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Sample records for achieve stable performance

  1. The Effect of Personnel Stability on Organizational Performance: Do Battalions with Stable Command Groups Achieve Higher Training Proficiency at the National Training Center?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    As chief, one of Meyer’s first edicts was to declare that the length of command tours would rise from an average of two years to a minimum of...B. Tiggle, and Lynn M. Milan , “The Effects of Battalion Staff Stabilization on Individual and Unit Performance: A Preliminary Investigation”, ARI

  2. Effects of Performance Objectives on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Napoleon, Jr.; Anderson, Hans A.

    1972-01-01

    Effects of performance objectives on achievement of black inner city pupils were studied. Two groups of trained and untrained teachers in preparing performance objectives were formed. Results showed positive effects of teachers trained in the use of performance objectives. (PS)

  3. Achieving fast and stable failure detection in WDM Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiyu; Zhang, Hanyi

    2005-02-01

    In dynamic networks, the failure detection time takes a major part of the convergence time, which is an important network performance index. To detect a node or link failure in the network, traditional protocols, like Hello protocol in OSPF or RSVP, exchanges keep-alive messages between neighboring nodes to keep track of the link/node state. But by default settings, it can get a minimum detection time in the measure of dozens of seconds, which can not meet the demands of fast network convergence and failure recovery. When configuring the related parameters to reduce the detection time, there will be notable instability problems. In this paper, we analyzed the problem and designed a new failure detection algorithm to reduce the network overhead of detection signaling. Through our experiment we found it is effective to enhance the stability by implicitly acknowledge other signaling messages as keep-alive messages. We conducted our proposal and the previous approaches on the ASON test-bed. The experimental results show that our algorithm gives better performances than previous schemes in about an order magnitude reduction of both false failure alarms and queuing delay to other messages, especially under light traffic load.

  4. Achieving acoustical performance with fire safe products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    Recent serious fires in North and South America have pointed out potential problems with attempts to improve acoustical performance in building spaces at the expense of using acoustical treatments that may have poor performance in fire situations. Foam plastic products, sometimes not designed for exposed use in buildings, can ignite quickly and spread fire rapidly throughout a building space, resulting in fire victims being trapped within the building or not being afforded the needed safe egress time. There are ways of achieving equivalent and even superior acoustical performance without sacrificing fire safety. Acoustical products are available which can add comparable or superior acoustical treatment without the fire hazard associated with exposed foam plastic materials. This presentation is a review of the U.S. code requirements of interior finish materials, the various types of fire tests that are applied to these products, and a discussion of the achievable fire and acoustical performance.

  5. Achievement Goals, Learning Strategies and Instrumental Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2008-01-01

    The current study is a survey of the achievement goals of music students and the manner in which their strategies and instrumental performance relate to these goals. In the context of advanced instrumental learning, the rationale for the present study was to contribute to the literature on motivation in music students, and thereby, help teachers…

  6. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  7. Achieving real-time performance in FIESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, William; Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Quillin, Robert; Carlisle, Candace

    1988-01-01

    The Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA) is targeted for operation in a real-time online environment. Initial stages of the prototype development concentrated on acquisition and representation of the knowledge necessary to isolate faults in the TDRSS Network. Recent efforts focused on achieving real-time performance including: a discussion of the meaning of FIESTA real-time requirements, determination of performance levels (benchmarking) and techniques for optimization. Optimization techniques presented include redesign of critical relations, filtering of redundant data and optimization of patterns used in rules. Results are summarized.

  8. Performing stable angina pectoris: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Claire; Featherstone, Katie; Hemingway, Harry; Timmis, Adam; Feder, Gene Solomon

    2008-04-01

    Symptoms play a crucial part in the formulation of medical diagnoses, yet the construction and interpretation of symptom narratives is not well understood. The diagnosis of angina is largely based on symptoms, but a substantial minority of patients diagnosed with "non-cardiac" chest pain go on to have a heart attack. In this ethnographic study our aims were to understand: (1) how the patients' accounts are performed or enacted in consultations with doctors; (2) the ways in which ambiguity in the symptom narrative is managed by doctors; and (3) how doctors reach or do not reach a diagnostic decision. We observed 59 consultations of patients in a UK teaching hospital with new onset chest pain who had been referred for a specialist opinion in ambulatory care. We found that patients rarely gave a history that, without further interrogation, satisfied the doctors, who actively restructured the complex narrative until it fitted a diagnostic canon, detaching it from the patient's interpretation and explanation. A minority of doctors asked about chest pain symptoms outside the canon. Re-structuring into the canonical classification was sometimes resisted by patients who contested key concepts, like exertion. Symptom narratives were sometimes unstable, with central features changing on interrogation and re-telling. When translation was required for South Asian patients, doctors considered the history less relevant to the diagnosis. Diagnosis and effective treatment could be enhanced by research on the diagnostic and prognostic value of the terms patients use to describe their symptoms.

  9. Plasma performance in JET: Achievements and projections

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, A.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of recent experimental advances on JET, especially as they relate to fusion performance. Scaling relations are used to identify the critical parameters which need to be optimized to secure the best fusion performance. Finally the established best performance of JET is used as a base to project the performance to be expected in future D-T operation. 13 refs., 20 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Achievement Components of Stanford-Binet Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Ernest D.; And Others

    A curriculum was devised by working backward from Stanford-Binet items to specification of a universe of content for which the Stanford-Binet could serve as a content-valid achievement test. It was reasoned that this curriculum should home. This curriculum was tested on 20 4-year-old disadvantaged children in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. The…

  11. Achieve Maximum Band Performance from Minimal Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudgers, Gregory B.

    1984-01-01

    Suggestions are made to help music teachers with limited resources, such as a low budget, poor quality instruments, and small amounts of rehearsal time, develop a band that provides quality performance. Suggestions include properly maintaining student-model instruments and designing a lesson format for a private lesson and using it in group…

  12. Anammox-zeolite system acting as buffer to achieve stable effluent nitrogen values.

    PubMed

    Yapsakli, Kozet; Aktan, Cigdem Kalkan; Mertoglu, Bulent

    2017-02-01

    For a successful nitrogen removal, Anammox process needs to be established in line with a stable partial nitritation pretreatment unit since wastewater influent is mostly unsuitable for direct treatment by Anammox. Partial nitritation is, however, a critical bottleneck for the nitrogen removal since it is often difficult to maintain the right proportions of NO2-N and NH4-N during long periods of time for Anammox process. This study investigated the potential of Anammox-zeolite biofilter to buffer inequalities in nitrite and ammonium nitrogen in the influent feed. Anammox-zeolite biofilter combines the ion-exchange property of zeolite with the biological removal by Anammox process. Continuous-flow biofilter was operated for 570 days to test the response of Anammox-zeolite system for irregular ammonium and nitrite nitrogen entries. The reactor demonstrated stable and high nitrogen removal efficiencies (approximately 95 %) even when the influent NO2-N to NH4-N ratios were far from the stoichiometric ratio for Anammox reaction (i.e. NO2-N to NH4-N ranging from 0 to infinity). This is achieved by the sorption of surplus NH4-N by zeolite particles in case ammonium rich influent came in excess with respect to Anammox stoichiometry. Similarly, when ammonium-poor influent is fed to the reactor, ammonium desorption took place due to shifts in ion-exchange equilibrium and deficient amount were supplied by previously sorbed NH4-N. Here, zeolite acted as a preserving reservoir of ammonium where both sorption and desorption took place when needed and this caused the Anammox-zeolite system to act as a buffer system to generate a stable effluent.

  13. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was…

  14. Relative performance of a vibratory energy harvester in mono- and bi-stable potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masana, Ravindra; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2011-11-01

    Motivated by the need for broadband vibratory energy harvesting, many research studies have recently proposed energy harvesters with nonlinear characteristics. Based on the shape of their potential function, such devices are classified as either mono- or bi-stable energy harvesters. This paper aims to investigate the relative performance of these two classes under similar excitations and electric loading conditions. To achieve this goal, an energy harvester consisting of a clamped-clamped piezoelectric beam bi-morph is considered. The shape of the harvester's potential function is altered by applying a static compressive axial load at one end of the beam. This permits operation in the mono-stable (pre-buckling) and bi-stable (post-buckling) configurations. For the purpose of performance comparison, the axial load is used to tune the harvester's oscillation frequencies around the static equilibria such that they have equal values in the mono- and bi-stable configurations. The harvester is subjected to harmonic base excitations of different magnitudes and a slowly varying frequency spanning a wide band around the tuned oscillation frequency. The output voltage measured across a purely resistive load is compared over the frequency range considered. Two cases are discussed; the first compares the performance when the bi-stable harvester has deep potential wells, while the second treats a bi-stable harvester with shallow wells. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate the essential role that the potential shape plays in conjunction with the base acceleration to determine whether the bi-stable harvester can outperform the mono-stable one and for what range of frequencies. Results also illustrate that, for a bi-stable harvester with shallow potential wells, super-harmonic resonances can activate the inter-well dynamics even for a small base acceleration, thereby producing large voltages in the low frequency range.

  15. Stable Same-Sex Friendships with Higher Achieving Partners Promote Mathematical Reasoning in Lower Achieving Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and one year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal Actor-Partner Interdependence Models) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  16. Mind the bubbles: achieving stable measurements of maximum hydraulic conductivity through woody plant samples

    PubMed Central

    Espino, Susana; Schenk, H. Jochen

    2011-01-01

    The maximum specific hydraulic conductivity (kmax) of a plant sample is a measure of the ability of a plants’ vascular system to transport water and dissolved nutrients under optimum conditions. Precise measurements of kmax are needed in comparative studies of hydraulic conductivity, as well as for measuring the formation and repair of xylem embolisms. Unstable measurements of kmax are a common problem when measuring woody plant samples and it is commonly observed that kmax declines from initially high values, especially when positive water pressure is used to flush out embolisms. This study was designed to test five hypotheses that could potentially explain declines in kmax under positive pressure: (i) non-steady-state flow; (ii) swelling of pectin hydrogels in inter-vessel pit membranes; (iii) nucleation and coalescence of bubbles at constrictions in the xylem; (iv) physiological wounding responses; and (v) passive wounding responses, such as clogging of the xylem by debris. Prehydrated woody stems from Laurus nobilis (Lauraceae) and Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) collected from plants grown in the Fullerton Arboretum in Southern California, were used to test these hypotheses using a xylem embolism meter (XYL'EM). Treatments included simultaneous measurements of stem inflow and outflow, enzyme inhibitors, stem-debarking, low water temperatures, different water degassing techniques, and varied concentrations of calcium, potassium, magnesium, and copper salts in aqueous measurement solutions. Stable measurements of kmax were observed at concentrations of calcium, potassium, and magnesium salts high enough to suppress bubble coalescence, as well as with deionized water that was degassed using a membrane contactor under strong vacuum. Bubble formation and coalescence under positive pressure in the xylem therefore appear to be the main cause for declining kmax values. Our findings suggest that degassing of water is essential for achieving stable and precise

  17. Stable same-sex friendships with higher achieving partners promote mathematical reasoning in lower achieving primary school children.

    PubMed

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and 1 year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning.

  18. The role of intrinsic muscle properties for stable hopping--stability is achieved by the force-velocity relation.

    PubMed

    Haeufle, D F B; Grimmer, S; Seyfarth, A

    2010-03-01

    A reductionist approach was presented to investigate which level of detail of the physiological muscle is required for stable locomotion. Periodic movements of a simplified one-dimensional hopping model with a Hill-type muscle (one contractile element, neither serial nor parallel elastic elements) were analyzed. Force-length and force-velocity relations of the muscle were varied in three levels of approximation (constant, linear and Hill-shaped nonlinear) resulting in nine different hopping models of different complexity. Stability of these models was evaluated by return map analysis and the performance by the maximum hopping height. The simplest model (constant force-length and constant force-velocity relations) outperformed all others in the maximum hopping height but was unstable. Stable hopping was achieved with linear and Hill-shaped nonlinear characteristic of the force-velocity relation. The characteristics of the force-length relation marginally influenced hopping stability. The results of this approach indicate that the intrinsic properties of the contractile element are responsible for stabilization of periodic movements. This connotes that (a) complex movements like legged locomotion could benefit from stabilizing effects of muscle properties, and (b) technical systems could benefit from the emerging stability when implementing biological characteristics into artificial muscles.

  19. Achievement Test Performance of Intellectually Advanced Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, David N.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study assessed the feasibility of using the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) with 24 intellectually precocious preschoolers. Ss' performances suggested that the PIAT is an appropriate instrument for assessing the academic skills of intellectually advanced preschoolers. (SBH)

  20. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  1. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGES

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  2. Force production during squats performed with a rotational resistance device under stable versus unstable conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moras, Gerard; Vázquez-Guerrero, Jairo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Force production during a squat action on a rotational resistance device (RRD) under stable and unstable conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one healthy males were asked to perform six sets of six repetitions of squats on an RRD on either stable or unstable surfaces. The stable and unstable sets were performed on different days. Muscular outputs were obtained from a linear encoder and a strain gauge fixed to a vest. [Results] Overall, the results showed no significant differences for any of the dependent variables across exercise modes. Forcemean outputs were higher in the concentric phase than in the eccentric phase for each condition, but there were no differences in velocity, time or displacement. The forcepeak was similar in the eccentric and concentric phases of movement under both stable and unstable conditions. There were no significant differences in forcemean between sets per condition or between conditions. [Conclusion] These results suggest that performing squats with a RRD achieves similar forcemean and forcepeak under stable and unstable conditions. The forcepeak produced is also similar in concentric and eccentric phases. PMID:26696707

  3. Achieving a stable time response in polymeric radiation sensors under charge injection by X-rays.

    PubMed

    Intaniwet, Akarin; Mills, Christopher A; Sellin, Paul J; Shkunov, Maxim; Keddie, Joseph L

    2010-06-01

    Existing inorganic materials for radiation sensors suffer from several drawbacks, including their inability to cover large curved areas, lack of tissue-equivalence, toxicity, and mechanical inflexibility. As an alternative to inorganics, poly(triarylamine) (PTAA) diodes have been evaluated for their suitability for detecting radiation via the direct creation of X-ray induced photocurrents. A single layer of PTAA is deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates, with top electrodes selected from Al, Au, Ni, and Pd. The choice of metal electrode has a pronounced effect on the performance of the device; there is a direct correlation between the diode rectification factor and the metal-PTAA barrier height. A diode with an Al contact shows the highest quality of rectifying junction, and it produces a high X-ray photocurrent (several nA) that is stable during continuous exposure to 50 kV Mo Kalpha X-radiation over long time scales, combined with a high signal-to-noise ratio with fast response times of less than 0.25 s. Diodes with a low band gap, 'Ohmic' contact, such as ITO/PTAA/Au, show a slow transient response. This result can be explained by the build-up of space charge at the metal-PTAA interface, caused by a high level of charge injection due to X-ray-induced carriers. These data provide new insights into the optimum selection of metals for Schottky contacts on organic materials, with wider applications in light sensors and photovoltaic devices.

  4. Unexpected Arrivals: The Spillover Effects of Mid-Year Entry on Stable Student Achievement in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitesell, Emilyn Ruble; Stiefel, Leanna; Schwartz, Amy Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Across the country and in urban areas in particular, many students change schools during the academic year. While much research documents the impact of changing schools on the academic achievement of mobile students themselves, less research explores whether new arrivals have negative spillovers on stable classmates. The lack of research on…

  5. Achieving High Performance on the i860 Microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, King; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The i860 is a high performance microprocessor used in the Intel Touchstone project. This paper proposes a paradigm for programming the i860 that is modelled on the vector instructions of the Cray computers. Fortran callable assembler subroutines were written that mimic the concurrent vector instructions of the Cray. Cache takes the place of vector registers. Using this paradigm we have achieved twice the performance of compiled code on a traditional solve.

  6. Reasoning Dimensions Underlying Science Achievement: The Case of Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayala, Carlos Cuauhtemoc; Shavelson, Richard J.; Yin, Yue; Schultz, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    Studied reasoning dimensions underlying science achievement in a test made of items from three national and international examinations and items from only one of the tests (National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988; NELS:88) and in performance test results for 35 students from the larger study. Findings provide tentative support for three…

  7. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  8. Academic Performance Related to Achievement Motive and Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuensch, Karl L.; Lao, Rosina C.

    Nine groups of undergraduate students were formed on the basis of one-third splits of the distributions of their scores on an internality-externality measure and on an achievement motive measure. Academic performance was measured by obtaining grade point averages for all subjects. Analysis of variance showed that internal students made higher…

  9. Stable, high-performance operation of a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Shigehito; Yabuno, Masahiro; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka

    2017-03-01

    We present a stable and high-performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detector (SNAP). We demonstrate afterpulse-free operation in serially connected two SNAPs (SC-2SNAP), even in the absence of a choke inductor, achieving a 7.7 times faster response speed than standard SSPDs. The SC-2SNAP device showed a system detection efficiency (SDE) of 81.0% with wide bias current margin, a dark count rate of 6.8 counts/s, and full width at half maximum timing jitter of 68 ps, operating at 2.3 K.

  10. Implicit Guidance to Stable Performance in a Rhythmic Perceptual-Motor Skill

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Meghan E.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Feedback information about error or reward is regarded essential to aid learners to acquire a perceptual-motor skill. Yet, simple error feedback does not suffice in guiding the learner towards the optimal solutions, when tasks have redundancy where the mapping between execution and performance outcome is unknown. The present study developed and tested a new means of implicitly guiding learners to acquire a perceptual-motor skill, rhythmically bouncing a ball on a racket. Due to its rhythmic nature, this task affords dynamically stable solutions that are resistant to small errors and noise, a strategy that is independent from simply reducing error. Based on the task model implemented in a virtual environment, a state-dependent manipulation was designed that shifted the range of ball-racket contacts that achieved to dynamically stable solutions. In two experiments, subjects practiced with this manipulation that guided them to impact the ball with more negative racket accelerations, the indicator for the strategy with dynamic stability. Subjects who practiced under normal conditions took longer time to acquire this skill, although error measures were identical between the control and experimental groups. Unlike in many other haptic guidance or adaptation studies, the experimental groups not only learned but also maintained the stable solution after the manipulation was removed. These results are a first demonstration that more subtle ways to guide the learner to better performance are needed to assist performance improvements, especially in tasks with redundancy, where error feedback may not be sufficient. PMID:25821180

  11. Metrics help rural hospitals achieve world-class performance.

    PubMed

    Goodspeed, Scott W

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the emerging trend of using metrics in rural hospitals to achieve world-class performance. This trend is a response to the fact that rural hospitals have small patient volumes yet must maintain a profit margin in order to fulfill their mission to the community. The conceptual idea for this article is based largely on Robert Kaplan and David Norton's Balanced Scorecard articles in the Harvard Business Review. The ideas also come from the experiences of the 60-plus rural hospitals that are using the Balanced Scorecard and their implementation of metrics to influence performance and behavior. It is indeed possible for rural hospitals to meet and exceed the unique needs of patients and physicians (customers), to achieve healthy profit margins, and to be the rural hospital of choice that employees are proud to work for.

  12. Carboxylate-based molecular magnet: One path toward achieving stable quantum correlations at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, C.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Brandão, P.; dos Santos, A. M.; Reis, M. S.

    2016-03-07

    The control of quantum correlations in solid-state systems by means of material engineering is a broad avenue to be explored, since it makes possible steps toward the limits of quantum mechanics and the design of novel materials with applications on emerging quantum technologies. This letter explores the potential of molecular magnets to be prototypes of materials for quantum information technology in this context. More precisely, we engineered a material and from its geometric quantum discord we found significant quantum correlations up to 9540 K (even without entanglement); and, a pure singlet state occupied up to around 80 K (above liquid nitrogen temperature), additionally. Our results could only be achieved due to the carboxylate group promoting a metal-to-metal huge magnetic interaction.

  13. Carboxylate-based molecular magnet: One path toward achieving stable quantum correlations at room temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Cruz, C.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Brandão, P.; ...

    2016-03-07

    The control of quantum correlations in solid-state systems by means of material engineering is a broad avenue to be explored, since it makes possible steps toward the limits of quantum mechanics and the design of novel materials with applications on emerging quantum technologies. This letter explores the potential of molecular magnets to be prototypes of materials for quantum information technology in this context. More precisely, we engineered a material and from its geometric quantum discord we found significant quantum correlations up to 9540 K (even without entanglement); and, a pure singlet state occupied up to around 80 K (above liquidmore » nitrogen temperature), additionally. Our results could only be achieved due to the carboxylate group promoting a metal-to-metal huge magnetic interaction.« less

  14. Carboxylate-based molecular magnet: One path toward achieving stable quantum correlations at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, C.; Soares-Pinto, D. O.; Brandão, P.; dos Santos, A. M.; Reis, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    The control of quantum correlations in solid-state systems by means of material engineering is a broad avenue to be explored, since it makes possible steps toward the limits of quantum mechanics and the design of novel materials with applications on emerging quantum technologies. In this context, this letter explores the potential of molecular magnets to be prototypes of materials for quantum information technology. More precisely, we engineered a material and from its geometric quantum discord we found significant quantum correlations up to 9540 K (even without entanglement); and, in addition, a pure singlet state occupied up to around 80 K (above liquid nitrogen temperature). These results could only be achieved due to the carboxylate group promoting a metal-to-metal huge magnetic interaction.

  15. Long term, stable brain machine interface performance using local field potentials and multiunit spikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Robert D.; Wright, Zachary A.; Scheid, Michael R.; Slutzky, Marc W.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) have the potential to restore movement to people with paralysis. However, a clinically-viable BMI must enable consistently accurate control over time spans ranging from years to decades, which has not yet been demonstrated. Most BMIs that use single-unit spikes as inputs will experience degraded performance over time without frequent decoder re-training. Two other signals, local field potentials (LFPs) and multi-unit spikes (MSPs), may offer greater reliability over long periods and better performance stability than single-unit spikes. Here, we demonstrate that LFPs can be used in a biomimetic BMI to control a computer cursor. Approach. We implanted two rhesus macaques with intracortical microelectrodes in primary motor cortex. We recorded LFP and MSP signals from the monkeys while they performed a continuous reaching task, moving a cursor to randomly-placed targets on a computer screen. We then used the LFP and MSP signals to construct biomimetic decoders for control of the cursor. Main results. Both monkeys achieved high-performance, continuous control that remained stable or improved over nearly 12 months using an LFP decoder that was not retrained or adapted. In parallel, the monkeys used MSPs to control a BMI without retraining or adaptation and had similar or better performance, and that predominantly remained stable over more than six months. In contrast to their stable online control, both LFP and MSP signals showed substantial variability when used offline to predict hand movements. Significance. Our results suggest that the monkeys were able to stabilize the relationship between neural activity and cursor movement during online BMI control, despite variability in the relationship between neural activity and hand movements.

  16. Longer term improvement in neurocognitive functioning and affective distress among methamphetamine users who achieve stable abstinence.

    PubMed

    Iudicello, Jennifer E; Woods, Steven P; Vigil, Ofilio; Scott, J Cobb; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Atkinson, J Hampton; Grant, Igor

    2010-08-01

    Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction and affective distress. Some normalization of function has been reported after abstinence, but little in the way of data is available on the possible added benefits of long-term sobriety. To address this, we performed detailed neuropsychological and affective evaluations in 83 MA-dependent individuals at a baseline visit and following an average one-year interval period. Among the 83 MA-dependent participants, 25 remained abstinent, and 58 used MA at least once during the interval period. A total of 38 non-MA-addicted, demographically matched healthy comparison (i.e., HC) participants were also examined. At baseline, both MA-dependent participants who were able to maintain abstinence and those who were not performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison subjects on global neuropsychological functioning and were significantly more distressed. At the one-year follow-up, both the long-term abstainers and healthy comparison groups showed comparable global neuropsychological performance and affective distress levels, whereas the MA-dependent group who continued to use MA were worse than the comparison participants in terms of global neuropsychological functioning and affective distress. An interaction was observed between neuropsychological impairment at baseline, MA abstinence, and cognitive improvement, with abstinent MA-dependent participants who were neuropsychologically impaired at baseline demonstrating significantly and disproportionately greater improvement in processing speed and slightly greater improvement in motor abilities than the other participants. These results suggest partial recovery of neuropsychological functioning and improvement in affective distress upon sustained abstinence from MA that may extend beyond a year or more.

  17. Superior Stable and Long Life Sodium Metal Anodes Achieved by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Goncharova, Lyudmila V; Lushington, Andrew; Sun, Qian; Yadegari, Hossein; Wang, Biqiong; Xiao, Wei; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2017-03-03

    Na-metal batteries are considered as the promising alternative candidate for Li-ion battery beneficial from the wide availability and low cost of sodium, high theoretical specific capacity, and high energy density based on the plating/stripping processes and lowest electrochemical potential. For Na-metal batteries, the crucial problem on metallic Na is one of the biggest challenges. Mossy or dendritic growth of Na occurs in the repetitive Na stripping/plating process with an unstable solid electrolyte interphase layer of nonuniform ionic flux, which can not only lead to the low Coulombic efficiency, but also can create short circuit risks, resulting in possible burning or explosion. In this communication, the atomic layer deposition of Al2 O3 coating is first demonstrated for the protection of metallic Na anode for Na-metal batteries. By protecting Na foil with ultrathin Al2 O3 layer, the dendrites and mossy Na formation have been effectively suppressed and lifetime has been significantly improved. Furthermore, the thickness of protective layer has been further optimized with 25 cycles of Al2 O3 layer presenting the best performance over 500 cycles. The novel design of atomic layer deposition protected metal Na anode may bring in new opportunities to the realization of the next-generation high energy-density Na metal batteries.

  18. Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Cates, J W; Levin, C S

    2016-04-07

    Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps for a single 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A [Formula: see text] array of 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout.

  19. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  20. Ultra-stable performance of the superconducting cavity maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. J.; Wang, Rabi T.

    1991-01-01

    Recent measurements on the superconducting cavity maser (SCM) oscillator show frequency stability of parts in 10 exp 15 for times from 1 to 1000 sec. Phase noise of approximately -80 dB/f-cubed was also measured. This short- and mid-term performance is believed to be better than that of any known microwave oscillator. In particular, stability at a measuring time of 1 sec is 10 times better than that of a hydrogen maser, and phase noise at 8 GHz is more than 20 dB below that of the best multiplied quartz crystal oscillators. Substantial technical improvements have been made to eliminate frequency instability due to operational parameters. They are temperature, pump frequency, pump power, pump frequency polarization, temperature gradient, coupling strength, and output VSWR. Either the parameter was stabilized or the coefficient which couples the parameter to the operating frequency was minimized. A frequency pulling coil has been implemented and tested to enable the SCM to be slaved to a hydrogen maser with a time constant of approximately 50 sec. This combination would allow the excellent long term performance of the hydrogen maser to be improved by the newly available short term performance of the SCM.

  1. Test Anxiety, Test Comfort and Student Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyans, Leslie J., Jr.

    The Illinois Inventory of Educational Progress (IIEP) Test Comfort Scale was administered and test results were studied in terms of student achievement and correlates of achievement. Using the revised, seven-item scale, it was determined that: in grade 4, there was no main significant effect for sex or ethnic differences, although Orientals and…

  2. Achieving Stable Nitritation for Mainstream Deammonification by Combining Free Nitrous Acid-Based Sludge Treatment and Oxygen Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin; Laloo, Andrew; Xu, Yifeng; Bond, Philip L.; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Stable nitritation is a critical bottleneck for achieving autotrophic nitrogen removal using the energy-saving mainstream deammonification process. Herein we report a new strategy to wash out both the Nitrospira sp. and Nitrobacter sp. from the treatment of domestic-strength wastewater. The strategy combines sludge treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA) with dissolved oxygen (DO) control in the nitritation reactor. Initially, the nitrifying reactor achieved full conversion of NH4+ to NO3−. Then, nitrite accumulation at ~60% was achieved in the reactor when 1/4 of the sludge was treated daily with FNA at 1.82 mg N/L in a side-stream unit for 24 h. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) revealed FNA treatment substantially reduced the abundance of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) (from 23.0 ± 4.3 to 5.3 ± 1.9%), especially that of Nitrospira sp. (from 15.7 ± 3.9 to 0.4 ± 0.1%). Nitrite accumulation increased to ~80% when the DO concentration in the mainstream reactor was reduced from 2.5–3.0 to 0.3–0.8 mg/L. FISH revealed the DO limitation further reduced the abundance of NOB (to 2.1 ± 1.0%), especially that of Nitrobacter sp. (from 4.9 ± 1.2 to 1.8 ± 0.8%). The strategy developed removes a major barrier for deammonification in low-strength domestic wastewater. PMID:27151247

  3. Achieving Stable Nitritation for Mainstream Deammonification by Combining Free Nitrous Acid-Based Sludge Treatment and Oxygen Limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin; Laloo, Andrew; Xu, Yifeng; Bond, Philip L.; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    Stable nitritation is a critical bottleneck for achieving autotrophic nitrogen removal using the energy-saving mainstream deammonification process. Herein we report a new strategy to wash out both the Nitrospira sp. and Nitrobacter sp. from the treatment of domestic-strength wastewater. The strategy combines sludge treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA) with dissolved oxygen (DO) control in the nitritation reactor. Initially, the nitrifying reactor achieved full conversion of NH4+ to NO3-. Then, nitrite accumulation at ~60% was achieved in the reactor when 1/4 of the sludge was treated daily with FNA at 1.82 mg N/L in a side-stream unit for 24 h. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) revealed FNA treatment substantially reduced the abundance of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) (from 23.0 ± 4.3 to 5.3 ± 1.9%), especially that of Nitrospira sp. (from 15.7 ± 3.9 to 0.4 ± 0.1%). Nitrite accumulation increased to ~80% when the DO concentration in the mainstream reactor was reduced from 2.5-3.0 to 0.3-0.8 mg/L. FISH revealed the DO limitation further reduced the abundance of NOB (to 2.1 ± 1.0%), especially that of Nitrobacter sp. (from 4.9 ± 1.2 to 1.8 ± 0.8%). The strategy developed removes a major barrier for deammonification in low-strength domestic wastewater.

  4. The Role of Achievement Goals in the Development of Interest: Reciprocal Relations between Achievement Goals, Interest, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Durik, Amanda M.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Tauer, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of individual and situational interest and academic performance were examined in the college classroom and 7 semesters later in conjunction with achievement goals. At the beginning of an introductory psychology course, participants reported their initial interest in psychology, achievement goals, and situational interest in course…

  5. Academic Performance as a Function of Achievement Motivation, Achievement Beliefs, and Affect States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, James J.; Plecha, Michelle D.

    Three pilot studies are used to examine the relationships between academic performance, student ability, and motivation among community college students. The first study analyzed the association between motivation and academic performance in order to test the hypothesis that students who are highly motivated will earn higher grades. Results…

  6. Force Outputs during Squats Performed Using a Rotational Inertia Device under Stable versus Unstable Conditions with Different Loads

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Guerrero, Jairo; Moras, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the force outputs achieved during a squat exercise using a rotational inertia device in stable versus unstable conditions with different loads and in concentric and eccentric phases. Thirteen male athletes (mean ± SD: age 23.7 ± 3.0 years, height 1.80 ± 0.08 m, body mass 77.4 ± 7.9 kg) were assessed while squatting, performing one set of three repetitions with four different loads under stable and unstable conditions at maximum concentric effort. Overall, there were no significant differences between the stable and unstable conditions at each of the loads for any of the dependent variables. Mean force showed significant differences between some of the loads in stable and unstable conditions (P < 0.010) and peak force output differed between all loads for each condition (P < 0.045). Mean force outputs were greater in the concentric than in the eccentric phase under both conditions and with all loads (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in peak force between concentric and eccentric phases at any load in either stable or unstable conditions. In conclusion, squatting with a rotational inertia device allowed the generation of similar force outputs under stable and unstable conditions at each of the four loads. The study also provides empirical evidence of the different force outputs achieved by adjusting load conditions on the rotational inertia device when performing squats, especially in the case of peak force. Concentric force outputs were significantly higher than eccentric outputs, except for peak force under both conditions. These findings support the use of the rotational inertia device to train the squatting exercise under unstable conditions for strength and conditioning trainers. The device could also be included in injury prevention programs for muscle lesions and ankle and knee joint injuries. PMID:27111766

  7. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  8. Student Achievement and Education System Performance in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jeffery H.; Chinna, Ung; Hok, Ung Ngo; Tinon, Souer; Veasna, Meung; Nissay, Put

    2012-01-01

    The global spread of national assessment testing activities, and the growing pressure to move beyond basic measures of participation in educational monitoring, means that student achievement measures are likely to become increasingly relevant indicators of systemic progress in the developing world. Using data from the CESSP project in Cambodia,…

  9. Mirror Analysis: How To Achieve Customer-Driven Human Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourier, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Presents an evaluation/development method for achieving customer-driven improvement in organizations. Describes the steps to external and internal "mirror analysis," a process for determining if the organization functions as a mirror of customers' needs and expectations. Twelve figures illustrate factors in the process. (AEF)

  10. A Performance Model for Academic Achievement in Early Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBaryshe, Barbara D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study followed 206 adolescent boys and their families from the fourth through eighth grade to test a model for conduct-related school failure. Results indicated that low parental academic achievement was associated with ineffective discipline practices and child antisocial behavior in the sixth grade and that ineffective discipline had a…

  11. Stable, high-performance operation of a fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detector.

    PubMed

    Miki, Shigehito; Yabuno, Masahiro; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka

    2017-03-20

    Recent progress in the development of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SSPD or SNSPD) has delivered excellent performance, and has had a great impact on a range of research fields. Significant efforts are being made to further improve the technology, and a primary concern remains to resolve the trade-offs between detection efficiency (DE), timing jitter, and response speed. We present a stable and high-performance fiber-coupled niobium titanium nitride superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detector (SNAP) that resolves these trade-offs. Autocorrelation function measurement revealed an afterpulse-free operation in serially connected two SNAP (SC-2SNAP), even in the absence of a choke inductor, achieving a 7.65 times faster response speed than standard SSPDs. The SC-2SNAP device showed a system detection efficiency (SDE) of 81.0% with wide bias current margin, a dark count rate of 6.8 counts/s, and full width at half maximum timing jitter of 68 ps, operating in a practical Gifford-McMahon cryocooler system.

  12. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  13. Orchestrating ACO success: how top performers achieve shared savings.

    PubMed

    Harris, John M; Elizondo, Idette; Brown, Amanda M

    2016-03-01

    Leaders of the top-performing accountable care organizations in the Medicare Shared Savings Program attribute the success of their organizations in large part to seven strategies: Seek action-oriented leadership. Transform primary care physician practices. Keep patients out of the emergency department. Ensure all transitions are smooth. Make effective use of available data. Share information on physician performance. Keep patients engaged.

  14. Some methods for achieving more efficient performance of fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltenko, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    More efficient operation of reactor plant fuel assemblies can be achieved through the use of new technical solutions aimed at obtaining more uniform distribution of coolant over the fuel assembly section, more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces, and higher values of departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR). Technical solutions using which it is possible to obtain more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces and higher DNBR values in reactor plant fuel assemblies are considered. An alternative heat removal arrangement is described using which it is possible to obtain a significantly higher power density in a reactor plant and essentially lower maximal fuel rod temperature.

  15. Student Achievement Data Systems in High and Low Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachowiak, Jeannie E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in how high and low performing elementary school districts use and analyze data to differentiate instruction, make changes to district/grade level curriculum, determine professional development needs, determine teacher effectiveness, and determine the use of school district…

  16. Achieving Transformational Materials Performance in a New Era of Science

    ScienceCinema

    John Sarrao

    2016-07-12

    The inability of current materials to meet performance requirements is a key stumbling block for addressing grand challenges in energy and national security. Fortunately, materials research is on the brink of a new era - a transition from observation and validation of materials properties to prediction and control of materials performance. In this talk, I describe the nature of the current challenge, the prospects for success, and a specific facility concept, MaRIE, that will provide the needed capabilities to meet these challenges, especially for materials in extreme environments. MaRIE, for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes, is Los Alamos' concept to realize this vision of 21st century materials research. This vision will be realized through enhancements to the current LANSCE accelerator, development of a fourth-generation x-ray light source co-located with the proton accelerator, and a comprehensive synthesis and characterization facility focused on controlling complex materials and the defect/structure link to materials performance.

  17. Achieving optimum sports performance during Ramadan: some practical recommendations.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J; Zerguini, Yacine; Chalabi, Hakim; Dvorak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Muslim athletes should fast from sunrise to sunset each day throughout the 30 days of Ramadan. Most athletes will continue to train throughout Ramadan, and they may also be required to compete at this time, but they will also engage in the religious, cultural, and social activities that Ramadan represents. The available evidence indicates that high-level athletes can maintain performance during Ramadan if physical training, food and fluid intake, and sleep are appropriate and well controlled. Individualized monitoring of athletes may help to prevent fatigue and overtraining and to reduce the risk of consequent illness and injury. The timing and intensity of training may require adjustment to optimize the training response, and training close to or after sunset may have advantages, but this will vary between individual and team sports and between environments that are predominantly Muslim and those that are predominantly non-Muslim. Training late in the day allows nutrition interventions after training to promote adaptations to the training stimulus, to promote recovery, and might help to reduce muscle damage. Sleep deficits have a number of adverse effects on well-being and performance, and athletes should ensure adequate sleep throughout Ramadan. In non-Muslim majority environments, especially in team sports, coaches and athletes should be sensitive to the needs of their team-mates who may be fasting. Event organizers should take account of the needs of Muslim athletes when scheduling the dates and timings of sports competitions.

  18. Predicting Performance Achievement and Retention of Fifth-Grade Instrumental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinedinst, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a study of the ability of 11 variables to predict performance, achievement, teacher evaluation, and retention of fifth grade beginning instrumentalists. Reports that scholastic ability and academic achievement tests were leading predictors of performance achievement. Concludes that socioeconomic status and self-concept played prominent…

  19. Achieving high sustained performance in an unstructured mesh CFD application

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, D E; Anderson, W K; Gropp, W D; Kaushik, D K; Smith, B F

    1999-12-10

    This paper highlights a three-year project by an interdisciplinary team on a legacy F77 computational fluid dynamics code, with the aim of demonstrating that implicit unstructured grid simulations can execute at rates not far from those of explicit structured grid codes, provided attention is paid to data motion complexity and the reuse of data positioned at the levels of the memory hierarchy closest to the processor, in addition to traditional operation count complexity. The demonstration code is from NASA and the enabling parallel hardware and (freely available) software toolkit are from DOE, but the resulting methodology should be broadly applicable, and the hardware limitations exposed should allow programmers and vendors of parallel platforms to focus with greater encouragement on sparse codes with indirect addressing. This snapshot of ongoing work shows a performance of 15 microseconds per degree of freedom to steady-state convergence of Euler flow on a mesh with 2.8 million vertices using 3072 dual-processor nodes of ASCI Red, corresponding to a sustained floating-point rate of 0.227 Tflop/s.

  20. Explaining the Substantial Inter-Domain and Over-Time Correlations in Student Achievement: The Importance of Stable Student Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-domain and longitudinal studies of student achievement routinely find moderate to strong correlations across achievement domains and even stronger within-domain correlations over time. The purpose of this study is to examine the sources of these patterns analysing student achievement in 5 domains across Years 3, 5 and 7. The analysis is of…

  1. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.1 Section 3055.1 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  2. 39 CFR 3055.2 - Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of the annual report of service performance achievements. 3055.2 Section 3055.2 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  3. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Periodic reporting of service performance achievements. 3055.30 Section 3055.30 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements §...

  4. Achievement Gaps for Students with Disabilities: Stable, Widening, or Narrowing on a State-Wide Reading Comprehension Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Ann C.; Stevens, Joseph J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Tindal, Gerald; Nese, Joseph F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension growth trajectories from 3rd to 7th grade were estimated for 99,919 students on a state reading comprehension assessment. We examined whether differences between students in general education (GE) and groups of students identified as exceptional learners were best characterized as stable, widening, or narrowing. The groups…

  5. Relations among Motivation, Performance Achievement, and Music Experience Variables in Secondary Instrumental Music Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Charles P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (1) reexamine academic achievement motivation orientations within the context of instrumental music, and (2) examine relations among achievement motivation orientations, self-concept in instrumental music, and attitude to band in relation to teachers' ratings of performance achievement and effort, and students'…

  6. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions are explored. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement made by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  7. Students' Achievement Goals, Emotion Perception Ability and Affect and Performance in the Classroom: A Multilevel Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassiou, Aikaterini; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Andreou, Eleni; Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    Performance at school is affected not only by students' achievement goals but also by emotional exchanges among classmates and their teacher. In this study, we investigated relationships between students' achievement goals and emotion perception ability and class affect and performance. Participants were 949 Greek adolescent students in 49 classes…

  8. A Comparison of Low Performing Students' Achievements in Factoring Cubic Polynomials Using Three Different Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbonnaya, Ugorji I.; Mogari, David L.; Machisi, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this study, repeated measures design was employed to compare low performing students' achievements in factoring cubic polynomials using three strategies. Twenty-five low-performing Grade 12 students from a secondary school in Limpopo province took part in the study. Data was collected using achievement test and was analysed using repeated…

  9. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  10. Test Anxiety and Academic Performance among Undergraduates: The Moderating Role of Achievement Motivation.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Anthony Gbenro; Balogun, Shyngle Kolawole; Onyencho, Chidi Victor

    2017-02-13

    This study investigated the moderating role of achievement motivation in the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Three hundred and ninety three participants (192 males and 201 females) selected from a public university in Ondo State, Nigeria using a purposive sampling technique, participated in the study. They responded to measures of test anxiety and achievement motivation. Three hypotheses were tested using moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Results showed that test anxiety had a negative impact on academic performance (β = -.23; p < .05). Achievement motivation had a positive impact on academic performance (β = .38; p < .05). Also, achievement motivation significantly moderated the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance (β = .10; p < .01). These findings suggest that university management should design appropriate psycho-educational interventions that would enhance students' achievement motivation.

  11. DORIS precise orbit determination and location system performances of ultra stable oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, M.

    1992-06-01

    Elements of the DORIS (Doppler precise positioning System) performances and performances of the DORIS USO (Ultra Stable Oscillators) are described. The DORIS system was designed and developed to meet new needs in precision orbit determination and high accuracy beacon location. DORIS payload was integrated on three French SPOT satellites and on the Topex-Poseidon NASA satellite. The first model DORIS SPOT 2 began operating on 22 Jan. 1990. The fundamental measurement precision depends strongly on the stability of USO, which are used in the onboard receiver, and in ground location beacons.

  12. Achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of academically underprepared adolescent students.

    PubMed

    House, J D

    1993-03-01

    The relationship between achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of 191 academically underprepared adolescent students was examined. After the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, a significant main effect for academic self-concept was found; as expected, students with higher academic self-concept earned significantly higher mathematics grades. In addition, after the effects of prior achievement were controlled for, female students were found to earn significantly higher mathematics grades than did male students. A significant three-way (Sex x Ethnic Group x Achievement-Related Expectancies) interaction was also noted. Unlike in several previous studies, no significant racial differences in mathematics performance were found. These students had a similar socioeconomic status (SES), and the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, suggesting that racial and gender differences in mathematics achievement may be partially explained by prior schooling and SES background, as posited by Reyes and Stanic (1988).

  13. Achievement goals and interpersonal behavior: how mastery and performance goals shape information exchange.

    PubMed

    Poortvliet, P Marijn; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van de Vliert, Evert

    2007-10-01

    The present research examines the impact of achievement goals on task-related information exchange. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that relative to those with mastery goals or no goal, individuals pursuing performance goals were less open in their information giving to exchange partners. Study 2 further clarifies this effect of achievement goals by showing that performance goals generate an exploitation orientation toward information exchange. Furthermore, relative to individuals with mastery goals or no goal, people pursuing performance goals enhanced their task performance by utilizing more high-quality information obtained from their exchange partner (Study 1) and protected their task performance by more rigorously disregarding received low-quality information (Study 2).

  14. Do Performance Goals Promote Learning? A Pattern Analysis of Singapore Students' Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Paris, Scott G.; Hogan, David; Luo, Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how achievement goals are combined to affect students' learning. We used a multiple goals perspective, based on mastery (i.e., mastery approach) and performance (including both approach and avoidance components) goals, to examine the achievement goal patterns of 1697 Singapore Secondary 3 students in their math study. Four…

  15. Construct Validity of the Computerized Continuous Performance Test with Measures of Intelligence, Achievement, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Janice Whitten; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, and reading comprehension subtest of Peabody Individual Achievement Test to 54 school-aged children and adolescents referred for evaluation of learning disabilities. Parents…

  16. Relationship of Achievement Test Scores and State Board Performance in a Diploma Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Gail

    The relationship between the National League for Nursing (NLN) achievement test scores and performance on the State Board Test Pool Examination (SBTPE) was studied with 166 graduates of a diploma degree school of nursing between 1976 and 1978. It was found that NLN achievement test scores had a highly significant correlation with SBTPE results.…

  17. The Effects of Gender and Attributions on Achievement Motivation and Subsequent Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Sibylle J.; Latta, R. Michael

    One attributional model of achievement proposes that individuals attribute their own and others' performance outcomes to one or more of four causes, i.e., ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck, and that such attributions have motivational significance for subsequent achievement-related behavior. The effects of gender, level of resultant…

  18. Neuropsychological and Academic Achievement Correlates of Abnormal WISC-R Verbal-Performance Discrepancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueger, Robert J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological and academic achievement correlates of statistically abnormal verbal-performance discrepancies on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised). Results indicated that abnormal discrepancies reflect specific aphasia deficits rather than generalized neuropsychological dysfunction and that academic achievement…

  19. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.1... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  20. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.30... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  1. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.1... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  2. 39 CFR 3055.1 - Annual reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Annual Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.1... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  3. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.30... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  4. 39 CFR 3055.30 - Periodic reporting of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service Performance Achievements § 3055.30... Mail Classification Schedule in part 3020, appendix A to subpart A of part 3020 of this chapter,...

  5. The effect of achievement goals on enjoyment, effort, satisfaction and performance.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of achievement goals and achievement emotions on sport satisfaction, performance and effort among competitive athletes. Participants were 200 athletes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effect of mastery-approach goals on satisfaction with sport experience and performance, the direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and effort, the direct effect of performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals on performance, and the direct effect of mastery-avoidance goals on effort. Results showed a positive direct effect of mastery-approach goals on enjoyment and an indirect effect, through enjoyment, on satisfaction, performance, and effort. We did not find support for the hypothesized effect of performance-approach or performance-avoidance goals on performance. The applied implications of endorsing mastery-approach goals are discussed.

  6. Highly air- and moisture-stable hole-doped carbon nanotube films achieved using boron-based oxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funahashi, Kazuma; Tanaka, Naoki; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Imazu, Naoki; Nakayama, Ko; Kanahashi, Kaito; Shirae, Hiroyuki; Noda, Suguru; Ohta, Hiromichi; Fukushima, Takanori; Takenobu, Taishi

    2017-03-01

    Hole doping into carbon nanotubes can be achieved. However, the doped nanotubes usually suffer from the lack of air and moisture stability, thus, they eventually lose their improved electrical properties. Here, we report that a salt of the two-coordinate boron cation Mes2B+ (Mes: 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl group) can serve as an efficient hole-doping reagent to produce nanotubes with markedly high stability in the presence of air and moisture. Upon doping, the resistances of the nanotubes decreased, and these states were maintained for one month in air. The hole-doped nanotube films showed a minimal increase in resistance even upon humidification with a relative humidity of 90%.

  7. Skeletal muscle mass and exercise performance in stable ambulatory patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lang, C C; Chomsky, D B; Rayos, G; Yeoh, T K; Wilson, J R

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle atrophy limits the maximal exercise capacity of stable ambulatory patients with heart failure. Body composition and maximal exercise capacity were measured in 100 stable ambulatory patients with heart failure. Body composition was assessed by using dual-energy X-ray absorption. Peak exercise oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and the anaerobic threshold were measured by using a Naughton treadmill protocol and a Medical Graphics CardioO2 System. VO2peak averaged 13.4 +/- 3.3 ml.min-1.kg-1 or 43 +/- 12% of normal. Lean body mass averaged 52.9 +/- 10.5 kg and leg lean mass 16.5 +/- 3.6 kg. Leg lean mass correlated linearly with VO2peak (r = 0.68, P < 0.01), suggesting that exercise performance is influences by skeletal muscle mass. However, lean body mass was comparable to levels noted in 1,584 normal control subjects, suggesting no decrease in muscle mass. Leg muscle mass was comparable to levels noted in 34 normal control subjects, further supporting this conclusion. These findings suggest that exercise intolerance in stable ambulatory patients with heart failure is not due to skeletal muscle atrophy.

  8. Dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation and stable performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hang; Qu, Shao-Bo; Peng, Wei-Dong; Lin, Bao-Qin; Wang, Jia-Fu; Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jie-Qiu; Bai, Peng; Wang, Xu-Hua; Xu, Zhuo

    2012-05-01

    A new technique of designing a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is presented. This technique is based on a delicately designed topology of L- and Ku-band microwave filters. The two band-pass responses are generated by a capacitively-loaded square-loop frequency selective surface and an aperture-coupled frequency selective surface, respectively. A Faraday cage is located between the two frequency selective surface structures to eliminate undesired couplings. Based on this technique, a dual-band frequency selective surface with large band separation is designed, which possesses large band separation, high selectivity, and stable performance under various incident angles and different polarizations.

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Self-Reported Achievement Goals and Nonself-Report Performance across Three Achievement Domains (Work, Sports, and Education)

    PubMed Central

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual’s drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that – overall – approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of

  10. A meta-analysis of self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance across three achievement domains (work, sports, and education).

    PubMed

    Van Yperen, Nico W; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of performance

  11. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  12. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    PubMed

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  13. 39 CFR 3055.31 - Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of the Quarterly Report of service performance achievements. 3055.31 Section 3055.31 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL SERVICE PERFORMANCE AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION REPORTING Periodic Reporting of Service...

  14. The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2013-01-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not English.…

  15. How to achieve and prove performance improvement - 15 years of experience in German wastewater benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Bertzbach, F; Franz, T; Möller, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the results of performance improvement, which have been achieved in benchmarking projects in the wastewater industry in Germany over the last 15 years. A huge number of changes in operational practice and also in achieved annual savings can be shown, induced in particular by benchmarking at process level. Investigation of this question produces some general findings for the inclusion of performance improvement in a benchmarking project and for the communication of its results. Thus, we elaborate on the concept of benchmarking at both utility and process level, which is still a necessary distinction for the integration of performance improvement into our benchmarking approach. To achieve performance improvement via benchmarking it should be made quite clear that this outcome depends, on one hand, on a well conducted benchmarking programme and, on the other, on the individual situation within each participating utility.

  16. The impact of the achievement motive on athletic performance in adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Claudia; Conzelmann, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Researchers largely agree that there is a positive relationship between achievement motivation and athletic performance, which is why the achievement motive is viewed as a potential criterion for talent. However, the underlying mechanism behind this relationship remains unclear. In talent and performance models, main effect, mediator and moderator models have been suggested. A longitudinal study was carried out among 140 13-year-old football talents, using structural equation modelling to determine which model best explains how hope for success (HS) and fear of failure (FF), which are the aspects of the achievement motive, motor skills and abilities that affect performance. Over a period of half a year, HS can to some extent explain athletic performance, but this relationship is not mediated by the volume of training, sport-specific skills or abilities, nor is the achievement motive a moderating variable. Contrary to expectations, FF does not explain any part of performance. Aside from HS, however, motor abilities and in particular skills also predict a significant part of performance. The study confirms the widespread assumption that the development of athletic performance in football depends on multiple factors, and in particular that HS is worth watching in the medium term as a predictor of talent.

  17. Trends in Performance and Characteristics of Ultra-Stable Oscillators for Deep Space Radio Science Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asmar, Sami

    1997-01-01

    Telecommunication systems of spacecraft on deep space missions also function as instruments for Radio Science experiments. Radio scientists utilize the telecommunication links between spacecraft and Earth to examine very small changes in the phase/frequency, amplitude, and/or polarization of radio signals to investigate a host of physical phenomena in the solar system. Several missions augmented the radio communication system with an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) in order to provide a highly stable reference signal for oneway downlink. This configuration is used in order to enable better investigations of the atmospheres of the planets occulting the line-of-sight to the spacecraft; one-way communication was required and the transponders' built-in auxiliary oscillators were neither sufficiently stable nor spectrally pure for the occultation experiments. Since Radio Science instrumentation is distributed between the spacecraft and the ground stations, the Deep Space Network (DSN) is also equipped to function as a world-class instrument for Radio Science research. For a detailed account of Radio Science experiments, methodology, key discoveries, and the DSN's historical contribution to the field, see Asmar and Renzetti (1993). The tools of Radio Science can be and have also been utilized in addressing several mission engineering challenges; e.g., characterization of spacecraft nutation and anomalous motion, antenna calibrations, and communications during surface landing phases. Since the first quartz USO was flown on Voyager, the technology has advanced significantly, affording future missions higher sensitivity in reconstructing the temperature pressure profiles of the atmospheres under study as well as other physical phenomena of interest to Radio Science. This paper surveys the trends in stability and spectral purity performance, design characteristics including size and mass, as well as cost and history of these clocks in space.

  18. The Joint Commission: hospitals make strides on core measures with more achieving "top performer" status.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Performance on key quality measures continues to improve at more than 3,300 accredited hospitals, according to new data from The Joint Commission (TJC). In its 2014 annual report, the Oakbrook Terrace, IL, accrediting agency, said that more than a third of the country's accredited hospitals are now top performers in TJC's core measures program. This is a marked increase from 2002 when the top performer program was first initiated and just 7% of hospitals achieved top performer status on a much smaller range of quality metrics. To be recognized as a top performer, TJC stipulates that hospitals must achieve a cumulative performance of 95% or greater on all reported accountability measures, achieve a performance of 95% or greater on every accountability measure where there are at least 30 denominator cases, and have at least one core measure set that has a composite rate of at least 95%--and all metrics within that measure set must rank at 95% or above as well. The number of academic medical centers recognized as top performers grew from 24, recognized in last year's annual report, to 35 in the 2014 report, now representing 29% of all accredited academic medical centers. Only 11% of the top performing hospitals were public hospitals, designated as "government owned" in the annual report. The TJC suggests that this indicates that performance improvement needs to be prioritized at these hospitals. TJC is providing special recognition to 44 top performing hospitals that went beyond the minimum requirements, reporting on five or more sets of measures, and achieved top performer recognition on that expanded set of measures.

  19. A converging route towards very high frequency, mechanically flexible, and performance stable integrated electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecavelier des Etangs-Levallois, Aurélien; Chen, Zhenkun; Lesecq, Marie; Lepilliet, Sylvie; Tagro, Yoann; Danneville, François; Robillard, Jean-François; Hoel, Virginie; Troadec, David; Gloria, Daniel; Raynaud, Christine; Ratajczak, Jacek; Dubois, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    The ability to realize flexible circuits integrating sensing, signal processing, and communicating capabilities is of central importance for the development of numerous nomadic applications requiring foldable, stretchable, and large area electronics. A key challenge is, however, to combine high electrical performance (i.e., millimeter wave, low noise electronics) with mechanical flexibility required for chip form adaptivity in addition to highly stable electrical performance upon deformation. Here, we describe a solution based on ultimate thinning and transfer onto a plastic foil of high frequency CMOS devices initially processed on conventional silicon-on-insulator wafers. We demonstrate a methodology relying on neutral plane engineering to provide high performance stability upon bending, by locating the active layer, i.e., the transistor channel, at the neutral fiber of the flexible system. Following this strategy, record frequency performance of flexible n-MOSFETs, featuring fT/fMAX of 120/145 GHz, is reported with relative variations limited to less than 5% even under aggressive bending on cylinders with curvature radii down to 12.5 mm.

  20. Underachievers: From Whose Perspective? A Commentary on "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's critique on "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students". The authors of the article titled "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students" investigated…

  1. Quantitative Guidance for Stove Usage and Performance to Achieve Health and Environmental Targets

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ranyee A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Displacing the use of polluting and inefficient cookstoves in developing countries is necessary to achieve the potential health and environmental benefits sought through clean cooking solutions. Yet little quantitative context has been provided on how much displacement of traditional technologies is needed to achieve targets for household air pollutant concentrations or fuel savings. Objectives This paper provides instructive guidance on the usage of cooking technologies required to achieve health and environmental improvements. Methods We evaluated different scenarios of displacement of traditional stoves with use of higher performing technologies. The air quality and fuel consumption impacts were estimated for these scenarios using a single-zone box model of indoor air quality and ratios of thermal efficiency. Results Stove performance and usage should be considered together, as lower performing stoves can result in similar or greater benefits than a higher performing stove if the lower performing stove has considerably higher displacement of the baseline stove. Based on the indoor air quality model, there are multiple performance–usage scenarios for achieving modest indoor air quality improvements. To meet World Health Organization guidance levels, however, three-stone fire and basic charcoal stove usage must be nearly eliminated to achieve the particulate matter target (< 1–3 hr/week), and substantially limited to meet the carbon monoxide guideline (< 7–9 hr/week). Conclusions Moderate health gains may be achieved with various performance–usage scenarios. The greatest benefits are estimated to be achieved by near-complete displacement of traditional stoves with clean technologies, emphasizing the need to shift in the long term to near exclusive use of clean fuels and stoves. The performance–usage scenarios are also provided as a tool to guide technology selection and prioritize behavior change opportunities to maximize impact. Citation

  2. Achievement Motivation: Conceptions of Ability, Subjective Experience, Task Choice, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.

    1984-01-01

    Achievement behavior is defined as behavior directed at demonstrating high ability. Ability is conceived as relative to one's own past performance, or relative to that of others. Conditions under which these conceptions of ability function as individual's goals and the nature of subjective experience in each case are specified. (Author/BW)

  3. Improving Achievement in Low-Performing Schools: Key Results for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Randolph E.; Burke, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    As accountability in schools becomes more crucial, educators are looking for comprehensive and innovative management practices that respond to challenges and realities of student academic achievement. In order to improve academic performance and the quality of instruction, the entire school community needs to be involved. This book provides six…

  4. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  5. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  6. Immigrant Children's Educational Achievement in Western Countries: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects on Mathematical Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levels, Mark; Dronkers, Jaap; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which macro-level characteristics of destination countries, origin countries, and immigrant communities help explain differences in immigrant children's educational achievement. Using data from the 2003 PISA survey, we analyze the mathematical performance of 7,403 pupils from 35 different origin countries in 13…

  7. Making Employee Recognition a Tool for Achieving Improved Performance: Implication for Ghanaian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoatemaa, Abena Serwaa; Kyeremeh, Dorcas Darkoah

    2016-01-01

    Many organisations are increasingly making use of employee recognition to motivate employees to achieve high performance and productivity. Research has shown that effective recognition occurs in organisations that have strong supportive culture, understand the psychology of praising employees for their good work, and apply the principles of…

  8. Factors Influencing Student Achievement at a High-Performing Title I Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeier, Charlann K.

    2012-01-01

    Schools in America are required to provide all students with a quality education regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background, demonstrated through test scores mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act. Knowledge about factors that influence students' academic performance and serve to reduce the achievement gap between Hispanic…

  9. Performance in Reading from Content Area Text as an Indicator of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Christine A.; Deno, Stanley L.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a measure of reading proficiency in content areas with 121 grade-10 students. Correlational analyses revealed low-moderate to moderate correlations between reading measures and scores on a classroom study task, grade point average, and achievement test performance. Recommendations are made for implementation…

  10. Classroom Environment, Instructional Resources, and Teaching Differences in High-Performing Kentucky Schools with Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Schumacher, Debbie; Hauser, Brenda; Croom, Nona D. M.

    This study examined differences at the classroom level between Kentucky schools with minimum versus large gaps in academic achievement between particular groups of students. Data were gathered via observations of 213 classrooms at 18 elementary, middle, and high schools. Although all the schools were identified as high-performing in terms of…

  11. Reading Achievement, Mastery, and Performance Goal Structures among Students with Learning Disabilities: A Nonlinear Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Antoniou, Faye

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that a nonlinear relationship exists between a performance-classroom climate and the reading achievement of adolescent students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants were 62 students with LD (Grades 5-9) from public elementary schools in northern Greece. Classroom climate was…

  12. Marked for Success: Secondary School Performance and University Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Keith; Broght, Erik; Sampson, Kaylene

    2011-01-01

    Building on Shulruf, Hattie and Tumen (2008), this work examines the capacity of various National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA)-derived models to predict first-year performance in Biological Sciences at a New Zealand university. We compared three models: (1) the "best-80" indicator as used by several New Zealand…

  13. Teaching to the Tails: Teacher Performance Pay and the Distribution of Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyalka, Prashant; Sylvia, Sean; Liu, Chengfang; Chu, James; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that teachers in developing countries often have weak or misaligned incentives for improving student outcomes. In response, policymakers and researchers have proposed performance pay as a way to improve student outcomes by tying concrete measures like achievement scores to teacher pay. While evidence from randomized…

  14. Preparation and performance of novel thermally stable polyamide/PPENK composite nanofiltration membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lijie; Zhang, Shouhai; Han, Runlin; Jian, Xigao

    2012-09-01

    Novel thermally stable composite nanofiltration (NF) membranes were prepared from piperazine (PIP) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on poly (phthalazione ether nitrile ketone) (PPENK) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes by interfacial polymerization. The effects of monomers concentration, reaction time and organic solvents on the performance of composite membranes were investigated. The effects of operating pressure and the salt solution concentration on the performance of composite membranes were also discussed. The different salts rejection of PPENK composite membranes decreased in the order of Na2SO4 > MgSO4 > Al2(SO4)3 > NaCl > MgCl2, which indicated a negative charge at the membrane surface. The flux and Na2SO4 rejection of PPENK composite membranes reached 57.9 L/m2 h and 98.4% under the optimized conditions and operating pressure of 1.0 MPa. Furthermore, the morphology and chemical structure of membranes were examined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), respectively. Moreover, the thermal stability of PPENK NF membranes was also investigated. When temperature of the feed solution raised from 20 °C to 80 °C, the permeation flux increased about four times without significant change of rejection. The flux increased first then reached a plateau and the rejection kept constant when PPENK NF membranes in boiling de-ionized water were boiled to 3 h.

  15. Reading Achievement, Mastery, and Performance Goal Structures Among Students With Learning Disabilities: A Nonlinear Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sideridis, Georgios D; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Antoniou, Faye

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that a nonlinear relationship exists between a performance-classroom climate and the reading achievement of adolescent students with learning disabilities (LD). Participants were 62 students with LD (Grades 5-9) from public elementary schools in northern Greece. Classroom climate was assessed using the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Styles. Achievement in reading was assessed using a normative reading assessment. Data were analyzed by means of catastrophe theory in which the behavior is predicted as a function of two control variables, the asymmetry factor and the bifurcation factor. Reading achievement (word identification) was predicted by students' ability to decode pseudowords (asymmetry variable) and by a mastery or performance motivational discourse (bifurcation factor). Results indicated that in classrooms with a performance goal structure, the cusp model fit the data and accounted for 54% of the variance in real word identification. In this condition, the association between pseudoword reading and real word reading was nonlinear. When a mastery climate was tested as a bifurcation variable, results indicated that its effect was nonsignificant and that instead the linear model fitted the data more adequately. Thus, increases in a classroom's performance motivational discourse are associated with sudden, unpredictable, and discontinued changes in students' reading performance.

  16. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  17. Mechanical and Electrical Performance of Thermally Stable Au-ZnO films

    DOE PAGES

    Schoeppner, Rachel L.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Moody, Neville R.; ...

    2015-03-28

    The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical performance of Au–ZnO composite thin films are determined in this work. The co-deposition of ZnO with Au via physical vapor deposition leads to grain refinement over that of pure Au; the addition of 0.1 vol.% ZnO reduces the as-grown grain size by over 30%. The hardness of the as-grown films doubles with 2% ZnO, from 1.8 to 3.6 GPa as measured by nanoindentation. Films with ZnO additions greater than 0.5% show no significant grain growth after annealing at 350 °C, while pure gold and smaller additions do exhibit grain growth and subsequent mechanicalmore » softening. Films with 1% and 2% ZnO show a decrease of approximately 50% in electrical resistivity and no change in hardness after annealing. A model accounting for both changes in the interface structure between dispersed ZnO particles and the Au matrix captures the changes in mechanical and electrical resistivity. Furthermore, the addition of 1–2% ZnO co-deposited with Au provides a method to create mechanically hard and thermally stable films with a resistivity less than 80 nΩ-m. Our results complement previous studies of other alloying systems, suggesting oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) gold shows a desirable hardness–resistivity relationship that is relatively independent of the particular ODS chemistry.« less

  18. Mechanical and Electrical Performance of Thermally Stable Au-ZnO films

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeppner, Rachel L.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Moody, Neville R.; Bahr, David F.

    2015-03-28

    The mechanical properties, thermal stability, and electrical performance of Au–ZnO composite thin films are determined in this work. The co-deposition of ZnO with Au via physical vapor deposition leads to grain refinement over that of pure Au; the addition of 0.1 vol.% ZnO reduces the as-grown grain size by over 30%. The hardness of the as-grown films doubles with 2% ZnO, from 1.8 to 3.6 GPa as measured by nanoindentation. Films with ZnO additions greater than 0.5% show no significant grain growth after annealing at 350 °C, while pure gold and smaller additions do exhibit grain growth and subsequent mechanical softening. Films with 1% and 2% ZnO show a decrease of approximately 50% in electrical resistivity and no change in hardness after annealing. A model accounting for both changes in the interface structure between dispersed ZnO particles and the Au matrix captures the changes in mechanical and electrical resistivity. Furthermore, the addition of 1–2% ZnO co-deposited with Au provides a method to create mechanically hard and thermally stable films with a resistivity less than 80 nΩ-m. Our results complement previous studies of other alloying systems, suggesting oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) gold shows a desirable hardness–resistivity relationship that is relatively independent of the particular ODS chemistry.

  19. Daily online testing in large classes: boosting college performance while reducing achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    Pennebaker, James W; Gosling, Samuel D; Ferrell, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901) brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935). Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses.

  20. Fundamental performance limits of carbon nanotube thin-film transistors achieved using hybrid molecular dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Vinod K; Ortiz, Rocio Ponce; Alaboson, Justice M P; Emery, Jonathan D; Bedzyk, Michael J; Lauhon, Lincoln J; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2012-08-28

    In the past decade, semiconducting carbon nanotube thin films have been recognized as contending materials for wide-ranging applications in electronics, energy, and sensing. In particular, improvements in large-area flexible electronics have been achieved through independent advances in postgrowth processing to resolve metallic versus semiconducting carbon nanotube heterogeneity, in improved gate dielectrics, and in self-assembly processes. Moreover, controlled tuning of specific device components has afforded fundamental probes of the trade-offs between materials properties and device performance metrics. Nevertheless, carbon nanotube transistor performance suitable for real-world applications awaits understanding-based progress in the integration of independently pioneered device components. We achieve this here by integrating high-purity semiconducting carbon nanotube films with a custom-designed hybrid inorganic-organic gate dielectric. This synergistic combination of materials circumvents conventional design trade-offs, resulting in concurrent advances in several transistor performance metrics such as transconductance (6.5 μS/μm), intrinsic field-effect mobility (147 cm(2)/(V s)), subthreshold swing (150 mV/decade), and on/off ratio (5 × 10(5)), while also achieving hysteresis-free operation in ambient conditions.

  1. The effect of workshop groups on achievement goals and performance in biology: An outcome evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Wendi Kay

    This two-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on performance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students in a three-course series and investigated motivational explanations for performance differences. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992) at the University of California. Majority volunteers randomly assigned to workshops (n = 61) performed between 1/2 and 1 standard deviation better than those assigned to the control group (n = 60; p < .05) in each quarter without spending more time studying. During Quarter 1, workshop minority students (n = 25) showed a pattern of increasing exam performance in comparison to historic control minority students (n = 21), who showed a decreasing pattern (p < .05). Although sex differences in biology performance were a focus of investigation, none were detected. Motivational predictions derived from the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation (Elliot & Church, 1997) were partially supported. Self-report survey measures of achievement goals, modeled after those used by Elliot and colleagues, were requested from all enrolled students. Volunteers (n = 121) reported higher average levels of approach and avoidance goals than nonvolunteers (n = 439; p < .05) and the relationship of goals to performance was moderated by volunteer status. Performance of volunteers was negatively related to avoidance of failure goals (r = .41, p < .01) and unrelated to performance approach goals. Performance of nonvolunteers was unrelated to avoidance of failure goals and positively related to performance approach goals (r = .28, p < .01). Mastery goals were unrelated to performance for all students. Results were inconsistent with Dweck and Leggett's (1988) theory of mastery vs. performance orientation, but were similar to results found by Elliot and colleagues. Contrary to hypotheses, motivational goals did not mediate performance for

  2. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph, III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon thermal fluids showing thermally stability to 600 C have been tested for solar thermal-power applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C indicated that the fluid isomerized and degraded at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components in trough solar electric generating systems, such as the waste heat rejection exchanger, may become coated or clogged affecting loop performance. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene, without addition of stabilizers, does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the temperatures greater than 500 C. The performance of a concentrating solar loop using high temperature fluids was modeled based on the National Renewable Laboratory Solar Advisory Model. It was determined that a solar-to-electricity efficiency of up to 30% and a capacity factor of near 60% could be achieved using a high efficiency collector and 12 h thermal energy storage.

  3. Achieving Stable Radiation Pressure Acceleration of Heavy Ions via Successive Electron Replenishment from Ionization of a High-Z Material Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X. F.; Qiao, B.; Chang, H. X.; Kar, S.; Zhou, C. T.; Borghesi, M.; He, X. T.

    2016-10-01

    Generation of monoenergetic heavy ion beams aroused more scientific interest in recent years. Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is an ideal mechanism for obtaining high-quality heavy ion beams, in principle. However, to achieve the same energy per nucleon (velocity) as protons, heavy ions undergo much more serious Rayleigh-Taylor-like (RT) instability and afterwards much worse Coulomb explosion due to loss of co-moving electrons. This leads to premature acceleration termination of heavy ions and very low energy attained in experiment. The utilization of a high-Z coating in front of the target may suppress the RT instability and Coulomb explosion by continuously replenishing the accelerating heavy ion foil with co-moving electrons due to its successive ionization under laser fields with Gaussian temporal and spatial profiles. Thus stable RPA can be realized. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional particles-in-cell simulations with dynamic ionization show that a monoenergetic Al13+ beam with peak energy 4.0GeV and particle number 1010 (charge > 20nC) can be obtained at intensity 1022 W/cm2. Supported by the NSF, Nos. 11575298 and 1000-Talents Program of China.

  4. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.

  5. Achieving optimum mechanical performance in metallic nanolayered Cu/X (X = Zr, Cr) micropillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. Y.; Li, J.; Liang, X. Q.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2014-03-01

    The selection and design of modern high-performance structural engineering materials such as nanostructured metallic multilayers (NMMs) is driven by optimizing combinations of mechanical properties and requirements for predictable and noncatastrophic failure in service. Here, the Cu/X (X = Zr, Cr) nanolayered micropillars with equal layer thickness (h) spanning from 5-125 nm are uniaxially compressed and it is found that these NMMs exhibit a maximum strain hardening capability and simultaneously display a transition from bulk-like to small-volume materials behavior associated with the strength at a critical intrinsic size h ~ 20 nm. We develop a deformation mode-map to bridge the gap between the interface characteristics of NMMs and their failure phenomena, which, as shrinking the intrinsic size, transit from localized interface debonding/extrusion to interface shearing. Our findings demonstrate that the optimum robust performance can be achieved in NMMs and provide guidance for their microstructure sensitive design for performance optimization.

  6. Simultaneous nitrification/denitrification and stable sludge/water separation achieved in a conventional activated sludge process with severe filamentous bulking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueyu; Zheng, Shaokui; Xiao, Xuze; Wang, Lu; Yin, Yunjun

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the long-term treatment performance of a conventional activated sludge (AS) process operating at a microaerobic DO level (0.5-1.0mg·L(-1)) in the aeration tank and a long settling time of >10h in the clarification tank for sewage treatment. The microaerobic DO conditions led to severe sludge bulking. However, good sludge/water separation and excellent pollutant removal performance (COD, 95±2%; NH4(+)-N, 99±1%; and TN, 69±6%) were stably achieved in the microaerobic AS system during its 150days of continuous operation. This is the first report to demonstrate that a long settling time effectively overcame the effect of severe filamentous bulking in conventional AS process, and that microaerobic DO conditions achieved excellent simultaneous nitrification and denitrification reactions in the aeration tank. The process characteristics of the microaerobic AS system differed substantially from those existing biological denitrification processes, including A/O, CANON, and OLAND processes.

  7. High performances CNTFETs achieved using CNT networks for selective gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorintin, Louis; Bondavalli, Paolo; Legagneux, Pierre; Pribat, Didier

    2009-08-01

    Our study deals with the utilization of carbon nanotubes networks based transistors with different metal electrodes for highly selective gas sensing. Indeed, carbon nanotubes networks can be used as semi conducting materials to achieve good performances transistors. These devices are extremely sensitive to the change of the Schottky barrier heights between Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) and drain/source metal electrodes: the gas adsorption creates an interfacial dipole that modifies the metal work function and so the bending and the height of the Schottky barrier at the contacts. Moreover each gas interacts specifically with each metal identifying a sort of electronic fingerprinting. Using airbrush technique for deposition, we have been able to achieve uniform random networks of carbon nanotubes suitable for large area applications and mass production such as fabrication of CNT based gas sensors. These networks enable us to achieve transistors with on/off ratio of more than 5 orders of magnitude. To reach these characteristics, the density of the CNT network has been adjusted in order to reach the percolation threshold only for semi-conducting nanotubes. These optimized devices have allowed us to tune the sensitivity (improving it) of our sensors for highly selective detection of DiMethyl-Methyl-Phosphonate (DMMP, a sarin stimulant), and even volatile drug precursors using Pd, Au and Mo electrodes.

  8. Perceived ability and social support as mediators of achievement motivation and performance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, F E; Roberts, G C; Pensgaard, A M; Ronglan, L T

    2008-12-01

    The present study is founded on achievement goal theory (AGT) and examines the relationship between motivation, social support and performance anxiety with team handball players (n=143) from 10 elite teams. Based on these theories and previous findings, the study has three purposes. First, it was predicted that the female athletes (n=69) would report more performance worries and more social support use than males (n=74). The findings support the hypothesis for anxiety, but not for social support use. However, females report that they felt social support was more available than males. Second, we predicted and found a positive relationship between the interaction of ego orientation and perceptions of a performance climate on performance anxiety, but only for females. As predicted, perceived ability mediated this relationship. Finally, we predicted that perceptions of a performance climate were related to the view that social support was less available especially for the male athletes. Simple correlation supports this prediction, but the regression analyses did not reach significance. Thus, we could not test for mediation of social support between motivational variables and anxiety. The results illustrate that fostering a mastery climate helps elite athletes tackle competitive pressure.

  9. Performance Achievements and Challenges for FELs based on Energy Recovered Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2006-08-27

    During the past decade several groups have assembled free electron lasers based on energy recovered linacs (ERLs). Such arrangements have been built to obtain high average power electron and photon beams, by using high repetition rate beam pulses driving FEL oscillators. In this paper the performance of many existing and several proposed facilities from around the world are reviewed. Going forward, many questions must be addressed to achieve still better performance including: higher average current injectors, better optimized accelerating cavities, higher energy acceptance and lower loss beam recirculation systems, and better optical cavity designs for dealing with the optical beam power circulating in the ERL FELs. This paper presents some of the current thinking on each of these issues.

  10. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  11. Neuroanatomical correlates of performance in a state-wide test of math achievement.

    PubMed

    Wilkey, Eric D; Cutting, Laurie E; Price, Gavin R

    2017-03-03

    The development of math skills is a critical component of early education and a strong indicator of later school and economic success. Recent research utilizing population-normed, standardized measures of math achievement suggest that structural and functional integrity of parietal regions, especially the intraparietal sulcus, are closely related to the development of math skills. However, it is unknown how these findings relate to in-school math learning. The present study is the first to address this issue by investigating the relationship between regional differences in grey matter (GM) volume and performance in grade-level mathematics as measured by a state-wide, school-based test of math achievement (TCAP math) in children from 3rd to 8th grade. Results show that increased GM volume in the bilateral hippocampal formation and the right inferior frontal gyrus, regions associated with learning and memory, is associated with higher TCAP math scores. Secondary analyses revealed that GM volume in the left angular gyrus had a stronger relationship to TCAP math in grades 3-4 than in grades 5-8 while the relationship between GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus and TCAP math was stronger for grades 5-8. These results suggest that the neuroanatomical architecture related to in-school math achievement differs from that related to math achievement measured by standardized tests, and that the most related neural structures differ as a function of grade level. We suggest, therefore, that the use of school-relevant outcome measures is critical if neuroscience is to bridge the gap to education.

  12. High-Achieving High School Students and Not so High-Achieving College Students: A Look at Lack of Self-Control, Academic Ability, and Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honken, Nora B.; Ralston, Patricia A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among lack of self-control, academic ability, and academic performance for a cohort of freshman engineering students who were, with a few exceptions, extremely high achievers in high school. Structural equation modeling analysis led to the conclusion that lack of self-control in high school, as measured by…

  13. When nursing takes ownership of financial outcomes: achieving exceptional financial performance through leadership, strategy, and execution.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Kristopher; Janney, Michelle; Ramsey, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    With nurses and unlicensed supportive personnel composing the greatest percentage of the workforce at any hospital, it is not surprising nursing leadership plays an increasing role in the attainment of financial goals. The nursing leadership team at one academic medical center reduced costs by more than $10 million over 4 years while outperforming national benchmarks on nurse-sensitive quality indicators. The most critical success factor in attaining exceptional financial performance is a personal and collective accountability to achieving outcomes. Whether it is financial improvement, advancing patient safety, or ensuring a highly engaged workforce, success will not be attained without thoughtful, focused leadership. The accountability model ensures there is a culture built around financial performance where nurses and leaders think and act, on a daily basis, in a manner necessary to understand opportunities, find answers, and overcome obstacles. While structures, processes, and tools may serve as the means to achieve a target, it is leadership's responsibility to set the right goal and motivate others.

  14. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance. PMID:27063414

  15. Achieving High Performance in AC-Field Driven Organic Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junwei; Carroll, David L.; Smith, Gregory M.; Dun, Chaochao; Cui, Yue

    2016-04-01

    Charge balance in organic light emitting structures is essential to simultaneously achieving high brightness and high efficiency. In DC-driven organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), this is relatively straight forward. However, in the newly emerging, capacitive, field-activated AC-driven organic devices, charge balance can be a challenge. In this work we introduce the concept of gating the compensation charge in AC-driven organic devices and demonstrate that this can result in exceptional increases in device performance. To do this we replace the insulator layer in a typical field-activated organic light emitting device with a nanostructured, wide band gap semiconductor layer. This layer acts as a gate between the emitter layer and the voltage contact. Time resolved device characterization shows that, at high-frequencies (over 40 kHz), the semiconductor layer allows for charge accumulation in the forward bias, light generating part of the AC cycle and charge compensation in the negative, quiescent part of the AC cycle. Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters. This work clearly demonstrates that by realizing balanced management of charge, AC-driven organic light emitting devices may well be able to rival today’s OLEDs in performance.

  16. A Comparison of Performance in Solving Arithmetical Word Problems by Children with Different Levels of Achievement in Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikeras, Elin K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Performance in consistent arithmetical word problems was assessed in 941 pupils aged eight (N = 415), ten (N = 274), and thirteen (N = 252) classified in four achievement groups by standardised achievement tests: low achievement in both mathematics and reading (MLRL), in mathematics only (ML-only), in reading only (RL-only), and normal achievement…

  17. Evaluation of dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membranes to achieve high dialysis performance.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ayaka; Yamamoto, Ken-ichiro; Matsuda, Masato; Ogawa, Takehito; Yakushiji, Taiji; Miyasaka, Takehiro; Sakai, Kiyotaka

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum dialyzer jacket structure and hollow-fiber dialysis membrane, both of which are indispensable factors for achieving high dialysis performance, by clarifying the relationship between the dialysis performance and the flow of dialysate and blood in a hollow-fiber dialyzer. We evaluated the clearance, dialysate, and blood flow for four commercially available hollow-fiber dialyzers, namely, the APS-15S, APS-15SA, TS-1.6UL, and CX-1.6U. To evaluate dialysate and blood flow, we measured the residence-time distribution of dialysate and blood flow of these dialyzers by the pulse-response method. We also determined the clearances of urea, creatinine, vitamin B(12), and lysozyme to evaluate the dialysis performance of these dialyzers. While the baffle and taper structures allow effective supply of dialysate into the dialyzer jacket, the hollow-fiber shape, inner diameter, and packing density significantly influence the dialysate flow. In dialyzers with long taper-holding slits, the slit area is a key design parameter for achieving optimum dialysate flow. Similarly, the blood flow is significantly influenced by the structure of the inflowing and outflowing blood ports at the header of a dialyzer, and the shape and inner diameter of the hollow fibers. Hollow fibers with smaller inner diameters cause an increase in blood pressure, which causes blood to enter the hollow fibers more easily. The hollow-fiber shape hardly affects the blood flow. While improved dialysate and blood flow cause higher clearance of low molecular-weight substances, higher membrane area and pure-water permeability accelerate internal filtration, thereby causing an increase in the clearance of large molecular-weight substances.

  18. An initial assessment of the performance achieved by the Seasat-1 radar altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an initial on-orbit engineering assessment of the performance achieved by the radar altimeter system flown on SEASAT-1 are presented. Additionally, the general design characteristics of this system are discussed and illustrations of altimeter data product are provided. The instrument consists of a 13.5 GHz monostatic radar system that tracks in range only using a one meter parabolic antenna pointed at the satellite nadir. Two of its unique features are a linear FM transmitter with 320 MHz bandwidth which yields a 3.125 nanosecond time delay resolution, and microprocessor implemented closed loop range tracking, automatic gain control (AGC), and real time estimation of significant wave height (SWH). Results presented show that the altimeter generally performed in accordance with its orginal performance requirments of measuring altitude to a precision of less the 10 cm RMS, significant wave height to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 m or 10%, whichever is greater, and ocean backscatter coefficient to an accuracy of + or - 1 db, all over an SWH range of 1 to 20 meters.

  19. Achieving optimum mechanical performance in metallic nanolayered Cu/X (X = Zr, Cr) micropillars

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J. Y.; Li, J.; Liang, X. Q.; Liu, G.; Sun, J.

    2014-01-01

    The selection and design of modern high-performance structural engineering materials such as nanostructured metallic multilayers (NMMs) is driven by optimizing combinations of mechanical properties and requirements for predictable and noncatastrophic failure in service. Here, the Cu/X (X = Zr, Cr) nanolayered micropillars with equal layer thickness (h) spanning from 5–125 nm are uniaxially compressed and it is found that these NMMs exhibit a maximum strain hardening capability and simultaneously display a transition from bulk-like to small-volume materials behavior associated with the strength at a critical intrinsic size h ~ 20 nm. We develop a deformation mode-map to bridge the gap between the interface characteristics of NMMs and their failure phenomena, which, as shrinking the intrinsic size, transit from localized interface debonding/extrusion to interface shearing. Our findings demonstrate that the optimum robust performance can be achieved in NMMs and provide guidance for their microstructure sensitive design for performance optimization. PMID:24667702

  20. Mice and rats achieve similar levels of performance in an adaptive decision-making task.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Santiago; Zador, Anthony M

    2014-01-01

    Two opposing constraints exist when choosing a model organism for studying the neural basis of adaptive decision-making: (1) experimental access and (2) behavioral complexity. Available molecular and genetic approaches for studying neural circuits in the mouse fulfill the first requirement. In contrast, it is still under debate if mice can perform cognitive tasks of sufficient complexity. Here we compare learning and performance of mice and rats, the preferred behavioral rodent model, during an acoustic flexible categorization two-alternative choice task. The task required animals to switch between two categorization definitions several times within a behavioral session. We found that both species achieved similarly high performance levels. On average, rats learned the task faster than mice, although some mice were as fast as the average rat. No major differences in subjective categorization boundaries or the speed of adaptation between the two species were found. Our results demonstrate that mice are an appropriate model for the study of the neural mechanisms underlying adaptive decision-making, and suggest they might be suitable for other cognitive tasks as well.

  1. A comprehensive approach to decipher biological computation to achieve next generation high-performance exascale computing.

    SciTech Connect

    James, Conrad D.; Schiess, Adrian B.; Howell, Jamie; Baca, Michael J.; Partridge, L. Donald; Finnegan, Patrick Sean; Wolfley, Steven L.; Dagel, Daryl James; Spahn, Olga Blum; Harper, Jason C.; Pohl, Kenneth Roy; Mickel, Patrick R.; Lohn, Andrew; Marinella, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    The human brain (volume=1200cm3) consumes 20W and is capable of performing > 10^16 operations/s. Current supercomputer technology has reached 1015 operations/s, yet it requires 1500m^3 and 3MW, giving the brain a 10^12 advantage in operations/s/W/cm^3. Thus, to reach exascale computation, two achievements are required: 1) improved understanding of computation in biological tissue, and 2) a paradigm shift towards neuromorphic computing where hardware circuits mimic properties of neural tissue. To address 1), we will interrogate corticostriatal networks in mouse brain tissue slices, specifically with regard to their frequency filtering capabilities as a function of input stimulus. To address 2), we will instantiate biological computing characteristics such as multi-bit storage into hardware devices with future computational and memory applications. Resistive memory devices will be modeled, designed, and fabricated in the MESA facility in consultation with our internal and external collaborators.

  2. Highly Stable and Conductive Microcapsules for Enhancement of Joule Heating Performance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nanocarbons show great promise for establishing the next generation of Joule heating systems, but suffer from the limited maximum temperature due to precociously convective heat dissipation from electrothermal system to surrounding environment. Here we introduce a strategy to eliminate such convective heat transfer by inserting highly stable and conductive microcapsules into the electrothermal structures. The microcapsule is composed of encapsulated long-chain alkanes and graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrids as core and shell material, respectively. Multiform carbon nanotubes in the microspheres stabilize the capsule shell to resist volume-change-induced rupture during repeated heating/cooling process, and meanwhile enhance the thermal conductance of encapsulated alkanes which facilitates an expeditious heat exchange. The resulting microcapsules can be homogeneously incorporated in the nanocarbon-based electrothermal structures. At a dopant of 5%, the working temperature can be enhanced by 30% even at a low voltage and moderate temperature, which indicates a great value in daily household applications. Therefore, the stable and conductive microcapsule may serve as a versatile and valuable dopant for varieties of heat generation systems. PMID:27002594

  3. Highly Stable and Conductive Microcapsules for Enhancement of Joule Heating Performance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoliang; Jin, Jidong; Xu, Guang-Kui; Zou, Jianli; Wais, Ulrike; Beckett, Alison; Heil, Tobias; Higgins, Sean; Guan, Lunhui; Wang, Ying; Shchukin, Dmitry

    2016-04-26

    Nanocarbons show great promise for establishing the next generation of Joule heating systems, but suffer from the limited maximum temperature due to precociously convective heat dissipation from electrothermal system to surrounding environment. Here we introduce a strategy to eliminate such convective heat transfer by inserting highly stable and conductive microcapsules into the electrothermal structures. The microcapsule is composed of encapsulated long-chain alkanes and graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrids as core and shell material, respectively. Multiform carbon nanotubes in the microspheres stabilize the capsule shell to resist volume-change-induced rupture during repeated heating/cooling process, and meanwhile enhance the thermal conductance of encapsulated alkanes which facilitates an expeditious heat exchange. The resulting microcapsules can be homogeneously incorporated in the nanocarbon-based electrothermal structures. At a dopant of 5%, the working temperature can be enhanced by 30% even at a low voltage and moderate temperature, which indicates a great value in daily household applications. Therefore, the stable and conductive microcapsule may serve as a versatile and valuable dopant for varieties of heat generation systems.

  4. Achieving high performance polymer tandem solar cells via novel materials design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Letian

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices show great promise in low-cost, flexible, lightweight, and large-area energy-generation applications. Nonetheless, most of the materials designed today always suffer from the inherent disadvantage of not having a broad absorption range, and relatively low mobility, which limit the utilization of the full solar spectrum. Tandem solar cells provide an effective way to harvest a broader spectrum of solar radiation by combining two or more solar cells with different absorption bands. However, for polymer solar cells, the performance of tandem devices lags behind single-layer solar cells mainly due to the lack of suitable low-bandgap polymers (near-IR absorbing polymers). In this dissertation, in order to achieve high performance, we focus on design and synthesis of novel low bandgap polymers specifically for tandem solar cells. In Chapter 3, I demonstrate highly efficient single junction and tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap conjugated polymer (PBDTT-DPP: bandgap, ˜1.44 eV). The polymer has a backbone based on alternating benzodithiophene and diketopyrrolopyrrole units. A single-layer device based on the polymer provides a power conversion efficiency of ˜6%. When the polymer is applied to tandem solar cells, a power conversion efficiency of 8.62% is achieved, which was the highest certified efficiency for a polymer solar cell. To further improve this material system, in Chapter 4, I show that the reduction of the bandgap and the enhancement of the charge transport properties of the low bandgap polymer PBDTT-DPP can be accomplished simultaneously by substituting the sulfur atoms on the DPP unit with selenium atoms. The newly designed polymer PBDTT-SeDPP (Eg = 1.38 eV) shows excellent photovoltaic performance in single junction devices with PCEs over 7% and photo-response up to 900 nm. Tandem polymer solar cells based on PBDTT-SeDPP are also demonstrated with a 9.5% PCE, which are more than 10

  5. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions. MDRC Working Papers on Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  6. Measuring Emotions in Students' Learning and Performance: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Barchfeld, Petra; Perry, Raymond P.

    2011-01-01

    Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students' achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in…

  7. High-performance heterogeneous catalysis with surface-exposed stable metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ning; Xu, Yanhong; Jiang, Donglin

    2014-11-27

    Protection of metal nanoparticles from agglomeration is critical for their functions and applications. The conventional method for enhancing their stability is to cover them with passivation layers to prevent direct contact. However, the presence of a protective shell blocks exposure of the metal species to reactants, thereby significantly impeding the nanoparticles' utility as catalysts. Here, we report that metal nanoparticles can be prepared and used in a surface-exposed state that renders them inherently catalytically active. This strategy is realised by spatial confinement and electronic stabilisation with a dual-module mesoporous and microporous three-dimensional π-network in which surface-exposed nanoparticles are crystallised upon in situ reduction. The uncovered palladium nanoparticles serve as heterogeneous catalysts that are exceptionally active in water, catalyse unreactive aryl chlorides for straightforward carbon-carbon bond formation and are stable for repeated use in various types of cross couplings. Therefore, our results open new perspectives in developing practical heterogeneous catalysts.

  8. Monitoring the performance of community forestry to achieve REDD+ goals through geospatial methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, H.; Krishna Gautam, S.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Koju, U. A.; Uddin, K.; Karky, B.

    2014-11-01

    Measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) is included in the Cancun, Mexico, in 2010 under climate change agreements, as one of the most critical elements necessary for the successful implementation of any reducing of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) mechanism. Community forestry is recognised as a successful model for conserving forests, raising awareness among local people and decentralising the forest governance practices. In the world, Nepal is considered as a leader in community-based forest management. This study conducted in 16 community forests (2384.76 ha) of Kayar Khola watershed (8002 ha) of Chitwan district, Nepal. In this paper, satellite images IKONOS-2 (2002) and GeoEye-1 (2009 & 2012) were used which have 1 m and 0.5 m ground spatial distance (GSD) respectively. Geographic information system (GIS) participatory approach was embraced for the boundaries delineation of community forests. Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) classification technique was performed and overall accuracy 94 % with 92.91 % producer's and 96.2 % user's accuracies. Through change matrix method, 25.49 ha and 1.08 ha area deforested while 179.84 ha and 33.24 ha reforested in two time periods 2002-2009 and 2009-2012 respectively. Overall within 16 community forests, "Close broadleaved to Open broadleaved" 4.42 ha and 4 ha area is transferred between 2002-2009 and 2009-2012 respectively. While "Open broadleaved to Close broadleaved" 29.25 ha and 31.1 ha area is converted in seven years (2002-2009) and in three years (2009-2012) respectively. Coefficient of determination (R2) 0.833 achieved through a line-intercept transect between number of segmented and observed tree crowns. Maximum numbers of the counted trees exist below 20 m2, which show the forest of the study area is not mature and has capacity to

  9. How Stable Is Stable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baehr, Marie

    1994-01-01

    Provides a problem where students are asked to find the point at which a soda can floating in some liquid changes its equilibrium between stable and unstable as the soda is removed from the can. Requires use of Newton's first law, center of mass, Archimedes' principle, stable and unstable equilibrium, and buoyant force position. (MVL)

  10. High and Low Reading Comprehension Achievers' Strategic Behaviors and Their Relation to Performance in a Reading Comprehension Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Andreou, Georgia; Paraskeva, Violetta

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the actual strategic behaviors of high and low achievers in reading comprehension and their relation with respective performance. The participants were 45 individually examined third graders, 20 high and 25 low reading comprehension achievers. Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of the participants'…

  11. Measuring Metacognition and Reaction Time: Further Findings on the Performances of General Education, Low-Achieving, and Institutionally Raised Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; Abdullah, Ahmad A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the picture format to examine in depth the metacognitive performances and reaction time in general education, low-achieving, and institutionally raised students. Results revealed that institutionally raised students, unlike low-achieving students, took significantly the longest reaction time to finish the test…

  12. A hydrological modeling framework for defining achievable performance standards for pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Alain N; Lafrance, Pierre; Lavigne, Martin-Pierre; Savary, Stéphane; Konan, Brou; Quilbé, Renaud; Jiapizian, Paul; Amrani, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a hydrological modeling framework to define achievable performance standards (APSs) for pesticides that could be attained after implementation of recommended management actions, agricultural practices, and available technologies (i.e., beneficial management practices [BMPs]). An integrated hydrological modeling system, Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé, was used to quantify APSs for six Canadian watersheds for eight pesticides: atrazine, carbofuran, dicamba, glyphosate, MCPB, MCPA, metolachlor, and 2,4-D. Outputs from simulation runs to predict pesticide concentration under current conditions and in response to implementation of two types of beneficial management practices (reduced pesticide application rate and 1- to 10-m-wide edge-of-field and/or riparian buffer strips, implemented singly or in combination) showed that APS values for scenarios with BMPs were less than those for current conditions. Moreover, APS values at the outlet of watersheds were usually less than ecological thresholds of good condition, when available. Upstream river reaches were at greater risk of having concentrations above a given ecological thresholds because of limited stream flows and overland loads of pesticides. Our integrated approach of "hydrological modeling-APS estimation-ecotoxicological significance" provides the most effective interpretation possible, for management and education purposes, of the potential biological impact of predicted pesticide concentrations in rivers.

  13. Thermocouples of molybdenum and iridium alloys for more stable vacuum-high temperature performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Thermocouples providing stability and performance reliability in systems involving high temperatures and vacuums by employing a bimetallic thermocouple sensor are described. Each metal of the sensor is selected from a group of metals comprising molybdenum and iridium and alloys containing only those two metals. The molybdenum, iridium thermocouple sensor alloys provide bare metal thermocouple sensors having advantageous vapor pressure compatibility and performance characteristics. The compatibility and physical characteristics of the thermocouple sensor alloys result in improved emf, temperature properties and thermocouple hot junction performance.

  14. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task.

    PubMed

    van de Pol P, K C; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals' achievement motivation.

  15. Lead dioxide film sonoelectrodeposition in acidic media: Preparation and performance of stable practical anodes.

    PubMed

    Sáez, V; Esclapez, M D; Frías-Ferrer, A J; Bonete, P; Tudela, I; Díez-García, M I; González-García, J

    2011-07-01

    Practical lead dioxide anodes have been obtained by electrodeposition on glassy carbon and titanium substrates in the presence and in the absence of an ultrasound field. The films obtained by mechanical agitation on glassy carbon are strongly improved when the electrodeposition process is carried out with the ultrasound field, providing adherent deposits free from nodules and stress, but with pores appearing occasionally. These enhanced properties were not achieved by mechanical conditions, even when optimization of temperature, current density, additives and geometrical aspects was attempted. The best practical anodes were obtained by sonoelectrodeposition using specially treated titanium as substrate, providing comparable behavior to commercial electrodes.

  16. Thermocouples of tantalum and rhenium alloys for more stable vacuum-high temperature performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Thermocouples of the present invention provide stability and performance reliability in systems involving high temperatures and vacuums by employing a bimetallic thermocouple sensor wherein each metal of the sensor is selected from a group of metals comprising tantalum and rhenium and alloys containing only those two metals. The tantalum, rhenium thermocouple sensor alloys provide bare metal thermocouple sensors having advantageous vapor pressure compatibilities and performance characteristics. The compatibility and physical characteristics of the thermocouple sensor alloys of the present invention result in improved emf, temperature properties and thermocouple hot junction performance. The thermocouples formed of the tantalum, rhenium alloys exhibit reliability and performance stability in systems involving high temperatures and vacuums and are adaptable to space propulsion and power systems and nuclear environments.

  17. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  18. Performance-Based Music Ensembles' Effects on Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Timothy Francis

    2013-01-01

    As increasing student achievement levels for all learners continues to drive the focus of education, identifying strategies and opportunities to accomplish this goal becomes progressively more important. This study explored the concepts of self-efficacy, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, and self-efficacy for academic achievement in…

  19. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  20. Academic Achievement Performance of University Students with Disability: Exploring the Influence of Non-Academic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryer, Rachel; Henning, Marcus A.; Tyson, Graham A.; Shaw, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether: (1) the non-academic constructs of psychological well-being, motivation to learn and quality of life (QOL) explained the variance in the academic achievement of students with disability; and (2) students with a mental health disability (MHD) differed from students with other disability on academic achievement and on…

  1. Tracking Student Achievement in Music Performance: Developing Student Learning Objectives for Growth Model Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement growth data are increasingly used for assessing teacher effectiveness and tracking student achievement in the classroom. Guided by the student learning objective (SLO) framework, music teachers are now responsible for collecting, tracking, and reporting student growth data. Often, the reported data do not accurately reflect the…

  2. Achievement First: Developing a Teacher Performance Management System That Recognizes Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are the single most important school-related factor in students' learning, and improving student learning is the single most important goal at Achievement First (AF), a fast-growing public charter school network in the Northeast. To achieve this goal, the AF team has worked to establish a common understanding of effective instructional…

  3. How Do Relationships Influence Student Achievement? Understanding Student Performance from a General, Social Psychological Standpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspelin, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the influence of relationships on student achievement by examining empirical evidence and by adopting a social psychological theory. Initially, the issue is addressed from a national, Swedish context. Thereafter, two general questions are raised: (1) What is the influence of relationships on student achievement, according to…

  4. Cohort versus Non-Cohort High School Students' Math Performance: Achievement Test Scores and Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Carol S.; Keener, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare multiple measures of mathematics achievement for 1,378 cohort students who attended the same high school in a district from 9th to 12th grade with non-cohort students in each grade level. Results show that mobility had an impact on math achievement. After accounting for gender, ethnicity, and SES, adjusted…

  5. Relationships of cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies to mathematics achievement in four high-performing East Asian education systems.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education systems, memorization strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement, whereas control strategies were positively associated with mathematics achievement. However, the association between elaboration strategies and mathematics achievement was a mixed bag. In Shanghai-China and Korea, elaboration strategies were not associated with mathematics achievement. In Hong Kong-China and Singapore, on the other hand, elaboration strategies were negatively associated with mathematics achievement. Implications of these findings are briefly discussed.

  6. Stable silver/biopolymer hybrid plasmonic nanostructures for high performance surface enhanced raman scattering (SERS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver/biopolymer nanoparticles were prepared by adding 100 mg silver nitrate to 2% polyvinyl alcohol solution and reduced the silver nitrate into silver ion using 2 % trisodium citrate for high performance Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) substrates. Optical properties of nanoparticle were ...

  7. Catalytic performance and thermostability of chloroperoxidase in reverse micelle: achievement of a catalytically favorable enzyme conformation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yali; Wu, Jinyue; Ru, Xuejiao; Jiang, Yucheng; Hu, Mancheng; Li, Shuni; Zhai, Quanguo

    2011-06-01

    The catalytic performance of chloroperoxidase (CPO) in peroxidation of 2, 2'-azinobis-(-3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfononic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and oxidation of indole in a reverse micelle composed of surfactant-water-isooctane-pentanol was investigated and optimized in this work. Some positive results were obtained as follows: the peroxidation activity of CPO was enhanced 248% and 263%, while oxidation activity was enhanced 215% and 222% in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) reverse micelle medium and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTABr) medium, respectively. Thermostability was also greatly improved in reverse micelle: at 40 °C, CPO essentially lost all its activity after 5 h incubation, while 58-76% catalytic activity was retained for both reactions in the two reverse micelle media. At 50 °C, about 44-75% catalytic activity remained for both reactions in reverse micelle after 2 h compared with no observed activity in pure buffer under the same conditions. The enhancement of CPO activity was dependent mainly on the surfactant concentration and structure, organic solvent ratio (V(pentanol)/V(isooctane)), and water content in the reverse micelle. The obtained kinetic parameters showed that the catalytic turnover frequency (k(cat)) was increased in reverse micelle. Moreover, the lower K(m) and higher k(cat)/K(m) demonstrated that both the affinity and specificity of CPO to substrates were improved in reverse micelle media. Fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and UV-vis spectra assays indicated that a catalytically favorable conformation of enzyme was achieved in reverse micelle, including the strengthening of the protein α-helix structure, and greater exposure of the heme prosthetic group for easy access of the substrate in bulk solution. These results are promising in view of the industrial applications of this versatile biological catalyst.

  8. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? What are the

  9. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction - a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Cristina T; Tamm, Eric P; Cody, Dianna D; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas; Rong, X John

    2016-03-08

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative recontruction (ASiR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low-dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat-equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back-projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low-contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were con-firmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five-fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high-contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial resolution for MBIR

  10. A Stable Whole Building Performance Method for Standard 90.1-Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Eley, Charles

    2016-06-01

    In May of 2013 we introduced a new approach for compliance with Standard 90.1 that was under development based on the Performance Rating Method of Appendix G to Standard 90.11. Since then, the approach has been finalized through Addendum BM to Standard 90.1-2013 and will be published in the 2016 edition of the Standard. In the meantime, ASHRAE has published an advanced copy of Appendix G including Addendum BM and several other addenda so that software developers and energy program administrators can get a preview of what is coming in the 2016 edition of the Standard2. This article is an update on Addendum BM, summarizes changes made to the original concept as introduced in May of 2013, and provides an approach for developing performance targets for code compliance and beyond code programs.

  11. A Comprehensive Review of the Literature on the Effects of Breakfast on Mental Performance and Scholastic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, James P.

    A review of the literature on the effects of breakfast on mental performance and scholastic achievement reveals a dichotomy between the theoretical and the empirical literature. Whereas theoretical considerations maintain that breakfast makes a significant difference in mental performance in the late morning hours, empirical evidence can be…

  12. Using Performance Management To Achieve Quality Program Results. A Technical Assistance Guide. Research Report 89-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laventhol & Horwath, Philadelphia, PA.

    This guide provides assistance in using two primary management tools--the performance standards and performance-based, fixed unit price contracts--to achieve satisfactory results in Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) programs. The guide is organized in six chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the original purpose of the JTPA and introduces the investment…

  13. The Influence of the Antecedent Variable on the Teachers' Performance through Achievement Motivation in Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewi, Erni R.; Bundu, Patta; Tahmir, Suradi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at analysing whether the antecedent variable directly affects the performance of the high school teachers or not. In addition, this research strives to find out whether the antecedent variable indirectly affects the teachers' performance through the achievement motivation of the high school teachers. It was a quantitative research…

  14. Temperature-stable lithium niobate electro-optic Q-switch for improved cold performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jundt, Dieter H.

    2014-10-01

    Lithium niobate (LN) is commonly used as an electro optic (EO) Q-switch material in infrared targeting lasers because of its relatively low voltage requirements and low cost compared to other crystals. A common challenge is maintaining good performance at the sub-freezing temperatures often experienced during flight. Dropping to low temperature causes a pyro-electric charge buildup on the optical faces that leads to birefringence non-uniformity and depolarization resulting in poor hold-off and premature lasing. The most common solution has been to use radioactive americium to ionize the air around the crystal and bleed off the charge, but the radioactive material requires handling and disposal procedures that can be problematic. We have developed a superior solution that is now being implemented by multiple defense system suppliers. By applying a low level thermo-chemical reduction to the LN crystal optical faces we induce a small conductivity that allows pyro-charges to dissipate. As the material gets more heavily treated, the capacity to dissipate charges improves, but the corresponding optical absorption also increases, causing insertion loss. Even though typical high gain targeting laser systems can tolerate a few percent of added loss, the thermo-chemical processing needs to be carefully optimized. We describe the results of our process optimization to minimize the insertion loss while still giving effective charge dissipation. Treatment is performed at temperatures below 500°C and a conductivity layer less than 0.5mm in depth is created that is uniform across the optical aperture. Because the conductivity is thermally activated, the charge dissipation is less effective at low temperature, and characterization needs to be performed at cold temperatures. The trade-off between optical insertion loss and potential depolarization due to low temperature operation is discussed and experimental results on the temperature dependence of the dissipation time and the

  15. Stable operation of air-blowing direct methanol fuel cells with high performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Jin-Hwa; Kim, Jirae; Han, Sangil; Song, Inseob

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that is a combination of a catalyst-coated membrane (CCM) for the anode and a catalyst-coated substrate (CCS) for the cathode is studied under air-blower conditions for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Compared with MEAs prepared by only the CCS method, the performance of DMFC MEAs employing the combination method is significantly improved by 30% with less methanol crossover. This feature can be attributed to an enhanced electrode|membrane interface in the anode side and significantly higher catalyst efficiency. Furthermore, DMFC MEAs designed by the combination method retain high power density without any degradation, while the CCM-type cell shows a downward tendency in electrochemical performance under air-blower conditions. This may be due to MEAs with CCM have a much more difficult structure of catalytic active sites in the cathode to eliminate the water produced by electrochemical reaction. In addition, DMFCs produced via combination methods exhibit a lower water crossover flux than CCS alternatives, due to the comparatively dense structure of the CCM anode. Hence, DMFCs with a combination MEA structure demonstrate the feasibility of a small fuel cell system employing the low noise of a fan, instead of a noisy and large capacity air pump, for portable electronic devices.

  16. A Stable Whole Building Performance Method for Standard 90.1

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Eley, Charles

    2013-05-01

    Wouldn’t it be great if a single energy model could be used to demonstrate minimum code compliance, green code compliance, establish a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating, and determine eligibility for federal tax and utility incentives? Even better, what if the basic rules for creating those models did not change every few years? This paper descibes a recently proposed addendum to ASHRAE/ANSI/IES Standard 90.1 aims to meet those goals. Addendum BM establishes the Performance Rating Method found in Appendix G of Standard 90.1 as a new method of compliance while maintaining its traditional use in gauging the efficiency of beyond code buildings. Furthermore, Addendum BM sets a common baseline building that does not change with each update to the standard.

  17. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    current generation tags limits the performance in a cluttered sensing environment. That is, as more SAW-based sensors are added to the environment, numerous tag responses are superimposed at the receiver and decoding all or even a subset of the telemetry becomes increasingly difficult. Background clutter generated by reflectors other than the sensors themselves is also a problem, as is multipath interference and signal distortion, but the limiting factor in many remote sensing applications can be expected to be tag mutual interference. This problem may be greatly mitigated by proper design of the SAW tag waveform, but that remains an open research problem, and in the meantime, several other related questions remain to be answered including: (1) What are the fundamental relationships between tag parameters such as bit-rate, time-bandwidth-product, SNR, and achievable collision resolution? (2) What are the differences in optimal or near-optimal interrogator designs between noise-limited environments and interference-limited environments? (3) What are the performance characteristics of different interrogator designs in term of parameters such as transmitter power level, range, and number of interfering tags? In this paper, we will present the results of a research effort aimed at providing at least partial answers to all of these questions.

  18. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry-Based Design of Proteolytically Stable Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Mojtaba; Hancock, Robert E W

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of multiresistant bacteria worldwide together with the shortage of effective antibiotics in the market emphasizes the need for the design and development of the promising agents for the treatment of superbug-associated infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been considered as excellent candidates to tackle this issue, and thousands of peptides of different lengths, amino acid compositions, and mode of action have been discovered and prepared to date. Nevertheless, it is of great importance to develop innovative formulation strategies for delivering these AMPs and to improve their low bioavailability and metabolic stability, particularly against proteases, if these peptides are to find applications in the clinic and administered orally or parenterally or used as dietary supplements. The purpose of this chapter is to describe basic experimental principles, based on analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS), for the prospective design of orally bioavailable AMPs considering the structural characteristics of the peptides and the substrate specificity of proteases that abound in the body especially at sites of infection.

  19. The Relationship of Laboratory Performance Ratings, Information Achievement and Pencil-Paper Performance Test Scores in College-Level Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Charles E.

    In this study, a pencil paper performance test (PPPT) was developed and administered to an experimental group of 46 students and a control group of 48 students to determine: (1) the difference between laboratory performance and the successful completion of a laboratory course in electricity, (2) the relationship between laboratory performance as…

  20. Stable expression of silencing-suppressor protein enhances the performance and longevity of an engineered metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Naim, Fatima; Shrestha, Pushkar; Singh, Surinder P; Waterhouse, Peter M; Wood, Craig C

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic engineering of plants is important in both basic and applied research. However, the expression of a transgene can dwindle over time as the plant's small (s)RNA-guided silencing pathways shut it down. The silencing pathways have evolved as antiviral defence mechanisms, and viruses have co-evolved viral silencing-suppressor proteins (VSPs) to block them. Therefore, VSPs have been routinely used alongside desired transgene constructs to enhance their expression in transient assays. However, constitutive, stable expression of a VSP in a plant usually causes pronounced developmental abnormalities, as their actions interfere with endogenous microRNA-regulated processes, and has largely precluded the use of VSPs as an aid to stable transgene expression. In an attempt to avoid the deleterious effects but obtain the enhancing effect, a number of different VSPs were expressed exclusively in the seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana alongside a three-step transgenic pathway for the synthesis of arachidonic acid (AA), an ω-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid. Results from independent transgenic events, maintained for four generations, showed that the VSP-AA-transformed plants were developmentally normal, apart from minor phenotypes at the cotyledon stage, and could produce 40% more AA than plants transformed with the AA transgene cassette alone. Intriguingly, a geminivirus VSP, V2, was constitutively expressed without causing developmental defects, as it acts on the siRNA amplification step that is not part of the miRNA pathway, and gave strong transgene enhancement. These results demonstrate that VSP expression can be used to protect and enhance stable transgene performance and has significant biotechnological application.

  1. Spectral analysis software improves confidence in plant and soil water stable isotope analyses performed by isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS).

    PubMed

    West, A G; Goldsmith, G R; Matimati, I; Dawson, T E

    2011-08-30

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for large errors to occur when analyzing waters containing organic contaminants using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). In an attempt to address this problem, IRIS manufacturers now provide post-processing spectral analysis software capable of identifying samples with the types of spectral interference that compromises their stable isotope analysis. Here we report two independent tests of this post-processing spectral analysis software on two IRIS systems, OA-ICOS (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and WS-CRDS (Picarro Inc.). Following a similar methodology to a previous study, we cryogenically extracted plant leaf water and soil water and measured the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of identical samples by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and IRIS. As an additional test, we analyzed plant stem waters and tap waters by IRMS and IRIS in an independent laboratory. For all tests we assumed that the IRMS value represented the "true" value against which we could compare the stable isotope results from the IRIS methods. Samples showing significant deviations from the IRMS value (>2σ) were considered to be contaminated and representative of spectral interference in the IRIS measurement. Over the two studies, 83% of plant species were considered contaminated on OA-ICOS and 58% on WS-CRDS. Post-analysis, spectra were analyzed using the manufacturer's spectral analysis software, in order to see if the software correctly identified contaminated samples. In our tests the software performed well, identifying all the samples with major errors. However, some false negatives indicate that user evaluation and testing of the software are necessary. Repeat sampling of plants showed considerable variation in the discrepancies between IRIS and IRMS. As such, we recommend that spectral analysis of IRIS data must be incorporated into standard post-processing routines. Furthermore, we suggest that the results from spectral analysis be

  2. Performance Report for Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xue-mei

    Project CLASS (Chinese Language Achievement through Sequential Study), a federally-funded program, introduced the study of Chinese language and culture at Queen Ka'ahumanu Elementary School (Hawaii), forming the foundation of an instructional program to be continued through middle and high school, to meet state foreign language standards. In its…

  3. Relationship between Grade One Achievement and Academic Performance through High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simner, Marvin L.; Barnes, Michael J.

    The major purpose of this study was to determine what relationship currently exists between grade 1 marks and later school achievement. Complete academic records were obtained on two samples of students from rural towns in Southwestern Ontario. Each sample contained all the children born between 1964 and 1971 who attended their town's major public…

  4. Improving Low Achievers' Academic Performance at University by Changing the Social Value of Mastery Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…

  5. Faculty Sense of Academic Optimism and Its Relationship to Students' Achievement in Well Performing High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, Michael Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the organizational characteristics and behaviors that contribute to sustaining a culture of academic optimism as a mechanism of student achievement. While there is a developing research base identifying both the individual elements of academic optimism as well as the academic optimism construct itself as…

  6. Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Learner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figg, Stephanie D.; Rogers, Karen B.; McCormick, John; Low, Renae

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to empirically verify findings from qualitative studies that showed selective consumers could be distinguished from underachievers with regard to academic self-perception and thinking style preference. Participants, gifted males from an independent secondary boys' school in Sydney, Australia, were categorized as achieving,…

  7. Quality After-School Programming and Its Relationship to Achievement-Related Behaviors and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassi, Annemarie M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between quality social support networks developed through high quality afterschool programming and achievement amongst middle school and high school aged youth. This study seeks to develop a deeper understanding of how quality after-school programs influence a youth's developmental…

  8. Do Children in Montessori Schools Perform Better in the Achievement Test? A Taiwanese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Hsin-Hui; Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2014-01-01

    The study examines whether elementary school students in Taiwan who had received Montessori education achieved significantly higher scores on tests of language arts, math, and social studies than students who attended non-Montessori elementary programs. One hundred ninety six children in first, second, and third grade participated in the study.…

  9. Predicting End-of-Year Achievement Test Performance: A Comparison of Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kurz, Alexander; Zigmond, Naomi; Lemons, Christopher J.; Kloo, Amanda; Shrago, Jacqueline; Beddow, Peter A.; Williams, Leila; Bruen, Charles; Lupp, Lynda; Farmer, Jeanie; Mosiman, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the multiple-measures clause of recent federal policy regarding student eligibility for alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MASs), this study examined how scores or combinations of scores from a diverse set of assessments predicted students' end-of-year proficiency status on statewide achievement…

  10. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  11. Understanding Student Goal Orientation Tendencies to Predict Student Performance: A 2x2 Achievement Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark Alan

    2013-01-01

    The study tested the 2X2 model of the Achievement Goal Orientation (AGO) theory in a military technical training environment while using the Air Force Officers Qualifying Test's academic aptitude score to control for the differences in the students' academic aptitude. The study method was quantitative and the design was correlational.…

  12. The Validity of Seven Easily Obtainable Economic and Demographic Predictors of Achievement Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Seven easily obtainable background variables, such as number of persons, rooms, or cars per family dwelling; kindergarten attendance; and sex were found to have a multiple correlation of .52 with a standard achievement test for a large sample of fourth grade pupils in a metropolitan school district. (JKS)

  13. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of the stable electrophoretic fractions of soil humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubetskoi, O. A.; Trubetskaya, O. E.

    2015-02-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) has been used for the hydrophobicity analysis of soil humic acids and their stable electrophoretic fractions A, B, and C + D preliminarily prepared by the combination of gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In two humic acid preparations of different genesis, the electrophoretic fraction A of the larger molecular size was the most hydrophobic (60-73% of the fraction was irreversibly adsorbed on a hydrophobic reversed-phase (RF) column C18), and the fraction C + D of the smallest molecular size was the most hydrophilic. The fraction B of medium size occupied an intermediate position (33-47% of the fraction was irreversibly adsorbed on the column). The use of RP-HPLC allowed for the first time detecting the hydrophobic electrophoretic fraction A of the largest molecular size mainly composed of aliphatic long-chained hydrocarbon, protein, and carbohydrate fragments in soil humic acids. Data on the degree of hydrophobicity and the earlier obtained physicochemical characteristics of stable electrophoretic fractions are discussed in terms of the supramolecular and macromolecular structure of soil humic acids.

  14. Nursing to achieve organizational performance: Consider the role of nursing intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    The success and performance of healthcare organizations relies on the strategic management of knowledge. Nursing Intellectual Capital (NIC) has emerged as a concept involving nursing knowledge resources that create value in healthcare organizations. This article aims to discuss the importance of considering knowledge resources in the context of healthcare performance, with specific reference to NIC. Reflections are then provided on how leaders can look to advance NIC for improved performance.

  15. High-performance and moisture-stable cellulose-starch nanocomposites based on bioinspired core-shell nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Prakobna, Kasinee; Galland, Sylvain; Berglund, Lars A

    2015-03-09

    Moisture stability and brittleness are challenges for plant fiber biocomposites intended for load-bearing applications, for instance those based on an amylopectin-rich (AP) starch matrix. Core-shell amylopectin-coated cellulose nanofibers and nanocomposites are prepared to investigate effects from the distribution of AP matrix. The core-shell nanocomposites are compared with nanocomposites with more irregular amylopectin (AP) distribution. Colloidal properties (DLS), AP adsorption, nanofiber dimensions (atomic force microscopy), and nanocomposite structure (transmission electron microscopy) are analyzed. Tensile tests are performed at different moisture contents. The core-shell nanofibers result in exceptionally moisture stable, ductile, and strong nanocomposites, much superior to reference CNF/AP nanocomposites with more irregular AP distribution. The reduction in AP properties is less pronounced as the AP forms a favorable interphase around individual CNF nanofibers.

  16. The Effect of Performance Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…

  17. Six Challenges Are Key for High-Performing Schools that Aim to Achieve More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray-Taylor, Rossi; Baskerville, Sharon; Bruder, Shelley; Bennett, Elaine; Schulte, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Across the US, some schools are hallmarks of high academic performance. These schools display consistently high test performance, and their students are sought after by competitive colleges and universities. These schools are successful, with consistently above-average test scores, low dropout rates, high percentages of children attending college,…

  18. Provider performance measures in private and public programs: achieving meaningful alignment with flexibility to innovate.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Aparna; Veselovskiy, German; McKown, Lauren

    2013-08-01

    In recent years there has been a significant expansion in the use of provider performance measures for quality improvement, payment, and public reporting. Using data from a survey of health plans, we characterize the use of such performance measures by private payers. We also compare the use of these measures among selected private and public programs. We studied twenty-three health plans with 121 million commercial enrollees--66 percent of the national commercial enrollment. The health plans reported using 546 distinct performance measures. There was much variation in the use of performance measures in both private and public payment and care delivery programs, despite common areas of focus that included cardiovascular conditions, diabetes, and preventive services. We conclude that policy makers and stakeholders who seek less variability in the use of performance measures to increase consistency should balance this goal with the need for flexibility to meet the needs of specific populations and promote innovation.

  19. Swine herds achieve high performance by culling low lifetime efficiency sows in early parity.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Ariko; McTaggart, Iain; Koketsu, Yuzo

    2011-11-01

    Sow lifetime performance and by-parity performance were analyzed using a 3 by 3 factorial design, comprising 3 herd productivity groups and 3 sow efficiency groups. Data was obtained from 101 Japanese herds, totaling 173,526 parity records of 34,929 sows, for the years 2001 to 2006. Sows were categorized into 3 groups based on the lower and upper 25th percentiles of the annualized lifetime pigs born alive: low lifetime efficiency sows (LE sows), intermediate lifetime efficiency sows or high lifetime efficiency sows. Herds were grouped on the basis of the upper and lower 25th percentiles of pigs weaned per mated female per year, averaged over 6 years: high-, intermediate- or low-performing herds. Mixed-effects models were used for comparisons. LE sows in high-performing herds had 57.8 fewer lifetime nonproductive days and 0.5 earlier parity at removal than those in low-performing herds (P<0.05). The number of pigs born alive of LE sows continuously decreased from parity 1 to 5, whereas those of high lifetime efficiency sows gradually increased from parity 1 to 4 before decreasing up to parity ≥ 6 (P<0.05). In conclusion, the LE sows have a performance pattern of decreasing number of pigs born alive across parity. The present study also indicates that high-performing herds culled potential LE sows earlier than the other herds.

  20. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also…

  1. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma I.

    This study examined the assumption that language expression and reading performance are related processes. Subjects included a total of 676 nine-year-old children of heterogeneous socioeconomic status, intelligence, and achievement levels. Verbal fluency was defined as being a measure of associative verbal encoding (a/v/e), wherein children give…

  2. Conscientiousness, Achievement Striving, and Intelligence as Performance Predictors in a Sample of German Psychology Students: Always a Linear Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Matthias; Knogler, Maximilian; Buhner, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Studies on the interface between cognitive ability (intelligence) and personality in the prediction of academic performance have yielded mixed results so far. Especially an interaction between conscientiousness (and its facet achievement striving) and intelligence has been investigated. The hypothesis is that conscientiousness enhances the impact…

  3. The Relationship between Students' Reading Performance on Diagnostic Assessments and the Third Grade Reading Achievement Test in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollinger, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…

  4. Relationships of Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Mathematics Achievement in Four High-Performing East Asian Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education…

  5. The Black-White-Other Achievement Gap: Testing Theories of Academic Performance among Multiracial and Monoracial Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Melissa R.

    2009-01-01

    The study presented here tested three theories of racial differences in academic performance among monoracial and multiracial high school students. These theories (status attainment, oppositional culture, and educational attitudes) were developed to explain differences in achievement among monoracial groups, but the study tested how the theories…

  6. "Author's" Response to Commentaries on "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Leaner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figg, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to commentaries on "Differentiating Low Performance of the Gifted Leaner: Achieving, Underachieving, and Selective Consuming Students." The commentaries have focused on two issues: (1) the merits of distinguishing selective consumers from other students; and (2) the quality of the study's methodology.…

  7. Prior Mathematics Achievement, Cognitive Appraisals and Anxiety as Predictors of Finnish Students' Later Mathematics Performance and Career Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyttala, Minna; Bjorn, Piia Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this two-year longitudinal study was to investigate the role and impact of prior mathematics performance, cognitive appraisals and mathematics-specific, affective anxiety in determining later mathematics achievement and future career orientation among Finnish adolescents. The basic ideas of the control-value theory, assumed to be…

  8. Participation and Performance Reporting for the Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards (AA-MAS). Technical Report 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines publicly reported participation and performance data for the alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS). The authors' analysis of these data included all states publicly reporting AA-MAS data, regardless of whether they had received approval to use the results for Title I accountability calculations.…

  9. Why IEP Teams Assign Low Performers with Mild Disabilities to the Alternate Assessment Based on Alternate Achievement Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Kingston, Neal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine teachers' rationales for assigning students with mild disabilities to alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS). In interviews, special educators stated that their primary considerations in making the assignments were low academic performance, student use of extended…

  10. Pilot Study: EatFit Impacts Sixth Graders' Academic Performance on Achievement of Mathematics and English Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilts, Mical Kay; Lamp, Cathi; Horowitz, Marcel; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the impact of a nutrition education program on student academic performance as measured by achievement of education standards. Design: Quasi-experimental crossover-controlled study. Setting: California Central Valley suburban elementary school (58% qualified for free or reduced-priced lunch). Participants: All sixth-grade…

  11. Gamed by the System: Adequate Yearly Progress as an Indicator of Persistently Low-Achieving School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochbein, Craig; Mitchell, Amanda M.; Pollio, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The recent policy focus on the turnaround of persistently low-achieving schools has generated considerable debate about the reforms needed to dramatically and quickly increase school performance. The purpose of this article is not to focus on specific turnaround interventions, but rather on the identification of schools slated to receive these…

  12. The Relationship of Selected Measures of Proprioception to Physical Growth, Motor Performance, and Academic Achievement in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubenstricker, John L.; Milne, D. Conrad

    This study investigates the relationship of selected measures of proprioception to measures of physical growth, motor performance, and academic achievement in young children. Measures were obtained from 321 boys and girls attending kindergarten and first and second grade. Sample correlation matrices were computed on all variables at each grade…

  13. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  14. An Investigation of World Language Teachers' Use of Student Performance Data to Inform Teaching and to Help Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffi, Bruno N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the types of content-based student performance data World Language teachers used to improve instruction and student academic achievement, the purposes for which they used data, the issues they encountered, and the suggestions they made for more effective use of data. The Standards for Foreign Language Learning…

  15. Children's Achievement Expectations and Performance as a Function of Two Consecutive Reinforcement Experiences, Sex of Subject, and Sex of Experimenter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanelli, Dale Soderman; Hill, Kennedy T.

    1969-01-01

    Presents research patterned on two earlier studies by the Crandalls 1963, 1964 on the effects of praise, criticism, and nonreaction on 10-year-old children involved in a marble-dropping task. The subjects tended to increase in performance and decrease in achievement expectancy when criticized. Table, graphs, and bibliography. (RW)

  16. Factors Associated with Performance on the Educational Testing Service (ETS) Major Field Achievement Test in Business (MFAT-B)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bycio, Peter; Allen, Joyce S.

    2007-01-01

    Accrediting bodies, including Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-International (AACSB), require evidence that business schools fulfill their stated missions. This often involves using the Major Field Achievement Test in Business (MFAT-B). In this article, the authors studied MFAT-B performance for its relationship to grade point…

  17. A novel approach to achieving significant reverberation control in performance halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conant, David A.; Chu, William

    2005-09-01

    Conventional methods for achieving broadband, variable sound absorption in large halls normally include heavy application of sound-absorptive drapery and/or thick fibrous panels, applied near available surfaces below, at, and in volumes above the catwalk plane. Occasionally, direct adjustments to room air volume are also provided to effect double-sloped decays. The novel method described here combines carefully located, broad scattering and absorption in singular architectural elements and was applied to a new, 1200-seat concert hall. A change of 0.70 s RT60 in midfrequency is achieved in a visually dramatic manner while neither materially changing room volume nor introducing often-maligned drapery. The aggregate of reverberation control methodologies employed reduces the unoccupied RT60 at midfrequencies from about 3.2 to 1.7 s in this space programed principally for music, including pipe organ. Results of MLS measurements including binaural measurements and binaural recordings of anechoic material and CATT-acoustic modeling and auralizations are discussed.

  18. Striving for Excellence Sometimes Hinders High Achievers: Performance-Approach Goals Deplete Arithmetical Performance in Students with High Working Memory Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097

  19. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a residual risk factor associated with long-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease who achieve optimal control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shinya; Kurata, Takeshi; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is recognized an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Clinical trials have shown that statins significantly reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statin. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established coronary risk factor that is independent of LDL-C levels. We evaluated the impact of HDL-C on long-term mortality in diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieved optimal LDL-C. We enrolled 438 consecutive diabetic patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention between 2004 and 2007 at our institution. We identified 165 patients who achieved target LDL-C <100 mg/dl. Patients were stratified into two groups according to HDL-C levels (low HDL-C group, baseline HDL-C <40 mg/dl; high HDL-C group, ≥40 mg/dl). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) that included all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome, and target lesion revascularization were evaluated between the two groups. The median follow-up period was 946 days. The rate of MACE was significantly higher in diabetic patients with low-HDL-C who achieved optimal LDL-C (6.9 vs 17.9 %, log-rank P = 0.030). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C is significantly associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for MACE 1.33, 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.75, P = 0.042). Low HDL-C is a residual risk factor that is significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieve optimal LDL-C levels.

  20. Multi-Scale Effects of Nestling Diet on Breeding Performance in a Terrestrial Top Predator Inferred from Stable Isotope Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Resano-Mayor, Jaime; Hernández-Matías, Antonio; Real, Joan; Moleón, Marcos; Parés, Francesc; Inger, Richard; Bearhop, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Inter-individual diet variation within populations is likely to have important ecological and evolutionary implications. The diet-fitness relationships at the individual level and the emerging population processes are, however, poorly understood for most avian predators inhabiting complex terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we use an isotopic approach to assess the trophic ecology of nestlings in a long-lived raptor, the Bonelli’s eagle Aquila fasciata, and investigate whether nestling dietary breath and main prey consumption can affect the species’ reproductive performance at two spatial scales: territories within populations and populations over a large geographic area. At the territory level, those breeding pairs whose nestlings consumed similar diets to the overall population (i.e. moderate consumption of preferred prey, but complemented by alternative prey categories) or those disproportionally consuming preferred prey were more likely to fledge two chicks. An increase in the diet diversity, however, related negatively with productivity. The age and replacements of breeding pair members had also an influence on productivity, with more fledglings associated to adult pairs with few replacements, as expected in long-lived species. At the population level, mean productivity was higher in those population-years with lower dietary breadth and higher diet similarity among territories, which was related to an overall higher consumption of preferred prey. Thus, we revealed a correspondence in diet-fitness relationships at two spatial scales: territories and populations. We suggest that stable isotope analyses may be a powerful tool to monitor the diet of terrestrial avian predators on large spatio-temporal scales, which could serve to detect potential changes in the availability of those prey on which predators depend for breeding. We encourage ecologists and evolutionary and conservation biologists concerned with the multi-scale fitness consequences of inter

  1. Multi-scale effects of nestling diet on breeding performance in a terrestrial top predator inferred from stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Resano-Mayor, Jaime; Hernández-Matías, Antonio; Real, Joan; Moleón, Marcos; Parés, Francesc; Inger, Richard; Bearhop, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Inter-individual diet variation within populations is likely to have important ecological and evolutionary implications. The diet-fitness relationships at the individual level and the emerging population processes are, however, poorly understood for most avian predators inhabiting complex terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we use an isotopic approach to assess the trophic ecology of nestlings in a long-lived raptor, the Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata, and investigate whether nestling dietary breath and main prey consumption can affect the species' reproductive performance at two spatial scales: territories within populations and populations over a large geographic area. At the territory level, those breeding pairs whose nestlings consumed similar diets to the overall population (i.e. moderate consumption of preferred prey, but complemented by alternative prey categories) or those disproportionally consuming preferred prey were more likely to fledge two chicks. An increase in the diet diversity, however, related negatively with productivity. The age and replacements of breeding pair members had also an influence on productivity, with more fledglings associated to adult pairs with few replacements, as expected in long-lived species. At the population level, mean productivity was higher in those population-years with lower dietary breadth and higher diet similarity among territories, which was related to an overall higher consumption of preferred prey. Thus, we revealed a correspondence in diet-fitness relationships at two spatial scales: territories and populations. We suggest that stable isotope analyses may be a powerful tool to monitor the diet of terrestrial avian predators on large spatio-temporal scales, which could serve to detect potential changes in the availability of those prey on which predators depend for breeding. We encourage ecologists and evolutionary and conservation biologists concerned with the multi-scale fitness consequences of inter

  2. 1024 x 768 XGA uncooled camera core achieves new levels of performance in a small package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alicandro, C. J.; DeMarco, R. W.

    2011-06-01

    An uncooled XGA camera core has been developed for multiple thermal imaging applications that require longer detection range and wider fields of view. The design challenge is to maintain high performance while optimizing for size, weight, and power (SWAP). Utilizing a combination of low power electronic designs, proprietary calibration methods, and a new 17μm pitch high performance amorphous silicon (ASi) microbolometer, a rugged multi-purpose SWAP-optimized XGA camera core has been designed. The result is a camera core that has been shown to deliver far better detection range and angle-of-view performance than previous uncooled solutions with frame rates of 30 Hz in XGA mode and 60 Hz in VGA mode.

  3. Cost/Performance Ratio Achieved by Using a Commodity-Based Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center acquired a commodity cluster based on Intel Corporation processors to compare its performance with a traditional UNIX cluster in the execution of aeropropulsion applications. Since the cost differential of the clusters was significant, a cost/performance ratio was calculated. After executing a propulsion application on both clusters, the researchers demonstrated a 9.4 cost/performance ratio in favor of the Intel-based cluster. These researchers utilize the Aeroshark cluster as one of the primary testbeds for developing NPSS parallel application codes and system software. The Aero-shark cluster provides 64 Intel Pentium II 400-MHz processors, housed in 32 nodes. Recently, APNASA - a code developed by a Government/industry team for the design and analysis of turbomachinery systems was used for a simulation on Glenn's Aeroshark cluster.

  4. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  5. Teacher Performance Pay Signals and Student Achievement: Are Signals Accurate, and How well Do They Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzeske, David; Garland, Marshall; Williams, Ryan; West, Benjamin; Kistner, Alexandra Manzella; Rapaport, Amie

    2016-01-01

    High-performing teachers tend to seek out positions at more affluent or academically challenging schools, which tend to hire more experienced, effective educators. Consequently, low-income and minority students are more likely to attend schools with less experienced and less effective educators (see, for example, DeMonte & Hanna, 2014; Office…

  6. Mayoral Governance and Student Achievement: How Mayor-Led Districts Are Improving School and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.

    2013-01-01

    Mayoral control and accountability is one of very few major education reforms that aim at governance coherence in this nation's highly fragmented urban school systems. A primary feature of mayoral governance is that it holds the office of the mayor accountable for school performance. As an institutional redesign, mayoral governance integrates…

  7. "High" Achievers? Cannabis Access and Student Performance. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1340

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, Olivier; Zölitz, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals' nationality. We apply a difference-in-difference approach using administrative panel data on over 54,000 course grades of local…

  8. Aural Dictation Affects High Achievement in Sight Singing, Performance and Composition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The nature of skill acquisition has long been of interest to music educators. This study considers the research context for relationships between aural dictation, sight singing, performance and composition skills. Then, relationships between these skill areas are quantitatively investigated using data from the Australian New South Wales Music 2…

  9. Short Circuits or Superconductors? Effects of Group Composition on High-Achieving Students' Science Assessment Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…

  10. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Student Achievement Using Standardized and Performance-Based Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinter, Brad; Matchock, Robert L.; Charles, Eric P.; Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Three groups of undergraduates (42 senior graduating psychology majors, 27 first-year premajors taking introductory psychology, and 24 first-year, high-performing nonmajors taking introductory psychology) completed the Psychology Major Field Test (MFT) and a short-answer (SA) essay test on reasoning about core knowledge in psychology. Graduating…

  11. Ethnicity and Educational Performance in the United Kingdom: Racism, Ethnicity, and Variability in Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines recent research on the variability of educational performance in the United Kingdom, discussing differences in educational attainment. Some of the social processes behind the statistics are explored, and the possibilities for improvement at the school level are considered in the context of national educational reforms that prioritize…

  12. Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillier, James

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to correct for perceived deficiencies in the No Child Left Behind Act, value-added models were proposed as a way to find out how much students learned in schools and classrooms throughout the school year. What has garnered much controversy regarding the value-added model, however, is the attempt to link pay and tenure to performance.…

  13. Initial Teacher Education: Does Self-Efficacy Influence Candidate Teacher Academic Achievement and Future Career Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad F.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative investigation examined the influence of low and high self-efficacy on candidate teacher academic performance in a foreign language teaching methodology course through testing the speculation that high self-efficacy levels would improve pedagogical-content knowledge (PCK). Positivism guided the research design at the levels of…

  14. Relationships among Reading Performance, Locus of Control and Achievement for Marginal Admission Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Roger S.; Drexler, John A., Jr.

    The first phase of the study was a 2 x 2 factorial design, with locus of control and instructional method (lecture and demonstration) as independent variables and honor point average (HPA) as the dependent variable. The second phase used correlational techniques to test the extent to which reading performance and traditional predictors of…

  15. An HLA-Based Approach to Quantify Achievable Performance for Tactical Edge Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Network Models, High Performance Computing, OPNET ABSTRACT: The DoD is pursuing an end-to-end, seamless, network-centric enterprise communications...APG). High-fidelity OPNET models are used to represent the SRW and WNaN waveforms. Situational Awareness (SA) multicast traffic is delivered among...Network after Next (WNaN) federate is developed and executed within an HPC environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG). High-fidelity OPNET models

  16. Achieving supercomputer performance for neural net simulation with an array of digital signal processors

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, U.A.; Baumle, B.; Kohler, P.; Gunzinger, A.; Guggenbuhl, W.

    1992-10-01

    Music, a DSP-based system with a parallel distributed-memory architecture, provides enormous computing power yet retains the flexibility of a general-purpose computer. Reaching a peak performance of 2.7 Gflops at a significantly lower cost, power consumption, and space requirement than conventional supercomputers, Music is well suited to computationally intensive applications such as neural network simulation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Tailoring the structure of thin film nanocomposite membranes to achieve seawater RO membrane performance.

    PubMed

    Lind, Mary Laura; Eumine Suk, Daniel; Nguyen, The-Vinh; Hoek, Eric M V

    2010-11-01

    Herein we report on the formation and characterization of pure polyamide thin film composite (TFC) and zeolite-polyamide thin film nanocomposite (TFN) reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Four different physical-chemical post-treatment combinations were applied after the interfacial polymerization reaction to change the molecular structure of polyamide and zeolite-polyamide thin films. Both TFC and TFN hand-cast membranes were more permeable, hydrophilic, and rough than a commercial seawater RO membrane. Salt rejection by TFN membranes was consistently below that of hand-cast TFC membranes; however, two TFN membranes exhibited 32 g/L NaCl rejections above 99.4%, which was better than the commercial membrane under the test conditions employed. The nearly defect-free TFN films that produced such high rejections were achieved only with wet curing, regardless of other post-treatments. Polyamide films formed in the presence of zeolite nanoparticles were less cross-linked than similarly cast pure polyamide films. At the very low nanoparticle loadings evaluated, differences between pure polyamide and zeolite-polyamide membrane water and salt permeability correlated weakly with extent of cross-linking of the polyamide film, which suggests that defects and molecular-sieving largely govern transport through zeolite-polyamide thin film nanocomposite membranes.

  18. When performance-approach goals predict academic achievement and when they do not: a social value approach.

    PubMed

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    Research on achievement goal promotion at University has shown that performance-approach goals are perceived as a means to succeed at University (high social utility) but are not appreciated (low social desirability). We argue that such a paradox could explain why research has detected that performance-approach goals consistently predict academic grades. First-year psychology students answered a performance-approach goal scale with standard, social desirability and social utility instructions. Participants' grades were recorded at the end of the semester. Results showed that the relationship between performance-approach goals and grades was inhibited by the increase of these goals' social desirability and facilitated by the increase of their social utility, revealing that the predictive validity of performance-approach goals depends on social value.

  19. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  20. Reliability, validity and ability to detect change of the Personal and Social Performance scale in patients with stable schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Nasrallah, Henry; Morosini, Pierluigi; Gagnon, Dennis D

    2008-11-30

    This report describes the measurement properties of the Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP), a clinician-reported measure of severity of personal and social dysfunction, in an outpatient population with stabilized schizophrenia. Pooled data from two similar antipsychotic clinical studies were analyzed (n=411). The PSP showed good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.79). The PSP was more highly correlated with the Strauss-Carpenter Level of Function, an instrument measuring a similar construct, than the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, an instrument measuring a different construct. There was a statistically significant difference between mean PSP scores in subjects grouped by their severity rating on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) (mild or less versus at least moderate), indicating the ability to discriminate between known groups. Effect sizes for mean change in the PSP based on 1-category improvement (0.72) or worsening (-0.88) versus no change in the CGI-S were moderate to large, demonstrating the ability to detect change. Estimates of between-group minimum important difference suggest that a 7-point improvement in the PSP may be clinically meaningful in a clinical trial setting. Initial reliability and validity assessments suggest the PSP may be a useful measure of social functioning in patients with stable schizophrenia.

  1. The effects of lidoflazine on exercise performance and thallium stress scintigraphy in patients with stable angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, W.; Narahara, K.A.; Park, J.

    1982-01-01

    Lidoflazine is a synthetic drug with calcium-channel blocking effects. In a 7-month study, 36 patients with stable angina pectoris were tested during a 3-month single-blind placebo phase. Nineteen were then randomized by double-blind methods to lidoflazine and 17 to placebo therapy. The lidoflazine group had a significant (p less than 0.01) reduction in anginal attacks; the placebo group did not. Exercise testing demonstrated that lidoflazine therapy was associated with a 34% increase in total work performance and a 15.6% increase in peak calculated oxygen uptake during double-blind treatment (both p less than 0.004 compared with the placebo group). Heart rate was significantly reduced at submaximal levels of exercise during lidoflazine therapy (p less than 0.04). Nitroglycerin consumption and electrocardiographic changes at the end of exercise did not change during the double-blind phase. In a second study of six similar patients, single-blind administration of lidoflazine was associated with improved myocardial perfusion during exercise as determined by thallium-201 stress scintigraphy. These studies demonstrate that lidoflazine therapy is associated with relief of angina, an increased physical work capacity, and improved regional myocardial perfusion during exercise.

  2. The effects of lidoflazine on exercise performance and thallium stress scintigraphy in patients with stable angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, W.; Narahara, K.A.; Park, J.

    1982-01-01

    Lidoflazine is a synthetic drug with calcium-channel blocking effects. In a 7-month study, 36 patients with stable angina pectoris were tested during a 3-month single-blind placebo phase. Nineteen were then randomized by double-blind methods to lidoflazine and 17 to placebo therapy. The lidoflazine group had a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in anginal attacks; the placebo group did not. Exercise testing demonstrated that lidoflazine therapy was associated with a 34% increase in total work performance and a 15.6% increase in peak calculated oxygen uptake during double-blind treatment (both p < 0.004 compared with the placebo group). Heart rate was significantly reduced at submaximal levels of exercise during lidoflazine therapy (p < 0.04). Nitroglycerin consumption and electrocardiographic changes at the end of exercise did not change during the double-blind phase. In a second study of six similar patients, single-blind administration of lidoflazine was associated with improved myocardial perfusion during exercise as determined by thallium-201 stress scintigraphy. These studies demonstrate that lidoflazine therapy is associated with relief of angina, an increased physical work capacity, and improved regional myocardial perfusion during exercise.

  3. High performing and stable supported nano-alloys for the catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenhao; Sankar, Meenakshisundaram; Beale, Andrew M.; He, Qian; Kiely, Christopher J.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of levulinic acid, a key platform molecule in many biorefinery schemes, into γ-valerolactone is considered as one of the pivotal reactions to convert lignocellulose-based biomass into renewable fuels and chemicals. Here we report on the development of highly active, selective and stable supported metal catalysts for this reaction and on the beneficial effects of metal nano-alloying. Bimetallic random alloys of gold-palladium and ruthenium-palladium supported on titanium dioxide are prepared with a modified metal impregnation method. Gold-palladium/titanium dioxide shows a marked,~27-fold increase in activity (that is, turnover frequency of 0.1 s−1) compared with its monometallic counterparts. Although ruthenium-palladium/titanium dioxide is not only exceptionally active (that is, turnover frequency of 0.6 s−1), it shows excellent, sustained selectivity to γ-valerolactone (99%). The dilution and isolation of ruthenium by palladium is thought to be responsible for this superior catalytic performance. Alloying, furthermore, greatly improves the stability of both supported nano-alloy catalysts. PMID:25779385

  4. Tuning interactions between zeolite and supported metal by physical-sputtering to achieve higher catalytic performances

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Gang; Liu, Cheng; Sun, Jian; Xian, Hui; Tan, Yi-Sheng; Jiang, Zheng; Taguchi, Akira; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Yoneyama, Yoshiharu; Abe, Takayuki; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2013-01-01

    To substitute for petroleum, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an environmentally benign process to produce synthetic diesel (n-paraffin) from syngas. Industrially, the synthetic gasoline (iso-paraffin) can be produced with a FTS process followed by isomerization and hydrocracking processes over solid-acid catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate a cobalt nano-catalyst synthesized by physical-sputtering method that the metallic cobalt nano-particles homogeneously disperse on the H-ZSM5 zeolite support with weak Metal-Support Interactions (MSI). This catalyst performed the high gasoline-range iso-paraffin productivity through the combined FTS, isomerization and hydrocracking reactions. The weak MSI results in the easy reducibility of the cobalt nano-particles; the high cobalt dispersion accelerates n-paraffin diffusion to the neighboring acidic sites on the H-ZSM5 support for isomerization and hydrocracking. Both factors guarantee its high CO conversion and iso-paraffin selectivity. This physical-sputtering technique to synthesize the supported metallic nano-catalyst is a promising way to solve the critical problems caused by strong MSI for various processes. PMID:24085106

  5. High-performance partially aligned semiconductive single-walled carbon nanotube transistors achieved with a parallel technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilei; Pillai, Suresh Kumar Raman; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2013-09-09

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are widely thought to be a strong contender for next-generation printed electronic transistor materials. However, large-scale solution-based parallel assembly of SWNTs to obtain high-performance transistor devices is challenging. SWNTs have anisotropic properties and, although partial alignment of the nanotubes has been theoretically predicted to achieve optimum transistor device performance, thus far no parallel solution-based technique can achieve this. Herein a novel solution-based technique, the immersion-cum-shake method, is reported to achieve partially aligned SWNT networks using semiconductive (99% enriched) SWNTs (s-SWNTs). By immersing an aminosilane-treated wafer into a solution of nanotubes placed on a rotary shaker, the repetitive flow of the nanotube solution over the wafer surface during the deposition process orients the nanotubes toward the fluid flow direction. By adjusting the nanotube concentration in the solution, the nanotube density of the partially aligned network can be controlled; linear densities ranging from 5 to 45 SWNTs/μm are observed. Through control of the linear SWNT density and channel length, the optimum SWNT-based field-effect transistor devices achieve outstanding performance metrics (with an on/off ratio of ~3.2 × 10(4) and mobility 46.5 cm(2) /Vs). Atomic force microscopy shows that the partial alignment is uniform over an area of 20 × 20 mm(2) and confirms that the orientation of the nanotubes is mostly along the fluid flow direction, with a narrow orientation scatter characterized by a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of <15° for all but the densest film, which is 35°. This parallel process is large-scale applicable and exploits the anisotropic properties of the SWNTs, presenting a viable path forward for industrial adoption of SWNTs in printed, flexible, and large-area electronics.

  6. Stable performance of non‐aerated two‐stage partial nitritation/anammox (PANAM) with minimal process control

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Samik; Biswas, Rima; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Roychoudhury, Kunal; Nandy, Tapas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Partial nitritation/anammox (PANAM) technologies have rapidly developed over the last decade, but still considerable amounts of energy are required for active aeration. In this study, a non‐aerated two‐stage PANAM process was investigated. In the first‐stage upflow fixed‐film bioreactor, nitratation could not be prevented at ammonium loading rates up to 186 mg N l−1 d−1 and low influent dissolved oxygen (0.1 mg O2 l−1). Yet, increasing the loading rate to 416 and 747 mg N l−1 d−1 by decreasing the hydraulic retention time to 8 and 5 h, respectively, resulted in partial nitritation with the desired nitrite to ammonium nitrogen ratio for the subsequent anammox stage (0.71–1.05). The second‐stage anammox reactor was established with a synthetic feeding based on ammonium and nitrite. After establishing anammox at low biomass content (0.5 g VSS l−1), the anammox influent was switched to partial nitritation effluent at a loading rate of 71 mg N l−1 d−1, of which 78% was removed at the stoichiometrically expected nitrite to ammonium consumption ratios (1.19) and nitrate production to ammonium consumption ratio (0.24). The combined PANAM reactors were operated for 3 months at a stable performance. Overall, PANAM appeals economically, saving about 50% of the energy costs, as well as technically, given straightforward operational principles. PMID:22414169

  7. Evidence-based surgical training in orthopaedics: how many arthroscopies of the knee are needed to achieve consultant level performance?

    PubMed

    Price, A J; Erturan, G; Akhtar, K; Judge, A; Alvand, A; Rees, J L

    2015-10-01

    Despite being one of the most common orthopaedic operations, it is still not known how many arthroscopies of the knee must be performed during training in order to develop the skills required to become a Consultant. A total of 54 subjects were divided into five groups according to clinical experience: Novices (n = 10), Junior trainees (n = 10), Registrars (n = 18), Fellows (n = 10) and Consultants (n = 6). After viewing an instructional presentation, each subject performed a simple diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee on a simulator with visualisation and probing of ten anatomical landmarks. Performance was assessed using a validated global rating scale (GRS). Comparisons were made against clinical experience measured by the number of arthroscopies which had been undertaken, and ROC curve analysis was used to determine the number of procedures needed to perform at the level of the Consultants. There were marked differences between the groups. There was significant improvement in performance with increasing experience (p < 0.05). ROC curve analysis identified that approximately 170 procedures were required to achieve the level of skills of a Consultant. We suggest that this approach to identify what represents the level of surgical skills of a Consultant should be used more widely so that standards of training are maintained through the development of an evidenced-based curriculum.

  8. Quality of Education Predicts Performance on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition Word Reading Subtest

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004

  9. Case study: Comparison of motivation for achieving higher performance between self-directed and manager-directed aerospace engineering teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlick, Katherine

    "The stereotype of engineers is that they are not people oriented; the stereotype implies that engineers would not work well in teams---that their task emphasis is a solo venture and does not encourage social aspects of collaboration" (Miner & Beyerlein, 1999, p. 16). The problem is determining the best method of providing a motivating environment where design engineers may contribute within a team in order to achieve higher performance in the organization. Theoretically, self-directed work teams perform at higher levels. But, allowing a design engineer to contribute to the team while still maintaining his or her anonymity is the key to success. Therefore, a motivating environment must be established to encourage greater self-actualization in design engineers. The purpose of this study is to determine the favorable motivational environment for design engineers and describe the comparison between two aerospace design-engineering teams: one self-directed and the other manager directed. Following the comparison, this study identified whether self-direction or manager-direction provides the favorable motivational environment for operating as a team in pursuit of achieving higher performance. The methodology used in this research was the case study focusing on the team's levels of job satisfaction and potential for higher performance. The collection of data came from three sources, (a) surveys, (b) researcher observer journal and (c) collection of artifacts. The surveys provided information regarding personal behavior characteristics, potentiality for higher performance and motivational attributes. The researcher journal provided information regarding team dynamics, individual interaction, conflict and conflict resolution. The milestone for performance was based on the collection of artifacts from the two teams. The findings from this study illustrated that whether the team was manager-directed or self-directed does not appear to influence the needs and wants of the

  10. Achievement of VO2max criteria during a continuous graded exercise test and a verification stage performed by college athletes.

    PubMed

    Mier, Constance M; Alexander, Ryan P; Mageean, Amanda L

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meeting specific VO2max criteria and to test the effectiveness of a VO2max verification stage in college athletes. Thirty-five subjects completed a continuous graded exercise test (GXT) to volitional exhaustion. The frequency of achieving various respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and age-predicted maximum heart rate (HRmax) criteria and a VO2 plateau within 2 and 2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (<2SD of the expected increase in VO2) were measured and tested against expected frequencies. After 10 minutes of active recovery, 10 subjects who did not demonstrate a plateau completed a verification stage performed at supramaximal intensity. From the GXT, the number of subjects meeting VO2max plateau was 5 (≤2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 7 (≤2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), RER criteria 34 (≥1.05), 32 (≥1.10), and 24 (≥1.15), HRmax criteria, 35 (<85%), 29 (<10 b·min(-1)) and 9 (HRmax). The VO2max and HRmax did not differ between GXT and the verification stage (53.6 ± 5.6 vs. 55.5 ± 5.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 187 ± 7 vs. 187 ± 6 b·min(-1)); however, the RER was lower during the verification stage (1.15 ± 0.06 vs. 1.07 ± 0.07, p = 0.004). Six subjects achieved a similar VO2 (within 2.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), whereas 4 achieved a higher VO2 compared with the GXT. These data demonstrate that a continuous GXT limits the college athlete's ability to achieve VO2max plateau and certain RER and HR criteria. The use of a verification stage increases the frequency of VO2max achievement and may be an effective method to improve the accuracy of VO2max measurements in college athletes.

  11. The Effects of Performance Objectives on the Achievement Level of Selected Eighth-Grade Science Pupils in Four Predominantly Black Inner City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Napoleon, Jr.

    Reported is a study to determine the effects of performance objectives on the achievement level of low achieving science pupils in four predominantly black inner city schools. Six teachers and 210 pupils were involved in the study. Three teachers were trained to develop and use performance objectives as an instructional technique. Pedagogical…

  12. Copper-manganese mixed oxides: CO2-selectivity, stable, and cyclic performance for chemical looping combustion of methane.

    PubMed

    Mungse, Pallavi; Saravanan, Govindachetty; Uchiyama, Tomoki; Nishibori, Maiko; Teraoka, Yasutake; Rayalu, Sadhana; Labhsetwar, Nitin

    2014-09-28

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a key technology for oxy-fuel combustion with inherent separation of CO2 from a flue gas, in which oxygen is derived from a solid oxygen carrier. Multi-cycle CLC performance and the product selectivity towards CO2 formation were achieved using mixed oxide of Cu and Mn (CuMn2O4) (Fd3[combining macron]m, a = b = c = 0.83 nm) as an oxygen carrier. CuMn2O4 was prepared by the co-precipitation method followed by annealing at 900 °C using copper(II) nitrate trihydrate and manganese(II) nitrate tetrahydrate as metal precursors. CuMn2O4 showed oxygen-desorption as well as reducibility at elevated temperatures under CLC conditions. The lattice of CuMn2O4 was altered significantly at higher temperature, however, it was reinstated virtually upon cooling in the presence of air. CuMn2O4 was reduced to CuMnO2, Mn3O4, and Cu2O phases at the intermediate stages, which were further reduced to metallic Cu and MnO upon the removal of reactive oxygen from their lattice. CuMn2O4 showed a remarkable activity towards methane combustion reaction at 750 °C. The reduced phase of CuMn2O4 containing Cu and MnO was readily reinstated when treated with air or oxygen at 750 °C, confirming efficient regeneration of the oxygen carrier. Neither methane combustion efficiency nor oxygen carrying capacity was altered with the increase of CLC cycles at any tested time. The average oxygen carrying capacity of CuMn2O4 was estimated to be 114 mg g(-1), which was not altered significantly with the repeated CLC cycles. Pure CO2 but no CO, which is one of the possible toxic by-products, was formed solely upon methane combustion reaction of CuMn2O4. CuMn2O4 shows potential as a practical CLC material both in terms of multi-cycle performance and product selectivity towards CO2 formation.

  13. Functional Organosulfide Electrolyte Promotes an Alternate Reaction Pathway to Achieve High Performance in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuru; Dai, Fang; Gordin, Mikhail L; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gao, Yue; Song, Jiangxuan; Wang, Donghai

    2016-03-18

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have recently received great attention because they promise to provide energy density far beyond current lithium ion batteries. Typically, Li-S batteries operate by conversion of sulfur to reversibly form different soluble lithium polysulfide intermediates and insoluble lithium sulfides through multistep redox reactions. Herein, we report a functional electrolyte system incorporating dimethyl disulfide as a co-solvent that enables a new electrochemical reduction pathway for sulfur cathodes. This pathway uses soluble dimethyl polysulfides and lithium organosulfides as intermediates and products, which can boost cell capacity and lead to improved discharge-charge reversibility and cycling performance of sulfur cathodes. This electrolyte system can potentially enable Li-S batteries to achieve high energy density.

  14. The effects of an interactive dissection simulation on the performance and achievement of high school biology students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzie, Mable B.; Strauss, Richard; Foss, Jean

    Educators, administrators, and students are reevaluating the value of animal dissection in the classroom and are taking a careful look at instructional alternatives. This research is an attempt to examine the performance, achievement, and attitudinal effects of a dissection alternative, an interactive videodiscbased (IVD) simulation, in two ways: as a substitute for dissection and as a preparatory tool used prior to dissection. Sixty-one high school students enrolled in three general-ability high school biology classes participated in this research over a 4-day period. On the substitution issue, findings suggest that the IVD simulation was at least as effective as actual dissection in promoting student learning of frog anatomy and dissection procedures. On the preparation issue, it was found that students using the IVD simulation as a preparation performed a subsequent dissection more effectively than students receiving no preparation and more effectively than students viewing a videotape as preparation. Students using the IVD simulation as preparation also learned more about frog anatomy and dissection procedures than those who dissected without preparation. Students in all groups evidenced little change in attitudes toward dissection. All students reported a significant gain in dissection self-efficacy, but no between-group differences were found. Findings are discussed relative to their implications for educational practice and future research.

  15. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    PubMed

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.01), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05) were more likely to achieve puberty by 251 days of age. Thirty-six percent of the lambs conceived and, at the estimated date of conception, the average live weight was 46.9 ± 0.6 kg and average age was 273 days. Fertility, fecundity and reproductive rate were positively related to PWT (P < 0.05) and thus live weight at the start of mating (P < 0.001). Reproductive performance was not correlated with blood concentrations of ghrelin, leptin or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Many ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable.

  16. Stable poly(St-co-BA) nanoemulsion polymerization for high performance antibacterial coatings in the presence of dioctyldimethylammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Sun, Xiaowen; Shen, Yan; Ni, Hong; Chai, Shigan; Zou, Qichao; Zhang, Xiuhua; Zhang, Jinzhi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a stable antibacterial poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate) (poly(St-co-BA)) nano-latex was prepared in the presence of a dioctyldimethylammonium chloride (D821)-CTAB mixed surfactant and a novel bis-unsaturated Gemini comonomer (i.e., α,ω-hexanediyl bis(dimethyl methacrylamidopropyl ammonium bromide) (GMAP-6-MAP)) using a feasible and mild semicontinuous technology. The effects of the emulsifiers and GMAP-6-MAP on the properties and antibacterial activities of poly(St-co-BA) coatings were systematically investigated. The results indicate that an optimal monodispersed stable nanoemulsion was obtained with Dw=58.24nm and PDI=0.026, the emulsifier amount was 3.75% (D821/CTAB=4:1), and the GMAP-6-MAP amount was 1.5%. CTAB improved the stabilities and antibacterial activities of the poly(St-co-BA) nanoemulsions. The incorporation of GMAP-6-MAP into poly(St-co-BA) can enhance the antibacterial activity, improve the thermal stability of latex films, as well as the consistency among the chain segments, and decrease the roughness of latex films. This nanoemulsion exhibits effective antibacterial activity with MBCs of 2μg·mL(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus and 16μg·mL(-1) against Escherichia coli. The sterilization rates of the optimized latex film reached 100% against S. aureus and 98.74% against E. coli, which indicated that this latex film could be utilized as an outstanding antibacterial coating.

  17. A software toolkit and interface for performing stable isotope labeling and top3 quantification using Progenesis LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Qi, Da; Brownridge, Philip; Xia, Dong; Mackay, Katherine; Gonzalez-Galarza, Faviel F; Kenyani, Jenna; Harman, Victoria; Beynon, Robert J; Jones, Andrew R

    2012-09-01

    Numerous software packages exist to provide support for quantifying peptides and proteins from mass spectrometry (MS) data. However, many support only a subset of experimental methods or instrument types, meaning that laboratories often have to use multiple software packages. The Progenesis LC-MS software package from Nonlinear Dynamics is a software solution for label-free quantitation. However, many laboratories using Progenesis also wish to employ stable isotope-based methods that are not natively supported in Progenesis. We have developed a Java programming interface that can use the output files produced by Progenesis, allowing the basic MS features quantified across replicates to be used in a range of different experimental methods. We have developed post-processing software (the Progenesis Post-Processor) to embed Progenesis in the analysis of stable isotope labeling data and top3 pseudo-absolute quantitation. We have also created export ability to the new data standard, mzQuantML, produced by the Proteomics Standards Initiative to facilitate the development and standardization process. The software is provided to users with a simple graphical user interface for accessing the different features. The underlying programming interface may also be used by Java developers to develop other routines for analyzing data produced by Progenesis.

  18. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  19. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate…

  20. Phosphorus-doped TiO2 catalysts with stable anatase-brookite biphase structure: synthesis and photocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huajun; Zhang, Min-Hong; Yu, Liya E

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorus-doped (P-doped) TiO2 catalysts with a stable anatase-brookite biphase structure were successfully synthesized by integrating ultrasonication with phosphorus doping and Pluronic P123 surfactant. The synthesized catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra. Ultrasonication facilitates the appearance of brookite phase. Phosphorus doping was demonstrated an effective strategy to stabilize the anatase-brookite biphase structure and inhibits undesirable grain growth. Triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 used in the reaction facilitates the formation of catalyst particles with mesoporous structure and large surface area and prevents particles from agglomeration. The low band-gap of brookite phase enables the synthesized P-doped TiO2 catalysts outperform commercial P25 TiO2 and N-doped TiO2 in the degradation of methylene blue under both solar light and visible light irradiation.

  1. Sex Differences in Performance Attributions, Self-Efficacy, and Achievement in Mathematics: If I'm So Smart, Why Don't I Know It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Walsh, John; Yailagh, Manizheh Shehni

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we tested the claim that sex differences in mathematics achievement are related to boys' and girls' differing achievement-related beliefs. We compared the mathematics report card grades, 2001 Foundation Skills Assessment (FSA) Numeracy subtest scores, performance attributions, and self-efficacy of 161 British Columbian public school…

  2. A High-Performing Sulfur-Tolerant and Redox-Stable Layered Perovskite Anode for Direct Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hanping; Tao, Zetian; Liu, Shun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-12-09

    Development of alternative ceramic oxide anode materials is a key step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several lanthanide based layered perovskite-structured oxides demonstrate outstanding oxygen diffusion rate, favorable electronic conductivity, and good oxygen surface exchange kinetics, owing to A-site ordered structure in which lanthanide and alkali-earth ions occupy alternate (001) layers and oxygen vacancies are mainly located in [LnOx] planes. Here we report a nickel-free cation deficient layered perovskite, (PrBa)0.95(Fe0.9Mo0.1)2O5 + δ (PBFM), for SOFC anode, and this anode shows an outstanding performance with high resistance against both carbon build-up and sulfur poisoning in hydrocarbon fuels. At 800 °C, the layered PBFM showed high electrical conductivity of 59.2 S cm(-1) in 5% H2 and peak power densities of 1.72 and 0.54 W cm(-2) using H2 and CH4 as fuel, respectively. The cell exhibits a very stable performance under a constant current load of 1.0 A cm(-2). To our best knowledge, this is the highest performance of ceramic anodes operated in methane. In addition, the anode is structurally stable at various fuel and temperature conditions, suggesting that it is a feasible material candidate for high-performing SOFC anode.

  3. A High-Performing Sulfur-Tolerant and Redox-Stable Layered Perovskite Anode for Direct Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hanping; Tao, Zetian; Liu, Shun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-12-01

    Development of alternative ceramic oxide anode materials is a key step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several lanthanide based layered perovskite-structured oxides demonstrate outstanding oxygen diffusion rate, favorable electronic conductivity, and good oxygen surface exchange kinetics, owing to A-site ordered structure in which lanthanide and alkali-earth ions occupy alternate (001) layers and oxygen vacancies are mainly located in [LnOx] planes. Here we report a nickel-free cation deficient layered perovskite, (PrBa)0.95(Fe0.9Mo0.1)2O5 + δ (PBFM), for SOFC anode, and this anode shows an outstanding performance with high resistance against both carbon build-up and sulfur poisoning in hydrocarbon fuels. At 800 °C, the layered PBFM showed high electrical conductivity of 59.2 S cm-1 in 5% H2 and peak power densities of 1.72 and 0.54 W cm-2 using H2 and CH4 as fuel, respectively. The cell exhibits a very stable performance under a constant current load of 1.0 A cm-2. To our best knowledge, this is the highest performance of ceramic anodes operated in methane. In addition, the anode is structurally stable at various fuel and temperature conditions, suggesting that it is a feasible material candidate for high-performing SOFC anode.

  4. A High-Performing Sulfur-Tolerant and Redox-Stable Layered Perovskite Anode for Direct Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hanping; Tao, Zetian; Liu, Shun; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-01-01

    Development of alternative ceramic oxide anode materials is a key step for direct hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several lanthanide based layered perovskite-structured oxides demonstrate outstanding oxygen diffusion rate, favorable electronic conductivity, and good oxygen surface exchange kinetics, owing to A-site ordered structure in which lanthanide and alkali-earth ions occupy alternate (001) layers and oxygen vacancies are mainly located in [LnOx] planes. Here we report a nickel-free cation deficient layered perovskite, (PrBa)0.95(Fe0.9Mo0.1)2O5 + δ (PBFM), for SOFC anode, and this anode shows an outstanding performance with high resistance against both carbon build-up and sulfur poisoning in hydrocarbon fuels. At 800 °C, the layered PBFM showed high electrical conductivity of 59.2 S cm−1 in 5% H2 and peak power densities of 1.72 and 0.54 W cm−2 using H2 and CH4 as fuel, respectively. The cell exhibits a very stable performance under a constant current load of 1.0 A cm−2. To our best knowledge, this is the highest performance of ceramic anodes operated in methane. In addition, the anode is structurally stable at various fuel and temperature conditions, suggesting that it is a feasible material candidate for high-performing SOFC anode. PMID:26648509

  5. Heterogeneity in stable isotope profiles predicts coexistence of populations of barn swallows Hirundo rustica differing in morphology and reproductive performance.

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Hobson, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    Population studies assume that individuals belonging to a study population are homogeneous for natal and breeding origin, although this assumption is rarely tested. We tested for heterogeneity in stable-isotope profiles (delta15N, delta13C, deltaD) of feathers grown in the African winter quarters from a Danish breeding population of adult barn swallows, Hirundo rustica. Deuterium isotope values did not provide useful information on population segregation of wintering swallows in Africa. However, both delta15N and delta13C values showed a clearly bimodal distribution with 6% belonging to one category and the remaining birds belonging to another category, resulting in this population comprising three categories of birds. Adults belonging to the two categories of delta13C isotope profiles differed weakly in morphology for several different characters. The frequency and the size of second broods differed between categories of delta13C isotope profiles. Phenotypes of nestlings from the first brood in terms of tarsus length, body mass and T-cell response differed significantly between the two delta15N isotope categories, suggesting that conditions during winter carried over to the breeding season at least as late as the first brood. Polymorphism can be maintained only if fitness is similar for birds from categories of isotope profiles. We suggest that fluctuating selection or migration-selection balance may maintain the observed polymorphism. PMID:15306333

  6. A review of advanced high performance, insensitive and thermally stable energetic materials emerging for military and space applications.

    PubMed

    Sikder, A K; Sikder, Nirmala

    2004-08-09

    Energetic materials used extensively both for civil and military applications. There are continuous research programmes worldwide to develop new materials with higher performance and enhanced insensitivity to thermal or shock insults than the existing ones in order to meet the requirements of future military and space applications. This review concentrates on recent advances in syntheses, potential formulations and space applications of potential compounds with respect to safety, performance and stability.

  7. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  8. Associative Verbal Encoding (a/v/e): A Measure of Language Performance and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma Irene

    After establishing reliability for an associative verbal encoding (a/v/e) test, the relationship between children's a/v/e and their reading achievement was investigated. Two hypotheses were examined: (1) a/v/e will improve with training, and (2) associated with improved a/v/e will be concomitant improvement in reading achievement. The subjects…

  9. Development and Validation of a Physics Achievement Test to Identify Instructor Variables Associated with Students' Physics Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacambra, Wilfredo T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common ways of detecting whether an improvement is achieved by an education institution is through measuring the students' achievement in a test. Testing is generally thought of as a means of assessing the knowledge and skills students have acquired through learning (Du-chastel and Nungester, 1998). Test results, besides assisting…

  10. Low Defect FeFe(CN)6 Framework as Stable Host Material for High Performance Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianyong; Shao, Miaomiao; Wu, Chenghao; Qian, Jiangfeng; Cao, Yuliang; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi

    2016-09-14

    Low cost and high performance Li-ion batteries have been extensively pursued for grid-scale energy storage applications; however, their development has been impeded for a long time due to the lack of qualified cathode materials with not only decent electrochemical performance but also resource abundance and low price. In this paper, we report Prussian-blue type FeFe(CN)6 nanocrystals with well-controlled lattice defects and perfect nanocubic morphology, which can exhibit a high Li-storage capacity of 160 mAh g(-1), a strong rate performance at 24 C, and a superior cycle stability with 90% capacity retention over 300 cycles. This low defect lattice and its excellent Li-insertion performance might provide a new insight into the design of advanced Li-ion battery materials and also a competitive alternative to the presently developed Li(+) insertion cathodes to develop low cost and high performance Li-ion batteries for grid-scale energy storage applications.

  11. The quiescent H-mode regime for high performance edge localized mode-stable operation in future burning plasmas [The quiescent H-mode regime for high performance ELM-stable operation in future burning plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Garofalo, Andrea M.; Burrell, Keith H.; Eldon, David; Grierson, Brian A.; Hanson, Jeremy M.; Holland, Christopher; Huijsmans, Guido T. A.; Liu, Feng; Loarte, Alberto; Meneghini, Orso; Osborne, T. H.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Smith, S. P.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Turnbull, A. D.; Zeng, L.

    2015-05-26

    For the first time, DIII-D experiments have achieved stationary quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) operation for many energy confinement times at simultaneous ITER-relevant values of beta, confinement, and safety factor, in an ITER similar shape. QH-mode provides excellent energy confinement, even at very low plasma rotation, while operating without edge localized modes (ELMs) and with strong impurity transport via the benign edge harmonic oscillation (EHO). By tailoring the plasma shape to improve the edge stability, the QH-mode operating space has also been extended to densities exceeding 80% of the Greenwald limit, overcoming the long-standing low-density limit of QH-mode operation. In the theory, the density range over which the plasma encounters the kink-peeling boundary widens as the plasma cross-section shaping is increased, thus increasing the QH-mode density threshold. Here, the DIII-D results are in excellent agreement with these predictions, and nonlinear MHD analysis of reconstructed QH-mode equilibria shows unstable low n kink-peeling modes growing to a saturated level, consistent with the theoretical picture of the EHO. Furthermore, high density operation in the QH-mode regime has opened a path to a new, previously predicted region of parameter space, named “Super H-mode” because it is characterized by very high pedestals that can be more than a factor of two above the peeling-ballooning stability limit for similar ELMing H-mode discharges at the same density.

  12. The quiescent H-mode regime for high performance edge localized mode-stable operation in future burning plasmas [The quiescent H-mode regime for high performance ELM-stable operation in future burning plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Garofalo, Andrea M.; Burrell, Keith H.; Eldon, David; ...

    2015-05-26

    For the first time, DIII-D experiments have achieved stationary quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) operation for many energy confinement times at simultaneous ITER-relevant values of beta, confinement, and safety factor, in an ITER similar shape. QH-mode provides excellent energy confinement, even at very low plasma rotation, while operating without edge localized modes (ELMs) and with strong impurity transport via the benign edge harmonic oscillation (EHO). By tailoring the plasma shape to improve the edge stability, the QH-mode operating space has also been extended to densities exceeding 80% of the Greenwald limit, overcoming the long-standing low-density limit of QH-mode operation. In the theory,more » the density range over which the plasma encounters the kink-peeling boundary widens as the plasma cross-section shaping is increased, thus increasing the QH-mode density threshold. Here, the DIII-D results are in excellent agreement with these predictions, and nonlinear MHD analysis of reconstructed QH-mode equilibria shows unstable low n kink-peeling modes growing to a saturated level, consistent with the theoretical picture of the EHO. Furthermore, high density operation in the QH-mode regime has opened a path to a new, previously predicted region of parameter space, named “Super H-mode” because it is characterized by very high pedestals that can be more than a factor of two above the peeling-ballooning stability limit for similar ELMing H-mode discharges at the same density.« less

  13. Quantifying Faculty Productivity in Japan: Development and Application of the Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.8.16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aida, Misako; Watanabe, Satoshi P.

    2016-01-01

    Universities throughout the world are trending toward more performance based methods to capture their strengths, weaknesses and productivity. Hiroshima University has developed an integrated objective measure for quantifying multifaceted faculty activities, namely the "Achievement-Motivated Key Performance Indicator" (A-KPI), in order to…

  14. Correlations among Six Learner Variables and the Performance of a Sample of Jamaican Eleventh-Graders on an Achievement Test on Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Pinnock, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed at establishing if the level of performance of 500 Jamaican Grade 11 students on an achievement test on the concept of respiration was satisfactory (mean = 28 or 70% and above) or not (less than 70%); if there were statistically significant differences in their performance on the concept linked to their gender, cognitive abilities…

  15. Influence of sludge retention time at constant food to microorganisms ratio on membrane bioreactor performances under stable and unstable state conditions.

    PubMed

    Villain, Maud; Marrot, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Food to microorganisms ratio (F/M) and sludge retention time (SRT) are known to affect in different ways biomass growth, bioactivities and foulants characteristics. Thus the aim of this study was to dissociate the effects of SRT from those of F/M ratio on lab-scale membrane bioreactors performances during stable and unstable state. Two acclimations were stabilized at a SRT of either 20 or 50 d with a constant F/M ratio of 0.2 kg(COD)kg(MLVSS)(-1) d(-1). During stable state, a higher N-NH(4)(+) removal rate (78%) was obtained at SRT of 50 d as an easier autotroph development was observed. Soluble microbial products (SMPs) release was double at 50 d with a majority of polysaccharides (49% of total SMP). The unstable conditions consisted in F/M ratio changes and operation without air and nutrient. Autotrophs were highly affected by the tested disturbances and SMP retention on membrane surface exhibited consistent changes during the performed stresses.

  16. Impact of synthetic or real urban wastewater on membrane bioreactor (MBR) performances and membrane fouling under stable conditions.

    PubMed

    Villain, Maud; Bourven, Isabelle; Guibaud, Gilles; Marrot, Benoît

    2014-03-01

    Influence of substrate type (synthetic (SWW) or real wastewater (RWW)) on lab scale MBR performances (e.g. COD and N-NH4(+) removal rates and bioactivities) was assessed. Membrane fouling was related to MBR biological medium characteristics. With RWW, autotrophic biomass was better acclimated with complete ammonium removal. MBR biological medium was characterized by main soluble microbial products (SMP) (proteins, polysaccharides and humic-like substances) quantification and molecular weights (MW) distribution determination. The biological medium of SWW acclimation contained 60mgL(-1) more of SMP, mainly composed of proteins and polysaccharides. A protein fraction having high MW (>600kDa) could be responsible for higher removable fouling fraction in that case. SMP of RWW experiment were mainly composed of small proteic and humic-like fractions, poorly retained by the membrane and resulting in a weak augmentation of irremovable and irreversible fouling fractions compared to SWW acclimation. Therefore RWW utilization is preferable to approach real operating MBR.

  17. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M.; Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery, Shelly; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farritor, Shane; Joyce, James; Rebrovich, Barb

    2003-01-01

    Condensing five years of significant work into a brief narrative fitting PPR requirements gave the affiliates of the Nebraska Space Grant a valuable chance for reflection. Achievements of Space Grant in Nebraska were judiciously chosen for this document that best illustrate the resultant synergism of this consortium, keeping in mind that these examples are only a representation of greater activity throughout the state. Following are highlights of many of the finer and personal achievements for Nebraska Space Grant. The Consortium welcomes inquiries to elaborate on any of these accomplishments.

  18. Students' Accounts of School-Performance Stress: A Qualitative Analysis of a High-Achieving Setting in Stockholm, Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Almquist, Ylva B.; Östberg, Viveca

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 49). Using qualitative…

  19. What Educational Initiatives Contribute to Higher than Expected Achievement in Student Performance for Public Schools in the State of Indiana?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Thomas Allen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the areas of teaching methods, teacher-student relationships, school structure, school-community partnerships or school leadership were significantly embedded in practice and acted as a change agent among school systems that achieve higher than expected results on their state standardized testing…

  20. Examining the Contribution of Teacher Graduate Degrees on Student Achievement as Measured by District Level TAKS Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    In a time of limited means and continued calls for higher student achievement, school leaders need to be wise in their use of resources. Earlier research has called for greater levels of teacher preparation, and, while many school districts provide greater compensation for teachers with graduate degrees, some districts have begun phasing out this…

  1. Student Achievement in Algebraic Thinking: A Comparison of 3rd Graders' Performance on a State 4th Grade Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaput, James J.; Blanton, Maria L.

    As a part of a long term district-wide study, we report on achievement test results involving students in a third-grade classroom taught by a teacher in a professional development program led by the authors and directed towards the integration of algebraic reasoning with elementary school mathematics. The teacher's practice, reported upon…

  2. Academic Achievement and Personality Traits of Faculty Members of Indian Agricultural Universities: Their Effect on Teaching and Research Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramesh, P.; Reddy, K. M.; Rao, R. V. S.; Dhandapani, A.; Siva, G. Samba; Ramakrishna, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to assess academic achievement, teaching aptitude and research attitude of Indian agricultural universities' faculty, to predict indicators for successful teachers and researchers, and thereby enhancing the quality of higher agricultural education. Methodology: Five hundred faculty members were selected to…

  3. Predicting Performance on State Achievement Tests Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading: A Multilevel Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Seungsoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the relationship between Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and statewide achievement tests in reading. A multilevel meta-analysis was used to calculate the correlation coefficient of the population for 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Results showed an overall large correlation coefficient…

  4. Closing the Achievement Gap: A Summer School Program to Accelerate the Academic Performance of Economically Disadvantaged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Ramon Michael

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing disparity in educational outcomes among economically and racially different groups of students, summer school has received attention from school reformers as a means to close the achievement gap. Given the interest in this topic by educators, researchers, and policymakers, there is little research on the impact of summer school…

  5. A Study on the Impact of Military Parent Deployment on Student Performance; Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, Discipline, and Counselor Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Hilda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if parents' military deployment had an impact on the academic achievement of their children. The study examined if there were a parallel between parental military deployment and absenteeism, parental deployment and discipline, and parental deployment and counselor visits. The study also examined if…

  6. Five Social Disadvantages That Depress Student Performance: Why Schools Alone Can't Close Achievement Gaps. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Leila; Rothstein, Richard

    2015-01-01

    That students' social and economic characteristics shape their cognitive and behavioral outcomes is well established, yet policymakers typically resist accepting that non-school disadvantages necessarily depress outcomes. Rather, they look to better schools and teachers to close achievement gaps, and consistently come up short. This report…

  7. The Implementation of a Focused School Renewal Plan to Increase Student Achievement in a Low Performing Rural School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    The following study was conducted using a mixed-methodology study design. The purpose of this study was to determine if a focused school renewal plan would increase student achievement at Rural Elementary. In order to accomplish this goal, baseline research data was gathered using the What Works in Schools Online Survey (Marzano, 2003) to…

  8. Surmounting the Challenges of Improving Academic Performance: Closing the Achievement Gap through Social-Emotional and Character Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; White, Gwyne; Stepney, Cesalie

    2014-01-01

    While educators and policy makers have an intuitive understanding of the influence of socioeconomic factors and race on student achievement, these factors make the current emphasis on standardized test scores as a primary criterion for evaluating schools and teachers indefensible and ineffective. The research presented illustrates the limits of…

  9. The Impact of AP® Achievement Institute I on Students' AP Performance. Research Report No. 2012-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; Laitusis, Vytas

    2012-01-01

    The AP Achievement Institute I (APAI I) is a four-day professional development program offered to teachers and administrators by EXCELerator™, a district reform program operated by the College Board. The APAI I program is designed to help teachers develop effective AP instructional strategies for a diverse student body and to help district,…

  10. Test Drive: Six States Pilot Better Ways to Measure and Compare Community College Performance. An Achieving the Dream Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demand for at least some postsecondary education in today's labor market has met with stagnating college completion rates. As a result, states have a growing interest in better understanding the challenges to improving graduation rates and in tracking student progress and success. Six states in the "Achieving the Dream: Community…

  11. The Effects of School Climate on Student Achievement in Lower and Higher Performing Public and Charter Elementary Schools in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Aszure Emond

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of charter schools that exist has occurred due, in part, to expectations that are aimed toward producing better results through student achievement, as compared to traditional public schools. An abundance of professional literature has supported the concept that school climate is important in the effort to improve student…

  12. Technology-Enhanced Assessment of Math Fact Automaticity: Patterns of Performance for Low- and Typically Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Eric M.; Sharp, Lindsay B.; Kenyon, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Because math fact automaticity has been identified as a key barrier for students struggling with mathematics, we examined how initial math achievement levels influenced the path to automaticity (e.g., variation in number of attempts, speed of retrieval, and skill maintenance over time) and the relation between attainment of automaticity and gains…

  13. Can Thromboelastography performed on kaolin-activated citrated samples from critically ill patients provide stable and consistent parameters?

    PubMed

    White, H; Zollinger, C; Jones, M; Bird, R

    2010-04-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) is a potentially useful tool but analysis within 4-6 min of collection imposes limitations on its use and access. The use of citrate blood tubes potentially increases the time frame for processing specimens. There is, however, limited research on the stability of citrate specimens, timing of processing and the accuracy of TEG results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of early and delayed processing on TEG parameters using kaolin-activated citrated blood samples in the intensive care population. TEG analysis was performed on 61 patients. Blood was collected into two 3.2% sodium citrate (0.105 m) tubes. Kaolin-activated samples were analysed at 15, 30 and 120 min postcollection. TEG parameters analysed included reaction time (R), clot formation time (K), alpha angle (alpha), maximum amplitude, LY30, the coagulation index, time to maximum rate of thrombus generation, maximum rate of thrombus generation and total thrombus generation. Sixty-one critically ill patients were included. The results of the anova showed that time from collection was significantly associated with the TEG((R)) results (P < 0.05). On comparison of individual outcome variables, this difference in most cases was due to changes over time from 30 to 120 min. Furthermore, progressive changes in TEG parameters such as decreasing R were suggestive of a trend toward hypercoagulability of the specimens. Processing of kaolin-activated citrate TEG specimens can begin as early as 15 min postvenipuncture. However, delaying processing by more than 30 min leads to a significant change in results.

  14. Fabrication of AgFeO2/g-C3N4 nanocatalyst with enhanced and stable photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dandan; Zhang, Gaoke

    2017-01-01

    This work reported a novel AgFeO2/g-C3N4 composite with enhanced photocatalytic activity, which was fabricated by a simple precipitation method. The g-C3N4 sheets with thickness of 2•4 nm were successfully loaded on the surface of the AgFeO2 particles. As compared to pure AgFeO2 and pure g-C3N4, the as-prepared AgFeO2/g-C3N4 photocatalysts exhibited superior absorption in the visible-light region and displayed promising visible-light photocatalytic performance in the degradation of organic contaminations both in water and in air. About 94% of Acid red G (ARG) can be degraded by the optimized AgFeO2/g-C3N4 sample, which is ∱/47.5 and ∱/410.7 times higher than that by pure AgFeO2 and pure g-C3N4, respectively. Meanwhile, it can also effectively degrade ∱/487% of gaseous formaldehyde to CO2 within 9 h. The enhanced photocatalytic property and stability of the AgFeO2/g-C3N4 composite can be attributed to its specific nanostructure, effective electron-hole separation and the formation of Z-scheme heterostructure between AgFeO2 and g-C3N4. This work could provide new and helpful insights into the photocatalytic application of Ag-based delafossite materials.

  15. Controlled synthesis of series NixCo3-xO4 products: Morphological evolution towards quasi-single-crystal structure for high-performance and stable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Wenxia; Wang, Hai; Li, Baojun; Zhou, Xiang; Shen, Hui

    2015-06-24

    Transition metal oxides are very promising alternative anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, their conversion reactions and concomitant volume expansion cause the pulverization, leading to poor cycling stability, which limit their applications. Here, we present the quasi-single-crystal Ni(x)Co(3-x)O4 hexagonal microtube (QNHM) composed of continuously twinned single crystal submicron-cubes as anode materials for LIBs with high energy density and long cycle life. At the current density of 0.8 A g(-1), it can deliver a high discharge capacities of 1470 mAh g(-1) over 100 cycles (105% of the 2nd cycle) and 590 mAh g(-1) even after 1000 cycles. To better understand what underlying factors lead our QNHMs to achieve excellent electrochemical performance, a series of Ni(x)Co(3-x)O4 products with systematic shape evolution from spherical to polyhedral, and cubic particles as well as circular microtubes consisted of spheres and square microtubes composed of polyhedra have been synthesized. The excellent electrochemical performance of QNHMs is attributed to the unique stable quasi-single-crystal structure, which can both provide efficient electrical transport pathway and suppress the electrode pulverization. It is important to note that such quasi-single-crystal structure would be helpful to explore other high-energy lithium storage materials based on alloying or conversion reactions.

  16. Controlled synthesis of series NixCo3-xO4 products: Morphological evolution towards quasi-single-crystal structure for high-performance and stable lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Wenxia; Wang, Hai; Li, Baojun; Zhou, Xiang; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Transition metal oxides are very promising alternative anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, their conversion reactions and concomitant volume expansion cause the pulverization, leading to poor cycling stability, which limit their applications. Here, we present the quasi-single-crystal NixCo3-xO4 hexagonal microtube (QNHM) composed of continuously twinned single crystal submicron-cubes as anode materials for LIBs with high energy density and long cycle life. At the current density of 0.8 A g−1, it can deliver a high discharge capacities of 1470 mAh g−1 over 100 cycles (105% of the 2nd cycle) and 590 mAh g−1 even after 1000 cycles. To better understand what underlying factors lead our QNHMs to achieve excellent electrochemical performance, a series of NixCo3-xO4 products with systematic shape evolution from spherical to polyhedral, and cubic particles as well as circular microtubes consisted of spheres and square microtubes composed of polyhedra have been synthesized. The excellent electrochemical performance of QNHMs is attributed to the unique stable quasi-single-crystal structure, which can both provide efficient electrical transport pathway and suppress the electrode pulverization. It is important to note that such quasi-single-crystal structure would be helpful to explore other high-energy lithium storage materials based on alloying or conversion reactions. PMID:26103885

  17. Dissolution performance of binary amorphous drug combinations--Impact of a second drug on the maximum achievable supersaturation.

    PubMed

    Trasi, Niraj S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-12-30

    An increased number of amorphous formulations of poorly water soluble drugs are being introduced into the market due to their higher transient solubility and thus faster absorption and higher bioavailability. While most amorphous drug products contain a single drug substance, there is a growing trend towards co-formulating compounds in the same dosage form to improve patient compliance. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the dissolution behavior and maximum achievable solution concentrations of amorphous solid dispersions of co-formulated ritonavir and lopinavir, and to compare the results with individual amorphous solid dispersion formulations. Dispersions of ritonavir and lopinavir were prepared in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) at a 20% (w/w) total drug loading, both alone and in combination, at three different lopinavir:ritonavir weight ratios. Amorphous films containing both drugs, but no polymer, were also prepared. The dissolution behavior of the dispersions and the amorphous films in non-sink conditions was evaluated, using ultracentrifugation to separate any colloidal material from molecularly dissolved drug. Nanoparticle tracking analysis was used to characterize colloidal material formed during the dissolution process. Results from the dissolution study revealed that, although supersaturated solutions resulted following dissolution, the maximum achievable concentration of each drug, when present in combination, was dramatically lower than when the individual dispersions were dissolved. The maximum achievable solution concentration for systems containing both drugs was found to decrease as the mole fraction of the drug in the amorphous phase decreased. The type of polymer used to formulate the dispersion also appeared to influence the dissolution behavior whereby the HPMCAS dispersions dissolved rapidly, resulting in the generation of a nanodroplets, while the PVP dispersions did not

  18. The effect of retesting on end-of-semester performance in high school chemistry at three levels of previous science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deboer, George E.

    To determine the effect of retesting on student learning in chemistry, three questions were addressed by means of a 3 × 2 (achievement level X treatment) factorial design: (1) Does retesting affect differently the end-of-semester mastery of course objectives of students who are grouped according to their previous achievement in science? (2) Do students who are given an opportunity to take retests merely delay their studying and perform at a lower level on initial tests than nonretested students? (3) Is the procrastination of retested students (if it exists) affected by their achievement level? The results showed that for one of four units low ability students who were retested demonstrated greater learning gains than low ability students who were not retested, and that procrastination, if it was present, did not have significant effects on student learning at any achievement level. Results were discussed in terms of the students' room for improvement, motivation to improve, and ability to improve.

  19. Making Performance Accountability Work: English Lessons for U.S. Community Colleges: An Achieving the Dream Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquette, Ozan

    2006-01-01

    Most states have experimented with performance accountability as a way to drive improvement in public higher education institutions and systems. However, efforts to implement performance funding in the United States have yielded mixed results. This policy brief describes the reforms that dramatically changed the policy landscape in England and…

  20. The Effects of Intercollegiate Athletic Participation on Student Academic Achievement and Leadership Performance in a Selective Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunker, Craig Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of various intensity levels of athletic participation on academic and leadership performance in a selective institution. For the purpose of this study a retrospective analysis of existing admissions and student performance data was conducted. The continuous dependent variables were academic…

  1. Long-term costs of inflated self-estimate on academic performance among adolescent students: a case of second-language achievements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.

  2. Summary of Research on the Association between State Interventions in Chronically Low-Performing Schools and Student Achievement. REL 2016-138

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klute, Mary; Cherasaro, Trudy; Apthorp, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the research on the association between state interventions in chronically low-performing schools and student achievement. Most of the research focused on one type of state intervention: working with a turnaround partner. Few studies were identified that examined other types of interventions, such as school closure, charter…

  3. The Impact of Classroom Performance System-Based Instruction with Peer Instruction upon Student Achievement and Motivation in Eighth Grade Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Tracy Michelle Hunter

    2012-01-01

    The researcher employed two designs to address the research question for this particular study. This quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study compared the math achievement of 92 eighth grade students who received Classroom Performance System (CPS)-based instruction using Peer Instruction (PI) to 76 eighth grade students who received…

  4. The Impact of a State Takeover on Academic Achievement, School Performance, and School Leadership in a Rural South Carolina School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Janice Zissette

    2009-01-01

    This case study on the impact of a state takeover in one of South Carolina's most rural school districts ("referred to as the County School District") was completed using a quasi-experimental mixed methods design to examine the impact on academic achievement, school performance, and school leadership as a result of the South Carolina…

  5. Effects of Visual and Auditory Background on Reading Achievement Test Performance of Brain-Injured and Non Brain-Injured Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.

    Forty-two brain injured boys and 42 non brain injured boys (aged 11-6 to 12-6) were tested to determine the effects of increasing amounts of visual and auditory distraction on reading performance. The Stanford Achievement Reading Comprehension Test was administered with three degrees of distraction. The visual distraction consisted of either very…

  6. The Effect of Performance Assessment-Driven Instruction on the Attitude and Achievement of Senior High School Students in Mathematics in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arhin, Ato Kwamina

    2015-01-01

    The study was a quasi-experimental research project conducted to investigate the effect of performance assessment-driven instructions on the attitude and achievement in mathematics of senior high school students in Ghana at Ghana National College in Cape Coast. Two Form 1 science classes were used for the study and were assigned as experimental…

  7. The Relationship between Students' Performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the Fourth and Fifth Grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnimont, Chad S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…

  8. How Does the Science Writing Heuristic Approach Affect Students' Performances of Different Academic Achievement Levels? A Case for High School Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer; Gunel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), known as an argumentation-based science inquiry approach, on Grade 9 students' performance on a post-test in relation to their academic achievement levels. Four intact classes taught by 2 chemistry teachers from a Turkish public high school were selected for the study; one…

  9. Influence of the molecular weight and size dispersion of the electroluminescent polymer on the performance of air-stable hybrid light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Ferrero, Eugenia; Grigorian, Souren; Ryan, James W; Cambarau, Werther; Palomares, Emilio

    2015-01-21

    The influence of the chain length and the molecular weight distribution of the electroluminescent polymer on the carrier transport properties and morphology of air stable hybrid light-emitting diodes is reported. It is found that variations between diverse as-received commercial batches play a major role in the performance of the devices, whose maximum luminance can differ up to 2 orders of magnitude. Through complementary optoelectronic, structural, and morphological characterization techniques, we provide insights into the relationship between charge dynamics and the structure of polymeric electroluminescent materials. The carrier dynamics are found to be dominated by both the polymeric chain length and the hole transport, which in turn is dependent on the concentration of trap states. Furthermore, the chain length is seen to affect the morphology of the active layer.

  10. An investigation into the accuracy, stability and parallel performance of a highly stable explicit technique for stiff reaction-transport PDEs

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, A., LLNL

    1998-02-17

    The numerical simulation of chemically reacting flows is a topic, that has attracted a great deal of current research At the heart of numerical reactive flow simulations are large sets of coupled, nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (PDES). Due to the stiffness that is usually present, explicit time differencing schemes are not used despite their inherent simplicity and efficiency on parallel and vector machines, since these schemes require prohibitively small numerical stepsizes. Implicit time differencing schemes, although possessing good stability characteristics, introduce a great deal of computational overhead necessary to solve the simultaneous algebraic system at each timestep. This thesis examines an algorithm based on a preconditioned time differencing scheme. The algorithm is explicit and permits a large stable time step. An investigation of the algorithm`s accuracy, stability and performance on a parallel architecture is presented

  11. Solution-processable, photo-stable, low-threshold, and broadly tunable thin film organic lasers based on novel high-performing laser dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-García, María. A.; Morales-Vidal, Marta; Ramírez, Manuel G.; Villalvilla, José M.; Boj, Pedro G.; Quintana, José A.; Retolaza, A.; Merino, S.

    2015-09-01

    Thin film organic lasers (TFOLs) represent a new generation of inexpensive, mechanically flexible devices with demonstrated applicability in numerous applications in the fields of spectroscopy, optical communications and sensing requiring an organic, efficient, stable, wavelength-tunable and solution-processable laser material. A distributed feedback (DFB) laser is a particularly attractive TFOL because it shows single mode emission, low pump energy, easy integration with other devices, mechanical flexibility and potentially low production cost. Here, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and DFB laser applications of novel high performing perylene dyes and p-phenylenevinylene (PV) oligomers, both dispersed in thermoplastic polymers, used as passive matrixes, are reported. Second-order DFB lasers based on these materials show single mode emission, wavelength tunability across the visible spectrum, operational lifetimes of >105 pump pulses, larger than previously reported PV oligomers or polymers, and thresholds close to pumping requirements with light-emitting diodes.

  12. Final LDRD report : science-based solutions to achieve high-performance deep-UV laser diodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Alessi, Leonard J.; Smith, Michael L.; Henry, Tanya A.; Westlake, Karl R.; Cross, Karen Charlene; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Lee, Stephen Roger

    2011-12-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that has focused on overcoming major materials roadblocks to achieving AlGaN-based deep-UV laser diodes. We describe our growth approach to achieving AlGaN templates with greater than ten times reduction of threading dislocations which resulted in greater than seven times enhancement of AlGaN quantum well photoluminescence and 15 times increase in electroluminescence from LED test structures. We describe the application of deep-level optical spectroscopy to AlGaN epilayers to quantify deep level energies and densities and further correlate defect properties with AlGaN luminescence efficiency. We further review our development of p-type short period superlattice structures as an approach to mitigate the high acceptor activation energies in AlGaN alloys. Finally, we describe our laser diode fabrication process, highlighting the development of highly vertical and smooth etched laser facets, as well as characterization of resulting laser heterostructures.

  13. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  14. Highly Stable Silver Nanoplates for Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensing

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Chuanbo; Lu, Zhenda; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, ying; Cheng, Quan; Yin, Yadong

    2012-01-01

    An SPR biosensor was developed by employing highly stable Au-protected Ag nanoplates (NP) as enhancers (see picture). Superior performance was achieved by depositing a thin and uniform coating of Au on the Ag surface while minimizing disruptive galvanic replacement and retaining the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoplates.

  15. Students' perceptions of rewards for academic performance by parents and teachers: relations with achievement and motivation in college.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly D; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N= 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for students' grades were common at all levels of schooling. Reward history related significantly to students' motivational orientation and performance in college, and these relations were generally stronger for boys than for girls. The authors discuss implications of these findings.

  16. A Descriptive-Comparative Study of Teacher Performance Evaluation on Student Achievement in a Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, William Howard

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the federal government increased accountability expectations by placing more emphasis on monitoring teacher performance. Using a model that focuses on the New York State teacher evaluation system, that is comprised of a rubric for observation, local student assessment scores, and student state assessment scores, this…

  17. The Turnaround Challenge: Why America's Best Opportunity to Dramatically Improve Student Achievement Lies in Our Worst-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Andrew; Guenther, William; Belfiore, Grace; Lash, Dave

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to produce recommendations for states and school districts seeking a flexible, systematic approach to swift and significant transformation in schools (particularly high schools) deemed chronically under-performing under No Child Left Behind or state accountability systems. This research leads the authors to believe that…

  18. Failure Is Not an Option (TM). Six Principles That Guide Student Achievement in High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankstein, Alan M.

    2004-01-01

    The author builds upon a foundation which identifies courageous school leadership and the professional learning community as the center of effective school reform. The author offers six guiding principles steps for creating and sustaining a high-performing school: (1) Common mission, vision, values, and goals: (2) Systems for prevention and…

  19. Technology for monitoring shot-level light source performance data to achieve high-optimization of lithography processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Masato; Ochiai, Hideyuki; Watabe, Yoshinobu; Ishida, Keisuke; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Youichi; Kumazaki, Takahito; Kurosu, Akihiko; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Kouji; Matsunaga, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2014-03-01

    Gigaphoton has developed a new monitoring system that provides shot-level light source performance data to FDC systems during exposure time. The system provides basic monitoring data (e.g. Energy, Wavelength, Bandwidth, etc.) and beam performance data, such as Beam Profile, Pointing, Divergence, Polarization can also be monitored using a new metrology tool called the Beam Performance Monitor (BPM) module. During exposure time the system automatically identifies the start and end timing of the wafer and each shot based on the burst of firing signals from the scanner, and stores the measured data in sequence. The stored data is sorted by wafer or by shot, and sent to REDeeM Piece which in turn converts the data to the user's protocol and send it to the FDC system. The user also has the option to directly view or download the stored data using a GUI. Through this monitoring system, users can manage light sources data at the shot or reticle level to facilitate optimization of performance and running cost of the light source for each process. This monitoring system can be easily retrofitted to Gigaphoton's current ArF laser light sources. The beam splitter of the BPM was specially designed to bend only a small fraction of the source beam, so we are able to simply install the BPM without the need for special optical alignment.

  20. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  1. A Comparison of Performance on Cloze Tests, Group Reading Inventories and Standardized Reading Achievement in Grades Seven, Eight and Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Thomas A.; McWilliams, Lana J.

    A random sample of 300 seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students participated in a comparative study of performance on social studies cloze tests, social studies group reading inventories (GRI), and a popular standardized test (Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Survey E). It was found that cloze tests and GRIs constructed from social studies content…

  2. Students' Perceptions of Rewards for Academic Performance by Parents and Teachers: Relations with Achievement and Motivation in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly D.; Winsler, Adam; Middleton, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined college students' (N = 136) perceptions of the provision of extrinsic rewards given by parents and teachers for academic performance from elementary school through high school. They also examined the relations between reward history and present student motivational orientation. External rewards for…

  3. The Influence of Parenting Styles, Achievement Motivation, and Self-Efficacy on Academic Performance in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Erlanger A.; Chandler, Megan; Heffer, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting styles have consistently been shown to relate to various outcomes such as youth psychopathology, behavior problems, and academic performance. Building on the research in the parenting style literature, along with examining components of self-determination theory, the present study examined the relations among authoritative parenting…

  4. Substantial improvements in performance indicators achieved in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell cryopreservation quality assurance program using single donor samples.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Wayne B; Pett, Sarah L; Sullivan, John S; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A; Kelleher, Anthony D; Lloyd, Andrew; Lewin, Sharon R

    2007-01-01

    Storage of high-quality cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is often a requirement for multicenter clinical trials and requires a reproducibly high standard of practice. A quality assurance program (QAP) was established to assess an Australia-wide network of laboratories in the provision of high-quality PBMC (determined by yield, viability, and function), using blood taken from single donors (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and HIV negative) and shipped to each site for preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC. The aim of the QAP was to provide laboratory accreditation for participation in clinical trials and cohort studies which require preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC and to assist all laboratories to prepare PBMC with a viability of >80% and yield of >50% following thawing. Many laboratories failed to reach this standard on the initial QAP round. Interventions to improve performance included telephone interviews with the staff at each laboratory, two annual wet workshops, and direct access to a senior scientist to discuss performance following each QAP round. Performance improved substantially in the majority of sites that initially failed the QAP (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001 for viability and yield, respectively). In a minority of laboratories, there was no improvement (n = 2), while a high standard was retained at the laboratories that commenced with adequate performance (n = 3). These findings demonstrate that simple interventions and monitoring of PBMC preparation and cryopreservation from multiple laboratories can significantly improve performance and contribute to maintenance of a network of laboratories accredited for quality PBMC fractionation and cryopreservation.

  5. Inverse modeling of surface-water discharge to achieve restoration salinity performance measures in Florida Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; James, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of numerical modeling to evaluate regional water-management practices involves the simulation of various alternative water-delivery scenarios, which typically are designed intuitively rather than analytically. These scenario simulations are used to analyze how specific water-management practices affect factors such as water levels, flows, and salinities. In lieu of testing a variety of scenario simulations in a trial-and-error manner, an optimization technique may be used to more precisely and directly define good water-management alternatives. A numerical model application in the coastal regions of Florida Bay and Everglades National Park (ENP), representing the surface- and ground-water hydrology for the region, is a good example of a tool used to evaluate restoration scenarios. The Southern Inland and Coastal System (SICS) model simulates this area with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic surface-water model and a three-dimensional ground-water model, linked to represent the interaction of the two systems with salinity transport. This coastal wetland environment is of great interest in restoration efforts, and the SICS model is used to analyze the effects of alternative water-management scenarios. The SICS model is run within an inverse modeling program called UCODE. In this application, UCODE adjusts the regulated inflows to ENP while SICS is run iteratively. UCODE creates parameters that define inflow within an allowable range for the SICS model based on SICS model output statistics, with the objective of matching user-defined target salinities that meet ecosystem restoration criteria. Preliminary results obtained using two different parameterization methods illustrate the ability of the model to achieve the goals of adjusting the range and reducing the variance of salinity values in the target area. The salinity variance in the primary zone of interest was reduced from an original value of 0.509 psu2 to values 0.418 psu2 and 0.342 psu2 using different

  6. Some Suggested Techniques for Achieving Required Main Ring Low Level RF Performance for the Tevatron I Program

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.E.; MacLachlan, J.

    1984-05-01

    These techniques are derived from experience with the existing low level rf system and from the results of accelerator experiments directed at the Tev I requirements which were performed using a specially modified low level rf system. The techniques suggested here are not necessarily unique and other techniques may be acceptable. It is important to realize that certain performance requirements on the Booster and Main Ring are substantially different in the Tev I program from those which have been acceptable in the fixed target program. For example, the longitudinal emittance of the bunches has been routinely and intentionally blown up by the 'bunch spreader' during acceleration to improve the smoothness of the spill. In the Tev I case, the 'bunch narrowing' procedure preceding {bar p} production and in bunch coalescing is facilitated by maintaining the smallest possible longitudinal emittance (i.e. the largest possible longitudinal phase space density). Also, during fixed target physics the Main Ring is essentially full (i.e. approx. 1090 of 1113 buckets occupied) so transient beam loading of the rf system is negligible except during injection, whereas for {bar p} production a single high intensity Booster batch (approx. 83 bunches) is to be accelerated causing substantial transient beam induced phase shift of the rf voltage during each passage. The low level phase and position error signals are normally derived from an essentially full ring during fixed target operation whereas in the Tev I program the systems must perform adequately with as few as ten adjacent buckets occupied. Because of the differences in emphasis between fixed target operation and Tevatron I operation is seems sensible to use separate low level rf systems for these two modes of operation. If a single low level system were to be used for both modes of operation some compromises may be necessary which might cause performance in either mode to be less than adequate. Because of the severe demands

  7. WEF/WERF study of BNR plants achieving very low N and P limits: evaluation of technology performance and process reliability.

    PubMed

    Bott, Charles B; Parker, Denny S; Jimenez, Jose; Miller, Mark W; Neethling, J B

    2012-01-01

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) funded a two-year comprehensive study of nutrient removal plants designed and operated to meet very low effluent total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations. WERF worked with the Water Environment Federation (WEF) to solicit participation of volunteers and provide a forum for information exchange at workshops at its annual conferences. Both existing and new technologies are being adapted to meet requirements that are as low as 3.0 mg/L TN and 0.1 mg/L TP, and there is a need to define their capabilities and reliabilities in the real world situation of wastewater treatment plants. A concern over very low daily permits for ammonia caused the work to be extended to include nitrification reliability. This effort focused on maximizing what can be learned from existing technologies in order to provide a database that will inform key decision makers about proper choices for both technologies and rationale bases for statistical permit writing. To this end, managers of 22 plants, 10 achieving low effluent TP, nine achieving low effluent TN, and three achieving low effluent NH(3)-N, provided three years of operational data that were analyzed using a consistent statistical approach. Technology Performance Statistics (TPSs) were developed as three separate values representing the ideal, median, and reliably achievable performance. Technological conclusions can be drawn from the study in terms of what can be learned by comparing the different nutrient removal and nitrification processes employed at these 22 plants.

  8. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  9. Effects of heat exposure and 3% dehydration achieved via hot water immersion on repeated cycle sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Justin A; Green, James M; Bishop, Phillip A; Richardson, Mark T; Neggers, Yasmin H; Leeper, James D

    2011-03-01

    This study examined effects of heat exposure with and without dehydration on repeated anaerobic cycling. Males (n = 10) completed 3 trials: control (CT), water-bath heat exposure (∼39°C) to 3% dehydration (with fluid replacement) (HE), and similar heat exposure to 3% dehydration (DEHY). Hematocrit increased significantly from pre to postheat immersion in both HE and DEHY. Participants performed 6 × 15s cycle sprints (30s active recovery). Mean Power (MP) was significantly lower vs. CT (596 ± 66 W) for DEHY (569 ± 72 W), and the difference approached significance for HE (582 ± 76 W, p = 0.07). Peak Power (PP) was significantly lower vs. CT (900 ± 117 W) for HE (870 ± 128 W) and approached significance for DEHY (857 ± 145 W, p = 0.07). Postsprint ratings of perceived exertion was higher during DEHY (6.4 ± 2.0) and HE (6.3 ± 1.6) than CT (5.7 ± 2.1). Combined heat and dehydration impaired MP and PP (decrements greatest in later bouts) with HE performance intermediate to CT and DEHY.

  10. Origin of the Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction Activity of Graphene-Based Catalysts: A Roadmap to Achieve the Best Performance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mutually corroborated electrochemical measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to uncover the origin of electrocatalytic activity of graphene-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A series of graphenes doped with nonmetal elements was designed and synthesized, and their ORR performance was evaluated in terms of four electrochemical descriptors: exchange current density, on-set potential, reaction pathway selectivity and kinetic current density. It is shown that these descriptors are in good agreement with DFT calculations, allowing derivation of a volcano plot between the ORR activity and the adsorption free energy of intermediates on metal-free materials, similarly as in the case of metallic catalysts. The molecular orbital concept was used to justify this volcano plot, and to theoretically predict the ORR performance of an ideal graphene-based catalyst, the ORR activity of which is comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt catalyst. Moreover, this study may stimulate the development of metal-free electrocatalysts for other key energy conversion processes including hydrogen evolution and oxygen evolution reactions and largely expand the spectrum of catalysts for energy-related electrocatalysis reactions. PMID:24580116

  11. Achieving High Performance With TCP Over 40 GbE on NUMA Architectures for CMS Data Acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Bawej, Tomasz; et al.

    2014-01-01

    TCP and the socket abstraction have barely changed over the last two decades, but at the network layer there has been a giant leap from a few megabits to 100 gigabits in bandwidth. At the same time, CPU architectures have evolved into the multicore era and applications are expected to make full use of all available resources. Applications in the data acquisition domain based on the standard socket library running in a Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) architecture are unable to reach full efficiency and scalability without the software being adequately aware about the IRQ (Interrupt Request), CPU and memory affinities. During the first long shutdown of LHC, the CMS DAQ system is going to be upgraded for operation from 2015 onwards and a new software component has been designed and developed in the CMS online framework for transferring data with sockets. This software attempts to wrap the low-level socket library to ease higher-level programming with an API based on an asynchronous event driven model similar to the DAT uDAPL API. It is an event-based application with NUMA optimizations, that allows for a high throughput of data across a large distributed system. This paper describes the architecture, the technologies involved and the performance measurements of the software in the context of the CMS distributed event building.

  12. Sensitive, Efficient Quantitation of 13C-Enriched Nucleic Acids via Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Applications in Stable Isotope Probing.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Roland; Szeitz, András; Klassen, Tara L; Mohn, William W

    2014-12-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) of nucleic acids is a powerful tool for studying the functional traits of microbial populations within complex communities, but SIP involves a number of technical challenges. Many of the difficulties in DNA-SIP and RNA-SIP experiments can be effectively overcome with an efficient, sensitive method for quantitating the isotopic enrichment of nucleic acids. Here, we present a sensitive method for quantitating (13)C enrichment of nucleic acids, requiring a few nanograms of sample, and we demonstrate its utility in typical DNA-SIP and RNA-SIP experiments. All five nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil) were separated and detected by using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We detected all isotopic species in samples with as low as 1.5 atom% (13)C above natural abundance, using 1-ng loadings. Quantitation was used to characterize the isotopic enrichment kinetics of cellulose- and lignin-based microcosm experiments and to optimize the recovery of enriched nucleic acids. Application of our method will minimize the quantity of expensive isotopically labeled substrates required and reduce the risk of failed experiments due to insufficient recovery of labeled nucleic acids for sequencing library preparation.

  13. Sensitive, Efficient Quantitation of 13C-Enriched Nucleic Acids via Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Applications in Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Roland; Szeitz, András; Klassen, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) of nucleic acids is a powerful tool for studying the functional traits of microbial populations within complex communities, but SIP involves a number of technical challenges. Many of the difficulties in DNA-SIP and RNA-SIP experiments can be effectively overcome with an efficient, sensitive method for quantitating the isotopic enrichment of nucleic acids. Here, we present a sensitive method for quantitating 13C enrichment of nucleic acids, requiring a few nanograms of sample, and we demonstrate its utility in typical DNA-SIP and RNA-SIP experiments. All five nucleobases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil) were separated and detected by using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We detected all isotopic species in samples with as low as 1.5 atom% 13C above natural abundance, using 1-ng loadings. Quantitation was used to characterize the isotopic enrichment kinetics of cellulose- and lignin-based microcosm experiments and to optimize the recovery of enriched nucleic acids. Application of our method will minimize the quantity of expensive isotopically labeled substrates required and reduce the risk of failed experiments due to insufficient recovery of labeled nucleic acids for sequencing library preparation. PMID:25217022

  14. Microstructural Modification of Sn-0.7Cu Solder Alloys by Fe/Bi-Addition for Achieving High Mechanical Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Bakhtiar; Sabri, Mohd Faizul Mohd; Said, Suhana Mohd; Mahdavifard, Mohammad Hossein; Sukiman, Nazatul Liana; Jauhari, Iswadi

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we studied the Fe/Bi-bearing tin-copper (Sn-0.7Cu) solders for their microstructural and mechanical properties. The microstructure was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with a backscattered electron (BSE) detector, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The microstructure study showed that Fe forms very few FeSn2 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and does not significantly alter the microstructure of Sn-0.7Cu, whereas Bi controls the size of inter-dendritic regions containing Cu6Sn5 and Ag3Sn IMCs of the alloy, as well as significantly refines its primary β-Sn dendrites. Moreover, Bi atoms dissolve in β-Sn matrix, which in turn strengthen the solder by the Bi solid solution strengthening mechanism. Such microstructural modification leads to significant improvements in various mechanical properties of the alloy, including shear strength, impact toughness, and hardness values. Shear tests were performed with a 0.25 mm/min shear speed. The results showed that shear strength improves from 16.57 MPa to 38.36 MPa with the addition of Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu, raising by about 130%. The energy absorbed during impact tests was measured for samples with the help of a Charpy impact testing machine with a 5.4 m/s impact speed. The results revealed that the addition of Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu improves its impact absorbed energy by over 35%, increasing it from 7.5 J to 10.3 J. Vickers hardness tests were carried out for the test samples with a 245.2 mN applied load and 10 s dwell time. The results showed that the hardness number improves from 9.89 to 24.13 with Fe/Bi to Sn-0.7Cu, increasing by about 140%.

  15. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Presentación, M Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers' performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents' and teachers' ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  16. Performance-based tests versus behavioral ratings in the assessment of executive functioning in preschoolers: associations with ADHD symptoms and reading achievement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The early assessment of the executive processes using ecologically valid instruments is essential for identifying deficits and planning actions to deal with possible adverse consequences. The present study has two different objectives. The first objective is to analyze the relationship between preschoolers’ performance on tests of Working Memory and Inhibition and parents’ and teachers’ ratings of these executive functions (EFs) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The second objective consists of studying the predictive value of the different EF measures (performance-based test and rating scales) on Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and on indicators of word reading performance. The participants in the study were 209 children in the last year of preschool, their teachers and their families. Performance-based tests of Working Memory and Inhibition were administered, as well as word reading measures (accuracy and speed). The parents and teachers filled out rating scales of the EF and typical behaviors of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology. Moderate correlation values were found between the different EF assessments procedures, although the results varied depending on the different domains. Metacognition Index from the BRIEF presented stronger correlations with verbal working memory tests than with inhibition tests. Both the rating scales and the performance-based tests were significant predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity behaviors and the reading achievement measures. However, the BRIEF explained a greater percentage of variance in the case of the ADHD symptomatology, while the performance-based tests explained reading achievement to a greater degree. The implications of the findings for research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25972833

  17. The Role of Lithium Conditioning in Achieving High Performance, Long Pulse H-mode Discharges in the NSTX and EAST Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, Rajesh; Mansfield, D. K.; Gong, X. Z.; Sun, Z.; Bell, M. G.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the role of lithium wall conditioning on the achievement of high performance, long pulse discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is documented. Common observations include recycling reduction and elimination of ELMs. In NSTX, lithium conditioning typically resulted in ELM-free operation with impurity accumulation, which was ameliorated e.g. with pulsed 3D fields to trigger controlled ELMs. Active lithium conditioning in EAST discharges has overcome this problem, producing an ELM-free Hmode with controlled density and impurities.

  18. Unravelling the correlation between the aspect ratio of nanotubular structures and their electrochemical performance to achieve high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuxin; Zhang, Yanyan; Deng, Jiyang; Qi, Dianpeng; Leow, Wan Ru; Wei, Jiaqi; Yin, Shengyan; Dong, Zhili; Yazami, Rachid; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    The fundamental understanding of the relationship between the nanostructure of an electrode and its electrochemical performance is crucial for achieving high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, the relationship between the nanotubular aspect ratio and electrochemical performance of LIBs is elucidated for the first time. The stirring hydrothermal method was used to control the aspect ratio of viscous titanate nanotubes, which were used to fabricate additive-free TiO2 -based electrode materials. We found that the battery performance at high charging/discharging rates is dramatically boosted when the aspect ratio is increased, due to the optimization of electronic/ionic transport properties within the electrode materials. The proof-of-concept LIBs comprising nanotubes with an aspect ratio of 265 can retain more than 86 % of their initial capacity over 6000 cycles at a high rate of 30 C. Such devices with supercapacitor-like rate performance and battery-like capacity herald a new paradigm for energy storage systems.

  19. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on completion of Phase I and Phase II activities. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. During this reporting period, optimization tests were performed to evaluate system performance and identify optimum operating conditions for the installed equipment. The overfire air system process design activities and preliminary engineering design were completed.

  20. ACHIEVING NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS (NSPS) EMISSION STANDARDS THROUGH INTEGRATION OF LOW-NOx BURNERS WITH AN OPTIMIZATION PLAN FOR BOILER COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod; David Moyeda

    2003-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub x} emissions levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project consists of the integration of low-NO{sub x} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The project includes the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software that can optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub x} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program is being performed in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler is being equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler will be equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler will be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub x} emissions to be achieved. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II will permit optimization of the boiler performance, output, and emissions. During this reporting period, efforts were focused on Phase I and Phase II activities. The furnace sensors were procured and installed in February 2003. Baseline testing was performed following the sensor installation. The low-NO{sub x} burner modifications, the coal flow dampers, and the coal flow monitoring system were procured and installed during a boiler outage in March 2003. Process design activities were performed to support design of the equipment installed and to develop specifications for the overfire air system. The overfire air system preliminary engineering design was initiated.

  1. The Classroom Performance System (CPS): Effects on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2011-12-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology tool that increases student performance and addresses different learning styles. Instructional technologies are used to promote active learning; however, student embarrassment issue in a multicultural setting is not addressed. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College, where the first spoken language is not English. Quantitative method and quasi-experimental design were employed and comparative statistic methods and pre-post tests were used to collect the data. Participants were college students and sections of study were selected by convenient sampling. Participation was 100% during most of the lectures held and participation rate did not strike above 68% in control group. Attendance was significantly higher in CPS sections than the control group as shown by t-tests. Experimental sections had a higher increase in the pre-post test scores and student averages on lecture exams increased at a higher rate as compared to the control group. Therefore, the CPS increased student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes. The CPS can be studied in other settings where the first spoken language is English or in other programs, such as special education programs. Additionally, other variables can be studied and other methodologies can be employed.

  2. Academic Momentum at University/College: Exploring the Roles of Prior Learning, Life Experience, and Ongoing Performance in Academic Achievement across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Wilson, Rachel; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Ginns, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the context of "academic momentum," a longitudinal study of university students (N = 904) showed high school achievement and ongoing university achievement predicted subsequent achievement through university. However, the impact of high school achievement diminished, while additive effects of ongoing university achievement continued.…

  3. Photoanode with Enhanced Performance Achieved by Coating BiVO4 onto ZnO-Templated Sb-Doped SnO2 Nanotube Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lite; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Rao, Pratap M

    2017-04-05

    The performance of BiVO4 photoanodes, especially under front-side illumination, is limited by the modest charge transport properties of BiVO4. Core/shell nanostructures consisting of BiVO4 coated onto a conductive scaffold are a promising route to improving the performance of BiVO4-based photoanodes. Here, we investigate photoanodes composed of thin and uniform layers of BiVO4 particles coated onto Sb-doped SnO2 (Sb:SnO2) nanotube arrays that were synthesized using a sacrificial ZnO template with controllable length and packing density. We demonstrate a new record for the product of light absorption and charge separation efficiencies (ηabs × ηsep) of ∼57.3 and 58.5% under front- and back-side illumination, respectively, at 0.6 VRHE. Moreover, both of these high ηabs × ηsep efficiencies are achieved without any extra treatment or intentional doping in BiVO4. These results indicate that integration of Sb:SnO2 nanotube cores with other successful strategies such as doping and hydrogen treatment can increase the performance of BiVO4 and related semiconductors closer to their theoretical potential.

  4. The impact of nursing students' chemistry learning performance assessment in Taiwan: competitive versus non-competitive student team achievement division approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior college in northern Taiwan during the first semester (totaling 18 weeks) of the 2008 academic year. Results: The findings reveal that both a heterogeneous group with external pressure (involving competitive STAD) and a friendship group with affective pressure (involving traditional learning) enhance group cohesion and assist students' meaningful learning; the heterogeneous group without extra pressure (involving non-competitive STAD), by contrast, fails because of apathy and lassitude. Moreover, learning effectiveness will obviously predominate until the learning strategy continues for a long period or at least one semester. Conclusions: This study revealed that the learning performance level of the competitive STAD group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group; and the learning performance level of the traditional group is significantly different from that of the non-competitive STAD group. Both the competitive STAD group and traditional group of medium ability students are significantly different from the non-competitive STAD group. Low-ability students from the competitive STAD group are significantly different from those of the non-competitive STAD, though no significant differences were found in learning perception. However, both a lack of friendship and a lack of ability in using algorithms may affect students' chemistry learning. Furthermore, gender imbalance, educational culture, and group emotions are factors that may influence student learning performance. Further study should focus on the use of grouping, improve responsibility in group discussion, and investigate group interaction

  5. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    PubMed Central

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du, Hong; Wang, Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and∕or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  6. Stable Fly Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult stable flies feed on the blood of humans, pets and livestock, inflicting painful bites. Stable flies need one and sometimes two bloodmeals each day to develop their eggs. Unlike mosquitoes where only the females bloodfeed, both male and female stable flies require blood to reproduce. Stable fl...

  7. Achieving extremely concentrated aqueous dispersions of graphene flakes and catalytically efficient graphene-metal nanoparticle hybrids with flavin mononucleotide as a high-performance stabilizer.

    PubMed

    Ayán-Varela, M; Paredes, J I; Guardia, L; Villar-Rodil, S; Munuera, J M; Díaz-González, M; Fernández-Sánchez, C; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2015-05-20

    The stable dispersion of graphene flakes in an aqueous medium is highly desirable for the development of materials based on this two-dimensional carbon structure, but current production protocols that make use of a number of surfactants typically suffer from limitations regarding graphene concentration or the amount of surfactant required to colloidally stabilize the sheets. Here, we demonstrate that an innocuous and readily available derivative of vitamin B2, namely the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide (FMNS), is a highly efficient dispersant in the preparation of aqueous dispersions of defect-free, few-layer graphene flakes. Most notably, graphene concentrations in water as high as ∼50 mg mL(-1) using low amounts of FMNS (FMNS/graphene mass ratios of about 0.04) could be attained, which facilitated the formation of free-standing graphene films displaying high electrical conductivity (∼52000 S m(-1)) without the need of carrying out thermal annealing or other types of post-treatment. The excellent performance of FMNS as a graphene dispersant could be attributed to the combined effect of strong adsorption on the sheets through the isoalloxazine moiety of the molecule and efficient colloidal stabilization provided by its negatively charged phosphate group. The FMNS-stabilized graphene sheets could be decorated with nanoparticles of several noble metals (Ag, Pd, and Pt), and the resulting hybrids exhibited a high catalytic activity in the reduction of nitroarenes and electroreduction of oxygen. Overall, the present results should expedite the processing and implementation of graphene in, e.g., conductive inks, composites, and hybrid materials with practical utility in a wide range of applications.

  8. Stable topological insulators achieved using high energy electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lukas; Konczykowski, Marcin; Deng, Haiming; Korzhovska, Inna; Begliarbekov, Milan; Chen, Zhiyi; Papalazarou, Evangelos; Marsi, Marino; Perfetti, Luca; Hruban, Andrzej; Wołoś, Agnieszka; Krusin-Elbaum, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are potentially transformative quantum solids with metallic surface states which have Dirac band structure and are immune to disorder. Ubiquitous charged bulk defects, however, pull the Fermi energy into the bulk bands, denying access to surface charge transport. Here we demonstrate that irradiation with swift (∼2.5 MeV energy) electron beams allows to compensate these defects, bring the Fermi level back into the bulk gap and reach the charge neutrality point (CNP). Controlling the beam fluence, we tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (electron-like), crossing the Dirac point and back, while preserving the Dirac energy dispersion. The CNP conductance has a two-dimensional character on the order of ten conductance quanta and reveals, both in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3, the presence of only two quantum channels corresponding to two topological surfaces. The intrinsic quantum transport of the topological states is accessible disregarding the bulk size. PMID:26961901

  9. Magnetotelluric Data, Stable Distributions and Stable Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    The author has noted for many years that the residuals from robust or bounded influence estimates of the magnetotelluric response function are systematically long tailed compared to a Gaussian or Rayleigh distribution. Consequently, the standard statistical model of a Gaussian core contaminated by a fraction of outlying data is not really valid. However, the typical result is an improvement on ordinary least squares, and has become standard in the electromagnetic induction community. A recent re-evaluation of the statistics of magnetotelluric response function estimation has shown that, in almost all cases, the residuals are alpha stable rather than Gaussian. Alpha stable distributions are characterized by four parameters: a shape parameter lying on (0, 2], a skewness parameter, a scale parameter and a location parameter, and cannot be expressed in closed form except for a few special cases. When the shape parameter is 2, the result is Gaussian, but when it is smaller the resulting distribution has infinite variance. Typical magnetotelluric residuals are alpha stable with a shape parameter lying between 1 and 2. This suggests that robust methods improve response function estimates by eliminating data corresponding to the largest stable residuals while leaving the bulk of the population alone. A better statistical approach is based on stable regression that directly accommodates the actual residual distribution without eliminating the most extreme ones. This paper will introduce such an algorithm, and illustrate its functionality with a variety of magnetotelluric data. Further work remains to produce a robust stable regression algorithm that will eliminate real outliers such as lightning strikes or instrument problems without affecting the bulk stable population. Stable distributions are intimately associated with fractional derivative physical processes. Since the Maxwell equations and the constitutive relations pertaining to the earth do not contain any fractional

  10. Tuning aluminum spatial distribution in ZSM-5 membranes: a new strategy to fabricate high performance and stable zeolite membranes for dehydration of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianhua; Li, Liangqing; Li, Wanze; Wang, Jinqu; Chen, Zan; Yin, Dehong; Lu, Jinming; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Hongchen

    2014-12-04

    A novel ZSM-5 membrane with a low Si/Al ratio and homogeneous aluminum spatial distribution was achieved from an organic template-free inorganic gel in the presence of both OH(-) and F(-) ions and the obtained ZSM-5 membrane exhibited excellent selectivity and high flux and stability for dehydration of acetic acid in a wide AcOH content range.

  11. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  12. A high performance lithium ion capacitor achieved by the integration of a Sn-C anode and a biomass-derived microporous activated carbon cathode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Zhu, Yuwen; Pi, Xinxin; Wang, Lijie; Liu, Xin; Qin, Yukun

    2017-01-01

    Hybridizing battery and capacitor materials to construct lithium ion capacitors (LICs) has been regarded as a promising avenue to bridge the gap between high-energy lithium ion batteries and high-power supercapacitors. One of the key difficulties in developing advanced LICs is the imbalance in the power capability and charge storage capacity between anode and cathode. Herein, we design a new LIC system by integrating a rationally designed Sn-C anode with a biomass-derived activated carbon cathode. The Sn-C nanocomposite obtained by a facile confined growth strategy possesses multiple structural merits including well-confined Sn nanoparticles, homogeneous distribution and interconnected carbon framework with ultra-high N doping level, synergically enabling the fabricated anode with high Li storage capacity and excellent rate capability. A new type of biomass-derived activated carbon featuring both high surface area and high carbon purity is also prepared to achieve high capacity for cathode. The assembled LIC (Sn-C//PAC) device delivers high energy densities of 195.7 Wh kg−1 and 84.6 Wh kg−1 at power densities of 731.25 W kg−1 and 24375 W kg−1, respectively. This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid system by tailoring the nanostructures of Li insertion anode and ion adsorption cathode. PMID:28155853

  13. A high performance lithium ion capacitor achieved by the integration of a Sn-C anode and a biomass-derived microporous activated carbon cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Zhu, Yuwen; Pi, Xinxin; Wang, Lijie; Liu, Xin; Qin, Yukun

    2017-02-01

    Hybridizing battery and capacitor materials to construct lithium ion capacitors (LICs) has been regarded as a promising avenue to bridge the gap between high-energy lithium ion batteries and high-power supercapacitors. One of the key difficulties in developing advanced LICs is the imbalance in the power capability and charge storage capacity between anode and cathode. Herein, we design a new LIC system by integrating a rationally designed Sn-C anode with a biomass-derived activated carbon cathode. The Sn-C nanocomposite obtained by a facile confined growth strategy possesses multiple structural merits including well-confined Sn nanoparticles, homogeneous distribution and interconnected carbon framework with ultra-high N doping level, synergically enabling the fabricated anode with high Li storage capacity and excellent rate capability. A new type of biomass-derived activated carbon featuring both high surface area and high carbon purity is also prepared to achieve high capacity for cathode. The assembled LIC (Sn-C//PAC) device delivers high energy densities of 195.7 Wh kg‑1 and 84.6 Wh kg‑1 at power densities of 731.25 W kg‑1 and 24375 W kg‑1, respectively. This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid system by tailoring the nanostructures of Li insertion anode and ion adsorption cathode.

  14. Doping-free white organic light-emitting diodes without blue molecular emitter: An unexplored approach to achieve high performance via exciplex emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Dongxiang; Xiao, Ye; Hao, Mingming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Yibin; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Baiquan

    2017-02-01

    Doping-free white organic light-emitting diodes (DF-WOLEDs) are promising for the low-cost commercialization because of their simplified device structures. However, DF-WOLEDs reported thus far in the literature are based on the use of blue single molecular emitters, whose processing can represent a crucial point in device manufacture. Herein, DF-WOLEDs without the blue single molecular emitter have been demonstrated by managing a blue exciplex system. For the single-molecular-emitter (orange or yellow emitter) DF-WOLEDs, (i) a color rendering index (CRI) of 81 at 1000 cd/m2 can be obtained, which is one of the highest for the single-molecular-emitter WOLEDs, or (ii) a high efficiency of 35.4 lm/W can be yielded. For the dual-molecular-emitter (yellow/red emitters) DF-WOLED, a high CRI of 85 and low correlated color temperature of 2376 K at 1000 cd/m2 have been simultaneously achieved, which has not been reported by previous DF-WOLEDs. Such presented findings may unlock an alternative avenue to the simplified but high-performance WOLEDs.

  15. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  16. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Sep 19,2016 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, but ...

  17. U.S. Math Performance in Global Perspective: How Well Does Each State Do at Producing High-Achieving Students? PEPG Report No.: 10-19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Peterson, Paul E.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    To see how well U.S. schools do at producing high-achieving math students, the authors compare the percentage of U.S. public and private school students in the graduating Class of 2009 who were highly accomplished in mathematics in each of the 50 states and in 10 urban districts to percentages of high achievers in 56 other countries. Their…

  18. The Academic Achievement and Functional Performance of Youth with Disabilities. A Report from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). NCSER 2006-3000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary; Newman, Lynn; Cameto, Renee; Levine, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    Background: To provide a national picture of the academic achievements of American students, the National Center for Education Statistics has administered the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) periodically since 1969, but there has been no similar national picture of the academic achievement of youth with disabilities. Purpose: To…

  19. Stable electroosmotically driven actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sritharan, Deepa; Motsebo, Mylene; Tumbic, Julia; Smela, Elisabeth

    2013-04-01

    We have previously presented "nastic" actuators based on electroosmotic (EO) pumping of fluid in microchannels using high electric fields for potential application in soft robotics. In this work we address two challenges facing this technology: applying EO to meso-scale devices and the stability of the pumping fluid. The hydraulic pressure achieved by EO increases with as 1/d2, where d is the depth of the microchannel, but the flow rate (which determines the stroke and the speed) is proportional to nd, where n is the number of channels. Therefore to get high force and high stroke the device requires a large number of narrow channels, which is not readily achievable using standard microfabrication techniques. Furthermore, for soft robotics the structure must be soft. In this work we present a method of fabricating a three-dimensional porous elastomer to serve as the array of channels based on a sacrificial sugar scaffold. We demonstrate the concept by fabricating small pumps. The flexible devices were made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and comprise the 3D porous elastomer flanked on either side by reservoirs containing electrodes. The second issue addressed here involves the pumping fluid. Typically, water is used for EO, but water undergoes electrolysis even at low voltages. Since EO takes place at kV, these systems must be open to release the gases. We have recently reported that propylene carbonate (PC) is pumped at a comparable rate as water and is also stable for over 30 min at 8 kV. Here we show that PC is, however, degraded by moisture, so future EO systems must prevent water from reaching the PC.

  20. Achieving high gene delivery performance with caveolae-mediated endocytosis pathway by (l)-arginine/(l)-histidine co-modified cationic gene carriers.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Luo, Ting; Sheng, Ruilong; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Zhao; Cao, Amin

    2016-12-01

    Developing new amphiphilic polymers with natural product moieties has been regarded as a promising way to achieve biocompatibility and certain biological functions. In prior work, we developed some natural (l)-arginine modified cationic polymers (PAHMAA-Rs) as cationic gene carriers. For the sake of continuing optimize the gene delivery performance, herein, a new series of (l)-arginine and (l)-histidine co-modified cationic poly (ω-aminohexyl methacrylamide)s (PAHMAA-R-H) were synthesized and characterized with (1)H NMR, GPC-SLS and FT-IR. Their proton buffering capacities were studied by acid-base titration assay. pDNA binding affinity and self-assembly properties of the polyplexes were analyzed by agarose gel retardation assay, DLS and AFM, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity of the PAHMAA-R-H was determined by MTT and LDH assays in H1299 cells, the gene transfection efficacy and intracellular uptake capability were evaluated by luciferase assay and FACS, respectively. Moreover, the endocytosis pathways and intracellular distribution of the polyplexes were investigated by using specific endocytic inhibitors and fluorescent co-localization techniques. The results demonstrated that co-modification of (l)-arginine and (l)-histidine onto the PAHMAA polymer could enhance proton buffering capacity, shield surface charge, decrease cytotoxicity, and improve gene transfection efficiency and serum-compatibility. Moreover, the gene transfection and intracellular uptake behaviors were disclosed strongly rely on the (l)-arginine/(l)-histidine modification ratios. The polyplexes tend to be internalized through caveolae-mediated endocytosis gateway and localized with endosomes/lysosomes in H1299 cells. Notably, among the polymers, the PAHMAA-R18-H6 exhibited remarkable gene delivery efficiency and serum compatibility, which made it promising gene transfection agent for practical application.

  1. Diagnosing coronary artery disease by sound analysis from coronary stenosis induced turbulent blood flow: diagnostic performance in patients with stable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Winther, Simon; Schmidt, Samuel Emil; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Toft, Egon; Struijk, Johannes Jan; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Bøttcher, Morten

    2016-02-01

    Optimizing risk assessment may reduce use of advanced diagnostic testing in patients with symptoms suggestive of stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Detection of diastolic murmurs from post-stenotic coronary turbulence with an acoustic sensor placed on the chest wall can serve as an easy, safe, and low-cost supplement to assist in the diagnosis of CAD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an acoustic test (CAD-score) to detect CAD and compare it to clinical risk stratification and coronary artery calcium score (CACS). We prospectively enrolled patients with symptoms of CAD referred to either coronary computed tomography or invasive coronary angiography (ICA). All patients were tested with the CAD-score system. Obstructive CAD was defined as more than 50 % diameter stenosis diagnosed by quantitative analysis of the ICA. In total, 255 patients were included and obstructive CAD was diagnosed in 63 patients (28 %). Diagnostic accuracy evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves was 72 % for the CAD-score, which was similar to the Diamond-Forrester clinical risk stratification score, 79 % (p = 0.12), but lower than CACS, 86 % (p < 0.01). Combining the CAD-score and Diamond-Forrester score, AUC increased to 82 %, which was significantly higher than the standalone CAD-score (p < 0.01) and Diamond-Forrester score (p < 0.05). Addition of the CAD-score to the Diamond-Forrester score increased correct reclassification, categorical net-reclassification index = 0.31 (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates the potential use of an acoustic system to identify CAD. The combination of clinical risk scores and an acoustic test seems to optimize patient selection for diagnostic investigation.

  2. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  3. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  4. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  5. INVERSE STABLE SUBORDINATORS

    PubMed Central

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; STRAKA, PETER

    2013-01-01

    The inverse stable subordinator provides a probability model for time-fractional differential equations, and leads to explicit solution formulae. This paper reviews properties of the inverse stable subordinator, and applications to a variety of problems in mathematics and physics. Several different governing equations for the inverse stable subordinator have been proposed in the literature. This paper also shows how these equations can be reconciled. PMID:25045216

  6. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence detector based on Ru(bpy)32+ immobilized in cation exchange resin for high-performance liquid chromatography: An approach to stable detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yonghua; Zhang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xinfeng

    2013-12-01

    In this work, an electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) detector with improved stability was developed for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detection of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The detector was prepared by packing cation exchanged resin particles in a glass tube, followed by inserting Pt wires (working electrode) in this tube and sealing. The leakage of Ru(bpy)32+ from the resin was compensated by adding a small amount of Ru(bpy)32+ in the mobile phase. Factors affected the performance of the proposed ECL detector were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL intensity has a linear relationship with the concentration of HCTZ in the range of 5.0 × 10-8 g mL-1 - 2.5 × 10-5 g mL-1 and the detection limit was 2.0 × 10-8 g mL-1 (S/N = 3). Application of the detector to the analysis of HCTZ in human serum proved feasible.

  7. Performance improvement of IF(CN2)2 meta based N-channel OTFTs and their integration into a stable CMOS inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebiche, S.; Bouhadda, I.; Mohammed-Brahim, T.; Coulon, N.; Bergamini, J. F.; Poriel, C.; Jacques, E.

    2017-04-01

    In this work we report the fabrication of N channel transistors based on IF(CN2)2 meta molecule. The effect of IF(CN2)2 meta evaporation parameters on corresponding TFTs performances, is evaluated and highlighted here. Since the effect of deposition conditions for this molecule type has not been reported yet, here we report an improvement about 20 times of field effect mobility when deposited at substrate temperature of 80 °C and deposition rate of 0.7 Å/s, and then annealed at low temperature. Reached mobility of 2.2 × 10-3 cm2/V·s, is comparable to reported μFE of single crystal indenofluorene TFTs. The optimum mobility in these evaporation conditions was explained by the best compromise between the grain size and packing density of films. Fabricated IF(CN2)2 meta based devices are combined to 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene devices and then integrated into a CMOS inverter logic circuit. The inverter's VTC shows large output voltage swing. Electrical stability of the performed inverter was also evaluated and the inverter shows a correct electrical stability, after 3 h of non-stop operation and the peak to peak magnitude corresponding to VOUT decreases only by 2.6%.

  8. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence detector based on Ru(bpy)3(2+) immobilized in cation exchange resin for high-performance liquid chromatography: An approach to stable detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yonghua; Zhang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xinfeng

    2013-12-01

    In this work, an electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) detector with improved stability was developed for high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detection of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). The detector was prepared by packing cation exchanged resin particles in a glass tube, followed by inserting Pt wires (working electrode) in this tube and sealing. The leakage of Ru(bpy)3(2+) from the resin was compensated by adding a small amount of Ru(bpy)3(2+) in the mobile phase. Factors affected the performance of the proposed ECL detector were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL intensity has a linear relationship with the concentration of HCTZ in the range of 5.0 × 10(-8) g mL(-1)-2.5 × 10(-5) g mL(-1) and the detection limit was 2.0 × 10(-8) g mL(-1) (S/N=3). Application of the detector to the analysis of HCTZ in human serum proved feasible.

  9. High Performing Schools in High Risk Environments: A Study on Leadership, School Safety, and Student Achievement at Two Urban Middle Schools in Los Angeles County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frias, Gus

    2010-01-01

    In the United States of America, all students and staff have a constitutional right to attend schools that are safe, secure, and successful. Despite this right, at many public schools, education leaders have failed to ensure the safety and high academic achievement of all students. The purpose of this research study is to expand knowledge about…

  10. Autonomy Support and Achievement Goals as Predictors of Perceived School Performance and Life Satisfaction in the Transition between Lower and Upper Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun

    2014-01-01

    A self-determination theory perspective on motivation assumes that basic need support is a prerequisite for motivation, achievement, and well-being in several domains of life. In the present cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 2.594 Norwegian students in their final year of lower secondary education and their first year of upper…

  11. The Relation between Outside of School Factors and Mathematics Achievement: A Cross-Country Study among the U.S. and Five Top-Performing Asian Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2006-01-01

    Since at least the 1980s, motivated, in part, by findings from international comparisons of students' mathematics achievement, some American (U.S.) educators and policy makers have initiated educational reform that focuses on improving teaching practices and curriculum designs by advocating for the adoption of Asian educational models. The…

  12. Testing a Multi-Stage Screening System: Predicting Performance on Australia's National Achievement Test Using Teachers' Ratings of Academic and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Davies, Michael; Griffin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the predictive validity of results from a screening system of academic enablers, with a sample of Australian elementary school students, when the criterion variable is end-of-year achievement. The investigation included (a) comparing the predictive validity of a brief criterion-referenced nomination system with more…

  13. Achieving Professional Excellence: Proceedings of a National Conference on Performance-Based Approaches to Training (Little Rock, Arkansas, October 8-10, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Lois G., Comp.; Kalamas, David J., Comp.

    This document contains 47 presentations which focus on professional preparation of personnel in vocational-technical education and industry as an essential step in achieving excellence in educational and industrial training programs. The presentations include "Critical Issues Facing Vocational Teacher Education" (Zellner, Parrish); "A Call for…

  14. Feelings and Performance in the First Year at University: Learning-Related Emotions as Predictors of Achievement Outcomes in Mathematics and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niculescu, Alexandra C.; Templelaar, Dirk; Leppink, Jimmie; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the predictive value of four learning-related emotions--Enjoyment, Anxiety, Boredom and Hopelessness for achievement outcomes in the first year of study at university. Method: We used a large sample (N = 2337) of first year university students enrolled over three consecutive academic years in a mathematics and…

  15. The Impact of Nursing Students' Chemistry Learning Performance Assessment in Taiwan: Competitive versus Non-Competitive Student Team Achievement Division Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kai-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of competitive Student Team Achievement Division (STAD), non-competitive STAD, and traditional learning on chemistry learning and learning perceptions. Sample, design and methods: By adopting the STAD approach, this study examined 144 nursing students at a five-year junior…

  16. Site-condition map for Portugal, Western Iberia: methodology and constraints on the performance of Vs30 proxies for stable continental regions in Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilanova, S. P.; Narciso, J.; Carvalho, J. P.; Cancela, C.; Lopes, I.; Nemser, E. S.; Borges, J.

    2014-12-01

    Information on the amplification characteristics of the near-surface formations in a regional sense is essential to adequately represent both seismic hazard maps and ground shaking maps. Due to the scarceness of shear-wave velocity data in most regions, several methods have been proposed in order to obtain first order representations of Vs30. These include the surface geology method and the topographic slope method. The latter method has become the standard way for incorporating site effects into regional studies worldwide given the convenience provided by the global Vs30 Internet server. In the framework of project SCENE we developed a shear wave velocity database for Portugal. The database consists of 87 shear-wave velocity depth profiles from a variety of lithological and geological formations. We used an iterative three-step procedure to develop the Vs30 based site-condition map: 1) to define a preliminary set of geologically defined units based on the literature; 2) to calculate the distribution of Vs30 for each unit; and 3) to perform statistical tests in order to estimate the significance of the difference in the Vs30 distribution characteristics between the units. The units were merged according to the results of the statistical tests and the procedure was repeated. We started by classifying the sites into six generalized geological units. The final set consists of three units only: F1 (igneous, metamorphic and old sedimentary rocks); F2 (Neogene and Pleistocene formations); and F3 (Holocene deposits). We used the database to evaluate the performance of Vs30 proxies. The use of proxies based either on geological units or on correlations with the topographic slope shows relatively unbiased total residual distributions of the logarithm of Vs30. However, the performance of the methods varies significantly with the generalized geological unit analyzed. Both methods are biased towards lower values of Vs30 for rock formations. The topographic-slope method is

  17. Investigation of the Long-Term Performance of the 324 MHz Klystrons for Achieving the Efficient Operation of the Linac at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, T.; Shinozaki, S.; Chishiro, E.; Sato, F.; Kawamura, M.; Futatsukawa, K.; Fukui, Y.; Oguri, H.

    As a part of the researches of the reliability and life time of klystrons, the cathode performance test of 324 MHz klystrons operated for 32000 hours on line has been performed at the klystron test stand. The experimental results coincide approximately with the data both reported in the literature for the cathode performance and the one obtained from the data base of RF data acquisition system. In this test, two parameters such as klystron beam perveance and knee-point were used to investigate the emission performance. It turned out that klystron beam perveance is most suitable parameter for understanding the klystron performance under operating condition on line.

  18. Hierarchical Fe3O4@MoS2/Ag3PO4 magnetic nanocomposites: Enhanced and stable photocatalytic performance for water purification under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Na; Li, Haiyan; Xu, Xingjian; Yu, Hongwen

    2016-12-01

    Novel hierarchical Fe3O4@MoS2/Ag3PO4 magnetic nanophotocatalyst with remarkable photocatalytic capability were prepared by simply depositing the Ag3PO4 onto the surface of crumpled Fe3O4@MoS2 nanosphere. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, XPS, BET, and UV-vis DRS. The outcome of the photocatalytic experiments demonstrated that Fe3O4@MoS2/Ag3PO4 with 6 wt% content of Ag3PO4 (FM/A-6%) showed the highest photocatalytic activity upon the degradation Congo red (CR) and Rhodamine B (RhB) under both visible light and simulated sunlight irradiation. In addition, FM/A-6% possessed larger specific surface area (76.56 m2/g) and excellent optical property. The possible Z-scheme charge carriers transfer mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic properties of the FM/A-6% was also discussed. The Z-scheme charge carriers transfer mechanism established between MoS2 and Ag3PO4 facilitate the charge separation efficiency. Moreover, FM/A-6% can be separated and collected easily by external magnetic field and maintain high activity after five times photoreaction cycles. Given the remarkable photocatalytic performance and high stability of FM/A-6% nanocomposite, it is looking forward to exhibit great potential for applications in water purification.

  19. Nafion-modified MoOx as effective room-temperature hole injection layer for stable, high-performance inverted organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weiming; Müller, Robert; Voroshazi, Eszter; Conings, Bert; Carleer, Robert; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Turbiez, Mathieu; Froyen, Ludo; Heremans, Paul; Hadipour, Afshin

    2015-02-18

    We present a hole injection layer processed from solution at room temperature for inverted organic solar cells. Bis(2,4-pentanedionato) molybdenum(VI) dioxide (MoO2(acac)2) is used as the precursor for MoOx. Small amounts of Nafion in the precursor solution allow it to form continuous films with good wetting onto the active layers. The hydrolysis of MoO2(acac)2 and the effects of adding Nafion to the precursor solution are studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The devices with solution-processed MoOx including Nafion exhibited comparable performance to the reference devices based on the commonly used hole injection layers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) or evaporated MoO3. Inverted poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester devices with Nafion-modified MoOx maintain 80% of their initial power conversion efficiency upon exposure to ambient air for ∼5000 h, outperforming devices with PEDOT:PSS or with evaporated MoO3.

  20. High-Performance, Air-Stable Field-Effect Transistors Based on Heteroatom-Substituted Naphthalenediimide-Benzothiadiazole Copolymers Exhibiting Ultrahigh Electron Mobility up to 8.5 cm V(-1) s(-1).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiyuan; Yin, Zhihong; Chen, Huajie; Zheng, Liping; Zhu, Chunguang; Zhang, Long; Tan, Songting; Wang, Hanlin; Guo, Yunlong; Tang, Qingxin; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-01-01

    Rational heteroatom engineering is applied to develop high-performance electron-transporting naphthalenediimide copolymers. Top-gate field-effect transistors fabricated from selenophene-containing polymers achieve an ultrahigh electron mobility of 8.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and excellent air-stability. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of selenophene heterocycles into the polymers can improve the film-forming ability, intermolecular interaction, and carrier transport significantly.

  1. Side-Chain Fluorination: An Effective Approach to Achieving High-Performance All-Polymer Solar Cells with Efficiency Exceeding 7.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jiho; Kranthiraja, Kakaraparthi; Lee, Changyeon; Gunasekar, Kumarasamy; Kim, Seonha; Ma, Biwu; Kim, Bumjoon J; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Side-chain fluorination of polymers is demonstrated as a highly effective strategy to improve the efficiency of all-polymer solar cells from 2.93% (nonfluorinated P1) to 7.13% (fluorinated P2). This significant enhancement is achieved by synergistic improvements in open-circuit voltage, charge generation, and charge transport, as fluorination of the donor polymer optimizes the band alignment and the film morphology.

  2. Ethnic-Based Equity in Teacher Judgment of Student Achievement on a Language and Literacy Curriculum-Embedded Performance Assessment for Children in Grade One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Dorinda J.; Moore, James L., III

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which ethnic-based differences exist in teacher ratings of African American students and White students on the language and literacy domain of a curriculum-embedded performance assessment for students in grade 1. It extended previous research on performance assessments to focus on issues related to equity in…

  3. Improving Teacher Effectiveness: An Examination of a Pay for Performance Plan for Boosting Student Academic Achievement in Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Sylvester

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the United States, educational organizations are striving to find more effective ways to improve teacher performance and student learning. The increased pressure to improve teacher effectiveness in the classroom has led many public school districts to adopt a pay for performance system as a strategic compensation option for enhancing…

  4. Investigating the Robustness of School-Performance Ratings to Three Factors Affecting the Underlying Student-Level Academic-Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hui Leng

    2012-01-01

    Standardized-test scores are increasingly important indicators of school success. But how robust are school-performance ratings when they are based on measures derived from these scores? In my thesis, using data from Houston Independent School District (HISD) and New York State (NYS), I examined the robustness of school-performance ratings across…

  5. The Effects of a Web-Based Information Feedback System on Academic Achievement Motivation and Performance of Junior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zappe, Stephen M.; Sonak, Brian C.; Hunter, Maxwell W.; Suen, Hoi K.

    Information feedback is widely believed to play an important role in cognitive processes such as monitoring and self-regulation. It has been linked to enhanced motivation and increased performance. Assisted by feedback, students confirm or change knowledge and modify cognitive processes for better performance. This study investigated self-selected…

  6. Which Feedback Is More Effective for Pursuing Multiple Goals of Differing Importance? The Interaction Effects of Goal Importance and Performance Feedback Type on Self-Regulation and Task Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how performance feedback type (progress vs. distance) affects Korean college students' self-regulation and task achievement according to relative goal importance in the pursuit of multiple goals. For this study, 146 students participated in a computerised task. The results showed the interaction effects of goal importance and…

  7. Stable doping of carbon nanotubes via molecular self assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.; Chen, Y.; Podzorov, V.; Cook, A.; Zakhidov, A.

    2014-10-14

    We report a novel method for stable doping of carbon nanotubes (CNT) based on methods of molecular self assembly. A conformal growth of a self-assembled monolayer of fluoroalkyl trichloro-silane (FTS) at CNT surfaces results in a strong increase of the sheet conductivity of CNT electrodes by 60–300%, depending on the CNT chirality and composition. The charge carrier mobility of undoped partially aligned CNT films was independently estimated in a field-effect transistor geometry (~100 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹). The hole density induced by the FTS monolayer in CNT sheets is estimated to be ~1.8 ×10¹⁴cm⁻². We also show that FTS doping of CNT anodes greatly improves the performance of organic solar cells. This large and stable doping effect, easily achieved in large-area samples, makes this approach very attractive for applications of CNTs in transparent and flexible electronics.

  8. Detection of 1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts in genomic DNA by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with stable isotope dilution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Song, Yuanyuan; Wu, Danni; Xu, Tian; Lu, Meiling; Zhang, Weibing; Wang, Hailin

    2016-06-10

    Crotonaldehyde (Cro) is one of widespread and genotoxic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and can react with the exocyclic amino group of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) in genomic DNA to form 1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (ProdG) adducts. In this study, two diastereomers of high purity were prepared, including non-isotope and stable isotope labeled ProdG adducts, and exploited stable isotope dilution-based calibration method. By taking advantage of synthesized ProdG standards, we developed a sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for accurate quantification of two diastereomers of ProdG adducts. In addition to optimization of the UHPLC separation, ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) was used as additive in the mobile phase for enhancing the ionization efficiency to ProdG adducts and facilitating MS detection. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10) are estimated about 50 amol and 150 amol, respectively. By the use of the developed method, both diastereomers of ProdG adducts can be detected in untreated human MRC5 cells with a frequency of 2.4-3.5 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides. Crotonaldehyde treatment dramatically increases the levels of ProdG adducts in human MRC5 in a concentration-dependent manner.

  9. Theoretical explanation of the polarization-converting system achieved by beam shaping and combination technique and its performance under high power conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Shang, YaPing; Xu, XiaoJun

    2015-10-01

    The fiber laser has very obvious advantages and broad applications in remote welding, 3D cutting and national defense compared with the traditional solid laser. But influenced by heat effect of gain medium, nonlinear effect, stress birefringence effect and other negative factors, it's very difficult to get high power linearly polarized laser just using a single laser. For these limitations a polarization-converting system is designed using beam shaping and combination technique which is able to transform naturally polarized laser to linearly polarized laser at real time to resolve difficulties of generating high-power linearly polarized laser from fiber lasers in this paper. The principle of the Gaussian beam changing into the hollow beam passing through two axicons and the combination of the Gaussian beam and the hollow beam is discussed. In the experimental verification the energy conversion efficiency reached 93.1% with a remarkable enhancement of the extinction ratio from 3% to 98% benefited from the high conversion efficiency of axicons and the system worked fine under high power conditions. The system also kept excellent far field divergence. The experiment phenomenon also agreed with the simulation quite well. The experiment proves that this polarization-converting system will not affect laser structure which controls easily and needs no feedback and controlling system with stable and reliable properties at the same time. It can absolutely be applied to the polarization-conversion of high power laser.

  10. Achieving ICME with Multiscale Modeling: The Effects of Constituent Properties and Processing on the Performance of Laminated Polymer Matrix Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) is a useful approach for tailoring the performance of a material. For fiber-reinforced composites, not only do the properties of the constituents of the composite affect the performance, but so does the architecture (or microstructure) of the constituents. The generalized method of cells is demonstrated to be a viable micromechanics tool for determining the effects of the microstructure on the performance of laminates. The micromechanics is used to predict the inputs for a macroscale model for a variety of different fiber volume fractions, and fiber architectures. Using this technique, the material performance can be tailored for specific applications by judicious selection of constituents, volume fraction, and architectural arrangement given a particular manufacturing scenario

  11. Thermal design and test results for SUNLITE ultra-stable reference cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    1991-01-01

    SUNLITE (Stanford University-NASA Laser In-Space Technology Experiment) is a space-based experiment which uses a reference cavity to provide a stable frequency reference for a terahertz laser oscillator. Thermal stability of the cavity is a key factor in attaining a stable narrow-linewidth laser beam. The mount which is used to support and align the cavity will provide thermal isolation from the environment. The baseline requirement for thermal stability of the cavity is 0.025 C/min, but the design is directed toward achieving stability well beyond this requirement to improve the science data gained. A prototype of the cavity mount was fabricated and tested to characterize the thermal performance. The thermal vacuum test involved stable high-resolution temperature measurements and stable baseplate temperature control over long durations. Based on test data, the cavity mount design satisfies the severe requirement for the cavity thermal stability.

  12. Closing the social-class achievement gap: a difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin

    2014-04-01

    College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement).

  13. Sensitive determination of thiols in wine samples by a stable isotope-coded derivatization reagent d0/d4-acridone-10-ethyl-N-maleimide coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhengxian; You, Jinmao; Lu, Shuaimin; Sun, Weidi; Ji, Zhongyin; Sun, Zhiwei; Song, Cuihua; Chen, Guang; Li, Guoliang; Hu, Na; Zhou, Wu; Suo, Yourui

    2017-03-31

    As the key aroma compounds, varietal thiols are the crucial odorants responsible for the flavor of wines. Quantitative analysis of thiols can provide crucial information for the aroma profiles of different wine styles. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of six thiols in wine using d0/d4-acridone-10-ethyl-N-maleimide (d0/d4-AENM) as stable isotope-coded derivatization reagent (SICD) by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed. Quantification of thiols was performed by using d4-AENM labeled thiols as the internal standards (IS), followed by stable isotope dilution HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The AENM derivatization combined with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) not only allowed trace analysis of thiols due to the extremely high sensitivity, but also efficiently corrected the matrix effects during HPLC-MS/MS and the fluctuation in MS/MS signal intensity due to instrument. The obtained internal standard calibration curves for six thiols were linear over the range of 25-10,000pmol/L (R(2)≥0.9961). Detection limits (LODs) for most of analytes were below 6.3pmol/L. The proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of six kinds of thiols in wine samples with precisions ≤3.5% and recoveries ≥78.1%. In conclusion, the developed method is expected to be a promising tool for detection of trace thiols in wine and also in other complex matrix.

  14. The effect of parental education, prior achievement, self-efficacy, goal orientation, and effort on undergraduate science performance of Latinos and Caucasians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansbury, Sydney Lynn

    Compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities have demonstrated weaker undergraduate science performance. Previous research has attributed the weaker performance to socioeconomic factors that influence poorer precollege preparation. Studies also have found that, compared with majority students, underrepresented minorities are less confident about their science skills and more interested in extrinsic rewards of science careers. Social Cognitive Theory posits that low self-efficacy coupled with high extrinsic goal orientation diminishes cognitive engagement, resulting in weak performance. Applying motivational characteristics of underrepresented minority students to a Social Cognitive Model may explain why their performance is weaker than that of Caucasians. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the degree to which motivation variables account for the difference between underrepresented minority and majority students' undergraduate science performance. The study was conducted at a large, predominantly Caucasian, private university located in an urban setting in the Southwest. Two hundred twenty-two students--154 Caucasians and 68 Latinos--enrolled in a general chemistry course participated. Students were administered the Motivation for Learning Questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, consisting of scales measuring the following variables: ethnicity, level of parental education, and effort exertion; self-efficacy, effort regulation, intrinsic goal orientation, and extrinsic goal orientation, measures from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991); and ability orientation, a measure from the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey (Midgley, Maehr, & Urdan, 1995). Financial aid information, chemistry and math placement test scores, and chemistry grades were obtained from other on-campus departments. Results demonstrated that the hypotheses were only partially confirmed by the

  15. Achieving high performance non-fullerene organic solar cells through tuning the numbers of electron deficient building blocks of molecular acceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Yusheng; Chen, Shangshang; Dong, Tao; Deng, Wei; Lv, Lei; Yang, Saina; Yan, He; Huang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Two analogous dimer and tetramer compounds, SF-PDI2 and SF-PDI4, were designed, theoretically calculated, synthesized, and developed as electron acceptors for organic solar cells. The effects of the number of the electron deficient building blocks on the optical absorption, energy levels, charge transport, morphology, crystallinity, and photovoltaic performance of the molecules were investigated. In combination with two different donors, PTB7-Th and PffBT4T-2OD, the results showed that increasing the numbers of PDI building blocks is beneficial to photovoltaic performance and leads to efficiency over 5%.

  16. The Effect of a Sensory Integration Program on Academic Achievement, Motor Performance, and Self-Esteem in Children Identified as Learning Disabled: Results of a Clinical Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polatajko, Helene J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study assigned children aged 6-8 with sensory integration (SI) dysfunction to 3 groups: 35 used sensory modalities, 32 received psychomotor (PM) training, and 13 no intervention. SI and PM administered one hour per week for six months proved equally effective in improving academic and motor performance but had little effect on self-esteem. (SK)

  17. Are Academic Discounting and Devaluing Double-Edged Swords? Their Relations to Global Self-Esteem, Achievement Goals, and Performance among Stigmatized Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loose, Florence; Regner, Isabelle; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Dumas, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Often taken for granted, the coexistence of benefits and costs of discounting and devaluing has never been tested. Yet, not only are there inconsistent findings about the relations between these processes and global self-esteem, but little is known about their relations to motivation and performance. Here we simultaneously examined how academic…

  18. The Turnaround Challenge: Why America's Best Opportunity to Dramatically Improve Student Achievement Lies in Our Worst-Performing Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Andrew; Guenther, William; Belfiore, Grace; Lash, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Despite steadily increasing urgency about the nation's lowest-performing schools--those in the bottom five percent--efforts to turn these schools around have largely failed. Marginal change has led to marginal (or no) improvement. These schools, the systems supporting them, and the management of the change process require fundamental rethinking,…

  19. The Validity of Pre-Calculus Multiple Choice and Performance-Based Testing as a Predictor of Undergraduate Mathematics and Chemistry Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Gwen Laura

    There has been concern over the validity of the Algebra Diagnostic Test (ADT) used to determine the actual level of student preparation for the first quarter of calculus as taught at the University of California, Santa Barbara. It has been hypothesized that performance-based questions, along with the more traditional multiple choice questions,…

  20. Risk Assessment of Head Start Children with the Brigance K&1 Screen: Differential Performance by Sex, Age, and Predictive Accuracy for Early School Achievement and Special Education Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    1999-01-01

    Examined differences in performance as well as reliability and validity indices for 256 Head Start children screened with Brigance K&1 screen. Found high overall test consistency, but considerable variability across subscales. Classification analyses established that the Brigance was not completely accurate in predicting early school…

  1. Strategy Choice in Solving Arithmetic Word Problems: Are There Differences between Students with Learning Disabilities, G-V Poor Performance, and Typical Achievement Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Espinel, Ana Isabel Garcia

    2002-01-01

    A study was designed to test whether there are differences between Spanish children (ages 7-9) with arithmetic learning disabilities (n=60), garden-variety (G-V) poor performance (n=44), and typical children (n=44) in strategy choice when solving arithmetic word problems. No significant differences were found between children with dyscalculia and…

  2. U.S. Performance Across International Assessments of Student Achievement: Special Supplement to The Condition of Education 2009. NCES 2009-083

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasnik, Stephen; Gonzales, Patrick; Miller, David

    2009-01-01

    The "Condition of Education" summarizes important developments and trends in education using the latest available data. For the 2009 edition, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) prepared this supplemental report to take a closer look at U.S. student performance on international assessments. This special analysis examines…

  3. Experimental evidence of the kinetic performance achievable with columns packed with new 1.9μm fully porous particles of narrow particle size distribution.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Omar H; Catani, Martina; Pasti, Luisa; Cavazzini, Alberto; Ciogli, Alessia; Villani, Claudio; Kotoni, Dorina; Gasparrini, Francesco; Bell, David S

    2016-07-08

    Fully porous particles of narrow particle size distribution (nPSD) are now commercially available. In this paper, the kinetic performance of columns packed with these particles (1.9μm, 80Å pore size) has been investigated under typical reversed phase conditions by using a mixture of benzene derivatives as probes. The columns exhibited remarkably high efficiency (in the order of 300,000 theoretical plates per meter) and the possibility to be used at relatively high flow rates without loss of performance. These results contrast with previous studies on the same columns. Indeed we have found column efficiency comparable to that reported in previous work but, on the other hand, we could not observe the same dramatic loss of performance when columns were operated at high flow rates. The results presented in this paper, based on a set of six columns with different geometries (2.1 and 3.0 internal diameter×50, 75 and 100mm length), are not consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis that the unusually low intraparticle diffusion, which would characterize these particles, is the origin of the high efficiency of the columns. In a companion paper [1], a detailed investigation of the different terms leading to band broadening will be performed to point out the major contribution to plate height on nPSD columns.

  4. The Effects of Cognitive Training on Private Speech and Task Performance during Problem Solving among Learning Disabled and Normally Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.

    To investigate task performance and the use of private speech and to examine the effects of a cognitive training approach, 30 learning disabled (LD) and 30 nonLD Ss (7 to 8 years old) were given a 17 piece wooden puzzle rigged so that it could not be completed correctly. Six variables were measured: (1) proportion of private speech that was task…

  5. Relationships Between Selected Teacher Behaviors and Pupil Academic Achievement: Preliminary Observations (Sample Project A). The Effect of Teacher Input on Student Performance (Sample Project B). Technical Report #35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Kathryn H.

    This Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) report describes two studies on the effects of student-teacher interaction on student performance. Study I explored the relationship between three kinds of teacher behaviors (modeling, teacher attention to individual students, and praise-giving to individual students) and the pupil's academic…

  6. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  7. High-performance n-type organic semiconductors: incorporating specific electron-withdrawing motifs to achieve tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sun Woo; Kim, Jong H; Shin, Seunghoon; Yang, Hoichang; An, Byeong-Kwan; Yang, Lin; Park, Soo Young

    2012-02-14

    Novel π–conjugated cyanostilbene-based semiconductors (Hex-3,5-TFPTA and Hex-4-TFPTA) with tight molecular stacking and optimized energy levels are synthesized. Hex-4-TFPTA exhibits high-performance n-type organic field-effect transistor (OFET) properties with electron mobilities as high as 2.14 cm2 V−1s−1 and on-off current ratios

  8. Efficient Methods for Stable Distributions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    are used, corresponding to the common values used in digital signal processing. Five new functions for discrete/quantized stable distributions were...written. • sgendiscrete generates discrete stable random variates. It works by generating continuous stable random variables using the Chambers- Mallows ...with stable distributions. It allows engineers and scientists to analyze data and work with stable distributions within the common matlab environment

  9. Enhanced in Vitro and in Vivo Performance of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd Alloy Achieved with APTES Pretreatment for Drug-Eluting Vascular Stent Application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Pei; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Qiuping; Xi, Tingfei; Chen, Ming; Guan, Shaokang

    2016-07-20

    Bioabsorbable magnesium alloys are becoming prominent as temporary functional implants, as they avoid the risks generated by permanent metallic implants such as persistent inflammation and late restenosis. Nevertheless, the overfast corrosion of Mg alloys under physiological conditions hinders their wider application as medical implant materials. Here we investigate a simple one-step process to introduce a cross-linked 3-amino-propyltrimethoxysilane (APTES) silane physical barrier layer on the surface of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloys prior to electrostatic spraying with rapamycin-eluting poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) layer. Surface microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Nanoscratch test verified the superior adhesion strength of PLGA coating in the group pretreated with APTES. Electrochemical tests combined with long-term immersion results suggested that the preferable in vitro anticorrosion behavior could be achieved by dense APTES barrier. Cell morphology and proliferation data demonstrated that APTES pretreated group resulted in remarkably preferable compatibility for both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. On the basis of excellent in vitro mechenical property, the animal study on the APTES pretreated Mg-Zn-Y-Nd stent implanted into porcine coronary arteries confirmed benign tissue compatibility as well as re-endothelialization without thrombogenesis or in-stent restenosis at six-month followup.

  10. Highly Functional TNTs with Superb Photocatalytic, Optical, and Electronic Performance Achieving Record PV Efficiency of 10.1% for 1D-Based DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Li, Yuewen; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Mengal, Naveed; Memon, Anam Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Different nanostructures of TiO2 play an important role in the photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have received increasing attention for these applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. Focusing on highly functional TNTs (HF-TNTs) for photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications, this study describes the facile hydrothermal synthesis of HF-TNTs by using commercial and cheaper materials for cost-effective manufacturing. To prove the functionality and applicability, these TNTs are used as scattering structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photocatalytic, optical, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), electrochemical impedance spectrum, incident-photon-to-current efficiency, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy characterizations are proving the functionality of HF-TNTs for DSSCs. HF-TNTs show 50% higher photocatalytic degradation rate and also 68% higher dye loading ability than conventional TNTs (C-TNTs). The DSSCs having HF-TNT and its composite-based multifunctional overlayer show effective light absorption, outstanding light scattering, lower interfacial resistance, longer electron lifetime, rapid electron transfer, and improved diffusion length, and consequently, J SC , quantum efficiency, and record photoconversion efficiency of 10.1% using commercial N-719 dye is achieved, for 1D-based DSSCs. These new and highly functional TNTs will be a concrete fundamental background toward the development of more functional applications in fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, Li-ion batteries, photocatalysis process, ion-exchange/adsorption process, and photoelectrochemical devices.

  11. Towards stable and commercially available perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Nam-Gyu; Grätzel, Michael; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Zhu, Kai; Emery, Keith

    2016-10-17

    Solar cells employing a halide perovskite with an organic cation now show power conversion efficiency of up to 22%. However, these cells are facing issues towards commercialization, such as the need to achieve long-term stability and the development of a manufacturing method for the reproducible fabrication of high-performance devices. Here, we propose a strategy to obtain stable and commercially viable perovskite solar cells. A reproducible manufacturing method is suggested, as well as routes to manage grain boundaries and interfacial charge transport. Electroluminescence is regarded as a metric to gauge theoretical efficiency. We highlight how optimizing the design of device architectures is important not only for achieving high efficiency but also for hysteresis-free and stable performance. We argue that reliable device characterization is needed to ensure the advance of this technology towards practical applications. We believe that perovskite-based devices can be competitive with silicon solar modules, and discuss issues related to the safe management of toxic material.

  12. Towards stable and commercially available perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nam-Gyu; Grätzel, Michael; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Zhu, Kai; Emery, Keith

    2016-11-01

    Solar cells employing a halide perovskite with an organic cation now show power conversion efficiency of up to 22%. However, these cells are facing issues towards commercialization, such as the need to achieve long-term stability and the development of a manufacturing method for the reproducible fabrication of high-performance devices. Here, we propose a strategy to obtain stable and commercially viable perovskite solar cells. A reproducible manufacturing method is suggested, as well as routes to manage grain boundaries and interfacial charge transport. Electroluminescence is regarded as a metric to gauge theoretical efficiency. We highlight how optimizing the design of device architectures is important not only for achieving high efficiency but also for hysteresis-free and stable performance. We argue that reliable device characterization is needed to ensure the advance of this technology towards practical applications. We believe that perovskite-based devices can be competitive with silicon solar modules, and discuss issues related to the safe management of toxic material.

  13. Chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles: combining hydrogen bonds and anion-π interactions to achieve optimum performance.

    PubMed

    Sabek, Jad; Adriaenssens, Louis; Guinovart, Tomàs; Parra, Enrique J; Rius, F Xavier; Ballester, Pablo; Blondeau, Pascal

    2015-01-02

    The performance of chloride-selective electrodes based on "two-wall" aryl-extended calix[4]pyrroles and multiwall carbon nanotubes is presented. The calix[4]pyrrole receptors bear two phenyl groups at opposite meso-positions. When the meso-phenyl groups are decorated with strong electron-withdrawing substituents, attractive anion-π interactions may exist between the receptor's aromatic walls and the sandwiched anion. These anion-π interactions are shown to significantly affect the selectivity of the electrodes. Calix[4]pyrrole, bearing a p-nitro withdrawing group on each of the meso-phenyl rings, afforded sensors that display anti-Hofmeister behavior against the lipophilic salicylate and nitrate anions. Based on the experimental data, a series of principles that help in predicting the suitability of synthetic receptors for use as anion-specific ionophores is discussed. Finally, the sensors deliver excellent results in the direct detection of chloride in bodily fluids.

  14. Investigation of 4H-SiC insulated-gate bipolar transistor turn-off performance for achieving low power loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Dondee; Pesic, Iliya; Morikawa, Yoji; Furui, Yoshiharu; Miura-Mattausch, Mitiko

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic characteristics of a 4H-SiC insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) at pulse switching is investigated by incorporating reported measurements of the interface defect density to device simulation. Different trap features such as energy states and trap time constants are investigated to determine the influence of traps on circuit performance. The capture cross-section parameter used in the simulation depicts the probability of traps to trap/detrap carriers which relates to the carrier trap time constant. It is demonstrated that trapped carriers from the on-state condition cause enhanced generation current during the off-state condition, which give rise to undesired leakage current in addition to the threshold voltage shift previously reported. The device power dissipation is increased by a factor of 100 due to the defects.

  15. Ultra Stable Microwave Radiometers for Future Sea Surface Salinity Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William J.; Tanner, Alan B.; Pellerano, Fernando A.; Horgan, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science System Pathfinder (ESSP) mission Aquarius will measure global sea surface salinity with 100-km spatial resolution every 8 days with an average monthly salinity accuracy of 0.2 psu (parts per thousand). This requires an L-band low-noise radiometer with the long-term calibration stability of less than 0.1 K over 8 days. This three-year research program on ultra stable radiometers has addressed the radiometer requirements and configuration necessary to achieve this objective for Aquarius and future ocean salinity missions. The system configuration and component performance have been evaluated with radiometer testbeds at both JPL and GSFC. The research has addressed several areas including component characterization as a function of temperature, a procedure for the measurement and correction for radiometer system non-linearity, noise diode calibration versus temperature, low noise amplifier performance over voltage, and temperature control requirements to achieve the required stability. A breadboard radiometer, utilizing microstrip-based technologies, has been built to demonstrate this long-term stability. This report also presents the results of the radiometer test program, a detailed radiometer noise model, and details of the operational switching sequence optimization that can be used to achieve the low noise and stability requirements. Many of the results of this research have been incorporated into the Aquarius radiometer design and will allow this instrument to achieve its goals.

  16. The Stable Pairing Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwell, Raymond N.; Seabold, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    The Gale-Shapley stable marriage theorem is a fascinating piece of twentieth-century mathematics that has many practical applications--from labor markets to school admissions--yet is accessible to secondary school mathematics students. David Gale and Lloyd Shapley were both mathematicians and economists who published their work on the Stable…

  17. A Causal-Comparative Study: Determining the Diffference in Principals' Beliefs Regarding Order of Change for Closing Achievement Gaps High-Performing Schools as Compared to Low-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Student achievement is inconsistent when comparing subgroups of students in public schools (Finn, 1999; Spellings, 2008; Teale, Paciga, & Hoffman, 2007). According to research, effective school principals believe that the problem is internal and subject to their control to effect change by addressing inequities. The changes required in closing…

  18. Nanoscale Polysulfides Reactors Achieved by Chemical Au-S Interaction: Improving the Performance of Li-S Batteries on the Electrode Level.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Ying; Xiao, Pin; Li, Huan-Huan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Wu, Xing-Long; Xie, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2015-12-23

    In this work, the chemical interaction of cathode and lithium polysulfides (LiPSs), which is a more targeted approach for completely preventing the shuttle of LiPSs in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, has been established on the electrode level. Through simply posttreating the ordinary sulfur cathode in atmospheric environment just for several minutes, the Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) were well-decorated on/in the surface and pores of the electrode composed of commercial acetylene black (CB) and sulfur powder. The Au NPs can covalently stabilize the sulfur/LiPSs, which is advantageous for restricting the shuttle effect. Moreover, the LiPSs reservoirs of Au NPs with high conductivity can significantly control the deposition of the trapped LiPSs, contributing to the uniform distribution of sulfur species upon charging/discharging. The slight modification of the cathode with <3 wt % Au NPs has favorably prospered the cycle capacity and stability of Li-S batteries. Moreover, this cathode exhibited an excellent anti-self-discharge ability. The slight decoration for the ordinary electrode, which can be easily accessed in the industrial process, provides a facile strategy for improving the performance of commercial carbon-based Li-S batteries toward practical application.

  19. Achieving high performance electric field induced strain: a rational design of hyperbranched aromatic polyamide functionalized graphene-polyurethane dielectric elastomer composites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Qiu, Jinhao; Zhu, Kongjun; Li, Jinhuan; Wang, Jingwen; Li, Shuqin; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2015-03-26

    Dielectric elastomers have great potentials as flexible actuators in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) due to their large deformation, light weight, mechanical compliancy, and low cost. The low dielectric constant of these elastomers requires a rather high voltage electric field, which has greatly limited their applications. In this work, a diaphragm-type flexible microactuator comprising a hyperbranched aromatic polyamide functionalized graphene (HAPFG) filler embedded into the polyurethane (PU) dielectric elastomer matrix is described. The rational designed HAPFG sheets exhibits uniform dispersion in PU matrix and strong adhesion with the matrix by hydrogen-bond coupling. Consequently, the HAPFG-PU composites possess high dielectric performance and low loss modulus. The effect of hyperbranched aromatic polyamide functionalized graphene on high voltage electric field induced strain was experimentally investigated using the Fotonic sensor. The high electric field response of the composite was discussed by applying different kinds of alternating-current field. In addition, a comparison of the breakdown strength between the HAPFG-PU composite and the pure PU was carried out.

  20. Lithography-free large-area metamaterials for stable thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Coppens, Zachary J.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Valentine, Jason G.

    2016-02-08

    A large-area metamaterial thermal emitter is fabricated using facile, lithography-free techniques. The device is composed of conductive oxides, refractory ceramics, and noble metals and shows stable, selective emission after exposure to 1173 K for 22 h in oxidizing and inert atmospheres. Lastly, the results indicate that the metamaterial can be used to achieve high-performance thermophotovoltaic devices for applications such as portable power generation.

  1. Achievement after Failure: The Role of Achievement Goals and Negative Self-Related Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Claudia; Buch, Susanne R.; Dickhauser, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Theory on achievement goals favours a trichotomous model encompassing learning goals, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. Performance-avoidance goals are associated with lower achievement compared to performance-approach and learning goals. The present study investigated the predictions of this model as regards achievement after…

  2. Stable glow discharge detector

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2004-05-18

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) stable glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The stable glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma and a solid rod electrode. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured. The solid rod electrode provides greater stability and thus easier alignment.

  3. Stable isotopes in mineralogy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Stable isotope fractionations between minerals are functions of the fundamental vibrational frequencies of the minerals and therefore bear on several topics of mineralogical interest. Isotopic compositions of the elements H, C, O, Si, and S can now be determined routinely in almost any mineral. A summary has been made of both published and new results of laboratory investigations, analyses of natural materials, and theoretical considerations which bear on the importance of temperature, pressure, chemical composition and crystal structure to the isotopic properties of minerals. It is shown that stable isotope studies can sometimes provide evidence for elucidating details of crystal structure and can be a powerful tool for use in tracing the reaction paths of mineralogical reactions. ?? 1977 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Stable local oscillator module.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-11-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) multi-chip module (MCM). It is a follow-on report to SAND2006-6414, Stable Local Oscillator Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. This report describes the development of an MCM-based version of the complete StaLO, fabricated on an alumina thick film hybrid substrate.

  5. Handbook of stable strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Skoryna, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: chemistry of strontium; biogeochemistry of strontium; uptake of stable strontium by plants and effects on plant growth; divalent cation-dependent deposits in paramecium; effects of strontium ion on the hydrolysis of ATP; stronium ions and membranes - screening versus binding at charged surfaces; mitochondrial granules in the liver of rats kept on stable strontium supplementation; divalent cations and regulation of cyclic nucleotides in nervous systems; strontium as the substitute for calcium in the excitation-contraction coupling of crayfish muscle fibers; hemodynamic effects of strontium in the dog; some mechanical characteristics of strontium-mediated contractions in heart muscle; effects of calcium, magnesium, and strontium on drug-receptor interactions; strontium and histamine secretion; and effects of strontium in human dental enamel.

  6. Thermally stable laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Burns, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoclave fabrication of glass and graphite fiber reinforced composites. A specific resin formulation, termed P10P was utilized to prepare a Courtaulds HMS reinforced simulated airfoil demonstration part by an autoclave molding process.

  7. Bioprocessing of “Hair Waste” by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Hours, Roque A.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing “hair waste,” a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca2+, Mg2+, or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg2+ inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents. PMID:23365760

  8. Double stable isotope ultra performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric quantification of tissue content and activity of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, the crucial enzyme responsible for synthesis of epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Qin, Nan; Peitzsch, Mirko; Menschikowski, Mario; Siegert, Gabriele; Pacak, Karel; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2013-02-01

    Here, we describe a novel method utilizing double stable isotope ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure tissue contents and activity of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), the enzyme responsible for synthesis of the stress hormone, epinephrine. The method is based on measurement of deuterium-labeled epinephrine produced from the reaction of norepinephrine with deuterium-labeled S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the methyl donor. In addition to enzyme activity, the method allows for determination of tissue contents of PNMT using human recombinant enzyme for calibration. The calibration curve for epinephrine was linear over the range of 0.1 to 5,000 pM, with 0.5 pM epinephrine representing the lower limit of quantification. The calibration curve relating PNMT to production of deuterium-labeled epinephrine was also linear from 0.01 to 100 ng PNMT. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were respectively 12.8 % (n = 10) and 10.9 to 13.6 % (n = 10). We established utility of the method by showing induction of the enzyme by dexamethasone in mouse pheochromocytoma cells and strong relationships to PNMT gene expression and tissue epinephrine levels in human pheochromocytomas. Development of this assay provides new possibilities for investigations focusing on regulation of PNMT, the crucial final enzyme responsible for synthesis of epinephrine, the primary fight-or-flight stress hormone.

  9. Bioprocessing of "Hair Waste" by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing "hair waste," a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg(2+) inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents.

  10. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  11. Revisiting the relationship between attributional style and academic performance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous research into the relationship between attributions and academic performance has produced contradictory findings that have not been resolved. The present research examines the role of specific dimensions of attributional style in predicting subsequent academic performance in a sample of pupils (N = 979) from both high‐ and low‐achieving schools. Hierarchical regression and moderation analyses indicate that internal, stable, and global, attributional styles for positive events predict higher levels of academic performance. Global attributions for negative events were related to poorer performance across all schools. Stable attributions for negative events were related to higher levels of performance in high‐achieving schools but not in low‐achieving schools. Higher levels of internality for negative events were associated with higher performance only in low achieving schools. PMID:27594711

  12. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  13. Determinates of Reading Performance and Achievement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-12

    that dyslexia involves the development of spatial processing in both hemispheres to the exclusion of verbal processing, or with results of Pirozzolo...Skills, 1967, 24, 135-138. WI’ILSON, S. F. Developmental dyslexia : two right hemispheres and none left. Siexce, 1977, 195, 309-311. WITKIN, H. A

  14. Performance Based Logistics For Achieving Affordable Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    manager ( PSM ), engineering, finance, contracting and other government representatives are required to coordinate and collaborate with each other...and procurement (not O&M) appropriations in his acquisition checkbook. There is the PSM , who serves as the PM’s representative and lead in the...to facilitate long-term PBL contracts. The warfighter, PM and PSM usually have little control of DWCF. Add the pos- sibility of joint Service or

  15. Achieving Performance-based Lifecycle Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-22

    GAO. (2008b). Neil Abercrombie, Jim Saxton, Subcommittee on Air and Land Forces Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, and Gene...Taylor, Roscoe Bartlett Subcommittee on Sea power and Expeditionary Forces Committee on Armed Services, House of Representative (GAO-08-884R

  16. Determinants of Reading Performance and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biersner, Robert J.; Larocco, James M.

    1980-01-01

    Naval recruits attending a remedial reading program were compared to regular recruits on verbal, nonverbal, demographic, and eye-hand laterality measures. Verbal intelligence scores on the General Classification Test differentiated best between the two groups. Findings on race and laterality factors are also discussed. (Author/SJL)

  17. The effects of chronic achievement motivation and achievement primes on the activation of achievement and fun goals.

    PubMed

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2009-12-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.

  18. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  19. A Descriptive Analysis of the Effects of School, Teacher, and Student Level Factors on Student Achievement of High-Performing and Low-Performing High-Needs, Secondary Schools in the Delta Region of Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lorita L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, analyze, and document the differences in school, teacher, and student-level factors as perceived by administrators and teachers in high and low-performing, high-needs secondary schools in the Delta region of Mississippi. A modified version of Marzano's (2003) "What Works in Schools" survey…

  20. Dynamically stable magnetic suspension/bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1996-02-27

    A magnetic bearing system contains magnetic subsystems which act together to support a rotating element in a state of dynamic equilibrium. However, owing to the limitations imposed by Earnshaw`s Theorem, the magnetic bearing systems to be described do not possess a stable equilibrium at zero rotational speed. Therefore, mechanical stabilizers are provided, in each case, to hold the suspended system in equilibrium until its speed has exceeded a low critical speed where dynamic effects take over, permitting the achievement of a stable equilibrium for the rotating object. A state of stable equilibrium is achieved above a critical speed by use of a collection of passive elements using permanent magnets to provide their magnetomotive excitation. The magnetic forces exerted by these elements, when taken together, levitate the rotating object in equilibrium against external forces, such as the force of gravity or forces arising from accelerations. At the same time, this equilibrium is made stable against displacements of the rotating object from its equilibrium position by using combinations of elements that possess force derivatives of such magnitudes and signs that they can satisfy the conditions required for a rotating body to be stably supported by a magnetic bearing system over a finite range of those displacements. 32 figs.

  1. Dynamically stable magnetic suspension/bearing system

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1996-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system contains magnetic subsystems which act together to support a rotating element in a state of dynamic equilibrium. However, owing to the limitations imposed by Earnshaw's Theorem, the magnetic bearing systems to be described do not possess a stable equilibrium at zero rotational speed. Therefore, mechanical stabilizers are provided, in each case, to hold the suspended system in equilibrium until its speed has exceeded a low critical speed where dynamic effects take over, permitting the achievement of a stable equilibrium for the rotating object. A state of stable equilibrium is achieved above a critical speed by use of a collection of passive elements using permanent magnets to provide their magnetomotive excitation. The magnetic forces exerted by these elements, when taken together, levitate the rotating object in equilibrium against external forces, such as the force of gravity or forces arising from accelerations. At the same time, this equilibrium is made stable against displacements of the rotating object from its equilibrium position by using combinations of elements that possess force derivatives of such magnitudes and signs that they can satisfy the conditions required for a rotating body to be stably supported by a magnetic bearing system over a finite range of those displacements.

  2. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  3. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  4. Highly Reflective Multi-stable Electrofluidic Display Pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shu

    results of a simplified design and fabrication method are demonstrated. As advanced research topics regarding the device optical performance, firstly an optical model for evaluating reflective displays' light out-coupling efficiency is established to guide the pixel design; Furthermore, Aluminum surface diffusers are analytically modeled and then fabricated onto multi-stable electrofluidic display pixels to demonstrate truly "white" multi-stable electrofluidic display modules. The achieved results successfully promoted multi-stable electrofluidic display as excellent candidate for the ultimate E-paper device especially for larger scale signage applications.

  5. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  6. Stable local oscillator microcircuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Stable Local Oscillator (StaLO) Microcircuit. The StaLO accepts a 100MHz input signal and produces output signals at 1.2, 3.3, and 3.6 GHz. The circuit is built as a multi-chip module (MCM), since it makes use of integrated circuit technologies in silicon and lithium niobate as well as discrete passive components. The StaLO uses a comb generator followed by surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. The comb generator creates a set of harmonic components of the 100MHz input signal. The SAW filters are narrow bandpass filters that are used to select the desired component and reject all others. The resulting circuit has very low sideband power levels and low phase noise (both less than -40dBc) that is limited primarily by the phase noise level of the input signal.

  7. Stable umbral chromospheric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, V. M. J.; Scullion, E.; Mathioudakis, M.; Kiselman, D.; Gallagher, P. T.; Keenan, F. P.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: We seek to understand the morphology of the chromosphere in sunspot umbra. We investigate if the horizontal structures observed in the spectral core of the Ca II H line are ephemeral visuals caused by the shock dynamics of more stable structures, and examine their relationship with observables in the H-alpha line. Methods: Filtergrams in the core of the Ca II H and H-alpha lines as observed with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope are employed. We utilise a technique that creates composite images and tracks the flash propagation horizontally. Results: We find 0.̋15 wide horizontal structures, in all of the three target sunspots, for every flash where the seeing is moderate to good. Discrete dark structures are identified that are stable for at least two umbral flashes, as well as systems of structures that live for up to 24 min. We find cases of extremely extended structures with similar stability, with one such structure showing an extent of 5''. Some of these structures have a correspondence in H-alpha, but we were unable to find a one-to-one correspondence for every occurrence. If the dark streaks are formed at the same heights as umbral flashes, there are systems of structures with strong departures from the vertical for all three analysed sunspots. Conclusions: Long-lived Ca II H filamentary horizontal structures are a common and likely ever-present feature in the umbra of sunspots. If the magnetic field in the chromosphere of the umbra is indeed aligned with the structures, then the present theoretical understanding of the typical umbra needs to be revisited. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Bi-stable optical actuator

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  9. Economic Impact of Stable Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dynamic model was created to estimate the economic impact of stable flies on livestock production. Based upon a nationwide average of 10 stable flies per animal for 3 months per year, the model estimates the impact of stable flies to be $543 million to the dairy industry, $1.34 billion to pasture ...

  10. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  11. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…

  12. Highly stable aerosol generator

    SciTech Connect

    DeFord, Henry S.; Clark, Mark L.

    1981-01-01

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly.

  13. Highly stable aerosol generator

    DOEpatents

    DeFord, H.S.; Clark, M.L.

    1981-11-03

    An improved compressed air nebulizer has been developed such that a uniform aerosol particle size and concentration may be produced over long time periods. This result is achieved by applying a vacuum pressure to the makeup assembly and by use of a vent tube between the atmosphere and the makeup solution. By applying appropriate vacuum pressures to the makeup solution container and by proper positioning of the vent tube, a constant level of aspirating solution may be maintained within the aspirating assembly with aspirating solution continuously replaced from the makeup solution supply. This device may also be adapted to have a plurality of aerosol generators and only one central makeup assembly. 2 figs.

  14. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  15. Development of thermally stable polymer concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Megahed, T.N.E.D., Kukacka, L.E.; Fontana, J.J.

    1989-10-01

    This work pertains to the development of a polymer concrete type that is thermally stable under working temperatures of 200{degree} to 300{degree}F. This material is highly durable and thermally stable with high flexural strength and ductility. Its consistency, while fresh, is suitable for both casting in place or precasting techniques. Several optimization stages were applied ranging from mixing ratios and type of aggregate to resin formulation itself. An optimized range of mixing ratios is developed along with optimized mix ingredients, relating mechanical performance to elevated temperature at various degrees of workability.

  16. Concurrent design of a morphing aerofoil with variable stiffness bi-stable laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuder, I. K.; Fasel, U.; Ermanni, P.; Arrieta, A. F.

    2016-11-01

    Morphing systems able to efficiently adjust their characteristics to resolve the conflicting demands of changing operating conditions offer great potential for enhanced performance and functionality. The main practical challenge, however, consists in combining the desired compliance to accomplish radical reversible geometry modifications at reduced actuation effort with the requirement of high stiffness imposed by operational functions. A potential decoupling strategy entails combining the conformal shape adaptation benefits of distributed compliance with purely elastic stiffness variability provided by embedded bi-stable laminates. This selective compliance can allow for on-demand stiffness adaptation by switching between the stable states of the internal elements. The current paper considers the optimal positioning of the bi-stable components within the structure while assessing the energy required for morphing under aerodynamic loading. Compared to a time-invariant system, activating specific deformation modes permits decreasing the amount of actuation energy, and hence the amount of actuation material to be carried. A concurrent design and optimisation framework is implemented to develop selective configurations targeting different flight conditions. First, an aerodynamically favourable high-lift mode achieves large geometric changes due to reduced actuation demands. This is only possible by virtue of the internally tailored compliance, arising from the stable state switch of the embedded bi-stable components. A second, stiff configuration, targets operation under increased aerodynamic loading. The dynamic adequacy of the design is proved via high fidelity fluid-structure interaction simulations.

  17. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  18. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  19. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  20. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  1. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  2. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  3. Multi-stable stochastic resonance and its application research on mechanical fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jimeng; Chen, Xuefeng; He, Zhengjia

    2013-10-01

    It is difficult to extract the fault features of a rotating machine via vibration analysis due to interference from background noise. Stochastic resonance (SR), used as a method of utilising noise to amplify weak signals in nonlinear dynamical systems, can detect weak signals overwhelmed in the noise. However, the detection effect of current SR methods is still unsatisfactory. To further increase the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and improve the detection effect of SR, the present study proposes an improved SR method with a multi-stable model for identifying the defect-induced rotating machine faults by analysing the influence relationship between the resonance model and the resonance effect. Due to the structural characteristics of three potential wells and two barriers, the proposed resonance model can not only further amplify weak signals, but also convert into a monostable model, a bistable model or a tristable model. This result is achieved by adjusting system parameters and thus obtaining a better matching of the input signals and resonance models. Therefore, the multi-stable SR method, combined with the characteristics of the multi-stable model, can both increase the output SNR and improve the detection effect and also detect the low SNR signals and enhance the processing capability of SR for weak signals. Finally, the proposed method is applied to a gearbox fault diagnosis in a rolling mill in which two local faults located in the big gear and the pinion, respectively, are found successfully. It can be concluded that multi-stable SR method has practical value in engineering. The influence relationship between a resonance model and SR is analysed. An improved SR method with a multi-stable model is presented. The signal processing performance of multi-stable SR is analysed comparatively. Simulation and application show the validity and superiority of multi-stable SR.

  4. Stable organic-inorganic hybrid multilayered photoelectrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Min-gyeong; Jung, Jaehoon; Heo, Jinhee; Hong, Eun Mi; Choi, Sung Mook; Lee, Joo-Yul; Cho, Shinuk; Hong, Kihyon; Lim, Dong Chan

    2017-02-01

    The production of hydrogen from water via solar energy conversion has attracted immense attention as a potential solution for addressing energy supply issues. We demonstrated a stable and efficient organic-inorganic hybrid photoelectrochemical (H-PEC) cell. Modifying the surface energy and structure of the organic photoactive layer using multi-functional nanomaterials including -OH-modified NiO nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) led to a 2.8-fold enhancement of the water splitting performance in a single junction H-PEC cell. The enhanced performance was attributed to the i) improved water-wettability, ii) enhanced charge extraction property by band-edge alignment, and iii) the catalytic effect of the introduced NiO-OH nanoparticles. In addition, because of the effects of the RGO layer preventing water penetration and photo-corrosion during the oxidation of water, a distinguishable long-term stability was achieved from the H-PEC cell with an RGO capping layer. The best performance was obtained from the organic-inorganic hybrid multi-junction PEC cells consisting of the WO3 photo-anode (activated under UV irradiation) and the H-PEC cell (activated under visible light irradiation). The H-PEC cell with a WO3 photo-anode exhibited significantly enhanced stability and performance by a factor of 11.6 higher than photocurrent of the single H-PEC cell.

  5. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  6. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  7. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  8. Reactive Ion Etched Unstable and Stable Semiconductor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biellak, Stephen Alexander

    1995-01-01

    High power, diffraction-limited semiconductor laser diodes are desirable for numerous applications such as efficient solid state laser pumping, nonlinear frequency conversion, and free-space communication. In the past several years, wide-stripe diode lasers and laser arrays with powers of up to several watts have become commercially available, but the beam quality of these devices is generally poor due to filamentation, a nonlinear material effect that aberrates the output beam profile. An attractive alternative to these simple Fabry-Perot lasers is offered by unstable resonators, which have inherently large gain volumes and a cavity geometry that inhibits filamentation. Prototype unstable resonators with dry-etched cavity mirrors have recently been demonstrated to achieve near diffraction -limited operation at moderately high output powers. However, the lateral mode properties of unstable resonators have heretofore not been examined in detail, nor has a reliable, high-throughput mirror etch process been developed for these devices. In this work, we have developed a GaAs RIE etching technique using common process equipment that yields mirrors with RMS surface roughness of 3 to 5 nm. We have fabricated unstable resonators and have measured lateral M ^2 beam quality values as low as 1.25 at 300 mW single facet output power in high magnification devices. The impact of cavity geometry and processing techniques on device performance was studied, and the optimal parameters for high-brightness applications were determined. Nearly concentric stable-resonator diode lasers were also fabricated for the first time using this etching technique. These stable-resonators were observed to operate in lateral modes determined primarily by the physical resonator structure up to several times threshold, after which nonlinear effects dominated the cavity modes. Based on these measurements, a description of stable device behavior in terms of gain saturation was developed. Finally, a

  9. Stable, Electroinactive Wetting Agent For Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, Surya G.; Olah, George A.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Surampudi, Subbarao; Halpert, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Straight-chain perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (C8 acid) identified as innocuous and stable wetting agent for use with polytetrafluoroethylene-containing electrodes in liquid-feed direct-oxidation fuel cells suggested for use in vehicles and portable power supplies. C8 acid in small concentrations in aqueous liquid solutions of methanol, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane enables oxidation of these substances by use of commercially available electrodes of type designed originally for use with gases. This function specific to C8 acid molecule and not achieved by other related perfluorolkanesulfonic acids.

  10. Use of focus group interviews with public health nurses to identify the efforts of and challenges faced by branches of the Japan Health Insurance Association to achieve good performance of the Specific Health Guidance initiatives.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Fumi; Ozawa, Keiko; Kawabata, Teruko; Takemi, Yukari

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aiming at improvement of the Japan Health Insurance Association's Specific Health Guidance initiatives and human resource development, we conducted a qualitative study to clarify the features necessary for and the challenges hindering the achievement of good performance of the initiatives.Methods From November 2014 to January 2015, we conducted 10 focus group interviews, each 90 minutes long, with 64 public health nurses from 10 Japan Health Insurance Association branches. In addition, self-administered questionnaires were administered to obtain the participants' basic characteristics. After we excluded one group for failing to meet our performance targets, we divided the remaining nine focus groups according to two patterns: Maintenance and Progress. The four focus groups fitting the Maintenance pattern had a well-established track record, and the five focus groups fitting the Progress pattern had a track record of good growth. Using open coding of the interview transcripts, we extracted efforts or needs in two domains, individual and branch, Then, we placed codes in eight main categories: [quality], [general practice], [dietary guidance practice], [success factor], [branch system], [training and skill development], [approach to the member office], and [past efforts]. We further extracted important subcategories based on their rates of appearance within branches.Results Data from 56 female public health nurses working at nine branches were included in the analysis. With respect to the individual domain, subcategories such as "building rapport," "creating the physical environment," and "taking the initiative in evaluating one's own lifestyle" in the 〈high emphasis〉 segment of the [general practice] category were common to both patterns. In addition, "increasing opportunities for training" and "enhancement of training program content" were found for both patterns in relation to the 〈demand〉 segment of the [training and skill development

  11. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  12. A composite nanostructured electron-transport layer for stable hole-conductor free perovskite solar cells: design and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Qi, Fei; Liu, Pei; You, Sujian; Kondamareddy, Kiran Kumar; Wang, Changlei; Cheng, Nian; Bai, Sihang; Liu, Wei; Guo, Shishang; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    A novel composite nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) based electron-transport layer (ETL) is designed by combining size blended nanoparticles (SBNP) and nanoarrays (NA) for efficient perovskite solar cell (PSC) applications. The composite nanostructured (SBNP + NA) ETL is successfully employed in hole-conductor free PSCs, there by achieving a stable device with a maximum efficiency of 13.5%. The improvement in the performance is attributed to the better charge transport and lower recombination in the SBNP + NA ETL. Despite the stable high efficiency, SBNP + NA ETL based PSCs are advantageous owing to their low cost, ease of all-solution fabrication process in an open environment and good reproducibility.A novel composite nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) based electron-transport layer (ETL) is designed by combining size blended nanoparticles (SBNP) and nanoarrays (NA) for efficient perovskite solar cell (PSC) applications. The composite nanostructured (SBNP + NA) ETL is successfully employed in hole-conductor free PSCs, there by achieving a stable device with a maximum efficiency of 13.5%. The improvement in the performance is attributed to the better charge transport and lower recombination in the SBNP + NA ETL. Despite the stable high efficiency, SBNP + NA ETL based PSCs are advantageous owing to their low cost, ease of all-solution fabrication process in an open environment and good reproducibility. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the experimental section and ESI figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09045h

  13. Documenting Reading Achievement and Growth for Students Taking Alternate Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Farley, Dan; Saven, Jessica L.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been included in state accountability systems for more than a decade; however, only in the past few years have alternate assessments of alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) become stable enough to allow examination of these students' achievement growth. Using data from Oregon's AA-AAS in Reading during the…

  14. Stable isotopes in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Marsh, Julian B; Das, Sai Krupa; Welty, Francine K

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a major public health problem. Obesity is a multifactorial disease and is often associated with a wide range of comorbidities including hypertension, non-insulin dependent (Type II) diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, all of which contribute to morbidity and mortality. This review deals with stable isotope mass spectrometric methods and the application of stable isotopes to metabolic studies of obesity. Body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) can be measured by mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeled water, and the metabolism of protein, lipid, and carbohydrate can be measured using appropriate labeled tracer molecules.

  15. Stable Spheromaks with Profile Control

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K; Jayakumar, R

    2008-01-29

    A spheromak equilibrium with zero edge current is shown to be stable to both ideal MHD and tearing modes that normally produce Taylor relaxation in gun-injected spheromaks. This stable equilibrium differs from the stable Taylor state in that the current density j falls to zero at the wall. Estimates indicate that this current profile could be sustained by non-inductive current drive at acceptable power levels. Stability is determined using the NIMROD code for linear stability analysis. Non-linear NIMROD calculations with non-inductive current drive could point the way to improved fusion reactors.

  16. Unconditionally stable WLP-FDTD method for the modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in gyrotropic materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Wei; Xi, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Jin-Sheng; Liu, Jiang-fan

    2015-12-14

    The unconditional stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on field expansion with weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs) is applied to model electromagnetic wave propagation in gyrotropic materials. The conventional Yee cell is modified to have the tightly coupled current density components located at the same spatial position. The perfectly matched layer (PML) is formulated in a stretched-coordinate (SC) system with the complex-frequency-shifted (CFS) factor to achieve good absorption performance. Numerical examples are shown to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Stable cycling of lithium sulfide cathodes through strong affinity with a bifunctional binder

    SciTech Connect

    Seh, Zhi Wei; Zhang, Qianfan; Li, Weiyang; Zheng, Guangyuan; Yao, Hongbin; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries have attracted great interest in recent years because of their high theoretical specific energy, which is several times that of current lithium-ion batteries. Compared to sulfur, fully-lithiated Li{sub 2}S represents a more attractive cathode material because it enables pairing with safer, lithium metal-free anodes. Here, we demonstrate stable and high-performance Li{sub 2}S cathodes by using ab initio simulations to guide our rational selection of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) binder which exhibits strong affinity with both Li{sub 2}S and lithium polysulfides. A high discharge capacity of 760 mA h g{sup -1} of Li{sub 2}S (~ 1090 mA h g{sup -1} of S) was achieved at 0.2 C with stable cycling over prolonged 500 charge/discharge cycles.

  18. "We've Got to Keep Meeting Like This": A Pilot Study Comparing Academic Performance in Shifting-Membership Cooperative Groups versus Stable-Membership Cooperative Groups in an Introductory-Level Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alicia; Bush, Amy; Sanchagrin, Ken; Holland, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    This study examined possible ways to increase student engagement in small sections of a large, introductory-level, required university course. Research shows that cooperative group learning boosts achievement through fostering better interpersonal relationships between students. Cooperative group learning is an evidence-based instructional…

  19. [Stable fibrous subaortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Attié, F; Dumont, C; Mispireta, J; Kuri, J; Mata, L A

    1975-01-01

    The authors studied 37 patients belonging to the Pediatric Cardiology Service of the Institute National of Cardiology who were carriers of fixed fibrinous subaortic stenosis. The diagnosis was established by surgery or autopsy. Isolated subvalvular obstruction was found in 24 patients (63%), which represents the most important number of cases in the literature. The analysis of the 24 cases permitted important conclusions: 1. All the patients had systolic thrills in the suprasternal hollow and carotidinous pathways. 2. No case had protosystolic click. In all, the murmur's epicenter was in the 3rd and 4th IIS in the parasternal line, a fact which can lead to a mistaken diagnosis of interventricular septal defect. 66.6% of the patients had a diastolic murmur heard in the aortic focus, a secondary accompaniement to secondary valvular aortic insufficiency. The intensity of the second aortic sound held an inverse relationship to the magnitude of the gradient. The presence of paradoxic splitting of the second heart sound as well as prolongation of the expulsion period in the carotidogram are indexes for the severity of the obstruction. 3. A relationship between the severity of the lesion and the dilatation of the left atrium was found. The cardiomegaly had no relationship to the severity of the obstruction with the increase in ventricular telediastolic pressure or to the evolution time. 4. An adequate hemodynamic study permits evaluating and locating the site of the obstruction. Likewise, precise ventriculography appraises the nature of the narrowing. 5. Aortic regurgitation is located at the valvular level. Aortography permits its affirmation. Probably the stream coming from subvalvular stenosis produces fibrosis or asynchronism in the closing of the aortic valves. 6. Surgical treatment offers excelent perspectives in mortality as well as reducing the gradient. None of our patients operated on had hospital or later death. 7. Postoperatory evaluation was performed on six

  20. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  1. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  2. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  3. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  4. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  5. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  6. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  7. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  8. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  9. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  10. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  11. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  12. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  13. Can the Academic Achievement of Korean Students Be Portrayed as a Product of "Shadow Achievement"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunjin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of private tutoring expenditure on two types of Korean students' academic achievements as measured by standardized test achievement and by school performance achievement, applying 5-year data from Korean Educational Longitudinal Study (KELS). It was found that private tutoring expenditure…

  14. Chip Scale Ultra-Stable Clocks: Miniaturized Phonon Trap Timing Units for PNT of CubeSats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Zadeh, Mina; Altunc, Serhat; Hunter, Roger C.; Petro, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The Chip Scale Ultra-Stable Clocks (CSUSC) project aims to provide a superior alternative to current solutions for low size, weight, and power timing devices. Currently available quartz-based clocks have problems adjusting to the high temperature and extreme acceleration found in space applications, especially when scaled down to match small spacecraft size, weight, and power requirements. The CSUSC project aims to utilize dual-mode resonators on an ovenized platform to achieve the exceptional temperature stability required for these systems. The dual-mode architecture utilizes a temperature sensitive and temperature stable mode simultaneously driven on the same device volume to eliminate ovenization error while maintaining extremely high performance. Using this technology it is possible to achieve parts-per-billion (ppb) levels of temperature stability with multiple orders of magnitude smaller size, weight, and power.

  15. Earthquakes in stable continental crust

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.C.; Kanter, L.R. )

    1990-03-01

    Earthquakes can strike even in stable crust, well away from the familiar earthquake zones at the edges of tectonic plates, but their mere occurrence is both a source of concern in planning critical facilities such as nuclear power plants. The authors sought answers to two major questions: Just how much seismic activity does take place within the stable parts of continents And are there specific geologic features that make some areas of stable crust particularly susceptible to earthquakes They began by studying North America alone, but it soon became clear that the fairly short record of these rare events on a single continent would not provide enough data for reliable analysis. Hence, they decided to substitute space for time--to survey earthquake frequency and distribution in stable continental areas worldwide. This paper discusses their findings.

  16. Earthquakes in Stable Continental Crust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Arch C.; Kanter, Lisa R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are some of the reasons for earthquakes which occur in stable crust away from familiar zones at the ends of tectonic plates. Crust stability and the reactivation of old faults are described using examples from India and Australia. (CW)

  17. Achievement Gaps: How Hispanic and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2011-459

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, F. Cadelle; Vanneman, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This report provides detailed information on the size of the achievement gaps between Hispanic and White public school students at the national and state levels and describes how those achievement gaps have changed over time. Additional information about race/ethnicity in NAEP is given in Appendix A. Most of the data in this report is derived from…

  18. What Teachers Should Know about Why These Students Perform so Well: An Examination of Korean-American Achievement through Student Perspectives of East Asian Parenting Beliefs, Styles and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Wendi J.

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian…

  19. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  20. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.