (EE) and science achievement. The performance of students engaged in fifth and sixth grade classrooms identified as incorporating environmental education into science instruction was compared to that of students from similar classrooms that use traditional science instruction. Data from 4655 sixth grade students were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression model to determine if environmental education improves prediction of science achievement beyond that afforded by differences in socioeconomic status and previous science achievement. The results indicated that environmental education, when integrated into science instruction, does not improve prediction of CTBS science scores beyond that afforded by differences in previous achievement in science and socioeconomic status. Previous achievement and socioeconomic status were the only two variables that predicted CTBS science subtest scores. The variable previous achievement (Score on fourth grade KIRIS test) explained 27.6% of the variance in CTBS test scores. The variable socioeconomic status (participation in free and reduced lunch program) explained 7.1% of the variance in CTBS science test scores. Participation in a fifth, sixth or both grades environmental education classroom did not add to the prediction of CTBS scores. This study illustrates that environmental education, while not correlated with high science achievement, does not correlate with low science achievement. Environmental education research may benefit from similar studies, which utilize alternative forms of student assessment. This study has implications for researchers interested in examining the impact of environmental education on science achievement, as it provides evidence for the importance of including background characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and previous achievement, in research models. This study provides an example of

  11. Endowing a Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval System with Perceptual Similarity Using Ensemble Strategy.

    PubMed

    Bedo, Marcos Vinicius Naves; Pereira Dos Santos, Davi; Ponciano-Silva, Marcelo; de Azevedo-Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini; Ferreira de Carvalho, André Ponce de León; Traina, Caetano

    2016-02-01

    Content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) is a powerful resource to improve differential computer-aided diagnosis. The major problem with CBMIR applications is the semantic gap, a situation in which the system does not follow the users' sense of similarity. This gap can be bridged by the adequate modeling of similarity queries, which ultimately depends on the combination of feature extractor methods and distance functions. In this study, such combinations are referred to as perceptual parameters, as they impact on how images are compared. In a CBMIR, the perceptual parameters must be manually set by the users, which imposes a heavy burden on the specialists; otherwise, the system will follow a predefined sense of similarity. This paper presents a novel approach to endow a CBMIR with a proper sense of similarity, in which the system defines the perceptual parameter depending on the query element. The method employs ensemble strategy, where an extreme learning machine acts as a meta-learner and identifies the most suitable perceptual parameter according to a given query image. This parameter defines the search space for the similarity query that retrieves the most similar images. An instance-based learning classifier labels the query image following the query result set. As the concept implementation, we integrated the approach into a mammogram CBMIR. For each query image, the resulting tool provided a complete second opinion, including lesion class, system certainty degree, and set of most similar images. Extensive experiments on a large mammogram dataset showed that our proposal achieved a hit ratio up to 10% higher than the traditional CBMIR approach without requiring external parameters from the users. Our database-driven solution was also up to 25% faster than content retrieval traditional approaches. PMID:26259520

  12. Exploring similarities among many species distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmerman, Scott; Wang, Jingyuan; Osborne, James; Shook, Kimberly; Huang, Jian; Godsoe, William; Simons, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    Collecting species presence data and then building models to predict species distribution has been long practiced in the field of ecology for the purpose of improving our understanding of species relationships with each other and with the environment. Due to limitations of computing power as well as limited means of using modeling software on HPC facilities, past species distribution studies have been unable to fully explore diverse data sets. We build a system that can, for the first time to our knowledge, leverage HPC to support effective exploration of species similarities in distribution as well as their dependencies on common environmental conditions. Our system can also compute and reveal uncertainties in the modeling results enabling domain experts to make informed judgments about the data. Our work was motivated by and centered around data collection efforts within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park that date back to the 1940s. Our findings present new research opportunities in ecology and produce actionable field-work items for biodiversity management personnel to include in their planning of daily management activities.

  13. Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Langergraber, Kevin E; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

    2011-02-01

    The question of whether animals possess 'cultures' or 'traditions' continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the 'method of exclusion,' begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour. PMID:20719777

  14. Popularity, similarity, and the network extraversion bias.

    PubMed

    Feiler, Daniel C; Kleinbaum, Adam M

    2015-05-01

    Using the emergent friendship network of an incoming cohort of students in an M.B.A. program, we examined the role of extraversion in shaping social networks. Extraversion has two important implications for the emergence of network ties: a popularity effect, in which extraverts accumulate more friends than introverts do, and a homophily effect, in which the more similar are two people's levels of extraversion, the more likely they are to become friends. These effects result in a systematic network extraversion bias, in which people's social networks will tend to be overpopulated with extraverts and underpopulated with introverts. Moreover, the most extraverted people have the greatest network extraversion bias, and the most introverted people have the least network extraversion bias. Our finding that social networks were systematically misrepresentative of the broader social environment raises questions about whether there is a societal bias toward believing other people are more extraverted than they actually are and whether introverts are better socially calibrated than extraverts. PMID:25838113

  15. Using EHRs for Heart Failure Therapy Recommendation Using Multidimensional Patient Similarity Analytics.

    PubMed

    Panahiazar, Maryam; Taslimitehrani, Vahid; Pereira, Naveen L; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2015-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) contain a wealth of information about an individual patient's diagnosis, treatment and health outcomes. This information can be leveraged effectively to identify patients who are similar to each for disease diagnosis and prognosis. In recent years, several machine learning methods have been proposed to assessing patient similarity, although the techniques have primarily focused on the use of patient diagnoses data from EHRs for the learning task. In this study, we develop a multidimensional patient similarity assessment technique that leverages multiple types of information from the EHR and predicts a medication plan for each new patient based on prior knowledge and data from similar patients. In our algorithm, patients have been clustered into different groups using a hierarchical clustering approach and subsequently have been assigned a medication plan based on the similarity index to the overall patient population. We evaluated the performance of our approach on a cohort of heart failure patients (N=1386) identified from EHR data at Mayo Clinic and achieved an AUC of 0.74. Our results suggest that it is feasible to harness population-based information from EHRs for an individual patient-specific assessment. PMID:25991168

  16. a Novel Similarity Assessment for Remote Sensing Images via Fast Association Rule Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Kai; Liu, Ping; Qian, Jing; Chen, Huijuan

    2016-06-01

    Similarity assessment is the fundamentally important to various remote sensing applications such as image classification, image retrieval and so on. The objective of similarity assessment is to automatically distinguish differences between images and identify the contents of an image. Unlike the existing feature-based or object-based methods, we concern more about the deep level pattern of image content. The association rule mining is capable to find out the potential patterns of image, hence in this paper, a fast association rule mining algorithm is proposed and the similarity is represented by rules. More specifically, the proposed approach consist of the following steps: firstly, the gray level of image is compressed using linear segmentation to avoid interference of details and reduce the computation amount; then the compressed gray values between pixels are collected to generate the transaction sets which are transformed into the proposed multi-dimension data cube structure; the association rules are then fast mined based on multi-dimension data cube; finally the mined rules are represented as a vector and similarity assessment is achieved by vector comparison using first order approximation of Kullback-Leibler divergence. Experimental results indicate that the proposed fast association rule mining algorithm is more effective than the widely used Apriori method. The remote sensing image retrieval experiments using various images for example, QuickBird, WorldView-2, based on the existing and proposed similarity assessment show that the proposed method can provide higher retrieval precision.

  17. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  18. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    PubMed

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  19. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  20. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  1. Concept maps about chemical equilibrium and students' achievement scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jan

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between structural characteristics of students' concept maps about chemical equilibrium and independent measures of their achievement in chemistry. Fifty students in 1991 and seventy students in 1992 completed a concept-mapping task using twenty-four specified concepts. Using similarities in concept map structure, based on the presence or absence of linked pairs of concepts, non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used to plot the location of the concept maps in coordinate space. The distribution of maps was based on differences in their structure, but also reflected levels of student achievement on independent tests. The relationship between the coordinate location of each student's maps and his or her test scores on independent chemistry achievement tests was sought by canonical correlation analysis of the 1991 data set. This revealed significant relationships between the MDS coordinates and test scores of recall of knowledge and its application. Multiple regression analysis of sixty-one students' maps from the 1992 data set against their percentile rank scores on a national chemistry quiz revealed significant relationships. The results are interpreted as revealing structural differences in conceptual organisation about chemical equilibrium among students with different levels of achievement and thus relative expertise in the domain. The significant relationship between map structure and cognitive process scores in chemistry also supports the view that the organisation of declarative knowledge influences its accessibility in cognitive tasks.

  2. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski. PMID:20624042

  3. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  4. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  5. Interpersonal attraction and personality: what is attractive--self similarity, ideal similarity, complementarity or attachment security?

    PubMed

    Klohnen, Eva C; Luo, Shanhong

    2003-10-01

    Little is known about whether personality characteristics influence initial attraction. Because adult attachment differences influence a broad range of relationship processes, the authors examined their role in 3 experimental attraction studies. The authors tested four major attraction hypotheses--self similarity, ideal-self similarity, complementarity, and attachment security--and examined both actual and perceptual factors. Replicated analyses across samples, designs, and manipulations showed that actual security and self similarity predicted attraction. With regard to perceptual factors, ideal similarity, self similarity, and security all were significant predictors. Whereas perceptual ideal and self similarity had incremental predictive power, perceptual security's effects were subsumed by perceptual ideal similarity. Perceptual self similarity fully mediated actual attachment similarity effects, whereas ideal similarity was only a partial mediator. PMID:14561124

  6. Evaluating Similarity Measures for Brain Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Razlighi, Q. R.; Kehtarnavaz, N.; Yousefi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of similarity measures for image registration is a challenging problem due to its complex interaction with the underlying optimization, regularization, image type and modality. We propose a single performance metric, named robustness, as part of a new evaluation method which quantifies the effectiveness of similarity measures for brain image registration while eliminating the effects of the other parts of the registration process. We show empirically that similarity measures with higher robustness are more effective in registering degraded images and are also more successful in performing intermodal image registration. Further, we introduce a new similarity measure, called normalized spatial mutual information, for 3D brain image registration whose robustness is shown to be much higher than the existing ones. Consequently, it tolerates greater image degradation and provides more consistent outcomes for intermodal brain image registration. PMID:24039378

  7. Similarity Theory of Withdrawn Water Temperature Experiment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Selective withdrawal from a thermal stratified reservoir has been widely utilized in managing reservoir water withdrawal. Besides theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, model test was also necessary in studying the temperature of withdrawn water. However, information on the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model remains lacking. Considering flow features of selective withdrawal, the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model was analyzed theoretically based on the modification of governing equations, the Boussinesq approximation, and some simplifications. The similarity conditions between the model and the prototype were suggested. The conversion of withdrawn water temperature between the model and the prototype was proposed. Meanwhile, the fundamental theory of temperature distribution conversion was firstly proposed, which could significantly improve the experiment efficiency when the basic temperature of the model was different from the prototype. Based on the similarity theory, an experiment was performed on the withdrawn water temperature which was verified by numerical method. PMID:26065020

  8. HYPOTHESIS TESTING WITH THE SIMILARITY INDEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mulltilocus DNA fingerprinting methods have been used extensively to address genetic issues in wildlife populations. Hypotheses concerning population subdivision and differing levels of diversity can be addressed through the use of the similarity index (S), a band-sharing coeffic...

  9. Similarity and singularity in adhesive elastohydrodynamic touchdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Mahadevan, L.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of an elastic sheet as it starts to adhere to a wall, a process that is limited by the viscous squeeze flow of the intervening liquid. Elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory allows us to derive a partial differential equation coupling the elastic deformation of the sheet, the microscopic van der Waals adhesion, and viscous thin film flow. We use a combination of numerical simulations of the governing equation and a scaling analysis to describe the self-similar touchdown of the sheet as it approaches the wall. An analysis of the equation in terms of similarity variables in the vicinity of the touchdown event shows that only the fundamental similarity solution is observed in the time-dependent numerical simulations, consistent with the fact that it alone is stable. Our analysis generalizes similar approaches for rupture in capillary thin film hydrodynamics and suggests experimentally verifiable predictions for a new class of singular flows linking elasticity, hydrodynamics, and adhesion.

  10. Media segmentation using self-similarity decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Jonathan T.; Cooper, Matthew L.

    2003-01-01

    We present a framework for analyzing the structure of digital media streams. Though our methods work for video, text, and audio, we concentrate on detecting the structure of digital music files. In the first step, spectral data is used to construct a similarity matrix calculated from inter-frame spectral similarity.The digital audio can be robustly segmented by correlating a kernel along the diagonal of the similarity matrix. Once segmented, spectral statistics of each segment are computed. In the second step,segments are clustered based on the self-similarity of their statistics. This reveals the structure of the digital music in a set of segment boundaries and labels. Finally, the music is summarized by selecting clusters with repeated segments throughout the piece. The summaries can be customized for various applications based on the structure of the original music.

  11. Self-similarity in Laplacian growth

    SciTech Connect

    Mineev-weinstein, Mark; Zabrodin, Anton; Abanov, Artem

    2008-01-01

    We consider Laplacian Growth of self-similar domains in different geometries. Self-similarity determines the analytic structure of the Schwarz function of the moving boundary. The knowledge of this analytic structure allows us to derive the integral equation for the conformal map. It is shown that solutions to the integral equation obey also a second-order differential equation which is the 1D Schroedinger equation with the sinh{sup -2}-potential. The solutions, which are expressed through the Gauss hypergeometric function, characterize the geometry of self-similar patterns in a wedge. We also find the potential for the Coulomb gas representation of the self-similar Laplacian growth in a wedge and calculate the corresponding free energy.

  12. Self-similarity in active colloid motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constant, Colin; Sukhov, Sergey; Dogariu, Aristide

    The self-similarity of displacements among randomly evolving systems has been used to describe the foraging patterns of animals and predict the growth of financial systems. At micron scales, the motion of colloidal particles can be analyzed by sampling their spatial displacement in time. For self-similar systems in equilibrium, the mean squared displacement increases linearly in time. However, external forces can take the system out of equilibrium, creating active colloidal systems, and making this evolution more complex. A moment scaling spectrum of the distribution of particle displacements quantifies the degree of self-similarity in the colloid motion. We will demonstrate that, by varying the temporal and spatial characteristics of the external forces, one can control the degree of self-similarity in active colloid motion.

  13. Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touhey, John C.

    1975-01-01

    As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

  14. Similarity to the self influences cortical recruitment during impression formation.

    PubMed

    Leshikar, Eric D; Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-04-01

    Prior work has shown that whether or not someone is similar to the self influences person memory--a type of self-reference effect for others. In this study, we were interested in understanding the neural regions supporting the generation of impressions and subsequent memory for targets who vary in similarity to the self. Participants underwent fMRI scanning while forming positive or negative impressions of face-behavior pairs. We tested participants' memory for their generated impressions and then back-sorted the impression trials (encoding) into different levels of self-similarity (high, medium, low) using a self-similarity posttest that came after recognition. Extending prior behavioral work, our data confirmed our hypothesis that memory would be highest for self-similar others and lowest for self-dissimilar others. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity increased with self-similarity (high > medium > low) to targets, regardless of later memory for them. An analysis of regions supporting impression memory revealed a double dissociation within medial temporal lobe regions: for similar others, amygdala recruitment supported memory, whereas for dissimilar others, hippocampal activation supported memory. These results suggest that self-similarity influences evaluation and memory for targets but also affects the underlying neural resources engaged when thinking about others who vary in self-similarity. PMID:26558615

  15. Predicting Odor Perceptual Similarity from Odor Structure

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Tali; Frumin, Idan; Khan, Rehan M.; Sobel, Noam

    2013-01-01

    To understand the brain mechanisms of olfaction we must understand the rules that govern the link between odorant structure and odorant perception. Natural odors are in fact mixtures made of many molecules, and there is currently no method to look at the molecular structure of such odorant-mixtures and predict their smell. In three separate experiments, we asked 139 subjects to rate the pairwise perceptual similarity of 64 odorant-mixtures ranging in size from 4 to 43 mono-molecular components. We then tested alternative models to link odorant-mixture structure to odorant-mixture perceptual similarity. Whereas a model that considered each mono-molecular component of a mixture separately provided a poor prediction of mixture similarity, a model that represented the mixture as a single structural vector provided consistent correlations between predicted and actual perceptual similarity (r≥0.49, p<0.001). An optimized version of this model yielded a correlation of r = 0.85 (p<0.001) between predicted and actual mixture similarity. In other words, we developed an algorithm that can look at the molecular structure of two novel odorant-mixtures, and predict their ensuing perceptual similarity. That this goal was attained using a model that considers the mixtures as a single vector is consistent with a synthetic rather than analytical brain processing mechanism in olfaction. PMID:24068899

  16. Improving chemical entity recognition through h-index based semantic similarity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Our approach to the BioCreative IV challenge of recognition and classification of drug names (CHEMDNER task) aimed at achieving high levels of precision by applying semantic similarity validation techniques to Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) mappings. Our assumption is that the chemical entities mentioned in the same fragment of text should share some semantic relation. This validation method was further improved by adapting the semantic similarity measure to take into account the h-index of each ancestor. We applied this method in two measures, simUI and simGIC, and validated the results obtained for the competition, comparing each adapted measure to its original version. Results For the competition, we trained a Random Forest classifier that uses various scores provided by our system, including semantic similarity, which improved the F-measure obtained with the Conditional Random Fields classifiers by 4.6%. Using a notion of concept relevance based on the h-index measure, we were able to enhance our validation process so that for a fixed recall, we increased precision by excluding from the results a higher amount of false positives. We plotted precision and recall values for a range of validation thresholds using different similarity measures, obtaining higher precision values for the same recall with the measures based on the h-index. Conclusions The semantic similarity measure we introduced was more efficient at validating text mining results from machine learning classifiers than other measures. We improved the results we obtained for the CHEMDNER task by maintaining high precision values while improving the recall and F-measure. PMID:25810770

  17. Similarity of actions depends on the functionality of previously observed actions.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Eijgermans, Wessel; Herman, Anne-Sophie; Bergman, Annemiek; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    People have a tendency to imitate the behavior of others, sometimes even automatically. And yet, evidence suggests that many of our actions are controlled, mediated by current goals and careful considerations. Here, we investigated whether the observation and evaluation of previous actions of another person modulates the similarity of actions between people in present trials. We manipulated the functionality of a confederate's actions and the interactive context in 2 behavioral tasks, which consisted of games that participants played against a confederate or a virtual computer opponent. To measure effects of working memory load on imitation rates, participants additionally performed an easy or difficult auditory n-back task in parallel to the tasks. We show that participants occasionally produced rather bizarre and dysfunctional behavior when the confederate had done so as well. Even more importantly, results from both tasks show that participants most likely copied dysfunctional behavior in the present trial when the confederate performed functional actions in the previous trial. Thus, the positive evaluation of action consequences in previous trials increases the probability of similarity between the participant's and confederate's actions in present trials despite a chance to copy improper actions. Furthermore, we found a trend of increased action similarities when participants were under high working memory load in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. These results suggest that copying an observed action is an efficient and effortless behavioral and social strategy to achieve similar goals as others, though with an increased risk of maladaptive behavior. PMID:26618624

  18. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  19. Leadership behaviour similarity as a basis of selection into a management team.

    PubMed

    Eagleson, G; Waldersee, R; Simmons, R

    2000-06-01

    There are contexts where, in order to be effective, a management team needs to display different leadership behaviours as well as possessing a wide range of experiences and skills. But achieving heterogeneity of behaviours is difficult if there are behavioural-similarity biases affecting a selection process. A sample of 126 participants completed a simulation of a selection process for a management team. They compared selection criteria and chose either a task or relations-oriented applicant for an advertised position as well as reporting their perception of their own preferred leadership style. The results of the simulation indicate that leadership behaviour can be a basis for similarity-attraction in the selection of a management team. PMID:10907101

  20. Hydrolysis of aluminum dross material to achieve zero hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2012-03-30

    A simple method with high efficiency for generating high pure hydrogen by hydrolysis in tap water of highly activated aluminum dross is established. Aluminum dross is activated by mechanically milling to particles of about 45 μm. This leads to removal of surface layer of the aluminum particles and creation of a fresh chemically active metal surface. In contact with water the hydrolysis reaction takes place and hydrogen is released. In this process a Zero Waste concept is achieved because the other product of reaction is aluminum oxide hydroxide (AlOOH), which is nature-friendly and can be used to make high quality refractory or calcium aluminate cement. For comparison we also used pure aluminum powder and alkaline tap water solution (NaOH, KOH) at a ratio similar to that of aluminum dross content. The rates of hydrogen generated in hydrolysis reaction of pure aluminum and aluminum dross have been found to be similar. As a result of the experimental setup, a hydrogen generator was designed and assembled. Hydrogen volume generated by hydrolysis reaction was measured. The experimental results obtained reveal that aluminum dross could be economically recycled by hydrolysis process with achieving zero hazardous aluminum dross waste and hydrogen generation. PMID:22326245

  1. Similarity Metrics for Closed Loop Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Yang, Lee C.; Bedrossian, Naz; Hall, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways can two closed-loop dynamic systems be said to be "similar?" This question arises in a wide range of dynamic systems modeling and control system design applications. For example, bounds on error models are fundamental to the controller optimization with modern control design methods. Metrics such as the structured singular value are direct measures of the degree to which properties such as stability or performance are maintained in the presence of specified uncertainties or variations in the plant model. Similarly, controls-related areas such as system identification, model reduction, and experimental model validation employ measures of similarity between multiple realizations of a dynamic system. Each area has its tools and approaches, with each tool more or less suited for one application or the other. Similarity in the context of closed-loop model validation via flight test is subtly different from error measures in the typical controls oriented application. Whereas similarity in a robust control context relates to plant variation and the attendant affect on stability and performance, in this context similarity metrics are sought that assess the relevance of a dynamic system test for the purpose of validating the stability and performance of a "similar" dynamic system. Similarity in the context of system identification is much more relevant than are robust control analogies in that errors between one dynamic system (the test article) and another (the nominal "design" model) are sought for the purpose of bounding the validity of a model for control design and analysis. Yet system identification typically involves open-loop plant models which are independent of the control system (with the exception of limited developments in closed-loop system identification which is nonetheless focused on obtaining open-loop plant models from closed-loop data). Moreover the objectives of system identification are not the same as a flight test and

  2. Academic Achievement in Children With Oral Clefts Versus Unaffected Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Barron, Sheila; Romitti, Paul A.; Ansley, Timothy N.; Speltz, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare academic achievement in children with oral-facial clefts (OFC) with their unaffected siblings. Methods 256 children with OFC were identified from the Iowa Registry for Congenital and Inherited Disorders, and 387 unaffected siblings were identified from birth certificates. These data were linked to Iowa Testing Programs achievement data. We compared academic achievement in children with OFC with their unaffected siblings using linear regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. In post hoc analyses, we explored modifiers of siblings’ academic performance. Results Achievement scores were similar between children with OFC and their siblings. Children with cleft palate only were significantly more likely to use special education than their unaffected siblings. Siblings’ academic achievement was inversely related to distance in birth order and age from the affected child. Conclusion Children with OFC and their siblings received similar achievement scores. Younger siblings, in particular, may share a vulnerability to poor academic outcomes. PMID:24993102

  3. A New Semantic Functional Similarity over Gene Ontology.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Chen, Xuewen

    2015-01-01

    Identifying functionally similar or closely related genes and gene products has significant impacts on biological and clinical studies as well as drug discovery. In this paper, we propose an effective and practically useful method measuring both gene and gene product similarity by integrating the topology of gene ontology, known functional domains and their functional annotations. The proposed method is comprehensively evaluated through statistical analysis of the similarities derived from sequence, structure and phylogenetic profiles, and clustering analysis of disease genes clusters. Our results show that the proposed method clearly outperforms other conventional methods. Furthermore, literature analysis also reveals that the proposed method is both statistically and biologically promising for identifying functionally similar genes or gene products. In particular, we demonstrate that the proposed functional similarity metric is capable of discoverying new disease related genes or gene products. PMID:26357220

  4. Average is Boring: How Similarity Kills a Meme's Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscia, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Every day we are exposed to different ideas, or memes, competing with each other for our attention. Previous research explained popularity and persistence heterogeneity of memes by assuming them in competition for limited attention resources, distributed in a heterogeneous social network. Little has been said about what characteristics make a specific meme more likely to be successful. We propose a similarity-based explanation: memes with higher similarity to other memes have a significant disadvantage in their potential popularity. We employ a meme similarity measure based on semantic text analysis and computer vision to prove that a meme is more likely to be successful and to thrive if its characteristics make it unique. Our results show that indeed successful memes are located in the periphery of the meme similarity space and that our similarity measure is a promising predictor of a meme success.

  5. Distributed efficient similarity search mechanism in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khandakar; Gregory, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network similarity search problem has received considerable research attention due to sensor hardware imprecision and environmental parameter variations. Most of the state-of-the-art distributed data centric storage (DCS) schemes lack optimization for similarity queries of events. In this paper, a DCS scheme with metric based similarity searching (DCSMSS) is proposed. DCSMSS takes motivation from vector distance index, called iDistance, in order to transform the issue of similarity searching into the problem of an interval search in one dimension. In addition, a sector based distance routing algorithm is used to efficiently route messages. Extensive simulation results reveal that DCSMSS is highly efficient and significantly outperforms previous approaches in processing similarity search queries. PMID:25751081

  6. Average is boring: how similarity kills a meme's success.

    PubMed

    Coscia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are exposed to different ideas, or memes, competing with each other for our attention. Previous research explained popularity and persistence heterogeneity of memes by assuming them in competition for limited attention resources, distributed in a heterogeneous social network. Little has been said about what characteristics make a specific meme more likely to be successful. We propose a similarity-based explanation: memes with higher similarity to other memes have a significant disadvantage in their potential popularity. We employ a meme similarity measure based on semantic text analysis and computer vision to prove that a meme is more likely to be successful and to thrive if its characteristics make it unique. Our results show that indeed successful memes are located in the periphery of the meme similarity space and that our similarity measure is a promising predictor of a meme success. PMID:25257730

  7. Distributed Efficient Similarity Search Mechanism in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khandakar; Gregory, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network similarity search problem has received considerable research attention due to sensor hardware imprecision and environmental parameter variations. Most of the state-of-the-art distributed data centric storage (DCS) schemes lack optimization for similarity queries of events. In this paper, a DCS scheme with metric based similarity searching (DCSMSS) is proposed. DCSMSS takes motivation from vector distance index, called iDistance, in order to transform the issue of similarity searching into the problem of an interval search in one dimension. In addition, a sector based distance routing algorithm is used to efficiently route messages. Extensive simulation results reveal that DCSMSS is highly efficient and significantly outperforms previous approaches in processing similarity search queries. PMID:25751081

  8. Escaping the avalanche collapse in self-similar multiplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángeles Serrano, M.; Buzna, Ľuboš; Boguñá, Marián

    2015-05-01

    We deduce and discuss the implications of self-similarity for the robustness to failure of multiplexes, depending on interlayer degree correlations. First, we define self-similarity of multiplexes and we illustrate the concept in practice using the configuration model ensemble. Circumscribing robustness to survival of the mutually percolated state, we find a new explanation based on self-similarity both for the observed fragility of interconnected systems of networks and for their robustness to failure when interlayer degree correlations are present. Extending the self-similarity arguments, we show that interlayer degree correlations can change completely the global connectivity properties of self-similar multiplexes, so that they can even recover a zero percolation threshold and a continuous transition in the thermodynamic limit, qualitatively exhibiting thus the ordinary percolation properties of noninteracting networks. We confirm these results with numerical simulations.

  9. Average is Boring: How Similarity Kills a Meme's Success

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are exposed to different ideas, or memes, competing with each other for our attention. Previous research explained popularity and persistence heterogeneity of memes by assuming them in competition for limited attention resources, distributed in a heterogeneous social network. Little has been said about what characteristics make a specific meme more likely to be successful. We propose a similarity-based explanation: memes with higher similarity to other memes have a significant disadvantage in their potential popularity. We employ a meme similarity measure based on semantic text analysis and computer vision to prove that a meme is more likely to be successful and to thrive if its characteristics make it unique. Our results show that indeed successful memes are located in the periphery of the meme similarity space and that our similarity measure is a promising predictor of a meme success. PMID:25257730

  10. Efficient Video Similarity Measurement and Search

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, S-C S

    2002-12-19

    The amount of information on the world wide web has grown enormously since its creation in 1990. Duplication of content is inevitable because there is no central management on the web. Studies have shown that many similar versions of the same text documents can be found throughout the web. This redundancy problem is more severe for multimedia content such as web video sequences, as they are often stored in multiple locations and different formats to facilitate downloading and streaming. Similar versions of the same video can also be found, unknown to content creators, when web users modify and republish original content using video editing tools. Identifying similar content can benefit many web applications and content owners. For example, it will reduce the number of similar answers to a web search and identify inappropriate use of copyright content. In this dissertation, they present a system architecture and corresponding algorithms to efficiently measure, search, and organize similar video sequences found on any large database such as the web.

  11. Achieving Excellence in Urban Schools: Pitfalls, Pratfalls, and Evolving Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    If effects of education reforms in the future are similar to effects of education reforms in the past, it may take between 65 and 780 years to close racial achievement gaps in math and science (Taylor, in preparation). From a review of the literature, I found that educational reforms, directed toward eliminating achievement differences associated…

  12. Exact score distribution computation for ontological similarity searches

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Semantic similarity searches in ontologies are an important component of many bioinformatic algorithms, e.g., finding functionally related proteins with the Gene Ontology or phenotypically similar diseases with the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO). We have recently shown that the performance of semantic similarity searches can be improved by ranking results according to the probability of obtaining a given score at random rather than by the scores themselves. However, to date, there are no algorithms for computing the exact distribution of semantic similarity scores, which is necessary for computing the exact P-value of a given score. Results In this paper we consider the exact computation of score distributions for similarity searches in ontologies, and introduce a simple null hypothesis which can be used to compute a P-value for the statistical significance of similarity scores. We concentrate on measures based on Resnik's definition of ontological similarity. A new algorithm is proposed that collapses subgraphs of the ontology graph and thereby allows fast score distribution computation. The new algorithm is several orders of magnitude faster than the naive approach, as we demonstrate by computing score distributions for similarity searches in the HPO. It is shown that exact P-value calculation improves clinical diagnosis using the HPO compared to approaches based on sampling. Conclusions The new algorithm enables for the first time exact P-value calculation via exact score distribution computation for ontology similarity searches. The approach is applicable to any ontology for which the annotation-propagation rule holds and can improve any bioinformatic method that makes only use of the raw similarity scores. The algorithm was implemented in Java, supports any ontology in OBO format, and is available for non-commercial and academic usage under: https://compbio.charite.de/svn/hpo/trunk/src/tools/significance/ PMID:22078312

  13. Similar biotherapeutic products: overview and reflections.

    PubMed

    Desanvicente-Celis, Zayrho; Gomez-Lopez, Arley; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Biotherapeutic products (BPs) have revolutionized medicine, changing the way we treat several pathologies such as autoimmune diseases and cancer, among others. Herein, we present an overview of similar BPs (SBPs), also called biosimilars, including the manufacturing process and regulatory aspects involved. The objective of developing an SBP is to manufacture a molecule that is highly similar to a reference BP by conducting a comparability exercise (CE) that can demonstrate similar safety and efficacy. This CE consists of quality, as well as nonclinical and clinical evaluation. A case-by-case analysis approach guided by scientific and objective standards must be the foundation for the SBP approval process. The establishment of a balance between a comprehensive CE for SBPs and their reference BPs, and the design of costeffective strategies to provide better access to BPs, should be the key goal for national regulatory authorities. PMID:23240752

  14. Similarity issues of confluence of fuzzy relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, Tomas; Vychodil, Vilem

    2012-04-01

    We study similarity issues of confluence and related properties of fuzzy relations. The ordinary notions of divergence, convergence, convertibility, and confluence are essential properties of relations which appear in abstract rewriting systems. In a graded setting, we can introduce analogous notions related to the idea of approximate rewriting. This paper is a continuation of our previous paper (Belohlavek et al. 2010), where we have introduced such notions using residuated structures of truth degrees, leaving the ordinary notions a particular case when the underlying structure of truth degrees is the two-valued Boolean algebra. In this paper, we focus on similarity issues of confluence and present formulas which provide approximations of degrees of confluence and related properties based on similarity of the original fuzzy relations.

  15. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  16. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  17. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  18. Quantifying the similarity of seismic polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joshua P.; Eaton, David W.; Caffagni, Enrico

    2016-02-01

    Assessing the similarities of seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low signal-to-noise (S/N) signals and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values or known seismic sources. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in S/N ratio. Measuring polarization similarity allows easy identification of site noise and sensor misalignment and can help identify coherent noise and emergent or low S/N phase arrivals. Dissimilar azimuths during phase arrivals indicate misaligned horizontal components, dissimilar incidence angles during phase arrivals indicate misaligned vertical components and dissimilar linear polarization may indicate a secondary noise source. Using records of the Mw = 8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake, from Canadian National Seismic Network broad-band sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and a vertical borehole array at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Time-frequency polarization similarities of borehole data suggest that a coherent noise source may have persisted above 8 Hz several months after peak resource extraction from a `flowback' type hydraulic fracture.

  19. Some more similarities between Peirce and Skinner.

    PubMed

    Moxley, Roy A

    2002-01-01

    C. S. Peirce is noted for pioneering a variety of views, and the case is made here for the similarities and parallels between his views and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorism. In addition to parallels previously noted, these similarities include an advancement of experimental science, a behavioral psychology, a shift from nominalism to realism, an opposition to positivism, a selectionist account for strengthening behavior, the importance of a community of selves, a recursive approach to method, and the probabilistic nature of truth. Questions are raised as to the extent to which Skinner's radical behaviorism, as distinguished from his S-R positivism, may be seen as an extension of Peirce's pragmatism. PMID:22478387

  20. Some more similarities between Peirce and Skinner

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2002-01-01

    C. S. Peirce is noted for pioneering a variety of views, and the case is made here for the similarities and parallels between his views and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorism. In addition to parallels previously noted, these similarities include an advancement of experimental science, a behavioral psychology, a shift from nominalism to realism, an opposition to positivism, a selectionist account for strengthening behavior, the importance of a community of selves, a recursive approach to method, and the probabilistic nature of truth. Questions are raised as to the extent to which Skinner's radical behaviorism, as distinguished from his S-R positivism, may be seen as an extension of Peirce's pragmatism. PMID:22478387

  1. Latest achievements in PET techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Guerra, Alberto; Belcari, Nicola; Motta, Alfonso; Di Domenico, Giovanni; Sabba, Nicola; Zavattini, Guido

    2003-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has moved from a distinguished research tool in physiology, cardiology and neurology to become a major tool for clinical investigation in oncology, in cardiac applications and in neurological disorders. Much of the PET accomplishments is due to the remarkable improvements in the last 10 years both in hardware and software aspects. Nowadays a similar effort is made by many research groups towards the construction of dedicated PET apparatus in new emerging fields such as molecular medicine, gene therapy, breast cancer imaging and combined modalities. This paper reports on some recent results we have obtained in small animal imaging and positron emission mammography, based on the use of advanced technology in the field of scintillators and photodetectors, such as Position-Sensitive Detectors coupled to crystal matrices, combined use of scintillating fibers and Hybrid-Photo-Diodes readout, and Hamamatsu flat panels. New ideas and future developments are discussed.

  2. Modeling of cw OIL energy performance based on similarity criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhenin, Andrey V.; Pichugin, Sergey Y.; Azyazov, Valeriy N.

    2012-01-01

    A simplified two-level generation model predicts that power extraction from an cw oxygen-iodine laser (OIL) with stable resonator depends on three similarity criteria. Criterion τd is the ratio of the residence time of active medium in the resonator to the O2(1Δ) reduction time at the infinitely large intraresonator intensity. Criterion Π is small-signal gain to the threshold ratio. Criterion Λ is the relaxation to excitation rate ratio for the electronically excited iodine atoms I(2P1/2). Effective power extraction from a cw OIL is achieved when the values of the similarity criteria are located in the intervals: τd=5-8, Π=3-8 and Λ<=0.01.

  3. Self-similar Isochoric Implosions for Fast Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Daniel

    2005-10-01

    Fast Ignition (FI) exploits the ignition of a dense, uniform fuel assembly by an external energy source to achieve high gain. However, in conventional ICF implosions, the fuel assembles as a dense shell surrounding a low density, high-pressure hotspot. Such configurations are far from optimal for FI. Here, it is shown that a self-similar spherical implosion of the type studied by Guderley [Luftfahrtforschung 19, 302 (1942).] and later Meyer-ter-Vehn & Schalk [Z. Naturforsch. 37a, 955 (1982).] may be employed to implode dense, uniform fuel assemblies with minimal energy wastage in forming a hotspot. The connection to "realistic" (i.e., non-self-similar) implosion schemes using laser or X-ray drive is also investigated.

  4. A 2 X 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; McGregor, H A

    2001-03-01

    A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework comprising mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals was proposed and tested in 3 studies. Factor analytic results supported the independence of the 4 achievement goal constructs. The goals were examined with respect to several important antecedents (e.g., motive dispositions, implicit theories, socialization histories) and consequences (e.g., anticipatory test anxiety, exam performance, health center visits), with particular attention allocated to the new mastery-avoidance goal construct. The results revealed distinct empirical profiles for each of the achievement goals; the pattern for mastery-avoidance goals was, as anticipated, more negative than that for mastery-approach goals and more positive than that for performance-avoidance goals. Implications of the present work for future theoretical development in the achievement goal literature are discussed. PMID:11300582

  5. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  6. Investigation of psychophysical similarity measures for selection of similar images in the diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li Qiang; Schmidt, Robert; Shiraishi, Junji; Doi, Kunio

    2008-12-15

    coefficient between the gold standard and the psychophysical similarity measure through the use of seven features was relatively high (r=0.71) and was comparable to the correlation coefficients between the ratings by one radiologist and the average ratings by nine radiologists (r=0.69{+-}0.07). The correlation coefficient was improved compared to that of a distance-based method (r=0.58). The result indicated that similar images selected by the psychophysical similarity measure may be useful to radiologists in the diagnosis of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms.

  7. Representational Similarity of Body Parts in Human Occipitotemporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bracci, Stefania; Caramazza, Alfonso; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-09-23

    Regions in human lateral and ventral occipitotemporal cortices (OTC) respond selectively to pictures of the human body and its parts. What are the organizational principles underlying body part responses in these regions? Here we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) of fMRI data to test multiple possible organizational principles: shape similarity, physical proximity, cortical homunculus proximity, and semantic similarity. Participants viewed pictures of whole persons, chairs, and eight body parts (hands, arms, legs, feet, chests, waists, upper faces, and lower faces). The similarity of multivoxel activity patterns for all body part pairs was established in whole person-selective OTC regions. The resulting neural similarity matrices were then compared with similarity matrices capturing the hypothesized organizational principles. Results showed that the semantic similarity model best captured the neural similarity of body parts in lateral and ventral OTC, which followed an organization in three clusters: (1) body parts used as action effectors (hands, feet, arms, and legs), (2) noneffector body parts (chests and waists), and (3) face parts (upper and lower faces). Whole-brain RSA revealed, in addition to OTC, regions in parietal and frontal cortex in which neural similarity was related to semantic similarity. In contrast, neural similarity in occipital cortex was best predicted by shape similarity models. We suggest that the semantic organization of body parts in high-level visual cortex relates to the different functions associated with the three body part clusters, reflecting the unique processing and connectivity demands associated with the different types of information (e.g., action, social) different body parts (e.g., limbs, faces) convey. Significance statement: While the organization of body part representations in motor and somatosensory cortices has been well characterized, the principles underlying body part representations in visual cortex

  8. Estimating the self-similar exponent of broad-sense self-similar processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jing; Zhang, Guijun; Tong, Changqing

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a new algorithm about the self-similar exponent of self-similar processes is introduced which is used to explore long memory in financial time series. This method can work for more general broad-sense self-similar processes. We prove that this algorithm performs much better than the classical methods.

  9. A Short Survey of Document Structure Similarity Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, D

    2004-02-27

    This paper provides a brief survey of document structural similarity algorithms, including the optimal Tree Edit Distance algorithm and various approximation algorithms. The approximation algorithms include the simple weighted tag similarity algorithm, Fourier transforms of the structure, and a new application of the shingle technique to structural similarity. We show three surprising results. First, the Fourier transform technique proves to be the least accurate of any of approximation algorithms, while also being slowest. Second, optimal Tree Edit Distance algorithms may not be the best technique for clustering pages from different sites. Third, the simplest approximation to structure may be the most effective and efficient mechanism for many applications.

  10. Annular self-similar solutions in ideal magnetogasdynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, R. M.; Mestel, A. J.

    2008-08-01

    We consider the possibility of self-similar solutions describing the implosion of hollow cylindrical annuli driven by an azimuthal magnetic field, in essence a self-similar imploding liner z-pinch. We construct such solutions for gasdynamics, for ideal ‘β=0’ plasma and for ideal magnetogasdynamics (MGD). In the latter two cases some quantities are singular at the annular boundaries. Numerical solutions of the full ideal MGD initial value problem indicate that the self-similar solutions are not attractive for arbitrary initial conditions, possibly as a result of flux-freezing.

  11. An integrative approach for measuring semantic similarities using gene ontology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene Ontology (GO) provides rich information and a convenient way to study gene functional similarity, which has been successfully used in various applications. However, the existing GO based similarity measurements have limited functions for only a subset of GO information is considered in each measure. An appropriate integration of the existing measures to take into account more information in GO is demanding. Results We propose a novel integrative measure called InteGO2 to automatically select appropriate seed measures and then to integrate them using a metaheuristic search method. The experiment results show that InteGO2 significantly improves the performance of gene similarity in human, Arabidopsis and yeast on both molecular function and biological process GO categories. Conclusions InteGO2 computes gene-to-gene similarities more accurately than tested existing measures and has high robustness. The supplementary document and software are available at http://mlg.hit.edu.cn:8082/. PMID:25559943

  12. Predicting spatial similarity of freshwater fish biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Azaele, Sandro; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Maritan, Amos; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    A major issue in modern ecology is to understand how ecological complexity at broad scales is regulated by mechanisms operating at the organismic level. What specific underlying processes are essential for a macroecological pattern to emerge? Here, we analyze the analytical predictions of a general model suitable for describing the spatial biodiversity similarity in river ecosystems, and benchmark them against the empirical occurrence data of freshwater fish species collected in the Mississippi–Missouri river system. Encapsulating immigration, emigration, and stochastic noise, and without resorting to species abundance data, the model is able to reproduce the observed probability distribution of the Jaccard similarity index at any given distance. In addition to providing an excellent agreement with the empirical data, this approach accounts for heterogeneities of different subbasins, suggesting a strong dependence of biodiversity similarity on their respective climates. Strikingly, the model can also predict the actual probability distribution of the Jaccard similarity index for any distance when considering just a relatively small sample. The proposed framework supports the notion that simplified macroecological models are capable of predicting fundamental patterns—a theme at the heart of modern community ecology. PMID:19359481

  13. Explaining Sibling Similarities: Perceptions of Sibling Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined older siblings' influence on their younger brothers and sisters by assessing the connections between youth's perceptions of sibling influence and sibling similarities in four domains: Risky behavior, peer competence, sports interests, and art interests. Participants included two adolescent-age siblings (firstborn age M=17.34;…

  14. Similarity of Experience and Empathy in Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Mark A.

    The present study examined the role of similarity of experience in young children's affective reactions to others. Some preschoolers played one of two games (Puzzle Board or Buckets) and were informed that they had either failed or succeeded; others merely observed the games being played and were given no evaluative feedback. Subsequently, each…

  15. Using Similarity to Find Length and Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, James T.

    1994-01-01

    Shows a way in which algebra and geometry can be used together to find the lengths and areas of spirals. This method develops better understanding of shapes, similarity, and mathematical connections in students. Discusses spirals embedded in triangles and squares, the Pythagorean theorem, and the area of regular polygons. (MKR)

  16. 7 CFR 51.1997 - Similar type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar type. 51.1997 Section 51.1997 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  17. Similarity of Science Textbooks: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    1973-01-01

    Studied the similarity of the astronomy portion in five science textbooks at the fourth through sixth grade levels by comparing students' responses to text authors' requirements. Concluded that the texts had more in common across grade levels than within grade levels. (CC)

  18. Measuring the Perceptual Similarity of Pitch Contours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermes, Dik J.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of four different methods for measuring the similarity of pitch contours. The correlation coefficient between two normalized contours was the best method; however, if pitch range is important, the mean distance and the root-mean-square distance should be considered first in automatic training in…

  19. Great Apes' Capacities to Recognize Relational Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Call, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing relational similarity relies on the ability to understand that defining object properties might not lie in the objects individually, but in the relations of the properties of various object to each other. This aptitude is highly relevant for many important human skills such as language, reasoning, categorization and understanding…

  20. The Case of the Similar Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rochelle Wilson

    1982-01-01

    A possible logical flaw based on similar triangles is discussed with the Sherlock Holmes mystery, "The Muskgrave Ritual." The possible flaw has to do with the need for two trees to have equal growth rates over a 250-year period in order for the solution presented to work. (MP)