Science.gov

Sample records for achieve social change

  1. Improving Low Achievers' Academic Performance at University by Changing the Social Value of Mastery Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…

  2. Student Success Skills: An Evidence-Based Cognitive and Social Change Theory for Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemberger, Matthew E.; Brigman, Greg; Webb, Linda; Moore, Molly M.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the Student Success Skills program is offered, including descriptions of the curricular structure, extant research support related to SSS effectiveness for academic achievement and improved school behaviors, and a theory of change for student development. Recent research has demonstrated the value of the SSS program as it connects…

  3. Social marketing sexually transmitted disease and HIV prevention: a consumer-centered approach to achieving behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P R; Price, J E

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that international sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention efforts might be enhanced by the application of social marketing principles. It first outlines the conceptual basis of social marketing approaches to health behaviour change generally and then explores key issues and opportunities for using these principles to improve current STD/HIV prevention efforts.

  4. Social Structure and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    1971-01-01

    Drawing on examples and evidence from social science research on the diffusion of ideas, social movements, and several other related fields, nine propositions dealing with the interrelationships between social structure and social change are explored. (Author/MB)

  5. Masculinity, Educational Achievement and Social Status: A Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusher, Dean

    2011-01-01

    This study utilises a quantitative case study social network approach to explore the connection between masculinity and scholastic achievement in two secondary, all-boys schools in Australia. In both schools two social networks representing social status are explored: the "friendship" network as a measure of status that includes…

  6. Stability and Change in Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, James W.; Elliot, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The present research examined the nature of stability and change in achievement goal endorsement over time, using 4 complementary data-analytic approaches (differential continuity, mean-level change, individual-level change, and ipsative continuity). Three longitudinal studies were conducted in college classrooms; in each study, achievement goals…

  7. New Directions in Social Psychological Interventions to Improve Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy D.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to improve student achievement typically focus on changing the educational environment (e.g., better schools, better teachers) or on personal characteristics of students (e.g., intelligence, self-control). The 6 articles in this special issue showcase an additional approach, emanating from social psychology, which focuses on students'…

  8. Religion and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Marion, Ed.

    This volume contains the proceedings of a conference of social scientists and ministers on "Religion and Social Change" held at the North Carolina State University (Raleigh). Five seminars were held on the topics of (1) economic progress; (2) the distribution of income, status, and power; (3) the local community decision-making process;…

  9. Rhetoric and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizzell, Patricia

    This paper contends that rhetoric is a force for social change. It also contends that the study of persuasive discourse--how it works, what gives it force--is rhetoric. Pointing out that in the past "persuasive discourse" has meant public discourse of various kinds but that nowadays scholars usually expand the category to include…

  10. Social Change and Policy Development: An Agenda for Change Adovcates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Monte E.

    Social change goals and objectives may be achieved by social change advocates through the policy development process. Policy is defined as a set of decisions governing the behavior and actions of institutions and individuals. The legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government comprise the major policy institutions. The bureaucracy of…

  11. Social Equity Theory and Racial-Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…

  12. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  13. Conflicting Theories of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    1971-01-01

    Seeing the goal of directed social change as an increase in control over the conditions of existence, or, alternately, as an expansion of resources, a major distinction between theories of social change emerges--those which start with changes in the social conditions in which individuals find themselves versus those which start with changes in…

  14. Social Science and Institutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Robert R.

    With the growth of the social sciences, there has been increasing interest in use of their products to shed light on, and solve, some of the pressing social problems of our society. This monograph, the first in a series of studies on social change, reports on an analysis of applications of social change theory and research to programs of…

  15. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  16. Moving beyond Academic Achievement Goal Measures: A Study of Social Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, S. Jeanne; Finney, Sara J.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2007-01-01

    The current research explored the theory of social goal orientation. More specifically, we conducted three studies utilizing six-independent university student samples to evaluate the construct validity of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (SAGOS; Ryan & Hopkins, 2003), a measure representing the construct of social goal orientation.…

  17. Education, Interaction, and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    This book examines the interaction of education and other elements in our culture. The social system of education is seen as similar to that of such other formal social institutions as business. Moreover, an understanding of the role and function of education can be achieved through an application of social science theory and research findings.…

  18. Social Capital and Educational Achievements: Coleman vs. Bourdieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogošic, Silvia; Baranovic, Branislava

    2016-01-01

    The influence of social capital on an individual's educational achievements is the subject of numerous scientific papers. Research on social capital is most frequently based on Coleman's (1988) or Bourdieu's (1986) theories of capital, which are related to different paradigms of social theory: whereas Coleman's approach has its roots in structural…

  19. Social marketing: an approach to planned social change.

    PubMed

    Kotler, P; Zaltman, G

    1971-07-01

    This article examines the applicability of marketing concepts to social causes and social change. Social marketing is defined as the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research. Wiebe examined four social advertising campaigns and concluded that their effectiveness depended on the presence of adequate force, direction, adequate and compatible social mechanism, and distance (the "cost" of the new attitude as seen by message's message"s recepient). A marketing planning approach is not a guarantee for the achievement of social objectives; yet, it represents a bridging mechanism linking the knowledge of the behavioral scientist with the socially useful implementation of that knowledge.

  20. Social Change Education: Context Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choules, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Social change educators challenge social, economic, and political injustices that exist locally and globally. Their students may be people marginalized by these injustices or conversely, people who benefit from unjust systems. Much of the current social change pedagogy derives from the foundational work of Paulo Freire, developed in Brazil in…

  1. Social information changes the brain

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Russell D.; Maruska, Karen P.

    2012-01-01

    Social animals live in complex physical and social environments requiring them to attend and rapidly respond to social and environmental information by changing their behavior. A key social influence is rank or status, a ubiquitous element in animal societies. Rank typically regulates access to reproduction and other resources, among other consequences for individuals. Because reproduction is arguably the most important event in any animals’ life, understanding how reproduction is regulated by social status and related physiological factors can instruct our understanding of evolutionary change. This article reviews evidence from a model social system in which reproduction is tightly controlled by social status. Surprisingly, changes in social status have rapid and profound effects over very short time scales and radically alter overt behavior, as well as physiological, cellular, and molecular factors that regulate reproductive capacity. PMID:23045669

  2. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Noshir S; DeChurch, Leslie A

    2014-09-16

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the "who" and the "how" of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India.

  3. Integrating social networks and human social motives to achieve social influence at scale

    PubMed Central

    Contractor, Noshir S.; DeChurch, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The innovations of science often point to ideas and behaviors that must spread and take root in communities to have impact. Ideas, practices, and behaviors need to go from accepted truths on the part of a few scientists to commonplace beliefs and norms in the minds of the many. Moving from scientific discoveries to public good requires social influence. We introduce a structured influence process (SIP) framework to explain how social networks (i.e., the structure of social influence) and human social motives (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person’s attitudes and behaviors affect another’s) are used collectively to enact social influence within a community. The SIP framework advances the science of scientific communication by positing social influence events that consider both the “who” and the “how” of social influence. This framework synthesizes core ideas from two bodies of research on social influence. The first is network research on social influence structures, which identifies who are the opinion leaders and who among their network of peers shapes their attitudes and behaviors. The second is research on social influence processes in psychology, which explores how human social motives such as the need for accuracy or the need for affiliation stimulate behavior change. We illustrate the practical implications of the SIP framework by applying it to the case of reducing neonatal mortality in India. PMID:25225373

  4. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college.

  5. "Feeling" Hierarchy: The Pathway from Subjective Social Status to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Destin, Mesmin; Richman, Scott; Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested a psychosocial mediation model of the association between subjective social status (SSS) and academic achievement for youth. The sample included 430 high school students from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Those who perceived themselves to be at higher social status levels had higher GPAs. As…

  6. Depressive Mood and Social Maladjustment: Differential Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…

  7. Teacher Education and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, R. N.; Katiyar, S. N., Eds.

    This report reviews the proceedings of the First Asian Conference on Teacher Education held in Bangalore, India, June 1971. The theme of the conference was teacher education and social change. Four aspects of this theme were covered including a) modernization as a process and social ideal, b) socio-economic change and education, c) national goals…

  8. An Exploration of Young Adolescents' Social Achievement Goals and Social Adjustment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.; Shim, S. Serena

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the proposition that social achievement goals (different orientations toward social competence) are an important aspect of young adolescents' social motivation. Study 1 (N = 153 6th-grade students) established that different orientations toward developing or demonstrating social competence can be seen in young adolescents'…

  9. Continuity, social change and Katrina.

    PubMed

    Henry, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    For some time, disaster researchers have looked for social change and mostly found continuity. This paper argues that shifting the focus from investigating social change to documenting continuity may enhance the understanding and planning of post-disaster situations especially in industrialised societies like the United States. Drawing from qualitative data from post-Katrina New Orleans, it proposes using the concept of continuity as an analytical device both to identify the axes of continuity and evaluate the likelihood and possible dimensions of social change. The analysis of long-term recovery plans, along with field observations and interviews with evacuees, suggest that despite the well-documented emergence of conflict in post-Katrina New Orleans, the likelihood of social change appears limited.

  10. Parental Influence on Chinese Students' Achievement: A Social Capital Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how social capital formed by effective parental practices within Chinese families influences student achievement. Survey responses from 266 students from Grades 4 to 6 in a suburban elementary school in China were analysed to identify their perceptions of parental practices (support, pressure, help, monitoring and…

  11. Young Children Help Others to Achieve Their Social Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2014-01-01

    From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and able,…

  12. Cambodian Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement: The Role of Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Sothy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of parents' cultural beliefs and attitudes with respect to fate, traditional gender roles, aspirations, and involvement in children's academic achievement in Cambodia. Based on Coleman's social capital theory, a good parent-child relationship enables children's school success because resources are created as a…

  13. Enhancing Academic Achievement through Direct Instruction of Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendt, Lori; Nunan, Jan

    This paper examines the impact of the explicit teaching of social skills to enhance academic achievement. The targeted population comprised kindergarten and second grade students in a middle-class community located in central Illinois. The problem of inappropriate behaviors and difficulties interacting with peers and how this may affect academic…

  14. Children's Effortful Control and Academic Achievement: Mediation through Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Carlos; Eisenberg, Nancy; Haugen, Rg; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Kupfer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to test the premise that children's effortful control (EC) is prospectively related to their academic achievement and to specify mechanisms through which EC is related to academic success. We used data from 214 children (M age at Time 1 [T1] = 73 months) to test whether social functioning (e.g.,…

  15. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; Bowman, K.; Brindley, H.; Butler, J. J.; Collins, W.; Dykema, J. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Feldman, D. R.; Fox, N.; Huang, X.; Holz, R.; Huang, Y.; Jennings, D.; Jin, Z.; Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K.; Kato, S.; Kratz, D. P.; Liu, X.; Lukashin, C.; Mannucci, A. J.; Phojanamongkolkij, N.; Roithmayr, C. M.; Sandford, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Xiong, X.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  16. Social identity framing: Leader communication for social change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyranian, Viviane

    Social identity framing (SIF) delineates a process of intergroup communication that leaders may engage in to promote a vision of social change. As a step towards social change, social identity may need to be altered to accommodate a new view of the group, its collective goals, and its place alongside other groups. Thus, social identity content may be deconstructed and reconstructed by the leader en route to change. SIF suggests that this may be achieved through a series of 16 communication tactics, which are largely derived from previous research (Seyranian & Bligh, 2008). This research used an experimental design to test the effectiveness of three SIF communication tactics - inclusion, similarity to followers, and positive social identity - on a number of follower outcomes. Students ( N=246) were randomly assigned to read one of eight possible speeches promoting renewable energy on campus that was ostensibly from a student leader. The speeches were varied to include or exclude the three communication tactics. Following the speech, participants completed a dependent measures questionnaire. Results indicated that similarity to followers and positive social identity did not affect follower outcomes. However, students exposed to inclusion were more likely to indicate that renewable energy was ingroup normative; intend to engage in collective action to bring renewable energy to campus; experience positive emotional reactions towards change; feel more confident about the possibility of change; and to view the leader more positively. The combination of inclusion and positive social identity increased perceptions of charismatic leadership. Perceived leader prototypicality and cognitive elaboration of the leader's message resulted in more favorable attitudes towards renewable energy. Perceived leader prototypicality was also directly related to social identification, environmental values, ingroup injunctive norms, and self-stereotypes. Overall, these results support SIF

  17. Young children help others to achieve their social goals.

    PubMed

    Beier, Jonathan S; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2014-03-01

    From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and able, to help others achieve their social goals. Three-year-old children observed an experimenter trying unsuccessfully to get the attention of another individual and then helped by directing the 2nd individual's attention back to the experimenter. A control condition ensured that children's responses were not motivated by a general desire to inform the 2nd individual about interesting events. A 2nd experiment showed that children distinguish between fulfilled and frustrated versions of this social goal and help appropriately on the basis of this distinction. Young children are therefore willing to intervene in a 3rd-party interaction to help it along. This result expands the range of situations in which young children are known to spontaneously help others into the social domain, thereby underscoring the pervasiveness of their prosocial motivations and identifying a critical area for further research.

  18. Disruptive innovation for social change.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Clayton M; Baumann, Heiner; Ruggles, Rudy; Sadtler, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Countries, organizations, and individuals around the globe spend aggressively to solve social problems, but these efforts often fail to deliver. Misdirected investment is the primary reason for that failure. Most of the money earmarked for social initiatives goes to organizations that are structured to support specific groups of recipients, often with sophisticated solutions. Such organizations rarely reach the broader populations that could be served by simpler alternatives. There is, however, an effective way to get to those underserved populations. The authors call it "catalytic innovation." Based on Clayton Christensen's disruptive-innovation model, catalytic innovations challenge organizational incumbents by offering simpler, good-enough solutions aimed at underserved groups. Unlike disruptive innovations, though, catalytic innovations are focused on creating social change. Catalytic innovators are defined by five distinct qualities. First, they create social change through scaling and replication. Second, they meet a need that is either overserved (that is, the existing solution is more complex than necessary for many people) or not served at all. Third, the products and services they offer are simpler and cheaper than alternatives, but recipients view them as good enough. Fourth, they bring in resources in ways that initially seem unattractive to incumbents. And fifth, they are often ignored, put down, or even encouraged by existing organizations, which don't see the catalytic innovators' solutions as viable. As the authors show through examples in health care, education, and economic development, both nonprofit and for-profit groups are finding ways to create catalytic innovation that drives social change.

  19. MASS MEDIA AND SOCIAL CHANGE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The relationships between mass media of communication and social change are discussed, and the significance and roles of the mass media in developing and modernized countries are summarized. On the assumption that the contents of the... mass media mirror as well as affect the perspectives and values

  20. Violence Against Older Women: Activism, Social Justice, and Social Change.

    PubMed

    Mears, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The Older Women's Network (OWN) of New South Wales (NSW) is an activist organization dedicated to promoting the rights of older women, preventing gender- and aged-based violence, and working toward social justice and social change. In 2007, the OWN NSW Inc. initiated the Prevention of Violence Against Older Women Working Party to research and document current knowledge and understanding of violence against older women; focus public attention on this issue; and bring about changes in public perceptions, policy, and practice. Presented here is an overview of the major achievements of the OWN Working Party, including a meta-analysis of three research projects, with their findings, recommendations, and outcomes. In conclusion, research conducted by activist organizations such as OWN can make a significant contribution to furthering our understanding of violence against older women and to policy and practice.

  1. Social demographic change and autism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kayuet; Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Parental age at child's birth--which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992-2000 birth cohorts--is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents' DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic eye on the rising prevalence of autism leads to three major discoveries. First, the estimated heritability of autism has been dramatically overstated. Second, heritability estimates can change over remarkably short periods of time because of increases in germ cell mutations. Third, social demographic change can yield genetic changes that, at the population level, combine to contribute to the increased prevalence of autism.

  2. Social Demographic Change and Autism

    PubMed Central

    LIU, KAYUET; ZERUBAVEL, NOAM; BEARMAN, PETER

    2010-01-01

    Parental age at child’s birth—which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992–2000 birth cohorts—is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents’ DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic eye on the rising prevalence of autism leads to three major discoveries. First, the estimated heritability of autism has been dramatically overstated. Second, heritability estimates can change over remarkably short periods of time because of increases in germ cell mutations. Third, social demographic change can yield genetic changes that, at the population level, combine to contribute to the increased prevalence of autism. PMID:20608100

  3. Assessment for Social Justice: The Role of Assessment in Achieving Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a rationale for "assessment for social justice", through which a greater focus is given to the role of assessment in achieving the social justice aspirations of higher education. It takes inspiration from work on assessment for learning to propose that as assessment is a powerful driver of how and what students…

  4. Gender, migration and social change.

    PubMed

    Tienda, M; Booth, K

    1991-03-01

    "This paper provides a critical review of existing studies about how migration alters women's position in the course of social change....First, the conceptual and methodological issues that bear on the assessment of changing gender relations are distilled from the existing literature. Second, for heuristic purposes we delineate three alternative outcomes for migrant women using the distribution-redistribution analytical framework....Finally, we provide a selective review of case studies illustrating alternative outcomes for migrant women in Africa and Latin America." (SUMMARY IN FRE)

  5. Social change and women's health.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Peggy; Worts, Diana; McMunn, Anne; Sacker, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five decades, the organization of women's lives has changed dramatically. Throughout the industrialized world, paid work and family biographies have been altered as the once-dominant role of homemaker has given way to the role of secondary, dual, or even primary wage-earner. The attendant changes represent a mix of gains and losses for women, in which not all women have benefited (or suffered) equally. But little is known about the health consequences. This article addresses that gap. It develops a "situated biographies" model to conceptualize how life course change may influence women's health. The model stresses the role of time, both as individual aging and as the anchoring of lives in particular historical periods. "Situating" biographies in this way highlights two key features of social change in women's lives: the ambiguous implications for the health of women as a group, and the probable connections to growing social and economic disparities in health among them. This approach lays the groundwork for more integrated and productive population-based research about how historical transformations may affect women's health.

  6. Bioethics, theology, and social change.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Lisa Sowle

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a concern among theological bioethicists that secular debate has grown increasingly "thin," and that "thick" religious traditions and their spokespersons have been correspondingly excluded. This essay disputes that analysis. First, religious and theological voices compete for public attention and effectiveness with the equally "thick" cultural traditions of modern science and market capitalism. The distinctive contribution of religion should be to emphasize social justice in access to the benefits of health care, challenging the for-profit global marketing of research and biotechnology to wealthy consumers. Second, religion and theology have been and are still socially effective in sponsoring activism for practical change, both locally and globally. This claim will be supported with specific examples; with familiar concepts like subsidiarity and "middle axioms"; and with recent analyses of "participatory democracy" and of emerging, decentralized forms of global governance.

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Social Distribution of Mathematics Achievement for a Cohort of Public High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Garrett K.; Kennedy, Eugene

    This paper reports the results of a study of changes in the social distribution of mathematics achievement for a cohort of public high school students. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) the study sought to identify school characteristics which were significantly correlated with changes in achievement differences from grade 9 to grade 11…

  8. Schooling for Social Change: Some Theoretical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates the ability of public schools in the United States to bring about desired social change. Argues that the notion of schooling for social change is both theoretically and empirically consistent with the structural-functionalism framework. Concludes that one must decide what one means by social change before deciding whether schooling can…

  9. Thinking Socially: Teaching Social Knowledge to Foster Social Behavioral Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crooke, Pamela J.; Winner, Michelle Garcia; Olswang, Lesley B.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the complexity of what it means to "be social" from the perspective of social thinking. This perspective recognizes social cognitive processing abilities as the foundation for social knowledge and, in turn, social behaviors. The article further describes variables that influence how one understands how to do what…

  10. Development of Achievement Test: Validity and Reliability Study for Achievement Test on Matter Changing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Filiz; Celikler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    For "Matter Changing" unit included in the Secondary School 5th Grade Science Program, it is intended to develop a test conforming the gains described in the program, and that can determine students' achievements. For this purpose, a multiple-choice test of 48 questions is arranged, consisting of 8 questions for each gain included in the…

  11. A Call for Change: Providing Solutions for Black Male Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael; Lewis, Sharon; Simon, Candace; Uzzell, Renata; Palacios, Moses

    2012-01-01

    In October 2010, the Council of the Great City Schools released a major report on the academic status of African American males, "A Call for Change: The Social and Educational Factors Contributing to the Outcomes of Black Males in Urban Schools." The report was the first phase of the Council's efforts to recommit the energies of the nation's urban…

  12. Values, achievement goals, and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among Chinese and Indonesian secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Nie, Youyan

    2008-10-01

    This study examined how values related to achievement goals and individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motivations among secondary school students in China (N = 355) and Indonesia (N = 356). Statistical comparisons showed the Chinese students endorsed more strongly than the Indonesian students on self-direction and hedonism values, individual-oriented achievement motivation, and mastery-approach goals. Conversely, the Indonesian students endorsed more strongly than their Chinese counterparts on security, conformity, tradition, universalism and achievement values, social-oriented achievement motivation, and performance-approach and mastery-avoidance goals. Values explained a significant amount of the variance in almost all of the dimensions of motivation. Etic and emic relationships between values and achievement motivations were found.

  13. Social Change and Criminal Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, C. Ray

    1970-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on criminal law and the extension of law into the area of morality (value systems) are discussed in terms of social control via punishment and deterrence. The impact of the social sciences (psychotherapy, sociology, behavioral science) is covered in terms of social control via rehabilitation and environmental…

  14. Science, Semantics, and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, J. L.

    Social semiotics suggests that social and cultural formations, including the language and practice of science and the ways in which new generations and communities advance them, develop as an integral part of the evolution of social ecosystems. Some recent models of complex dynamic systems in physics, chemistry, and biology focus more on the…

  15. Promotion of social change: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Vivian; Chesir-Teran, Daniel; Becker-Klein, Rachel; Chan, May L; Duran, Valkiria; Roberts, Ann; Bardoliwalla, Nenshad

    2002-06-01

    This paper argues for the need to advance promotion efforts and proposes a conceptual framework for promotion of social change. A brief review is presented of traditional frameworks for the prevention of mental and social disorders and the promotion of wellness and social competencies, with attention to the ways in which promotion of social change extends and departs from these frameworks. In a framework for promoting social change, we advocate for promoting dynamic processes within systems, rather than outcomes within individuals. Systems are viewed as flexible and capable of facilitating multiple adaptive pathways for individuals and groups. Promoting social change also involves careful attention to critical analysis, values, language, and contextual processes. Examples are discussed throughout to illustrate how these principles have been used in the past and can be implemented in future efforts to promote social change.

  16. Relations between social competence and academic achievement in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wentzel, K R

    1991-10-01

    Relations between academic performance and 3 aspects of social competence--socially responsible behavior, sociometric status, and self-regulatory processes (goal setting, interpersonal trust, and problem-solving styles)--were studied. Based on a sample of 423 12- and 13-year-old students, correlational findings indicate that each aspect of social competence is related significantly to students' grades. Results from multiple regression analyses suggest that when accounting for students' IQ, sex, ethnicity, school absence, and family structure, socially responsible behavior mediates almost entirely the relations between students' grades and the other 2 aspects of social competence. Socially responsible behavior and peer status appear to be related by way of their joint association with goals to be socially responsible, interpersonal trust, and problem-solving styles. Similarly, relations between socially responsible behavior and the background variables are explained by joint relations with the self-regulatory processes. The social nature of learning and the role of self-regulation in both interpersonal and behavioral aspects of social competence are discussed.

  17. Social Support for Career Choices and Academic Achievement: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglehart, Marita; Brown, Donald R.

    This study investigated the influence of social support on a person's career choice and its impact on later achievement, testing the hypotheses that social support that pressures a person into entering a given field will lead to lower achievement, and that social support that contributes to the person's development of a professional identity will…

  18. Classroom Goal Structures, Social Achievement Goals, and Adjustment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Cho, YoonJung; Wang, Cen

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the mediating role of social achievement goals in the relation between classroom goal structures and academic engagement and social adjustment among 373 middle school students (52.8% female). Students' perceptions of classroom goal structures were measured in Fall; social achievement goals and academic and social…

  19. Conceptualising Educational Changes: A Social Innovation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loogma, Krista; Tafel-Viia, Külliki; Ümarik, Meril

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the authors in this article is to contribute to the discussion concerning educational change by implementing the concept of social innovation. We argue that the application of the concept of social innovation makes it possible to better understand the process of implementation as well as sustainability and the social impact of…

  20. Constructivist Approach: Improving Social Studies Skills Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCray, Kimeko

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a program designed to enhance social studies skills and knowledge. The target areas for enhancement are geography, economics, history, and core democratic values. The need for strengthening these skills was documented by literature, and surveys. An analysis of probable cause for lack of social studies skills revealed that…

  1. Measuring Social Studies Achievement: A Matter of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Richard J.

    Questions as to whether measurement can provide a universally applicable set of criteria for making value judgments in the social sciences are raised. Four assumptions about education, experience, reality, and value formation were identified to provide a fuller reference point for social science educators when they are viewing current standardized…

  2. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  3. Social marketing: a behavior change technology for infection control.

    PubMed

    Mah, Manuel W; Deshpande, Sameer; Rothschild, Michael L

    2006-09-01

    Changing health care worker behaviors is a core function of infection control programs. The social change technologies of education and institutional policy are limited in their capacity to achieve desired behaviors on a sustained basis because they do not address the importance of opportunity and ability in practice enhancement. Social marketing addresses the health care worker's lack of opportunity and ability by offering a bundle of benefits at low cost with high accessibility and by doing this better than the behavioral status quo. This article introduces some social marketing concepts and explicates them in the context of hand hygiene promotion.

  4. "Hidden" social networks in behavior change interventions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ruth F; McAneney, Helen; Davis, Michael; Tully, Mark A; Valente, Thomas W; Kee, Frank

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether "hidden" (or unobserved) social networks were evident in a 2011 physical activity behavior change intervention in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Results showed evidence of unobserved social networks in the intervention and illustrated how the network evolved over short periods and affected behavior. Behavior change interventions should account for the interaction among participants (i.e., social networks) and how such interactions affect intervention outcome.

  5. Undergraduate Student Leadership and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Fink, Alexander; Lepkowski, Christine; Snyder, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Colleges are under increasing pressure to develop future citizens who are interested in-and capable of-creating positive social change and improving their communities. Using data from the multiinstitutional SERU survey, this study suggests college students' participation in leadership positions can promote their engagement in greater social change.

  6. The Social Studies Teacher: Agent of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Richard E.

    Can educators be effective change agents, and if so, how? Let's consider our opportunities from three viewpoints: 1) the social setting of the school; 2) the school systems themselves; and, 3) the teacher. Within the social setting, one of the most important limitations to change is the resistance of many parents. The new curricula and approaches…

  7. Social Deprivation, School-Level Achievement and Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Data from interviews with 299 teachers in 46 English primary schools revealed that the correlation between free school meals and achievement and between free school meals and special educational needs may stem from teacher judgments. The very poorest schools with the lowest achievement have substantially higher levels of special needs identified…

  8. Cooperative Learning and Achievement in Social Studies: Jigsaw II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Robert M.; VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study of the cooperative learning method "Jigsaw II." Reports superior academic achievement effects are inconsistent with poorer results reported in earlier studies. Discusses a modification incorporating a group goal achievable only by contribution of all group members. Concludes that cooperative learning must include a group…

  9. Adult Education as Socialization: Implications for Personal and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that the process of education, including adult education, involves the adoption and possibly the transmission of values. Applies concepts of socialization theory and curriculum theory to adult education, focusing on the work of Brim, Berger and Luckmann, and Bourdieu. Discusses the relationship between adult education and social change.…

  10. Social Identity Change: Shifts in Social Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A.; Halloran, Michael J.; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then…

  11. Explaining Social Class Inequalities in Educational Achievement in the UK: Quantifying the Contribution of Social Class Differences in School "Effectiveness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Graham

    2016-01-01

    There are large social class inequalities in educational achievement in the UK. This paper quantifies the contribution of one mechanism to the production of these inequalities: social class differences in school "effectiveness," where "effectiveness" refers to a school's impact on pupils' educational achievement (relative to…

  12. Social behaviour: can it change the brain?

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Russell D.

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are ubiquitous in social species. Social status is established initially through physical conflict between individuals and then communicated directly by a variety of signals. Social interactions depend critically on the relative social status of those interacting. But how do individuals acquire the information they need to modulate their behaviour and how do they use that information to decide what to do? What brain mechanisms might underlie such animal cognition? Using a particularly suitable fish model system that depends on complex social interactions, we report how the social context of behaviour shapes the brain and, in turn, alters the behaviour of animals as they interact. Animals observe social interactions carefully to gather information vicariously that then guides their future behaviour. Social opportunities produce rapid changes in gene expression in key nuclei in the brain and these genomic responses may prepare the individual to modify its behaviour to move into a different social niche. Both social success and failure produce changes in neuronal cell size and connectivity in key nuclei. Understanding mechanisms through which social information is transduced into cellular and molecular changes will provide a deeper understanding of the brain systems responsible for animal cognition. PMID:26085689

  13. The etiology of social change.

    PubMed

    Carley, Kathleen M; Martin, Michael K; Hirshman, Brian R

    2009-10-01

    A fundamental aspect of human beings is that they learn. The process of learning and what is learned are impacted by a number of factors, both cognitive and social; that is, humans are boundedly rational. Cognitive and social limitations interact, making it difficult to reason about how to provide information to impact what humans know, believe, and do. Herein, we use a multi-agent dynamic-network simulation system, Construct, to conduct such reasoning. In particular, we ask, What media should be used to provide information to most impact what people know, believe, and do, given diverse social structures? All simulated agents are boundedly rational both at the cognitive and social level, and so are subject to factors such as literacy, education, and the breadth of their social network. We find that there is no one most effective intervention; rather, to be effective, messages and the media used to spread the message need to be selected for the population being addressed. Typically, a multimedia campaign is critical.

  14. Social Change and Fathering: Change or Continuity in Vietnam?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Rukmalie; Phuong, Pham Thi Thu

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic social changes have restructured virtually all aspects of Vietnam society. Although the economic consequences of these changes are well documented, little is known about how family roles and relationships have been affected. Because social and cultural contexts powerfully shape conceptions of parenting, the accelerated rate of social…

  15. Perception, Psychedelics, And Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Charles; Gold, Robert

    1973-01-01

    The most profound consequences of the increasingly widespread use of psychedelics may be sociological in nature. Altered states of consciousness create nothing less than new perceptual configurations which may well spell the end of social institutions based upon modes of perception which are incongruent with new perceptions being attained by…

  16. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the presence and…

  17. Social Adjustment and Achievement: A Cross National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Robert F.; Hughes, Robert

    Psychologists and educators have become interested in the development of a child's social and emotional abilities as well as cognitive outcomes. To determine the important coping patterns that predict success in school, a sample of 10- and 14-year old children (N=3600) from the U.S.A., Brazil, Italy, and Mexico completed a multi-lingual battery of…

  18. Toward a Psychology of Social Change: A Typology of Social Change.

    PubMed

    de la Sablonnière, Roxane

    2017-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are affected by dramatic social change (DSC). While sociological theory aims to understand its precipitants, the psychological consequences remain poorly understood. A large-scale literature review pointed to the desperate need for a typology of social change that might guide theory and research toward a better understanding of the psychology of social change. Over 5,000 abstracts from peer-reviewed articles were assessed from sociological and psychological publications. Based on stringent inclusion criteria, a final 325 articles were used to construct a novel, multi-level typology designed to conceptualize and categorize social change in terms of its psychological threat to psychological well-being. The typology of social change includes four social contexts: Stability, Inertia, Incremental Social Change and, finally, DSC. Four characteristics of DSC were further identified: the pace of social change, rupture to the social structure, rupture to the normative structure, and the level of threat to one's cultural identity. A theoretical model that links the characteristics of social change together and with the social contexts is also suggested. The typology of social change as well as our theoretical proposition may serve as a foundation for future investigations and increase our understanding of the psychologically adaptive mechanisms used in the wake of DSC.

  19. Toward a Psychology of Social Change: A Typology of Social Change

    PubMed Central

    de la Sablonnière, Roxane

    2017-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are affected by dramatic social change (DSC). While sociological theory aims to understand its precipitants, the psychological consequences remain poorly understood. A large-scale literature review pointed to the desperate need for a typology of social change that might guide theory and research toward a better understanding of the psychology of social change. Over 5,000 abstracts from peer-reviewed articles were assessed from sociological and psychological publications. Based on stringent inclusion criteria, a final 325 articles were used to construct a novel, multi-level typology designed to conceptualize and categorize social change in terms of its psychological threat to psychological well-being. The typology of social change includes four social contexts: Stability, Inertia, Incremental Social Change and, finally, DSC. Four characteristics of DSC were further identified: the pace of social change, rupture to the social structure, rupture to the normative structure, and the level of threat to one's cultural identity. A theoretical model that links the characteristics of social change together and with the social contexts is also suggested. The typology of social change as well as our theoretical proposition may serve as a foundation for future investigations and increase our understanding of the psychologically adaptive mechanisms used in the wake of DSC.

  20. How Does Understanding by Design Influence Student Achievement in Eighth Grade Social Studies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Charhonda L.

    2011-01-01

    In an age where more people place emphasis on global competition, it only seems right to have students meet achievement in all subjects equally. However, that is not the case with the content area of social studies. In recent years, many people have been alarmed at social studies test scores as measured by student achievement. It is the goal of…

  1. Teacher Characteristics as Correlates of Students Achievement in Social Studies: A Case Study in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enwelim, Samuel Chiedu

    2016-01-01

    The study on teacher characteristics and students achievement in social Studies in Nigeria is geared towards investigating and determining the relationship between teachers' characteristics and students achievement in social studies in Nigeria. The main purpose of the study is to determine if there is relationship between certain teacher…

  2. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yanhua; Zhu, Xiangru; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a Chinese version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (C-SAGOS), a measure testing the trichotomous framework of achievement goal orientations in a social domain. A total of 208 college students (51% female) aged 18 to 23 participated in the study. Factor analyses showed that the three-factor model…

  3. Cooperative Learning and Achievement in Social Studies: Jigsaw II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Robert M.; VanSickle, Ronald L.

    Cooperative learning generally refers to students working together to achieve academic objectives and the instructional procedures that structure the students' collaborative efforts. Jigsaw is a cooperative learning model that involves small gruops of 5-6 students teaching each other subject matter about which they have become "experts"…

  4. Social Identity and Achievement Gaps: Evidence from an Affirmation Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    One provocative explanation for the continued persistence of minority achievement gaps involves the performance-dampening anxiety thought to be experienced by minority students in highly evaluative settings (i.e., "stereotype threat"). Recent field-experimental studies suggest that modest, low-cost "buffering" interventions…

  5. Social, Cultural, and Contextual Influences on Achievement Motivation Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    Given the decline in birth rates, which will produce a steep decline in the youth population by 1990, this paper examines the possible effects such a population shift will have on the achievement motivation of children. It is reasoned the increased adult/child ratio could result in either of two possibilities: the greater attention paid to the…

  6. Detecting Change in Longitudinal Social Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    marketing campaigns and media on social behavior. Initial Construct populations, social and knowledge networks, can be hypothetical or real (Carley...patent data bases, phone-networks, email- based-networks, social- media networks and more. Page 6 of 37 Current methods of change detection in...CUSUM C Sta measured fo o be successf Average Bet ct either incre or each socia g increases in the data for fective for ch ork. tistic Over Tim

  7. Social motivation in Qatari schools and their relation to school achievement.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Ramzi

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the relation between school-social motivation and student academic achievement. A factor analysis was performed on a set of school-social items selected a priori from three measures of school motivation: the Inventory of School Motivation, the General Achievement Goals Orientation Scale, and the Facilitating Conditions Scale. Three factors with fewer items represented Global Motivation, Peer Help, and Social Power. Hierarchical regression analysis showed social motivation measures were weak predictors of achievement scores in the various content areas. Findings are discussed in the context of Qatari education and culture.

  8. Conceptual Acquisition and Change through Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu

    1994-01-01

    Examines the role of social interaction as a facilitator of learning in general and conceptual change in particular. Three conditions are proposed as necessary for social interaction to facilitate knowledge construction--horizontal information, comparable domain knowledge, and availability of cognitive tools. Suggests that these conditions assure…

  9. Social Network Theory and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Alan J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Social Network Theory and Educational Change" offers a provocative and fascinating exploration of how social networks in schools can impede or facilitate the work of education reform. Drawing on the work of leading scholars, the book comprises a series of studies examining networks among teachers and school leaders, contrasting formal…

  10. Excellence in Social Achievement, Affective Learning, Academic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Nietos Elementary School District, CA.

    The Los Nietos Basic Skills Program was the first program of computer assisted instruction funded by the Emergency School Aid Act (ESAA). The system initially supported 17 typewriter-style terminals, but the number was later increased to 24. Because of software problems, the system changed companies and the courses changed to the following:…

  11. The Educational Achievement Gap as a Social Justice Issue for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collopy, Rachel; Bowman, Connie; Taylor, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The educational achievement gap is a critical social justice issue. Catholic and Marianist conceptions of social justice in particular call people to work with others in their spheres of life to transform institutions in order to further human rights while promoting the common good. Drawing on key elements of Catholic teaching on social justice,…

  12. Social Adjustment and Academic Achievement: A Predictive Model for Students with Diverse Academic and Behavior Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Corey E.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesized relationship between social adjustment, as measured by perceived social support, self-concept, and social skills, and performance on academic achievement tests. Participants included 27 teachers and 77 fourth- and eighth-grade students with diverse academic and behavior competencies. Teachers were asked to…

  13. The Impact of ICT on Pupils' Achievement and Attitudes in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cener, Emin; Acun, Ismail; Demirhan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of teaching social studies with the help of CT on pupils' achievement in social studies. A history, geography and culture oriented theme was selected from the social studies curriculum for the research, Turks on the Silk Road. A multimedia CD, documentaries, PowerPoint and so on were used to teach…

  14. Longitudinal Investigation into the Role of Perceived Social Support in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Juyeon; Bong, Mimi; Lee, Kyehyoung; Kim, Sung-il

    2015-01-01

    We examined (a) the relative importance of perceived social support from parents, peers, and teachers; (b) the consequences associated with different types of perceived social support; and (c) the mediation by achievement goals in the relationship between perceived social support and academic outcomes. We analyzed the first 3 waves of the Korean…

  15. How Does School Climate Impact Academic Achievement? An Examination of Social Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Katherine J.; Lee, Eunro; Turner, Isobel; Bromhead, David; Subasic, Emina

    2017-01-01

    In explaining academic achievement, school climate and social belonging (connectedness, identification) emerge as important variables. However, both constructs are rarely explored in one model. In the current study, a social psychological framework based on the social identity perspective (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987) is…

  16. Law and Social Change in Marxist Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazard, John N.

    1970-01-01

    The basic concepts discussed are: social change manipulation through management of economic resources; the leadership of the few that understand the process; and, the law as the primary instrument of implementation (criminal, family, public laws). (SE)

  17. Social Change Movements and Transformative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auretto, Vera

    2001-01-01

    Defines social change movements and the role played by individual and collective transformation. Addresses the debate over Mezirow's transformation theory and shows how transformative learning was used in the women's movement. (SK)

  18. Motivation, Social Reinforcement, and Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Achievement in Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Trevor; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship of cognitive and personality variables to achievement in 49 Black junior high school students. Results showed a higher achievement motivation for males. Neither personality nor social reinforcement showed much predictive value. The relationship between achievement motive and academic measures was not significant. (JAC)

  19. Marketing and social change: the parallels.

    PubMed

    Da Cunha, G

    1995-01-01

    Social marketing became respectable only in the late 1970s in places like Indonesia, Brazil, Egypt, Honduras, and Gambia. In practice social change and marketing are both about modifying group behavior. Social change provides opportunities for marketing, which is the process that identifies the unmet consumer need and satisfies it at a profit. Social research and production technologies are involved in market segmentation, target group selection, pricing, distribution, selling, and promotion. The crucial, people-centered and community-based characteristic of marketing is its social relevance. Marketing is a neutral methodology and social marketing is its adaptation to social imperatives. Among a set of underlying ideas related to marketing is the primacy of the consumer in all marketing decisions. Marketing clusters are a way of analyzing a situation, making a product, and pricing and distributing it. Demand is the driving force behind marketing with the components of price, performance, and decision. The benefit obtained from the product must justify the price. Advertising is commercial mass persuasion, the centerpiece of promotion; it is also needed for marketing communications. Promotional tools include special price offers, merchandizing, and dealer incentive schemes. Straightforward information rarely causes lasting behavioral changes. In a Bangladeshi community, 90% of women could have correct knowledge about oral rehydration salts, yet only 8% of them might actually use them correctly. Information that is resisted does not work, yet huge amounts of money go into producing manuals, leaflets, radio programs, and posters. The issues of distribution and competition are often neglected in social marketing programs. Other deficiencies are failure to monitor, evaluate, and innovate. To be successful, social marketing must aim at a 100% conversion of the market actors. Some successes of the social marketing approach include: a nutrition education and behavior change

  20. Achieving temperature-size changes in a unicellular organism.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Esteban, Genoveva F

    2013-01-01

    The temperature-size rule (TSR) is an intraspecific phenomenon describing the phenotypic plastic response of an organism size to the temperature: individuals reared at cooler temperatures mature to be larger adults than those reared at warmer temperatures. The TSR is ubiquitous, affecting >80% species including uni- and multicellular groups. How the TSR is established has received attention in multicellular organisms, but not in unicells. Further, conceptual models suggest the mechanism of size change to be different in these two groups. Here, we test these theories using the protist Cyclidium glaucoma. We measure cell sizes, along with population growth during temperature acclimation, to determine how and when the temperature-size changes are achieved. We show that mother and daughter sizes become temporarily decoupled from the ratio 2:1 during acclimation, but these return to their coupled state (where daughter cells are half the size of the mother cell) once acclimated. Thermal acclimation is rapid, being completed within approximately a single generation. Further, we examine the impact of increased temperatures on carrying capacity and total biomass, to investigate potential adaptive strategies of size change. We demonstrate no temperature effect on carrying capacity, but maximum supported biomass to decrease with increasing temperature.

  1. Societal Development and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts the theories of three major writers on societal change: Chirot discusses the economic power struggles within and among core, peripheral, and semiperipheral societies, Toffler exposes a future in which major power shifts could have cataclysmic results, and Bruner emphasizes the importance of education to temper…

  2. Achievement goals, social goals, and motivational regulations in physical education settings.

    PubMed

    Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier

    2011-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.

  3. Stress and social support among Hispanic student nurses: implications for academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Maville, J; Huerta, C G

    1997-01-01

    This article describes two studies examining the effects of stress and social support on the academic achievement of Hispanic associate degree nursing students. The first study investigated stress, measured by the Life Experiences Survey (LES), and its relationship to academic achievement. Data analysis revealed a relationship between negative stress and academic achievement. Student level and ethnic origin were found to be predictive of stress. Ethnic origin and age also had an effect on academic achievement. Qualitative data indicated that students experienced stresses as a result of the academic environment. The second study investigated the effect of social support, measured by the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ), on student persistence. No significant relationship was found. Qualitative data revealed less than desired social support in lower achieving students. Conclusions from these studies form the basis for identification of the high risk student and strategies to remediate the academically handicapped Hispanic student.

  4. Achieving Optimal Privacy in Trust-Aware Social Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail

    Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.

  5. Social Studies: Dissent and Change in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Grace C.; Schmidt, Fran

    Students, grades 7 through 9, will examine and hopefully gain understanding of the process for effecting change within the structure of a Democratic society in this quinmester course of study. Focus is upon the reasons, limits, methods, and effectiveness of American dissent bringing about social change. The responsibility of citizenship in a…

  6. Social Change: How Should Technology Education Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlova, Margarita

    2005-01-01

    Rapid social change creates a powerful challenge to individuals and educational institutions. Technology education is not an exception. To be a useful and authentic learning area, technology education should constantly re-examine its rationale in order to formulate responses to changing contexts to improve the quality of learning for students. The…

  7. Climate change impact on neotropical social wasps.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997-2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals.

  8. Climate Change Impact on Neotropical Social Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M.; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997–2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals. PMID:22073236

  9. Social Capital and Adolescents Mathematics Achievement: A Comparative Analysis of Eight European Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gisladottir, Berglind

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the impact of social capital on mathematics achievement in eight European cities. The study draws on data from the 2008 Youth in Europe survey, carried out by the Icelandic Center for Social Research and Analysis. The sample contains responses from 17,312 students in 9th and 10th grade of local secondary schools in the…

  10. Characteristics of Academically-Influential Children: Achievement Motivation and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2016-01-01

    The contributions of academic achievement motivation and social status to peer-reported academic influence were explored in a sample of 322 children in grades three through five. Latent moderated structural equation modeling indicated that children who value academics are more likely to be rated by peers as academically influential. Social status…

  11. A Social Support Intervention and Academic Achievement in College: Does Perceived Loneliness Mediate the Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Brooks, Leonie J.; Brand, Bethany L.; Quimby, Julie L.; Ayers, Jean F.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether a social support intervention reduced loneliness and increased academic achievement among college freshmen. Eighty-eight 1st-year students randomly assigned to a social support group program reported less loneliness in the spring of their freshman year and obtained higher grade point averages in the fall of their…

  12. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  13. The Social World, the Creative Self, and the Ongoing Achievement of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan Jean

    2017-01-01

    As an educator, Maxine Greene returned repeatedly to the dynamic transaction that John Dewey had theorized between a vital social world and individual creativity. With Dewey, she viewed mutually transformative relations with others as the wellspring of all personal growth and social progress and as key to achieving a form of freedom that both…

  14. Social Experiences in Kindergarten and Academic Achievement in Grade 1: A Monozygotic Twin Difference Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how different types of social experiences in kindergarten relate to Grade 1 academic achievement, while controlling for possible genetic and shared environmental influences through the use of the monozygotic (MZ) twin difference method. Social experiences in kindergarten included relationship quality with the…

  15. Socially Oriented Motivational Goals and Academic Achievement: Similarities between Native and Anglo Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Jinnat; McInerney, Dennis M.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; King, Ronnel B.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between two socially oriented dimensions of student motivation and academic achievement of Native (Navajo) American and Anglo American students. Using confirmatory factor analysis, a multidimensional and hierarchical model was found to explain the relations between performance and social goals. Four first-order…

  16. Integrating Economic and Social Policy: Good Practices from High-Achieving Countries. Innocenti Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    This paper examines the successes of 10 "high achievers," countries with social indicators far higher than might be expected, given their national wealth, pulling together the lessons learned for social policy in the developing world. The 10 countries identified are Costa Rica, Cuba, Barbados, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Kerala, Sri…

  17. Social-Demographic, School, Neighborhood, and Parenting Influences on the Academic Achievement of Latino Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2005-01-01

    Using data from a national sample of 388 Latino young adolescents, this study identified the social-demographic characteristics, influences in the broader social environment, and parenting practices that predict youth academic achievement. Youths who were Mexican American, older, and had an English language problem had lower levels of reading and…

  18. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  19. Social Competence, Social Support, and Academic Achievement in Minority, Low-Income, Urban Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; Haynes, Norris M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite living in disadvantaged urban communities experiencing social and economic hardships, many children emerge with positive outcomes. Social-emotional competence and social support were hypothesized to have strong influences on academic trajectories during the critical period of academic skill acquisition. Participants were 282 third-grade…

  20. Social Psychological Dispositions and Academic Achievement of Inuit and Non-Inuit Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Rodney A.; Roberts, Lance W.

    1988-01-01

    Examines differences between Inuit and non-Inuit students in activism (social attitude), self-concept, and academic achievement. Inuits scored lower in activism and self-concept than non-Inuits. Suggests teachers create personalized classroom environments to positively affect activism and self-concept, and thereby enhancing achievement.…

  1. Family Socialization and Educational Achievement in Two Cultures: Mexican-American and Anglo-American

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James G.; Evans, Francis B.

    1976-01-01

    This study examines variations in family socialization practices among Anglo American and Mexican Americans and the effect of these practices on achievement values, self concept and educational achievement. Data were collected from 102 junior high school students and their families. (Author/BW)

  2. Effects of Within-Class Ability Grouping on Social Interaction, Achievement, and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; De Jong, Ton

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how grouping arrangements affect students' achievement, social interaction, and motivation. Students of high, average and low ability were randomly assigned to homogeneous or heterogeneous ability groups. All groups attended the same plant biology course. The main results indicate that low-ability students achieve more and are…

  3. The Interaction between Social Goals and Self-Construal on Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Lam, Shui-fong

    2013-01-01

    The motivational effects of mastery goals and performance goals have been widely documented in previous research on achievement motivation. However, recent studies have increasingly indicated a need to include social goals so as to gain a more comprehensive understanding of achievement motivation. The purpose of the present research was to examine…

  4. Social Adaptation and Its Relationship to Achievement Motivation among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlZboon, Saleem Odeh

    2013-01-01

    The study amid at exploring and detecting the level of social adaptation and its relationship with the achievement motivation of the secondary school students in Jordan, the study sample consisted of 495 secondary school students in the province of Jerash, and to achieve the objective of this study comes the development of two tools: the first one…

  5. Profiling Differences in Achievement and Social Goals of Students at Different Levels of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patricia Tenowich; Sonnenschein, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate domain-learning theory and goal theory to investigate the learning processes, achievement goals, social goals, and achievement of 141 college students. Cluster-analytic procedures were used to categorize participants at different levels of expertise based on their responses on knowledge, interest, and…

  6. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  7. Locus of Control and Academic Achievement: Integrating Social Learning Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youse, Keith Edward

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of math achievement and college graduation by integrating social learning theory and expectancy-value theory. Data came from a nationally-representative longitudinal database tracking 12,144 students over twelve years from 8th grade forward. Models for math achievement and college graduation were tested…

  8. A Cross-National Study of the Multilevel Effects of Social Background on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belandria, Liza C.

    Results of a study attempting to verify the extent to which social background variables affect science achievement at multiple levels of analysis are reported. Patterns of home- and SES-influenced variables potentially explaining differences in individual achievement were examined in Hungary, New Zealand, and Australia to duplicate a previous…

  9. How Do Relationships Influence Student Achievement? Understanding Student Performance from a General, Social Psychological Standpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspelin, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the influence of relationships on student achievement by examining empirical evidence and by adopting a social psychological theory. Initially, the issue is addressed from a national, Swedish context. Thereafter, two general questions are raised: (1) What is the influence of relationships on student achievement, according to…

  10. Identity, Language Learning, and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Bonny; Toohey, Kelleen

    2011-01-01

    In this review article on identity, language learning, and social change, we argue that contemporary poststructuralist theories of language, identity, and power offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching, and have been of considerable interest in our field. We first review poststructuralist theories of language, subjectivity, and…

  11. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  12. The ADA Mandate for Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul, Ed.

    This book analyzes the effectiveness and implications for social change of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). It outlines several issues--legal implications, physical accessibility, transportation options, employment opportunities, and recreation--that stimulate community action for full inclusion. Part I, titled "Definitions and…

  13. POLITICS OF UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT IN SOCIAL CHANGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAMPBELL, ALAN K.

    THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE UNIVERSITY'S ROLE IN SOCIAL CHANGE FROM THE POLITICAL VIEWPOINT. BY EXAMINING OUR POLITICAL SYSTEM AS IT RELATED TO UNIVERSITY INVOLVEMENT, HE INDICATES THE POLITICAL RAMIFICATIONS OF SUCH INVOLVEMENT AND SHOWS THE KIND OF INVOLVEMENT THAT IS POLITICALLY POSSIBLE. HE PINPOINTS THE DIFFICULTIES CIVIC ADMINISTRATORS AND…

  14. Organizational Learning, Change and Socialization. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This symposium is comprised of three papers on organizational learning, change, and socialization. "A Study of the Organizational Learning Profile (OLP)" (Rae Dorai, Adela J. McMurray) reports findings that show the OLP (Pace et al. 1998) is a reliable instrument for measuring organizational learning and its content validity is high.…

  15. Changing Rural Social Systems: Adaptation and Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E., Ed.; Wang, Ching-li, Ed.

    This book includes studies of globalization-related social changes in rural areas of the United States and other countries and implications of these studies for sociological theory. Although no chapter focuses exclusively on education, education-related themes include rural school dropouts and intergenerational poverty, the migration of rural…

  16. Meditation, Social Change, and Undergraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that meditation guided by a competent teacher can be a positive influence in contemporary American society and even a force for progressive social change. A number of critical issues requiring further study are identified, including the need for a better understanding of meditation from the perspective of developmental…

  17. Evaluating Student Achievement in Alberta Social Studies: Report to MACOSA Committee on Social Studies Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, James B.

    This bibliographic essay discusses evaluation instruments that could be used to evaluate the K-12 social studies program in Alberta, Canada. The author points out the difficulty of evaluating the Alberta social studies program because its objectives are ill defined and it relies heavily on values and the inclusion of the affective domain. While…

  18. Perceived parenting and social support: can they predict academic achievement in Argentinean college students?

    PubMed Central

    de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed. PMID:25258563

  19. Perceived parenting and social support: can they predict academic achievement in Argentinean college students?

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Guadalupe; Freiberg Hoffmann, Agustin; Fernández Liporace, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the ability to predict academic achievement through the perception of parenting and social support in a sample of 354 Argentinean college students. Their mean age was 23.50 years (standard deviation =2.62 years) and most of them (83.3%) were females. As a prerequisite for admission to college, students are required to pass a series of mandatory core classes and are expected to complete them in two semesters. Delay in completing the curriculum is considered low academic achievement. Parenting was assessed taking into account the mother and the father and considering two dimensions: responsiveness and demandingness. Perceived social support was analyzed considering four sources: parents, teachers, classmates, and best friend or boyfriend/girlfriend. Path analysis showed that, as hypothesized, responsiveness had a positive indirect effect on the perception of social support and enhanced achievement. Demandingness had a different effect in the case of the mother as compared to the father. In the mother model, demandingness had a positive direct effect on achievement. In the case of the father, however, the effect of demandingness had a negative and indirect impact on the perception of social support. Teachers were the only source of perceived social support that significantly predicted achievement. The pathway that belongs to teachers as a source of support was positive and direct. Implications for possible interventions are discussed.

  20. Brief Report: How Do They Manage Social Interaction? The Influence of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Self-Monitoring by Adolescents with Low Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoshan; Zhao, Jun-Yan; Yu, Guoliang

    2010-01-01

    During social interactions people self-monitor their behavior at least partially to conceal socially devalued characteristics. This study examined the influences of concealing academic achievement on self-monitoring in an academically-relevant social interaction. An interview paradigm called for school-aged adolescent participants (total N = 86)…

  1. The Empathizing-Systemizing Theory, Social Abilities, and Mathematical Achievement in Children.

    PubMed

    Escovar, Emily; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Uddin, Lucina Q; Menon, Vinod

    2016-03-14

    The Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory describes a profile of traits that have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, and are thought to encompass a continuum that includes typically developing (TD) individuals. Although systemizing is hypothesized to be related to mathematical abilities, empirical support for this relationship is lacking. We examine the link between empathizing and systemizing tendencies and mathematical achievement in 112 TD children (57 girls) to elucidate how socio-cognitive constructs influence early development of mathematical skills. Assessment of mathematical achievement included standardized tests designed to examine calculation skills and conceptual mathematical reasoning. Empathizing and systemizing were assessed using the Combined Empathy Quotient-Child (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient-Child (SQ-C). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that mathematical achievement was not related to systemizing or the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing. Surprisingly, children with higher empathy demonstrated lower calculation skills. Further analysis using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) revealed that the relationship between EQ-C and mathematical achievement was mediated by social ability rather than autistic behaviors. Finally, social awareness was found to play a differential role in mediating the relationship between EQ-C and mathematical achievement in girls. These results identify empathy, and social skills more generally, as previously unknown predictors of mathematical achievement.

  2. The Empathizing-Systemizing Theory, Social Abilities, and Mathematical Achievement in Children

    PubMed Central

    Escovar, Emily; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Menon, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    The Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) theory describes a profile of traits that have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, and are thought to encompass a continuum that includes typically developing (TD) individuals. Although systemizing is hypothesized to be related to mathematical abilities, empirical support for this relationship is lacking. We examine the link between empathizing and systemizing tendencies and mathematical achievement in 112 TD children (57 girls) to elucidate how socio-cognitive constructs influence early development of mathematical skills. Assessment of mathematical achievement included standardized tests designed to examine calculation skills and conceptual mathematical reasoning. Empathizing and systemizing were assessed using the Combined Empathy Quotient-Child (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient-Child (SQ-C). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that mathematical achievement was not related to systemizing or the discrepancy between systemizing and empathizing. Surprisingly, children with higher empathy demonstrated lower calculation skills. Further analysis using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) revealed that the relationship between EQ-C and mathematical achievement was mediated by social ability rather than autistic behaviors. Finally, social awareness was found to play a differential role in mediating the relationship between EQ-C and mathematical achievement in girls. These results identify empathy, and social skills more generally, as previously unknown predictors of mathematical achievement. PMID:26972835

  3. Changing teaching practices to promote achievement and bonding to school.

    PubMed

    Abbott, R D; O'Donnell, J; Hawkins, J D; Hill, K G; Kosterman, R; Catalano, R F

    1998-10-01

    An intervention to modify teaching practices in grades five and six was evaluated. Results showed that higher levels of teacher implementation of the modified practices favorably influenced students' levels of classroom opportunity, involvement, reinforcement, and bonding to school. Levels of academic achievement were also increased. The importance of assessing implementation in theory-guided experimental studies is discussed.

  4. Achieving the Dream: State Policy Changes for Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael; Couturier, Lara K.

    2008-01-01

    The American higher education system considers itself a primary avenue to opportunity. As providers of broad access to postsecondary education, community colleges are arguably the most vital organ in that pulsing system. But there is a growing acknowledgment that access alone is no longer enough. "Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges…

  5. Changing social contracts in climate-change adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Quinn, Tara; Lorenzoni, Irene; Murphy, Conor; Sweeney, John

    2013-04-01

    Risks from extreme weather events are mediated through state, civil society and individual action. We propose evolving social contracts as a primary mechanism by which adaptation to climate change proceeds. We use a natural experiment of policy and social contexts of the UK and Ireland affected by the same meteorological event and resultant flooding in November 2009. We analyse data from policy documents and from household surveys of 356 residents in western Ireland and northwest England. We find significant differences between perceptions of individual responsibility for protection across the jurisdictions and between perceptions of future risk from populations directly affected by flooding events. These explain differences in stated willingness to take individual adaptive actions when state support retrenches. We therefore show that expectations for state protection are critical in mediating impacts and promoting longer-term adaptation. We argue that making social contracts explicit may smooth pathways to effective and legitimate adaptation.

  6. Climate Change, Human Rights, and Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Patz, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    The environmental and health consequences of climate change, which disproportionately affect low-income countries and poor people in high-income countries, profoundly affect human rights and social justice. Environmental consequences include increased temperature, excess precipitation in some areas and droughts in others, extreme weather events, and increased sea level. These consequences adversely affect agricultural production, access to safe water, and worker productivity, and, by inundating land or making land uninhabitable and uncultivatable, will force many people to become environmental refugees. Adverse health effects caused by climate change include heat-related disorders, vector-borne diseases, foodborne and waterborne diseases, respiratory and allergic disorders, malnutrition, collective violence, and mental health problems. These environmental and health consequences threaten civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, including rights to life, access to safe food and water, health, security, shelter, and culture. On a national or local level, those people who are most vulnerable to the adverse environmental and health consequences of climate change include poor people, members of minority groups, women, children, older people, people with chronic diseases and disabilities, those residing in areas with a high prevalence of climate-related diseases, and workers exposed to extreme heat or increased weather variability. On a global level, there is much inequity, with low-income countries, which produce the least greenhouse gases (GHGs), being more adversely affected by climate change than high-income countries, which produce substantially higher amounts of GHGs yet are less immediately affected. In addition, low-income countries have far less capability to adapt to climate change than high-income countries. Adaptation and mitigation measures to address climate change needed to protect human society must also be planned to protect

  7. Achieving Continuous Improvement: Theories that Support a System Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armel, Donald

    Focusing on improvement is different than focusing on quality, quantity, customer satisfaction, and productivity. This paper discusses Open System Theory, and suggests ways to change large systems. Changing a system (meaning the way all the parts are connected) requires a considerable amount of data gathering and analysis. Choosing the proper…

  8. Social responses to climate change: Political cultures and social plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergraft, C.A.

    1997-12-31

    Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change cautiously observes that {open_quotes}The value of better information about climate change processes and impacts and society`s responses to them is likely to be great.{close_quotes} Global-scale problems involve an infinite number of social complexities, so a fundamental analytic need is a metric to facilitate cross-cultural comparison of sets of attitudes or worldviews relevant to coping with climate change. Enhanced climate change is a salient example of the synergistic character of anthropogenic and natural processes, but the very fact that not everyone sees {open_quotes}anthropogenic{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} as dichotomous, or agrees on the implications of either alternative, indicates the presence of competing worldviews. There is a consensus that a high level of environmental quality is a collective good, so a general failure to provide it needs explaining. Is the problem inherent to collective action or is it a function of the global politico-economic system? The premises of some worldviews lead to doubt that collective action problems can be resolved in a system dominated by sovereign states, and insist that nothing short of radical systemic revision is required. Other premises produce fear of concentrations of power in supranational or international organizations. What elements predispose people and groups to accept or reject one or the other of these views? This research uses cultural theory to explore socioeconomic and political implications of diverse worldviews. Responses of a sample of over 500 people to politically and environmentally relevant statements are classified, scaled and clustered. Implications for social adaptability, or plasticity, are suggested.

  9. Integrating Social Work into Undergraduate Education through a Community Action and Social Change Multidisciplinary Minor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards-Schuster, Katie; Ruffolo, Mary C.; Nicoll, Kerri Leyda

    2015-01-01

    Social work education has a long and successful history of developing change agents through bachelor of social work, master's of social work, and PhD programs, but these programs often create boundaries limiting the reach and infusion of social work perspectives. With rapid changes in social, economic, and political contexts, students from all…

  10. Achievement and Social Goals of Younger and Older Elementary Students: Response to Academic and Social Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Beike, Suzanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with mild disabilities experience sufficient failure to produce negative future expectations (goals), which may compound early academic and social deficits. This research compared the teacher- and student-rated goals of 57 children at two age levels, who were average learners, had a reading problem/disability (RP), and were hyperactive or…

  11. Champions for social change: Photovoice ethics in practice and 'false hopes' for policy and social change.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Photovoice methodology is growing in popularity in the health, education and social sciences as a research tool based on the core values of community-based participatory research. Most photovoice projects state a claim to the third goal of photovoice: to reach policy-makers or effect policy change. This paper examines the concerns of raising false hopes or unrealistic expectations amongst the participants of photovoice projects as they are positioned to be the champions for social change in their communities. The impetus for social change seems to lie in the hands of those most affected by the issue. This drive behind collective social action forms, what could be termed, a micro-social movement or comparative interest group. Looking to the potential use of social movement theory and resource mobilisation concepts, this paper poses a series of unanswered questions about the ethics of photovoice projects. The ethical concern centres on the focus of policy change as a key initiative; yet, most projects remain vague about the implementation and outcomes of this focus.

  12. Relationship between Achievement Goals and Students' Self-Reported Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E

    2015-04-21

    This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p < .001, η2 = .39. The result also revealed that students were more likely to endorse the mastery-approach goal than three other goals. The simple correlations revealed mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were positively related to students' self-reported personal (r = .54, p < .001; r = .37, p < .001, respectively) and social responsibility (r = .38, p < .001; r = .22, p < .001, respectively) behaviors. However, hierarchical regression analyses indicated only the mastery-approach goal emerged as the significant positive predictor, b = .52, t(216) = 7.19, p < .001 for personal responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p < .001 for social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.

  13. Computer Science Majors: Sex Role Orientation, Academic Achievement, and Social Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Garavalia, Linda S.; Fritts, Mary Lou Hines; Olson, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the sex role orientations endorsed by 188 male and female students majoring in computer science, a male-dominated college degree program. The relations among sex role orientation and academic achievement and social cognitive factors influential in career decision-making self-efficacy were explored. Findings revealed that…

  14. Social Capital, Human Capital and Parent-Child Relation Quality: Interacting for Children's Educational Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Otter, Cecilia; Stenberg, Sten-Åke

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the utility of social capital for children's achievement, and if this utility interacts with family human capital and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Our focus is on parental activities directly related to children's school work. Our data stem from a Swedish cohort born in 1953 and consist of both survey and register data.…

  15. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  16. Self-Regulatory Climate: A Social Resource for Student Regulation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.; Dollarhide, Ellen; Miskell, Ryan; Ware, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Schools have differential effects on student learning and development, but research has not generated much explanatory evidence of the social-psychological pathway to better achievement outcomes. Explanatory evidence of how normative conditions enable students to thrive is particularly relevant in the urban context where…

  17. Educational Achievement as Defining Factor in Social Stratification in Contemporary Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colmenero, Manuel Jacinto Roblizo

    2013-01-01

    One especially relevant key theme in Sociology of Education is to what extent parents' cultural level has significant implications in students' educational achievement and, as a consequence, in the social mobility inherently linked to level of education and professional training. In order to investigate this aspect on current Spanish society, our…

  18. School Counseling to Close the Achievement Gap: A Social Justice Framework for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    School counselors can play a powerful role in closing the achievement gap when they incorporate the principles of social justice into their practice. In this much-needed resource for preservice and inservice counselors, the author addresses factors (such as racism, sexism, heterosexism, and classism) that can contribute to academic failure, and…

  19. Success in Higher Education: The Challenge to Achieve Academic Standing and Social Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Life, James

    2015-01-01

    When students look at their classmates in the classroom, consciously or unconsciously, they see competitors both for academic recognition and social success. How do they fit in relation to others and how do they succeed in achieving both? Traditional views on the drive to succeed and the fear of failure are well known as motivators for achieving…

  20. Influence of Social and Community Capital on Student Achievement in a Large Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik; Wang, Chuang; Audette, Robert; McColl, Ann; Algozzine, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Education professionals and policy makers have been working to "close the achievement gap" for some time. Differences in school performance for children from diverse and different family backgrounds have been at the core of past and present social, political, and education reform initiatives and practices. Previous research suggests that…

  1. Attitudes Toward Women's Professional Achievement among Social Work Students and Recent Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushford, Kathleen Betts; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A study of the relationship between demographic variables and attitudes toward women's professional achievement among 343 students in a master's degree social work program and alumni is discussed. No significant differences between male and female attitudes were discovered; however, findings indicated that females had lower salary expectations.…

  2. Academic Achievement, Perfectionism and Social Support as Predictors of Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Ibrahim; Genctanirim, Dilek; Yalcin, Ilhan; Baydan, Yaprak

    2008-01-01

    This study examined likelihood of high school students' gender, levels of academic achievement, perfectionism and perceived social support in predicting their degree of test anxiety. Participants were 505 students from high schools in the Ankara metropolitan area. The Test Anxiety Inventory, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and Perceived…

  3. The Influence of Family and Community Social Capital on Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Glenn D.; Beaulieu, Lionel J.; Hartless, Glen

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of national longitudinal data indicates that high school students' educational achievement (grade average, standardized test scores, staying in school) was strongly affected by process and structural attributes of family social capital (family structure and income, parent education, parent-child interactions) and somewhat affected by…

  4. Self-Determined Motivation and Social Achievement Goals in Children's Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini

    2011-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study we investigated to what extent autonomous and controlled motivation and social achievement goals are associated with students' emotional experiences at school. We found in a sample of 426 elementary school students, aged from 10 to 12 years, autonomous motivation (i.e. students' engagement in class activities because…

  5. Social Capital, Value Consistency, and the Achievement Outcomes of Home Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    Whether the constructs of value consistency and social capital can be used to explain the achievement outcomes of home education is explored. It is evident that children exposed to home schooling experience a high degree of value consistency. The values to which such children are exposed in education are those of their families. This would seem to…

  6. The Effects of Peer Tutoring on the Reading Achievement and Social Acceptance of Mainstreamed Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajar, Anna H.; And Others

    The research analyzed the effects of peer tutoring and teacher presentations about handicaps on the social acceptance of 16 mainstreamed educable mentally retarded (EMR) children (10 from primary and 6 from intermediate level classes). In addition, the effect of peer tutoring on reading achievement of EMR students was examined. Results showed that…

  7. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  8. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  9. Mathematics Anxiety According to Middle School Students' Achievement Motivation and Social Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesici, Sahin; Erdogan, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify whether middle school students' mathematics anxiety differentiates or not, according to their low and high achievement motivation and their level of self-esteem stemming from social comparison. This study also aims to clarify the effects of these two variables on mathematics anxiety. The study groups were…

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Academic Achievement in Chinese Children: Contributions of Early Social-Behavioral Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Rui; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li; Yang, Fan

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the developmental trajectories of academic achievement and the contributions of early social behaviors and problems to these trajectories in Chinese children. Data were collected each year in 5 consecutive years from a sample of elementary schoolchildren in China (initially N = 1,146, 609 boys, initial M [subscript age] = 8.33…

  11. The Racial, Ethnic, and Social Class Achievement Gaps: A Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, Alan Kibbe

    2012-01-01

    This system dynamics analysis draws on the literature to outline the factors commonly discussed as predictive of and, perhaps, causally related to problematic differences in academic achievement among students who vary in race, ethnicity, and social class. It first treats these as a wide-ranging set of exogenous variables, many of which interact…

  12. What Is Most Important: Social Factors, Health Selection, and Adolescent Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Leslie L.; Hiebert, Brett; Manivong, Phongsack; Edgerton, Jason; Walld, Randy; MacWilliam, Leonard; de Rocquigny, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relative importance of social factors and health measures in predicting educational achievement in early and late adolescence using population-based administrative data. The sample was made up of 41,943 children born in Manitoba, Canada between 1982 and 1989 and remaining in the province until age 18. Multilevel modeling…

  13. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  14. Perceived Social Support and Academic Achievement: Cross-Lagged Panel and Bivariate Growth Curve Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinnon, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    As students transition to post-secondary education, they experience considerable stress and declines in academic performance. Perceived social support is thought to improve academic achievement by reducing stress. Longitudinal designs with three or more waves are needed in this area because they permit stronger causal inferences and help…

  15. New Empirical Evidence on the Effect of Educational Tracking on Social Inequalities in Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides

    2015-01-01

    One of the major imperatives behind the comprehensivisation of secondary education was the belief that postponing the age at which students are tracked in different educational routes would mitigate the effect of social background on educational outcomes. Comparative investigations of large-scale international student achievement tests in…

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Social Capitals and English Language Achievement within a Specific Grade and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodadady, Ebrahim; Pishghadam, Reza; Alaee, Farnaz Farokh

    2012-01-01

    An achievement test based on schema theory (S-Test) was developed on the passages comprising the English textbook taught at grade three in state high schools in Iran and administered concurrently with a validated and reliable Social Capital Scale (SCS) to four hundred seventy seven male and female participants. The Z-scores obtained on the S-Test…

  17. Demographic Change, Social Security Systems, and Savings.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Mansfield, Richard K; Moore, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In theory, improvements in healthy life expectancy should generate increases in the average age of retirement, with little effect on savings rates. In many countries, however, retirement incentives in social security programs prevent retirement ages from keeping pace with changes in life expectancy, leading to an increased need for life-cycle savings. Analyzing a cross-country panel of macroeconomic data, we find that increased longevity raises aggregate savings rates in countries with universal pension coverage and retirement incentives, though the effect disappears in countries with pay-as-you-go systems and high replacement rates.

  18. Social marketing, stages of change, and public health smoking interventions.

    PubMed

    Diehr, Paula; Hannon, Peggy; Pizacani, Barbara; Forehand, Mark; Meischke, Hendrika; Curry, Susan; Martin, Diane P; Weaver, Marcia R; Harris, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    As a "thought experiment," the authors used a modified stages of change model for smoking to define homogeneous segments within various hypothetical populations. The authors then estimated the population effect of public health interventions that targeted the different segments. Under most assumptions, interventions that emphasized primary and secondary prevention, by targeting the Never Smoker, Maintenance, or Action segments, resulted in the highest nonsmoking life expectancy. This result is consistent with both social marketing and public health principles. Although the best thing for an individual smoker is to stop smoking, the greatest public health benefit is achieved by interventions that target nonsmokers.

  19. Achieving change through reflective practice: closing the loop.

    PubMed

    Page, S; Meerabeau, L

    2000-07-01

    This paper draws on a small scale, exploratory study which was conducted in the clinical area in the early 1990s (Page 1992). The study drew on the principles of reflective practice in order to enable practitioners to identify learning needs in relation to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedures. Whilst considerable benefit from the reflective sessions was noted, one unanticipated and unpalatable outcome was what might be termed professional apathy. This was manifest in several ways, most importantly in that issues 'for action', identified through reflection, were not prioritised or acted upon. Whilst partial responsibility for this may lie with the somewhat naive way in which the reflective process was facilitated, some responsibility also rests with the nurses in question. One possible explanation is that, for changes in practice to occur, the planning and management of change should form an integral part of the reflective cycle. This point has been largely absent in the reflection literature to date. Such concerns are reviewed here in the context of nurse education's ongoing involvement with the notion of reflective practice and the role of the educationalist in the clinical area. The current political backdrop of 'quality initiatives' to create and demonstrate high standards of clinical care may be useful in advancing the debate.

  20. Understanding Social Change in Conducting Research on Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.

  1. Perceptions of Human Services Students about Social Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberg, Judith T.

    2010-01-01

    Human services educators and scholars maintain that they are teaching social change theory and skills that will allow students to engage in large-scale social change. A review of the literature, from a critical theory perspective, offered little evidence that social change is being taught in human services programs. In this collective case study,…

  2. Ways that Social Change Predicts Personal Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Leung, Kwok

    2010-01-01

    A notable way that social change affects personal quality of life would rely on the person's experience with social change. This experience may influence societal quality of life and quality of work life, which may in turn affect personal quality of life. Additionally, the experience of social change is possibly less detrimental to personal…

  3. A Symposium on Technology and Social Change in Foreign Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Engineering Research Inst.

    The book contains 28 papers by a variety of authors who deal with technology and social change in foreign countries. The papers are presented under 13 headings: technology and social change in foreign cultures (two papers), technology and values (two papers), technological and social change in history (one paper), the arts and technology (two…

  4. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  5. Social justice, climate change, and dengue.

    PubMed

    Chang, Aileen Y; Fuller, Douglas O; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Beier, John C

    2014-06-14

    Climate change should be viewed fundamentally as an issue of global justice. Understanding the complex interplay of climatic and socioeconomic trends is imperative to protect human health and lessen the burden of diseases such as dengue fever. Dengue fever is rapidly expanding globally. Temperature, rainfall, and frequency of natural disasters, as well as non-climatic trends involving population growth and migration, urbanization, and international trade and travel, are expected to increase the prevalence of mosquito breeding sites, mosquito survival, the speed of mosquito reproduction, the speed of viral incubation, the distribution of dengue virus and its vectors, human migration patterns towards urban areas, and displacement after natural disasters. The burden of dengue disproportionately affects the poor due to increased environmental risk and decreased health care. Mobilization of social institutions is needed to improve the structural inequalities of poverty that predispose the poor to increased dengue fever infection and worse outcomes. This paper reviews the link between dengue and climatic factors as a starting point to developing a comprehensive understanding of how climate change affects dengue risk and how institutions can address the issues of social justice and dengue outbreaks that increasingly affect vulnerable urban populations.

  6. Measuring Social Change Preferences in African American Adolescents: Development of the Measure of Social Change for Adolescents (MOSC-A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Lambert, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    Studies addressing Black adolescents' social change strategies are nonexistent and might be associated with the absence of social change measures for Black adolescents. In an effort to begin addressing this concern, the 30-item Measure of Social Change for Adolescents (MOSC-A) was designed to measure Black adolescents' first- (i.e., within the…

  7. Perceived ability and social support as mediators of achievement motivation and performance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, F E; Roberts, G C; Pensgaard, A M; Ronglan, L T

    2008-12-01

    The present study is founded on achievement goal theory (AGT) and examines the relationship between motivation, social support and performance anxiety with team handball players (n=143) from 10 elite teams. Based on these theories and previous findings, the study has three purposes. First, it was predicted that the female athletes (n=69) would report more performance worries and more social support use than males (n=74). The findings support the hypothesis for anxiety, but not for social support use. However, females report that they felt social support was more available than males. Second, we predicted and found a positive relationship between the interaction of ego orientation and perceptions of a performance climate on performance anxiety, but only for females. As predicted, perceived ability mediated this relationship. Finally, we predicted that perceptions of a performance climate were related to the view that social support was less available especially for the male athletes. Simple correlation supports this prediction, but the regression analyses did not reach significance. Thus, we could not test for mediation of social support between motivational variables and anxiety. The results illustrate that fostering a mastery climate helps elite athletes tackle competitive pressure.

  8. The impact of size of cooperative group on achievement, social support, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.

  9. High School Teachers' Perceptions of School Change and Its Implications for Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to observe if there was a statistical significant relationship between perceptions of educational change and student achievement. The independent variables that represented perceptions of educational change included: community pressure for change, faculty anxiety to change, faculty openness to change, principal anxiety to…

  10. [Social change and Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL)].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Koichi; Isobe, Soichiro

    2010-01-01

    Former Japanese pharmaceutical laws, originally based on the Pharmaceutical Marketing and Handling Regulations enacted in 1874 were in operation for many years before World War II. However, in order to address several drug issues, such as poor drug quality and insufficiences regarding the role of pharmacists during the War, the laws needed to be unified and revised. In this paper, we analyzed the record of discussions held by the Imperial Diet on the bill for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) in 1943. This is also regarded as the origin of the current PAL (LawNo.145 in 1960). Through this analysis, we tried to clarify the relationship between the social change and the role of PAL in society. During the War, the bill was discussed, aiming at the improvement of both human resources who treated drugs, and the quality of drug materials. Diet members discussed three main points, namely, "the duty of pharmacists", "the mission of the Japan Pharmaceutical Association" and "the quality control of pharmaceutical products". Notably, the bill pharmacists are required not only to dispense drugs, a role they had previously, but also to manage drug and food hygiene through the quality control of pharmaceutical products and the inspection of food and drink, in order to improve the public health in Japan. Originally, the law was passed to deal with the extraordinary circumstances during the War, but through our analysis, we found that they proactively improved the role of the law to comply with various drug issues raised during the War, the rapid change of the pharmaceutical hygiene concept and the social transformation.

  11. Resources for Social Change. Race in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, James S.

    This book draws together some of the emerging theories of directed social change for application to a particular problem: the social, economic, and political positions of Negroes in the United States. An orientation towards social problems, which sees change as a consequence of man's action and thus potentially under his control, has led to the…

  12. Length of Study-Time Behaviour and Academic Achievement of Social Studies Education Students in the University of Uyo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpong, D. E.; George, I. N.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the length of study time behaviour and academic achievement of Social Studies Education students in the University of Uyo. The purpose was to determine the difference in the academic achievement of the long study time behaviour students and their short study time behaviour counterparts in Social Studies Education. The study…

  13. Closing Achievement Gaps with a Utility-Value Intervention: Disentangling Race and Social Class

    PubMed Central

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2015-01-01

    Many college students abandon their goal of completing a degree in STEM when confronted with challenging introductory-level science courses. In the U.S., this trend is more pronounced for underrepresented minority (URM) and first-generation (FG) students, and contributes to persisting racial and social-class achievement gaps in higher education. Previous intervention studies have focused exclusively on race or social class, but have not examined how the two may be confounded and interact. This research therefore investigates the independent and interactive effects of race and social class as moderators of an intervention designed to promote performance, measured by grade in the course. In a double-blind randomized experiment conducted over four semesters of an introductory biology course (N = 1040), we tested the effectiveness of a utility-value intervention in which students wrote about the personal relevance of course material. The utility-value intervention was successful in reducing the achievement gap for FG-URM students by 61%: the performance gap for FG-URM students, relative to CG-Majority students, was large in the control condition, .84 grade points (d = .98), and the treatment effect for FG-URM students was .51 grade points (d = 0.55). The UV intervention helped students from all groups find utility value in the course content, and mediation analyses showed that the process of writing about utility value was particularly powerful for FG-URM students. Results highlight the importance of examining the independent and interactive effects of race and social class when evaluating interventions to close achievement gaps and the mechanisms through which they may operate. PMID:26524001

  14. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  15. Social Work Education: Status Quo or Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowers, Karen M.; Dulmus, Catherine N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors believe that Stoesz and Karger did not go far enough in their critique. The struggling state of the profession and of social work education is symptomatic of a much larger and fundamental systemic problem that cannot be addressed solely by fixing the Council on Social Work Education or increasing requirements for Social Science…

  16. Mao and Gandhi: Alternative Paths to National Independence and Social Change. A Unit of Study for Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald James; Johnson, Jean Elliott

    This unit of study focuses on the historic period from 1920 to 1966 when China's Mao Zedong and India's Mohandas Gandhi constructed and applied their social and moral visions to their respective nationalist movements. These leaders developed contrasting methods to achieve social change and to establish the goals set for achieving the ideal…

  17. Growth and change in attention problems, disruptive behavior, and achievement from kindergarten to fifth grade.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Amy; Dowsett, Chantelle

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread interest in children's adjustment problems, existing research does not provide conclusive evidence regarding the direction of the associations of achievement with classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior over the course of elementary school. Using a nationally representative sample of 16,260 kindergarteners, this study examined the temporal sequence of achievement, classroom attention problems, and disruptive behavior, focusing on how changes in skills and problems unfold across key periods between kindergarten and fifth grade. Results indicate that improvements in attention during the earliest years of schooling predict achievement gains through third grade. However, changes in disruptive behavior do not predict subsequent changes in achievement. Evidence linking changes in achievement to changes in classroom attention problems and disruptive behavior was less consistent. These findings point to the need to develop and examine early interventions that can improve attention skills as a mechanism for improving children's academic trajectories in elementary school.

  18. Parental Resources, Schooling Achievements, and Gender Schooling Gaps: Evidence of Change over 25 years in Rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Maluccio, John A.; Behrman, Jere R.; Hoddinott, John; Murphy, Alexis; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2013-01-01

    We use village census data and linear regression models to examine changes between 1975 and 2002 in the associations of parental resources with boys' and girls' schooling in four rural Guatemalan villages. Levels of schooling in 1975 were universally low for children 7–17 years. Large increases in schooling achievements occurred between 1975 and 2002. By 2002, schooling levels were comparable for younger boys and girls (7–12 years, N = 3,525) and favored older boys compared to older girls (13–17 years, N = 2,440) by about 0.5 grades. The associations of household standard of living and maternal schooling with schooling among girls diminished over time and became more comparable with these associations among boys, and the associations of household standard of living with schooling among older boys declined and became more comparable with these associations among girls. Thus, as increased social investments reduce the costs of schooling or increase the supply and quality of schooling to families, the magnitudes of the associations between parental resources and children's schooling decline and become more gender equitable at all ages. However, our results show that older boys may benefit more than older girls from social investments in schooling. These changes suggest potential needs to monitor gender gaps in schooling retention among older children, to insure gender equitable access to social investments in schooling, and to encourage parents to invest in schooling as joint measures to achieve greater schooling achievements of girls and boys. PMID:23888089

  19. Political Change, Social Integration and Curriculum: A South Africa Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedekind, Volker; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a case study of the perceptions of principles of traditional South African schools on social change. The principal's essential conservatism suggests that meaningful curriculum change will not be easily achieved. Reveals a deep dichotomy between progressive educational rhetoric and actual school practices. (MJP)

  20. Education and Economic, Political, and Social Change in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Pham Lan; Fry, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the complex relations among history, education, political economy, and social change in Vietnam. Vietnam has a long history of education and a literate culture. The evolution of Vietnamese culture and society is characterized by both persistence and change. Social and political persistence and change have been…

  1. From global change science to action with social sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, C. P.; Mooney, Sian; Allen, D.; Beller-Simms, Nancy; Fish, T.; Grambsch, A.; Hohenstein, W.; Jacobs, Kathy; Kenney, Melissa A.; Lane, Meredith A.; Langner, L.; Larson, E.; McGinnis, D. L.; Moss, Richard H.; Nichols, L. G.; Nierenberg, Claudia; Seyller, E. A.; Stern, Paul; Winthrop, R.

    2014-08-01

    US efforts to integrate social and biophysical sciences to address the issue of global change exist within a wider movement to understand global change as a societal challenge and to inform policy. Insights from the social sciences can help transform global change research into action.

  2. Thinking Maps: An innovative way to increase sixth-grade student achievement in social studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Tamita

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the effect of Thinking Maps on the achievement of 6th-grade social studies students in order to determine its effectiveness. The population of this study came from a suburban middle school in the state of Georgia. The quantitative data included a pretest and posttest. The study was designed to find (a) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade students who are taught with either Thinking Maps or traditional social studies methods, (b) whether there is a significant difference between the mean posttest scores on the benchmark test of 6th-grade male versus female social studies students, and (c) whether there is a significant interaction between 6th-grade students' type of social studies class and gender as to differentially affect their mean posttest scores on the benchmark test. To answer these questions, students' pretest and posttest were compared to determine if there was a statistically significant difference after Thinking Maps were implemented with the treatment group for 9 weeks. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in the test scores between the students who were taught with Thinking Maps and the students who were taught without Thinking Maps. However, the students taught with Thinking Maps had the higher adjusted posttest scores.

  3. Leader-follower values congruence: are socialized charismatic leaders better able to achieve it?

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael E; Treviño, Linda K

    2009-03-01

    In a field study, the authors investigated the relationship between socialized charismatic leadership and values congruence between leaders and followers. Socialized charismatic leadership theory holds that charismatic leaders convey a values-based message and bring about values congruence between themselves and their followers. Yet, other research suggests that individuals' values are stable and closely linked to occupational membership and that employees' values are therefore likely to be quite difficult to change. Results of this study suggest that occupations are indeed associated with multiple types of employee values. The results also demonstrate that, for 3 of the 4 values studied, socialized charismatic leadership is associated with values congruence between the specific values leaders say they transmit to their followers and the values their followers say they use in work. The findings shed additional light on the values alignment process. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  4. Individual behavior, culture, and social change

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    2004-01-01

    The principle of operant selection is examined as a prototype of cultural selection, and the role of the social environment is suggested as the critical element in the emergence of cultural phenomena. Operant contingencies are compared to cultural selection contingencies, designated as metacontingencies. Both of these types of contingency relations result in evolving lineages of recurrences that can become increasingly complex in the number and organization of their elements. In addition to its role in the recurring interlocking behavioral contingencies that constitute cultural organization, operant behavior plays another role in cultures. Although the operants of individuals are functionally independent of one another, the behavior of each person may contribute to a cumulative effect that is relevant to the well-being of many people. Similarly, the outcomes of metacontingencies may also contribute to a cumulative effect. The relation between independently evolving operant lineages, or between independently evolving cultural lineages, and their cumulative effect is identified as a macrocontingency. Macrocontingencies do not involve cultural-level selection per se. Effective cultural engineering requires identifying the macrocontingencies that produce less than desirable effects and altering the relevant operant contingencies or metacontingencies to produce change in the cumulative effects. PMID:22478424

  5. Socialization Sequences and Student Attitudes Towards Non-Violent Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Elise

    Examined is a general model of the socialization process based on Polak's theory of social change which identifies key agents of the process which shape perceptions of the possibility of creative change instead of defensiveness or aggression in situations where old behaviors are inadequate. Six agents of socialization are identified: family,…

  6. Learning to walk changes infants' social interactions.

    PubMed

    Clearfield, Melissa W

    2011-02-01

    The onset of crawling marks a motor, cognitive and social milestone. The present study investigated whether independent walking marks a second milestone for social behaviors. In Experiment 1, the social and exploratory behaviors of crawling infants were observed while crawling and in a baby-walker, resulting in no differences based on posture. In Experiment 2, the social behaviors of independently walking infants were compared to age-matched crawling infants in a baby-walker. Independently walking infants spent significantly more time interacting with the toys and with their mothers, and also made more vocalizations and more directed gestures compared to infants in the walker. Experiment 3 tracked infants' social behaviors longitudinally across the transition from crawling and walking. Even when controlled for age, the transition to independent walking marked increased interaction time with mothers, as well as more sophisticated interactions, including directing mothers' attention to particular objects. The results suggest a developmental progression linking social interactions with milestones in locomotor development.

  7. [The social-cognitive model of achievement motivation in physical education].

    PubMed

    González-Cutre Coll, David; Sicilia Camacho, Alvaro; Moreno Murcia, Juan A

    2008-11-01

    Our objective in this study was to test the new social-cognitive model of achievement motivation in a physical education setting. Research was conducted on a sample of 895 physical education students, ages 12 to 16 years. We measured perception of the motivational climate conveyed by the teacher, implicit beliefs of ability, perceived competence, 2 x 2 achievement goals and self-determined motivation. We carried out structural equation modeling to analyse the relationships among variables. Results showed that task climate positively predicted incremental belief, whereas ego climate positively predicted entity belief. Both climates positively predicted perceived competence. Incremental belief positively predicted mastery-approach goals, performance-approach goals and avoidance goals, whereas entity belief positively predicted performance-approach goals and avoidance goals. Perceived competence positively predicted mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Mastery-approach goal positively predicted self-determined motivation, whereas performance-approach goal and avoidance goals negatively predicted self-determined motivation.

  8. Adding to the HIV Prevention Portfolio – the Achievement of Structural Changes by 13 Connect to Protect® Coalitions

    PubMed Central

    Chutuape, Kate S.; Muyeed, Adaline Z.; Willard, Nancy; Greenberg, Lauren; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Opportunities to control risk factors that contribute to HIV transmission and acquisition extend far beyond individuals and include addressing social and structural determinants of HIV risk, such as inadequate housing, poor access to healthcare and economic insecurity. The infrastructure within communities, including the policies and practices that guide institutions and organizations, should be considered crucial targets for change. This paper examines the extent to which 13 community coalitions across the U.S. and Puerto Rico were able to achieve “structural change” objectives (i.e., new or modified practices or policies) as an intermediate step toward the long-term goal of reducing HIV risk among adolescents and young adults (12-24 years old). The study resulted in the completion of 245 objectives with 70% categorized as structural in nature. Coalitions targeted social services, education and government as primary community sectors to adopt structural changes. A median of 12 key actors and six new key actors contributed to accomplishing structural changes. Structural change objectives required a median of seven months to complete. The structural changes achieved offer new ideas for community health educators and practitioners seeking to bolster their HIV prevention agenda. PMID:25632407

  9. Mission Possible: Teachers Serving as Agents of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel-Pottebaum, Holly E.

    2013-01-01

    A case study was conducted to learn about the formation of social justice teachers, and the methods used by radical educators to engage students in social change. Interviews conducted with eight junior and senior high school social studies teachers identified several types of formative experiences inspiring teachers to become radical educators.…

  10. International Schools as Sites of Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Sandra; Edwards, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the potential of international schools to act as agents of social transformation in developing countries. The method comprises a case study at two international schools in the Philippines. The case study explored ways in which schools foster host-national students' sense of social responsibility, particularly through…

  11. Who is good at this game? Linking an activity to a social category undermines children's achievement.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Mu, Yan; Erickson, Lucy C

    2012-05-01

    Children's achievement-related theories have a profound impact on their academic success. Children who adopt entity theories believe that their ability to perform a task is dictated by the amount of natural talent they possess for that task--a belief that has well-documented adverse consequences for their achievement (e.g., lowered persistence, impaired performance). It is thus important to understand what leads children to adopt entity theories. In the experiments reported here, we hypothesized that the mere act of linking success at an unfamiliar, challenging activity to a social group gives rise to entity beliefs that are so powerful as to interfere with children's ability to perform the activity. Two experiments showed that, as predicted, the performance of 4- to 7-year-olds (N = 192) was impaired by exposure to information that associated success in the task at hand with membership in a certain social group (e.g., "boys are good at this game"), regardless of whether the children themselves belonged to that group.

  12. Promoting Student Achievement: A Case Study of Change Actions Employed by an Urban School Superintendent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bealer, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the change strategies and actions taken by an urban district superintendent to improve student achievement. In a qualitative case study of a large urban school district, one research question and three subquestions focused on: 10 specific reform strategies to improve student achievement, how the quality and…

  13. Changes in Self-Esteem across the First Year in College: The Role of Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Sungok Serena; Ryan, Allison M.; Cassady, Jerrell

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effects of achievement goals on the growth trajectories of self-esteem during the first-year at a comprehensive public university. College freshmen (N = 311) were followed for one academic year with three time points. Between-individual differences and within-individual change in achievement goals were…

  14. Change and Deeper Change: Transforming Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Stanley L.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of transformation has become more prevalent in the social work literature; however, its use is quite varied. In this article, I attempt to disentangle some of these uses. I then propose a conceptualization of transformation and discuss its relevance for social work education. In this conceptualization, transformation…

  15. “Hidden” Social Networks in Behavior Change Interventions

    PubMed Central

    McAneney, Helen; Davis, Michael; Tully, Mark A.; Valente, Thomas W.; Kee, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether “hidden” (or unobserved) social networks were evident in a 2011 physical activity behavior change intervention in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Results showed evidence of unobserved social networks in the intervention and illustrated how the network evolved over short periods and affected behavior. Behavior change interventions should account for the interaction among participants (i.e., social networks) and how such interactions affect intervention outcome. PMID:25602895

  16. Learning to Change: A Social Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flemming, Arthur S.

    1970-01-01

    A speech presented at the Galaxy Conference, December, 1969, concerns the urgency of the social problems outlined in the Kerner Report. A need for vigorous response through political action is stressed. (MF)

  17. Changing Social Behavior and Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Jon J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is presented of systematic behavioral analysis as a method for modifying both social and cognitive behaviors through reinforcement. Various techniques are explained: response differentiation, shaping, chaining, fading, extinction, timeout, and response cost. (SJL)

  18. Activism or "Slacktivism?": Digital Media and Organizing for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Cerise L.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of social media and technological developments has changed how groups and organizations advocating for social change generate awareness and participation in their causes. In this single class activity students will (a) analyze notions of activism and "slacktivism" from scholarly and popular sources to apply these concepts…

  19. The Changing Social Spaces of Learning: Mapping New Mobilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leander, Kevin M.; Phillips, Nathan C.; Taylor, Katherine Headrick

    2010-01-01

    Writing on contemporary culture and social life, sociologists and cultural theorists have been describing new or changing forms of movement, variously described as cultural "flows," "liquid life," or a "networked society." The change in such movements or mobilities of people, media, material goods, and other social phenomena, including the reach…

  20. Childhood, Youth and Social Change: A Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Lynne, Ed.; And Others

    Written for a 1988 bilateral United Kingdom-West German conference, the chapters in this volume examine childhood and youth as socially constructed life stages within the context of contemporary social and cultural change. Following the editors' introduction are 14 papers: "What Does the Future Hold? Youth and Sociocultural Change in the…

  1. Durkheim's Sociology of Education: Interpretations of Social Change Through Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Marc A.

    1976-01-01

    Three questions are examined: (1) Why have contemporary American educators generally ignored Durkheim's sociology of education? (2) What were Durkheim's contributions to the sociology of education as his analysis related to social change through education? and (3) What is the relationship between Durkheim's sociology of education, social change,…

  2. Collaborative Research and Social Change: Applied Anthropology in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Donald D., Ed.; Schensul, Jean J., Ed.

    Promoting social change is the goal of the seven community case studies reported in this book. Each study is a "natural experiment" that involved long-term research, close collaboration between researchers and the host community, and the application of research methods and findings to social change goals within the community. The following reports…

  3. Diluting the Cesspool: Families, Home Improvement, and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodsell, Todd L.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the process of social change through improvement of residences in decaying neighborhoods--gentrification--has itself changed. Traditional families (married with children) and a broader spectrum of the social class spectrum are more likely to be involved. The present research takes an ethnographic perspective and considers the…

  4. Developmental Change in Social Responsibility during Adolescence: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Flanagan, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change--and predictors of that change--in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the…

  5. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.

  6. Harnessing social media for health promotion and behavior change.

    PubMed

    Korda, Holly; Itani, Zena

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and innovative advances in participative Internet communications, referred to as "social media," offer opportunities for modifying health behavior. Social media let users choose to be either anonymous or identified. People of all demographics are adopting these technologies whether on their computers or through mobile devices, and they are increasingly using these social media for health-related issues. Although social media have considerable potential as tools for health promotion and education, these media, like traditional health promotion media, require careful application and may not always achieve their desired outcomes. This article summarizes current evidence and understanding of using social media for health promotion. More important, it discusses the need for evaluating the effectiveness of various forms of social media and incorporating outcomes research and theory in the design of health promotion programs for social media.

  7. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Theory Model of Community Change: Connecting Individual and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Pamela J.; Lang, Karen S.; Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Social work practice has long focused on the connections between an individual and the social environment that affect the individual's social functioning. The Rape Prevention and Education (RPE) Program's theory model, Creating Safer Communities: The Rape Prevention and Education Model of Community Change, provides family social workers with a…

  8. Racial/Ethnic Socialization and Parental Involvement in Education as Predictors of Cognitive Ability and Achievement in African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A. T.; Johnson, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of…

  9. A Study on the Efficacy of Project-Based Learning Approach on Social Studies Education: Conceptual Achievement and Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilter, Ilhan

    2014-01-01

    In this research, an experimental study was carried out in social studies 4th grade students to develop students' conceptual achievement and motivation to succeed academically. The study aims to investigate the effectiveness of project-based learning (PBL) in social studies. A quasi-experimental research design (pre- and posttest) was used in the…

  10. Social Skills and Problem Behaviors as Mediators of the Relationship between Behavioral Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Foster, Tricia D.

    2014-01-01

    Early behavioral self-regulation is an important predictor of the skills children need to be successful in school. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) through which self-regulation affects academic achievement. The current study investigates the possibility that two aspects of children's social func- tioning, social skills and problem…

  11. The Place of Social Justice in Higher Education and Social Change Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Mala

    2011-01-01

    A familiar discourse about higher education and social change today relates to higher education's socio-economic role within knowledge societies in a globalizing world. This paper addresses how issues of social justice feature in such discourses; whether social justice in higher education has been appropriated into a neo-liberal strategy for…

  12. Measuring social change preferences in African American adolescents: development of the Measure of Social Change for Adolescents (MOSC-A).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kelly M; Lambert, Michael C

    2006-12-01

    Studies addressing Black adolescents' social change strategies are nonexistent and might be associated with the absence of social change measures for Black adolescents. In an effort to begin addressing this concern, the 30-item Measure of Social Change for Adolescents (MOSC-A) was designed to measure Black adolescents' first- (i.e., within the system) and second- (outside of the system) order social change strategies. Factor analysis of responses that 226 Black adolescents gave to the MOSC-A revealed first- and second-order social change factors. Item response theory analyses revealed that 65% of the items on the former factor adequately discriminate across different trait levels, but those of the latter were less promising. Scaffolded on this study, future research might refine the MOSC-A's psychometric properties and improve its utility.

  13. Cluster-randomized trial demonstrating impact on academic achievement of elementary social-emotional learning.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, David J; Adams, Ryan E; Fredstrom, Bridget K; Weissberg, Roger P; Gilman, Richard; Voyce, Charlene; Tomlin, Ricarda; Speese-Linehan, Dee

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the results of a social and emotional learning (SEL) program on academic achievement among students attending a large, urban, high-risk school district. Using a cluster-randomized design, 24 elementary schools were assigned to receive either the intervention curriculum (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies, or PATHS) or a curriculum that delivered few if any SEL topics (i.e., the control group). In addition to state mastery test scores, demographic data, school attendance, and dosage information were obtained from 705 students who remained in the same group from the 3rd to the 6th grade. Analyses of odds ratios revealed that students enrolled in the intervention schools demonstrated higher levels of basic proficiency in reading, writing, and math at some grade levels. Although these between-groups differences held for race/ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, significant within-group differences also were noted across these variables. Collectively, these findings indicated that social development instruction may be a promising approach to promote acquisition of academic proficiency, especially among youth attending high-risk school settings. Implications of these findings with respect to SEL programs conclude the article.

  14. The quest for universal health coverage: achieving social protection for all in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; García-Junco, David; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Barraza-Lloréns, Mariana; Sandoval, Rosa; Caballero, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Juan, Mercedes; Kershenobich, David; Nigenda, Gustavo; Ruelas, Enrique; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Tapia, Roberto; Soberón, Guillermo; Chertorivski, Salomón; Frenk, Julio

    2012-10-06

    Mexico is reaching universal health coverage in 2012. A national health insurance programme called Seguro Popular, introduced in 2003, is providing access to a package of comprehensive health services with financial protection for more than 50 million Mexicans previously excluded from insurance. Universal coverage in Mexico is synonymous with social protection of health. This report analyses the road to universal coverage along three dimensions of protection: against health risks, for patients through quality assurance of health care, and against the financial consequences of disease and injury. We present a conceptual discussion of the transition from labour-based social security to social protection of health, which implies access to effective health care as a universal right based on citizenship, the ethical basis of the Mexican reform. We discuss the conditions that prompted the reform, as well as its design and inception, and we describe the 9-year, evidence-driven implementation process, including updates and improvements to the original programme. The core of the report concentrates on the effects and impacts of the reform, based on analysis of all published and publically available scientific literature and new data. Evidence indicates that Seguro Popular is improving access to health services and reducing the prevalence of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures, especially for the poor. Recent studies also show improvement in effective coverage. This research then addresses persistent challenges, including the need to translate financial resources into more effective, equitable and responsive health services. A next generation of reforms will be required and these include systemic measures to complete the reorganisation of the health system by functions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the Mexican quest to achieve universal health coverage and its relevance for other low-income and middle-income countries.

  15. Can Explicit Instruction in Social and Emotional Learning Skills Benefit the Social-Emotional Development, Well-Being, and Academic Achievement of Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashdown, Daniela Maree; Bernard, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a social and emotional learning skills curriculum, the "You Can Do It! Early Childhood Education Program" (YCDI), on the social-emotional development, well-being, and academic achievement of 99 preparatory and grade 1 students attending a Catholic school in Melbourne, Australia. One preparatory and one grade 1…

  16. Individual Behavior, Culture, and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    2004-01-01

    The principle of operant selection is examined as a prototype of cultural selection, and the role of the social environment is suggested as the critical element in the emergence of cultural phenomena. Operant contingencies are compared to cultural selection contingencies, designated as metacontingencies. Both of these types of contingency…

  17. Social and Educational Change: Conceptual Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    This review seeks to delineate the total range of theoretical perspectives that have been used to support educational reform strategies and to suggest how individual choice behavior follows from basic philosophical, ideological, and experimental orientations to perceived social reality. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 typologizes and synthesizes…

  18. Aisyiyah Organization and Social Change for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qodariah, Lelly

    2016-01-01

    The rise of Indonesian women cannot be separated from the role of Aisyiyah organization since it was established in 1917. The examples are in education, social, religious, charity and society for more than four thousands of Aisyiyah Bustanul Afthal Kindergarten, big hospitals, health business such as mother children health, economic activities,…

  19. Social Networks, Teacher Beliefs, and Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aston, Michelle; Hyle, Adrienne E.

    This study examined the social networks of teachers' strong and weak ties and the impact of those associations upon their beliefs about the realities of elementary education in terms of the knowledge and skills that influenced those realities: school context, general pedagogy, specific subject matter pedagogy, nature of the learner, and self as…

  20. Persistence and Change in Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Bernie; Quan-Haase, Anabel

    2010-01-01

    In "Star Trek," Scotty suggests that Transwarp beaming is "like trying to hit a bullet with a smaller bullet, whilst wearing a blindfold, riding a horse." The study of social media faces similar challenges because new tools are developed at a rapid pace and existing tools are constantly being updated with new features, policies, and applications.…

  1. Energy policy in a changing social order

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.

  2. Dosage Effects of a Preventive Social-Emotional Learning Intervention on Achievement Loss Associated with Middle School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Jennifer L.; Elias, Maurice J.

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have documented a normative decline in academic achievement across the transition from elementary school to middle or junior high school. The current study examined the effectiveness of varying levels of a social-emotional learning intervention, "Talking with TJ," in limiting achievement loss across transition. Data were…

  3. Understanding Gender Differences in Achievement on the Social Studies Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills: An Interactive Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungurait, Michelle D.

    2007-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency's Social Studies Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills results show an achievement gap between males and females for every criteria on every test given since 2003. The most dramatic achievement difference is in the area of "traditional" U.S. History. The Texas results mimic a gender gap reported by College…

  4. Education and Social Change: A View from Europe and Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas-Vergara, Montserrat; Bas-Peña, Encarnación; Esteban-Ibáñez, Macarena

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on the economic, political, cultural, social, and educational changes produced as a result of globalization. We focus on the universalization of education and its importance to achieving sustainable human development while respecting the cultures and ethnic groups in a region. Within higher education in the world, we delve…

  5. The development of achievement goals throughout college: modeling stability and change.

    PubMed

    Corker, Katherine S; Donnellan, M Brent; Bowles, Ryan P

    2013-11-01

    Emerging adulthood, defined for many by the college years, is an active period of personality development; less is known about goal change during these years. We investigated stability and change in the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals over 4 years (N = 527). We evaluated rank-order stability and mean-level change, and tested goal coupling hypotheses--the idea that early changes in goals predict later change in other goals--using multivariate latent difference score models. Achievement goals showed moderate rank-order stability over 4 years. Three of four goals demonstrated small normative declines, excepting performance approach goals. A change in mastery approach goals was associated with levels of the other three goals; these goals jointly acted to slow the decline of mastery goals. Trajectories for the other three goals were largely independent. Results suggest that goals are relatively stable individual differences during the college years.

  6. Beyond Marbles: Percent Change and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Flannery

    2013-01-01

    In the author's eighth year of teaching, she hit a wall teaching percent change. Percent change is one of the few calculations taught in math classes that shows up regularly in the media, and one that she often does in her head to make sense of the world around her. Despite this, she had been teaching percent change using textbook problems about…

  7. Social Capital and the Educational Achievement of Young People in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behtoui, Alireza; Neergaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's conceptualization of social capital (the social stratification perspective), this study examines the impact of social capital on the educational outcomes of young people in Sweden, with a focus on the extra-familial aspect of social capital -- that is, social capital generated by parental networks and active membership in…

  8. Models of social evolution: can we do better to predict 'who helps whom to achieve what'?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, António M M; Kokko, Hanna

    2016-02-05

    Models of social evolution and the evolution of helping have been classified in numerous ways. Two categorical differences have, however, escaped attention in the field. Models tend not to justify why they use a particular assumption structure about who helps whom: a large number of authors model peer-to-peer cooperation of essentially identical individuals, probably for reasons of mathematical convenience; others are inspired by particular cooperatively breeding species, and tend to assume unidirectional help where subordinates help a dominant breed more efficiently. Choices regarding what the help achieves (i.e. which life-history trait of the helped individual is improved) are similarly made without much comment: fecundity benefits are much more commonly modelled than survival enhancements, despite evidence that these may interact when the helped individual can perform life-history reallocations (load-lightening and related phenomena). We review our current theoretical understanding of effects revealed when explicitly asking 'who helps whom to achieve what', from models of mutual aid in partnerships to the very few models that explicitly contrast the strength of selection to help enhance another individual's fecundity or survival. As a result of idiosyncratic modelling choices in contemporary literature, including the varying degree to which demographic consequences are made explicit, there is surprisingly little agreement on what types of help are predicted to evolve most easily. We outline promising future directions to fill this gap.

  9. When performance-approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: a social value approach.

    PubMed

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Research on achievement goal promotion at University has shown that performance-approach goals are perceived as a means to succeed at University (high social utility) but are not appreciated (low social desirability). We argue that such a paradox could explain why research has detected that performance-approach goals consistently predict academic grades. First-year psychology students answered a performance-approach goal scale with standard, social desirability and social utility instructions. Participants' grades were recorded at the end of the semester. Results showed that the relationship between performance-approach goals and grades was inhibited by the increase of these goals' social desirability and facilitated by the increase of their social utility, revealing that the predictive validity of performance-approach goals depends on social value.

  10. Developmental changes in infant brain activity during naturalistic social experiences.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emily J H; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Earl, Rachel K; Webb, Sara Jane

    2015-11-01

    Between 6 and 12 months, typically developing infants undergo a socio-cognitive "revolution." The Interactive Specialization (IS) theory of brain development predicts that these behavioral changes will be underpinned by developmental increases in the power and topographic extent of socially selective cortical responses. To test this hypothesis, we used EEG to examine developmental changes in cortical selectivity for ecologically valid dynamic social versus non-social stimuli in a large cohort of 6- and 12-month-old infants. Consistent with the Interactive Specialization model, results showed that differences in EEG Θ activity between social and non-social stimuli became more pronounced and widespread with age. Differences in EEG activity were most clearly elicited by a live naturalistic interaction, suggesting that measuring brain activity in ecologically valid contexts is central to mapping social brain development in infancy.

  11. Measuring social capital change using ripple mapping.

    PubMed

    Baker, Barbara; Johannes, Elaine M

    2013-06-01

    This article provides a detailed description of how to implement a ripple mapping activity to assess youth program effects on community capital and concludes with examples from Maine and Kansas. The maps lead to group reflection on project outcomes and further research and evaluation questions for group members. The results from five Maine communities showed that youth in schools and community clubs promoted intentional, mutually beneficial relationships with community groups and businesses and increased shared action on community projects. Likewise, youth in five small Kansas towns implemented and evaluated health promotion projects and found through mapping that youth built social capital in addition to awareness, knowledge, and skills in community health promotion. Ripple mapping helped to demonstrate that actions of youth-adult partnerships in both states improved the built, human, and social capital in small towns.

  12. Learning Futures: Education, Technology and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facer, Keri

    2011-01-01

    In the twenty-first century educators around the world are being told that they need to transform education systems to adapt young people for the challenges of a global digital knowledge economy. Too rarely, however, do we ask whether this future vision is robust, achievable or even desirable, whether alternative futures might be in development,…

  13. Adult Learning, Critical Intelligence and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Marjorie, Ed.; Thompson, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of 21 essays reviews the context of developments in adult education in the last 15 years. "Adult Education for Change in the Nineties and Beyond" (Marjorie Mayo) is a critical review of the context for these changes and of the theoretical debates that attempt to analyze and explain them. "Challenging the Postmodern…

  14. The Social Studies Teacher: Agent of Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    Schools have long resisted change due to community attitudes, bureaucratic school system structure, security from being subsidized, and apathetic teachers. A need is seen for attitudes that are receptive to creative change, for democratization of schools, and for a process-oriented emphasis. (Author/AV)

  15. Higher Education and Social Change: Purpose in Pursuit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harold

    2007-01-01

    The article explores historical issues concerning the relationships between higher education and institutions and their local and regional communities. The primary focus is on the ways in which institutions are influenced by social change and have partnership roles in economic and social development. Their role from the nineteenth century and in…

  16. Colleges and Universities as Agents of Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, W., John, Ed.; Thompason, Ian M., Ed.

    Papers of the Tenth Annual College Self-Study Institute, held in 1968, are presented. They include: "Colleges and Universities as Agents of Social Change: An Introduction," by T.R. McConnell; "Agent of Whom?" by Harris L. Wofford, Jr.; "The University as an Instrument of Social Action," by Roger W. Heyns; "The…

  17. Promoting Social Change through Service-Learning in the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Glenn A.

    2014-01-01

    Service-learning is a high-impact pedagogical strategy embraced by higher education institutions. Direct service based on a charity paradigm tends to be the norm, while little attention is paid to social change-oriented service. This article offers suggestions for incorporating social justice education into courses designed to promote social…

  18. Music Education: Cultural Values, Social Change and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This is an important work that addresses the complex issues surrounding musical meaning and experience, and the Western traditional justification for including music in education. The chapters in this volume examine the important subjects of tradition, innovation, social change, the music curriculum, music in the twentieth century, social strata,…

  19. Social protection in Brazil: what has changed in social assistance after the 1988 Constitution.

    PubMed

    Vaitsman, Jeni; de Andrade, Gabriela Rieveres Borges; Farias, Luis Otávio

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes in the social assistance component of social protection in the two decades that followed the 1988 Constitution. It discusses the transformations of social protection and social assistance in the past decades and the processes that in the 1990 s advanced the reform of social assistance policies in Brazil without, however, producing great changes in how services were delivered. By 2000 there had been a great expansion of resources as well as benefits and services coverage in social assistance. This paper argues that conditional cash transfer programs, though created and spread in an international context of restrictive policies, when integrated into Brazil s public and universal system of social assistance, substantively widened the scope of social protection. Some effects of the expansion in the Brazilian social protection system are identified: less income inequality; creation of an institutional capacity in the area of social assistance; the social, political and symbolic meaning of the inclusion of a large segment of the population in a public system of social assistance by means of a provision structure that does not belong to traditional devices of philanthropy and clientelism.

  20. Change in BMI Accurately Predicted by Social Exposure to Acquaintances

    PubMed Central

    Oloritun, Rahman O.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Moturu, Sai; Madan, Anmol; Pentland, Alex (Sandy); Khayal, Inas

    2013-01-01

    Research has mostly focused on obesity and not on processes of BMI change more generally, although these may be key factors that lead to obesity. Studies have suggested that obesity is affected by social ties. However these studies used survey based data collection techniques that may be biased toward select only close friends and relatives. In this study, mobile phone sensing techniques were used to routinely capture social interaction data in an undergraduate dorm. By automating the capture of social interaction data, the limitations of self-reported social exposure data are avoided. This study attempts to understand and develop a model that best describes the change in BMI using social interaction data. We evaluated a cohort of 42 college students in a co-located university dorm, automatically captured via mobile phones and survey based health-related information. We determined the most predictive variables for change in BMI using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. The selected variables, with gender, healthy diet category, and ability to manage stress, were used to build multiple linear regression models that estimate the effect of exposure and individual factors on change in BMI. We identified the best model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and R2. This study found a model that explains 68% (p<0.0001) of the variation in change in BMI. The model combined social interaction data, especially from acquaintances, and personal health-related information to explain change in BMI. This is the first study taking into account both interactions with different levels of social interaction and personal health-related information. Social interactions with acquaintances accounted for more than half the variation in change in BMI. This suggests the importance of not only individual health information but also the significance of social interactions with people we are exposed to, even people we may not consider as close friends. PMID

  1. Studying and Designing for Equity-Oriented Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeters, Leah Anne

    2016-01-01

    1.) Relationships "de Confianza" and the Organization of Collective Social Action: We examine the relational elements of community change, focusing on how community health workers ("promotoras") build relationships "de confianza." The analysis demonstrates how relationships "de confianza" have laid a…

  2. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  3. The Stability of Social Desirability: A Latent Change Analysis.

    PubMed

    Haberecht, Katja; Schnuerer, Inga; Gaertner, Beate; John, Ulrich; Freyer-Adam, Jennis

    2015-08-01

    Social desirability has been shown to be stable in samples with higher school education. However, little is known about the stability of social desirability in more heterogeneous samples differing in school education. This study aimed to investigate the stability of social desirability and which factors predict interindividual differences in intraindividual change. As part of a randomized controlled trial, 1,243 job seekers with unhealthy alcohol use were systematically recruited at three job agencies. A total of 1,094 individuals (87.8%) participated in at least one of two follow-ups (6 and 15 months after baseline) and constitute this study's sample. The Social Desirability Scale-17 was applied. Two latent change models were conducted: Model 1 tested for interindividual differences in intraindividual change of social desirability between both follow-ups; Model 2 included possible predictors (age, sex, education, current employment status) of interindividual differences in intraindividual change. Model 1 revealed a significant decrease of social desirability over time. Model 2 revealed school education to be the only significant predictor of change. These findings indicate that stability of social desirability may depend on school education. It may not be as stable in individuals with higher school education as in individuals with lower education.

  4. Comparative Strategies of the Black and "Chicano" Movements in Achieving Economic and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    Frequently references to spokesmen and issues of the Chicano movement for social and economic equality refer to prior experiences of the black American mass social movement. Through examining both mass social movements, it becomes obvious that exact comparisons are misleading. Numerous similarities in economic, social, and political suppression…

  5. Organizational Perspectives Wrought by Current Social Change.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-12-01

    Again, along with their advertising coverage, the mass media, per se, add to this basic change in our attitudes towards consumption ( McLuhan , 1967). The...life is likely also to increase (Squibb, 1968). These changes in attitudes of citizens and constumers may be, as McLuhan and Packard and others suggest...on Miman mehavior, 1901. McLuhan , M. The medium is the message. New York: Random Holse, 1967. Michener, J. A. The revolution in middle class values

  6. The role of goal structures and peer climate in trajectories of social achievement goals during high school.

    PubMed

    Makara, Kara A; Madjar, Nir

    2015-04-01

    Students' social goals--reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers--are consequential for students' interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how these social goals develop over time, especially among high school students. The aim of the study was to assess trajectories of students' social goals and to determine how relevant individual and contextual variables predicted initial levels and trajectories of students' social goals. Participants were 9th through 12th grade students (N = 526) attending a U.S. high school. Students filled out surveys of their social goals (social development, social demonstration-approach, and social demonstration-avoidance) 6 times across 2 school years. Nonlinear growth curve analyses and piecewise growth curve analyses were used to assess trajectories of social goals across time. Students' initial levels of social goals differed based on their gender, grade level, prior achievement, and perceptions of classroom goals structures and peer climate. Furthermore, despite substantial stability over time, the shapes of these goal trajectories were predicted by students' gender, grade level, and perceptions of classroom goal structures and peer climate. In particular, students who perceived an increase in performance-avoidance classroom goals maintained higher demonstration social goals and decreased in developmental social goals over time, and students who perceived an increase in positive peer climate decreased in demonstration-avoidance social goals. Implications and directions for future research on social goals are discussed.

  7. Developmental change in social responsibility during adolescence: An ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K; Flanagan, Constance A

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change-and predictors of that change-in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the developmental trajectory of social responsibility values and ecological assets across family, school, community, and peer settings that predict these values. Data come from a 3-year study of 3,683 U.S. adolescents enrolled in upper-level elementary, middle, and high schools in rural, semiurban, and urban communities. Social responsibility values significantly decreased from age 9 to 16 before leveling off in later adolescence. Family compassion messages and democratic climate, school solidarity, community connectedness, and trusted friendship, positively predicted within-person change in adolescents' social responsibility values. These findings held after accounting for other individual-level and demographic factors and provide support for the role of ecological assets in adolescents' social responsibility development. In addition, fair society beliefs and volunteer experience had positive between- and within-person associations with social responsibility values. The manuscript discusses theoretical and practical implications of the conclusion that declines in ecological assets may partly explain age-related declines in social responsibility values. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent…

  9. A focus on the consumer: social marketing for change.

    PubMed

    Lucaire, L E

    1985-01-01

    Social marketing is the application of commercial marketing principles to advance a social cause, issue, behavior, product, or service. Social marketing has added a framework to social efforts that heretofore lacked organization and has inspired projects that otherwise might never have been initiated. In the US, social marketing techniques have been particularly successful in the health field. Although advertising and other communications are central to social marketing, the discipline also depends upon other elements of what is termed the marketing mix: product, price, place, and promotion. Social marketing is a cyclical process involving 6 steps: analysis; planning; development, testing, and refining elements of the plan; implementation; assessment of in-market effectiveness; and feedback. In developing countries, health has similarly been the greatest beneficiary to date of applied social marketing techniques. Family planning programs and oral rehydration therapy (ORT) projects have used social marketing techniques effectively in numerous developing countries. Social marketing has been even more widely applied in the sale of contraceptives in developing countries. Contraceptive social marketing (CSM) programs are well established in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Nepal, Colombia, El Salvador, Jamaica, Mexico, and Egypt. More recently programs have been established in Honduras, Guatemala, Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia. SOMARC (Social Marketing for Change) is a project funded by the US Agency for International Development (AID) and is working with existing CSM programs and helping to launch new CSM programs. CSM programs are successfully functioning as legitimate marketing organizations in developing countries and are using local private sector resources in the process. Program results are encouraging. Social marketing requires both experience and sensitivity to local conditions. Many developing countries now have their own marketing resources

  10. Beyond Positivism: Embracing Complexity for Social and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lees, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that broader, more open and inclusive scientific and educational discourses are necessary to achieve social justice through the provision of public education. Paradoxically, research and policy trends over the last two decades have constituted a "narrowing" of educational focus, educational response, and educational…

  11. Diffusion of Lexical Change in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Jacob; O'Connor, Brendan; Smith, Noah A.; Xing, Eric P.

    2014-01-01

    Computer-mediated communication is driving fundamental changes in the nature of written language. We investigate these changes by statistical analysis of a dataset comprising 107 million Twitter messages (authored by 2.7 million unique user accounts). Using a latent vector autoregressive model to aggregate across thousands of words, we identify high-level patterns in diffusion of linguistic change over the United States. Our model is robust to unpredictable changes in Twitter's sampling rate, and provides a probabilistic characterization of the relationship of macro-scale linguistic influence to a set of demographic and geographic predictors. The results of this analysis offer support for prior arguments that focus on geographical proximity and population size. However, demographic similarity – especially with regard to race – plays an even more central role, as cities with similar racial demographics are far more likely to share linguistic influence. Rather than moving towards a single unified “netspeak” dialect, language evolution in computer-mediated communication reproduces existing fault lines in spoken American English. PMID:25409166

  12. Social Structure and Resistance to Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillery, George A., Jr.

    The purpose of the research is to extract as many common factors as possible which are associated with resistance to change. Two peoples are selected for study, the Navajo Indians and the Trappist monks, both of which are rural and have an extensive history spanning at least several centuries, but which differ radically otherwise. The 2 major…

  13. Social and Technological Change. Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K., Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains five state-of-the-knowledge papers commissioned by ERIC/CEA (now ERIC/CEM) and presented at a conference sponsored by ERIC/CEA and CASEA. The authors and the titles of the papers are: Willis W. Harman, "Nature of Our Changing Society: Implications for Schools"; Richard C. Williams, "Teacher Militancy: Implications for the…

  14. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  15. The Highlander Heritage: Education for Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjerandsen, Carl

    1983-01-01

    Founded in 1932 at Monteagle, Tennessee, Highlander has functioned as a residential school, serving a variety of constituencies. Throughout its history, it has sought to help disadvantaged victims of injustice and poverty, principally in the South, to learn how to change their conditions. (SSH)

  16. Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Jacopo A; BurnSilver, Shauna B; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S; Kofinas, Gary P; De Domenico, Manlio

    2016-11-29

    Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social-ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources.

  17. A qualitative study of social facilitators and barriers to health behavior change among persons with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Mueser, Kim; Kinney, Allison; Pratt, Sarah; Bartels, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    This qualitative focus group study was conducted to explore social facilitators and barriers to health behavior change in persons with serious mental illness engaged in a healthy lifestyle intervention. Six focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 30 clients stratified by "high" and "low" achievers in the program based on clinically significant weight loss or significant increase in fitness. Thematic analysis of focus group discussions revealed that emotional, practical, and mutual support from family members and significant others were social facilitators to health behavior change, while unhealthy social environments was a barrier. Participants in the "high" achiever group reported more mutual support for health behavior change than participants in the "low" achiever group. Results highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to consider the potential role of family and significant others as health supporters for persons with mental illness who could encourage healthy behavior in the social environment.

  18. Relationships between meaning in life, social and achievement events, and positive and negative affect in daily life.

    PubMed

    Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B

    2015-06-01

    Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life.

  19. Can social marketing approaches change community attitudes towards leprosy?

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy

    2006-06-01

    This essay explores how the concept of social marketing can be employed to change attitudes towards leprosy. Firstly, the concept of social marketing is discussed, then the attitudes that people have about leprosy, the stigma that people with leprosy and their families may face, and the detrimental effects that this can have on their lives. The effect of knowledge and education on attitudes towards leprosy is discussed, as this can be a key component of social marketing campaigns. Various methods of social marketing used to change attitudes and reduce stigma are examined, such as mass media campaigns, school based education, methods which involve community leaders, and the integration and improvement of leprosy services. Principles of social marketing which can lead to the success of campaigns such as incorporating local beliefs are emphasized. The success of the social marketing campaign in Sri Lanka is described, which aimed to remove the fear of leprosy, and to encourage patients to seek and comply with treatment. Finally, it is argued that social marketing, used correctly, can be highly effective at changing community attitudes towards leprosy, reducing stigma and improving the lives of patients, who become able to seek treatment sooner as they lose their fear of stigmatization.

  20. Generating Social Change through Community-Campus Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Naomi; Gaetz, Stephen; Phipps, David

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a qualitative case study approach was used to explore the changes that community-campus collaborations stimulate. The authors document the "processes of interaction" (Spaapen & van Drooge, 2011) through which collaborations seek to contribute to positive social change, highlighting the outputs, outcomes, and…

  1. Higher Education Change and Social Networks: A Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the potential for understanding higher education change processes through social network analysis (SNA). In this article, the main tenets of SNA are reviewed and, in conjunction with organizational theory, are applied to higher education change to develop a set of hypotheses that can be tested in future research.

  2. Planning for Health: Development and Application of Social Change Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Henrik L.

    This book undertakes the task of portraying the application of planning theory to health concerns. It defines the purposes planning is meant to serve; analyzes the dynamics of social change; identifies the major determinants of change; and examines how planning can best affect those determinants. The book is organized into five major sections: (1)…

  3. Women and Spatial Change: Learning Resources for Social Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengert, Arlene C., Ed.; Monk, Janice J., Ed.

    Six units focusing on the effects of spatial change on women are designed to supplement college introductory courses in geography and the social sciences. Unit 1, Woman and Agricultural Landscapes, focuses on how women contributed to landscape change in prehistory, women's impact on the environment, and the hypothesis that women developed…

  4. Barometers of Change: Individual, Educational, and Social Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour Bernard

    This book of essays addresses changes in the U.S. social scene by examining the roots of change in history. The present is pregnant with many futures and citizens cannot afford to live from an intellectually simple, ahistorical stance. The book contains 12 chapters, including: (1) "Introduction: The Past in the Present"; (2) "The Coalescing of…

  5. Developing "Emancipatory Interest": Learning to Create Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspersz, Donella; Olaru, Doina

    2014-01-01

    Developing an emancipatory interest enables individuals to free themselves from the intersubjective or commonly held meanings that dominate their understanding of their current world, and subsequently change their practices. We argue that developing an emancipatory interest is critical in learning to create social change, that is, wanting to…

  6. Revitalization and Social Change: Contributions from Psychiatric Epidemiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulks, Edward F.

    The relationship between schizophrenia and social change is examined through a review of recent medical research in genetics, biology, and epidemiology. Those mental traits that today in our society characterize the schizoprenic, in a previous era or in another society may have provided a mechanism for cultural change during the periods of stress…

  7. Challenges to professionalism: Social accountability and global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Pearson, David; Walpole, Sarah; Barna, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve.This article addresses the following questions: • How do we reconcile ideas of medical professionalism with the demands of creating a more equal, just, sustainable and socially inclusive society? • What new challenges do or will we face in relation to environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, ecosystem health and climate change? • How can medical schools best teach social and environmental responsiveness within a framework of professionalism? • How do medical schools ensure that tomorrow's doctors possess the knowledge, skills and attitude to adapt to the challenges they will face in future roles?We offer ideas about why and how medical educators can change, recommendations to strengthen the teaching of professionalism and social accountability and suggestions about the contribution of an emerging concept, that of "environmental accountability".

  8. Seasonal changes in the structure of rhesus macaque social networks.

    PubMed

    Brent, Lauren J N; Maclarnon, Ann; Platt, Michael L; Semple, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Social structure emerges from the patterning of interactions between individuals and plays a critical role in shaping some of the main characteristics of animal populations. The topological features of social structure, such as the extent to which individuals interact in clusters, can influence many biologically important factors, including the persistence of cooperation, and the rate of spread of disease. Yet the extent to which social structure topology fluctuates over relatively short periods of time in relation to social, demographic or environmental events remains unclear. Here, we use social network analysis to examine seasonal changes in the topology of social structures that emerge from socio-positive associations in adult female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Behavioral data for two different association types (grooming, spatial proximity) were collected for females in two free-ranging groups during two seasons: the mating and birth seasons. Stronger dyadic bonds resulted in social structures that were more tightly connected (i.e. of greater density) in the mating season compared to the birth season. Social structures were also more centralized around a subset of individuals, and were more clustered in the mating season than the birth season, although the latter differences were mostly driven by differences in density alone. Our results suggest a degree of temporal variation in the topological features of social structure in this population. Such variation may feed back on interactions, hence affecting the behaviors of individuals, and may therefore be important to take into account in studies of animal behavior.

  9. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.

    2015-01-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual’s behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone–behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated

  10. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P

    2015-08-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual's behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone-behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated with

  11. Making sense of HUSK: practice implications for social change initiatives.

    PubMed

    McBeath, Bowen

    2015-01-01

    As an exemplar of bottom-up progressive social experimentation, HUSK provides opportunities to examine how innovative practice is supported and challenged in bureaucratic settings. In this analysis the author uses a sensemaking lens to identify critical issues and questions for those seeking to promote progressive change initiative in social welfare systems. Findings identify essential organizational and managerial supports needed to support service user voice and participation and reinforce the importance of reflexivity in practice and research.

  12. Behavioral and Physiological Plasticity: Rapid Changes during Social Ascent in an African Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    In many vertebrates, reproduction is regulated by social interactions in which dominant males control access to females and food. Subordinate males that displace dominant individuals must rapidly adopt behavioral and physiological traits of the higher rank to gain reproductive success. To understand the process of phenotypic plasticity during social ascent, we analyzed the temporal expression pattern of dominance behaviors and circulating androgen levels when socially-suppressed males of an African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni ascended in status. These experiments tested a prediction of the ‘challenge hypothesis’ that, during periods of social instability, male androgen levels are higher than during socially stable times. We found that socially and reproductively suppressed males perform territorial and reproductive behaviors within minutes of an opportunity to ascend in status, and that animals switch from initial expression of territorial behaviors to more reproductive behaviors during territory establishment. Following this rapid response, social stability may be achieved within 1–3 days of social ascent. Consistent with predictions of the ‘challenge hypothesis’, circulating 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels were elevated within 30 min following social opportunity, coincident with increased aggressive behavior. However, territorial behaviors and serum 11-KT levels were then dissociated by 72 hrs after social ascent, suggesting either rapid social stability and/or increased physiological potential for androgen production. This behavioral and physiological plasticity in male A. burtoni suggests that perception of social opportunity triggers a suite of quick changes to facilitate rapid transition towards reproductive success, and reveals important features of social ascent not previously recognized. PMID:20303357

  13. Predicting maintenance or achievement of healthy weight in children: the impact of changes in physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Adela; Chomitz, Virginia R; Arsenault, Lisa N; Must, Aviva; Economos, Christina D; McGowan, Robert J; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2012-08-01

    Physical fitness is often inversely associated with adiposity in children cross-sectionally, but the effect of becoming fit or maintaining fitness over time on changes in weight status has not been well studied in children. We investigated the impact of changes in fitness over 1-4 years of follow-up on the maintenance or achievement of healthy weight among 2,793 schoolchildren who were first measured as 1st to 7th graders. Students were classified as "fit" or "underfit" according to age- and gender-specific norms in five fitness domains: endurance, agility, flexibility, upper body strength, and abdominal strength. Weight status was dichotomized by BMI percentile: "healthy weight" (<85th percentile) or "overweight/obese" (≥85th percentile). At baseline, of the 38.3% overweight/obese children, 81.9% (N = 875) were underfit. Underfit overweight students were more likely to achieve healthy weight if they achieved fitness (boys: odds ratio (OR) = 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-5.77; girls: OR = 4.67, 95%CI = 2.09-10.45). Initially fit overweight children (N = 194) were more likely to achieve healthy weight if they maintained fitness (boys: OR = 11.99, 95%CI = 2.18-65.89; girls: OR = 2.46, 95%CI = 1.04-5.83). Similarly, initially fit healthy-weight children (N = 717) were more likely to maintain healthy weight if they maintained fitness (boys: OR 3.70, 95%CI = 1.40-9.78; girls: OR = 4.14, 95%CI = 1.95-8.78). Overweight schoolchildren who achieve or maintain physical fitness are more likely to achieve healthy weight, and healthy-weight children who maintain fitness are more likely to maintain healthy weight. School-based policies/practices that support physical fitness may contribute to obesity reduction and maintenance of healthy weight among schoolchildren.

  14. Racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education as predictors of cognitive ability and achievement in African American children.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Meeta; Harrell, Zaje A T; Johnson, Deborah J

    2011-05-01

    Racial/ethnic socialization has not been studied in the context of other parenting behaviors such as parental involvement in education and its relationship to children's cognitive outcomes. The present study tested the impact of racial/ethnic socialization and parental involvement in education on cognitive ability and achievement in a sample of African American youth. Two dimensions of racial/ethnic socialization, cultural exposure (i.e., exposure to diverse cultures) and cultural socialization (i.e., in-group pride), were examined in a sample of 92 African American mother-child dyads, of which 50% were female. Maternal reports of involvement during their child's 5th grade year were examined as a moderator in the relationship between racial/ethnic socialization and cognitive ability and achievement. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mothers' reports of cultural exposure messages measured in 4th grade predicted children's scores on 5th grade assessments of passage comprehension. There was also a significant interaction indicating that greater cultural exposure and more parental involvement in education predicted better reading passage comprehension scores over time. The implications for assessing dimensions relevant to cognitive ability and achievement in African American children are discussed.

  15. Sustainable Communities: A Lens for Envisioning and Achieving a Community-Based Culture of Social and Ecological Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Frans C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the obstacles to dealing with the social and ecological crises that obstruct the achievement of a culture of peace is silo thinking in global governance. A unidimensional mode of planning, silo thinking leads to decisions based on the area of expertise of a particular agency or intergovernmental organization and fails to recognize linkages…

  16. Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close The Black?White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dianne L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of Richard Rothstein's book "Class and Schools: Using Social, Economic, and Educational Reform to Close the Black-White Achievement Gap" (Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, 2004). The insights offered in this book are timely in light of the No Child Left Behind legislation that puts the…

  17. African American Adolescents' Discrimination Experiences and Academic Achievement: Racial Socialization as a Cultural Compensatory and Protective Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Philip, Cheri L.; Cogburn, Courtney D.; Sellers, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the interrelationships among racial discrimination experiences, parent race socialization practices, and academic achievement outcomes in a sample of 548 African American adolescents. Adolescents' racial discrimination experiences were associated with a decrease in academic curiosity, persistence, and student self-reported…

  18. Social and Cultural Capital: Underlying Factors and Their Relationship with the School Achievement of Iranian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodadady, Ebrahim; Zabihi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between social and cultural capital and school achievement by developing, administering and validating a 35-statement questionnaire to 403 undergraduate and graduate students majoring in Teaching English as a foreign language and Persian Language and Literature and correlating their extracted factors with the…

  19. Five Social Disadvantages That Depress Student Performance: Why Schools Alone Can't Close Achievement Gaps. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Leila; Rothstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    That students' social and economic characteristics shape their cognitive and behavioral outcomes is well established, yet policymakers typically resist accepting that non-school disadvantages necessarily depress outcomes. Rather, they look to better schools and teachers to close achievement gaps, and consistently come up short. This report…

  20. The Power of Graphic Organizers: Effects on Students' Word-Learning and Achievement Emotions in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilter, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three graphic organizers for teaching vocabulary and the development of the emotions-related to achievement. The study focused on the effects of different types of graphic organizers on word-learning and various emotions in social studies. This study was designed as a…

  1. Social Integration as a Factor in Academic Achievements of Children: A Case Study of African Immigrants in Louisville, Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odetunde, Florence Olayinka

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how social integration of African immigrants in the Louisville metropolitan area of Kentucky could be a factor in the academic achievements of their children. It involved critically investigating how the process of their adjustments as immigrants might have been shaped by various personal and environmental factors such as…

  2. Predicting Early Adolescents' Academic Achievement, Social Competence, and Physical Health from Parenting, Ego Resilience, and Engagement Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; O'Brien, T. Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ego resilience and engagement coping as mediators of the relationships between supportive and controlling parenting practices and early adolescents' academic achievement, social competence, and physical health. Participants were 240 predominantly Mexican American early adolescents, their parents, and their teachers. There were…

  3. Principals' Perceptions of Social Networking Access, Its Relationship to Cyberbullying, the Importance of Student Achievement, and the School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsel, Andrae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the principals' perceptions of social networking access and its relationship to cyberbullying, the importance of student achievement, and the school environment across the United States. This research provides some evidence on how principals perceive and understand the threat of cyberbullying and its…

  4. Academic Achievements, Behavioral Problems, and Loneliness as Predictors of Social Skills among Students with and without Learning Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zach, Sima; Yazdi-Ugav, Orly; Zeev, Aviva

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine to what extent academic achievements, learning disorders, behavior problems and loneliness explain the variance of students' social skills. The differences between students diagnosed with learning disorders and students without learning disorders in all four variables were examined. Participants were 733 elementary…

  5. The Effects of Social Identification and Organizational Identification on Student Commitment, Achievement and Satisfaction in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Stephen; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Kratochvil, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of social and organizational identifications on student commitment, achievement and satisfaction in higher education. The sample comprised 437 students enrolled in an undergraduate or postgraduate programme in business or management. A model was developed and tested using structural…

  6. Social-ecological resilience to changes in moisture recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Line; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Keys, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Scientists from the biophysical and social sciences often define resilience substantially different. Biophysical scientists primarily use resilience to understand how a system can return to an equilibrium following a perturbation, and social scientists use resilience to understand what enables, or disable, human development. In the Anthropocene, where social changes are causing both linear and nonlinear biophysical changes, with local or distant feedbacks on society, it is important to develop integrated definitions and analytical methods to analyze combined social-ecological interactions. There has been a growing amount of research in this field over the last decade, but with a primary focus on relatively small-scale regions or specific ecosystems. In this paper we review literature dealing with interdisciplinary aspects of resilience to global change and develop a conceptual framework for analyzing social-ecological resilience in relation to moisture recycling (i.e. where evaporation from land returns as precipitation on land). We first identify current social drivers of changes in evaporation (including e.g. large scale land and water acquisitions, and REDD+ programs). We then identify geographic regions where the effects of altered evaporation on moisture recycling can risk a) causing thresholds in specific biomes (such as between forests and savannas), or b) shifts in social systems (such as collapse of rainfed farming systems). We also identify institutional structures that enhance the capacity to enhance resilience through either dealing directly with drivers, or building adaptive capacity to changes in moisture recycling. We particularly stress the difference between regional feedbacks (where the consequences are felt in the same regions where decisions are made), and teleconnections, i.e. where local decision in one place is altering important drivers for distant social-ecological systems. Through this review we identify the characteristics of interlinked

  7. Laboratory rhesus macaque social housing and social changes: Implications for research.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Darcy L; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Vandeleest, Jessica; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John

    2017-01-01

    Macaque species, specifically rhesus (Macaca mulatta), are the most common nonhuman primates (NHPs) used in biomedical research due to their suitability as a model of high priority diseases (e.g., HIV, obesity, cognitive aging), cost effective breeding and housing compared to most other NHPs, and close evolutionary relationship to humans. With this close evolutionary relationship, however, is a shared adaptation for a socially stimulating environment, without which both their welfare and suitability as a research model are compromised. While outdoor social group housing provides the best approximation of a social environment that matches the macaque behavioral biology in the wild, this is not always possible at all facilities, where animals may be housed indoors in small groups, in pairs, or alone. Further, animals may experience many housing changes in their lifetime depending on project needs, changes in social status, management needs, or health concerns. Here, we review the evidence for the physiological and health effects of social housing changes and the potential impacts on research outcomes for studies using macaques, particularly rhesus. We situate our review in the context of increasing regulatory pressure for research facilities to both house NHPs socially and mitigate trauma from social aggression. To meet these regulatory requirements and further refine the macaque model for research, significant advances must be made in our understanding and management of rhesus macaque social housing, particularly pair-housing since it is the most common social housing configuration for macaques while on research projects. Because most NHPs are adapted for sociality, a social context is likely important for improving repeatability, reproducibility, and external validity of primate biomedical research. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22528, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Investigating the Achievement Goals of University Students in Terms of Psycho-Social Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayis, Ahmet Rifat; Ceyhan, Aydogan Aykut

    2015-01-01

    It is the aim of this research to investigate the achievement goals of university students. Firstly, university students' adoption levels of achievement goals are described. Next, how their level of academic self-efficacy, irrational beliefs, perfectionism, self-determination, locus of control and gender predict each achievement goal is depicted.…

  9. The Relationship between Parental Control and Students' Academic Achievement in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, F. A.

    2010-01-01

    The home as the first place to teach a child has the responsibility of encouraging moral development. Every child is born into the warm embrace of parents and others who provide him a social environment. Throughout life, children are units of social processes. In interacting and relating to selves and the world around, they develop and use…

  10. Response to health inequity: the role of social protection in reducing poverty and achieving equity.

    PubMed

    Scheil-Adlung, Xenia

    2014-06-01

    Health inequities are determined by multiple factors within the health sector and beyond. While gaps in social health protection coverage and effective access to health care are among the most prominent causes of health inequities, social and economic inequalities existing beyond the health sector contribute greatly to barriers to access affordable and acceptable health care.

  11. The Role of States in Funding Education to Achieve Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesely, Randall S.; Crampton, Faith E.; Obiakor, Festus E.; Sapp, Marty

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the degree to which state education funding systems supported social justice for the 1998-99 school year, where social justice was operationalized using the theory of vertical equity and research-based factors that placed students at risk of academic failure. The results of the study combined content analysis and statistical…

  12. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  13. Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion

    PubMed Central

    BurnSilver, Shauna B.; Arenas, Alex; Magdanz, James S.; Kofinas, Gary P.

    2016-01-01

    Network analysis provides a powerful tool to analyze complex influences of social and ecological structures on community and household dynamics. Most network studies of social–ecological systems use simple, undirected, unweighted networks. We analyze multiplex, directed, and weighted networks of subsistence food flows collected in three small indigenous communities in Arctic Alaska potentially facing substantial economic and ecological changes. Our analysis of plausible future scenarios suggests that changes to social relations and key households have greater effects on community robustness than changes to specific wild food resources. PMID:27856752

  14. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC).

    PubMed

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent inter-rater and test-retest reliability and shows convergent validity with measures of language and communication skills. The BOSCC Core total demonstrates statistically significant amounts of change over time compared to a no change alternative while the ADOS CSS over the same period of time did not. This work is a first step in the development of a novel outcome measure for social-communication behaviors with applications to clinical trials and longitudinal studies.

  15. Using intergroup dialogue to promote social justice and change.

    PubMed

    Dessel, Adrienne; Rogge, Mary E; Garlington, Sarah B

    2006-10-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a public process designed to involve individuals and groups in an exploration of societal issues such as politics, racism, religion, and culture that are often flashpoints for polarization and social conflict. This article examines intergroup dialogue as a bridging mechanism through which social workers in clinical, other direct practice, organizer, activist, and other roles across the micro-macro practice spectrum can engage with people in conflict to advance advocacy, justice, and social change. We define intergroup dialogue and provide examples in not-for-profit or community-based and academic settings of how intergroup dialogue has been applied to conflicts around topics of race and ethnic nationality, sexual orientation, religion, and culture. We recommend practice-, policy-, and research-related actions that social workers can take to understand and use intergroup dialogue.

  16. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109

  17. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.

  18. Achievement Motivation, Socialization, and Hypnotic Susceptibility Among Youths from Four Israeli Subcultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Mordechai; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The impact of child rearing practices on achievement motivation, hypnotic susceptibility, and brain wave patterns of children from Israeli subcultures are examined. Of the four subgroups studied, although they differed in school performance, their need achievement scores were similiar. (Author/DEP)

  19. Grade Retention and Social Promotion in Texas, 1994-99: Academic Achievement among Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorence, Jon; Dworkin, Anthony Gary.; Toenjes, Laurence A.; Hill, Antwanette N.

    2002-01-01

    Although considerable research examines the impact of grade retention on student academic achievement, various shortcomings exhibited across these studies make it difficult to derive any concrete generalizations about the effectiveness of requiring students to repeat a grade. By utilizing data based on a cohort of all low-achieving elementary…

  20. Schulleistungsstudien und Soziale Gerechtigkeit (Studies on School Achievement and Social Justice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Karl-Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates that a high degree of fairness may be achieved in international comparative research on school achievement, using the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) as an example and employing the methods of advanced pedagogical-psychological diagnosis. Includes references. (CMK)

  1. Connecting Social Disorganization Theory to African-American Outcomes to Explain the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madyun, Na'im H.

    2011-01-01

    African-American student achievement outcomes have been and continue to be a critical concern for education researchers. Much of the framing of African-American student outcomes centers on what is known as achievement gaps that exist between African-American and White students. Unfortunately, these gaps have remained roughly the same since the…

  2. Minimum Achievement Requirements as a Fostering Device for Learners from Disadvantaged Social Strata.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Arieh

    To assist low achieving students in the mastery of instructional objectives in major subject areas, the Ministry of Education of Israel published definitions of Minimum Achievement Requirements (MAR) for specific subjects at all grade levels. To examine the feasibility of the MAR approach and to determine whether it contributed to the attainment…

  3. Achievement Goals during Middle Childhood: Individual Differences in Motivation and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis M.; Zheng, Chanjin; Lemoine, Katherine A.; Martin, Caroline P.; Tang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Person-centered analyses of achievement goals have been scarce in studies of elementary school children. In this investigation, the authors examined the natural combinations of achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, performance-avoidance) among 3rd grade students (N = 195) and how clusters differed in self-, teacher-, and peer-reported…

  4. Social Integration and Health Behavioral Change in San Luis, Honduras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuestion, Michael J.; Calle, Ana Quijano; Drasbek, Christopher; Harkins, Thomas; Sagastume, Lourdes J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of social integration on behavioral change in the course of an intensive, community-based public health intervention. The intervention trained volunteers and mobilized local organizations to promote 16 key family health practices in rural San Luis, Honduras, during 2004 to 2006. A mixed methods approach is used.…

  5. Race, Social Cohesion and the Changing Politics of Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukra, Kalbir; Back, Les; Keith, Michael; Khan, Azra; Solomos, John

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between race, social cohesion and citizenship has become an important issue in recent political and policy debates. In this paper these questions are explored in the context of the changing forms of ethnic minority political engagement and participation that have evolved in the past two decades. We suggest that there are growing…

  6. Mental Health and Social Change: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, George V., Ed.

    This annotated bibliography was prepared at the Staff Seminar on Social Change and Human Behavior held at the National Institute of Mental Health during 1970 and 1971 and was designed to serve as a working guide to the relevant mental health literature published between 1967 and 1971. The 730 abstracts included here have been categorized into five…

  7. Better Together: Considering Student Interfaith Leadership and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, William; Lane, Megan

    2014-01-01

    On campuses across the country, students and professional staff are considering student interfaith leadership as one way that students act on their core values to make a positive difference in the world. This kind of student leadership can be framed through student leadership models like the social change model of leadership development. Better…

  8. Responding to Social Change. Community Development Series, Volume 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honikman, Basil, Ed.

    This book presents a spectrum of the environmental design and research issues of today, an introduction to the field as a whole, and an emphasis on the need for changes in attitudes and procedures in the disciplines. Contributions, multidisciplinary in approach, range from a diversity of perspectives, including urban planning, social and…

  9. Social Change and Anomie: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Ruohui; Cao, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    We apply Durkheim's social transitional theory to explain the variation of anomie in 30 nations in the world. Combining data from two sources--the 1995 "World Values Survey and the United Nations University's World Income Inequality Database" or WIID--we test the hypothesis that rapid sociopolitical change at the structural level disrupts social…

  10. Possibility Thinking and Social Change in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Anna Rachel; Chappell, Kerry Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the nature of possibility thinking (PT) (transformation from what is to what might be, in everyday contexts for children and teachers) and reports on how PT manifested in two English primary schools engaged in social change. It identifies shared characteristics across the schools as well as unique ways in which PT manifested.…

  11. Effectiveness of a Social Change Approach to Sexual Assault Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the impact on resident assistants of a social change approach to sexual assault prevention. The interactive multi-media program focused on engaging men on sexual assault prevention, accurately defining rape for college men and women, identifying aspects of the rape culture in society and on-campus, and empowering college…

  12. On the People's Wavelength: Communications for Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Articles collected in this issue of UNICEF News deal with different aspects of the theme of communication in development programs. Specifically, topics covered include (1) communication as a total process and the role of communication in overcoming obstacles to social change; (2) a village education and resource center, in Bangladesh, committed to…

  13. Predictors of College Students Engaging in Social Change Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the 2009 Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership, this article examines the personal characteristics and environmental experiences that contribute to college students' involvement in social change. Results indicate that collegiate environmental characteristics (i.e., student group membership, leadership training, discussions…

  14. Social Power and Forms of Change: Implications for Psychopolitical Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Prilleltensky's notion of psychopolitical validity elevates power as a key phenomenon of interest within community psychology. Importantly, two types of psychopolitical validity are articulated: epistemic--the explicit study of power, and transformative--understanding the role of power in social change. In this article, the author develops the…

  15. Teacher Education in Industrialized Nations: Issues in Changing Social Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, Nobuo K., Ed; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.

    The original essays in this book examine reform-related issues in teacher education in Great Britain, Canada, Japan, Ukraine, the United States, and Western Europe. They also review the social context of the teacher, the economics and value of teaching, the pace of change, government policy and teacher control of the profession, and the evolving…

  16. Institutionalization of Gerontological Curricular Change in Schools of Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernet, Stephen P.; Singleton, Judy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses factors associated with sustainability and institutionalization of change in the 67 Geriatric Enrichment in Social Work Education (GeroRich) projects, and the ways innovations introduced became institutionalized at the respective colleges and universities. An unobtrusive qualitative-descriptive research design was used to…

  17. Living Conditions, Ecology and Social Changes in the Indian Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, D. Subba

    1984-01-01

    Major problems faced in India's development are discussed, including rapid industrialization and urbanization and needs for ecological protection as well as food and industry, literacy, and rapid social change in a multilingual and multireligious society. The roles of higher education and international cooperation are also examined. (MSE)

  18. Beyond social and temporal comparisons: the role of temporal inter-group comparisons in the context of dramatic social change in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Tougas, Francine; Perenlei, Onon

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the target of comparison should be taken into consideration when evaluating the associated outcomes of negative comparisons in the context of dramatic social change. To achieve this general goal, we considered five distinct targets of comparison: social (my group versus another group), temporal (my group across time), and temporal inter-group (my group versus another group across time). We hypothesised that in times of constant social change, two points of anchors (social and temporal) are simultaneously needed to evaluate one's position. A total of 236 high school and university students from Mongolia participated in the study. We used hierarchical regression analysis to test our hypotheses. As predicted, we found that temporal inter-group comparisons are better predictor of collective esteem than their social and temporal counterparts. Moreover, the link from past and future temporal inter-group comparisons to collective esteem was negative as hypothesized. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical implications.

  19. Social media and nursing practice: changing the balance between the social and technical aspects of work.

    PubMed

    Casella, Evan; Mills, Jane; Usher, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Modern communication methods are drastically changing the way people interact with each other. Professions such as nursing need to evolve to remain relevant as social infrastructure changes. In the 1960s, researchers developed a sociotechnical theory that stated workers were more motivated and productive if there was a good balance between the social and technical aspects of their work. Today's technology is blurring the boundaries between the social and the technical thereby transforming human contact and communication into a multi-method process. In Australia, people are adept at utilising social media technology to become more efficient, creative and connected; Australian nurses also need to embrace changing technology to capitalise on the professional opportunities offered by social media. This paper imagines a world where nurses integrate social media into assessing, diagnosing, planning, implementing and evaluating care. Discussion draws on a combination of real-world examples of best-practice and blue-sky thinking to demonstrate that evidence-based care must be combined with the adoption of future-forward technology.

  20. Social exclusion induces early-stage perceptual and behavioral changes in response to social cues.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Taishi; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Social exclusion is so aversive that it causes broad cognitive and behavioral changes to regulate the individual's belonging status. The present study examined whether such changes also occur at early neural or automatic behavioral levels in response to social cues. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and facial electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded during a task in which participants viewed smiling, disgusted, and neutral faces after experiencing social exclusion or inclusion. Social exclusion was manipulated using a simple ball-tossing game (Cyberball), and need threat was assessed after the game. We found that zygomaticus major muscle activity, which reflects facial mimicry, was larger in response to smiling faces after exclusion than after inclusion. In addition, P1 amplitude, which reflects visual attention, was larger for disgusted faces than for neutral faces following social exclusion. N170 amplitude, which reflects structural encoding of the face, was correlated with heightened need threat. These findings demonstrate that social exclusion induces immediate and rapid changes in attention, perception, and automatic behavior. These findings reflect the rapid and primary regulation of belonging.

  1. A Social Science Guide for Communication on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.

  2. Mapping explicit social motives of achievement, power, and affiliation onto the five-factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Langens, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Previous research has shown that explicit motives are meaningfully related to the five-factor model of personality. The present study extends this research by using different measures of the explicit social motives of achievement, power and affiliation, and by employing measures of both approach and avoidance of these motives. Correlational and factor analyses demonstrated that explicit motives of achievement, power, and affiliation, both approach and avoidance components of these motives, can be consistently mapped onto personality trait measures of the five-factor model. Implications of this general finding, along with some exceptions, are discussed with regard to further research.

  3. Impact of climate change on crop yield and role of model for achieving food security.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj

    2016-08-01

    In recent times, several studies around the globe indicate that climatic changes are likely to impact the food production and poses serious challenge to food security. In the face of climate change, agricultural systems need to adapt measures for not only increasing food supply catering to the growing population worldwide with changing dietary patterns but also to negate the negative environmental impacts on the earth. Crop simulation models are the primary tools available to assess the potential consequences of climate change on crop production and informative adaptive strategies in agriculture risk management. In consideration with the important issue, this is an attempt to provide a review on the relationship between climate change impacts and crop production. It also emphasizes the role of crop simulation models in achieving food security. Significant progress has been made in understanding the potential consequences of environment-related temperature and precipitation effect on agricultural production during the last half century. Increased CO2 fertilization has enhanced the potential impacts of climate change, but its feasibility is still in doubt and debates among researchers. To assess the potential consequences of climate change on agriculture, different crop simulation models have been developed, to provide informative strategies to avoid risks and understand the physical and biological processes. Furthermore, they can help in crop improvement programmes by identifying appropriate future crop management practises and recognizing the traits having the greatest impact on yield. Nonetheless, climate change assessment through model is subjected to a range of uncertainties. The prediction uncertainty can be reduced by using multimodel, incorporating crop modelling with plant physiology, biochemistry and gene-based modelling. For devloping new model, there is a need to generate and compile high-quality field data for model testing. Therefore, assessment of

  4. Are Health Behavior Change Interventions That Use Online Social Networks Effective? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lucy K; Ferrar, Katia; Marshall, Simon; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-01-01

    Background The dramatic growth of Web 2.0 technologies and online social networks offers immense potential for the delivery of health behavior change campaigns. However, it is currently unclear how online social networks may best be harnessed to achieve health behavior change. Objective The intent of the study was to systematically review the current level of evidence regarding the effectiveness of online social network health behavior interventions. Methods Eight databases (Scopus, CINAHL, Medline, ProQuest, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Web of Science and Communication & Mass Media Complete) were searched from 2000 to present using a comprehensive search strategy. Study eligibility criteria were based on the PICOS format, where “population” included child or adult populations, including healthy and disease populations; “intervention” involved behavior change interventions targeting key modifiable health behaviors (tobacco and alcohol consumption, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) delivered either wholly or in part using online social networks; “comparator” was either a control group or within subject in the case of pre-post study designs; “outcomes” included health behavior change and closely related variables (such as theorized mediators of health behavior change, eg, self-efficacy); and “study design” included experimental studies reported in full-length peer-reviewed sources. Reports of intervention effectiveness were summarized and effect sizes (Cohen’s d and 95% confidence intervals) were calculated wherever possible. Attrition (percentage of people who completed the study), engagement (actual usage), and fidelity (actual usage/intended usage) with the social networking component of the interventions were scrutinized. Results A total of 2040 studies were identified from the database searches following removal of duplicates, of which 10 met inclusion criteria. The studies involved a total of 113,988 participants

  5. Social capital and change in psychological health over time.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Giuseppe Nicola; Lindström, Martin

    2011-04-01

    The positive association between social capital and general health outcomes has been extensively researched over the past decade; however, studies investigating social capital and psychological health show less consistent results. Despite this, policy-makers worldwide still employ elements of social capital to promote and improve psychological health. This United Kingdom study investigates the association between changes in psychological health over time and three different individual-level proxies of social capital, measures of socio-economic status, social support and the confounders age and gender. All data are derived from the British Household Panel Survey data, with the same individuals (N = 7994) providing responses from 2000-2007. The data were split according to baseline psychological health status ('Good' or 'Poor' psychological health - the dependent variable). Using Generalised Estimating Equations, two separate models were built to investigate the association between changes from baseline psychological health over time and considered variables. An autoregressive working correlation structure was employed to derive the true influence of explanatory variables on psychological health outcomes over time. We found that generalised trust was the only social capital variable to maintain a positive and highly significant association with psychological health in multivariable models. All measures of socioeconomic status and social support were rendered insignificant, bar one. We therefore argue that the breakdown of the traditional family unit (and subsequent reduction in family capital investment), along with psychosocial pathways, demonstrate plausible mechanisms by which a decrease in generalised trust could lead to an increasing trend of worse psychological health in youth over successive birth cohorts. Policy makers, while providing welfare solutions in response to breakdown in traditional family structure, must also consider perverse incentives they

  6. Stability and change of social goals in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Elisa M; Wright, Aidan G C; Colder, Craig R

    2014-10-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of continuity and change in social goals using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) model across adolescence (ages 11-16). Five complementary definitions of stability were examined: structural, rank-order, absolute, individual, and ipsative. Data were taken from a longitudinal study of early adolescent problem behavior. Social goals were assessed during each wave, with data collection occurring at three annual intervals (Wave 1, ages 10-12). A community sample of adolescents (N = 387) was recruited. Adolescents were evenly split on gender, and a majority (82.7%) was White. Results suggest a modest increase in stability across social goals, yet significant interindividual heterogeneity. Although levels of Agentic and Communal factors increase over time, these patterns were driven by decreases in the Submissive and Separate octants. This offers evidence for the utility of examining lower-order facets of interpersonal dispositions, as it provides a nuanced picture of adolescent personality development. Furthermore, findings suggest that change and continuity in social goals may both be relevant in this developmental period. The difficulty is accounting for trait stability as well as change, and the IPC model may be particularly useful for meeting this challenge.

  7. Income redistribution is not enough: income inequality, social welfare programs, and achieving equity in health.

    PubMed

    Starfield, Barbara; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2007-12-01

    Income inequality is widely assumed to be a major contributor to poorer health at national and subnational levels. According to this assumption, the most appropriate policy strategy to improve equity in health is income redistribution. This paper considers reasons why tackling income inequality alone could be an inadequate approach to reducing differences in health across social classes and other population subgroups, and makes the case that universal social programs are critical to reducing inequities in health. A health system oriented around a strong primary care base is an example of such a strategy.

  8. How Can a Global Social Support System Hope to Achieve Fairer Competiveness?

    PubMed Central

    Goldblatt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ooms et al sets out some good general principles for a global social support system to improve fairer global competitiveness as a result of redistribution. This commentary sets out to summarize some of the conditions that would need to be satisfied for it to level up gradients in inequality through such a social support system, using the National Basketball Association (NBA) example as a point of reference. From this, the minimal conditions are described that would be required for the support system, proposed in the article by Ooms et al, to succeed. PMID:26927594

  9. Digital and social media opportunities for dietary behaviour change.

    PubMed

    McGloin, Aileen F; Eslami, Sara

    2015-05-01

    The way that people communicate, consume media and seek and receive information is changing. Forty per cent of the world's population now has an internet connection, the average global social media penetration is 39% and 1·5 billion people have internet access via mobile phone. This large-scale move in population use of digital, social and mobile media presents an unprecedented opportunity to connect with individuals on issues concerning health. The present paper aims to investigate these opportunities in relation to dietary behaviour change. Several aspects of the digital environment could support behaviour change efforts, including reach, engagement, research, segmentation, accessibility and potential to build credibility, trust, collaboration and advocacy. There are opportunities to influence behaviour online using similar techniques to traditional health promotion programmes; to positively affect health-related knowledge, skills and self-efficacy. The abundance of data on citizens' digital behaviours, whether through search behaviour, global positioning system tracking, or via demographics and interests captured through social media profiles, offer exciting opportunities for effectively targeting relevant health messages. The digital environment presents great possibilities but also great challenges. Digital communication is uncontrolled, multi-way and co-created and concerns remain in relation to inequalities, privacy, misinformation and lack of evaluation. Although web-based, social-media-based and mobile-based studies tend to show positive results for dietary behaviour change, methodologies have yet to be developed that go beyond basic evaluation criteria and move towards true measures of behaviour change. Novel approaches are necessary both in the digital promotion of behaviour change and in its measurement.

  10. Utilizing the social media data to validate 'climate change' indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodtsova, T.; Kirilenko, A.; Stepchenkova, S.

    2013-12-01

    Reporting the observed and modeled changes in climate to public requires the measures understandable by the general audience. E.g., the NASA GISS Common Sense Climate Index (Hansen et al., 1998) reports the change in climate based on six practically observable parameters such as the air temperature exceeding the norm by one standard deviation. The utility of the constructed indices for reporting climate change depends, however, on an assumption that the selected parameters are felt and connected with the changing climate by a non-expert, which needs to be validated. Dynamic discussion of climate change issues in social media may provide data for this validation. We connected the intensity of public discussion of climate change in social networks with regional weather variations for the territory of the USA. We collected the entire 2012 population of Twitter microblogging activity on climate change topic, accumulating over 1.8 million separate records (tweets) globally. We identified the geographic location of the tweets and associated the daily and weekly intensity of twitting with the following parameters of weather for these locations: temperature anomalies, 'hot' temperature anomalies, 'cold' temperature anomalies, heavy rain/snow events. To account for non-weather related events we included the articles on climate change from the 'prestige press', a collection of major newspapers. We found that the regional changes in parameters of weather significantly affect the number of tweets published on climate change. This effect, however, is short-lived and varies throughout the country. We found that in different locations different weather parameters had the most significant effect on climate change microblogging activity. Overall 'hot' temperature anomalies had significant influence on climate change twitting intensity.

  11. Climate Change, Disaster and Sentiment Analysis over Social Media Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; McCusker, J. P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Accelerated climate change causes disasters and disrupts people living all over the globe. Disruptive climate events are often reflected in expressed sentiments of the people affected. Monitoring changes in these sentiments during and after disasters can reveal relationships between climate change and mental health. We developed a semantic web tool that uses linked data principles and semantic web technologies to integrate data from multiple sources and analyze them together. We are converting statistical data on climate change and disaster records obtained from the World Bank data catalog and the International Disaster Database into a Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation that was annotated with the RDF Data Cube vocabulary. We compare these data with a dataset of tweets that mention terms from the Emotion Ontology to get a sense of how disasters can impact the affected populations. This dataset is being gathered using an infrastructure we developed that extracts term uses in Twitter with controlled vocabularies. This data was also converted to RDF structure so that statistical data on the climate change and disasters is analyzed together with sentiment data. To visualize and explore relationship of the multiple data across the dimensions of time and location, we use the qb.js framework. We are using this approach to investigate the social and emotional impact of climate change. We hope that this will demonstrate the use of social media data as a valuable source of understanding on global climate change.

  12. Does the Race of Neighborhood Role Models Matter? Collective Socialization Effects on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, James W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether neighborhood level collective socialization processes are racialized. It addresses whether Black and White students are affected differentially by their general neighborhood characteristics; whether the racial composition of positive and negative role models in a neighborhood shape student performance differently; and…

  13. Teacher: Students' Interpersonal Relationships and Students' Academic Achievements in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, F. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The classroom is a social system in which the teacher and the students interact as organizational members. The quality of classroom relations is dependent on the activities of both the instructor and the students. Several environmental conditions and circumstances often tend to either improve or depress the academic performances of…

  14. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases.

  15. Social Capital, Cultural Values, Immigration, and Academic Achievement: The Host Country Context and Contradictory Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankston, Carl L., III

    2004-01-01

    Social-capital explanations of school outcomes, particularly of the school outcomes of immigrant children and children of immigrants, have come into wide use in recent years. These explanations attempt to account for individual or group variations in school performance by viewing the family and community relations that surround children as forms…

  16. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION, AFFILIATION MOTIVATION, AND TASK DIFFICULTY AS DETERMINANTS OF SOCIAL CONFORMITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    subjected to contrived group pressures toward erroneous perceptual judgments. An analysis of variance of frequencies of conforming behavior revealed (a... conformity to group pressures disappear when predispositional motivational factors are controlled. (Author)...Extending from the differentiation of normative and informational processes of social influence an investigation of interactions between two

  17. Fair Access, Achievement and Geography: Explaining the Association between Social Class and Students' Choice of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Davies, Peter; Slack, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study is concerned with what determines prospective university students' first choice between universities of different status. The results suggest that examination performance, going to an independent school and fear of debt independently affect students' decisions. Social factors and students' perceived level of information on…

  18. Apprenticeships and Regeneration: The Civic Struggle to Achieve Social and Economic Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Alison; Rizvi, Sadaf; Unwin, Lorna

    2013-01-01

    Apprenticeship has always played both a social and economic role. Today, it forms part of the regeneration strategies of cities in the United Kingdom. This involves the creation and management of complex institutional relationships across the public and private domains of the civic landscape. This paper argues that it is through closely observed…

  19. Differential Effect of Social-Emotional Behaviors on Academic Achievement of Language-Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youngji

    2014-01-01

    Background: Language minority students, who are mostly immigrant students tend to perform at lower levels in school and to be at risk of school failure when they are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Objective: Based on the previous studies that addressed the importance of students' social skills for school success, I examined the social…

  20. The Effectiveness of Social Media Activities on Taiwanese Undergraduates' EFL Grammar Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singman, Cooper

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of social media language learning activities with traditional language learning activities on the development of L2 grammatical competence in two English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes at a Taiwanese university. The study was grounded in four bodies of knowledge: (a) the…

  1. Social Distance as a Factor in the Achievement of Pragmatic Competence. CLCS Occasional Paper No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Barbara Lazenby

    Acquisition of pragmatic competence by second language learners in the target language environment is examined, drawing on a study of learners of English as a Second Language in Dublin (Ireland). The hypothesis presented is that learners who perceive social or cultural distance between themselves and the target language culture will have greater…

  2. Social Justice and Advocacy Training for Counselors: Using Outreach to Achieve Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Rachael D.; West-Olatunji, Cirecie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present recommendations for conducting outreach in order to further the efforts in the counseling field towards social justice and advocacy. Informed by Freire's (2000) critical consciousness theory, examples of culturally centered counseling services are presented as outcomes of the experiences of participants.…

  3. Making Critical Connections between Social Studies Teaching and Student Achievement Using NAEP Data Explorer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Heafner, Tina L.

    2013-01-01

    In this analysis of promising practice, we demonstrate how social studies methods instructors can incorporate data analysis of the 2010 United States History National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP-USH) to facilitate pedagogical aims, engage teacher candidates in critical discourse, and investigate the contexts of teaching and learning.…

  4. Effects of Conceptual Assignments and Conceptual Change Discussions on Students' Misconceptions and Achievement Regarding Force and Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the effects of conceptual assignments and conceptual change discussions on high school students' achievement and misconceptions about force and motion. Analyzes pretest and posttest data from the Force Misconception and Force Achievement Tests (FMFAT). Discusses the effects on the conceptual change discussion on reducing…

  5. Dealing with Social Change: The Mormon Church's Response to Change in Women's Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannaccone, Laurence R.; Miles, Carrie A.

    1990-01-01

    After two decades of resistance, the Mormon church has begun accommodating change in women's roles. Accommodation increases participation among younger and less experienced members but decreases participation among older and more experienced members, suggesting that successful churches must balance accommodation and resistance to social change.…

  6. Linking Social Change and Developmental Change: Shifting Pathways of Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and…

  7. Changes in social inequalities in health in the Basque Country

    PubMed Central

    Anitua, C.; Esnaola, S.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the extent of the inequalities in self reported health between socioeconomic groups and its changes over time in the Basque Country (Spain).
DESIGN—Cross sectional data on the association between occupation, education and income and three health indicators was obtained from the Basque Health Surveys of 1986 and 1992. Representative population samples were analysed. In 1986 the number of respondents was 24 657 and in 1992, 13 277.
SETTING—Basque Country, Spain. 
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The effect of socioeconomic position on health and the magnitude of social inequalities in health were quantified using the odds ratios based on logistic regression analysis, and the Relative Index of Inequality.
RESULTS—As was expected, social inequalities in self reported health existed in both surveys, but the social gradient was greater in 1992. Social differences varied according to gender and health indicator. According to education an increase in social inequalities was observed consistently in all the health indicators except long term conditions in women. A consistent increase in inequalities in limiting longstanding illness was also observed according to all socioeconomic indicators.
CONCLUSIONS—These results agree to a large extent with those of previous studies in other countries. In this context the unequal distribution of material circumstances and working conditions between socioeconomic groups seem to play a major part in health inequalities. The worsening of the labour market during this period and the onset of a new economic recession may explain the increase in social inequalities over time.


Keywords: health inequalities; trends; social class; Spain PMID:10818119

  8. Acts of Reciprocity: Analyzing Social Exchange in a University Theater for Social Change Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloeren, Nicole Birgit

    2010-01-01

    In this study I sought to understand the complexities of the processes of reciprocity within a theater for social change service-learning project. My sample included three university students, one university faculty member, four high school students, one high school principal, and one high school teacher. As a participant- observer, I conducted an…

  9. Assessment of Social Network Change in a National Longitudinal Survey

    PubMed Central

    Schumm, L. Philip; Laumann, Edward O.; Kim, Juyeon; Kim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This article describes new longitudinal data on older adults’ egocentric social networks collected by the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). We describe a novel survey technique that was used to record specific personnel changes that occurred within respondents’ networks during the 5-year study period, and we make recommendations regarding usage of the resulting data. Method. Descriptive statistics are presented for measures of network size, composition, and structure at both waves, respondent-level summary measures of change in these characteristics between waves, as well as measures that distinguish between changes associated with losses of Wave 1 network members, additions of new ones, and changes in relationships with network members who were present at both waves. Results. The NSHAP network change module was successful in providing reliable information about specific changes that occurred within respondents’ confidant networks. Most respondents lost at least one confidant from W1 and added at least one new confidant between waves as well. Network growth was more common than network shrinkage. Both lost and new ties were weaker than ties that persisted throughout the study period. Discussion. These data provide new insight into the dynamic nature of networks in later life, revealing norms of network turnover, expansion, and weakening. Data limitations are discussed. PMID:25360026

  10. Relating emotional intelligence to social competence and academic achievement in high school students.

    PubMed

    Gil-Olarte Márquez, Paloma; Palomera Martín, Raquel; Brackett, Marc A

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the discriminant, criterion and incremental validity of an ability measure of Emotional Intelligence (EI). High school students (N = 77) took the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test - Spanish Version (MSCEIT V. 2.0, 2002), a measure of Big Five personality traits (BFQ; Caprara, Barbanelli, & Borgogni , 1993), an General Intelligence test (IGF-r 5; Yuste, 2002), and a social competence inventory (AECS; Moraleda, González, & García-Gallo, 1998). Students' academic grades also were obtained from official school records at the end of the school year. As predicted, the MSCEIT was discriminable from well-established measures of personality and intelligence. The test was also moderately related to social competence and predicted students' final grades. Most of the findings remained significant after personality and academic intelligence were statistically controlled. The potential utility of EI in the context of academic institutions is discussed.

  11. [Changes in the Declaration of Helsinki: economic fundamentalism, ethical imperialism and social control].

    PubMed

    Garrafa, V; Prado, M M

    2001-01-01

    This study is a critical reflection on attempts to alter the Declaration of Helsinki, a key document of the democratic theses achieved in the latter half of the 20th century and thus a legacy for humanity because of its ethical guidelines for research involving human beings. Therefore, there must be worldwide social control over such a document, and any change in it demands ample debate with international participation to avoid any reversal in its humanitarian thrust. The study analyzes current aspects of research with human subjects in so-called "outlying" or "developing" countries. It also brings a social and political focus to the matter, highlighting that the economic fundamentalism exercised by wealthy countries inevitably leads to an ethical imperialism, exposing communities of poor countries to even greater vulnerability, discrimination, and social exclusion.

  12. What Is the Nature of the Achievement Gap, Why Does It Persist and Are Government Goals Sufficient to Create Social Justice in the Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ruth; Burton, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The "achievement gap"--the term typically used to refer to differences in pupil attainment associated with social class, ethnicity and gender--remains an enduring obstacle to government goals of creating a socially just society. This article explores the nature of the achievement gap and some of the mechanisms that serve to perpetuate…

  13. The Impact of the Social, Academic, and Moral Development Programs of an Achievable Dream on Students during Their College and University Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    This evaluation case study explores the impact of the An Achievable Dream social, academic, and moral program on college student's performance in college. Through this study, the researcher was able to provide insight on college student and college student advocates perceptions of An Achievable Dream's social, academic, and moral program's impact…

  14. Being Labeled "Nerd": Factors that Influence the Social Acceptance of High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzsch, Katrin; Schutz, Astrid; Schroder-Abe, Michela

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation addresses the question of whether certain factors can protect high-achieving students at risk for being labeled a nerd against devaluation. In 2 studies, 125 and 317 students from Grade 8 evaluated vignettes describing average students and students who were called "nerds." Results indicate that being modest…

  15. Recent Advances in Developmental Pediatrics Related to Achievement and Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Wendy S.; Barabas, Gabor

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances related to the achievement and school behavior in children with tic syndromes, seizure disorders, and minor physical anomolies are discussed. The role of the school psychologist as liaison between the pupil's teacher, family, and physician is described, as well as his or her role with the children themselves. (Author/EGS)

  16. Reading Achievement and Social Selection in Independent Schools in Sweden: Results from IEA PIRLS 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The study investigates the mean difference in reading achievement between third-graders in public and independent schools in Sweden. The data come from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 conducted by IEA. Variables from the home questionnaire mainly indicating possession of cultural capital are used as independent variables. A total IRT score…

  17. Relationship of Academic, Physical and Social Self-Concepts of Students with Their Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahra, Asma-Tuz; Arif, Manzoor H.; Yousuf, Muhammad Imran

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of bachelor degree students. Female students at bachelor were considered the target population. A sample of 1500 students was selected by using two stage cluster sampling technique. An amended form of Self-Descriptive Questionnaire developed by Marsh (1985) was used…

  18. Examining the Social Justice Identity of Assistant Principals in Persistently Low-Achieving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Bradley W.; Bukoski, Beth E.; Berry, Matthew; Mitchell, Amanda M.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of high-stakes accountability, education-related policy efforts have aimed to address the improvement of persistently low-achieving (PLA) schools via turnaround reform strategies. Such strategies provide opportunities for educational leaders to influence the process; however, limited research examining the role of the assistant…

  19. Closing the Social Class Achievement Gap for First-Generation Students in Undergraduate Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Giffen, Cynthia J.; Blair, Seth S.; Rouse, Douglas I.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Many students start college intending to pursue a career in the biosciences, but too many abandon this goal because they struggle in introductory biology. Interventions have been developed to close achievement gaps for underrepresented minority students and women, but no prior research has attempted to close the gap for first-generation students,…

  20. Irish Association of Social Care Educator's Lifetime Achievement Award Presentation to John Hanna

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElwee, Niall

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the speech of Dr. Nial McElwee on his presentation of the Lifetime Achievement Award to John Hanna, formerly Director of St. Augustine's Special School in Limerick City, Ireland. Hanna provided excellent supervision and nurturing to the educators and practitioners of child and youth care. He is a constant advocate for change…

  1. Implicit Social Cognitions Predict Sex Differences in Math Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosek, Brian A.; Smyth, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    Gender stereotypes about math and science do not need to be endorsed, or even available to conscious introspection, to contribute to the sex gap in engagement and achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The authors examined implicit math attitudes and stereotypes among a heterogeneous sample of 5,139 participants.…

  2. Effects of Full-Day Kindergarten on Academic Achievement and Social Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Harris; Batts Allen, Ashley; Patall, Erika A.; Dent, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis found that attending full-day (or all-day) kindergarten had a positive association with academic achievement (compared to half-day kindergarten) equal to about one quarter standard deviation at the end of the kindergarten year. But the association disappeared by third grade. Reasons for this fade-out are discussed. Social…

  3. The far-reaching effects of believing people can change: implicit theories of personality shape stress, health, and achievement during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David Scott; Johnson, Rebecca; Spitzer, Brian James; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Powers, Joseph; Dweck, Carol S

    2014-06-01

    The belief that personality is fixed (an entity theory of personality) can give rise to negative reactions to social adversities. Three studies showed that when social adversity is common-at the transition to high school--an entity theory can affect overall stress, health, and achievement. Study 1 showed that an entity theory of personality, measured during the 1st month of 9th grade, predicted more negative immediate reactions to social adversity and, at the end of the year, greater stress, poorer health, and lower grades in school. Studies 2 and 3, both experiments, tested a brief intervention that taught a malleable (incremental) theory of personality--the belief that people can change. The incremental theory group showed less negative reactions to an immediate experience of social adversity and, 8 months later, reported lower overall stress and physical illness. They also achieved better academic performance over the year. Discussion centers on the power of targeted psychological interventions to effect far-reaching and long-term change by shifting interpretations of recurring adversities during developmental transitions.

  4. Urbanization and social change in the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Abu-lughod, J

    1983-01-01

    "... This paper represents an exploratory essay that looks at variations (variables) within the Arab region over time and space and that attempts to extract some of the underlying common elements that distinguish present day social change and urbanization in the Arab world." A typology is developed that identifies sub-types of Arab countries on the basis of economic structure. Major categories include heartland/confrontation states, neocolonial dependencies, semi-oil states, and oil-wealthy states.

  5. The influence of community context on how coalitions achieve HIV-preventive structural change.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah J; Miller, Robin Lin; Francisco, Vincent T

    2014-02-01

    Community coalition action theory (CCAT) depicts the processes and factors that affect coalition formation, maintenance, institutionalization, actions, and outcomes. CCAT proposes that community context affects coalitions at every phase of development and operation. We analyzed data from 12 Connect to Protect coalitions using inductive content analysis to examine how contextual factors (e.g., economics, collaboration, history, norms, and politics) enhance or impede coalitions' success in achieving outcomes. Consistent with CCAT, context affected the objectives that coalitions developed and those they completed. Results suggest that local prevention history and political support have particular impact on coalitions' success in creating structural changes. These data underscore the heuristic value of CCAT, yet also imply that the contextual constructs that affect outcomes are issue specific.

  6. A community health worker intervention to address the social determinants of health through policy change.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Maia; Schachter, Ken A; Sabo, Samantha J; Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Gomez, Sofia; De Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Carvajal, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Public policy that seeks to achieve sustainable improvements in the social determinants of health, such as income, education, housing, food security and neighborhood conditions, can create positive and sustainable health effects. This paper describes preliminary results of Acción para la Salud, a public health intervention in which Community health workers (CHWs) from five health agencies engaged their community in the process of making positive systems and environmental changes. Academic-community partners trained Acción CHWs in community advocacy and provided ongoing technical assistance in developing strategic advocacy plans. The CHWs documented community advocacy activities through encounter forms in which they identified problems, formulated solutions, and described systems and policy change efforts. Strategy maps described the steps of the advocacy plans. Findings demonstrate that CHWs worked to initiate discussions about underlying social determinants and environment-related factors that impact health, and identified solutions to improve neighborhood conditions, create community opportunities, and increase access to services.

  7. Achieving the triple bottom line in the face of inherent trade-offs among social equity, economic return, and conservation.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Klein, Carissa J; Brown, Christopher J; Beger, Maria; Grantham, Hedley S; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Tulloch, Vivitskaia J; Watts, Matt; White, Crow; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-04-09

    Triple-bottom-line outcomes from resource management and conservation, where conservation goals and equity in social outcomes are maximized while overall costs are minimized, remain a highly sought-after ideal. However, despite widespread recognition of the importance that equitable distribution of benefits or costs across society can play in conservation success, little formal theory exists for how to explicitly incorporate equity into conservation planning and prioritization. Here, we develop that theory and implement it for three very different case studies in California (United States), Raja Ampat (Indonesia), and the wider Coral Triangle region (Southeast Asia). We show that equity tends to trade off nonlinearly with the potential to achieve conservation objectives, such that similar conservation outcomes can be possible with greater equity, to a point. However, these case studies also produce a range of trade-off typologies between equity and conservation, depending on how one defines and measures social equity, including direct (linear) and no trade-off. Important gaps remain in our understanding, most notably how equity influences probability of conservation success, in turn affecting the actual ability to achieve conservation objectives. Results here provide an important foundation for moving the science and practice of conservation planning-and broader spatial planning in general-toward more consistently achieving efficient, equitable, and effective outcomes.

  8. The role of the organizational champion in achieving health system change.

    PubMed

    Hendy, Jane; Barlow, James

    2012-02-01

    In healthcare there is a long held wisdom that 'champions' are a key aspect of organizational change. Drawing on organizational management theory, we examine the role of champions in three health and social care organizations in England as they attempt to move services to a remote model of delivery, 'telecare'. The delivery of remote care is a significant policy in the U.K. and elsewhere, but its introduction has been challenging. Over three years ethnographic methods (observations, informed discussions and interviews) were used to analyze the role of organizational champions in implementing remote care. Cases were local authorities and associated primary care trusts. Participants were champions and organizational members involved in implementation. Our study shows that organizational champions are highly effective in the first phase of adoption, when change is contained within distinct sub-sets of practice. Moving beyond local contexts the effectiveness of the champions varied. Identification centered on the remote care work. This identification enabled the champions to motivate others and move beyond their normally prescribed roles, contributing to innovation ideas, processes and practices. When required to shift their work organization-wide, and share ideas outside their professional culture, some champions responded with resistance, resulting in a lack of innovation spread. These results caution against allowing change to become positioned within the remit of a few individuals. Whilst this strategy may be initially beneficial, the role of champion may be less useful, even detrimental to progress, in the later stages of implementation, particularly if identification with the new circumstances is not established.

  9. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi.

  10. Connective power: Solar electrification and social change in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Arne Edward

    and social change. Mainstream policy makers have sought to expand the market through credit-based sales. However, my analysis indicates that, without subsidies, credit-based sales are unlikely to deepen access beyond levels established in the existing cash market. Thus, while solar electrification may potentially contribute to sustainable development, concerns about equity and other social issues indicate a need for careful attention to the implications of policy choices and processes that influence the social use possibilities of the technology.

  11. Social Change and Increasing of Bipolar Disorders: An Evolutionary Model

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this paper is to see if behaviours defined as pathological and maladjusted in certain contexts may produce adaptive effects in other contexts, especially if they occur in attenuated form. Interactions between environment and behaviour are studied from an evolutionary standpoint in an attempt to understand how new attitudes emerge in an evolving context. Methodology: Narrative review. Following an historical examination of how the description of depression in Western society has changed, we examine a series of studies performed in areas where great changes have taken place as well as research on emigration from Sardinia in the 1960s and 70s and immigration to Sardinia in the 1990s. Results and conclusions: If we postulate that mood disorders are on the increase and that the epidemic began in the 17th century with the "English malady", we must suppose that at least the "light" forms have an adaptive advantage, otherwise the expansion of the disorder would have been self-limiting. "Compulsive hyper-responsabilization”, as well as explorative behaviours, may represent a base for adaptation in certain conditions of social change. The social emphasis in individualism and responsibility may have changed not only the frequency, but also the phenomenology of mood disorders particularly the increases in bipolar disorders. From the sociobiological standpoint the conditions that may favour "subthreshold" bipolar or depressive features are to be considered in relation to the contextual role of gender and the different risks of the two disorders in males and females. PMID:23878615

  12. Closing the Social Class Achievement Gap for First-Generation Students in Undergraduate Biology

    PubMed Central

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Giffen, Cynthia J.; Blair, Seth S.; Rouse, Douglas I.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Many students start college intending to pursue a career in the biosciences, but too many abandon this goal because they struggle in introductory biology. Interventions have been developed to close achievement gaps for underrepresented minority students and women, but no prior research has attempted to close the gap for first-generation students, a population that accounts for nearly a fifth of college students. We report a values affirmation intervention conducted with 798 U.S. students (154 first-generation) in an introductory biology course for majors. For first-generation students, values affirmation significantly improved final course grades and retention in the second course in the biology sequence, as well as overall GPA for the semester. This brief intervention narrowed the achievement gap between first-generation and continuing generation students for course grades by 50% and increased retention in a critical gateway course by 20%. Our results suggest that educators can expand the pipeline for first-generation students to continue studying in the biosciences with psychological interventions. PMID:25049437

  13. Diffusion, cohort change, and social patterns of smoking☆

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.

    2011-01-01

    In noting that common explanations of smoking cannot account for both its current inverse relationship with SES and the shift over time toward greater concentration among low SES groups, this paper presents an explanation based on diffusion and status distinctions. The explanation predicts that, as cigarette diffusion proceeds and fashions change, the social determinants of smoking will shift across cohorts, such that initially positive relationships between pre-adult components of socioeconomic status and smoking in early cohorts become negative in later cohorts. Tests using historical, cohort-linked aggregate data on cigarette diffusion, and individual-level data from the General Social Surveys covering the years from 1978 to 1994 and cohorts from 1889 to 1976 largely support the predictions. In comparing older to newer cohorts, the results show correspondence between the stage of cigarette diffusion and the direction and strength of the relationships of education, parental status, urban residence, and gender with cigarette smoking. PMID:22485056

  14. Education, gender, and migration in the context of social change.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nathalie

    2009-12-01

    Although sociologists have identified education as likely determinant of migration, the ways in which education affects migration are unclear and empirical results are disparate. This paper addresses the relationship between educational attainment, enrolment, and migration, focusing on the role of gender and how it changes with evolving social contexts. Using empirical analyses based in Nepal, results indicate that educational attainment has positive effects and enrolment has negative effects on out-migration and including enrolment in the model increases the effect of attainment. In the case of women, with the changing role of gender, increased education and labor force participation, the affect of educational attainment changes drastically over time, from almost no effect, to a strong positive effect. Consideration of enrolment, and the role of gender in education, employment, and marriage may help to explain the disparate results in past research on education and migration.

  15. EDUCATION, GENDER, AND MIGRATION IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL CHANGE

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Although sociologists have identified education as likely determinant of migration, the ways in which education affects migration are unclear and empirical results are disparate. This paper addresses the relationship between educational attainment, enrolment, and migration, focusing on the role of gender and how it changes with evolving social contexts. Using empirical analyses based in Nepal, results indicate that educational attainment has positive effects and enrolment has negative effects on out-migration and including enrolment in the model increases the effect of attainment. In the case of women, with the changing role of gender, increased education and labor force participation, the affect of educational attainment changes drastically over time, from almost no effect, to a strong positive effect. Consideration of enrolment, and the role of gender in education, employment, and marriage may help to explain the disparate results in past research on education and migration. PMID:20645440

  16. Social Work Education: Achieving Transformative Learning through a Cultural Competence Model for Transformative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, Kesha

    2007-01-01

    Migration across national borders has resulted in demographic changes in the United States, causing the country to become more multi-ethnic. This presents considerable challenges for graduate level educators who need to be responsive to the unique academic needs of diverse populations by considering students' previous experiences, values, and…

  17. Changes in achievement goals and self-concept in the early months of junior high school.

    PubMed

    Papaioannou, Athanasios G; Siskos, Basil N

    2008-12-01

    Changes in goal orientations and self-concept in Greek language and physical education classes during the first months of junior high school in Greece were studied. Participants, 572 students in their first year of junior high school, responded to questionnaires assessing (a) goal orientations and satisfaction in physical education and Greek language classes, (b) multidimensional self-concept, (c) attitudes toward school and teachers, and (d) life satisfaction. The measures were collected in three sessions: at the beginning of the school year, 6 wk. later, and 14 wk. later. The third measurement followed the students' grades for the first term. Students showed significant decreases in mastery and social-approval goal orientations in both physical education and Greek language classes. They also showed negative attitudes toward teachers, perceptions of physical ability, and relationships with parents. Most differences emerged between Weeks 6 and 14. The learning environment and the assessment system in Greek junior high school seem to play an important role in the decrease of students' motivation and perceived competence.

  18. Social Structure, Social Change and Parental Influence in Adolescent Sex-Role Socialization: 1964-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuptow, Lloyd B.

    1980-01-01

    Results of this study of Wisconsin high school seniors were consistent with explanations involving role processes and structural effects. Same-sex influence appeared. Father's influence was related to instrumental orientations in boys. Contrary to expectations, there was no evidence of changing sex roles in the patterns of influence between 1964…

  19. Patterns of Change in U.S. Gender Achievement Gaps during Elementary and Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahle, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Research on gender achievement gaps shows they exist, and are largest in the tails of the distribution, starting as early as Kindergarten and persisting through eighth grade. In mathematics, studies find small average gender achievement gaps and larger systematically male-favoring gaps among the highest achieving students. This paper seeks to…

  20. Stock Price Change Rate Prediction by Utilizing Social Network Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques. PMID:24790586

  1. Climate Change & Social Justice: Why We Should Care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, Nathan T.

    2015-03-01

    In the past several years the global impacts brought about by climate change have become increasingly apparent through the advent of numerous natural disasters. In these events the social costs of climate change have materialized demonstrating high costs in lives, livelihoods, and equity. Due to geographic bad-luck many of the countries most affected by climate change are those that contributed least, a challenge that's exacerbated by a lack of robust infrastructure in these countries. Wealthy nations remain at risk themselves and incidents such as Hurricanes Sandy & Katrina have demonstrated that in times of crisis even institutions like the Red Cross will abandon the poor to their deaths. As necessary action on climate change would cost the fossil fuel industry 20 trillion, money in politics has stymied action. Recently, however, a groundswell grassroots movement (e.g. People's Climate March in NYC) and great strides in energy technology and policy have begun to create necessary change. Reports quantifying the impacts of climate change will be discussed, as well as an update on the current state of the global climate justice movement. The important contributions from scientists to this movement will be highlighted. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1258923).

  2. Demographic Change, Social Security Systems, and Savings1

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Mansfield, Richard K.; Moore, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In theory, improvements in healthy life expectancy should generate increases in the average age of retirement, with little effect on savings rates. In many countries, however, retirement incentives in social security programs prevent retirement ages from keeping pace with changes in life expectancy, leading to an increased need for life-cycle savings. Analyzing a cross-country panel of macroeconomic data, we find that increased longevity raises aggregate savings rates in countries with universal pension coverage and retirement incentives, though the effect disappears in countries with pay-as-you-go systems and high replacement rates. PMID:19865594

  3. The Asia-Pacific Maritime Security Strategy: Achieving U.S. National Security Objectives in a Changing Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-27

    ACHIEVING U.S. NATIONAL SECURITY OBJECTIVES IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT Indian Ocean In sharp contrast to the South and East China Seas, the Indian ... ENVIRONMENT Second, we are working together with our allies and partners from Northeast Asia to the Indian Ocean to build their maritime capacity. We...Pacific Maritime Security Strategy: Achieving U.S. National Security Objectives in a Changing Environment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  4. Science, Technology and Social Change Course's Effects on Technological Literacy Levels of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yigit, E. Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Social studies curricula are required in order to prepare to educate children who continue to learn after their formal training, and it is vital that teachers receive an education properly. In Social Studies Education Departments of Education Faculties Science, Technology and Social Change course is convenient to this aim and it contributes to…

  5. Governance of social dilemmas in climate change adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisaro, Alexander; Hinkel, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    In the field of adaptation governance research, current discussion on the barriers to adaptation shows that theoretical explanations for why institutions emerge and how they enable or constrain adaptation are underdeveloped. In this Perspective, we show that there is a significant opportunity to advance the understanding of adaptation governance by integrating insights that have been developed in the extensive commons literature on the institutions that work to overcome social conflicts or dilemmas. 'Realist-materialist' approaches to understanding such collective action are particularly valuable to adaptation governance research because they emphasize how biophysical conditions give rise to certain types of social dilemma. Climate change affects these biophysical conditions, and thus may alter dilemmas or create new ones. Based on realist-materialist reasoning, this Perspective describes six types of dilemma, illustrates each with a case from the adaptation literature and draws on insights from the commons literature regarding relevant contextual conditions and effective policy instruments for overcoming social dilemmas. The dilemma types provide entry points for rigorous comparative adaptation research to deepen understanding of how context influences adaptation governance processes.

  6. Agency on the move: revisioning the route to social change.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Kathryn E

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the course of everyday life individuals enter into interactions in which an intricate relationship between agency and subordination can be observed: they sometimes act agentively and at other times-via discursive and/or interpersonal processes-their agency is reduced to objectness. Thus, theoretically we can think of constant dynamics of transfer of agency. It is argued that the transfer of agency between persons (or groups) is a fundamental quality of the societal discourses in which all persons are constituted. This transfer of agency occurs constantly throughout social interaction and at different levels of social functioning as individuals live and make meaning of their experiences. In light of this perspective, it is suggested that social change movements that aim to interrupt the transfer of agency and instead fix agency with one person (or one group of people) are inadequate. Rather, these movements can actually subvert their own agenda by producing problematic tensions in discourse and subjectivity. The self-defense movement, a component of the movement to end violence against women, is presented as a case study. The problematic and tension-filled positions and meanings the movement (re)produces for women are explored as an effect of denying any transfer of agency between women and men around issues of violence and gender oppression.

  7. Trying to trust: Brain activity during interpersonal social attitude change.

    PubMed

    Filkowski, Megan M; Anderson, Ian W; Haas, Brian W

    2016-04-01

    Interpersonal trust and distrust are important components of human social interaction. Although several studies have shown that brain function is associated with either trusting or distrusting others, very little is known regarding brain function during the control of social attitudes, including trust and distrust. This study was designed to investigate the neural mechanisms involved when people attempt to control their attitudes of trust or distrust toward another person. We used a novel control-of-attitudes fMRI task, which involved explicit instructions to control attitudes of interpersonal trust and distrust. Control of trust or distrust was operationally defined as changes in trustworthiness evaluations of neutral faces before and after the control-of-attitudes fMRI task. Overall, participants (n = 60) evaluated faces paired with the distrust instruction as being less trustworthy than faces paired with the trust instruction following the control-of-distrust task. Within the brain, both the control-of-trust and control-of-distrust conditions were associated with increased temporoparietal junction, precuneus (PrC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and medial prefrontal cortex activity. Individual differences in the control of trust were associated with PrC activity, and individual differences in the control of distrust were associated with IFG activity. Together, these findings identify a brain network involved in the explicit control of distrust and trust and indicate that the PrC and IFG may serve to consolidate interpersonal social attitudes.

  8. China's Social Work Education in the Face of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Between 1952 and 1979, social work was banned as an academic discipline, and social workers relied on experience alone in carrying out their duties. Since then social work training has been offered in universities and vocational schools; and existing social workers have received in-service training. However, social work education is still in its…

  9. From spare change to real change. The social sector as beta site for business innovation.

    PubMed

    Kanter, R M

    1999-01-01

    Corporations are continually looking for new sources of innovation. Today several leading companies are beginning to find inspiration in an unexpected place: the social sector. That includes public schools, welfare-to-work programs, and the inner city. Indeed, a new paradigm for innovation is emerging: a partnership between private enterprise and public interest that produces profitable and sustainable change for both sides. In this article, the author shows how some companies are moving beyond corporate social responsibility to corporate social innovation. Traditionally, companies viewed the social sector as a dumping ground for their spare cash, obsolete equipment, and tired executives. But that mind-set hardly created lasting change. Now companies are viewing community needs as opportunities to develop ideas and demonstrate business technologies; find and serve new markets; and solve long-standing business problems. They focus on inventing sophisticated solutions through a hands-on approach. This is not charity; it is R & D, a strategic business investment. The author concedes that it isn't easy to make the new paradigm work. But she has found that successful private-public partnerships share six characteristics: a clear business agenda, strong partners committed to change, investment by both parties, rootedness in the user community, links to other organizations, and a commitment to sustain and replicate the results. Drawing on examples of successful companies such as IBM and Bell Atlantic, the author illustrates how this paradigm has produced innovations that have both business and community payoffs.

  10. Social Network Assessments and Interventions for Health Behavior Change: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl A.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks provide a powerful approach for health behavior change. This article documents how social network interventions have been successfully utilized for a range of health behaviors including HIV risk practices, smoking, exercise, dieting, family planning, bullying, and mental health. We review the literature that suggests relationship between health behaviors and social network attributes demonstrate a high degree of specificity. The article then examines hypothesized social influence mechanisms including social norms, modeling, and social rewards and the factors of social identity and social rewards that can be employed to sustain social network interventions. Areas of future research avenues are highlighted, including the need to examine and analytically adjust for contamination and social diffusion, social influence versus differential affiliation, and network change. Use and integration of mhealth and face-to-face networks for promoting health behavior change are also critical research areas. PMID:26332926

  11. Social Network Assessments and Interventions for Health Behavior Change: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Latkin, Carl A; Knowlton, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    Social networks provide a powerful approach for health behavior change. This article documents how social network interventions have been successfully used for a range of health behaviors, including HIV risk practices, smoking, exercise, dieting, family planning, bullying, and mental health. We review the literature that suggests the relationship between health behaviors and social network attributes demonstrates a high degree of specificity. The article then examines hypothesized social influence mechanisms including social norms, modeling, and social rewards and the factors of social identity and social rewards that can be employed to sustain social network interventions. Areas of future research avenues are highlighted, including the need to examine and to adjust analytically for contamination and social diffusion, social influence versus differential affiliation, and network change. Use and integration of mhealth and face-to-face networks for promoting health behavior change are also critical research areas.

  12. Personality and social change: individual differences, life path, and importance attributed to the women's movement.

    PubMed

    Agronick, G S; Duncan, L E

    1998-06-01

    This article identifies antecedent characteristics of individuals who found the women's movement important and then shows how finding it important was associated with personality change. Eighty-six women provided personality and life data as college seniors in 1958 or 1960, prior to the onset of the women's movement, and in 1981, after the movement gained momentum. A combination of openness, ambition, and dissatisfaction, as assessed by California Psychological Inventory (CPI; H. Gough, 1957/1966) in college, and subsequent life path from ages 28 to 43 significantly predicted importance attributed to the women's movement (IWM). On CPI scales, IWM was associated with significant increases on scales including Dominance, Self-Acceptance, Empathy, Psychological Mindedness, and Achievement via Independence. Correlates of IWM with self-reported feelings at ages 33 and 43 and observer-based personality ratings at age 43 supplemented analyses of personality change. Findings support the utility of examining the impact of social change on personality.

  13. Protecting human health in a changing world: the role of social and economic development.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, A.; Hales, S.; Litidamu, N.; Phillips, D.; Martin, J.

    2000-01-01

    The biological and physical environment of the planet is changing at an unprecedented rate as a result of human activity, and these changes may have an enormous impact on human health. One of the goals of human development is to protect health in the face of rapid environmental change, but we often fail to do this. The aim in this paper is to distinguish between socioeconomic aspects of development that are likely to be protective and those that are likely to increase vulnerability (the capacity for loss resulting from environmental change). Examples include climate change in the Pacific. We conclude that protecting human health in a changing world requires us to take steps to minimize harmful change wherever possible, and at the same time to be prepared for surprises. The goals of mitigation (reducing or preventing change) and adaptation (response to change) are not mutually exclusive. In fact, steps to make populations more resilient in the face of change are often similar to those that are needed to lighten the load on the environment. We need social policies that convert economic growth into human development. Wider application of sustainable development concepts is part of the solution. In particular, there is a need to promote health as an essential asset of poor and vulnerable populations. It is their key to productivity and to surviving shocks; it is also the key to achieving broader development goals such as universal education. For these reasons it is in the interests of all sectors--economic, social and environmental--to play their particular roles in protecting and improving health. PMID:11019463

  14. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity: changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion.

    PubMed

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated whether social cohesion protects the residents against the negative impact of unsafe areas on health and PA. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on Dutch survey data, including 47,926 respondents living in 2974 areas. An increase in area level unsafety feelings between 2009 and 2011 was associated with more people reporting poor general health in 2012 in that area, but was not related to PA. Changes in reported area crime were not related to either poor general health or PA. The social cohesion in the area did not modify the effect of changes in social safety on health and PA. The results suggest that tackling feelings of unsafety in an area might contribute to the better general health of the residents. Because changes in area social safety were not associated with PA, we found no leads that such health benefits were achieved through an increase in physical activity.

  15. Social support and physical activity change in Latinas: Results from the Seamos Saludables trial

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Becky; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Pekmezi, Dori; Larsen, Britta A.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Family responsibilities and poor social support are barriers to physical activity among Latinas. This study evaluated the effects of a home- and print-based intervention on social support, moderating effects of familial ties on support and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and mediating effects of support on MVPA. Methods Participants were randomized to receive through the mail either individually tailored physical activity intervention or general wellness print materials. Familial ties and social support were assessed by marital and child status and the social support for physical activity measure, respectively. MVPA was measured using the 7-day Physical Activity Recall Interview and accelerometer. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months post-treatment, and 12 months follow-up. Results Participants (n=266; 40.6 ± 9.9 years old) were mostly immigrant and Spanish-speaking Latinas. The intervention group achieved greater increases in family and friend support compared to the wellness control group from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up (p<0.05). Intervention changes in support did not depend on marital or child status. The intervention also increased minutes per week of MVPA more than the wellness control (p<0.05) and the effect did not depend on marital or child status. There were significant indirect effects of treatment, indicating the intervention achieved greater increases in MVPA by increasing family (ab=5.21, SE=2.94, 95% CI=0.91–14.11) and friend (ab=6.83, SE=5.15, 95% CI=0.16–20.56) support. Conclusions The intervention improved and sustained support from family and friends and MVPA irrespective of familial ties. Social support mediated increases in MVPA. PMID:26863464

  16. Trajectories of Change and Relationship between Parent-Adolescent School-Related Conflict and Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brkovic, Irma; Keresteš, Gordana; Puklek Levpušc?ek, Melita

    2014-01-01

    The study explored changes in parent-adolescent school-related conflict rate and academic performance over a 5-year period among Croatian early adolescents and gender differences in these changes. Furthermore, it examined the relationship between conflict and achievement. The study was performed by applying an accelerated approach to overlapping…

  17. Does the Confidence of First-Year Undergraduate Students Change over Time According to Achievement Goal Profile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the changes in students' academic behavioural confidence over the course of their first year of academic study and whether changes differ by their achievement goal profile. Self-report data were collected from 434 participants in three waves: at the beginning of the first semester of their first year of undergraduate study, at…

  18. Achievement Information Monitoring in Schools (AIMS): Larger Straws in the Winds of Change. Professional Paper 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    The Southwest Regional Laboratory for Educational Research and Development (SWRL) is dedicated to the belief that individual differences among students do not stand in the way of universal quality instructional achievement in the nation's schools. Important steps towards the condition of universal instructionalized achievement are: (1) the…

  19. Solution Strategies and Achievement in Dutch Complex Arithmetic: Latent Variable Modeling of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickendorff, Marian; Heiser, Willem J.; van Putten, Cornelis M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, national assessments at the end of primary school (Grade 6) show a decline of achievement on problems of complex or written arithmetic over the last two decades. The present study aims at contributing to an explanation of the large achievement decrease on complex division, by investigating the strategies students used in…

  20. Components of Achievement Motivation as Predictors of Potential for Economic Change, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroff, Joseph; And Others

    The major goal of this research study was the identification and validation of measures of components of personal achievement orientations that can be used in the job training program context. The guiding conceptions for the research were based on Atkinson's theory of achievement motivation, Gurin's investigations of expectancies, and measurement…

  1. Effect of cooperative learning strategies on student verbal interactions and achievement during conceptual change instruction in 10th grade general science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonning, Robert A.

    This study evaluated the effects of cooperative learning on students' verbal interaction patterns and achievement in a conceptual change instructional model in secondary science. Current conceptual change instructional models recognize the importance of student-student verbal interactions, but lack specific strategies to encourage these interactions. Cooperative learning may provide the necessary strategies. Two sections of low-ability 10th-grade students were designated the experimental and control groups. Students in both sections received identical content instruction on the particle model of matter using conceptual change teaching strategies. Students worked in teacher-assigned small groups on in-class assignments. The experimental section used cooperative learning strategies involving instruction in collaborative skills and group evaluation of assignments. The control section received no collaborative skills training and students were evaluated individually on group work. Gains on achievement were assessed using pre- and posttreatment administrations of an investigator-designed short-answer essay test. The assessment strategies used in this study represent an attempt to measure conceptual change. Achievement was related to students' ability to correctly use appropriate scientific explanations of events and phenomena and to discard use of naive conceptions. Verbal interaction patterns of students working in groups were recorded on videotape and analyzed using an investigator-designed verbal interaction scheme. The targeted verbalizations used in the interaction scheme were derived from the social learning theories of Piaget and Vygotsky. It was found that students using cooperative learning strategies showed greater achievement gains as defined above and made greater use of specific verbal patterns believed to be related to increased learning. The results of the study demonstrated that cooperative learning strategies enhance conceptual change instruction. More

  2. Social Network Changes and Life Events across the Life Span: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrzus, Cornelia; Hanel, Martha; Wagner, Jenny; Neyer, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    For researchers and practitioners interested in social relationships, the question remains as to how large social networks typically are, and how their size and composition change across adulthood. On the basis of predictions of socioemotional selectivity theory and social convoy theory, we conducted a meta-analysis on age-related social network…

  3. Early Adolescents' Social Standing in Peer Groups: Behavioral Correlates of Stability and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Miller, Shari; Costanzo, Philip R.

    2009-01-01

    Sociometric nominations, social cognitive maps, and self-report questionnaires were completed in consecutive years by 327 students (56% girls) followed longitudinally from grade 7 to grade 8 to examine the stability of social standing in peer groups and correlates of changes in social standing. Social preference, perceived popularity, network…

  4. Mediation of Changes in Anxiety and Depression During Treatment of Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovitch, David A.; Stefan G. Hofmann, Michael K.; Suvak, Michael K.; In-Albon, Tina

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the interactive process of changes in social anxiety and depression during treatment, the authors assessed weekly symptoms in 66 adult outpatients with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who participated in cognitive- behavioral group therapy. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed that improvements in social anxiety mediated…

  5. Models of social evolution: can we do better to predict ‘who helps whom to achieve what’?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, António M. M.; Kokko, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Models of social evolution and the evolution of helping have been classified in numerous ways. Two categorical differences have, however, escaped attention in the field. Models tend not to justify why they use a particular assumption structure about who helps whom: a large number of authors model peer-to-peer cooperation of essentially identical individuals, probably for reasons of mathematical convenience; others are inspired by particular cooperatively breeding species, and tend to assume unidirectional help where subordinates help a dominant breed more efficiently. Choices regarding what the help achieves (i.e. which life-history trait of the helped individual is improved) are similarly made without much comment: fecundity benefits are much more commonly modelled than survival enhancements, despite evidence that these may interact when the helped individual can perform life-history reallocations (load-lightening and related phenomena). We review our current theoretical understanding of effects revealed when explicitly asking ‘who helps whom to achieve what’, from models of mutual aid in partnerships to the very few models that explicitly contrast the strength of selection to help enhance another individual's fecundity or survival. As a result of idiosyncratic modelling choices in contemporary literature, including the varying degree to which demographic consequences are made explicit, there is surprisingly little agreement on what types of help are predicted to evolve most easily. We outline promising future directions to fill this gap. PMID:26729928

  6. Timber, Minerals, and Social Change: An Exploratory Test of Two Resource-Dependent Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machlis, Gary E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Tests relationship between local resource production and social systems in two natural resource industry communities: one timber-dependent, the other mining-dependent. Data collected for 13 resource-production indicators and 15 social-change indicators. Confirms hypothesis that social change is associated with the production level of local…

  7. The Changing Context of Australian Youth and Its Implications for Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to monitor and improve young people's school-to-work transitions have not generated a discernable change in patterns of social inclusion among young people. Educational approaches that promote social inclusion need to take account of the changing social and economic realities with which all young Australians engage, and address important…

  8. Practicing Policy, Pursuing Change, and Promoting Social Justice: A Policy Instructional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidemann, Gretchen; Fertig, Ralph; Jansson, Bruce; Kim, Hansung

    2011-01-01

    Schools of social work are mandated to train students for policy practice. A new instructional approach is needed so that social workers skillfully engage in policy change to address the growing economic, social, and cultural problems that affect our clients. This article presents the Practicing Policy, Pursuing Change, and Promoting Social…

  9. Raising Roma Educational Participation and Achievement: Collaborative Relationships, Transformative Change, and a Social Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Andrew Richard

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of Roma, Gypsy and Traveller (RGT) educational exclusion in the European Union and seeks to provide insights into good practice through case studies focusing on Bulgaria and the UK. The paper makes a case for the promotion of collaborative relationships, where RGT communities are active partners in developing curricula…

  10. Change and Stability in the Characteristics of Homicide Victims, Offenders and Incidents During Rapid Social Change.

    PubMed

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2007-03-01

    The Russian homicide rate doubled during the 1990s and is now among the highest in the world. During this same period, Russian citizens experienced swift, widespread, and meaningful political, economic, and social change. It is likely that this profound transition altered structural conditions, cultural norms, and interpersonal relations in a way that led to changes in the nature of interpersonal violence. Taking advantage of a unique set of homicide narratives drawn from court and police records in the Udmurt Republic, this study examined stability and change in the distribution of Russian homicide victim, offender, and incident characteristics before and after the fall of the Soviet Union. Odds ratios obtained from logistic regression showed no change in victim characteristics, but substantial changes in several offender and incident characteristics. We discuss the potential mechanisms through which the structural and cultural shifts are resulting in these changes and conclude that the ongoing transition is largely responsible for the changing nature of homicide in Russia. In doing so, we introduce the new term "criminological transition" and suggest that Russia (and perhaps other nations) may have experienced a change in its crime profile in much the same way as we discuss a "demographic transition" in terms of fertility and mortality profiles.

  11. Changing epistemologies under conditions of social change in two Arab communities in Israel.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The study of epistemic thinking focuses on how people understand and coordinate objective and subjective aspects of knowing and make sense of multiple and discrepant knowledge claims. Typically described in terms of normative development, cross-cultural studies show differences in epistemic development and characteristics of epistemic thinking. This study focuses on within-culture variations of epistemic thinking, with the assumption that social change will produce changes in development. Arab society in Israel has undergone notable change over the last half century. In this cross-sectional research design, cross-generational comparison and rural-urban comparison were used as proxies for longitudinal social change. Three generations of Muslim Arab women in a village in Israel (20 adolescents, 20 mothers and 20 grandmothers) and 20 Muslim Arab adolescents from a large, mixed city in the same region responded to six dilemmas invoking epistemic thinking. Village adolescents were more subjectivist than their mothers and grandmothers. Sociodemographic characteristics representing greater exposure to diverse people and ideas accounted for generational differences. Both urban and rural adolescents tended towards subjectivist perspectives, and they did not differ. Parents' education levels emerged as the sociodemographic variables most consistently related to epistemic thinking. Epistemic thinking mediated the relationship between generation and gender role/cross-sex relation values.

  12. Satisfaction with social support in older adulthood: the influence of social support changes and goal adjustment capacities.

    PubMed

    Wrosch, Carsten; Rueggeberg, Rebecca; Hoppmann, Christiane A

    2013-09-01

    A 6-year longitudinal study of 180 older adults (M age at baseline = 72.12 years) examined whether goal adjustment capacities (i.e., goal disengagement and goal reengagement) moderate the associations between transient and long-term longitudinal changes in social support partners with social support satisfaction. Results from hierarchical linear models show that high levels of, and increases in, goal disengagement capacities buffered the adverse effect of transient declines in perceptions of social support partners on satisfaction with social support. Moreover, increases in goal disengagement buffered the effect of long-term longitudinal declines in perceived social support on reduced levels of social support satisfaction. However, when participants perceived longitudinal increases in the number of social support partners, low levels of, and declines in, goal reengagement capacities were associated with high levels or increases in social support satisfaction. This pattern of findings suggests that goal disengagement can ameliorate social support satisfaction if older adults perceive a reduction in their social support network. Withdrawing from engagement in new goals, by contrast, may contribute to social support satisfaction if older adults perceive an increase in the number of social support partners.

  13. Achievement Inequalities in Hamburg Schools: How Do They Change as Students Get Older?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Lehmann, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    A handful of studies have found evidence of a gap in academic achievement between students of high- and low-socioeconomic status (SES) families. Furthermore, some scholars argue that the gap tends to widen as students get older. Evidence is, however, inconclusive and relies mostly on limited methodological designs. Drawing on the Hamburg School…

  14. Changing the Model for "Examining" Achievements in Writing: A Case for International Collaboration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, John; Stratta, Leslie

    A model for assessing student writing achievement uses sets of criteria to chart students' writing progress that are based on a study of exemplary samples of student writing produced at various stages of development. The model provides a viable alternative to assessment methods that call for students to produce lengthy essays on preselected topics…

  15. Change and Continuity in Student Achievement from Grades 3 to 5: A Policy Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Mary; Burross, Heidi Legg; Good, Thomas L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine student performance on mandated tests in grades 3, 4, and 5 in one state. We focus on this interval, which w e term "the fourth grade window," based on our hypothesis that students in grade four are particularly vulnerable to decrements in achievement. The national focus on the third grade as the critical…

  16. Student's social interaction in inquiry-based science education: how experiences of flow can increase motivation and achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Robin; Abrams, Eleanor

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged 13-14 years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on 46 % of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. Implications for science teaching and future research include shifting the current focus in inquiry-based science from a continuum that progresses from teacher-directed to open inquiry experiences to a

  17. The Role of the Social Sciences in a Changing Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor, Federico

    1998-01-01

    Considers the role of the social sciences in Europe and elsewhere and the relation between social science and the United Nations organization UNESCO. States that the social sciences are the missing link between reflection and action marking many policy failures and that special emphasis be placed on certain research orientations. (CMK)

  18. Relapses in bipolar patients: changes in social rhythm?

    PubMed

    Kadri, Nadia; Mouchtaq, Nadia; Hakkou, Farid; Moussaoui, Driss

    2000-03-01

    The Ramadan month represents a valuable opportunity to test the hypothesis that the course of the illness of bipolar patients can be disrupted by the change in social rhythm which usually occurs during this month. The objectives of this study were to follow up the mood state and blood lithium level of fasting Muslim bipolar patients who had been on lithium therapy for at least 3 months, and were clinically stable before being included in the study. Twenty bipolar patients were enrolled during the month of Ramadan in 1997. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder was according to ICD-10 criteria. Patients were assessed during the week before Ramadan, the second and the fourth weeks of the fasting month and the first week after its end, with the Hamilton Depression and Bech-Rafaelsen scales. The plasma concentration of lithium was also assessed. The main finding of the study was that 45% of the patients relapsed, 70% during the second week and the remaining patients at the end of Ramadan. These relapses were not related to plasma concentration of lithium. Most of the relapses were manic (71.4 %). Patients who did not relapse had insomnia and anxiety during the second and third weeks of the study. Side-effects of lithium increased and were observed in 48% of the sample, mostly dryness of the mouth with thirst and tremor. The result of this pilot study indicates that the Ramadan month may disrupt the mood state of bipolar patients. More studies are needed to confirm this observation and to evaluate the validity of the Ramadan model to study the impact of social rhythms on bipolar patients.

  19. The political solidarity model of social change: dynamics of self-categorization in intergroup power relations.

    PubMed

    Subasic, Emina; Reynolds, Katherine J; Turner, John C

    2008-11-01

    Social and political change involves a challenge to the status quo in intergroup power relations. Traditionally, the social psychology of social change has focused on disadvantaged minority groups collectively challenging the decisions, actions, and policies of those in positions of established authority. In contrast, this article presents a political solidarity model of social change that explores the process by which members of the majority challenge the authority in solidarity with the minority. It is argued that political solidarity as a social change process involves a contest between the authority and the minority over the meaning of a shared (higher order) identity with the majority. When identity ceases to be shared with the authority and becomes shared with the minority, majority challenge to authority in solidarity with the minority becomes possible. The model's contributions to existing social psychological approaches to social change are also discussed.

  20. Developmental Changes in Cognitive Persistence and Academic Achievement between Grade 4 and Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozsa, Krisztian; Morgan, George A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes changes in cognitive persistence, a key measure of mastery motivation, between the ages of 10 (grade 4) and 14 (grade 8). Prior research in the field of mastery motivation has focused mainly on early childhood. No longitudinal research findings have been published about age changes in mastery motivation during the school…

  1. An Exploratory Analysis of the Longitudinal Impact of Principal Change on Elementary School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochbein, Craig; Cunningham, Brittany C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent reform initiatives, such as the Title I School Improvement Grants and Race to the Top, recommended a principal change to jump-start school turnaround. Yet, few educational researchers have examined principal change as way to improve schools in a state of systematic reform; furthermore, no large-scale quantitative study has determined the…

  2. A Pathway Forward to School Change: Leading Together and Achieving Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Eric M.; Chrispeels, Janet H.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes and analyzes the actions taken by the principal and a middle school leadership team, which resulted in a change from a seven- to a six-period bell schedule. Change was facilitated through the interaction of three forces: (a) transformational leadership of the principal; (b) the development of a strong leadership team, and (c)…

  3. Achieving the Dream: An Examination of Success Factors with a Focus on Cultural Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the change process to enhance student persistence and graduation rates in four North Carolina community colleges. Using a qualitative research methodology, Lewin's change model is presented as a framework to investigate the acceptance and implementation of AtD principles in two community colleges. Processes to enhance student…

  4. Case study of how successful coordination was achieved between a mental health and social care service in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Johan; Øvretveit, John; Brommels, Mats

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings from an empirical longitudinal study of a health and social care consortium for people with mental health problems in one area in Stockholm. The aim was to describe the formation and structure of coordination within the consortium, and to assess the intermediate impact on care processes and client outcomes. A multiple-method case study design, theoretically informed by the Pettigrew and Whipp model of strategic change (1993) was applied. Data was gathered from interviews with informants from different organisations at different times in the development of the consortium, and from administrative documents, plans and service statistics showing some of the intermediate changes and client outcomes. The findings revealed activities and factors both helping and hindering the formation of coordination arrangements. One of the most significant hindering factors was the central county purchasing organisation focusing more on volume and costs, with payments for specific units and services, and with less emphasis on quality of the services. Few studies have described implementation of changes to improve coordination with reference to context over a long period of time, as well as assessing different results. This study contributes to knowledge about improved methods for this type of research, as well as knowledge about developing coordination between public health and welfare services. One lesson for the current policy is that, where full structural integration is not possible, then client-level coordination roles in each sector are useful to connect sector services for shared clients.

  5. Understanding loneliness during adolescence: developmental changes that increase the risk of perceived social isolation.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C

    2013-12-01

    Loneliness is typically defined in terms of feeling states. In this review, we take a somewhat different approach, describing loneliness in terms of perceived social isolation. Vulnerabilities to perceived social isolation differ across the lifespan. Unique properties of adolescence are identified that carry special risk for perceived social isolation. These include (but are not limited to) developmental changes in companions, developmental changes in autonomy and individuation, identity exploration, cognitive maturation, developmental changes in social perspective taking, and physical maturation. Scholars are encouraged to consider loneliness through the lens of perceived social isolation so as to better understand how the experience of physical isolation varies across adolescence.

  6. Changes in social functioning and circulating oxytocin and vasopressin following the migration to a new country.

    PubMed

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein; Carter, C Sue

    2015-02-01

    Prior studies have reported associations between plasma oxytocin and vasopressin and markers of social functioning. However, because most human studies have used cross-sectional designs, it is unclear whether plasma oxytocin and vasopressin influences social functioning or whether social functioning modulates the production and peripheral release of these peptides. In order to address this question, we followed individuals who experienced major changes in social functioning subsequent to the migration to a new country. In this study, 59 new international students were recruited shortly after arrival in the host country and reassessed 2 and 5 months later. At each assessment participants provided information on their current social functioning and blood samples for oxytocin and vasopressin analysis. Results indicated that changes in social functioning were not related to changes in plasma oxytocin. Instead, baseline oxytocin predicted changes in social relationship satisfaction, social support, and loneliness over time. In contrast, plasma vasopressin changed as a function of social integration. Baseline vasopressin was not related to changes in social functioning over time. These results emphasize the different roles of plasma oxytocin and vasopressin in responses to changes in social functioning in humans.

  7. Linking social change and developmental change: shifting pathways of human development.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Patricia M

    2009-03-01

    P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and low-technology environments to urban residence, formal schooling, commerce, and high-technology environments. The former ecology is summarized by the German term Gemeinschaft ("community") and the latter by the German term Gesellschaft ("society"; Tönnies, 1887/1957). A review of empirical research demonstrates that, through adaptive processes, movement of any ecological variable in a Gesellschaft direction shifts cultural values in an individualistic direction and developmental pathways toward more independent social behavior and more abstract cognition--to give a few examples of the myriad behaviors that respond to these sociodemographic changes. In contrast, the (much less frequent) movement of any ecological variable in a Gemeinschaft direction is predicted to move cultural values and developmental pathways in the opposite direction. In conclusion, sociocultural environments are not static either in the developed or the developing world and therefore must be treated dynamically in developmental research.

  8. Common Processes of Change in Psychotherapy and Seven Other Social Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampropoulos, Georgios K.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that change processes in psychotherapy can be understood more clearly by comparing them with other change-inducing social relationships. In showing how this may be done, describes different social interactions and discusses them in terms of a parsimonious set of common factors in change. Stresses the importance of the cross-fertilization of…

  9. Social Change and Mass Media: Towards a Cybernetic Communication Model for National Development in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Charles M.

    Noting that China has undergone tremendous social change in its three decades under the Marxist-Leninist-Maoist ideology, this paper contends that such change has triggered tension that upsets the equilibrium of the entire social system. The paper uses Talcott Parson's cybernetic communication model to explain the societal level changes that have…

  10. The U.S. Census: Monitor and Harbinger of Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Barbara Everitt

    The importance of the U.S. Census as a monitor of social change in the past decade and harbinger of social change in the future is reviewed. Throughout the history of the U.S., the census has provided both the data that drive the economy and the numbers for equitably apportioning political power. The census reflects the fact that changes in…

  11. The Social Cost of Stochastic and Irreversible Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y.; Judd, K. L.; Lontzek, T.

    2013-12-01

    Many scientists are worried about climate change triggering abrupt and irreversible events leading to significant and long-lasting damages. For example, a rapid release of methane from permafrost may lead to amplified global warming, and global warming may increase the frequency and severity of heavy rainfall or typhoon, destroying large cities and killing numerous people. Some elements of the climate system which might exhibit such a triggering effect are called tipping elements. There is great uncertainty about the impact of anthropogenic carbon and tipping elements on future economic wellbeing. Any rational policy choice must consider the great uncertainty about the magnitude and timing of global warming's impact on economic productivity. While the likelihood of tipping points may be a function of contemporaneous temperature, their effects are long lasting and might be independent of future temperatures. It is assumed that some of these tipping points might occur even in this century, but also that their duration and post-tipping impact are uncertain. A faithful representation of the possibility of tipping points for the calculation of social cost of carbon would require a fully stochastic formulation of irreversibility, and accounting for the deep layer of uncertainties regarding the duration of the tipping process and also its economic impact. We use DSICE, a DSGE extension of the DICE2007 model of William Nordhaus, which incorporates beliefs about the uncertain economic impact of possible climate tipping events and uses empirically plausible parameterizations of Epstein-Zin preferences to represent attitudes towards risk. We find that the uncertainty associated with anthropogenic climate change imply carbon taxes much higher than implied by deterministic models. This analysis indicates that the absence of uncertainty in DICE2007 and similar IAM models may result in substantial understatement of the potential benefits of policies to reduce GHG emissions.

  12. Examining the relationship of ethnicity, gender and social cognitive factors with the academic achievement of first-year engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bruce Henry

    social cognitive variables. The data analysis revealed three significant correlations which were as follows academic performance and occupational self-efficacy, academic performance and academic self-efficacy, and academic performance and encouragement. Finally, a Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the relationship between high school GPA and the nine identified social cognitive variables. The Pearson correlational coefficient indicated that there was one statistically significant correlation which was high school GPA and academic self-efficacy. Recommendations for further study included (a) future research involving investigations that compare a variety of institutions in different regions of the country; (b) further investigations utilizing open-ended responses from engineering students based on interviews; (c) a replicated study in 5 to 10 years to evaluate whether differences emerged relating to ethnicity and gender due to possible societal or cultural changes; and (d) a study involving a pretest and posttest of students' self-efficacy beliefs. Finally, the researcher recommends a qualitative study specifically involving interview questions aimed at students with moderate level grades and SAT scores who exhibited above average academic performance. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  13. Dynamic changes in social dominance and mPOA GnRH expression in male mice following social opportunity.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Cait M; Romeo, Russell D; Curley, James P

    2017-01-01

    Social competence - the ability of animals to dynamically adjust their social behavior dependent on the current social context - is fundamental to the successful establishment and maintenance of social relationships in group-living species. The social opportunity paradigm, where animals rapidly ascend a social hierarchy following the removal of more dominant individuals, is a well-established approach for studying the neural and neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying socially competent behavior. In the current study, we demonstrate that this paradigm can be successfully adapted for studying socially competent behavior in laboratory mice. Replicating our previous reports, we show that male laboratory mice housed in a semi-natural environment form stable linear social hierarchies. Novel to the current study, we find that subdominant male mice immediately respond to the removal of the alpha male from a hierarchy by initiating a dramatic increase in aggressive behavior towards more subordinate individuals. Consequently, subdominants assume the role of the alpha male. Analysis of brain gene expression in individuals 1h following social ascent indicates elevated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA levels in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of the hypothalamus compared to individuals that do not experience a social opportunity. Moreover, hormonal analyses indicate that subdominant individuals have increased circulating plasma testosterone levels compared to subordinate individuals. Our findings demonstrate that male mice are able to dynamically and rapidly adjust both behavior and neuroendocrine function in response to changes in social context. Further, we establish the social opportunity paradigm as an ethologically relevant approach for studying social competence and behavioral plasticity in mammals.

  14. Epistemic Climate and Epistemic Change: Instruction Designed to Change Students' Beliefs and Learning Strategies and Improve Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an intervention designed to foster epistemic change over the course of 1 semester. The intervention was based on constructivist teaching practices that incorporated teacher modeling of critical thinking of content, evaluation of multiple approaches to solving problems, and making…

  15. Achievement and Attitude Change in Michigan Migrant Education, Summer Classrooms, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiszler, Charles F.; Kirk, Barbara V.

    The extent to which the effectiveness of migrant education summer school programs is reflected in changes in the measurable behavior and characteristics of pupils enrolled in those programs was investigated at a statewide level. A sample of 773 6- to 9-year old children was used. Three dependent variables were studied: (1) performance on measures…

  16. Marks Should Not Be the Focus of Assessment -- But How Can Change Be Achieved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Darrall G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to address the possibility of real change after a hundred years of exam-based assessments that produce a single mark or grade as feedback on students' progress and abilities. It uses visual feedback and analysis of graduate attribute assessment to foreground the diversity of aspects of a student's performance across subject…

  17. Mechanisms of Change in Urban Dialects: The Role of Class, Social Network, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milroy, James; Milroy, Lesley

    1993-01-01

    In an analysis of social class, social network, and gender, arguments suggest that gender difference often occurs prior to social class in accounting for sociolinguistic variation. Data are presented to show how all three variables may help account for language variation and change. (54 references) (Author/LB)

  18. Stability and Change in Social Goals as Related to Goal Structures and Engagement in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nir

    2017-01-01

    The current studies explored (a) the extended external validity of social-goal-orientation framework; (b) the mediating role of social goals between classroom goal structures and students' engagement; and (c) whether changes in social goals can be explained by classroom goal structures and engagement. Study 1 was cross-sectional (N = 317), and…

  19. Using Intergroup Dialogue to Promote Social Justice and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessel, Adrienne; Rogge, Mary E.; Garlington, Sarah B.

    2006-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a public process designed to involve individuals and groups in an exploration of societal issues such as politics, racism, religion, and culture that are often flashpoints for polarization and social conflict. This article examines intergroup dialogue as a bridging mechanism through which social workers in clinical, other…

  20. Introduction: The Arts, Urban Education, and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Debra L.; Krensky, Beth

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a collection of articles that cover a broad view of arts education as socially transformative within urban, suburban, and rural settings. The articles highlight various approaches to socially responsible arts education and demonstrate that a quiet revolution in arts education is brewing, with students creating art for real audiences and…

  1. The Sixties Social Studies Movement: Have Conditions Really Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Les; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The authors sought evidence of two basic elements of the "new" social studies programs: reliance on multimedia approaches and flexible grouping for specified tasks. Although some bright spots were evidenced, social studies in the typical middle-grade classrooms surveyed consisted of whole-class instruction with one basic text.…

  2. The Changing Nature of Suicide Attacks: A Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedahzur, Ami; Perliger, Arie

    2006-01-01

    To comprehend the developments underlying the suicide attacks of recent years, we suggest that the organizational approach, which until recently was used to explain this phenomenon, should be complemented with a social network perspective. By employing a social network analysis of Palestinian suicide networks, the authors found that, in contrast…

  3. Attitudes Toward Changing Economic and Social Roles for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Margaret E.; And Others

    Attitudinal factors that hinder the economic and social advancement of women were investigated. Graduate students between the ages of 20 and 50 and enrolled in two southern institutions of higher learning were administered the Dolly-Bell Sex Discrimination Scale: Social and Economic Factors. Results indicate that sex discrimination is determined…

  4. Education for Social Change? A Freirean Critique of Sport for Development and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaaij, Ramón; Jeanes, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Background: The previous two decades have witnessed an increasing number of policymakers and practitioners using sport programmes to achieve broader social development aims, particularly in countries in the Global South. A core element of these programmes has been the use of sport as a context to provide young people with social, personal and…

  5. Kindergarten Social Withdrawal and Reading Achievement: A Cross-Lagged Path Model for At-Risk Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cristin M.; Welsh, Janet A.; Bierman, Karen L.; Nix, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The association between social withdrawal, school adjustment, and academic functioning in preschool and school entry is well-established. Children who experience social withdrawal in primary grades are at risk for decreased academic performance. The bidirectional relationships among early literacy and social withdrawal in primary grades have not…

  6. Relationships among Informant Based Measures of Social Skills and Student Achievement: A Longitudinal Examination of Differential Effects by Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konold, Timothy R.; Jamison, Kristen R.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    Children's social skills are an important class of learned behaviors that facilitate success in the classroom; the primary method used in the assessment of social skills involves having parents or teachers complete standardized checklists using judgments of frequency or intensity. Children's (N = 1,102) social skills were modeled as time-varying…

  7. Tools of Inaction: The Impasse between Teaching Social Issues and Creating Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picower, Bree

    2015-01-01

    Within the field of teacher education, increased emphasis has been placed on social justice education (SJE). This qualitative study examined a group of beginning teachers who voluntarily participated in a social justice critical inquiry project (CIP). The findings indicate that while many of them were successful at teaching social issues, they…

  8. Translating school health research to policy. School outcomes related to the health environment and changes in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Anastasia M; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Watts, Erin; George, Stephanie; Van Dyke, Hugo; Malloy, Elizabeth; Kalicki, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes an exploration of the relationship between mathematic achievement and the school health environment relative to policy-driven changes in the school setting, specifically with regard to physical education/physical activity. Using school-level data, the authors seek to understand the relationship between mathematics achievement and the school health environment and physical education minutes. This work provides a description of the aspects of the school health environment, an exploration of the interrelationships between school health and student achievement, and an assessment of the effects of the school health policy and practice on student performance and health status. Based on these findings, we identify additional research necessary to describe the relationship between obesity and learning in children.

  9. Achieving organizational change: findings from a case study of health promoting hospitals in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiachi Bonnie; Chen, Michael S; Powell, Michael; Chu, Cordia Ming-Yeuk

    2014-06-01

    The Taiwanese Network of Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) has been in place since 2006 and developing rapidly. The criticism of inadequate evaluation of the HPH approach taken elsewhere also holds true for the Taiwan HPH Network. Organizational change is a key to sustainable and effective health promotion, and it is also an important aspect in the European HPH movement. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate changes in organizational capacity for the implementation of HPH in Taiwan. All 55 HPH coordinators were invited to participate in the study, and 52 of them completed the questionnaires. The survey covered seven dimensions of HPH organizational capacity, and a total score of each dimension was calculated and converted to a figure on a scale of 10. This study has shown that HPH made a positive impact on HP hospitals in Taiwan regarding organizational change in capacity building for HPH. Leadership, organization culture and mission and strategy received the top three highest mean scores (8.19 ± 1.25, 8.08 ± 1.39, 7.99 ± 1.42), while staff participation received the lowest score (7.62 ± 1.26). The high level of organizational change was associated with the high satisfaction levels of organizational support from the viewpoint of the HPH coordinators. Based on a cluster analysis, a majority of the HP hospitals in Taiwan seemed to have adopted the addition model in putting the HPH initiative into practice; a few hospitals appeared to have accepted HPH initiative well through the integration model. These results presented evidence that HPH contributed to organizational capacity building of hospitals for health promotion.

  10. Early adolescents' social standing in peer groups: behavioral correlates of stability and change.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Killeya-Jones, Ley A; Miller, Shari; Costanzo, Philip R

    2009-09-01

    Sociometric nominations, social cognitive maps, and self-report questionnaires were completed in consecutive years by 327 students (56% girls) followed longitudinally from grade 7 to grade 8 to examine the stability of social standing in peer groups and correlates of changes in social standing. Social preference, perceived popularity, network centrality, and leadership were moderately stable from grade 7 to grade 8. Alcohol use and relational aggression in grade 7 predicted changes in social preference and centrality, respectively, between grade 7 and grade 8, but these effects were moderated by gender and ethnicity. Changes in social standing from grade 7 to grade 8 were unrelated to grade 8 physical aggression, relational aggression, and alcohol use after controlling for the grade 7 corollaries of these behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding links between social standing and problem behaviors during adolescence.

  11. Early Adolescents’ Social Standing in Peer Groups: Behavioral Correlates of Stability and Change

    PubMed Central

    Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Miller, Shari; Costanzo, Philip R.

    2009-01-01

    Sociometric nominations, social cognitive maps, and self-report questionnaires were completed in consecutive years by 327 students (56% girls) followed longitudinally from grade 7 to grade 8 to examine the stability of social standing in peer groups and correlates of changes in social standing. Social preference, perceived popularity, network centrality, and leadership were moderately stable from grade 7 to grade 8. Alcohol use and relational aggression in grade 7 predicted changes in social preference and centrality, respectively, between grade 7 and grade 8, but these effects were moderated by gender and ethnicity. Changes in social standing from grade 7 to grade 8 were unrelated to grade 8 physical aggression, relational aggression, and alcohol use after controlling for the grade 7 corollaries of these behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding links between social standing and problem behaviors during adolescence. PMID:19636773

  12. An Increase in Emotional Support, a Reduction in Negative Social Emotional Skills, or Both?: Examining How Universal Social Emotional Programs Achieve Reductions in Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnow, Sam; Downer, Jason; Brown, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Social Emotional Learning (SEL) programs reduces aggressive and antisocial behavior (Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor, & Schellinger, 2011). Theoretically, SEL programs foster social and emotionally intelligent youth through improving children's social and emotional skills, defined in the present study as the ability to…

  13. Entertainment-Education and Social Change: An Analysis of Parasocial Interaction, Social Learning, Collective Efficacy, and Paradoxical Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papa, Michael J.; Singhal, Arvind; Law, Sweety; Pant, Saumya; Sood, Suruchi; Rogers, Everett M.; Shefner-Rogers, Corinne L.

    2000-01-01

    Explores processes of social change initiated by an entertainment-education radio soap opera by studying its effects in an observational case study in one rural village in India. Investigates the paradoxes, contradictions, and audience members' struggles in the process of media-stimulated change, a process involving parasocial interaction, peer…

  14. Changes in social adjustment with cognitive processing therapy: effects of treatment and association with PTSD symptom change.

    PubMed

    Monson, Candice M; Macdonald, Alexandra; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Shnaider, Philippe; Goldstein, Elizabeth S R; Ferrier-Auerbach, Amanda G; Mocciola, Katharine E

    2012-10-01

    The current study sought to determine if different spheres of social adjustment, social and leisure, family, and work and income improved immediately following a course of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) when compared with those on a waiting list in a sample of 46 U.S. veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We also sought to determine whether changes in different PTSD symptom clusters were associated with changes in these spheres of social adjustment. Overall social adjustment, extended family relationships, and housework completion significantly improved in the CPT versus waiting-list condition, η(2) = .08 to .11. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that improvements in total clinician-rated PTSD symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social and housework adjustment. When changes in reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal were all in the model accounting for changes in total social adjustment, improvements in emotional numbing symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social, extended family, and housework adjustment (β = .38 to .55). In addition, improvements in avoidance symptoms were associated with improvements in housework adjustment (β = .30), but associated with declines in extended family adjustment (β = -.34). Results suggest that it is important to consider the extent to which PTSD treatments effectively reduce specific types of symptoms, particularly emotional numbing and avoidance, to generally improve social adjustment.

  15. Social nesting: changes in social network and support across the transition to parenthood in couples that conceived spontaneously or through assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Gameiro, Sofia; Boivin, Jacky; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Soares, Isabel

    2010-04-01

    Research showed that following the birth of a first child, parents increase contact with family members and diminish contact with friends, however, these changes may differ when conception is achieved through assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Based on the convoy model (Kahn & Antonucci, 1980) perspective of close relationships, we examined changes across the transition to parenthood in the social networks and support of men and women that conceived spontaneously or through ART. Thirty one women and 22 men (22 couples) that conceived through ART and 28 women and 24 men (24 couples) with a spontaneous conception provided data on social network and support from nuclear family, extended family, and friends twice: at 24-weeks pregnancy and 4-months postpartum. Results demonstrated that, regardless of method of conception, during the transition to parenthood new parents showed a strong nesting movement towards their nuclear family, perceiving increasing levels of nuclear family support across time. Extended family seemed to have only a secondary role on the social nesting movement and a withdrawal from friends was also observed. Considering the primary role nuclear family members seem to have on providing effective support to child-rearing, a greater emphasis on the importance of parents' relationship with their own parents and siblings could be made and social and working policies that prevent the displacement of families geographically also should be considered.

  16. Pseudoelastic behaviour of a natural material is achieved via reversible changes in protein backbone conformation

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Matthew J.; Wasko, S. Scott; Masic, Admir; Fischer, F. Dieter; Gupta, Himadri S.; Fratzl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The egg capsules of marine prosobranch gastropods, commonly know as whelks, function as a protective encapsulant for whelk embryos in wave-swept marine environments. The proteinaceous sheets comprising the wall of whelk egg capsules (WEC) exhibit long-range reversible extensibility with a hysteresis of up to 50 per cent, previously suggested to result from reversible changes in the structure of the constituent protein building blocks. Here, we further investigate the structural changes of the WEC biopolymer at various hierarchical levels using several different time-resolved in situ approaches. We find strong evidence in these biological polymers for a strain-induced reversible transition from an ordered conformational phase to a largely disordered one that leads to the characteristic reversible hysteretic behaviour, which is reminiscent of the pseudoelastic behaviour in some metallic alloys. On the basis of these results, we generate a simple numerical model incorporating a worm-like chain equation to explain the phase transition behaviour of the WEC at the molecular level. PMID:22696489

  17. [The way out of discrimination: a process of social change].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Bernadette

    2011-01-01

    When dealing with stigmatisation, it is necessary to work on destigmatisation. The group as a community has social values of which "stigma" is an indicator. Psychiatry professionals have a major role to play in the process of destigmatisation.

  18. Presidential Address: Social Change and Human Development--Experiences from German Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that human development is influenced by social change. In particular, as evidenced by research on German unification, the rapid change of social institutions can impact on various aspects of behaviour and development. Based on my own research experience in this field, I want to show the necessity for a better interdisciplinary…

  19. Education and Social Change in China: Inequality in a Market Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Gerard A., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. Education is expected to address these inequalities in a context of rapid social change, including the rise of an urban middle class, changed status of women, resurgence of ethnic identities, growing rural to…

  20. Social Identity and Sound Change: The Case of "Wo" in Shanghainese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Guo-qiang

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that language change is driven on one hand by forces internal to language itself such as grammar-internal systematic pressure, and on the other hand by social motives such as social identity. Language contact presents new features, but why is it that some of them are incorporated as variation and evolving into language change,…

  1. Rock on Cafe: achieving sustainable systems changes in school lunch programs.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Yvonne; Denniston, Ray; Morgan, Molly; Bordeau, Mark

    2009-04-01

    The rising rate of overweight poses a significant threat to the health of children. Because roughly one third of a child's dietary intake occurs during school hours and because both health and academic outcomes have been linked to children's nutrition, school nutrition policies and programs have been identified as a key area for intervention. This article describes the components, processes, and initial successes of a grassroots effort and innovative project to improve the nutritional quality of the School Lunch Program through a sustainable systems intervention and policy change across a regional area of upstate New York. The Rock on Cafe intervention was partially funded by the Steps to a Healthier New York program and promises to be a model for creating a school environment that supports healthy dietary behaviors among children.

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis epidemiologic evolution in timeframes, based on demographic changes and scientific achievements in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Conti, Renata Vivas; Moura Lane, Viviane Fragoso; Montebello, Lucia; Pinto Junior, Vitor Laerte

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease of chronic evolution which could be uniformly fatal, if left untreated. Human VL was first described in the Americas in 1913 and in 1936 in Brazil. The number of VL cases in Brazil is increasing steadily in the last three decades. Medical literature highlights this change in the disease epidemiology as a recent urbanization phenomenon, with most of the cases occurring in large cities since 1981, different to that observed previously, like a typical rural endemic. The aim of this study was to create a narrative review of the evolution of VL epidemiology since its first description in Brazil. To describe the process of urbanization of VL, timeframes were created historically consistent with the scientific and public health knowledge obtained about the VL and the demographics changes in Brazil, especially considering the extensive migratory movements in the country due to political or economic events. The first phase of VL was the decades of 30-50 when industrialization triggered internal migration process from countryside to the cities; during this period VL was studied for the first time and described as a rural endemic disease with no relevance to public health. Until the second phase, between the 50s and 80s of the 20th century, demography was characterized by expansion of immigration to the large cities and increase in population density in the suburbs with poor living standards. In this period, there was an advancement in the knowledge of the transmission of the disease being described as the first case acquired in the urban environment. The third phase was characterized by the explosion of cases in Brazilian cities and consolidation of urban endemic transmission. The possibility of urban transmission has been known since the 50s; however, the current phenomenon was due to the creation of ideal conditions for the establishment of transmission cycle in Brazilian cities.

  3. Gender Differences of Neighborhood and Social Control Processes: A Study of the Timing of First Intercourse among Low- Achieving, Urban, African American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Juarez, Lucia

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender-specific contextual and individual socioeconomic predictors of the timing of first intercourse among low-achieving African American high school students, following financial deprivation and collective socialization theories. Data from 3 years of surveys indicated that males and females were affected differently by social…

  4. Postindustrial Capitalism and the Problems with Bourdieu's Social and Cultural Capital in Understanding the Black/White Achievement Gap in the United States and United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…

  5. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review of the Article "Are High-Quality Schools Enough to Close the Achievement Gap? Evidence from a Social Experiment in Harlem"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects on academic achievement of offering students enrollment in the Promise Academy charter middle school. The school is sponsored by the Harlem Children's Zone[R], which combines reform-minded charter schools with a web of community services designed to provide a positive and supportive social environment outside of…

  6. Examination of the Compatibility of the Questions Used by Social Studies Teachers in the Class with the Program Achievements According to the SOLO Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Yusuf; Keskin, Sevgi C.; Kirtel, Aysegül

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the compatibility of the questions used by the social studies branch teachers in the level of 6th and 7th grade with the achievements included in the teaching program. Structure of observed learning outcome (SOLO) taxonomy, which was presented by Biggs and Colis (1982) as an alternative to Bloom's cognitive…

  7. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons.

  8. Influence of social ties to environmentalists on public climate change perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, D. B.; Piggot, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    An emerging body of research proposes that climate change concern is shaped by one's social ties and cultural milieu. This work aligns with findings in the well-established field of social network analysis, whereby individuals are understood as being embedded in social networks, and network position can be used to predict attitudes. Here we examine whether having ties to environmental movement organization members is correlated with climate change attitudes amongst the general public. We use data from a nationwide survey of the Canadian public to demonstrate that having social ties to environmental organization members increases the likelihood that an individual member of the public has a plan to deal with climate change. These findings reinforce the value of focusing on social context when examining climate change attitudes, and highlight the role that environmental organization members play in mobilizing climate change responses.

  9. Social opportunity causes rapid transcriptional changes in the social behaviour network of the brain in an African cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Maruska, K P; Zhang, A; Neboori, A; Fernald, R D

    2013-02-01

    Animals constantly integrate external stimuli with their own internal physiological state to make appropriate behavioural decisions. Little is known, however, about where in the brain the salience of these signals is evaluated, or which neural and transcriptional mechanisms link this integration to adaptive behaviours. We used an African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni to test the hypothesis that a new social opportunity activates the conserved 'social behaviour network' (SBN), a collection of brain nuclei known to regulate social behaviours across vertebrates. We measured mRNA levels of immediate early genes (IEGs) in microdissected brain regions as a proxy for neuronal activation, and discovered that IEGs were higher in all SBN nuclei in males that were given an opportunity to rise in social rank compared to control stable subordinate and dominant individuals. Furthermore, because the presence of sex-steroid receptors is one defining criteria of SBN nuclei, we also tested whether social opportunity or status influenced androgen and oestrogen receptor mRNA levels within these same regions. There were several rapid region-specific changes in receptor mRNA levels induced by social opportunity, most notably in oestrogen receptor subtypes in areas that regulate social aggression and reproduction, suggesting that oestrogenic signalling pathways play an important role in regulating male status. Several receptor mRNA changes occurred in regions with putative homologies to the mammalian septum and extended amygdala, two regions shared by SBN and reward circuits, suggesting an important role in the integration of social salience, stressors, hormonal state and adaptive behaviours. We also demonstrated increases in plasma sex- and stress-steroids at 30 min after a rise in social rank. This rapid endocrine and transcriptional response suggests that the SBN is involved in the integration of social inputs with internal hormonal state to facilitate the transition to dominant

  10. Social representations of climate change in Swedish lay focus groups: local or distant, gradual or catastrophic?

    PubMed

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.

  11. Under which conditions can introverts achieve happiness? Mediation and moderation effects of the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability on happiness

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have been directly associated with happiness. One consistent finding is a strong link between extraversion and happiness: extraverts are happier than introverts. Although happy introverts exist, it is currently unclear under what conditions they can achieve happiness. The present study analyzes, generally, how the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability influence happiness and, specifically, how these factors can lead introverts to be happy. In the present study, 1,006 participants aged 18–80 (42% males) completed measures of extraversion, neuroticism, quality of social relationships, emotion regulation ability, and happiness. We found that extraverts had significantly higher happiness, quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability scores than introverts. In addition, people with high quality social relationships or high emotion regulation ability were happier. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater levels of extraversion were associated with greater happiness, with small effect size, via two indirect mechanisms: (a) higher quality of social relationships, and (b) higher quality of social relationships followed serially by higher emotion regulation ability. We also found a moderating effect due to the three-way interaction of extraversion, quality of social relationships, and emotion regulation ability: introverts were happier when they had high scores for these two variables, though the effect size was small. These results suggest that the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability are relevant to our understanding of complex associations between extraversion and happiness. PMID:26500814

  12. Under which conditions can introverts achieve happiness? Mediation and moderation effects of the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability on happiness.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Fernandez-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have been directly associated with happiness. One consistent finding is a strong link between extraversion and happiness: extraverts are happier than introverts. Although happy introverts exist, it is currently unclear under what conditions they can achieve happiness. The present study analyzes, generally, how the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability influence happiness and, specifically, how these factors can lead introverts to be happy. In the present study, 1,006 participants aged 18-80 (42% males) completed measures of extraversion, neuroticism, quality of social relationships, emotion regulation ability, and happiness. We found that extraverts had significantly higher happiness, quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability scores than introverts. In addition, people with high quality social relationships or high emotion regulation ability were happier. Serial mediation analyses indicated that greater levels of extraversion were associated with greater happiness, with small effect size, via two indirect mechanisms: (a) higher quality of social relationships, and (b) higher quality of social relationships followed serially by higher emotion regulation ability. We also found a moderating effect due to the three-way interaction of extraversion, quality of social relationships, and emotion regulation ability: introverts were happier when they had high scores for these two variables, though the effect size was small. These results suggest that the quality of social relationships and emotion regulation ability are relevant to our understanding of complex associations between extraversion and happiness.

  13. [Fertility decline in Colombia: expression of a profound social change].

    PubMed

    De Llinas, H M

    1983-01-01

    Demographers have identified 3 phases in the evolution of human population growth: 1) high mortality and high fertility resulting in very slow growth, 2) declining mortality and high fertility, resulting in rapid growth, and 3) declining mortality and fertility, resulting in slower growth. From the beginning of the century until the 1930s, Colombia was in the 1st phase, while the greatest mortality declines were registered from 1930-60. Fertility did not decline commensurately, and from 1951-64 the rate of population increase was 3.14%. The National Fertility Survey in 1969 and the 1973 census indicated that the country had at last begun its fertility decline. The 1969 survey showed that the total fertility rate (TFR) had dropped from 7.0 in the early 1960s to 6.0 in 1967-68, with fertility declining in both rural and urban areas. The 1973 census showed a rate of growth of 2.8% and an average number of children/woman of 4.7, showing that the fertility decline was structural and reflected profound changes in the values, norms, and attitudes regarding children of the Colombian population. Urbanization, the increased educational level and labor force participation of women, and the influence of the mass media in propagating the values of a consumer society are factors in the reduction of family size. Fertility differentials by region and social group have been declining progressively. The TFR in 1960-64 was 7.0 overall, 6.1 in urban areas, and 7.9 in rural areas, while in 1980 it was 3.6 overall, 3.0 in urban areas, and 5.1 in rural areas. In 1968-69, the TFR was 7.8 in the Atlantic region, 7.9 in the Oriental, 6.8 in the Central, 5.9 in the Pacific, and 4.5 in Bogota, while in 1980 it was 4.1 in the Atlantic, 4.0 in the Oriental, 3.5 in the Central, 3.3 in the Pacific, and 2.8 in Bogota. The number of women using family planning programs increased from 83 in 1965 to 1,790,484 in 1980. The proportion using contraception increased from 53% in 1976 to 55% in 1980. The

  14. Achieving Mental Health Care Parity Might Require Changes In Payments And Competition

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most prominent features of the Affordable Care Act has been the promotion of individual health plans chosen by consumers in the Marketplaces. These plans are subject to regulation and paid by risk-adjusted capitation, a set of policies known as managed competition. Individual health insurance markets, however, are vulnerable to what economists describe as efficiency problems stemming from adverse selection, and Marketplaces are no exception. Health plans have incentives to discriminate against services used by people with certain chronic illnesses, including mental health conditions. Parity regulations, which dictate coverage for mental health benefits on par with medical and surgical benefits, can eliminate discrimination in coverage but redirect discrimination toward hard-to-regulate tactics from managed care such as restrictive network design and provider payment. This article reviews policy options to contend with ongoing selection issues. “Better enforcement” of parity has less chance of success than more fundamental but feasible changes in the way plans are paid or in the way competition among plans is structured. PMID:27269019

  15. What measure of interpersonal dependency predicts changes in social support?

    PubMed

    Shahar, Golan

    2008-01-01

    One of the most intriguing characteristics of interpersonal dependency is its ability to predict elevated levels of social support. Yet studies of interpersonal dependency use various measures to assess this effect. In this study, I compared 3 commonly used measures of interpersonal dependency in terms of their prediction of social support: Hirschfield's Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI; Hirschfeld et al., 1977), the dependency factor of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Afflitti, & Quinlan, 1976), and the Dependency subscale of the Personal Style Inventory (PSI; Robins et al., 1994). A total of 152 undergraduates were administered these measures as well as measures of depressive symptoms and social support a week prior to their first exam period and a week after this period (interval time = 8 weeks). DEQ-dependency predicted an increase in social support, whereas PSI-Dependency and IDI predicted a decrease in social support over time. DEQ-dependency appears to capture better than the other 2 measures the dialectic tension between risk and resilience in interpersonal dependency.

  16. Examining the Link between Preschool Social-Emotional Competence and First Grade Academic Achievement: The Role of Attention Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Brittany L.; Warren, Heather K.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, research has begun to identify cognitive and social-emotional predictors of early academic success. Yet few studies have examined the mechanisms by which children's social-emotional skills are associated with later academic success. The present study examines the associations between preschool emotion knowledge, kindergarten attention…

  17. The School Mix Effect: How the Social Class Composition of School Intakes Shapes School Processes and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrupp, Martin

    The existence of a contextual effect of the social class composition of a school's intake on individual student performance--the school mix effect--has long been debated in qualitative school effectiveness literature. This paper reports on a qualitative study of four New Zealand urban secondary schools of varying social class composition (and…

  18. Effects of Teacher Efficacy on Student Academic and Social Emotional Achievements as Reported on Georgia Kindergarten Inventory of Developing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tisha J.

    2012-01-01

    Students in kindergarten are not meeting state standards on standardized academic and social/emotional scores in the southeastern United States. The focus of this study was to determine if a teacher's perceptions of self-efficacy affects student success in academic and social/emotional standards as reported on the Georgia Kindergarten of Inventory…

  19. The Role of Goal Structures and Peer Climate in Trajectories of Social Achievement Goals during High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makara, Kara A.; Madjar, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Students' social goals--reasons for engaging in interpersonal relationships with peers-are consequential for students' interactions with their peers at school and for their well-being. Despite the salience of peer relationships during adolescence, research on social goals is generally lacking compared with academic goals, and it is unknown how…

  20. Engaged in Research/Achieving Balance: A Case Example of Teaching Research to Masters of Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine A.; Casselman, Patsy J.; Hickey, Jamie; Lee, Noelle; Pliszka, Harold

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the use of participatory action research and Photovoice as a tool for engaging graduate level social work students in research education. Photovoice is an investigative tool that assists people in critically reflecting on the everyday social and political realities of their lives, enriching their understanding of their…