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Sample records for achieve substantial improvements

  1. Substantial improvements in performance indicators achieved in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell cryopreservation quality assurance program using single donor samples.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Wayne B; Pett, Sarah L; Sullivan, John S; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A; Kelleher, Anthony D; Lloyd, Andrew; Lewin, Sharon R

    2007-01-01

    Storage of high-quality cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is often a requirement for multicenter clinical trials and requires a reproducibly high standard of practice. A quality assurance program (QAP) was established to assess an Australia-wide network of laboratories in the provision of high-quality PBMC (determined by yield, viability, and function), using blood taken from single donors (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and HIV negative) and shipped to each site for preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC. The aim of the QAP was to provide laboratory accreditation for participation in clinical trials and cohort studies which require preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC and to assist all laboratories to prepare PBMC with a viability of >80% and yield of >50% following thawing. Many laboratories failed to reach this standard on the initial QAP round. Interventions to improve performance included telephone interviews with the staff at each laboratory, two annual wet workshops, and direct access to a senior scientist to discuss performance following each QAP round. Performance improved substantially in the majority of sites that initially failed the QAP (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001 for viability and yield, respectively). In a minority of laboratories, there was no improvement (n = 2), while a high standard was retained at the laboratories that commenced with adequate performance (n = 3). These findings demonstrate that simple interventions and monitoring of PBMC preparation and cryopreservation from multiple laboratories can significantly improve performance and contribute to maintenance of a network of laboratories accredited for quality PBMC fractionation and cryopreservation.

  2. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  3. Substantial Targeting Advantage Achieved by Pulmonary Administration of Colistin Methanesulfonate in a Large-Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Landersdorfer, Cornelia B; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Lieu, Linh Thuy; Nguyen, Gary; Bischof, Robert J; Meeusen, Els N; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L; McIntosh, Michelle P

    2017-01-01

    Colistin, administered as its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), is often used in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pulmonary infections. The CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following intravenous and pulmonary dosing have not been evaluated in a large-animal model with pulmonary architecture similar to that of humans. Six merino sheep (34 to 43 kg body weight) received an intravenous or pulmonary dose of 4 to 8 mg/kg CMS (sodium) or 2 to 3 mg/kg colistin (sulfate) in a 4-way crossover study. Pulmonary dosing was achieved via jet nebulization through an endotracheal tube cuff. CMS and colistin were quantified in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ELF concentrations were calculated via the urea method. CMS and colistin were comodeled in S-ADAPT. Following intravenous CMS or colistin administration, no concentrations were quantifiable in BALF samples. Elimination clearance was 1.97 liters/h (4% interindividual variability) for CMS (other than conversion to colistin) and 1.08 liters/h (25%) for colistin. On average, 18% of a CMS dose was converted to colistin. Following pulmonary delivery, colistin was not quantifiable in plasma and CMS was detected in only one sheep. Average ELF concentrations (standard deviations [SD]) of formed colistin were 400 (243), 384 (187), and 184 (190) mg/liter at 1, 4, and 24 h after pulmonary CMS administration. The population pharmacokinetic model described well CMS and colistin in plasma and ELF following intravenous and pulmonary administration. Pulmonary dosing provided high ELF and low plasma colistin concentrations, representing a substantial targeting advantage over intravenous administration. Predictions from the pharmacokinetic model indicate that sheep are an advantageous model for translational research.

  4. Exemplar pediatric collaborative improvement networks: achieving results.

    PubMed

    Billett, Amy L; Colletti, Richard B; Mandel, Keith E; Miller, Marlene; Muething, Stephen E; Sharek, Paul J; Lannon, Carole M

    2013-06-01

    A number of pediatric collaborative improvement networks have demonstrated improved care and outcomes for children. Regionally, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Physician Hospital Organization has sustained key asthma processes, substantially increased the percentage of their asthma population receiving "perfect care," and implemented an innovative pay-for-performance program with a large commercial payor based on asthma performance measures. The California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative uses its outcomes database to improve care for infants in California NICUs. It has achieved reductions in central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), increased breast-milk feeding rates at hospital discharge, and is now working to improve delivery room management. Solutions for Patient Safety (SPS) has achieved significant improvements in adverse drug events and surgical site infections across all 8 Ohio children's hospitals, with 7700 fewer children harmed and >$11.8 million in avoided costs. SPS is now expanding nationally, aiming to eliminate all events of serious harm at children's hospitals. National collaborative networks include ImproveCareNow, which aims to improve care and outcomes for children with inflammatory bowel disease. Reliable adherence to Model Care Guidelines has produced improved remission rates without using new medications and a significant increase in the proportion of Crohn disease patients not taking prednisone. Data-driven collaboratives of the Children's Hospital Association Quality Transformation Network initially focused on CLABSI in PICUs. By September 2011, they had prevented an estimated 2964 CLABSI, saving 355 lives and $103,722,423. Subsequent improvement efforts include CLABSI reductions in additional settings and populations.

  5. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  6. Achieve inventory reduction and improve customer service?

    PubMed

    Moody, M C

    2000-05-01

    Is it really possible to achieve significant reductions in your manufacturing inventories while improving customer service? If you really want to achieve significant inventory reductions, focus on the root causes, and develop countermeasures and a work plan, to execute your countermeasures. Include measurements for recording your progress, and deploy your countermeasures until they are no longer required, or until new ones are needed.

  7. Explaining the Substantial Inter-Domain and Over-Time Correlations in Student Achievement: The Importance of Stable Student Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-domain and longitudinal studies of student achievement routinely find moderate to strong correlations across achievement domains and even stronger within-domain correlations over time. The purpose of this study is to examine the sources of these patterns analysing student achievement in 5 domains across Years 3, 5 and 7. The analysis is of…

  8. Phenotype-optimized sequence ensembles substantially improve prediction of disease-causing mutation in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Masica, David L; Sosnay, Patrick R; Cutting, Garry R; Karchin, Rachel

    2012-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation is associated with a phenotypic spectrum that includes cystic fibrosis (CF). The disease liability of some common CFTR mutations is known, but rare mutations are seen in too few patients to categorize unequivocally, making genetic diagnosis difficult. Computational methods can predict the impact of mutation, but prediction specificity is often below that required for clinical utility. Here, we present a novel supervised learning approach for predicting CF from CFTR missense mutation. The algorithm begins by constructing custom multiple sequence alignments called phenotype-optimized sequence ensembles (POSEs). POSEs are constructed iteratively, by selecting sequences that optimize predictive performance on a training set of CFTR mutations of known clinical significance. Next, we predict CF disease liability from a different set of CFTR mutations (test-set mutations). This approach achieves improved prediction performance relative to popular methods recently assessed using the same test-set mutations. Of clinical significance, our method achieves 94% prediction specificity. Because databases such as HGMD and locus-specific mutation databases are growing rapidly, methods that automatically tailor their predictions for a specific phenotype may be of immediate utility. If the performance achieved here generalizes to other systems, the approach could be an excellent tool to help establish genetic diagnoses.

  9. Co-Inheritance Analysis within the Domains of Life Substantially Improves Network Inference by Phylogenetic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Shin, Junha; Lee, Insuk

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic profiling, a network inference method based on gene inheritance profiles, has been widely used to construct functional gene networks in microbes. However, its utility for network inference in higher eukaryotes has been limited. An improved algorithm with an in-depth understanding of pathway evolution may overcome this limitation. In this study, we investigated the effects of taxonomic structures on co-inheritance analysis using 2,144 reference species in four query species: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Homo sapiens. We observed three clusters of reference species based on a principal component analysis of the phylogenetic profiles, which correspond to the three domains of life-Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota-suggesting that pathways inherit primarily within specific domains or lower-ranked taxonomic groups during speciation. Hence, the co-inheritance pattern within a taxonomic group may be eroded by confounding inheritance patterns from irrelevant taxonomic groups. We demonstrated that co-inheritance analysis within domains substantially improved network inference not only in microbe species but also in the higher eukaryotes, including humans. Although we observed two sub-domain clusters of reference species within Eukaryota, co-inheritance analysis within these sub-domain taxonomic groups only marginally improved network inference. Therefore, we conclude that co-inheritance analysis within domains is the optimal approach to network inference with the given reference species. The construction of a series of human gene networks with increasing sample sizes of the reference species for each domain revealed that the size of the high-accuracy networks increased as additional reference species genomes were included, suggesting that within-domain co-inheritance analysis will continue to expand human gene networks as genomes of additional species are sequenced. Taken together, we propose that co-inheritance analysis

  10. Substantial Improvement of Short Wavelength Response in n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ling; Cao, Yunqing; Wu, Tao; Song, Hucheng; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji

    2015-08-01

    We report herein on the effects of silicon nanowire with different morphology on the device performance of n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by varying the length of the silicon nanowires. The optimal length of silicon nanowires is 0.23 μm, and the hybrid solar cell with the optimal length has the V oc of 569 mV, J sc of 30.1 mA/cm2, and PCE of 9.3 %. We fabricated more isolated silicon nanowires with the diluted etching solution. And the J sc of the hybrid solar cell with more isolated nanowires has a significant enhancement, from 30.1 to 33.2 mA/cm2. The remarkable EQE in the wavelength region of 300 and 600 nm was also obtained, which are in excess of 80 %. Our work provides a simple method to substantially improve the EQE of hybrid solar cell in the short wavelength region.

  11. Substantial Improvement of Short Wavelength Response in n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ling; Cao, Yunqing; Wu, Tao; Song, Hucheng; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji

    2015-12-01

    We report herein on the effects of silicon nanowire with different morphology on the device performance of n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by varying the length of the silicon nanowires. The optimal length of silicon nanowires is 0.23 μm, and the hybrid solar cell with the optimal length has the V oc of 569 mV, J sc of 30.1 mA/cm(2), and PCE of 9.3 %. We fabricated more isolated silicon nanowires with the diluted etching solution. And the J sc of the hybrid solar cell with more isolated nanowires has a significant enhancement, from 30.1 to 33.2 mA/cm(2). The remarkable EQE in the wavelength region of 300 and 600 nm was also obtained, which are in excess of 80 %. Our work provides a simple method to substantially improve the EQE of hybrid solar cell in the short wavelength region.

  12. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  13. Improving science achievement at high-poverty urban middle schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruby, Allen

    2006-11-01

    A large percentage of U.S. students attending high-poverty urban middle schools achieve low levels of science proficiency, posing significant challenges to their success in high school science and to national and local efforts to reform science education. Through its work in Philadelphia schools, the Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns Hopkins University developed a teacher-support model to address variation in science curricula, lack of materials, and underprepared teachers that combined with initial low levels of proficiency block improvements in science achievement. The model includes a common science curriculum based on NSF-supported materials commercially available, ongoing teacher professional development built around day-to-day lessons, and regular in-class support of teachers by expert peer coaches. One cohort of students at three Philadelphia middle schools using the model was followed from the end of fourth grade through seventh grade. Their gains in science achievement and achievement levels were substantially greater than students at 3 matched control schools and the 23 district middle schools serving a similar student population. Under school-by-school comparisons, these results held for the two schools with adequate implementation. Using widely available materials and techniques, the model can be adopted and modified by school partners and districts.

  14. Improving mental health outcomes: achieving equity through quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Poots, Alan J.; Green, Stuart A.; Honeybourne, Emmi; Green, John; Woodcock, Thomas; Barnes, Ruth; Bell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate equity of patient outcomes in a psychological therapy service, following increased access achieved by a quality improvement (QI) initiative. Design Retrospective service evaluation of health outcomes; data analysed by ANOVA, chi-squared and Statistical Process Control. Setting A psychological therapy service in Westminster, London, UK. Participants People living in the Borough of Westminster, London, attending the service (from either healthcare professional or self-referral) between February 2009 and May 2012. Intervention(s) Social marketing interventions were used to increase referrals, including the promotion of the service through local media and through existing social networks. Main Outcome Measure(s) (i) Severity of depression on entry using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ9). (ii) Changes to severity of depression following treatment (ΔPHQ9). (iii) Changes in attainment of a meaningful improvement in condition assessed by a key performance indicator. Results Patients from areas of high deprivation entered the service with more severe depression (M = 15.47, SD = 6.75), compared with patients from areas of low (M = 13.20, SD = 6.75) and medium (M = 14.44, SD = 6.64) deprivation. Patients in low, medium and high deprivation areas attained similar changes in depression score (ΔPHQ9: M = −6.60, SD = 6.41). Similar proportions of patients achieved the key performance indicator across initiative phase and deprivation categories. Conclusions QI methods improved access to mental health services; this paper finds no evidence for differences in clinical outcomes in patients, regardless of level of deprivation, interpreted as no evidence of inequity in the service with respect to this outcome. PMID:24521701

  15. Improving Achievement through Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the effect of problem-based learning on students' academic achievement and performance skills in a unit on the human excretory system was investigated. Sixty-one 10th grade students, from two full classes instructed by the same biology teacher, were involved in the study. Classes were randomly assigned as either the experimental or…

  16. Do Charter Schools Improve Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Melissa A.; Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Silverberg, Marsha K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a lottery-based study of the impacts of a broad set of 33 charter middle schools across 13 states on student achievement. To estimate charter school impacts, we compare test score outcomes of students admitted to these schools through the randomized admissions lotteries with outcomes of applicants who were not…

  17. Proven Strategies for Improving Learning & Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Duane

    The purpose of this book is to give student support personnel tools that: (1) will be recognized by educators as directly related to enhancing academic performance; (2) can be used with confidence that they will have the desired impact on achievement; and (3) are culturally sensitive. Chapters contain detailed presentation of the technology as…

  18. A Statistical Approach to Identifying Schools Demonstrating Substantial Improvement in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Coby; Lindsay, Jim; Condon, Chris; Wan, Yinmei

    2012-01-01

    The rising tide behind the school turnaround movement is significant, as national education leaders continue to call for the rapid improvement of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To date, little work has been done to identify schools that are drastically improving their performance. Using publically available school-level student…

  19. Improving Learner Achievement through Evaluation by Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Howard J.

    Evaluation techniques were designed to improve learner performance through use of pre-specified popular instructional objectives. Current curriculum planning and evaluation practices are examined. Two common evaluation malpractices are: (1) the tendency to treat the content of the program as the most important criterion for evaluation, (2) the…

  20. Improving Student Achievement through Behavior Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Gina; And Others

    This report describes a program that was designed to identify and modify disruptive student behavior and improve academic performance. The targeted fifth grade class had been noted for inappropriate behavior and sporadic academic success, with problems documented by teacher observation surveys and self-reporting by students. Probable causes…

  1. Strategic School Funding for Improved Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.; Brown, James R.; Levin, Jesse; Jubb, Steve; Harper, Dorothy; Tolleson, Ray; Manship, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article features Strategic School Funding for Results (SSFR) project, a new joint initiative of the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Pivot Learning Partners (PLP) aimed at improving school finance, human resources, and management systems in large urban school districts. The goal of the project is to develop and implement more…

  2. Survey in sub-Saharan Africa shows substantial support for government efforts to improve health services.

    PubMed

    Abiola, Sara E; Gonzales, Richard; Blendon, Robert J; Benson, John

    2011-08-01

    Public opinion can play an important role in shaping health policy alternatives and outcomes. However, little is known about how citizens in developing countries evaluate government performance in the health sector. Through a survey conducted in 2008 in twenty sub-Saharan African countries, we examined public priorities and perceptions of government efforts to improve health services. In sixteen of these countries, health was one of the top five priorities the public thought the government should address. A staggering proportion of citizens in most of the sampled countries reported having gone without medicines or medical treatment in the previous year, and going without health care was most strongly correlated with views on health services. By contrast, greater access to health care was associated with more positive impressions of government efforts to improve health services. Population health indicators, such as life expectancy and childhood mortality, were not correlated with citizens' evaluation of government efforts. Results suggest that improving access to health care will be a key factor in improving perceptions of government performance.

  3. Stroke care quality in China: Substantial improvement, and a huge challenge and opportunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilong; Li, Zixiao; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, David; Li, Hao; Xian, Ying; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-04-01

    Stroke is The first two authors contributed equally. the leading cause of death and adult disability in China. Although evidence-based clinical interventions have been identified to improve care and outcomes in stroke, significant gaps still exist between guideline recommendations and clinical practice in China. Regional and national stroke registries have been used to assess the benchmark of stroke care quality, provide feedback on compliance with evidence-based performance measures to health care providers, and continuously improve stroke care quality without increasing additional medical costs in the past several decades worldwide. In China, stroke care has become a national priority. A series of stroke care quality assessment and improvement actions was initiated by the Ministry of Health to increase the detection of high-risk populations with stroke, rate of adherence to evidence-based process performance measures of stroke care, and stroke care organization development, aiming to decrease the burden of stroke. China National Stroke Registries have been started in 2007, and they are conducted every 3 to 5 years. A carotid disease screen and intervention project for communities was initiated in 2009. The Chinese Stroke Association, founded in 2015, launched the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance to increase the stroke center design in the near future. In this article, we described these stroke care actions and progression, summarized the benchmark and improvement of stroke care quality, and outlined the future plans in China.

  4. Extremely short duration high-intensity training substantially improves endurance performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jakeman, John; Adamson, Simon; Babraj, John

    2012-10-01

    High-intensity training (HIT) involving 30-s sprints is an effective training regimen to improve aerobic performance. We tested whether 6-s HITs can improve aerobic performance in triathletes. Six subelite triathletes (age, 40 ± 9 years; weight, 86 ± 11 kg; body mass index, 26 ± 3 kg·m⁻²) took part in cycle HIT and 6 endurance-trained subelite athletes (age, 36 ± 9 years; weight, 82 ± 11 kg; BMI, 26 ± 3 kg·m⁻²) maintained their normal training routine. Before and after 2 weeks of HIT, involving 10 × 6-s sprints or normal activity, participants performed a self-paced 10-km time trial and a time to exhaustion test on a cycle ergometer. Finger prick blood samples were taken throughout the time to exhaustion test to determine blood lactate concentration. Two weeks of HIT resulted in a 10% decrease in self-paced 10-km time trial (p = 0.03) but no significant change in time to exhaustion. The time taken to reach onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA, defined as the point where blood lactate reaches 4 mmol·L⁻¹) was significantly increased following 2 weeks of HIT (p = 0.003). The change in time trial performance was correlated to the change in time taken to reach OBLA (R² = 0.63; p = 0.001). We concluded that a very short duration HIT is a very effective training regimen to improve aerobic performance in subelite triathletes and this is associated with a delay in blood lactate build-up.

  5. Radiographic union score for hip substantially improves agreement between surgeons and radiologists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the prominence of hip fractures in orthopedic trauma, the assessment of fracture healing using radiographs remains subjective. The variability in the assessment of fracture healing has important implications for both clinical research and patient care. With little existing literature regarding reliable consensus on hip fracture healing, this study was conducted to determine inter-rater reliability between orthopedic surgeons and radiologists on healing assessments using sequential radiographs in patients with hip fractures. Secondary objectives included evaluating a checklist designed to assess hip fracture healing and determining whether agreement improved when reviewers were aware of the timing of the x-rays in relation to the patients’ surgery. Methods A panel of six reviewers (three orthopedic surgeons and three radiologists) independently assessed fracture healing using sequential radiographs from 100 patients with femoral neck fractures and 100 patients with intertrochanteric fractures. During their independent review they also completed a previously developed radiographic checklist (Radiographic Union Score for Hip (RUSH)). Inter and intra-rater reliability scores were calculated. Data from the current study was compared to the findings from a previously conducted study where the same reviewers, unaware of the timing of the x-rays, completed the RUSH score. Results The agreement between surgeons and radiologists for fracture healing was moderate for “general impression of fracture healing” in both femoral neck (ICC = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.71) and intertrochanteric fractures (0.50, 95% CI: 0.33-0.62). Using a standardized checklist (RUSH), agreement was almost perfect in both femoral neck (ICC = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.82-0.87) and intertrochanteric fractures (0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90). We also found a high degree of correlation between healing and the total RUSH score using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis, there was

  6. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  7. How Much Can Spatial Training Improve STEM Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Uttal, David

    2015-01-01

    Spatial training has been indicated as a possible solution for improving Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) achievement and degree attainment. Advocates for this approach have noted that the correlation between spatial ability and several measures of STEM achievement suggests that spatial training should focus on improving…

  8. Improving Literacy Achievement: An Effective Approach to Continuous Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Carolyn E.

    2007-01-01

    Billions of dollars are spent searching for programs and strategic plans that will prove to be the panacea for improving literacy achievement. With all of the experimental and researched programs implemented in school districts, the overall results are still at a minimum and many improvement gains have been short term. This book focuses on…

  9. Does Children's Academic Achievement Improve when Single Mothers Marry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagmiller, Robert L., Jr.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Veliz, Philip; Clements, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Promoting marriage, especially among low-income single mothers with children, is increasingly viewed as a promising public policy strategy for improving developmental outcomes for disadvantaged children. Previous research suggests, however, that children's academic achievement either does not improve or declines when single mothers marry. In this…

  10. An Action Plan for Improving Mediocre or Stagnant Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Kimberley B.

    2013-01-01

    Although all of the schools in the target school system adhere to a school improvement process, achievement scores remain mediocre or stagnant within the overseas school in Italy that serves children of United States armed service members. To address this problem, this study explored the target school's improvement process to discover how…

  11. Human Physiology: Improving Students' Achievements through Intelligent Studyware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit J.; Yochim, Jerome M.

    1994-01-01

    A studyware comprising a set of interconnected modules on human physiology has been developed and used to improve undergraduate students' achievements. Study results show the scores of students who used the optional computer laboratory sessions were enhanced over those who did not use the studyware. Presents examples from the modules. (LZ)

  12. DOD Joint Bases: Management Improvements Needed to Achieve Greater Efficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Joint Bases Realign Fort Eustis, VA, by relocating the installation management functions to Langley AFB, VA. Realign Fort Story , VA, by...the installation management functions to L·mglcy AFB, VA. Realign Fort Story , VA, by relocating the installation management functions to Commander...DOD JOINT BASES Management Improvements Needed to Achieve Greater Efficiencies Report to Congressional Addressees

  13. Systems Thinking: A Skill to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Bill; Peltier, Gary; Perreault, George

    2004-01-01

    This article examines how schools can avoid barriers to systems thinking in relation to improving student achievement. It then illustrates common errors associated with non-systems thinking and recommends solutions. Educators who understand that schools are complex interdependent social systems can move their organizations forward. Unfortunately,…

  14. Using Students' Cultural Heritage to Improve Academic Achievement in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses an approach to teaching used at Calexico Unified School District, a California-Mexican border high school, by a group of teachers working to make teaching and learning more relevant to Chicano and Mexican students' lives and to improve their academic achievement in writing. An off-shoot of a training program for English…

  15. New Directions in Social Psychological Interventions to Improve Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy D.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to improve student achievement typically focus on changing the educational environment (e.g., better schools, better teachers) or on personal characteristics of students (e.g., intelligence, self-control). The 6 articles in this special issue showcase an additional approach, emanating from social psychology, which focuses on students'…

  16. Microalloying Boron Carbide with Silicon to Achieve Dramatically Improved Ductility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-18

    Microalloying Boron Carbide with Silicon to Achieve Dramatically Improved Ductility Qi An and William A. Goddard, III* Materials and Process... Boron carbide (B4C) is a hard material whose value for extended engineering applications such as body armor; is limited by its brittleness under...Plasmonics, Optical Materials, and Hard Matter Superhard materials, such as diamond, cubic boron nitride,and boron carbide (B4C), exhibit many

  17. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  18. School Improvement for All: Reflections on the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Gary R.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that three social dominance issues have caused and continue to perpetuate achievement disparities among poor and minority students: the assumption of rightness, the luxury of ignorance, and the legacy of privilege. Describes school district initiatives, leadership, and research findings related to overcoming this achievement gap. Contends…

  19. Evidence that Smaller Schools Do Not Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; Zwerling, Harris L.

    2006-01-01

    If more small schools than "expected" are among the high achievers, then creating more small schools would raise achievement across the board, many proponents of small schools have argued. In this article, the authors challenge the faulty logic of such inferences. Many claims have been made about the advantages of smaller schools. One is…

  20. The Role of Principal Leadership in Improving Student Achievement. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2005

    2005-01-01

    School and district leadership has been the focus of intense scrutiny in recent years as researchers try to define not only the qualities of effective leadership but the impact of leadership on the operation of schools, and even on student achievement. A recently published literature review entitled "How Leadership Influences Student Learning" …

  1. An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taik

    2010-01-01

    The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in…

  2. Improving Academic Achievement in Reading and Writing in Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Trina; Newell, Michelle

    This study describes a program designed to increase academic achievement in reading and writing among first and second grade students in a rural, middle-income area. Evidence for the existence of the problem includes reading comprehension tests, observation checklists for reading skills and reading behaviors, and writing samples. Analysis of…

  3. Helping Students Improve Academic Achievement and School Success Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigman, Greg; Campbell, Chari

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a study evaluating the impact of school-counselor-led interventions on student academic achievement and school success behavior. A group counseling and classroom guidance model called student success skills (SSS) was the primary intervention. The focus of the SSS model was on three sets of skills identified in several…

  4. Improving Secondary School Students' Achievement using Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Erik; Haapanen, Rebecca; Hall, Erin; Mantonya, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a program for increasing students' intrinsic motivation in an effort to increase academic achievement. The targeted population consisted of secondary level students in a middle to upper-middle class suburban area. The students of the targeted secondary level classes appeared to be disengaged from learning due to a lack of…

  5. Capacity Building for a School Improvement Program, Achievement Directed Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graeber, Anna O.; And Others

    This report describes and evaluates efforts to enhance school districts' capacity to implement and institutionalize the monitoring and management system for an instructional leadership program called Achievement Directed Leadership (ADL). Chapter one introduces the report's methodology, limitations, and structure. Chapter two first states the…

  6. Improving Student Achievement through the Enhancement of Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Marvin; Teske, Ralph; Gossmeyer, Matt

    This study described a program for improving students' study skills aimed at improving academic performance. The targeted population consisted of students in two public high schools and one parochial grade school in a medium-sized metropolitan area located in central Illinois. The lack of these skills by students at all levels had been…

  7. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  8. Achieving improved cycle efficiency via pressure gain combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Norton, T.S.; Rogers, W.A.

    1995-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation is being performed to evaluate ``pressure gain`` combustion systems for gas turbine applications. This paper presents experimental pressure gain and pollutant emission data from such combustion systems. Numerical predictions for certain combustor geometries are also presented. It is reported that for suitable aerovalved pulse combustor geometries studied experimentally, an overall combustor pressure gain of nearly 1 percent can be achieved. It is also shown that for one combustion system operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emmissions, are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively.

  9. Organizational management practices for achieving software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, Ronald Kirk

    2004-01-01

    The crisis in developing software has been known for over thirty years. Problems that existed in developing software in the early days of computing still exist today. These problems include the delivery of low-quality products, actual development costs that exceed expected development costs, and actual development time that exceeds expected development time. Several solutions have been offered to overcome out inability to deliver high-quality software, on-time and within budget. One of these solutions involves software process improvement. However, such efforts often fail because of organizational management issues. This paper discusses business practices that organizations should follow to improve their chances of initiating and sustaining successful software process improvement efforts.

  10. Improving International Research with Clinical Specimens: 5 Achievable Objectives

    PubMed Central

    LaBaer, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Our increased interest in translational research has created a large demand for blood, tissue and other clinical samples, which find use in a broad variety of research including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested internationally on the collection, storage and distribution of samples. Nevertheless, many researchers complain in frustration about their inability to obtain relevant and/or useful samples for their research. Lack of access to samples, poor condition of samples, and unavailability of appropriate control samples have slowed our progress in the study of diseases and biomarkers. In this editorial, I focus on five major challenges that thwart clinical sample use for translational research and propose near term objectives to address them. They include: (1) defining our biobanking needs; (2) increasing the use of and access to standard operating procedures; (3) mapping inter-observer differences for use in normalizing diagnoses; (4) identifying natural internal protein controls; and (5) redefining the clinical sample paradigm by building partnerships with the public. In each case, I believe that we have the tools at hand required to achieve the objective within 5 years. Potential paths to achieve these objectives are explored. However we solve these problems, the future of proteomics depends on access to high quality clinical samples, collected under standardized conditions, accurately annotated and shared under conditions that promote the research we need to do. PMID:22998582

  11. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Improve Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is on the radar screen of most principals these days--finding out what it is, how it can improve teaching and learning, and what needs to be done to implement it effectively. One critical component of RTI that will require particular attention from principals is student progress monitoring, which is required in every…

  12. Improving Student Academic Achievement through Enhanced Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivan, Christine A.; Weber, Annette M.

    This report describes a program implemented to improve inadequate student communication skills, specifically in the areas of listening, speaking, social, and emotional development. The targeted population consisted of first and second grade students in a middle class community, located in central Illinois. Evidence for the existence of the problem…

  13. Data as a Lever for Improving Instruction and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Warren

    2012-01-01

    This commentary draws on the articles in this issue to underscore the importance of community engagement and districtwide capacity building as central to efforts to use data to inform accountability and choice, along with school and instructional improvement. The author cautions against treating data as an all-purpose tool absent adequate…

  14. Achieving Continuous Improvement: Theories that Support a System Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armel, Donald

    Focusing on improvement is different than focusing on quality, quantity, customer satisfaction, and productivity. This paper discusses Open System Theory, and suggests ways to change large systems. Changing a system (meaning the way all the parts are connected) requires a considerable amount of data gathering and analysis. Choosing the proper…

  15. Peritoneal dialysis: how we can achieve improvement of PD penetration.

    PubMed

    Van Biesen, W

    2007-07-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a well established renal replacement therapy (RRT). It appears to have some excellent properties as a first line RRT, as it preserves residual renal function, improves clearance of middle and larger solutes and preserves vascular access. To improve PD penetration, it is necessary to have a well established pre-dialysis programme, as information seems to be the clue in the choice and the success of PD. Furthermore, it is important that patients and nurses are well educated in the practice of PD. This reduces the need for hypertonic bags by better compliance with the salt restrictive diet, reduces exposure to dialysate per se by adapting the number and length of the dwells to the needs of the patient, and increases peritonitis-free survival, thus prolonging the survival of the peritoneal membrane. In addition, it is clear that the use of new low glucose degradation products and normal pH solutions will also improve the technical success of PD. The collaboration of industry with local health care providers could be a necessity in overcoming the costs induced by the import of dialysate solutions paid for in foreign currency.

  16. Effects of Improvements in Interval Timing on the Mathematics Achievement of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on mathematics achievement. A total of 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grades completed pre- and posttest measures of mathematics achievement from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Students in the experimental group participated in a 4-week intervention…

  17. Have We Substantially Underestimated the Impact of Improved Sanitation Coverage on Child Health? A Generalized Additive Model Panel Analysis of Global Data on Child Mortality and Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Prüss-Ustün, Annette

    2016-01-01

    to what would have been predicted by our model. Conclusions Improving sanitation coverage may be one of the more effective means to reduce childhood mortality, but only if high levels of community coverage are achieved. Studies of the impact of sanitation that focus on the individual’s use of improved sanitation as the predictor variable rather than community coverage is likely to severely underestimate the impact of sanitation. PMID:27783646

  18. Achieving Coherence in District Improvement: Managing the Relationship between the Central Office and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan Moore; Marietta, Geoff; Higgins, Monica C.; Mapp, Karen L.; Grossman, Allen

    2015-01-01

    "Achieving Coherence in District Improvement" focuses on a problem of practice faced by educational leaders across the nation: how to effectively manage the relationship between the central office and schools. The book is based on a study of five large urban districts that have demonstrated improvement in student achievement. The…

  19. Improving Low-Achieving Schools: Building State Capacity to Support School Improvement through Race to the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Joshua; Russell, Jennifer Lin

    2017-01-01

    Improving low-achieving schools is a critical challenge facing urban education. Recent national policy shifts have pressed states to take an expanded role in school improvement efforts. In 2009, a federal grant competition called Race to the Top (RttT) compelled states to improve their capacity to implement ambitious education reform agendas.…

  20. Organizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: Start Times, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.; Rockoff, Jonah E.

    2012-01-01

    Proposals for school reform often focus on large and sometimes controversial systemic changes, such as charter schools, accountability standards, and changes to the way teachers are hired, fired, and compensated. Although these reforms may offer great opportunity to improve student outcomes, they may also be costly, face substantial implementation…

  1. Acute administration of high doses of taurine does not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Fabio; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Rocha, Leandro George Spinola do Amaral; Mesquita, Camila Angélica Asahi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute administration of taurine overload on time to exhaustion (TTE) of high-intensity running performance and alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT). The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (age: 25 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 50.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed an incremental treadmill-running test until voluntary exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake and exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake. Subsequently, participants completed randomly 2 bouts of supramaximal treadmill-running at 110% exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion (placebo (6 g dextrose) or taurine (6 g) supplementation), separated by 1 week. MAODALT was determined using a single supramaximal effort by summating the contribution of the phosphagen and glycolytic pathways. When comparing the results of the supramaximal trials (i.e., placebo and taurine conditions) no differences were observed for high-intensity running TTE (237.70 ± 66.00 and 277.30 ± 40.64 s; p = 0.44) and MAODALT (55.77 ± 8.22 and 55.06 ± 7.89 mL·kg(-1); p = 0.61), which seem to indicate trivial and unclear differences using the magnitude-based inferences approach, respectively. In conclusion, acute 6 g taurine supplementation before exercise did not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and showed an unclear effect on MAODALT.

  2. What Districts Can Do To Improve Instruction and Achievement in All Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togneri, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    A study of five high-poverty districts making strides in improving student achievement revealed that these districts focused on systemwide strategies including new approaches to professional development; making decisions based on data, not instinct; and redefining leadership roles. (MLF)

  3. Improving Student Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics through Teaching to the Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Janet; Coughlin, Jane; Evans, Elizabeth; Sievers, Theresa

    This action research project described strategies for improving student motivation and achievement in mathematics through multiple intelligences. The targeted population consisted of kindergarten, third, fourth, and fifth grade students located in two major Midwestern cities. Documentation proving low student motivation and achievement in…

  4. Effective Strategies Urban Superintendents Utilize That Improve the Academic Achievement for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prioleau, Lushandra

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effective strategies, resources, and programs urban superintendents utilize to improve the academic achievement for African-American males. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research questions regarding urban superintendents and the academic achievement for African-American males: What…

  5. DOD SCHOOLS: Additional Reporting Could Improve Accountability for Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Representatives DOD SCHOOLS Additional Reporting Could Improve Accountability for Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia December...Could Improve Accountability for Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Students with Dyslexia Highlights of GAO-08-70, a report to the Chairman, Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives Many of our

  6. Breaking through barriers: using technology to address executive function weaknesses and improve student achievement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Assistive technologies provide significant capabilities for improving student achievement. Improved accessibility, cost, and diversity of applications make integration of technology a powerful tool to compensate for executive function weaknesses and deficits and their impact on student performance, learning, and achievement. These tools can be used to compensate for decreased working memory, poor time management, poor planning and organization, poor initiation, and decreased memory. Assistive technology provides mechanisms to assist students with diverse strengths and weaknesses in mastering core curricular concepts.

  7. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  8. Teachers' Perception of Their Principal's Leadership Style and the Effects on Student Achievement in Improving and Non-Improving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Brenda Kay

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of their school leaders influence student achievement in their schools. The extent of this influence is examined in this study. This quantitative study examined teachers' perceptions of the leadership style of their principals as transformational, transactional or passive-avoidant in improving and non-improving schools in…

  9. Integrating empowerment evaluation and quality improvement to achieve healthcare improvement outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wandersman, Abraham; Alia, Kassandra Ann; Cook, Brittany; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2015-10-01

    While the body of evidence-based healthcare interventions grows, the ability of health systems to deliver these interventions effectively and efficiently lags behind. Quality improvement approaches, such as the model for improvement, have demonstrated some success in healthcare but their impact has been lessened by implementation challenges. To help address these challenges, we describe the empowerment evaluation approach that has been developed by programme evaluators and a method for its application (Getting To Outcomes (GTO)). We then describe how GTO can be used to implement healthcare interventions. An illustrative healthcare quality improvement example that compares the model for improvement and the GTO method for reducing hospital admissions through improved diabetes care is described. We conclude with suggestions for integrating GTO and the model for improvement.

  10. Integrating empowerment evaluation and quality improvement to achieve healthcare improvement outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wandersman, Abraham; Alia, Kassandra Ann; Cook, Brittany; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    While the body of evidence-based healthcare interventions grows, the ability of health systems to deliver these interventions effectively and efficiently lags behind. Quality improvement approaches, such as the model for improvement, have demonstrated some success in healthcare but their impact has been lessened by implementation challenges. To help address these challenges, we describe the empowerment evaluation approach that has been developed by programme evaluators and a method for its application (Getting To Outcomes (GTO)). We then describe how GTO can be used to implement healthcare interventions. An illustrative healthcare quality improvement example that compares the model for improvement and the GTO method for reducing hospital admissions through improved diabetes care is described. We conclude with suggestions for integrating GTO and the model for improvement. PMID:26178332

  11. School Improvement Plans and Student Achievement: Preliminary Evidence from the Quality and Merit Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Andrea; Rastelli, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This study provides preliminary evidence from an Italian in-service training program addressed to lower secondary school teachers which supports school improvement plans (SIPs). It aims at exploring the association between characteristics/contents of SIPs and student improvement in math achievement. Pre-post standardized tests and text analysis of…

  12. Training Theory of Mind and Executive Control: A Tool for Improving School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2008-01-01

    In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…

  13. How to achieve and prove performance improvement - 15 years of experience in German wastewater benchmarking.

    PubMed

    Bertzbach, F; Franz, T; Möller, K

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the results of performance improvement, which have been achieved in benchmarking projects in the wastewater industry in Germany over the last 15 years. A huge number of changes in operational practice and also in achieved annual savings can be shown, induced in particular by benchmarking at process level. Investigation of this question produces some general findings for the inclusion of performance improvement in a benchmarking project and for the communication of its results. Thus, we elaborate on the concept of benchmarking at both utility and process level, which is still a necessary distinction for the integration of performance improvement into our benchmarking approach. To achieve performance improvement via benchmarking it should be made quite clear that this outcome depends, on one hand, on a well conducted benchmarking programme and, on the other, on the individual situation within each participating utility.

  14. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  15. Effects of simulated interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequalities in educational achievement.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%.

  16. Effects of Simulated Interventions to Improve School Entry Academic Skills on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718

  17. The Consequences of "School Improvement": Examining the Association between Two Standardized Assessments Measuring School Improvement and Student Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltese, Adam V.; Hochbein, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    For more than half a century concerns about the ability of American students to compete in a global workplace focused policymakers' attention on improving school performance generally, and student achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) specifically. In its most recent form--No Child Left Behind--there is evidence…

  18. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  19. Instructional Leadership Influence on Collective Teacher Efficacy to Improve School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancera, Samuel F.; Bliss, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether instructional leadership functions, as defined in Hallinger's Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale, positively influence collective teacher efficacy to improve school achievement. Teachers from sample schools provided data for measures of collective teacher efficacy and instructional…

  20. Investing in Educator Data Literacy Improves Student Achievement. Evidence of Impact: The Oregon Data Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007 the Oregon DATA Project has been investing resources to provide educators on-the-job training around effective data use to improve student achievement. New evidence shows that their efforts are paying off. A 2011 Oregon DATA Project report detailed the impact of their investment in the state's educators, finding the following: (1)…

  1. Improving Achievement in Low-Performing Schools: Key Results for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Randolph E.; Burke, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    As accountability in schools becomes more crucial, educators are looking for comprehensive and innovative management practices that respond to challenges and realities of student academic achievement. In order to improve academic performance and the quality of instruction, the entire school community needs to be involved. This book provides six…

  2. Expansion of Out-of-School Programs Aims at Improving Student Achievement. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary; Teague, Jackie; Frey, Susan

    There is a growing conviction that out-of-school programs can play an important role in improving student achievement. Both government and private sources are investing in them. This report focuses on the expanding prevalence of after-school programs in California, and profiles their nature and the demands that they face. Funding has been…

  3. Promoting Student Achievement through Improved Health Policy. Policy Update. Vol. 22, No. 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fobbs, Erima

    2015-01-01

    "Promoting Student Achievement through Improved Health Policy" is a quick primer of the [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] CDC's "Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child" model, which highlights 10 important areas for connecting health and learning: health education; physical education and physical activity;…

  4. Improving High School Students' Mathematics Achievement through the Use of Motivational Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portal, Jamie; Sampson, Lisa

    This report describes a program for motivating students in mathematics in order to improve achievement at the high school level. The targeted population consisted of high school students in a middle class community located in a suburb of a large metropolitan area. The problems of underachievement were documented through data collected from surveys…

  5. Analyzing Academic Achievement of Junior High School Students by an Improved Rough Set Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Ping-Feng; Lyu, Yi-Jia; Wang, Yu-Min

    2010-01-01

    Rough set theory (RST) is an emerging technique used to deal with problems in data mining and knowledge acquisition. However, the RST approach has not been widely explored in the field of academic achievement. This investigation developed an improved RST (IMRST) model, which employs linear discriminant analysis to determine a reduct of RST, and…

  6. Using Cooperative Learning To Improve the Academic Achievements of Inner-City Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Dwight C.

    Whether using cooperative learning can improve the academic achievement of inner city middle school students was studied in Gary, Indiana at a school with a population of 503 students. Two seventh-grade classes taught by 1 African American male teacher served as 1 treatment group of 20 at-risk students and one nontreatment group of 24 high…

  7. A Better Return on Investment: Reallocating Resources To Improve Student Achievement. [Booklet with Audiotapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Standards-based educational reform has prompted the education system as a whole to examine whether the dollars put into the system reflect an investment in meeting the overarching goals of school reform. Driven by a common goal of improving the achievement of all students to increase the productivity of society in general, the education industry…

  8. Improving Students' Creative Thinking and Achievement through the Implementation of Multiple Intelligence Approach with Mind Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widiana, I. Wayan; Jampel, I. Nyoman

    2016-01-01

    This classroom action research aimed to improve the students' creative thinking and achievement in learning science. It conducted through the implementation of multiple intelligences with mind mapping approach and describing the students' responses. The subjects of this research were the fifth grade students of SD 8 Tianyar Barat, Kubu, and…

  9. Geometry-Related Children's Literature Improves the Geometry Achievement and Attitudes of Second-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Erica M.; Morris, Wendy L.; Fennell, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Use of mathematics-related literature can engage students' interest and increase their understanding of mathematical concepts. A quasi-experimental study of two second-grade classrooms assessed whether daily inclusion of geometry-related literature in the classroom improved attitudes toward geometry and achievement in geometry. Consistent with the…

  10. The Effectiveness of the SSHA in Improving Prediction of Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikoff, Richard L.; Kafka, Gene F.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of the Survey of Study Habits (SSHA) in improving prediction of achievement. The American College Testing Program English and mathematics subtests were good predictors of gradepoint average. The SSHA subtests accounted for an additional 3 percent of the variance. Sex differences were noted. (Author)

  11. Improving Student Academic Reading Achievement through the Use of Multiple Intelligence Teaching Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlir, Pamela

    This report describes an action research project improving student academic reading achievement. The targeted population consisted of fifth grade students in a growing suburb of a major midwestern metropolitan area. The evidence for existence of the problem included student surveys, assessments, teacher observations and checklists. Analysis of…

  12. Improving Teaching Capacity to Increase Student Achievement: The Key Role of Data Interpretation by School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, David; Smith, Richard; Provost, Steven; Madden, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper argues that in a well-organised school with strong leadership and vision coupled with a concerted effort to improve the teaching performance of each teacher, student achievement can be enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that while macro-effect sizes such as "whole of school" metrics are useful for…

  13. Co-overexpression of OsSIZ1 and AVP1 in cotton substantially improves cotton growth and development under multiple-stress conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as salt, drought, and heat cause significant losses in crop production. Our laboratories employ genetic engineering to modify gene expression of selected genes to improve plant performance under environmental stress conditions. Previous studies by our group have shown tha...

  14. Recipe for Success: An Updated Parents' Guide to Improving Colorado Schools and Student Achievement. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taher, Bonnie; Durr, Pamela

    This guide describes ways that parents can help improve student achievement and school quality. It answers such questions as how to choose the right early-education opportunity for a preschooler, how to make sure a 5-year-old is ready for school, how to help a daughter do well in school, how to work with a daughter's or son's teachers, how to help…

  15. Does achieving the best practice tariff improve outcomes in hip fracture patients? An observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, B; Nightingale, J; Moran, CG; Moppett, IK

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine if the introduction of the best practice tariff (BPT) has improved survival of the elderly hip fracture population, or if achieving BPT results in improved survival for an individual. Setting A single university-affiliated teaching hospital. Participants 2541 patients aged over 60 admitted with a neck of femur fracture between 2008 and 2010 and from 2012 to 2014 were included, to create two cohorts of patients, before and after the introduction of BPT. The post-BPT cohort was divided into two groups, those who achieved the criteria and those who did not. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes of interest were differences in mortality across cohorts. Secondary analysis was performed to identify associations between individual BPT criteria and mortality. Results The introduction of BPT did not significantly alter overall 30-mortality in the hip fracture population (8.3% pre-BPT vs 10.0% post-BPT; p=0.128). Neither was there a significant reduction in length of stay (15 days (IQR 9–21) pre-BPT vs 14 days (IQR 11–22); p=0.236). However, the introduction of BPT was associated with a reduction in the time from admission to theatre (median 44 hours pre-BPT (IQR 24–44) vs 23 hours post-BPT (IQR 17–30); p<0.005). 30-day mortality in those who achieved BPT was significantly lower (6.0% vs 21.0% in those who did not achieve-BPT; p<0.005). There was a survival benefit at 1 year for those who achieved BPT (28.6% vs 42.0% did not achieve-BPT; p<0.005). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that of the BPT criteria, AMT monitoring and expedited surgery were the only BPT criteria that significantly influenced survival. Conclusions The introduction of the BPT has not led to a demonstrable improvement in outcomes at organisational level, though other factors may have confounded any benefits. However, patients where BPT criteria are met appear to have improved outcomes. PMID:28167748

  16. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  17. US objectives generally achieved at broadcasting satellite international conference. Improvements can help in future conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-08-01

    The implementation of broadcasting satellite service for the Western Hemisphere was planned. Broadcasting satellites transmit television programs and other information services from Earth orbit to home or office antennas. At the request of the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State and the Judiciary, GAO reviewed conference results as compared to established conference objectives and examined the interagency coordination of U.S. participation in this international conference. The United States basically achieved its two most important conference objectives: adopting a technically and procedurally flexible plan for broadcasting satellite service and obtaining a sufficient allocation of satellite orbit slots and frequencies to meet domestic needs. The U.S. was unable, however, to obtain agreement on adopting a maximum signal power level for satellites. The Department of State could improve its preparation, internal coordination, and administrative support for future international conferences and recommends actions to the Secretary of State to improve its international telecommunications activities.

  18. Quality improvement in diabetes--successful in achieving better care with hopes for prevention.

    PubMed

    Haw, J Sonya; Narayan, K M Venkat; Ali, Mohammed K

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes affects 29 million Americans and is associated with billions of dollars in health expenditures and lost productivity. Robust evidence has shown that lifestyle interventions in people at high risk for diabetes and comprehensive management of cardiometabolic risk factors like glucose, blood pressure, and lipids can delay the onset of diabetes and its complications, respectively. However, realizing the "triple aim" of better health, better care, and lower cost in diabetes has been hampered by low adoption of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes and poor achievement of care goals for those with diabetes. To achieve better care, a number of quality improvement (QI) strategies targeting the health system, healthcare providers, and/or patients have been evaluated in both controlled trials and real-world programs, and have shown some successes, though barriers still impede wider adoption, effectiveness, real-world feasibility, and scalability. Here, we summarize the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness data regarding QI strategies in diabetes care and discuss the potential role of quality monitoring and QI in trying to implement primary prevention of diabetes more widely and effectively. Over time, achieving better care and better health will likely help bend the ever-growing cost curve.

  19. Leveraging Improvements in Precipitation Measuring from GPM Mission to Achieve Prediction Improvements in Climate, Weather and Hydrometeorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the GPM mission, currently planned for start in the 2007 time frame, is to investigate important scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing Operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US and the National Space Development Agency in Japan. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international partners and domestic scientific agencies and institutions, as well as participation by individual scientists from academia, government, and the private sector to fulfill mission goals and to pave

  20. Interprofessional Curbside Consults to Develop Team Communication and Improve Student Achievement of Learning Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kirwin, Jennifer; Greenwood, Kristin Curry; Rico, Janet; Nalliah, Romesh; DiVall, Margarita

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To design and implement a series of activities focused on developing interprofessional communication skills and to assess the impact of the activities on students' attitudes and achievement of educational goals. Design. Prior to the first pharmacy practice skills laboratory session, pharmacy students listened to a classroom lecture about team communication and viewed short videos describing the roles, responsibilities, and usual work environments of four types of health care professionals. In each of four subsequent laboratory sessions, students interacted with a different standardized health care professional role-played by a pharmacy faculty member who asked them a medication-related question. Students responded in verbal and written formats. Assessment. Student performance was assessed with a three-part rubric. The impact of the exercise was assessed by conducting pre- and post-intervention surveys and analyzing students' performance on relevant Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcomes. Survey results showed improvement in student attitudes related to team-delivered care. Students' performance on the problem solver and collaborator CAPE outcomes improved, while performance on the educator outcome worsened. Conclusions. The addition of an interprofessional communication activity with standardized health care professionals provided the opportunity for students to develop skills related to team communication. Students felt the activity was valuable and realistic; however, analysis of outcome achievement from the exercise revealed a need for more exposure to team communication skills.

  1. Interprofessional Curbside Consults to Develop Team Communication and Improve Student Achievement of Learning Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Kristin Curry; Rico, Janet; Nalliah, Romesh; DiVall, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To design and implement a series of activities focused on developing interprofessional communication skills and to assess the impact of the activities on students’ attitudes and achievement of educational goals. Design. Prior to the first pharmacy practice skills laboratory session, pharmacy students listened to a classroom lecture about team communication and viewed short videos describing the roles, responsibilities, and usual work environments of four types of health care professionals. In each of four subsequent laboratory sessions, students interacted with a different standardized health care professional role-played by a pharmacy faculty member who asked them a medication-related question. Students responded in verbal and written formats. Assessment. Student performance was assessed with a three-part rubric. The impact of the exercise was assessed by conducting pre- and post-intervention surveys and analyzing students’ performance on relevant Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education (CAPE) outcomes. Survey results showed improvement in student attitudes related to team-delivered care. Students’ performance on the problem solver and collaborator CAPE outcomes improved, while performance on the educator outcome worsened. Conclusions. The addition of an interprofessional communication activity with standardized health care professionals provided the opportunity for students to develop skills related to team communication. Students felt the activity was valuable and realistic; however, analysis of outcome achievement from the exercise revealed a need for more exposure to team communication skills. PMID:28289305

  2. Improving quality and reducing inequities: a challenge in achieving best care

    PubMed Central

    Nicewander, David A.; Qin, Huanying; Ballard, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The health care quality chasm is better described as a gulf for certain segments of the population, such as racial and ethnic minority groups, given the gap between actual care received and ideal or best care quality. The landmark Institute of Medicine report Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century challenges all health care organizations to pursue six major aims of health care improvement: safety, timeliness, effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and patient-centeredness. “Equity” aims to ensure that quality care is available to all and that the quality of care provided does not differ by race, ethnicity, or other personal characteristics unrelated to a patient's reason for seeking care. Baylor Health Care System is in the unique position of being able to examine the current state of equity in a typical health care delivery system and to lead the way in health equity research. Its organizational vision, “culture of quality,” and involved leadership bode well for achieving equitable best care. However, inequities in access, use, and outcomes of health care must be scrutinized; the moral, ethical, and economic issues they raise and the critical injustice they create must be remedied if this goal is to be achieved. Eliminating any observed inequities in health care must be synergistically integrated with quality improvement. Quality performance indicators currently collected and evaluated indicate that Baylor Health Care System often performs better than the national average. However, there are significant variations in care by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status that indicate the many remaining challenges in achieving “best care” for all. PMID:16609733

  3. Employee Perceptions of Progress with Implementing a Student-Centered Model of Institutional Improvement: An Achieving the Dream Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Annesa LeShawn

    2011-01-01

    Achieving the Dream is a national initiative focused on helping more community college students succeed, particularly students of color and low-income students. Achieving the Dream's student-centered model of institutional improvement focuses on eliminating gaps and raising student achievement by helping institutions build a culture of evidence…

  4. From Guide to Practice: Improving Your After School Science Program to Increase Student Academic Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous science organizations, such as NASA, offer educational outreach activities geared towards after school. For some programs, the primary goal is to grow students' love of science. For others, the programs are also intended to increase academic achievement. For those programs looking to support student learning in out-of-school time environments, aligning the program with learning during the classroom day can be a challenge. The Institute for Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse, put together a 'Practice Guide' for maximizing learning time beyond the regular school day. These practice guides provide concrete recommendations for educators supported by research. While this guide is not specific to any content or subject-area, the recommendations provided align very well with science education. After school science is often viewed as a fun, dynamic environment for students. Indeed, one of the recommendations to ensure time is structured according to students' needs is to provide relevant and interesting experiences. Given that our after school programs provide such creative environments for students, what other components are needed to promote increased academic achievement? The recommendations provided to academic achievement, include: 1. Align Instruction, 2. Maximize Attendance and Participation, 3. Adapt Instruction, 4. Provide Engaging Experiences, and 5. Evaluate Program. In this session we will examine these five recommendations presented in the Practice Guide, discuss how these strategies align with science programs, and examine what questions each program should address in order to provide experiences that lend themselves to maximizing instruction. Roadblocks and solutions for overcoming challenges in each of the five areas will be presented. Jessica Taylor will present this research based on her role as an author on the Practice Guide, 'Improving Academic Achievement in Out-of-School Time' and her experience working in various informal science

  5. Educating Everybody's Children: Diverse Teaching Strategies for Diverse Learners. What Research and Practice Say about Improving Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert W., Ed.

    The culmination of work by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's (ASCD) Urban Middle Grades Network, a special Advisory Panel on Improving Student Achievement, and the Improving Student Achievement Research Panel, this book proposes a repertoire of tools for educators meeting the needs of an increasingly diverse student…

  6. Charting the course for home health care quality: action steps for achieving sustainable improvement: conference proceedings.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Penny Hollander; Peterson, Laura E; Reische, Laurie; Bruno, Lori; Clark, Amy

    2004-12-01

    On June 30 and July 1, 2003, the first national meeting Charting the Course for Home Health Care Quality: Action Steps for Achieving Sustainable Improvement convened in New York City. The Center for Home Care Policy & Research of the Visiting Nurse Service of New York (VNSNY) hosted the meeting with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Fifty-seven attendees from throughout the United States participated. The participants included senior leaders and managers and nurses working directly in home care today. The meeting's objectives were to: 1. foster dialogue among key constituents influencing patient safety and home care, 2. promote information-sharing across sectors and identify areas where more information is needed, and, 3. develop an agenda and strategy for moving forward. This article reports the meeting's proceedings.

  7. Optimization of Oxidation Temperature for Commercially Pure Titanium to Achieve Improved Corrosion Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Rajesh; Singh, J. K.; Singh, Vakil; Singh, D. D. N.; Das, Parimal

    2017-03-01

    Thermal oxidation of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) was carried out at different temperatures, ranging from 200 to 900 °C to achieve optimum corrosion resistance of the thermally treated surface in simulated body fluid. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the oxides and assess their protective properties exposed in the test electrolyte. Maximum resistance toward corrosion was observed for samples oxidized at 500 °C. This was attributed to the formation of a composite layer of oxides at this temperature comprising Ti2O3 (titanium sesquioxide), anatase and rutile phases of TiO2 on the surface of cp-Ti. Formation of an intact and pore-free oxide-substrate interface also improved its corrosion resistance.

  8. An improvement in land cover classification achieved by merging microwave data with Landsat multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1980-01-01

    The improvement in land cover classification achieved by merging microwave data with Landsat MSS data is examined. To produce a merged data set for analysis and comparison, a registration procedure by which a set of Seasat SAR digital data was merged with the MSS data is described. The Landsat MSS data and the merged Landsat/Seasat data sets were processed using conventional multichannel spectral pattern recognition techniques. An analysis of the classified data sets indicates that while Landsat data delineate different forest types (i.e., deciduous/coniferous) and allow some species separation, SAR data provide additional information related to plant canopy configuration and vegetation density as associated with varying water regimes, and therefore allow for further subdivision in the classification of forested wetlands of the coastal region of the southern United States.

  9. Optimization of Oxidation Temperature for Commercially Pure Titanium to Achieve Improved Corrosion Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Rajesh; Singh, J. K.; Singh, Vakil; Singh, D. D. N.; Das, Parimal

    2017-02-01

    Thermal oxidation of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) was carried out at different temperatures, ranging from 200 to 900 °C to achieve optimum corrosion resistance of the thermally treated surface in simulated body fluid. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the oxides and assess their protective properties exposed in the test electrolyte. Maximum resistance toward corrosion was observed for samples oxidized at 500 °C. This was attributed to the formation of a composite layer of oxides at this temperature comprising Ti2O3 (titanium sesquioxide), anatase and rutile phases of TiO2 on the surface of cp-Ti. Formation of an intact and pore-free oxide-substrate interface also improved its corrosion resistance.

  10. The Stories Clinicians Tell: Achieving High Reliability and Improving Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel L; Stewart, Kevin O

    2016-01-01

    The patient safety movement has been deeply affected by the stories patients have shared that have identified numerous opportunities for improvements in safety. These stories have identified system and/or human inefficiencies or dysfunctions, possibly even failures, often resulting in patient harm. Although patients’ stories tell us much, less commonly heard are the stories of clinicians and how their personal observations regarding the environments they work in and the circumstances and pressures under which they work may degrade patient safety and lead to harm. If the health care industry is to function like a high-reliability industry, to improve its processes and achieve the outcomes that patients rightly deserve, then leaders and managers must seek and value input from those on the front lines—both clinicians and patients. Stories from clinicians provided in this article address themes that include incident identification, disclosure and transparency, just culture, the impact of clinical workload pressures, human factors liabilities, clinicians as secondary victims, the impact of disruptive and punitive behaviors, factors affecting professional morale, and personal failings. PMID:26580146

  11. Superfund: Interagency Agreements and Improved Project Management Needed to Achieve Cleanup Progress at Key Defense Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    endangerment to health and the environment may exist under the authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act or under the authority of the Safe...hazardous wastes that may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health or the environment. 31The Safe Drinking Water Act provides EPA...Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) authority to address solid and hazardous wastes that may present an imminent and substantial endangerment to

  12. Improving production of 11C to achieve high specific labelled radiopharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savio, E.; García, O.; Trindade, V.; Buccino, P.; Giglio, J.; Balter, H.; Engler, H.

    2012-12-01

    Molecular imaging is usually based on the recognition by the radiopharmaceuticals of specific sites which are present in limited number or density in the cells or biological tissues. Thus is of high importance to label the radiopharmaceuticals with high specific activity to be able to achieve a high target to non target ratio. The presence of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air containing 98,88% of 12C and 1,12% 13C compete with 11CO2 produced at the cyclotron. In order to minimize the presence of these isotopes along the process of irradiation, transferring and synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 11C, we applied this method: previous to the irradiation the target was 3-4 times flushed with He (5.7) as a cold cleaning, followed by a similar conditioning of the line, from the target up to the module, and finally a hot cleaning in order to desorb 12CO2 and 13CO2, this was performed by irradiation during 1 min at 5 uA (3 times). In addition, with the aim of improving quality of gases in the target and in the modules, water traps (Agilent) were incorporated in the inlet lines of the target and modules. Target conditioning process (cold and hot flushings) as well as line cleaning, allowing the desorption of unlabelled CO2, together with the increasing of gas purity in the irradiation and in the synthesis, were critical parameters that enable to achieve 11C-radiopharamaceuticals with high specific activity, mainly in the case of 11C-PIB.

  13. Structuring Out-of-School Time to Improve Academic Achievement. IES Practice Guide. NCEE 2009-012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Megan; Borman, Geoffrey; Capizzano, Jeffrey; Parsley, Danette; Ross, Steven; Schirm, Allen; Taylor, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Out-of-school time programs can enhance academic achievement by helping students learn outside the classroom. The purpose of this practice guide is to provide recommendations for organizing and delivering school-based out-of-school time (OST) programs to improve the academic achievement of student participants. The five recommendations in this…

  14. Conference on Improving Minority and At-Risk Student Achievement: Blueprint for Excellence Proceedings Report. (Raleigh, NC, March 10, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability Services/Research.

    The Conference on Improving Minority and At-Risk Student Achievement was convened to help educators, parents, community, and business leaders in North Carolina focus in strategies and ideas that work to raise student achievement levels for low-performing students. This report summarizes the remarks of Michael Garrett, the keynote address of Asa…

  15. Improving Science Achievement and Attitudes of Students With and Without Learning Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders-White, Pamela

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of structured note-taking compared to traditional note-taking on the acquisition of scientific knowledge for students with and without learning disabilities (LD) and students with reading difficulties (RD). An additional purpose was to examine whether the two note-taking methods affected students' attitudes toward science. The sample population consisted of 203 fifth grade students across four public schools in the southern area of the United States. A standardized instrument aligned to Florida's science standards was used to measure the acquisition of scientific knowledge and the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes. For meaningful analyses, students with LD and students with RD were collapsed to form a single group due to the small numbers of participants in each of the subgroups; the collapsed group was referred to as "low achievers." A three-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to determine the effects of the pretest-posttest Science Interim assessment by group, type of student, and gender. The pretest-posttest Science Interim assessment scores were the within-group factor, while group, type of student, and gender were the between-groups factors. Results revealed that there was a significant interaction between the pretest-posttest Science Interim assessment and group, F(1, 191) = 9.320, p = .003, indicating that scientific knowledge scores increased for the experimental group, but decreased for the control group. Results also indicated that there was a significant three-way interaction between the pretest-posttest Science Interim assessment, group, and gender, F(1, 191) = 5.197, p = .024, showing that all participants in the experimental group improved their scores; while in the control group, female scores decreased and male scores increased. Participants in the experimental and control groups did not show improved attitudes

  16. Automated monitoring: a potential solution for achieving sustainable improvement in hand hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2014-08-01

    Adequate hand hygiene is often considered as the most effective method of reducing the rates of hospital-acquired infections, which are one of the major causes of increased cost, morbidity, and mortality in healthcare. Electronic monitoring technologies provide a promising direction for achieving sustainable hand hygiene improvement by introducing the elements of automated feedback and creating the possibility to automatically collect individual hand hygiene performance data. The results of the multiphase testing of an automated hand hygiene reminding and monitoring system installed in a complex continuing care setting are presented. The study included a baseline Phase 1, with the system performing automated data collection only, a preintervention Phase 2 with hand hygiene status indicator enabled, two intervention Phases 3 and 4 with the system generating hand hygiene reminding signals and periodic performance feedback sessions provided, and a postintervention Phase 5 with only hand hygiene status indicator enabled and no feedback sessions provided. A significant increase in hand hygiene performance observed during the first intervention Phase 3 was sustained over the second intervention Phase 4, with the postintervention phase also indicating higher hand hygiene activity rates compared with the preintervention and baseline phases. The overall trends observed during the multiphase testing, the factors affecting acceptability of the automated hand hygiene monitoring system, and various strategies of technology deployment are discussed.

  17. Solute Enhanced Strain Hardening of Aluminum Alloys to Achieve Improved Combinations of Strength and Toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovanec, Christopher James

    2011-12-01

    The feasibility of achieving improved combinations of strength and toughness in aluminum alloy 2524 through solute enhanced strain hardening (SESH) has been explored in this study and shown to be viable. The effectiveness of SESH is directly dependent on the strain hardening rate (SHR) of the material being processed. Aluminum alloy 2524 naturally ages to the T4-temper after solution heat treating and quenching. The SHR of strain free and post cold rolled material as a function of natural aging time has been measured by means of simple compression. It has been determined that the SHR of AA2524 is more effective with solute in solution rather than clustered into GP zones. It has also been shown that the typical rapid formation of GP zones at room temperature (natural aging) is inhibited by moderate cold rolling strains (□CR ≥ 0.2) through dislocation aided vacancy annihilation. The practical limitations of quenching rate have been determined using hardness and eddy current electrical conductivity measurements. It has been shown that too slow of a quench rate results in solute being lost to both the formation of GP zones and embrittling precipitates during the quench, while too rapid of a quench rate results in mid-plane cracking of the work piece during the SESH processing. The mid-plane cracking was overcome by using an uphill quenching procedure to relieve residual stresses within the work piece. Aluminum alloy 2524 strengthened through SESH to a yield strength 11% greater than that in the T6-Temper exhibits: equivalent toughness, 5% greater UTS, 1% greater elongation, 7% greater R.A., and absorbs 15% more energy during tensile testing. At yield strengths comparable to published data for 2x24 alloys, the SESH 2524 exhibited up to a 60% increase in fracture toughness. The fractured surfaces of the SESH material exhibited transgranular dimpled rupture as opposed to the grain boundary ductile fracture (GBPF) observed in the artificially aged material.

  18. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25...-193.25 What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to... correspondence; (b) Design forms that are easy to fill-in, read, transmit, process, and retrieve, and...

  19. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25...-193.25 What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive...

  20. Developing and Improving Modified Achievement Level Descriptors: Rationale, Procedures, and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Albus, Debra; Rogers, Chris; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    Some states are developing alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) to measure the academic achievement of some students with disabilities (Albus, Lazarus, Thurlow, & Cormier, 2009; Lazarus, Thurlow, Christensen, & Cormier, 2007). These assessments measure the same content as the general assessment for a given…

  1. How Urban School Superintendents Effectively Use Data Driven Decision Making to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Lonny Gene

    2010-01-01

    With the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2002, schools, districts, and therefore, superintendents have been held increasingly accountable for the achievement of the students. The states and federal governments have used student achievement data to measure the progress and success of schools and districts and have held districts…

  2. Substantially oxygen-free contact tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  3. Substantially Oxygen-Free Contact Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  4. Production of substantially pure fructose

    DOEpatents

    Hatcher, Herbert J.; Gallian, John J.; Leeper, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.

  5. Quality improvement initiatives in neonatal intensive care unit networks: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vibhuti; Warre, Ruth; Lee, Shoo K

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal intensive care unit networks that encompass regions, states, and even entire countries offer the perfect platform for implementing continuous quality improvement initiatives to advance the health care provided to vulnerable neonates. Through cycles of identification and implementation of best available evidence, benchmarking, and feedback of outcomes, combined with mutual collaborative learning through a network of providers, the performance of health care systems and neonatal outcomes can be improved. We use examples of successful neonatal networks from across North America to explore continuous quality improvement in the neonatal intensive care unit, including the rationale for the formation of neonatal networks, the role of networks in continuous quality improvement, quality improvement methods and outcomes, and barriers to and facilitators of quality improvement.

  6. Measuring Substantial Reductions in Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Charles; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.; So, Suzanna; Brown, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The case definitions for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) each include a disability criterion requiring substantial reductions in activity in order to meet diagnostic criteria. Difficulties have been encountered in defining and operationalizing the substantial reduction disability criterion within these various illness definitions. The present study sought to relate measures of past and current activities in several domains including the SF-36, an objective measure of activity (e.g. actigraphy), a self-reported quality of life scale, and measures of symptom severity. Results of the study revealed that current work activities had the highest number of significant associations with domains such as the SF-36 subscales, actigraphy, and symptom scores. As an example, higher self-reported levels of current work activity were associated with better health. This suggests that current work related activities may provide a useful domain for helping operationalize the construct of substantial reductions in activity. PMID:25584524

  7. Using Weblog in Cooperative Learning to Improve the Achievement of History Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leng, Lim Hooi; Leng, Chin Hai; Abedalaziz, Nabeel

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the use of Weblog in Cooperative Learning to enhance students' learning of History. The main issues of this study were the lack of interest and low achievement scores in History learning. The objectives of this study are to explore the incorporation of Weblog in Cooperative Learning within the teaching and learning…

  8. Improving Low Achievers' Academic Performance at University by Changing the Social Value of Mastery Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…

  9. Improving Teaching, Learning, and Assessment by Making Evidence of Achievement Transparent. Occasional Paper #25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eubanks, David; Gliem, David

    2015-01-01

    Technology can change higher education by empowering students to make an impact on the world as undergraduates. Done systematically, this would allow institutions to close the credibility gap with an increasingly dubious public. Authentic student achievements that are addressed to a "real world" audience can lead to richly detailed…

  10. A Mobile Gamification Learning System for Improving the Learning Motivation and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, C-H.; Cheng, C-H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate how a gamified learning approach influences science learning, achievement and motivation, through a context-aware mobile learning environment, and explains the effects on motivation and student learning. A series of gamified learning activities, based on MGLS (Mobile Gamification Learning System), was developed and…

  11. Achievement for All: Improving Psychosocial Outcomes for Students with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-01-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA)…

  12. Teacher Professional Development to Improve Science and Literacy Achievement of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Buxton, Cory A.

    2013-01-01

    The school-aged population in the United States is becoming more culturally and linguistically diverse, while achievement gaps across content areas persist. At the same time, more rigorous academic demands are being placed on all students, including English language learners (ELLs). Teachers of ELLs face the double challenge of promoting English…

  13. Concept Mapping Strategy: An Effective Tool for Improving Students' Academic Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakiyo, John; Waziri, Kawu

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the use of concept mapping teaching method on secondary school students' academic achievement in biology. Two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The design of the study was quasi-experimental design with 122 Senior Secondary students selected purposively from two senior secondary schools in…

  14. Is There a Relationship between the Play Attention Program and Improved Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Jenny Ann

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its effects on student academic achievement have been researched for many years. There have been many interventions that have been used in treating ADHD that have been found successful when implemented consistently. Some of the interventions that have been researched in the past are behavior…

  15. Comparing District Achievement to Improve Decision Making in Clark County, Nevada. Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In response to changing demographics, a tightening budget, and drastic achievement gaps (white students outperform Latino students on standardized tests) the Clark County School District in Nevada (the fifth largest district in the country) commissioned, in 2011, an educational and operational efficiency review. The district commissioned the…

  16. Improving Astronomy Achievement and Attitude through Astronomy Summer Project: A Design, Implementation and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türk, Cumhur; Kalkan, Hüseyin; Iskeleli', Nazan Ocak; Kiroglu, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of an astronomy summer project implemented in different learning activities on elementary school students, pre-service elementary teachers and in-service teachers' astronomy achievement and their attitudes to astronomy field. This study is the result of a five-day, three-stage, science school,…

  17. Using Formative Reading Assessments and Data Utilization to Improve ELL Spanish Speaking Students' Achievement Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Maureen Dugan

    2013-01-01

    The demands and expectations placed on all schools in the United States to meet the needs of a growing and diverse population continue to raise the questions, what needs to be done in order for all students to achieve success, and how can this success be measured? This study, researched and reported in the form of a dissertation, was performed on…

  18. Major Field Achievement Test in Business: Guidelines for Improved Outcome Scores--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, J. Patrick; White, Jason T.

    2007-01-01

    Outcomes measurements have always been an important part of proving to outside constituencies how you "measure up" to other schools with your business programs. A common nationally-normed exam that is used is the Major Field Achievement Test in Business from Educational Testing Services. Our paper discusses some guidelines that we are…

  19. Literacy Coaching to Improve Student Reading Achievement: A Multi-Level Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Garnier, Helen E.; Spybrook, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    In a longitudinal group-randomized trial, we explore the key role of the quality of classroom text discussions in mediating the effects of Content-Focused Coaching (CFC) on student reading achievement (2983 students, 167 teachers). Schools in the United States serving large numbers of minority and English language learning (ELL) students from…

  20. 10 Strategies for Raising Achievement and Improving High School Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2004-01-01

    No state can afford to have the percentage of young people who are failing to finish high school remain at the present levels nor can they afford to ease the standards. This document discusses the following 10 strategies that states can implement to raise achievement and increase high school completion rates: (1) Initiate a transition program for…

  1. Improving Attainment through Action Research: An Introduction to Hillingdon's Raising Achievement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irshad, Khalid; Imrie, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Raising Achievement Project designed to address the need for more information on the performance of ethnic minorities for whom English is an additional language, and the need for support for children who have passed the initial stages of learning English. It also describes the action research model used to answer questions about…

  2. The Role of School Culture in Improving Student Achievement in POS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Kirsten; Castellano, Marisa; Overman, Laura T.; Aliaga, Oscar A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past five years, the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE) has sponsored five research studies of Programs of Study (POS)--including three ongoing longitudinal projects--with the goal of informing the field about how and under what conditions POS impact student engagement, achievement, and transition to…

  3. Improving Elementary American Indian Students' Math Achievement with Inquiry-Based Mathematics and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Jamalee; Hamann, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Project Inquiry-Based Mathematics was a National Science Foundation Math-Science Partnership implemented in a Great Plains city school district with a significant K-12 Native American population. One goal of the project was to reduce the achievement gap between Native American and non-Native students enrolled in district. This gap reduction was to…

  4. Teaching Processes To Improve Both Higher As Well As Lower Mental Process Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soled, Suzanne Wegener

    A major purpose of this research was to measure the effect of four different teaching processes on lower and higher mental process achievement. Two separate studies, one in science and one in mathematics, involved approximately 100 seventh grade students in four classrooms in a public junior high school in a middle-income neighborhood, and 85…

  5. The Effect of Using Activities Improving Scientific Literacy on Students' Achievement in Science and Technology Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucluer, Efe; Kesercioglu, Teoman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is examining the effect of the using scientific literacy development activities on students' achievement. The study was carried out in a primary school in Buca Izmir for 2010-2011 academic years. System of our body was chosen as a study topic in our search which took 6 weeks. Pre-post test semi experimental control model was…

  6. Turning Despondency into Hope: Charting New Paths to Improve Students' Achievement and Participation in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Alberto J.

    2004-01-01

    This monograph offers a realistic look at current trends in student achievement in science education, the participation of underrepresented populations, and the many factors that serve to sustain them. In addition, it offers new insights and concrete suggestions for change based on the analysis of recent reports and promising field-based studies.…

  7. Effectiveness of a Metacognitive Reading Strategies Program for Improving Low Achieving EFL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Nasrah Mahmoud; Tawalbeh, Tha'er Issa

    2015-01-01

    As the training of language learners was a main concern of EFL teachers, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive reading strategies instruction (MRSI) on Taif University EFL students who achieved low results in reading. The final sample of this study was (21) female university students. The sample was divided into two groups;…

  8. Making Employee Recognition a Tool for Achieving Improved Performance: Implication for Ghanaian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoatemaa, Abena Serwaa; Kyeremeh, Dorcas Darkoah

    2016-01-01

    Many organisations are increasingly making use of employee recognition to motivate employees to achieve high performance and productivity. Research has shown that effective recognition occurs in organisations that have strong supportive culture, understand the psychology of praising employees for their good work, and apply the principles of…

  9. Using Culturally Competent Responsive Services to Improve Student Achievement and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Rita; Grothaus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates standards blending, the integration of core academic and school counseling standards, as a culturally alert responsive services strategy to assist in closing the achievement gap while also enhancing employability skills and culturally salient career competencies. The responsive services intervention described in this…

  10. 3D Game-Based Learning System for Improving Learning Achievement in Software Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su,Chung-Ho; Cheng, Ching-Hsue

    2013-01-01

    The advancement of game-based learning has encouraged many related studies, such that students could better learn curriculum by 3-dimension virtual reality. To enhance software engineering learning, this paper develops a 3D game-based learning system to assist teaching and assess the students' motivation, satisfaction and learning achievement. A…

  11. Leveraging Quality Improvement to Achieve Student Learning Assessment Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Nancy Gentry

    2009-01-01

    Mounting pressure for transformational change in higher education driven by technology, globalization, competition, funding shortages, and increased emphasis on accountability necessitates that universities implement reforms to demonstrate responsiveness to all stakeholders and to provide evidence of student achievement. In the face of the demand…

  12. The Single-Gender Classroom: Improving Middle School Students' Achievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, William V., III.

    2012-01-01

    At Joseph Case Junior High School, a school located in Swansea, Massachusetts for students in grades six through eight; there was a problematic trend in regard to student achievement in mathematics. Upon completion of an analysis of student cohort results in mathematics on the MCAS (Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System), there was an…

  13. 78 FR 69336 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... alternate assessments based on those modified academic achievement standards. This notice established an October 7, 2013, deadline for the submission of written comments. We are reopening the public comment period for seven days. DATES: For the proposed rule published on August 23, 2013 (78 FR 52467),...

  14. Programming in Pairs with Alice to Improve Confidence, Enjoyment, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Clark, Cathy; Courte, Jill; Howard, Elizabeth V.

    2006-01-01

    Students in an introductory computing class participated in a study investigating the impact of using a graphics programming environment (Alice) and pair-programming on confidence, enjoyment and achievement. Sixty-four participants completed a short questionnaire and a content pre-test about computer programming concepts. Students were then…

  15. Closing the Achievement Gap: Principles for Improving the Educational Success of All Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews educational policies and practices that have been proven effective in closing the achievement gap, offering a list of resources with detailed information about them. The digest focuses on state and district roles (e.g., developing and implementing educational goals, rigorous standards, and accountability standards and providing…

  16. Improving Secondary School Students' Achievement and Retention in Biology through Video-Based Multimedia Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yaki, Akawo Angwal; Gana, Eli S.; Ughovwa, Queen Eguono

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of video-based multimedia instruction on secondary school students' achievement and retention in biology. In Nigeria, 120 students (60 boys and 60 girls) were randomly selected from four secondary schools assigned either into one of three experimental groups: Animation + Narration; Animation + On-screen Text;…

  17. Do Charter Schools Improve Student Achievement? Evidence from a National Randomized Study. Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Melissa A.; Gleason, Philip; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Silverberg, Marsha K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the first national randomized study of the impacts of charter schools on student achievement, which included 36 charter middle schools across 15 states. The paper compares students who applied and were admitted to these schools through randomized admissions lotteries with students who applied and were not…

  18. Improving Service Quality: Achieving High Performance in the Public and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milakovich, Michael E.

    Quality-improvement principles are a sound means to respond to customer needs. However, when various quality and productivity theories and methods are applied, it is very difficult to consistently deliver quality results, especially in quasi-monopolistic, non-competitive, and regulated environments. This book focuses on quality-improvement methods…

  19. Why Data Matter in ESEA Reauthorization: Recommendations to Ensure Data Are Used to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    America can no longer afford an education system that fails to use data effectively to guide decisionmaking. The education sector is facing ever-increasing demands to improve student outcomes, reduce burden, increase efficiency, and improve transparency. These demands cannot be met without the strategic and effective use of data. Due to the…

  20. Using Shared Leadership to Achieve School Improvement Goals: A Qualitative Study of One High School's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study examined the impact of shared leadership committees on school improvement efforts. The research identified which leadership factors lead to successful shared leadership committees and which supports and structures were needed for the committees to be meaningful in regards to school improvement. Certified…

  1. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  2. Improving Science, Technology and Mathematics Students' Achievement: Imperatives for Teacher Preparation in the Caribbean Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunkola, Babalola J.

    2012-01-01

    The concerns of this article are the unacceptable status of Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) Education in the Caribbean and how to improve the students' achievement in the subjects involved through the instrumentality of better preparation of teachers by the Colleges and University faculties training teachers in the region. The index for…

  3. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  4. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  5. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...

  6. Experimental Evaluations of Two Strategies to Improve Reading Achievement in Kenya: Enhanced Literacy Instruction and Treatment of Malaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jukes, Matthew; Dubeck, Margaret; Brooker, Simon; Wolf, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    There is less quality evidence on how malaria may affect cognitive abilities and educational achievement or on how schools can tackle the problem of malaria among school children. A randomised trial among Sri Lankan children showed that weekly malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine can improve school examination scores. The Health and Literacy…

  7. Improving Academic Achievement of Eleventh Grade Basic U.S. History Students through the Use of Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Douglas R.

    This report describes a project to improve achievement among 24 grade 11 basic U.S. history students in a growing, middle class, suburban community in northern Illinois. Students are assigned to basic classes due to reading test scores. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that students entered the course with poor attitudes toward school,…

  8. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  9. Improving Achievement in Secondary Schools: Impact of a Literacy Project on Reading Comprehension and Secondary School Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mei Kuin; Wilson, Aaron; McNaughton, Stuart; Hsiao, Selena

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether a literacy intervention involving generic and content area literacy components can improve both achievement on a standardized reading test and the attainment of secondary school qualifications, and whether the intervention can be implemented by teachers in their regular classroom settings. We report on a design-based…

  10. An Investigation of World Language Teachers' Use of Student Performance Data to Inform Teaching and to Help Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffi, Bruno N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the types of content-based student performance data World Language teachers used to improve instruction and student academic achievement, the purposes for which they used data, the issues they encountered, and the suggestions they made for more effective use of data. The Standards for Foreign Language Learning…

  11. The Effectiveness of Computerized Instructional Packages on Concept Acquisition and Improving Academic Achievement among Female Deaf Students in KSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagabas, Hanan Ali

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of computerized instructional packages on concept acquisition and improving academic achievement among deaf students in Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of (16) third-grade female deaf students in prep stage for the first semester of the academic year 2013/2014, randomly selected from…

  12. Improving Learning Achievements, Motivations and Problem-Solving Skills through a Peer Assessment-Based Game Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hung, Chun-Ming; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a peer assessment-based game development approach is proposed for improving students' learning achievements, motivations and problem-solving skills. An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in a science course at an elementary school. A total of 167 sixth graders participated in…

  13. Dramatic improvement in genome assembly achieved using doubled-haploid genomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Tan, Engkong; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hirose, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Okano, Hideyuki; Kudoh, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Watabe, Shugo; Asakawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in de novo assembly of large genomes is still to be desired. Here, we improved draft genome sequence quality by employing doubled-haploid individuals. We sequenced wildtype and doubled-haploid Takifugu rubripes genomes, under the same conditions, using the Illumina platform and assembled contigs with SOAPdenovo2. We observed 5.4-fold and 2.6-fold improvement in the sizes of the N50 contig and scaffold of doubled-haploid individuals, respectively, compared to the wildtype, indicating that the use of a doubled-haploid genome aids in accurate genome analysis. PMID:25345569

  14. Achieving continuous improvement in reductions in foodborne listeriosis--a risk-based approach.

    PubMed

    2005-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause listeriosis, a severe disease that can lead to septicemia, meningitis, and spontaneous abortion. Ongoing efforts are needed to further reduce the incidence of listeriosis, due to its high mortality rate. The focus of this report is the use of a risk-based approach to identify strategies that will have the greatest impact on reducing foodborne listeriosis. A continuum of risk for listeriosis is observed in the human population, ranging from exquisitely sensitive groups, who are highly immunocompromised and at very high risk of listeriosis, through the normal healthy population younger than 65 years of age, who appear to have a minimal risk for listeriosis. In addition, unique subpopulations may exist; for example, pregnant Latina women appear to have a higher risk of listeriosis than pregnant women of other ethnic groups, most likely due to consumption of contaminated soft cheeses such as queso fresco and queso blanco. The International Life Sciences Institute Risk Science Institute Expert Panel concluded that certain foods pose a high risk for causing listeriosis. High-risk foods have all of the following properties: (1) have the potential for contamination with L. monocytogenes; (2) support the growth of L. monocytogenes to high numbers; (3) are ready to eat; (4) require refrigeration; and (5) are stored for an extended period of time. Control strategies are needed in the food chain from preharvest through consumption to minimize the likelihood that food will become contaminated by L. monocytogenes and to prevent the growth of the organism to high numbers. The Expert Panel identified three main strategies for ensuring continuous improvement in reducing foodborne listeriosis: (1) preventing contamination of foods with L. monocytogenes; (2) preventing growth of L. monocytogenes to high numbers in foods; and (3) science-based education messages targeted to susceptible populations and their caregivers. Of

  15. The Sustainable Development Goals cannot be achieved without improving maternal and child nutrition.

    PubMed

    Baye, Kaleab

    2017-02-01

    Poor nutrition is a global pandemic with social, economic, and environmental causes and consequences. Of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), only SDG2 explicitly mentions nutrition. Turning the aspirations of the SDGs into reality will require recognition that good nutrition ensured through sustainable agriculture, is simultaneously an absolutely fundamental input and output. Because all of the other SDGs are directly or indirectly linked to improving nutrition, funding to improve nutrition is essential to success for many SDGs. Greater focus on cooperation across disciplines to advance the science of program delivery and to understand the full contribution of nutrition to many desirable outcomes as part of development are surely the ways forward. Missing today's opportunities to advance thinking and program implementation for more effectively improving nutrition for all, especially for women and children, will lead to a wider failure to meet the SDGs.

  16. Techniques for mass resolution improvement achieved by typical plasma mass analyzers: Modeling and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, Georgios; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Fedorov, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Mass separation and particularly distinction between atomic ions and molecular ions are essential in understanding a wide range of plasma environments, with each consisted of different species with various properties. In this study we present the optimization results of light-weight (about 2 kg) magnetic mass analyzers with high g-factor for Rosetta (Ion Composition Analyser: ICA) and for Mars Express and Venus Express (Ion Mass Analyser: IMA). For the instrument's optimization we use SIMION, a 3D ion tracing software in which we can trace particle beams of several energies and directions, passing through the instrument's units. We first reproduced ICA and IMA results, which turned out to be different from simple models for low energy (< 100 eV). We then change the mechanical structure of several units of the instrument and we quantify the new mass resolution achieved with each change. Our goal is to find the optimal instrument's structure, which will allow us to achieve a proper mass resolution to distinguish atomic nitrogen from atomic oxygen for the purposes of a future magnetospheric mission.

  17. Multimodal treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma to achieve complete response results in improved survival

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Pippa H; Wu, YingXing; Hoen, Helena; Uppal, Richa; Thiesing, John Tyler; Sasadeusz, Kevin; Cassera, Maria A; Wolf, Ronald F; Hansen, Paul; Hammill, Chet W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With technological advances, questions arise regarding how to best fit newer treatment modalities, such as transarterial therapies, into the treatment algorithm for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Between 2005 and 2011, 128 patients initially treated with transarterial radioembolization or chemoembolization using drug-eluting beads were identified. The response was graded retrospectively. Toxicity was measured 1, 3, and 6 months after the first and last treatments. Results Sixty-five patients (53%) were advanced stage. Twenty patients (16%) had an initial complete response, but with additional treatments, this was increased to 46 (36%). Patients with a complete response as their best response to treatment had a median survival [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 5.77 (2.58, upper limit not yet reached) years, significantly longer than those whose best response was a partial response, 1.22 (0.84, 2.06) years and those with stable disease as their best response, 0.34 (0.29, 0.67) years. Repeated treatments did not increase toxicity. Discussion This retrospective review of patients treated for intermediate and advanced stage HCC revealed a significant survival advantage in patients who achieved a complete response. These data support use of a multi-modality approach to intermediate and advanced stage HCC, combining liver-directed treatments as necessary to achieve a complete response. PMID:25580988

  18. School Stability: Improving Academic Achievement for NJ Foster Children. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard-Rance, Kourtney; Parello, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Children in New Jersey's foster care system are more likely to remain in their home school when they enter foster care, thanks to a law passed in 2010, giving these fragile children improved educational stability. The law allows children to remain in their "school of origin" when they are placed in foster care, even if the foster home is…

  19. Improving Student Achievement in Introductory Computer Science Courses Using Peer-Led Team Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Sonya Maria

    2013-01-01

    There has been a steady decline of majors in the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics ("STEM majors"). In an effort to improve recruitment and retention in "STEM" majors, an active-learning methodology--"peer-led team learning" ("PLTL")--was implemented by the participating…

  20. Teachers Unions and Management Partnerships: How Working Together Improves Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Saul A.; McCarthy, John E.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, the debate over public school reform has created friction between teachers unions, administrators, school boards, parents, policymakers, and other stakeholders in public education and has fueled disagreements over how to improve the quality of teaching and learning for children. While many factors make consensus elusive…

  1. Creating Birds of Similar Feathers: Leveraging Similarity to Improve Teacher-Student Relationships and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Brinkworth, Maureen E.; King, Aaron M.; Hsu, Laura M.; McIntyre, Joseph; Rogers, Todd

    2016-01-01

    When people perceive themselves as similar to others, greater liking and closer relationships typically result. In the first randomized field experiment that leverages actual similarities to improve real-world relationships, we examined the affiliations between 315 9th grade students and their 25 teachers. Students in the treatment condition…

  2. Combined Fluency and Cognitive Strategies Instruction Improves Mathematics Achievement in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Martha; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Stroud, Rena; Royer, James M.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight second grade students from two states (Georgia and Massachusetts) participated in an experiment in which they were randomly assigned to either (1) a computer program designed to increase fluency in addition and subtraction, (2) a program designed to improve cognitive strategy use for addition and subtraction, (3) a…

  3. Achieving World-Class Schools: Mastering School Improvement Using a Genetic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmelman, Paul L.; Kroeze, David J.

    In providing its program for education reform, this book uses, as an analogy, the genetic model taken from the Human Genome project. In the first part, "Theoretical Underpinnings," the book explains why a genetic model can be used to improve school systems; describes the critical components of a world-class school system; and details the…

  4. Increasing Student Achievement and Improving Self-Esteem through a Community Building Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupo, Concetta M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on improving students' self-esteem through community building at an elementary school in a low socioeconomic community where over 55% of the students live below the poverty line. Orefield and Yun state in their 1999 article, "Resegregation of America's schools," "school level poverty is related to many…

  5. Effects of Simulated Interventions to Improve School Entry Academic Skills on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lynch, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764,…

  6. What We Know about Student Achievement and School Improvement in Kansas. Focus On...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Educational improvement can be measured over time and against benchmarks in four key areas: (1) mastery of basic reading and math skills; (2) high school completion; (3) preparation for postsecondary education; and (4) adult educational attainment. The first three reflect how the school system prepares students for postsecondary education. The…

  7. Evaluating and Improving Student Achievement in Business Programs: The Effective Use of Standardized Assessment Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, H. Tyrone; Duhon, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Having made "continuous improvement" the theme of its accreditation process a decade ago, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) is poised to make "assurance of learning" the current focus of the faculty/student exchange. In this article, the authors discuss how to use standardized assessment tests…

  8. Effective Strategies That Urban Superintendents Use That Improve the Academic Achievement for African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Cardenas

    2013-01-01

    The roles of urban superintendents are crucial to improving the educational outlook for the neediest students, specifically the African-American males. The roles and responsibilities of the urban school superintendent today are more numerous, complex, and demanding than in the past. The expectations of today's urban superintendents are to be…

  9. Resource Allocation Practices in Three Charter Middle Schools in Relation to Student Achievement Improvement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo-Contreras, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a better understanding of the allocation of resources used to improve student learning outcomes in three middle schools within a Charter Management Organization (CMO). The three middle schools that participated in the study have similar demographics and serve students in low socio-economic areas of Los…

  10. Evaluation and capacity building to improve precollege science and mathematics achievement in the US: 10 CFR, Part 605

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The National Center for Improving Science Education has undertaken activities to achieve evaluation goals for DOE's Precollege programs: develop means to determine program quality; develop means for determining the contribution of DOE precollege programs to both teacher enhancement and student achievement; provide evaluation designs and instruments and reports of program quality and impact; and strengthen both DOE's and the Labs' capacity to do both short- and long-term planning as well as deliver effective programs and evaluation. Appendices include evaluation/technical assistance report, profiling teacher research participation and teacher development programs, teacher surveys, impact assessment design, and teacher research participation programs anecdotes for 8 labs.

  11. Improving University Ranking to Achieve University Competitiveness by Management Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachyar, M.; Dewi, F.

    2015-05-01

    One way to increase university competitiveness is through information system management. A literature review was done to find information system factors that affect university performance in Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) University Ranking: Asia evaluation. Information system factors were then eliminated using Delphi method through consensus of 7 experts. Result from Delphi method was used as measured variables in PLS-SEM. Estimation with PLS-SEM method through 72 respondents shows that the latent variable academic reputation and citation per paper have significant correlation to university competitiveness. In University of Indonesia (UI) the priority to increase university competitiveness as follow: (i) network building in international conference, (ii) availability of research data to public, (iii) international conference information, (iv) information on achievements and accreditations of each major, (v) ease of employment for alumni.

  12. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  13. Longer term improvement in neurocognitive functioning and affective distress among methamphetamine users who achieve stable abstinence.

    PubMed

    Iudicello, Jennifer E; Woods, Steven P; Vigil, Ofilio; Scott, J Cobb; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Atkinson, J Hampton; Grant, Igor

    2010-08-01

    Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction and affective distress. Some normalization of function has been reported after abstinence, but little in the way of data is available on the possible added benefits of long-term sobriety. To address this, we performed detailed neuropsychological and affective evaluations in 83 MA-dependent individuals at a baseline visit and following an average one-year interval period. Among the 83 MA-dependent participants, 25 remained abstinent, and 58 used MA at least once during the interval period. A total of 38 non-MA-addicted, demographically matched healthy comparison (i.e., HC) participants were also examined. At baseline, both MA-dependent participants who were able to maintain abstinence and those who were not performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison subjects on global neuropsychological functioning and were significantly more distressed. At the one-year follow-up, both the long-term abstainers and healthy comparison groups showed comparable global neuropsychological performance and affective distress levels, whereas the MA-dependent group who continued to use MA were worse than the comparison participants in terms of global neuropsychological functioning and affective distress. An interaction was observed between neuropsychological impairment at baseline, MA abstinence, and cognitive improvement, with abstinent MA-dependent participants who were neuropsychologically impaired at baseline demonstrating significantly and disproportionately greater improvement in processing speed and slightly greater improvement in motor abilities than the other participants. These results suggest partial recovery of neuropsychological functioning and improvement in affective distress upon sustained abstinence from MA that may extend beyond a year or more.

  14. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2015-09-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme.

  15. Achieving health, safety, and performance improvements through enhanced cost visibility and workplace partnerships.

    PubMed

    Grant, Katharyn A; Garland, John G; Joachim, Todd C; Wallen, Andrew; Vital, Twyla

    2003-01-01

    Reduction in the environment, safety, and occupational health (ESOH) component of operational costs requires not only a better understanding of ESOH costs and requirements, but also the formation of effective partnerships between ESOH professionals, financial analysts, and shop workers to identify viable improvements to current practices. This article presents two case studies of efforts to enhance productivity and ESOH in corrosion control facilities at Randolph Air Force Base (AFB), Texas, and Robins AFB, Ga. At each site, activity-based cost models were created to increase the visibility of ESOH-related costs and target improvement opportunities. Analysis of the strip-and-paint processes for the T-38 aircraft at Randolph and the F-15 radome and C-141 aft cowl at Robins revealed that a large proportion of operating costs were tied to ESOH requirements and practices (22 and 39%, respectively). In each case ESOH professionals teamed with shop personnel to identify potential improvements in personal protective equipment use, waste disposal, tool selection, and work methods. This approach yielded alternatives projected to reduce total shop costs by 5 to 7%. This case study demonstrates how workplaces can identify cost-saving and efficiency-enhancing practices by partnering with ESOH professionals in planning and decision-making activities.

  16. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme. PMID:26194882

  17. Public goods and private interests: The role of voluntary green power demand in achieving environmental improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiser, Ryan Hayes

    ; this finding differs substantially from the extant literature on firm motivations to pursue environmental initiatives. Meanwhile, a mail survey of marketers illustrates the importance of policy in stimulating the green power market. Finally, responses to contingent valuation and opinion surveys show that U.S. residents prefer collective payments for renewable energy over voluntary programs. Overall, this analysis presents a more nuanced understanding of the "green" market than traditionally offered by neoclassical economics and environmental marketing. Some evidence of free riding is found, but this work also identifies other barriers to the development of the green market. The study concludes that green power marketing may increase renewables supply, but that traditional public policy supports should not be abandoned in the hope that customer-driven markets will take up the slack.

  18. Improved Thermal Conductivity in Carbon Nanotubes-Reinforced Syntactic Foam Achieved by a New Dispersing Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, P.; Zegeye, E.; Ghamsari, A. K.; Woldesenbet, E.

    2015-12-01

    Syntactic foams are composite materials in which the matrix phase is reinforced with hollow micro-particles. Traditionally, syntactic foams are used for many high strength applications and as insulating materials. However, for applications demanding better heat dissipation, such as thermal management of electronic packaging, conductive fillers need to be added to syntactic foam. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), although extremely conductive, have issues of agglomeration in the matrix. In this research, CNT-reinforced syntactic foam was developed based on our approach through which CNTs were dispersed throughout the matrix by growing them on the surface of glass microballoons. The thermal conductivity of nanotube-grown syntactic foam was tested with a Flashline® thermal analyzer. For comparison purposes, plain and nanotube-mixed syntactic foams were also fabricated and tested. Nanotube-grown microballoons improved the thermal conductivity of syntactic foam by 86% and 92% (at 50°C) compared to plain and nanotube-mixed syntactic foams, respectively. The improved thermal conductivity as well as the microstructural analysis proved the effectiveness of this approach for dispersing the carbon nanotubes in syntactic foams.

  19. Can developing countries achieve adequate improvements in child health outcomes without engaging the private sector?

    PubMed Central

    Bustreo, Flavia; Harding, April; Axelsson, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The private sector exerts a significant and critical influence on child health outcomes in developing countries, including the health of poor children. This article reviews the available evidence on private sector utilization and quality of care. It provides a framework for analysing the private sector's influence on child health outcomes. This influence goes beyond service provision by private providers and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Pharmacies, drug sellers, private suppliers, and food producers also have an impact on the health of children. Many governments are experimenting with strategies to engage the private sector to improve child health. The article analyses some of the most promising strategies, and suggests that a number of constraints make it hard for policy-makers to emulate these approaches. Few experiences are clearly described, monitored, and evaluated. The article suggests that improving the impact of child health programmes in developing countries requires a more systematic analysis of how to engage the private sector most effectively. The starting point should include the evaluation of the presence and potential of the private sector, including actors such as professional associations, producer organizations, community groups, and patients' organizations. PMID:14997241

  20. Synthesis of substantially monodispersed colloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Stoeva, Savka (Inventor); Sorensen, Christopher (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of forming ligated nanoparticles of the formula Y(Z).sub.x where Y is a nanoparticle selected from the group consisting of elemental metals having atomic numbers ranging from 21-34, 39-52, 57-83 and 89-102, all inclusive, the halides, oxides and sulfides of such metals, and the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal halides, and Z represents ligand moieties such as the alkyl thiols. In the method, a first colloidal dispersion is formed made up of nanoparticles solvated in a molar excess of a first solvent (preferably a ketone such as acetone), a second solvent different than the first solvent (preferably an organic aryl solvent such as toluene) and a quantity of ligand moieties; the first solvent is then removed under vacuum and the ligand moieties ligate to the nanoparticles to give a second colloidal dispersion of the ligated nanoparticles solvated in the second solvent. If substantially monodispersed nanoparticles are desired, the second dispersion is subjected to a digestive ripening process. Upon drying, the ligated nanoparticles may form a three-dimensional superlattice structure.

  1. Exemplary Care and Learning Sites: A Model for Achieving Continual Improvement in Care and Learning in the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ogrinc, Greg; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Stevenson, Katherine M.; Shalaby, Marc; Beard, Albertine S.; Thörne, Karin E.; Coleman, Mary T.; Baum, Karyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Problem Current models of health care quality improvement do not explicitly describe the role of health professions education. The authors propose the Exemplary Care and Learning Site (ECLS) model as an approach to achieving continual improvement in care and learning in the clinical setting. Approach From 2008–2012, an iterative, interactive process was used to develop the ECLS model and its core elements—patients and families informing process changes; trainees engaging both in care and the improvement of care; leaders knowing, valuing, and practicing improvement; data transforming into useful information; and health professionals competently engaging both in care improvement and teaching about care improvement. In 2012–2013, a three-part feasibility test of the model, including a site self-assessment, an independent review of each site’s ratings, and implementation case stories, was conducted at six clinical teaching sites (in the United States and Sweden). Outcomes Site leaders reported the ECLS model provided a systematic approach toward improving patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. Most sites found it challenging to incorporate the patients and families element. The trainee element was strong at four sites. The leadership and data elements were self-assessed as the most fully developed. The health professionals element exhibited the greatest variability across sites. Next Steps The next test of the model should be prospective, linked to clinical and educa tional outcomes, to evaluate whether it helps care delivery teams, educators, and patients and families take action to achieve better patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. PMID:26760058

  2. Mismatched partners that achieve postpairing behavioral similarity improve their reproductive success

    PubMed Central

    Laubu, Chloé; Dechaume-Moncharmont, François-Xavier; Motreuil, Sébastien; Schweitzer, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral similarity between partners is likely to promote within-pair compatibility and to result in better reproductive success. Therefore, individuals are expected to choose a partner that is alike in behavioral type. However, mate searching is very costly and does not guarantee finding a matching partner. If mismatched individuals pair, they may benefit from increasing their similarity after pairing. We show in a monogamous fish species—the convict cichlid—that the behavioral similarity between mismatched partners can increase after pairing. This increase resulted from asymmetrical adjustment because only the reactive individual became more alike its proactive partner, whereas the latter did not change its behavior. The mismatched pairs that increased their similarity not only improved their reproductive success but also raised it up to the level of matched pairs. While most studies assume that assortative mating results from mate choice, our study suggests that postpairing adjustment could be an alternative explanation for the high behavioral similarity between partners observed in the field. It also explains why interindividual behavioral differences can be maintained within a given population. PMID:26973869

  3. Incomplete reporting of enhanced recovery elements and its impact on achieving quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Day, Ryan W.; Fielder, Sharon; Calhoun, John; Kehlet, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Enhanced recovery (ER) protocols are widely used in surgical practice. As protocols are multidisciplinary with multiple components, it is difficult to compare and contrast reports. The present study therefore examined compliance and transferability to clinical practice among ER publications related to colorectal surgery. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for current colorectal ER manuscripts. Each publication was assessed for the number of ER elements, whether the element was sufficiently explained so that it could be transferred to clinical practice, and the compliance with the ER element. RESULTS Some 50 publications met the reporting criteria for inclusion. There were 22 ERAS elements described altogether. The median number of elements included in each publication was 9 with median number of included patients of 130. The most frequent elements included in ER pathways were early postoperative diet advancement in 49 (98%) and early mobilisation in 47 (94%). Early diet advancement was sufficiently explained in 43 (86%) publications but just 22 (45%) reported compliance. The explanation for early mobilisation was satisfactory in 41 (82%) publications but only 14 (30%) reported compliance. Other ERAS elements had similar rates of explanation and compliance. The most frequently analysed outcome measures were morbidity 49 (98%), length of stay 47 (94%), and mortality in 45 (90%) of publications. CONCLUSIONS The current standard of reporting is frequently incomplete. In order to transfer knowledge and facilitate implementation of pathways that demonstrate improvements in perioperative care and recovery, a consistent structured reporting platform is needed. PMID:26364714

  4. How PEPFAR's public-private partnerships achieved ambitious goals, from improving labs to strengthening supply chains.

    PubMed

    Sturchio, Jeffrey L; Cohen, Gary M

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), established in 2003, is widely recognized as one of the most ambitious and successful bilateral programs ever implemented to address a single disease. Part of the program's success is attributable to the participation of the private sector, working in partnership with the US and local governments and implementing organizations to maximize the reach and effectiveness of every dollar spent. We examined key public-private partnerships that grew out of PEPFAR to identify features that have made them effective. For example, PEPFAR's Supply Chain Management System took advantage of private industry's best practices in logistics, and a partnership with the medical technology company BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company) improved laboratory systems throughout sub-Saharan Africa. We found that setting ambitious goals, enlisting both global and local partners, cultivating a culture of collaboration, careful planning, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and measuring outcomes systematically led to the most effective programs. The Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator and PEPFAR should continue to strengthen their capacity for private-sector partnerships, learning from a decade of experience and identifying new ways to make smart investments that will make the most efficient use of taxpayer resources, expand proven interventions more rapidly, and help ensure the sustainability of key programs.

  5. Exercise Improves Executive Function and Achievement and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Miller, Patricia H.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Allison, Jerry D.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This experiment tested the hypothesis that exercise would improve executive function. Design Sedentary, overweight 7- to 11-year-old children (N = 171, 56% female, 61% Black, M ± SD age 9.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass index (BMI) 26 ± 4.6 kg/m2, BMI z-score 2.1 ± 0.4) were randomized to 13 ± 1.6 weeks of an exercise program (20 or 40 minutes/day), or a control condition. Main outcome measures Blinded, standardized psychological evaluations (Cognitive Assessment System and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III) assessed cognition and academic achievement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measured brain activity during executive function tasks. Results Intent to treat analysis revealed dose response benefits of exercise on executive function and mathematics achievement. Preliminary evidence of increased bilateral prefrontal cortex activity and reduced bilateral posterior parietal cortex activity due to exercise was also observed. Conclusion Consistent with results obtained in older adults, a specific improvement on executive function and brain activation changes due to exercise were observed. The cognitive and achievement results add evidence of dose response, and extend experimental evidence into childhood. This study provides information on an educational outcome. Besides its importance for maintaining weight and reducing health risks during a childhood obesity epidemic, physical activity may prove to be a simple, important method of enhancing aspects of children’s mental functioning that are central to cognitive development. This information may persuade educators to implement vigorous physical activity. PMID:21299297

  6. Out-of-School-Time Academic Programs to Improve School Achievement: A Community Guide Health Equity Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Knopf, John A.; Hahn, Robert A.; Proia, Krista K.; Truman, Benedict I.; Johnson, Robert L.; Muntaner, Carles; Fielding, Jonathan E.; Jones, Camara Phyllis; Fullilove, Mindy T.; Hunt, Pete C.; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Milstein, Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Context Low-income and minority status in the United States are associated with poor educational outcomes, which, in turn, reduce the long-term health benefits of education. Objective This systematic review assessed the extent to which out-of-school-time academic (OSTA) programs for at-risk students, most of whom are from low-income and racial/ethnic minority families, can improve academic achievement. Because most OSTA programs serve low-income and ethnic/racial minority students, programs may improve health equity. Design Methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used. An existing systematic review assessing the effects of OSTA programs on academic outcomes (Lauer et al 2006; search period 1985–2003) was supplemented with a Community Guide update (search period 2003–2011). Main Outcome Measure Standardized mean difference. Results Thirty-two studies from the existing review and 25 studies from the update were combined and stratified by program focus (ie, reading-focused, math-focused, general academic programs, and programs with minimal academic focus). Focused programs were more effective than general or minimal academic programs. Reading-focused programs were effective only for students in grades K-3. There was insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness on behavioral outcomes and longer-term academic outcomes. Conclusions OSTA programs, particularly focused programs, are effective in increasing academic achievement for at-risk students. Ongoing school and social environments that support learning and development may be essential to ensure the longer-term benefits of OSTA programs. PMID:26062096

  7. 77 FR 34785 - Substantial Business Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK86 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... regulations regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country... substantial business activities in a foreign country, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and the Department...

  8. 77 FR 34887 - Substantial Business Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities AGENCY: Internal... substantial business activities in a foreign country. These regulations affect certain domestic corporations... whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in a foreign country for purposes...

  9. Achieving change in primary care—effectiveness of strategies for improving implementation of complex interventions: systematic review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Rosa; Stevenson, Fiona; Ong, Bie Nio; Dziedzic, Krysia; Treweek, Shaun; Eldridge, Sandra; Everitt, Hazel; Kennedy, Anne; Qureshi, Nadeem; Rogers, Anne; Peacock, Richard; Murray, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify, summarise and synthesise available literature on the effectiveness of implementation strategies for optimising implementation of complex interventions in primary care. Design Systematic review of reviews. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsychINFO were searched, from first publication until December 2013; the bibliographies of relevant articles were screened for additional reports. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Eligible reviews had to (1) examine effectiveness of single or multifaceted implementation strategies, (2) measure health professional practice or process outcomes and (3) include studies from predominantly primary care in developed countries. Two reviewers independently screened titles/abstracts and full-text articles of potentially eligible reviews for inclusion. Data synthesis Extracted data were synthesised using a narrative approach. Results 91 reviews were included. The most commonly evaluated strategies were those targeted at the level of individual professionals, rather than those targeting organisations or context. These strategies (eg, audit and feedback, educational meetings, educational outreach, reminders) on their own demonstrated a small to modest improvement (2–9%) in professional practice or behaviour with considerable variability in the observed effects. The effects of multifaceted strategies targeted at professionals were mixed and not necessarily more effective than single strategies alone. There was relatively little review evidence on implementation strategies at the levels of organisation and wider context. Evidence on cost-effectiveness was limited and data on costs of different strategies were scarce and/or of low quality. Conclusions There is a substantial literature on implementation strategies aimed at changing professional practices or behaviour. It remains unclear which implementation strategies are more likely to be effective than others and under what conditions

  10. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1−x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  11. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; ...

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times duemore » to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  12. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  13. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  14. Cardiorespiratory Improvements Achieved by American College of Sports Medicine’s Exercise Prescription Implemented on a Mobile App

    PubMed Central

    Rospo, Gianluca; Valsecchi, Viola; Bonomi, Alberto G; Thomassen, Inge WJ; van Dantzig, Saskia; La Torre, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Strong evidence shows that an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) reduces cardiovascular disease risk. Objective To test whether a scientifically endorsed program to increase CRF and PA, implemented on an easy-to-use, always-accessible mobile app would be effective in improving CRF. Methods Of 63 healthy volunteers participating, 18 tested the user interface of the Cardio-Fitness App (CF-App); and 45 underwent a 2-week intervention period, of whom 33 eventually concluded it. These were assigned into three groups. The Step-based App (Step-App) group (n=8), followed 10,000 steps/day prescription, the CF-App group (n=13), and the Supervised Cardio-Fitness (Super-CF) group (n=12), both followed a heart rate (HR)-based program according to American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines, but either implemented on the app, or at the gym, respectively. Participants were tested for CRF, PA, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP), resting, exercise, and recovery HR. Results CRF increased in all groups (+4.9%; P<.001). SBP decreased in all groups (-2.6 mm Hg; P=.03). DBP decrease was higher in the Super-CF group (-3.5 mm Hg) than in the Step-App group (-2.1 mm Hg; P<.001). Posttest exercise HR decreased in all groups (-3.4 bpm; P=.02). Posttest recovery HR was lower in the Super-CF group (-10.1 bpm) than in the other two groups (CF-App: -4.9 bpm, Step-App: -3.3 bpm; P<.001). The CF-App group, however, achieved these improvements with more training heart beats (P<.01). Conclusions A 10,000 steps/day target-based app improved CRF similar to an ACSM guideline-based program whether it was implemented on a mobile app or in supervised gym sessions. PMID:27339153

  15. Achievable capacity improvement by using multi-level modulation format in trench-assisted multi-core fiber system.

    PubMed

    Chang, J H; Choi, H G; Chung, Y C

    2013-06-17

    We evaluate the impacts of using multi-level modulation formats on the transmission capacity of the multi-core fiber (MCF) having trench-assisted index profile and hexagonal layout. For this evaluation, we utilize the spectral efficiency per unit area, defined as the spatial spectral efficiency (SSE). The results show that the SSE improvement achievable by using the higher-level modulation format can be reduced due to its lower tolerance to the inter-core crosstalk. We also evaluate the effects of using large effective area on the transmission capacity of the trench-assisted MCF. The results show that the use of large effective area can decrease this capacity due to the increased inter-core crosstalk and lengthened cable cutoff wavelength, although it can help increase the transmission distance. Thus, it is necessary to optimize the effective area of MCF by considering both the SSE and transmission distance. However, the results indicate that the effect of using different effective areas on the SSE-distance product is not significant, and it is not useful to increase the effective area of the trench-assisted MCF to be larger than ~110 μm(2).

  16. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effectiveness of the new animal drug involved that the new animal drug will have the effect it purports or is... substantial evidence, as defined in this section, that the combination new animal drug will have the effect it... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substantial evidence. 514.4 Section 514.4 Food...

  17. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... effectiveness of the new animal drug involved that the new animal drug will have the effect it purports or is... substantial evidence, as defined in this section, that the combination new animal drug will have the effect it... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substantial evidence. 514.4 Section 514.4 Food...

  18. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... effectiveness of the new animal drug involved that the new animal drug will have the effect it purports or is... substantial evidence, as defined in this section, that the combination new animal drug will have the effect it... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial evidence. 514.4 Section 514.4 Food...

  19. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effectiveness of the new animal drug involved that the new animal drug will have the effect it purports or is... substantial evidence, as defined in this section, that the combination new animal drug will have the effect it... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantial evidence. 514.4 Section 514.4 Food...

  20. 77 FR 39452 - Substantial Business Activities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities; Correction AGENCY..., June 12, 2012 (77 FR 34887) regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities... Advocacy of the Small Business Administration for comment on their impact on small business.'' LaNita...

  1. Neurofeedback as an Intervention to Improve Reading Achievement in Students with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Jeffry P.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that attention deficits have a deleterious effect on academic achievement. Impairments in attention, and not hyperactivity/impulsivity, are associated with learning difficulties and academic problems in students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, most studies have focused on symptoms…

  2. Improving Mathematics and Science Education: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Relationship between Reform-Oriented Instruction and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le,Vi-Nhuan; Stecher, Brian M.; Lockwood, J. R.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Robyn, Abby; Williams, Valerie L.; Ryan, Gery; Kerr, Kerri A.; Martinez, Jose Felipe; Klein, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph presents the findings of a multiyear study of the effectiveness of reform-oriented mathematics and science instruction. It builds on an earlier RAND study, called the Mosaic project, which found "a weak but positive relationship" between reform practices and student achievement (see Klein, Hamilton, McCaffrey, Stecher,…

  3. The Effects of Individualized Instruction on the Improvement of Self Concept of Low Achieving Primary Grade Urban Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, Edmund J.

    This dissertation investigates the effect of an individualized remedial reading and mathematics program (the Philadelphia Checkpoint Center Program) on the self concept of low achieving third-grade children. In the program, children received individualized, diagnostic and prescriptive instruction for 40 minutes daily in groups of 15 or fewer. In…

  4. Raising the Bar -- Closing the Gap. Recommendations for Improving the Academic Achievement of African-American Students in Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    In September 1996, the Missouri Commissioner of Education appointed a statewide task force on the Achievement of African-American Students. The findings of the state-level task force, the views of Missouri students, and the experience of successful educators all support the conclusion that the single most important nontangible element required to…

  5. The Path to Math: Leadership Matters Effective Practices of Principals That Improve Student Achievement in Secondary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyo, Michelle Hyo Jung

    2013-01-01

    The quality of school leadership is linked to student academic achievement (Leithwood et al., 2004; Thompson & Barnes, 2007; Glatthorn & Jailall, 1997; Lezotte, 1991; Edmonds, 1979; Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Crum & Sherman, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional leadership (IL) of high school principals and…

  6. The Potential for School-Based Interventions That Target Executive Function to Improve Academic Achievement: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin; Parkinson, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article systematically reviews what is known empirically about the association between executive function and student achievement in both reading and math and critically assesses the evidence for a causal association between the two. Using meta-analytic techniques, the review finds that there is a moderate unconditional association between…

  7. From Compliance to Service: Evolving the State Role to Support District Data Efforts to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    As a result of state, national and federal leadership and political will, states have dramatically increased their capacity to collect robust longitudinal education data. However, without an equally ambitious effort to ensure access and build stakeholders' capacity to use data to increase student achievement, these infrastructure investments…

  8. An Augmented Reality-Based Mobile Learning System to Improve Students' Learning Achievements and Motivations in Natural Science Inquiry Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an augmented reality-based mobile learning system is proposed for conducting inquiry-based learning activities. An experiment has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of learning achievements and motivations. The subjects were 57 fourth graders from two classes taught by the same teacher in…

  9. Surmounting the Challenges of Improving Academic Performance: Closing the Achievement Gap through Social-Emotional and Character Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; White, Gwyne; Stepney, Cesalie

    2014-01-01

    While educators and policy makers have an intuitive understanding of the influence of socioeconomic factors and race on student achievement, these factors make the current emphasis on standardized test scores as a primary criterion for evaluating schools and teachers indefensible and ineffective. The research presented illustrates the limits of…

  10. In Their Own Words: Erasing Deficits and Exploring What Works to Improve K-12 and Postsecondary Black Male School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Chezare A.; Douglas, Ty-Ron M. O.; Howard, Tyrone C.

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the imperative for strengths-based research to counter deficit perceptions and perspectives of Black males in contemporary discussions of their school achievement in the United States. The importance of young men of color in shaping research agendas, practice, and public policy is argued followed by a brief overview of the…

  11. Improving Achievement and Attitudes in Elementary Algebra through Written Error-Correcting Feedback and Free Comments on Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prueher, Jane

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which written error-correcting feedback on teacher-made criterion-referenced tests results in increased achievement of high school students taking algebra. In addition, student attitudes toward chapter tests and changes that may occur in those attitudes resulting from teacher treatment of…

  12. A Mixed-Methods Study of the Transformation Model for Rapid Improvement of Low Achieving Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson Duina, Angela

    2013-01-01

    New regulations attached to ARRA funding of federal School Improvement Fund grants aimed at producing rapid turnaround of low performing schools were highly criticized as unsuitable for rural schools. This mixed-methods study looked at the implementation of the School Improvement Fund Transformation Model in two rural Maine high schools during the…

  13. What Works to Improve Student Literacy Achievement? An Examination of Instructional Practices in a Balanced Literacy Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Catherine; O'Day, Jennifer; Gubbins, Paul; Socias, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    A core assumption of the San Diego City Schools (SDCS) reform effort was that improved instructional practices, aligned with a balanced literacy approach, would be effective in improving student outcomes. This article explores this hypothesis by presenting findings from an analysis of classroom instruction data collected in 101 classrooms in 9…

  14. Achieving the Health Care Financing Administration limits by quality improvement and quality control. A real-world example.

    PubMed

    Engebretson, M J; Cembrowski, G S

    1992-07-01

    With the enactment of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA 88), the federal government is now using proficiency testing as the primary indicator of laboratory quality. Laboratories with proficiency test failures are now at risk of a variety of harsh penalties including large monetary fines and suspension of operations. To minimize the risk of failed proficiency testing, we initiated a continuous quality improvement program in our general chemistry laboratory in conjunction with the use of a new survey-validated quality control product. This article describes the quality improvement program and our success in reducing the long-term random error in general chemistry. Despite our improvement program, significant analytical errors (greater than 30% of the CLIA limits) still exist in analytes measured by our chemistry analyzer. These errors are present in nearly the same analytes measured by other common chemistry analyzers indicating the need for improvement in their design and manufacture.

  15. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...? How substantial would the harmful effects of disclosure be? What is the causal relationship between... information? What is the causal connection between the disclosure and harm? (7) If EPA disclosed to the public... factors facilitate or impede product analysis? (3) For each additional type of information claimed...

  16. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  17. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS General Provisions § 514.4 Substantial evidence... adequate and well-controlled studies, such as a study in a target species, study in laboratory...

  18. Indirect Effects of the Family Check-up on School-Age Academic Achievement through Improvements in Parenting in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that the impact of the Family Check-Up on parent use of positive behavior support would indirectly improve academic achievement scores at school age. The study included a sample of 731 high-risk families recruited from Women, Infant, and Children Supplemental Nutrition Program settings in 3 geographically…

  19. Using International Study Series and Meta-Analytic Research Syntheses to Scope Pedagogical Development Aimed at Improving Student Attitude and Achievement in School Mathematics and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthven, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Taking lower-secondary schooling within the English educational system as an example, this paper illustrates the contribution of two bodies of international scholarship to the scoping of research-based pedagogical development aimed at improving student attitude and achievement in science and mathematics. After sketching the English context of…

  20. Improvements in compliance with resuscitation bundles and achievement of end points after an educational program on the management of severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Kyeongman; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Suh, Gee Young; Lim, So Yeon; Song, Hyoung Gon; Jo, Ik Joon

    2012-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether an educational program could improve compliance with resuscitation bundles and the outcomes of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and to evaluate which resuscitation bundle end points were associated with in-hospital mortality. This was a retrospective observational study of 366 patients (163 of historical controls and 203 of treatment patients) with severe sepsis or septic shock who presented to the emergency department between May 2007 and July 2009. Compliance with resuscitation bundles and achievement of the corresponding end points were compared before and after the 3-month educational program. Compliance with central line insertion and monitoring of central venous pressure (29% vs. 67%, P < 0.001) and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO₂) (25% vs. 68%, P < 0.001) was significantly improved after the educational program. The achievement of target ScvO₂ within the first 6 h was significantly improved (62% vs. 88%, P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality was independently associated with adequate fluid challenge (odds ratio [OR], 0.161; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.046-0.559) and the achievement of target mean arterial pressure (OR, 0.056; 95% CI, 0.008-0.384) and ScvO₂ (OR, 0.251; 95% CI, 0.072-0.875) among the five sepsis resuscitation bundles. In conclusion, an educational program can improve compliance with resuscitation bundles and achievement of their corresponding end points.

  1. Project HAPI (Handicapped Achievement Program Improvement): Assessment plus Intervention equals IEP. A Handbook on How to Write an Individualized Education Program for the Educationally Handicapped. Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Jean; And Others

    The second of five handbooks developed by Project HAPI (Handicapped Achievement Program Improvement), a multimedia staff development program to help teachers and specialists write effective individualized education programs (IEPs), is in looseleaf workbook format and focuses on children with severe education handicaps. It is reported that students…

  2. The Efforts to Improve Mathematics Learning Achievement Results of High School Students as Required by Competency-Based Curriculum and Lesson Level-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidabutar, Ropinus

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the effect of various, innovated teaching models to improved the student's achievement in various topic in Mathematics. The study was conduct experiment by using innovated teaching with contextual, media and web which are the compared. with conventional teaching method. The result showed the innovation in the…

  3. Improving the Teaching and Learning of Science in a Suburban Junior High School on Long Island: Achieving Parity through Cogenerative Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eileen Perman

    2010-01-01

    The research in this dissertation focuses on ways to improve the teaching and learning of science in a suburban junior high school on Long Island, New York. The study is my attempt to find ways to achieve parity in my classroom in terms of success in science. I was specifically looking for ways to encourage Black female students in my classroom…

  4. Inquiry and Blended Learning Based Learning Material Development for Improving Student Achievement on General Physics I of Mathematics and Natural Science of State University of Medan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motlan; Sinulinggga, Karya; Siagian, Henok

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine if inquiry and blended learning based materials can improve student's achievement. The learning materials are: book, worksheet, and test, website, etc. The type of this research is quasi experiment using two-group pretest posttest design. The population is all students of first year who take general physics…

  5. The hybrid progress note: semiautomating daily progress notes to achieve high-quality documentation and improve provider efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kargul, George J; Wright, Scott M; Knight, Amy M; McNichol, Mary T; Riggio, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Health care institutions are moving toward fully functional electronic medical records (EMRs) that promise improved documentation, safety, and quality of care. However, many hospitals do not yet use electronic documentation. Paper charting, including writing daily progress notes, is time-consuming and error prone. To improve the quality of documentation at their hospital, the authors introduced a highly formatted paper note template (hybrid note) that is prepopulated with data from the EMR. Inclusion of vital signs and active medications improved from 75.5% and 60% to 100% (P < .001), respectively. The use of unapproved abbreviations in the medication list decreased from 13.3% to 0% (P < .001). Prepopulating data enhances provider efficiency. Interviews of key clinician leaders also suggest that the initiative is well accepted and that documentation quality is enhanced. The hybrid progress note improves documentation and provider efficiency, promotes quality care, and initiates the development of the forthcoming electronic progress note.

  6. Using M and S to Improve Human Decision Making and Achieve Effective Problem Solving in an International Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Vanessa L.; Landess, David J.

    2012-01-01

    In the international arena, decision makers are often swayed away from fact-based analysis by their own individual cultural and political bias. Modeling and Simulation-based training can raise awareness of individual predisposition and improve the quality of decision making by focusing solely on fact vice perception. This improved decision making methodology will support the multinational collaborative efforts of military and civilian leaders to solve challenges more effectively. The intent of this experimental research is to create a framework that allows decision makers to "come to the table" with the latest and most significant facts necessary to determine an appropriate solution for any given contingency.

  7. Achieving a culture of continuous improvement by adopting the principles of self-assessment and business excellence.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S

    1999-01-01

    Following a brief description of the inception of self-assessment and the European Foundation for Quality business excellence model, this article describes how one clinical directorate in an NHS Trust used the principles of both to secure a culture of continuous improvement. The journey from a mainly hierarchical, bureaucratic, individualist culture to one where the norms, values and beliefs reflected teamwork, involvement and empowerment is described. The highs, lows and learning points are all included, in an attempt to enlighten other healthcare organisations considering the benefits and pitfalls of using the business excellence model to improve the quality of their healthcare delivery.

  8. The Impact of School Improvement Grants on Achievement: Plans for a National Evaluation Using a Regression Discontinuity Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deke, John; Dragoset, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Does receipt of School Improvement Grants (SIG) funding to implement a school intervention model have an impact on outcomes for low-performing schools? This study answers this question using a regression discontinuity design (RDD) that exploits cutoff values on the continuous variables used to define SIG eligibility tiers, comparing outcomes in…

  9. Yes We Can! Improving Urban Schools through Innovative Educational Reform. Contemporary Perspectives on Access, Equity, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Leanne L., Ed.; Lewis, Chance W., Ed.; Carter, Norvella, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Yes We Can: Improving Urban Schools through Innovative Educational Reform is a empirically-based book on urban education reform to not only proclaim that hope is alive for urban schools, but to also produce a body of literature that examines current practices and then offer practical implications for all involved in this arduous task. This book is…

  10. Performance Incentives to Improve Community College Completion: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulock, Nancy; Jenkins, Davis

    2011-01-01

    Amid growing signs of America's weakening position in the global economy, federal and state policymakers and major foundations have set ambitious goals for increasing postsecondary attainment in the United States. Given changing U.S. demographics, it has become clear that these national goals are attainable only with vastly improved outcomes among…

  11. Discussion of Policies for Achieving Continuous Improvement in Community Colleges. Commission on Innovation Policy Discussion Paper Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BW Associates, Berkeley, CA.

    Intended to provide background information and preliminary options for the California Community Colleges' Commission on Innovation, this document describes the principles of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) and describes policy options for implementation in the state's community colleges. Following introductory materials, the paper recommends…

  12. Another Look at High School Restructuring. More Evidence That It Improves Student Achievement and More Insight into Why.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Valerie E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This report expands on earlier research that found evidence of strong links between school restructuring and improved learning among students in the first 2 years of high school. This report, based on 1992 National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) data, analyzes data collected for most of the same students in their last 2 years of high school.…

  13. A Project-Based Digital Storytelling Approach for Improving Students' Learning Motivation, Problem-Solving Competence and Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Chun-Ming; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Huang, Iwen

    2012-01-01

    Although project-based learning is a well-known and widely used instructional strategy, it remains a challenging issue to effectively apply this approach to practical settings for improving the learning performance of students. In this study, a project-based digital storytelling approach is proposed to cope with this problem. With a…

  14. Do Incentive-Based Programs Improve Teacher Quality and Student Achievement? An Analysis of Implementation in 12 Urban Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaimal, Girija; Jordan, Will J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Policymakers have increasingly advocated for incentive-based approaches for improving urban schools. Purpose of the study: Few studies have examined the implementation of incentive based approaches in the urban charter school context. This paper presents research findings from a 4-year longitudinal study of the implementation of a…

  15. Comprehensive School Reform: Research-Based Strategies To Achieve High Standards. A Guidebook on School-Wide Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Sylvie van Heusden

    This guidebook provides a framework for planning schoolwide improvements. It is intended to help educators redesign schools, move beyond piecemeal reforms, and reconfigure entire academic programs to help every student meet challenging standards. The guidebook describes the context of comprehensive school reform and offers a process for conducting…

  16. Evaluation and capacity building to improve precollege science and mathematics achievement in the US: 10 CFR, Part 605. Technical progress report, June--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The National Center for Improving Science Education has undertaken activities to achieve evaluation goals for DOE`s Precollege programs: develop means to determine program quality; develop means for determining the contribution of DOE precollege programs to both teacher enhancement and student achievement; provide evaluation designs and instruments and reports of program quality and impact; and strengthen both DOE`s and the Labs` capacity to do both short- and long-term planning as well as deliver effective programs and evaluation. Appendices include evaluation/technical assistance report, profiling teacher research participation and teacher development programs, teacher surveys, impact assessment design, and teacher research participation programs anecdotes for 8 labs.

  17. Achieving Superior Tropical Cyclone Intensity Forecasts by Improving the Assimilation of High-Resolution Satellite Data into Mesoscale Prediction Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    for improved spatial/temporal coverage (Figure 1). The SFOV sounding physical retrieval algorithm has also been adapted to process IASI data, with...the algorithm refined and adjusted to include many more IASI channels in the retrieval process. An initial evaluation for IASI clear sky soundings is...experiments, and after processing and evaluation, IASI clear sky sounding data will also be provided. Finally, a dual regression algorithm is being

  18. Achievement of the POSITIVE (Participation-Oriented Safety Improvement by Trade Union InitiatiVE) activities in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tachi, Norihide; Itani, Toru; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Yoshikawa, Toru; Suzuki, Koji; Castro, Ariel B

    2006-01-01

    The POSITIVE (Participation-oriented safety improvement by trade union initiative) programme was introduced into the Philippines in 1995. The monitoring of activities was carried out in 2004 among core trainers who had been trained before. The results of the questionnaire survey showed that the core trainers evaluated their activities satisfactory in general, and particularly the training activities were considered excellent. Also, the union workers who had been trained by the POSITIVE programme implemented improvements at the rate of around 5 examples a year on average. It was of note that the installation ratio (the number of installations/that of plans) was higher in small- and medium-sized enterprises than in larger companies, although the numbers of plans and installations of improvements were greater in large enterprises. Together with the previous findings, the present results suggest that the POSITIVE-style participatory training program is effective and efficient for workers to take actions for the OSH in not only larger enterprises but also small enterprises.

  19. Sensitivity improvement of an electrical sensor achieved by control of biomolecules based on the negative dielectrophoretic force.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jung Ho; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-11-15

    Effective control of nano-scale biomolecules can enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection of an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor. Manipulation of the biomolecules by dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially the negative DEP (nDEP) force, so that they are trapped between electrodes (sensing regions) was predicted to increase the binding efficiency of the antibody and target molecules, leading to a more effective reaction. To prove this concept, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein were respectively trapped between the sensing region owing to the nDEP force under 5V and 0.05V, which was verified with COMSOL simulation. Using the simulation value, the resistance change (ΔR/Rb) of the IME sensor from the specific antibody-antigen reaction of the two biomolecules and the change in fluorescence intensity were compared in the reference (pDEP) and nDEP conditions. The ΔR/Rb value improved by about 2-fold and 1.66-fold with nDEP compared to the reference condition with various protein concentrations, and these increases were confirmed with fluorescence imaging. Overall, nDEP enhanced the detection sensitivity for Aβ42 and PSA by 128% and 258%, respectively, and the limit of detection improved by up to 2-orders of magnitude. These results prove that DEP can improve the biosensor's performance.

  20. Human ergology that promotes participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions at grassroots workplaces: achievements and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work.

  1. Does Pluto have a substantial atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of CH4 ice on Pluto implies that Pluto may have a substantial atmosphere consisting of heavy gases. Without such an atmosphere, sublimation of the CH4 ice would be so rapid on a cosmogonic time scale that either such an atmosphere would soon develop through the exposure of gases trapped in the CH4 ice or else the surface CH4 ice would soon be all sublimated away as other, more stable, ices became exposed. If such stable ices were present from the beginning, the existence of CH4 frosts would also imply that Pluto's present atmosphere contains a remnant of its primordial atmosphere.

  2. Substantiating powder metal life methodologies for engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domas, P. A.

    1993-04-01

    The application of powder metal (PM) superalloys in aircraft turbine engine rotating components is prompted by performance driven high strength and creep resistance requirements. Fine grain, precipitation strengthened nickel-base alloys such as IN100, Rene'95, and Rene'88DT meet these requirements up to operating temperatures in the 1200-1300F (649-704C) range. In addition to burst and deformation limits, design constraints include durability (fatigue) and damage tolerance (crack growth resistance) capability to insure reliability and safety. Fatigue life for these alloys can be influenced by inhomogeneities (inclusions) intrinsic to the microstructure as the result of processing, and by perturbations of the surface integrity during component manufacture and subsequent usage. Understanding of PM fatigue behavior and substantiation of life assessment methodology must appropriately recognize these potential influences. New testing, modeling, and analysis schemes are necessitated in engineering development programs addressing generation and validation of life prediction techniques for these materials. This paper outlines one approach to substantiating PM fatigue life prediction that attempts to recognize homogeneous fatigue initiation by incorporating probabilistic models and development testing methods that address material volume and component feature effects. Complications and limitations being addressed in ongoing work are discussed.

  3. Achieving equity in HIV-treatment outcomes: can social protection improve adolescent ART-adherence in South Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, L. D.; Toska, E.; Orkin, F. M.; Meinck, F.; Hodes, R.; Yakubovich, A. R.; Sherr, L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low ART-adherence amongst adolescents is associated with morbidity, mortality and onward HIV transmission. Reviews find no effective adolescent adherence-promoting interventions. Social protection has demonstrated benefits for adolescents, and could potentially improve ART-adherence. This study examines associations of 10 social protection provisions with adherence in a large community-based sample of HIV-positive adolescents. All 10–19-year-olds ever ART-initiated in 53 government healthcare facilities in a health district of South Africa’s Eastern Cape were traced and interviewed in 2014–2015 (n = 1175 eligible). About 90% of the eligible sample was included (n = 1059). Social protection provisions were “cash/cash in kind”: government cash transfers, food security, school fees/materials, school feeding, clothing; and “care”: HIV support group, sports groups, choir/art groups, positive parenting and parental supervision/monitoring. Analyses used multivariate regression, interaction and marginal effects models in SPSS and STATA, controlling for socio-demographic, HIV and healthcare-related covariates. Findings showed 36% self-reported past-week ART non-adherence (<95%). Non-adherence was associated with increased opportunistic infections (p = .005, B .269, SD .09), and increased likelihood of detectable viral load at last test (>75 copies/ml) (aOR 1.98, CI 1.1–3.45). Independent of covariates, three social protection provisions were associated with reduced non-adherence: food provision (aOR .57, CI .42–.76, p < .001); HIV support group attendance (aOR .60, CI .40–.91, p < .02), and high parental/caregiver supervision (aOR .56, CI .43–.73, p < .001). Combination social protection showed additive benefits. With no social protection, non-adherence was 54%, with any one protection 39–41%, with any two social protections, 27–28% and with all three social protections, 18%. These results demonstrate that social protection provisions

  4. Achieving equity in HIV-treatment outcomes: can social protection improve adolescent ART-adherence in South Africa?

    PubMed

    Cluver, L D; Toska, E; Orkin, F M; Meinck, F; Hodes, R; Yakubovich, A R; Sherr, L

    2016-03-01

    Low ART-adherence amongst adolescents is associated with morbidity, mortality and onward HIV transmission. Reviews find no effective adolescent adherence-promoting interventions. Social protection has demonstrated benefits for adolescents, and could potentially improve ART-adherence. This study examines associations of 10 social protection provisions with adherence in a large community-based sample of HIV-positive adolescents. All 10-19-year-olds ever ART-initiated in 53 government healthcare facilities in a health district of South Africa's Eastern Cape were traced and interviewed in 2014-2015 (n = 1175 eligible). About 90% of the eligible sample was included (n = 1059). Social protection provisions were "cash/cash in kind": government cash transfers, food security, school fees/materials, school feeding, clothing; and "care": HIV support group, sports groups, choir/art groups, positive parenting and parental supervision/monitoring. Analyses used multivariate regression, interaction and marginal effects models in SPSS and STATA, controlling for socio-demographic, HIV and healthcare-related covariates. Findings showed 36% self-reported past-week ART non-adherence (<95%). Non-adherence was associated with increased opportunistic infections (p = .005, B .269, SD .09), and increased likelihood of detectable viral load at last test (>75 copies/ml) (aOR 1.98, CI 1.1-3.45). Independent of covariates, three social protection provisions were associated with reduced non-adherence: food provision (aOR .57, CI .42-.76, p < .001); HIV support group attendance (aOR .60, CI .40-.91, p < .02), and high parental/caregiver supervision (aOR .56, CI .43-.73, p < .001). Combination social protection showed additive benefits. With no social protection, non-adherence was 54%, with any one protection 39-41%, with any two social protections, 27-28% and with all three social protections, 18%. These results demonstrate that social protection provisions, particularly combinations of "cash

  5. Improved silencing suppression and enhanced heterologous protein expression are achieved using an engineered viral helper component proteinase.

    PubMed

    Haikonen, T; Rajamäki, M-L; Valkonen, J P T

    2013-11-01

    RNA silencing limits transient expression of heterologous proteins in plants. Co-expression of viral silencing suppressor proteins can increase and prolong protein expression, but highly efficient silencing suppressors may stress plant tissue and be detrimental to protein yields. Little is known whether silencing suppression could be improved without harm to plant tissues. This study reports development of enhanced silencing suppressors by engineering the helper component proteinase (HCpro) of Potato virus A (PVA). Mutations were introduced to a short region of HCpro (positions 330-335 in PVA HCpro), which is hypervariable among potyviruses. Three out of the four HCpro mutants suppressed RNA silencing more efficiently and sustained expression of co-expressed jellyfish green fluorescent protein for a longer time than wild-type HCpro in agroinfiltrated leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Leaf tissues remained healthy-looking without any visible signs of stress.

  6. Improvement of switching uniformity in Cu/SiO2/Pt resistive memory achieved by voltage prestress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chih-Yi; Lin, Chao-Han; Liu, Shin-Hung; Bai, Chang-Zong; Zhang, Yu-Xuan

    2015-03-01

    A Cu/SiO2/Pt structure was fabricated to investigate its resistive switching characteristics. The application of DC voltages with different polarities allowed for the reversible manipulation of the structure’s resistance. This resistive switching phenomenon is the result of the formation and rupture of Cu conducting filaments near the Cu/SiO2 interface. However, significant switching dispersion occurred during successive switching cycles, which resulted in operational difficulties and switching failure. In this study, a voltage prestress was applied to the structure in an attempt to minimize the switching dispersion. A statistical technique was used to analyze the status of formation/rupture sites, and a schematic model is proposed to explain the reason for the dispersion improvement. It is suggested that the voltage prestress builds nonconnected filaments and reduces the number of sites of filament formation/rupture. This reduction in the number of sites leads to reduced switching dispersion.

  7. Markedly Improved Success Rate of Endoscopically Assisted Third Ventriculostomy Is Achieved by Routine Placement of External Lumbar Drain

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Justen; Cabanne, Marc; Miulli, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is a major cause of patient decreased quality of life and high health care financial burden in the United States and throughout the world. The placement of ventricular shunts (ventriculoperitoneal shunt) has proven to be a safe treatment for hydrocephalus, but it is associated with a high complication rate leading to a lower quality of life and continued financial burden for patients, their families, and society as a whole. The endoscopically assisted third ventriculostomy (ETV) has been practiced as an alternative to ventricular shunting since the 1990s. Success rates vary widely and there are many factors which contribute to the varying success rates. The ETV procedure has the potential to alleviate much of the overall quality of life issues and some of the financial burdens associated with hydrocephalus provided success rates can be increased and the procedure and management techniques are adopted more widely. Common techniques have been published in the past which report associated improvements in success rates amongst individual surgeons. Here, we report a novel perioperative technique and management strategy that displays a higher than reported success rate. Our methods and results show potential to significantly improve overall ETV success rates if reproduced and subsequently adopted widely. We retrospectively studied records of 24 adult patients with hydrocephalus who were treated with an ETV procedure. Routinely, we placed an external lumbar drain postoperatively which was continued for a minimum of 2 days. There was a 95.8% success rate at 30 days. The overall success rate was 83.3%. This is significantly higher than the average of the predicted success scores calculated by the ETV success scoring system (71.8%). It is also significantly higher than previous studies' reported ETV success rates in adults. We propose additional similar studies to be performed to test the reproducibility of increased success rates using our technique, ideally

  8. General chemistry courses that can affect achievement: An action research study in developing a plan to improve undergraduate chemistry courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on chemistry education at three institutions in Southern California. Via action research, the study sought to develop a plan to improve student engagement in general chemistry courses. A mixed method was utilized to analyze different perceptions on key factors determining the level of commitment and engagement in general chemistry education. The approach to chemistry learning from both a faculty and student perspective was examined including good practices, experiences and extent of active participation. The research study considered well-known measures of effective education with an emphasis on two key components: educational practices and student behavior. Institutional culture was inclusively assessed where cognitive expectations of chemistry teaching and learning were communicated. First, the extent in which faculty members are utilizing the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" in their instruction was explored. Second, student attitudes and approaches toward chemistry learning were examined. The focus was on investigating student understanding of the learning process and the structure of chemistry knowledge. The seven categories used to measure students' expectations for learning chemistry were: effort, concepts, math link, reality link, outcome, laboratory, and visualization. This analysis represents the views of 16 faculty and 140 students. The results validated the assertion that students need some competencies and skills to tackle the challenges of the chemistry learning process to deeply engage in learning. A mismatch exists between the expectations of students and those of the faculty

  9. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., as well as a petition to consider “substantial new evidence”. (2) Contents. Each petition for... or an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; (v) A detailed statement and analysis as to why...

  10. [Problem-based learning in a social medicine course--a concept for improving learning achievement and practice relevance].

    PubMed

    Busse, R

    1996-07-01

    In many medical curricula around the world, problem-based learning (PBL), i.e. inductive, usually interdisciplinary learning based on real or constructed cases, has been shown to improve the acquisition of knowledge. Additionally, it is valued positively by students. On the other hand, lecturing is usually valued negatively. Teaching of epidemiology and social medicine is further handicapped by the fact that students consider it irrelevant. In 1994/95, one of 18 social medicine courses for fifth year medical students at Hannover Medical School was problem-based. The following "cases" were used: 1. rheumatic patient with various social medical problems (losing sick pay, receiving status as handicapped person, early retirement etc.), 2. cluster of patients with leukaemia in the surroundings of a nuclear power plant and 3. recent newspaper articles on the effects of the 1993 Health Care Reform Law (dentists refusing to treat patients because of a fixed budget, introduction of prepayment methods in hospital etc.). Evaluation by the students at the end of the course revealed that PBL is well accepted in social medicine. Students rated learning success, relevance of the subject compared to other disciplines and the ability to transfer the acquired knowledge into medical practice well above the traditional courses. Besides lectures, practical courses and seminars, PBL should therefore be used as a standard method of learning in undergraduate medical education.

  11. Achieving Health Equity Through Community Engagement in Translating Evidence to Policy: The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership, 2010–2016

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roberto A.; Fleisher, Paula; Aragón, Tomás J.; Chung, Lisa; Chawla, Colleen; Yant, Abbie; Garcia, Estela R.; Santiago, Amor; Lang, Perry L.; Jones, Paula; Liu, Wylie; Schmidt, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The San Francisco Health Improvement Partnership (SFHIP) promotes health equity by using a novel collective impact model that blends community engagement with evidence-to-policy translational science. The model involves diverse stakeholders, including ethnic-based community health equity coalitions, the local public health department, hospitals and health systems, a health sciences university, a school district, the faith community, and others sectors. Community Context We report on 3 SFHIP prevention initiatives: reducing consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), regulating retail alcohol sales, and eliminating disparities in children’s oral health. Methods SFHIP is governed by a steering committee. Partnership working groups for each initiative collaborate to 1) develop and implement action plans emphasizing feasible, scalable, translational-science–informed interventions and 2) consider sustainability early in the planning process by including policy and structural interventions. Outcome Through SFHIP’s efforts, San Francisco enacted ordinances regulating sale and advertising of SSBs and a ballot measure establishing a soda tax. Most San Francisco hospitals implemented or committed to implementing healthy-beverage policies that prohibited serving or selling SSBs. SFHIP helped prevent Starbucks and Taco Bell from receiving alcohol licenses in San Francisco and helped prevent state authorization of sale of powdered alcohol. SFHIP increased the number of primary care clinics providing fluoride varnish at routine well-child visits from 3 to 14 and acquired a state waiver to allow dental clinics to be paid for dental services delivered in schools. Interpretation The SFHIP model of collective impact emphasizing community engagement and policy change accomplished many of its intermediate goals to create an environment promoting health and health equity. PMID:28333598

  12. Paleoclimate of the Southern San Joaquin Valley, CA: Research Participation Opportunities for Improving Minority Participation and Achievement in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, D.; Negrini, R.; Palacios-Fest, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    . The analyses of the sediment samples range from simple tasks such as core descriptions or total organic carbon analysis to complex procedures such as the separation, identification, and chemical analysis of ostracode shells. Thus, the participants can find tasks appropriate to their diverse backgrounds and experience. CSUB students served as mentors and role models for high school students. Surveys conducted before and after the summer program indicate that knowledge of climate change and local geology of both teachers and students increased. Student's attitudes towards the geosciences and possible geoscience careers improved.

  13. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  14. Achieving a "Grand Convergence" in Global Health by 2035: Rwanda Shows the Way Comment on "Improving the World's Health Through the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Perspectives From Rwanda".

    PubMed

    Yamey, Gavin; Fewer, Sara; Beyeler, Naomi

    2015-07-29

    Global Health 2035, the report of The Lancet Commission on Investing in Health, laid out a bold, highly ambitious framework for making rapid progress in improving global public health outcomes. It showed that with the right health investments, the international community could achieve a "grand convergence" in global health-a reduction in avertable infectious, maternal, and child deaths down to universally low levels-within a generation. Rwanda's success in rapidly reducing such deaths over the last 20 years shows that convergence is feasible. Binagwaho and Scott have argued that 5 lessons from this success are the importance of equity, quality health services, evidence-informed policy, intersectoral collaboration, and effective collaboration between countries and multilateral agencies. This article re-examines these lessons through the lens of the Global Health 2035 report to analyze how the experience in Rwanda might be generalized for other countries to making progress towards achieving a grand convergence.

  15. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

    2014-03-28

    High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report on the long-term health effects of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), whereas it is only 126 mm Hg among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, whereas none in the treatment group are affected. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health.

  16. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  17. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  18. Dollars for Sense: Assessing Achievement Gaps in Arkansas in the Context of Substantial Funding Increases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Joshua; Jensen, Nathan C.; Ritter, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-four of the fifty states have experienced school finance lawsuits as a consequence of funding gaps between rich and poor districts. In some states, such as Kentucky, lawsuits brought about by property-poor districts have resulted in a statewide remedy that reforms the property tax system and seeks to provide every child with an adequate…

  19. Improving Achievement Via Essay Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Ohmer

    1979-01-01

    The benefits of using essay tests rather than objective tests in professional education programs are discussed. Essay tests offer practice in writing, creativity and formal communications. Guidelines for using and scoring a sample essay test in biology are presented. (BH)

  20. Does Homework Really Improve Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Should public school teachers assign daily homework? Should school districts have policies requiring teachers to assign homework? Is homework beneficial to students? Do students learn from completing daily homework? In this article, a review of literature is included offering pros and cons to students doing homework with various counterpoint…

  1. Deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency higher than 20% at 275 nm achieved by improving light-extraction efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Takayoshi; Mino, Takuya; Sakai, Jun; Noguchi, Norimichi; Tsubaki, Kenji; Hirayama, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    Enhancing the light-extraction efficiency is the key issue for realizing highly efficient AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). We introduced several features to improve the light extraction: a transparent AlGaN:Mg contact layer, a Rh mirror electrode, an AlN template on a patterned sapphire substrate, and encapsulation resin. The combination of the AlGaN:Mg contact layer and the Rh mirror electrode significantly improved the output power and the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of UV-LEDs. By introducing the aforementioned features, a maximum EQE of >20% at an emission wavelength of 275 nm and a 20-mA direct current was achieved.

  2. Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves

  3. Closing the social-class achievement gap: a difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin

    2014-04-01

    College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement).

  4. Substantiation of International Nanomaterials Security Group Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnov, A.; Sadovnikov, S.; Panfilov, S.; Magarshak, Yu.

    Nanotechnology has achieved the status as one of the critical R&D area. Scientists use the unique properties of atomic and molecular assemblages built at the nanometer scale. The ability to manipulate the physical, chemical, and biological properties of molecules and particles affords to design agents with set up properties. But the technology allows creating not only useful agents. Possible accidental or deliberate creation of new nanoparticles (NPs) with dangerous properties is highly probable minor product of progress in the new area. The article briefly describes some pathways in development and implementation of NPs for medicinal and the similar purposes. Some of NPs can effective facilitate and mask transport of various agents in various environments. Possible creation of new dangerous NPs (e.g. conjugates based on combination of extensively use NPs and chemical, biological and radioactive agents) as well as creation of brand new NPs and nanodevices with unique properties needs creation of international multidiscipline community for security evaluation of nanomaterials and technologies. The community will forecast possible dangerous unexpectedness in the field of nanoscale materials and devices and suggests rational pathways for prevention of the threats.

  5. Exploratory Analyses of the Long-Term Effects of Improving Behavior, Attendance, and Educational Achievement in Grades 1-6 and 8-12. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard; Gibson, Neal

    2012-01-01

    We studied relationships among background characteristics, behavioral infractions, punishments, attendance, and educational achievement, using longitudinal data of students in grades 1-6 and 8-12. We estimated how much hypothesized early improvements in educational achievement or sustained improvements in behavior and attendance might ultimately…

  6. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  7. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  8. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  9. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  10. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  11. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing...

  12. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  13. 45 CFR 1355.34 - Criteria for determining substantial conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria for determining substantial conformity... GENERAL § 1355.34 Criteria for determining substantial conformity. (a) Criteria to be satisfied. ACF will determine a State's substantial conformity with title IV-B and title IV-E State plan requirements based...

  14. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause substantial and grievous economic injury to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  15. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  16. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  17. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  18. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  19. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  20. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  1. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  2. A substantial and unexpected enhancement of motion perception in autism.

    PubMed

    Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Tadin, Duje; Schauder, Kimberly B; Cascio, Carissa J

    2013-05-08

    Atypical perceptual processing in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is well documented. In addition, growing evidence supports the hypothesis that an excitatory/inhibitory neurochemical imbalance might underlie ASD. Here we investigated putative behavioral consequences of the excitatory/inhibitory imbalance in the context of visual motion perception. As stimulus size increases, typical observers exhibit marked impairments in perceiving motion of high-contrast stimuli. This result, termed "spatial suppression," is believed to reflect inhibitory motion-processing mechanisms. Motion processing is also affected by gain control, an inhibitory mechanism that underlies saturation of neural responses at high contrast. Motivated by these behavioral correlates of inhibitory function, we investigated motion perception in human children with ASD (n = 20) and typical development (n = 26). At high contrast, both groups exhibited similar impairments in motion perception with increasing stimulus size, revealing no apparent differences in spatial suppression. However, there was a substantial enhancement of motion perception in ASD: children with ASD exhibited a consistent twofold improvement in perceiving motion. Hypothesizing that this enhancement might indicate abnormal weakening of response gain control, we repeated our measurements at low contrast, where the effects of gain control should be negligible. At low contrast, we indeed found no group differences in motion discrimination thresholds. These low-contrast results, however, revealed weaker spatial suppression in ASD, suggesting the possibility that gain control abnormalities in ASD might have masked spatial suppression differences at high contrast. Overall, we report a pattern of motion perception abnormalities in ASD that includes substantial enhancements at high contrast and is consistent with an underlying excitatory/inhibitory imbalance.

  3. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand; Rue du Can, Stephane de la; Phadke, Amol

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  4. The Constitution of the Human Embryo as Substantial Change

    PubMed Central

    Alvargonzález, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the transformation from the human zygote to the implanted embryo under the prism of substantial change. After a brief introduction, it vindicates the Aristotelian ideas of substance and accident, and those of substantial and accidental change. It then claims that the transformation from the multicelled zygote to the implanted embryo amounts to a substantial change. Pushing further, it contends that this substantial change cannot be explained following patterns of genetic reductionism, emergence, and self-organization, and proposes Gustavo Bueno’s idea of anamorphosis as a means to encapsulate criticism against such positions. PMID:26850033

  5. Scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuexin

    2008-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the procedures involved in scientific substantiation of functional food health claims in China. The definition of a functional food is discussed, in addition to the factors that led to its modification in 2005. The framework of administration includes the regulation of functional foods, steps involved in submission of dossiers, the safety control system for raw materials and products, and technical procedures for testing and evaluation. Scientific evidence required for a claim includes evidence from product tests in addition to evidence resulting from complete scientific literature searches relative to the food material or component in question. Currently, the 4 main rules for functional food assessment in China include 1) functional assessment procedures; 2) standard toxicological assessment; 3) regulations on nutrient supplements; and 4) standard analytical methods for functional components. The current situation for functional foods in China is analyzed, including a discussion of the distribution of the 27 currently allowed functional food health claims. The effectiveness of functional foods and health claims for improving health relies largely on the motivation and education of the public to be able to make good choices.

  6. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability § 416.910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that—...

  7. 20 CFR 655.183 - Less than substantial violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Less than substantial violations. 655.183... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Integrity Measures § 655.183 Less than substantial violations. (a) Requirement of special procedures. If the OFLC Administrator determines that a less...

  8. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  9. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  10. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  11. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  12. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  13. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Substantiality test. 1.528-4 Section 1.528-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Homeowners Associations § 1.528-4 Substantiality test. (a) In general. In...

  14. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a) In... for the administration of its UC program. (b) Resolving Issues of Conformity and...

  15. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cause substantial and grievous economic injury to the operations of the employer, not whether the absence of the employee will cause such substantial and grievous injury. (b) An employer may take into... words, the effect on the operations of the company of reinstating the employee in an equivalent...

  16. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a) In... for the administration of its UC program. (b) Resolving Issues of Conformity and...

  17. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  18. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's…

  19. Control-value theory: using achievement emotions to improve understanding of motivation, learning, and performance in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 64.

    PubMed

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this AMEE Guide, we consider the emergent theoretical and empirical work on human emotion and how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. In the Guide, we define emotion, in general, and achievement emotions, more specifically. We describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun 2006), and we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal antecedents, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance. Next, we review the empirical support for control-value theory from non-medical fields and suggest several important implications for educational practice. In this section, we highlight the importance of designing learning environments that foster a high degree of control and value for students. Finally, we end with a discussion of the need for more research on achievement emotions in medical education, and we propose several key research questions we believe will facilitate our understanding of achievement emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  20. 40 CFR 350.27 - Substantiation form to accompany claims of trade secrecy, instructions to substantiation form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiation form to accompany claims of trade secrecy, instructions to substantiation form. 350.27 Section 350.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY...

  1. Raising Reading Achievement in an "At Risk", Low Socioeconomic, Multicultural Intermediate School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jo; Grimley, Michael; Greenwood, Janinka; Parkhill, Faye

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on a multicultural, low socioeconomic, intermediate school that over the 4 years of this longitudinal, qualitative, case study made substantial positive shifts in developing a more effective learning environment and improving students' reading achievement. The study found that the factors appearing to have the most influence…

  2. Cinacalcet HCl and Concurrent Low-dose Vitamin D Improves Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Dialysis Patients Compared with Vitamin D Alone: The ACHIEVE Study Results

    PubMed Central

    Fishbane, Steven; Shapiro, Warren B.; Corry, Dalila B.; Vicks, Steven L.; Roppolo, Michael; Rappaport, Kenneth; Ling, Xiang; Goodman, William G.; Turner, Stewart; Charytan, Chaim

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving dialysis often develop secondary hyperparathyroidism with disturbed calcium and phosphorus metabolism. The National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) was established to guide treatment practices for these disorders. The ACHIEVE study was designed to test two treatment strategies for achieving KDOQI goals. Design, setting, participants, measurements: Individuals on hemodialysis treated with vitamin D sterols were enrolled in this 33-week study. Subjects were randomly assigned to treatment with either cinacalcet and low-dose vitamin D (Cinacalcet-D) or flexible vitamin D alone (Flex-D) to achieve KDOQI-recommended bone mineral targets. ACHIEVE included a 6-week screening phase, including vitamin D washout, a 16-week dose-titration phase, and an 11-week assessment phase. Results: Of 173 subjects enrolled, 83% of Cinacalcet-D and 67% of Flex-D subjects completed the study. A greater proportion of Cinacalcet-D versus Flex-D subjects had a ≥30% reduction in parathyroid hormone (PTH) (68% versus 36%, P < 0.001) as well as PTH ≤300 pg/ml (44% versus 23%, P = 0.006). The proportion of subjects simultaneously achieving targets for intact PTH (150–300 pg/ml) and calcium-phosphorus product (Ca×P) (<55 mg2/dl2) was also greater (21% versus 14%), but this was not statistically significant. This was attributable to 19% of Cinacalcet-D subjects with a PTH value below the KDOQI target range. Conclusions: Achievement of KDOQI targets was difficult, especially with Flex-D. Maintaining calcium and phosphorus target values precluded the use of vitamin D doses necessary to lower PTH to within the narrow target range and highlighted limitations inherent to the KDOQI treatment algorithm. PMID:18945995

  3. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  4. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  5. Highly Effective Teachers of Latino English Language Learners: Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions That Lead to Improved Language Acquisition and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Wendy V.

    2016-01-01

    It is predicted that Hispanic school-aged children will outnumber non-Hispanic white students in public schools by 2050 (Wolf, Herman, & Dietel, 2010). While the number of Latino English language learners (ELLs) continues to grow, their educational achievement remains problematic. Data reveal that ELL dropout, mobility, and poverty rates are…

  6. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  7. Examining School Improvement through the Lens of Principal and Teacher Flow of Influence in High-Achieving, High-Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murley, Lisa Downing; Keedy, John L.; Welsh, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the social exchange theory of Homans, Gouldner, and Malinowski, this sociocultural analysis of three elementary schools focused on principal-teacher and teacher-teacher exchanges of instructional influence. Two questions were asked: (a) In what ways, if any, do principals and teachers in high-achieving, high-poverty schools exchange…

  8. School Improvement in Petersburg: A Comprehensive Three-Year Study of the Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools Initiative Model IV Intervention. Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Joanna; Smith, Karen; Marr, Linda; Wyshynski, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Dr. Jo Lynne DeMary, Virginia's state superintendent of public instruction, requested that the Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia work in partnership with the Virginia Department of Education and Petersburg City Schools to design and test the Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools Initiative (PA+SS) Model IV Intervention. The goal…

  9. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; McMurrer, Jennifer; Silva, Malini R.

    2011-01-01

    Title I provides extra instructional services designed to raise achievement for low-performing students in schools with relatively high poverty rates, and for all students in many of the nation's highest-poverty schools. To learn more about how well Title I students are performing academically, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) compared…

  10. The Finest in Professional Development: Engineering byDesign[TM] (EbD[TM]) Curriculum Specialists--Helping Hands for Improving Student Achievement!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Barry N.; Meade, Shelli D.

    2007-01-01

    How can the teachers of today raise student achievement and prepare students to become the next generation of technologists, innovators, designers, and engineers? This article introduces new opportunities for professional development: a cadre of education professionals who are trained to deliver professional development for states, districts, and…

  11. States Now Collect Quality Data but Need to Act to Improve Student Achievement. Data for Action 2010: DQC's State Analysis. National Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As state policymakers strive to ensure that every student is taught by an effective teacher and is ready for college and 21st-century careers, they must also make drastic budget cuts. States cannot do more with less without collecting and using quality data to determine which programs and policies increase student achievement and the state's…

  12. A Class Size Reduction (CSR) Implementation Plan Based on an Evaluative Study of CSRs for the Improvement of Third Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandyke, Barbara Adrienne

    2009-01-01

    For too long, educators have been left to their own devices when implementing educational policies, initiatives, strategies, and interventions, and they have longed to see the full benefits of these programs, especially in reading achievement. However, instead of determining whether a policy/initiative is working, educators have been asked to…

  13. Can Community and School-Based Supports Improve the Achievement of First-Generation Immigrant Children Attending High-Poverty Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, Eric; Walsh, Mary E.; Sibley, Erin; Lee-St.John, Terry; Foley, Claire; Raczek, Anastacia E.

    2016-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the effects of a student support intervention were estimated for the math and reading achievement of first-generation immigrant children (n = 667, M = 11.05 years of age) attending high-poverty, urban elementary schools. The intervention was designed to help schools identify developmental strengths and barriers…

  14. Does Self-Regulated Learning-Skills Training Improve High-School Students' Self-Regulation, Math Achievement, and Motivation While Using an Intelligent Tutor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrus, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This study empirically evaluated the effectiveness of the instructional design, learning tools, and role of the teacher in three versions of a semester-long, high-school remedial Algebra I course to determine what impact self-regulated learning skills and learning pattern training have on students' self-regulation, math achievement, and…

  15. Improving Learning for All Students through Equity-Based Inclusive Reform Practices: Effectiveness of a Fully Integrated Schoolwide Model on Student Reading and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeong Hoon; Meisenheimer, Jessica M.; McCart, Amy B.; Sailor, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation examines the schoolwide applications model (SAM) as a potentially effective school reform model for increasing equity-based inclusive education practices while enhancing student reading and math achievement for all students. A 3-year quasi-experimental comparison group analysis using latent growth modeling (LGM) was used…

  16. Project LEAP: The Labor Education Achievement Program. A Program To Improve the Literacy Level and Productivity of the Workforce. Final Project Report. April 1, 1990-June 30, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Baltimore Council of AFL-CIO Unions, MD.

    The Labor Education Achievement Program (LEAP) exceeded its recruitment and enrollment goal for April 1990 to June 1991. The number of union workers receiving services was 697 in 59 classes at 20 sites. Recruitment success was made possible by the use of the communication networks of the Baltimore AFL-CIO Metropolitan Council of Unions and public…

  17. Center pivot, showing substantial beams that support the trusses. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Center pivot, showing substantial beams that support the trusses. Looking north from civilian land. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Daggett Road Bridge, Daggett Road traversing Burns Cut Off, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  18. Improving Teacher Effectiveness: An Examination of a Pay for Performance Plan for Boosting Student Academic Achievement in Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Sylvester

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the United States, educational organizations are striving to find more effective ways to improve teacher performance and student learning. The increased pressure to improve teacher effectiveness in the classroom has led many public school districts to adopt a pay for performance system as a strategic compensation option for enhancing…

  19. Closing the Achievement Gap by Improving Reading Instruction. Hearing before the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (Orlando, Florida, November 13, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    A field hearing of the United States House of Representatives' Committee on Education and the Workforce, entitled "Closing the Achievement Gap by Improving Reading Instruction," was held at Lancaster Elementary School in Orlando, Florida, on November 13, 2001. The hearing begins with welcoming statements by the committee chairman and one…

  20. Improving Student Achievement through Technology. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (March 15, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness, Committee on Education and the Workforce to met on Thursday, March 15, 2001 at 10:06 a.m., in Room 2175, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Howard P. "Buck" McKeon, Chairman of the Subcommittee presiding, to hear testimony on the use of technology to improve student achievement.Under…

  1. Testimony of Dr. Willard Sakiestewa Gilbert, President National Indian Education Association before the Education and Labor Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education on Challenges Facing Bureau of Indian Education Schools in Improving Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Willard Sakiestewa

    2008-01-01

    In this testimony, Dr. Willard Sakiestewa Gilbert talks on behalf of the National Indian Education Association with regard to the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) and challenges facing BIE schools in improving student achievement. Founded in 1969, the National Indian Education Association (NIEA) is the largest organization in the nation dedicated…

  2. Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious HIV targets despite expected donor withdrawal by combining improved ART procurement mechanisms with allocative and implementation efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Benedikt, Clemens; Bokazhanova, Aliya; Đurić, Predrag; Petrenko, Irina; Ganina, Lolita; Kelly, Sherrie L.; Stuart, Robyn M.; Kerr, Cliff C.; Vinichenko, Tatiana; Zhang, Shufang; Hamelmann, Christoph; Manova, Manoela; Masaki, Emiko; Wilson, David P.; Gray, Richard T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite a non-decreasing HIV epidemic, international donors are soon expected to withdraw funding from Kazakhstan. Here we analyze how allocative, implementation, and technical efficiencies could strengthen the national HIV response under assumptions of future budget levels. Methodology We used the Optima model to project future scenarios of the HIV epidemic in Kazakhstan that varied in future antiretroviral treatment unit costs and management expenditure—two areas identified for potential cost-reductions. We determined optimal allocations across HIV programs to satisfy either national targets or ambitious targets. For each scenario, we considered two cases of future HIV financing: the 2014 national budget maintained into the future and the 2014 budget without current international investment. Findings Kazakhstan can achieve its national HIV targets with the current budget by (1) optimally re-allocating resources across programs and (2) either securing a 35% [30%–39%] reduction in antiretroviral treatment drug costs or reducing management costs by 44% [36%–58%] of 2014 levels. Alternatively, a combination of antiretroviral treatment and management cost-reductions could be sufficient. Furthermore, Kazakhstan can achieve ambitious targets of halving new infections and AIDS-related deaths by 2020 compared to 2014 levels by attaining a 67% reduction in antiretroviral treatment costs, a 19% [14%–27%] reduction in management costs, and allocating resources optimally. Significance With Kazakhstan facing impending donor withdrawal, it is important for the HIV response to achieve more with available resources. This analysis can help to guide HIV response planners in directing available funding to achieve the greatest yield from investments. The key changes recommended were considered realistic by Kazakhstan country representatives. PMID:28207809

  3. Association between the Achievement of Target Range CKD-MBD Markers and Mortality in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients in Taiwan by Using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ben-Chung; Lee, Chih-Hsiung; Chang, Wen-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the association between achieving target chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) marker levels and mortality in Taiwanese hemodialysis (HD) patients. Target levels were based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Methods. We performed a retrospective medical record review of 1126 HD patients between 2009 and 2013. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between achieving target marker levels and the risk for all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Reference target ranges were 7.9 ≤ calcium (Ca) ≤ 9.9 mg/dL, 2.4 ≤ phosphate (P) ≤ 4.7 mg/dL, and 144 ≤ intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) ≤ 648 pg/mL. Results. Achievement of target P levels was associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality compared to achievement of either target Ca or iPTH levels. Achieving target P + iPTH levels (OR 1.32) was associated with a lower odds ratio for all-cause mortality compared to achieving target Ca + P (OR 1.66) and Ca + iPTH (OR 1.43) levels. Similar trends were observed for CV mortality risk. Conclusions. The present study demonstrated that achieving serum P levels within the KDIGO target range is the most important factor for lowering mortality in HD patients. PMID:28003998

  4. Improving the teaching and learning of science in a suburban junior high school on Long Island: Achieving parity through cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Eileen Perman

    The research in this dissertation focuses on ways to improve the teaching and learning of science in a suburban junior high school on Long Island, New York. The study is my attempt to find ways to achieve parity in my classroom in terms of success in science. I was specifically looking for ways to encourage Black female students in my classroom and in other classrooms to continue their science education into the upper grades. The participants were the 27 students in the class, a friend of one of the students, and I, as the teacher-researcher. In order to examine the ways in which structure mediates the social and historical contexts of experiences in relation to teacher and student practices in the classroom, I used collaborative research; autobiographical reflection; the sociology of emotions; immigration, racialization, and ethnicity, and cogenerative dialogues (cogens) as tools. Cogenerative dialogues are a way for students and teachers to accept shared responsibility for teaching and learning. This study is of importance because of my school's very diverse student body. The school has a large minority population and therefore shares many of the characteristics of urban schools. In my study I look at why there are so few Black female students in the advanced science courses offered by our district and how this problem can be addressed. I used a variety of qualitative approaches including critical ethnography and micro analysis to study the teaching and learning of science. In addition to the usual observational, methodological, and theoretical field notes, I videotaped and audiotaped lessons and had discussions with students and teachers, one-on-one and in groups. In the first year the cogenerative group consisted of two Black female students. In the second year of the study there were four Black and one White-Hispanic female students in the cogen group. In my research I studied the interactions of the students between lessons and during laboratory activities as

  5. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  6. Implementation of the peer-led team-learning instructional model as a stopgap measure improves student achievement for students opting out of laboratory.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Julia J; Carter, B Elijah; Wiles, Jason R

    2015-03-02

    In entry-level university courses in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, students participating in associated laboratory sessions generally do better than those who have no related lab classes. This is a problem when, for various reasons, not enough lab sections can be offered for students and/or when students opt out of optional available lab courses. Faced with such a situation, this study evaluated the efficacy of the peer-led team-learning (PLTL) instructional model as a potential method for narrowing the achievement gap among undergraduate students electing not to enroll in an optional laboratory component of an introductory biology course. In peer-led workshops, small groups of students participated in solving problems and other activities that encouraged active learning. Students led by peer leaders attained significantly higher exam and final course grades in introductory biology than comparable students not participating in PLTL. Among the introductory biology students who opted not to enroll in the optional lab course, those who participated in PLTL averaged more than a letter grade higher than those who did not. This difference was statistically significant, and the PLTL workshops almost entirely closed the achievement gap in lecture exam and final grades for students who did not take the lab.

  7. Method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water

    DOEpatents

    Chapman-Irwin, Patricia; Feist, Thomas Paul

    2002-04-02

    A method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water is disclosed. The method includes providing a multilayer cell comprising two solid, non porous current collectors, separated by two porous electrodes with a separator between the two electrodes, sealing the cell with a reclosable hermetic closure. Water inside the closure is dissociated by an applied voltage to the cell and escapes in the form of hydrogen and oxygen when the closure is unmated, the closure is then mated to hermetically seal the cell which is substantially free of water.

  8. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  9. The Turnaround Challenge: Why America's Best Opportunity to Dramatically Improve Student Achievement Lies in Our Worst-Performing Schools. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Andrew; Guenther, William; Belfiore, Grace; Lash, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Despite steadily increasing urgency about the nation's lowest-performing schools--those in the bottom five percent--efforts to turn these schools around have largely failed. Marginal change has led to marginal (or no) improvement. These schools, the systems supporting them, and the management of the change process require fundamental rethinking,…

  10. The Effect of Improved School Climate over Time on Fifth-Grade Students' Achievement Assessment Scores and Teacher Administered Grade Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of improved school climate, as teachers' beliefs changed from negative to positive over time, on students' reading, math, and writing assessment scores and teacher administered grade scores in reading, math, and writing. Overall, findings indicate that lose, maintain, or improve…

  11. Progress Made on a Plan To Integrate Planning, Budgeting, Assessment and Quality Principles To Achieve Institutional Improvement. First Year Report. AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Susan R.; And Others

    This paper describes first year implementation efforts of Southwest Texas (SWT) State University to develop a system to integrate planning, budgeting, assessment, and quality to improve the delivery of education and other services to all the institution's customers. The document addresses the common situation when an organization already has…

  12. The Rice coding algorithm achieves high-performance lossless and progressive image compression based on the improving of integer lifting scheme Rice coding algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Xie Cheng; Su, Yan; Wei, Zhang

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, a modified algorithm was introduced to improve Rice coding algorithm and researches of image compression with the CDF (2,2) wavelet lifting scheme was made. Our experiments show that the property of the lossless image compression is much better than Huffman, Zip, lossless JPEG, RAR, and a little better than (or equal to) the famous SPIHT. The lossless compression rate is improved about 60.4%, 45%, 26.2%, 16.7%, 0.4% on average. The speed of the encoder is faster about 11.8 times than the SPIHT's and its efficiency in time can be improved by 162%. The speed of the decoder is faster about 12.3 times than that of the SPIHT's and its efficiency in time can be rasied about 148%. This algorithm, instead of largest levels wavelet transform, has high coding efficiency when the wavelet transform levels is larger than 3. For the source model of distributions similar to the Laplacian, it can improve the efficiency of coding and realize the progressive transmit coding and decoding.

  13. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review of the Report "Exercise Improves Executive Function and Achievement and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized, Controlled Trial"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined whether exercise offered to sedentary, overweight children ages 7 to 11 improved executive function--defined as strategy execution when presented with a novel task--and academic performance in reading and math. The study authors analyzed data on about 170 students from Georgia who were recruited in five cohorts from 2003 to…

  14. Achieving enhanced organisational resilience by improved management of risk: Summary of research into the principles of resilience and the practices of resilient organisations.

    PubMed

    Hopkin, Paul

    There have been many high-profile incidents in recent times that have affected both individual organisations and large parts of society. In response to these disasters and their consequences, there has been increasing focus on the concept of 'resilience'. Airmic worked with Cranfield School of Management to investigate the features of resilient organisations and whether common characteristics could be identified. The research summarised in this paper discovered five principles that increase an organisation's level of resilence. The paper also reports on the actions taken by organisations to embed these resilience principles into four main business enablers. These business enablers in combination represent the business model of the organisation. The overall conclusion of the research was that, in order to achieve a state of enhanced resilience, organisations need to be aware of risks and threats they face and then combine the actions required to be 'risk compliant' with the ability to be 'risk responsive'.

  15. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., institutional therapy or training, school attendance, clubs, social programs, and similar activities is not substantial gainful activity. However, the nature of the work performed may be evidence of ability to engage... the nature of the duties performed, may establish a taxpayer's ability to engage in...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  1. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...) Goods of a NAFTA country. A good of a NAFTA country which is to be processed in the United States in a manner that would result in the good becoming a good of the United States under the NAFTA Marking...

  2. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...) Goods of a NAFTA country. A good of a NAFTA country which is to be processed in the United States in a manner that would result in the good becoming a good of the United States under the NAFTA Marking...

  3. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...) Goods of a NAFTA country. A good of a NAFTA country which is to be processed in the United States in a manner that would result in the good becoming a good of the United States under the NAFTA Marking...

  4. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...) Goods of a NAFTA country. A good of a NAFTA country which is to be processed in the United States in a manner that would result in the good becoming a good of the United States under the NAFTA Marking...

  5. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the...) Goods of a NAFTA country. A good of a NAFTA country which is to be processed in the United States in a manner that would result in the good becoming a good of the United States under the NAFTA Marking...

  6. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for an organization to be considered a condominium management association or a residential real estate... condominium management association and a residential real estate management association shall be considered... organization's taxable year. (b) Condominium management associations. Substantially all of the units of...

  7. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Applications Procedures § 970.209 Substantial compliance with application requirements. (a... application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...

  8. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Applications Procedures § 970.209 Substantial compliance with application requirements. (a... application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...

  9. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Applications Procedures § 970.209 Substantial compliance with application requirements. (a... application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...

  10. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Applications Procedures § 970.209 Substantial compliance with application requirements. (a... application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...

  11. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Applications Procedures § 970.209 Substantial compliance with application requirements. (a... application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to...

  12. 76 FR 737 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... adding or deleting a tobacco additive, or increasing or decreasing the quantity of an existing tobacco additive, from the requirement of demonstrating substantial equivalence if the Agency determines that: (1... implementing this provision by July 1, 2011. ``Additive'' is defined at section 900(1) of the FD&C Act,...

  13. 50 CFR 80.13 - Substantiality in character and design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... objectives to be accomplished based on the stated need; (c) Utilizes accepted fish and wildlife conservation... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality in character and design. 80.13 Section 80.13 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the substantial owner's death; and (4) Immediately after the distribution, the plan has nonforfeitable...,000 for calendar year 1996). (2) Plan funding. Notice is waived if— (i) No variable rate premium. No variable rate premium is required to be paid for the plan for the event year; (ii) No unfunded...

  15. Mistreatment in Assisted Living Facilities: Complaints, Substantiations, and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Linda R.; Guo, Guifang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Use archived public data from Arizona to explore relationships among selected institutional and resident risk and situation-specific factors and complaints and substantiated allegations of various types of mistreatment in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Design and Methods: An exploratory/descriptive 2-group design was…

  16. Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) With Improved Selectivity Achieved By Ion Pulse Compression Using In-Source Time-of-flight Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mishin, V. I.; Malinovsky, A. L.; Mishin, D. V.

    2009-03-17

    This paper describes for the first time the improved selectivity of the RILIS made possible by the time-of-flight (TOF) ion bunch compression. Brief description of the compression principles and some preliminary experimental results are presented. In the off-line experiments short ion peaks of natural Li, Na, K, Tm and Yb are observed as ions leave the RILIS-TOF structure. For Tm the ion peaks of 5 {mu}s half-height duration are detected and 1 {mu}s peaks for Sn are predicted. In view of the repetition rate of the ISOLDE-RILIS lasers it is hoped that the selectivity of Sn isotopes production may be improved as much as 100 employing the RILIS with the TOF ion bunch compression and a gating technique.

  17. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices.

  18. In pursuit of high-value healthcare: the case for improving quality and achieving equity in a time of healthcare transformation.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and current efforts in payment reform signal the beginning of a significant transformation for the US healthcare system. As we embark on this transformation, disparities have emerged as the hallmark of low-value healthcare--care that does not meet quality standards, is inefficient, and is usually of high cost. A new set of structures is being developed to facilitate increased access to care that is cost-effective and high in quality--otherwise known as high-value healthcare. Addressing disparities and achieving equity are the perfect target areas for recouping value, and doing so will pave the way for high-value healthcare. As healthcare leaders make difficult choices, they should consider the realities of healthcare equity. First, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare persist and are a clear sign of poor-quality, low-value healthcare. Second, the root causes of these disparities are complex, but a well-developed set of evidence-based approaches is available to help leaders address healthcare inequity. Third, evidence suggests that being inattentive to the root causes of disparities adversely affects efficiency and an organization's bottom line. Finally, if healthcare organizations are progressive, thoughtful, and prepared for success in such an environment, a new healthcare system that offers accessible, high-value, equitable, culturally competent, and high-quality care to all is well within reach.

  19. Receta para el Exito. Una Guia Actualizada para Padres sobre el Mejoramiento de las Escuelas de Colorado y Logros Estudiantiles (Recipe for Success: An Updated Parents' Guide to Improving Colorado Schools and Student Achievement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taher, Bonnie; Durr, Pamela

    This Spanish language guide describes ways that parents can help improve student achievement and school quality. It answers such questions as: how to choose the right early-education opportunity for a preschooler; how to make sure a 5-year-old is ready for school; how to help a daughter do well in school; how to work with a daughter's or son's…

  20. Substantial Life Extension and the Fair Distribution of Healthspans.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging technologies. However, the practical and ethical drawbacks of banning receive little attention, and the viability of alternative policies is seldom considered. Moreover, where ethicists do propose alternatives, there is scant effort to consider their merits in light of developing world priorities. In response to these shortcomings, I distinguish four policy options and, on the basis of a plausible intuition about fairness, evaluate their implications for a fair distribution of healthy lifespans. I claim that even in developing nations it would be fairest to favor policies that promote equal access to at least one promising category of substantially life-extending intervention: calorie restriction mimetics.

  1. Improved methods for achieving the equilibrium number of phases in mixtures suitable for use in battery electrodes e. g. , for lithiating FeS/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1986-06-10

    A method is disclosed for preparing lithiated, particulate FeS/sub 2/ useful as a catholyte material in a lithium thermal battery, whereby the latter's voltage regulation properties are improved. The method comprises admixing FeS/sub 2/ and an amount of a lithium-containing compound, whereby the resultant total composition falls in an invariant region of the metallurgical phase diagram of its constituent components. Said lithium-containing compound and FeS/sub 2/ are admixed together with a solid electrolyte compatible with said catholyte, and the mixture is heated at a temperature above the melting point of said electrolyte and at which said mixture reaches its thermodynamic equilibrium number of phases.

  2. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2011-01-13

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/ or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  3. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Boyer, B. D.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2010-11-24

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  4. On-line liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with dilution line to achieve large volume urine injection for the improvement of sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Yan, Wei; Lin, Jin-Ming; Hashi, Yuki; Liu, Li-Bin; Wei, Yanlin

    2008-07-11

    A unique automated on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed allowing injection of a large volume of urine for the improvement of sensitivity using estrogens as analytes. The urine sample was precipitated by acetonitrile (sample:acetonitrile, 1:2, v/v) to remove most proteins. Then the supernatant was directly delivered at 0.3 mL/min by a pump, which broke through the limit of autosampler with fixed loop. Then the sample was loaded onto a restricted access media (RAM) pre-column after on-line dilution with NH(4)Ac solution which was delivered by another pump under high flow-rate. After the addition of on-line dilution line, the content of organic solvent in the sample aliquot was sharply decreased so that the analytes were effectively trapped by pre-column. In addition, another 6-port valve was added to selectively deliver the effluent containing analytes into MS, which minimized the pollution of the MS and matrix effect. After optimization of the condition of extraction method, 3 mL sample (containing 1 mL urine) could be successfully enriched. The injection volume increased 10 times compared with conventional on-line LC-MS methods for biofluid analysis, significantly improving sensitivity. Moreover, no obvious increase of column pressure was observed after 300 injections. The method was validated by spiking urine. Linearity was determined by sample which was in the range of 1-500 ng/mL. The process efficiency ranged from 70.2 to 106% with RSDs less than 15% with the exception of a few analytes. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.3 to 2 ng/mL and 1 to 8 ng/mL, respectively, corresponding a decrease of 1-2 orders of magnitude compared with those of off-line and on-line methods.

  5. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care.

  6. Tobacco products, exemptions from substantial equivalence requirements. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-07-05

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to establish procedures for requesting an exemption from the substantial equivalence requirements of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The final rule describes the process and statutory criteria for requesting an exemption and explains how FDA reviews requests for exemptions. This regulation satisfies the requirement in the Tobacco Control Act that FDA issue regulations implementing the exemption provision.

  7. Problems in Achieving a Quantitative Approach to Technologic Proliferation Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Wiborg, James C.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Zentner, Michael D.

    2001-07-06

    In spite of setbacks, substantial success has been achieved by the various nonproliferation efforts over the past 50 years. Because the pace of technology evolution remains high and the cost of entry to nuclear weapons technology is decreasing, improved approaches are critical if similar success is to be achieved over the next 20 years. Recent analyses have been published that provide a semi-quantitative assessment of proliferation risk, which can serve as the foundation for a meaningful quantitative approach to assessing proliferation risk. These methods represent an important step, but represent only one step in the work that must be achieved in the next few years. This paper presents perspectives on evaluating the merits of institutional arrangements and the role of design versus institutional features in proliferation prevention. It concludes by proposing methodology and quantitative approaches to be considered for evaluating proliferation-resistant measures in innovative reactor and fuel cycle technologies.

  8. Nanoscale Polysulfides Reactors Achieved by Chemical Au-S Interaction: Improving the Performance of Li-S Batteries on the Electrode Level.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Ying; Xiao, Pin; Li, Huan-Huan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Lin-Lin; Sun, Hai-Zhu; Wu, Xing-Long; Xie, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2015-12-23

    In this work, the chemical interaction of cathode and lithium polysulfides (LiPSs), which is a more targeted approach for completely preventing the shuttle of LiPSs in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, has been established on the electrode level. Through simply posttreating the ordinary sulfur cathode in atmospheric environment just for several minutes, the Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) were well-decorated on/in the surface and pores of the electrode composed of commercial acetylene black (CB) and sulfur powder. The Au NPs can covalently stabilize the sulfur/LiPSs, which is advantageous for restricting the shuttle effect. Moreover, the LiPSs reservoirs of Au NPs with high conductivity can significantly control the deposition of the trapped LiPSs, contributing to the uniform distribution of sulfur species upon charging/discharging. The slight modification of the cathode with <3 wt % Au NPs has favorably prospered the cycle capacity and stability of Li-S batteries. Moreover, this cathode exhibited an excellent anti-self-discharge ability. The slight decoration for the ordinary electrode, which can be easily accessed in the industrial process, provides a facile strategy for improving the performance of commercial carbon-based Li-S batteries toward practical application.

  9. Improved continuity of reduced graphene oxide on polyester fabric by use of polypyrrole to achieve a highly electro-conductive and flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendjchi, Amirhosein; Khajavi, Ramin; Yousefi, Ali Akbar; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail

    2016-02-01

    A flexible and highly conductive fabric can be applied for wearable electronics and as a pliable counter electrode for photovoltaics. Methods such as surface coating of fabrics with conductive polymers and materials have been developed, but the roughness of fabric is a challenge because it creates discontinuity in the coated layer. The present study first coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric with reduced graphene oxide sheets; RGO and then filled the gaps with polypyrrole (PPy). The samples were first dipped in graphene oxide (GO) and then reduced to RGO. They were next coated with PPy by in situ polymerization. The results showed that the presence of oxidative agent during synthesis of PPy oxidized the RGO to some extent on the previously RGO-coated samples. PPy was more uniform on samples pre-coated with RGO in comparison those coated with raw PET. The RGO-PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values than samples coated only with PPy and RGO, respectively. There was no significant difference between the tenacity of samples but the bending rigidity of samples increased. The RGO-PPy coated fabric displayed properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric.

  10. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... administrative costs for the foster care program under title IV-E. (b) Determination of the amount of Federal... the title IV-E agency's Federal claims for title IV-E foster care administrative costs for each of...

  11. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... foster care program under title IV-E. (b) Determination of the amount of Federal funds to be withheld... State's Federal claims for title IV-E foster care administrative costs for each of the years to...

  12. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... the immediately preceding child and family services review; (ii) The increased withholding of...

  13. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... the immediately preceding child and family services review; (ii) The increased withholding of...

  14. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL... seven systemic factors that continues in nonconformity since the immediately preceding child and...

  15. Substantiating the need to apply a sociocultural lens to the preparation of teachers in an effort to achieve science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Mara

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative, sociocultural study examines how teacher preparation programs may have deliberate impact on science reform by unearthing the complex layers of diversity inherent in the contextual reality of education. This study was conducted in one of the largest school districts in the Southeastern United States, serving a predominately Hispanic population comprising 65 % of its student body, followed by African Americans at 24 %. The representative subjects utilized for this study were elementary education undergraduate students and later a percentage of the same subjects, as practicing teachers in the field. All subjects were exposed to inquiry based methodology in science teaching as part of their undergraduate studies with emphasis on the learning cycle, facilitation of student voice and exposure to the nature of science. The goal of science education was emphasized to students as purposeful in promoting scientific literacy. This study is framed by sociocultural theory grounded in a social constructivist paradigm with the understanding that science learning takes place within social and collaborative processes leading to internalization and greater sense of self-efficacy. The study examines the perception of education students' beliefs about scientists as well as reflections on their own learning of science as elementary students themselves. As present practicing teachers, perspectives from their position in the field were obtained via interviews. Interviews served to elicit reflections on present practice as related to previous perceptions, in order to analyze whether these were pervasive in framing practice as well as self-perceptions related to science. A lack of change of these perceptions may underscore the importance of an emphasis on issues of gender, culture and social factors within teacher preparation, specific to science teaching and learning. Cognizance of such factors are believed to support internalization and hence greater understanding of the complexities framing science teaching and learning, leading to an actual paradigm shift in our elementary science classrooms.

  16. Substantiating the Need to Apply a Sociocultural Lens to the Preparation of Teachers in an Effort to Achieve Science Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, sociocultural study examines how teacher preparation programs may have deliberate impact on science reform by unearthing the complex layers of diversity inherent in the contextual reality of education. This study was conducted in one of the largest school districts in the Southeastern United States, serving a predominately…

  17. An interaction-based approach to enhancing secondary school instruction and student achievement.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph P; Pianta, Robert C; Gregory, Anne; Mikami, Amori Yee; Lun, Janetta

    2011-08-19

    Improving teaching quality is widely recognized as critical to addressing deficiencies in secondary school education, yet the field has struggled to identify rigorously evaluated teacher-development approaches that can produce reliable gains in student achievement. A randomized controlled trial of My Teaching Partner-Secondary--a Web-mediated approach focused on improving teacher-student interactions in the classroom--examined the efficacy of the approach in improving teacher quality and student achievement with 78 secondary school teachers and 2237 students. The intervention produced substantial gains in measured student achievement in the year following its completion, equivalent to moving the average student from the 50th to the 59th percentile in achievement test scores. Gains appeared to be mediated by changes in teacher-student interaction qualities targeted by the intervention.

  18. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  19. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience Comment on "Improving the World's Health Through the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Perspectives from Rwanda".

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-08-26

    Binagwaho and colleagues' perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries' health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies.

  20. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  1. The School Improvement Grant Rollout in America's Great City Schools: School Improvement Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachlan-Hache, Jonathon; Naik, Manish; Casserly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The School Improvement Grant (SIG) program, initially enacted as part of the "No Child Left Behind" amendments to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, underwent a substantial transformation under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Under the new program, states identified 2,172 persistently low-achieving schools…

  2. Method and apparatus for a substantially coaxial injector element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Mark D. (Inventor); Miyata, Shinjiro (Inventor); Farhangi, Shahram (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A system to provide a two piece robust fluid injector. According to various embodiments, the fluid injector is a fuel injector for a combustion engine. The injector includes two coaxially formed annuluses. One annulus is formed in a face plate and the second annulus or hole is defined by a tube extending through the face plate. The tube extends through the face plate in a portion of a through bore which also is used to define the second annulus. The second annulus is formed using a throughbore through which the tube extends. This allows the second annulus to always be formed inherently and precisely substantially coaxial with the first annulus. Moreover, the second annulus can be formed with a much greater tolerance than if other independent components needed to be added.

  3. Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.

  4. Substantial Genetic Overlap between Schizotypy and Neuroticism: A Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Macare, Christine; Bates, Timothy C.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Ettinger, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Schizotypy is phenotypically associated with neuroticism. To reveal the origin of this association, we assessed 3349 (1449 monozygotic (MZ), 1105 dizygotic (DZ) same-sex and 795 DZ opposite-sex) twins on a 12-item version of Chapman’s Psychosis-Proneness Scales and the short-form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised as measures of schizotypy and neuroticism. A substantial proportion (.51 with 95% CI from .38 to .64) of the phenotypic correlation of .37 between neuroticism and the perceptual and ideational components of schizotypy was accounted for by shared genetic influences on these two traits. Moreover, a Cholesky decomposition including anhedonia, hypomania and impulsivity fully accounted for the heritable variance in perceptual and ideational components of schizotypy. These findings suggest a shared genetic etiology between neuroticism and perceptual and ideational components of schizotypy and affect future investigations on the etiology of these phenotypically overlapping traits and affective and psychotic disorders. PMID:22955548

  5. RF Sputtering for preparing substantially pure amorphous silicon monohydride

    DOEpatents

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1982-10-12

    A process for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous silicon hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  6. Factors Influencing Improved Student Achievement in Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Patrick D.

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of the last decade, Congress passed and President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2002. Key provisions of this act focused on holding schools accountable to ensure that all students met state established standards. In Virginia, the state Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments form the basis of…

  7. Improving Student Achievement in a Multidisciplinary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Amanda; Bloxham, Sue

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses interim findings of an ongoing action research project into the use of assessment criteria and grade descriptors in the assessment process. The project is multidisciplinary and covers areas as diverse as Sports Sociology, Economics, Youth and Community Studies, and Education. The idea is to equip first-year students with the…

  8. Improving the Achievement of Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John A.

    1988-01-01

    In 1984, a Maryland elementary school publicized standardized test scores showing black students trailing white students by 25 points. Alarmed by this gap, a district task force found the root cause--negative attitudes about black students' potential--and launched an effective schools process in 171 schools. Two supporting programs are described.…

  9. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  10. Improved media performance in optimally coupled exchange spring layer media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, A.; Supper, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Lengsfield, B.; Moser, A.; Fullerton, E. E.

    2008-09-01

    We have studied the recording performance of perpendicular exchange spring layer (ESL)-media for hard disk drive recording. In particular, we investigated the role of interlayer coupling by varying the thickness of a nonmagnetic coupling layer (CL). We demonstrate that not only the media writeability is improved upon optimizing the CL thickness, but also that substantial recording performance improvements can be achieved due to improved media noise properties. The potential of these media structures for high areal density recording is demonstrated by performing areal density measurements, which showed a substantial improvement for optimally coupled ESL-media.

  11. Substantial proportion of global streamflow less than three months old

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, Scott; Kirchner, James W.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycles, contaminant transport and chemical weathering are regulated by the speed at which precipitation travels through landscapes and reaches streams. Streamflow is a mixture of young and old precipitation, but the global proportions of these young and old components are not known. Here we analyse seasonal cycles of oxygen isotope ratios in rain, snow and streamflow compiled from 254 watersheds around the world, and calculate the fraction of streamflow that is derived from precipitation that fell within the past two or three months. This young streamflow accounts for about a third of global river discharge, and comprises at least 5% of discharge in about 90% of the catchments we investigated. We conclude that, although typical catchments have mean transit times of years or even decades, they nonetheless can rapidly transmit substantial fractions of soluble contaminant inputs to streams. Young streamflow is less prevalent in steeper landscapes, which suggests they are characterized by deeper vertical infiltration. Because young streamflow is derived from less than 0.1% of global groundwater storage, we conclude that this thin veneer of aquifer storage will have a disproportionate influence on stream water quality.

  12. Substantial overnight reaeration by convective cooling discovered in pond ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2016-08-01

    Trends in freshwater dissolved oxygen (DO) reflect whole-ecosystem properties and influence organismal survival and behavior. Here we show that small ponds have unique oxygen dynamics that differ from larger lakes. We discovered that ponds undersaturated in DO experienced substantial increases in oxygen concentration overnight. Nighttime increases in DO occurred on 45% of the nights sampled and resulted in DO saturation increasing 12-fold (22% saturation) on average. Oxygen spikes were likely to occur when ponds became at least 1.8°C warmer than the air and later in the season when oxygen levels were low (<31% saturation) and the air was warm (≥5.8°C). We demonstrate that overnight increases in surface water DO resulted from atmospheric oxygen invasion as opposed to internal production. Convective cooling enhanced turbulence and air-water gas exchange, leading to intense bursts of oxygen invasion during nighttime hours. This mechanism has not been demonstrated before and has important implications for the biogeochemistry of these systems, as well as understanding how organisms survive in hypoxic small ponds.

  13. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    DOEpatents

    Bharacharya, R.; Parilla, P.A.; Blaugher, R.D.

    1995-12-19

    A process is disclosed for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material. 3 figs.

  14. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    DOEpatents

    Bharacharya, Raghuthan; Parilla, Philip A.; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material.

  15. PM2.5 pollution is substantially affected by ammonia emissions in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiyun; Gu, Baojing; Erisman, Jan Willem; Reis, Stefan; Fang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Xuehe; Zhang, Xiuming

    2016-11-01

    Urban air quality in China has been declining substantially in recent years due to severe haze episodes. The reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions since 2013 does not yet appear to yield substantial benefits for haze mitigation. As the reductions of those key precursors to secondary aerosol formation appears not to sufficient, other crucial factors need to be considered for the design of effective air pollution control strategies. Here we argue that ammonia (NH3) plays a - so far - underestimated role in the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols, a main component of urban fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in China. By analyzing in situ concentration data observed in major cities alongside gridded emission data obtained from remote sensing and inventories, we find that emissions of NH3 have a more robust association with the spatiotemporal variation of PM2.5 levels than emissions of SO2 and NOx. As a consequence, we argue that urban PM2.5 pollution in China in many locations is substantially affected by NH3 emissions. We highlight that more efforts should be directed to the reduction of NH3 emissions that help mitigate PM2.5 pollution more efficiently than other PM2.5 precursors. Such efforts will yield substantial co-benefits by improving nitrogen use efficiency in farming systems. As a consequence, such integrated strategies would not only improve urban air quality, but also contribute to China's food-security goals, prevent further biodiversity loss, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lead to economic savings.

  16. ''Substantial Margin of Safety'': A New Approach to HLW Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M. S.

    2002-02-28

    In the Spring of 2001, the National Research Council published ''Disposition of High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Continuing Societal and Technical Challenges.'' (1) While finding the technical case for deep geologic disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel robust, the report focused new attention on societal issues and decision-making. The report appeared against a backdrop of heightened controversy about the development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper identifies three principal reasons for the National Research Council committee's finding that ''Difficulties in achieving public support have been seriously underestimated in the past, and opportunities to gain public trust have been missed.''

  17. Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-01-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  18. 45 CFR 1355.34 - Criteria for determining substantial conformity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to meet criteria related to the title IV-E agency's capacity to deliver services leading to improved... the area of child and family well-being: (A) Families have enhanced capacity to provide for their... a title IV-E agency's plan for effective use of cross-jurisdictional resources to facilitate...

  19. Investigators unable to substantiate suspected link between sponge, TSS.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    Federal investigators have failed to substantiate a suspected link between the contraceptive sponge and toxic shock syndrome (TSS). In September the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported the case of a woman who inserted the contraceptive sponge last July 17 and removed itthe following day. About 6 hours later she noted the sudden onset of a fever of 104 degrees Farenheit, nausea, redness, shaking chills, and an inflamed vagina. Cultures from the sponge revealed S. aureus and S. epidemis. There was initial concern that the case may have represented early TSS. A toxin produced by certain strains of S. aureus is thought to cause TSS. The syndrome includes a fever greater than 102 degrees, rash, blood pressure less than 90mmHG, peelin g skin on the palms and soles 1-2 weeks after onset, and involvement of 3 or more of the following organ systems: gastrointestinal, muscular, mucous membrane, renal, hepatic, hematologic,or central nervous system. FDA medical Officers Dr. William J. McCann told "Contraceptive Technology Update" (CTU) that the reported case failed to fill the Centers for Disease Control criteriaof the diagnosis of TSS. Because the woman has been treated with antibiotics early in the course of her disease, McCann said he could not entirely exclude the possibility that she might have developed TSS if she had gone untreated. He added that the possibility was "remote". Dr. Gail Bolan, CDC epidemiologist, told CTU that "antibiotics do not seem to affect the outcome of the original episode" of TSS cases. She commented that milder forms of TSS might exist that may not meet CDC's strict case definition. Without a specific test, there is no way to separate milder TSS cases from viral or other diseases that may appear similar. According to Deborah Gaynor, the sponge's package insert states that clinical trials were not large enough to assess the risk of TSS. The sponge is not recommended for use during menstration. Gaynor cites a variety of reasons why the

  20. Role of dynamics in enzyme catalysis: substantial versus semantic controversies.

    PubMed

    Kohen, Amnon

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: The role of the enzyme's dynamic motions in catalysis is at the center of heated contemporary debates among both theoreticians and experimentalists. Resolving these apparent disputes is of both intellectual and practical importance: incorporation of enzyme dynamics could be critical for any calculation of enzymatic function and may have profound implications for structure-based drug design and the design of biomimetic catalysts. Analysis of the literature suggests that while part of the dispute may reflect substantial differences between theoretical approaches, much of the debate is semantic. For example, the term "protein dynamics" is often used by some researchers when addressing motions that are in thermal equilibrium with their environment, while other researchers only use this term for nonequilibrium events. The last cases are those in which thermal energy is "stored" in a specific protein mode and "used" for catalysis before it can dissipate to its environment (i.e., "nonstatistical dynamics"). This terminology issue aside, a debate has arisen among theoreticians around the roles of nonstatistical vs statistical dynamics in catalysis. However, the author knows of no experimental findings available today that examined this question in enzyme catalyzed reactions. Another source of perhaps nonsubstantial argument might stem from the varying time scales of enzymatic motions, which range from seconds to femtoseconds. Motions at different time scales play different roles in the many events along the catalytic cascade (reactant binding, reprotonation of reactants, structural rearrangement toward the transition state, product release, etc.). In several cases, when various experimental tools have been used to probe catalytic events at differing time scales, illusory contradictions seem to have emerged. In this Account, recent attempts to sort the merits of those questions are discussed along with possible future directions. A possible summary of current

  1. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  2. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  3. Why cirrus cloud seeding cannot substantially cool the planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Blaž; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    The net warming effect of cirrus clouds has driven part of the geoengineering research toward the idea of decreasing their occurrence frequency by seeding them with efficient ice nucleating particles. We study responses of cirrus clouds to simplified global seeding strategies in terms of their radiative fluxes with the help of the ECHAM-HAM general circulation model. Our cirrus scheme takes into account the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, preexisting ice crystals, and the full spectrum of updraft velocities. While we find that the cirrus cloud radiative effect evaluated from our model is positive and large enough (5.7 W/m2) to confirm their geoengineering potential, none of the seeding strategies achieves a significant cooling due to complex microphysical mechanisms limiting their climatic responses. After globally uniform seeding is applied, we observe an increase in cirrus cloud cover, a decrease in ice crystal number concentration, and a decrease in ice crystal radius. An analysis of their respective radiative contributions points to the ice crystal radius decrease as the main factor limiting seeding effectiveness.

  4. Comparative RNA sequencing reveals substantial genetic variation in endangered primates.

    PubMed

    Perry, George H; Melsted, Páll; Marioni, John C; Wang, Ying; Bainer, Russell; Pickrell, Joseph K; Michelini, Katelyn; Zehr, Sarah; Yoder, Anne D; Stephens, Matthew; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Gilad, Yoav

    2012-04-01

    Comparative genomic studies in primates have yielded important insights into the evolutionary forces that shape genetic diversity and revealed the likely genetic basis for certain species-specific adaptations. To date, however, these studies have focused on only a small number of species. For the majority of nonhuman primates, including some of the most critically endangered, genome-level data are not yet available. In this study, we have taken the first steps toward addressing this gap by sequencing RNA from the livers of multiple individuals from each of 16 mammalian species, including humans and 11 nonhuman primates. Of the nonhuman primate species, five are lemurs and two are lorisoids, for which little or no genomic data were previously available. To analyze these data, we developed a method for de novo assembly and alignment of orthologous gene sequences across species. We assembled an average of 5721 gene sequences per species and characterized diversity and divergence of both gene sequences and gene expression levels. We identified patterns of variation that are consistent with the action of positive or directional selection, including an 18-fold enrichment of peroxisomal genes among genes whose regulation likely evolved under directional selection in the ancestral primate lineage. Importantly, we found no relationship between genetic diversity and endangered status, with the two most endangered species in our study, the black and white ruffed lemur and the Coquerel's sifaka, having the highest genetic diversity among all primates. Our observations imply that many endangered lemur populations still harbor considerable genetic variation. Timely efforts to conserve these species alongside their habitats have, therefore, strong potential to achieve long-term success.

  5. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  6. Immunity Traits in Pigs: Substantial Genetic Variation and Limited Covariation

    PubMed Central

    Flori, Laurence; Gao, Yu; Laloë, Denis; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Leplat, Jean-Jacques; Teillaud, Angélique; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Laffitte, Joëlle; Pinton, Philippe; de Vaureix, Christiane; Bouffaud, Marcel; Mercat, Marie-José; Lefèvre, François; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing robustness via improvement of resistance to pathogens is a major selection objective in livestock breeding. As resistance traits are difficult or impossible to measure directly, potential indirect criteria are measures of immune traits (ITs). Our underlying hypothesis is that levels of ITs with no focus on specific pathogens define an individual's immunocompetence and thus predict response to pathogens in general. Since variation in ITs depends on genetic, environmental and probably epigenetic factors, our aim was to estimate the relative importance of genetics. In this report, we present a large genetic survey of innate and adaptive ITs in pig families bred in the same environment. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty four ITs were studied on 443 Large White pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and analyzed by combining a principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic parameter estimation. ITs include specific and non specific antibodies, seric inflammatory proteins, cell subsets by hemogram and flow cytometry, ex vivo production of cytokines (IFNα, TNFα, IL6, IL8, IL12, IFNγ, IL2, IL4, IL10), phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. While six ITs had heritabilities that were weak or not significantly different from zero, 18 and 30 ITs had moderate (0.10.4) heritability values, respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between ITs were weak except for a few traits that mostly include cell subsets. PCA revealed no cluster of innate or adaptive ITs. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that variation in many innate and adaptive ITs is genetically controlled in swine, as already reported for a smaller number of traits by other laboratories. A limited redundancy of the traits was also observed confirming the high degree of complementarity between innate and adaptive ITs. Our data provide a genetic framework for choosing ITs to be included as selection criteria in multitrait selection

  7. Exact alpha-error determination for two-stage sampling strategies to substantiate freedom from disease.

    PubMed

    Kopacka, I; Hofrichter, J; Fuchs, K

    2013-05-01

    Sampling strategies to substantiate freedom from disease are important when it comes to the trade of animals and animal products. When considering imperfect tests and finite populations, sample size calculation can, however, be a challenging task. The generalized hypergeometric formula developed by Cameron and Baldock (1998a) offers a framework that can elegantly be extended to multi-stage sampling strategies, which are widely used to account for disease clustering at herd-level. The achieved alpha-error of such surveys, however, typically depends on the realization of the sample and can differ from the pre-calculated value. In this paper, we introduce a new formula to evaluate the exact alpha-error induced by a specific sample. We further give a numerically viable approximation formula and analyze its properties using a data example of Brucella melitensis in the Austrian sheep population.

  8. Substantiation of Reference Method For Determining Concrete’s Freeze-Thaw Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolskiy, S.; Pertseva, O.

    2017-01-01

    It has been analytically proved that using concrete’s rate of set ε as a measure of damage, instead of decreasing of tensile strength R, increases freeze-thaw resistance’s accuracy of estimation a lot under otherwise equal conditions by the time of freeze-thaw cycling. Also it has been experimentally shown that ratio of relative decreasing R to ε in direction, perpendicular to compression, is assumed to be independent on values R and ε for a given concrete and on the ways of achieving them during mechanical or freeze-thaw cycling. Taking this into account patented methods for estimation of concrete’s freeze-thaw resistance as per values R and ε received after freezing and thawing cycles of some specimens and their postliminary failure by linear compression was substantiated.

  9. An improved semi-implicit method for structural dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.

    1982-01-01

    A semi-implicit algorithm is presented for direct time integration of the structural dynamics equations. The algorithm avoids the factoring of the implicit difference solution matrix and mitigates the unacceptable accuracy losses which plagued previous semi-implicit algorithms. This substantial accuracy improvement is achieved by augmenting the solution matrix with two simple diagonal matrices of the order of the integration truncation error.

  10. Substantial creep in healing human Achilles tendons. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Aspenberg, Per; Schepull, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background healing after rupture of the Achilles tendon can be described in terms of mechanical properties of the new-formed tissue, constituting the tendon callus. In previous human studies, the elastic modulus and the density remained almost constant during 3 months after mobilization started, and then improved up to one year. So far, time-dependent deformation of the healing human tendon has not been reported. Methods in a series of 16 patients, operated with Achilles tendon suture, we implanted tantalum beads into the tendon and measured the distance between them repeatedly during 3 min of constant loading, using an ordinary image intensifier. The patients unloaded their leg for 30 min before the test. To avoid bias, all images were investigated in a randomized and blinded order. Results total strain during 3 min of constant loading at 7 weeks post injury amounted to 5%, and at 19 weeks to 3%. About half of the strain, after the loading was applied, occurred during the second and third min. Considerable strain also occurred just before loading, when the patient was told that a load would be applied, but before this was actually done. Conclusion the measurements were crude, and this study should be seen as a pilot. Still, visco-elastic properties seem to dominate the mechanical behavior the healing Achilles tendon from start of mobilization to 19 weeks, at least when tested after 30 min rest. This deserves further studies with more precise methods. PMID:26605187

  11. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  12. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  13. Health and Nutrition: Preconditions for Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    This paper discusses the importance of maternal and infant health for children's educational achievement. Education, health, and nutrition are so closely related that changes in one causes changes in the others. Improvement of maternal and preschooler health and nutrition is a precondition for improved educational achievement. Although parental…

  14. What grades and achievement tests measure

    PubMed Central

    Borghans, Lex; Golsteyn, Bart H. H.; Heckman, James J.; Humphries, John Eric

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence quotient (IQ), grades, and scores on achievement tests are widely used as measures of cognition, but the correlations among them are far from perfect. This paper uses a variety of datasets to show that personality and IQ predict grades and scores on achievement tests. Personality is relatively more important in predicting grades than scores on achievement tests. IQ is relatively more important in predicting scores on achievement tests. Personality is generally more predictive than IQ on a variety of important life outcomes. Both grades and achievement tests are substantially better predictors of important life outcomes than IQ. The reason is that both capture personality traits that have independent predictive power beyond that of IQ. PMID:27830648

  15. [A Case of HPN, In Which QOL Improvement Was Achieved by Combining Continuous Infusion with Once-Weekly Intermittent Infusion - Contribution of Pharmacists to Health Promotion among Home Patients Receiving Infusion Therapy].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Namihiro; Hamana, Tomoko; Oka, Toyoka; Hirohara, Masayoshi; Kushida, Kazuki

    2016-12-01

    Patients receiving parenteral nutrition at home have the following two options: 24-h continuous or intermittent infusion. To date, for patients with impaired glucose tolerance and/or other metabolic disorders or for those with decreased cardiac/ pulmonary/renal function, it is desirable to opt for continuous infusion to minimize the variance in the body's metabolic rate as much as possible. Furthermore, it should be noted that continuous infusion evokes a stronger feeling among patients of being constrained because it restricts their everyday activities. This case witnesses collaborations among the patient's doctor, dispensary's pharmacy, and patient's family. Because ofthe use ofintermittent infusion more or less once per week in addition to continuous infusion, significant improvement in quality of life was achieved, and the patient was able to enjoy taking a short trip. To assist a home patient receiving infusion therapy, it is essential that the pharmacist be equipped with skills to manage risks associated with infusion therapy and have knowledge about insurance to cover incidents concerning infusion fluids or medical materials. It will certainly depend on the degree ofindependence ofpatients and the level ofcare their families can provide; however, should we manage to use a similar medical procedure in at least a few cases in the future, we may be able to contribute to "joie de vivre" in home patients receiving infusion therapy.

  16. Substantial equivalence--an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Harry A; Kleter, Gijs A; Noteborn, Hub P J M; Kok, Esther J

    2002-12-27

    Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing. Application of the concept of substantial equivalence may encounter practical difficulties: (i) the availability of near-isogenic parental lines to compare the genetically modified food with; (ii) limited availability of methods for the detection of (un)intended effects resulting from the genetic modification; and (iii) limited information on natural variations in levels of relevant crop constituents. In order to further improve the methodology for identification of unintended effects, new 'profiling' methods are recommended. Such methods will allow for the screening of potential changes in the modified host organism at different integration levels, i.e. at the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation, and at the level of cellular metabolism.

  17. Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Barbe MA; van Zundert, André AJ

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS) in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer's dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer's room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient. PMID:27212719

  18. A novel Compton camera design featuring a rear-panel shield for substantial noise reduction in gamma-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Fujita, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Taya, T.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Sakurai, N.; Adachi, S.; Uchiyama, T.

    2014-12-01

    After the Japanese nuclear disaster in 2011, large amounts of radioactive isotopes were released and still remain a serious problem in Japan. Consequently, various gamma cameras are being developed to help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation. The Compton camera utilizes the kinematics of Compton scattering to contract images without using a mechanical collimator, and features a wide field of view. For instance, we have developed a novel Compton camera that features a small size (13 × 14 × 15 cm3) and light weight (1.9 kg), but which also achieves high sensitivity thanks to Ce:GAGG scintillators optically coupled wiith MPPC arrays. By definition, in such a Compton camera, gamma rays are expected to scatter in the ``scatterer'' and then be fully absorbed in the ``absorber'' (in what is called a forward-scattered event). However, high energy gamma rays often interact with the detector in the opposite direction - initially scattered in the absorber and then absorbed in the scatterer - in what is called a ``back-scattered'' event. Any contamination of such back-scattered events is known to substantially degrade the quality of gamma-ray images, but determining the order of gamma-ray interaction based solely on energy deposits in the scatterer and absorber is quite difficult. For this reason, we propose a novel yet simple Compton camera design that includes a rear-panel shield (a few mm thick) consisting of W or Pb located just behind the scatterer. Since the energy of scattered gamma rays in back-scattered events is much lower than that in forward-scattered events, we can effectively discriminate and reduce back-scattered events to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the images. This paper presents our detailed optimization of the rear-panel shield using Geant4 simulation, and describes a demonstration test using our Compton camera.

  19. Increasing the maximum achievable strain of a covalent polymer gel through the addition of mechanically invisible cross-links.

    PubMed

    Kean, Zachary S; Hawk, Jennifer L; Lin, Shaoting; Zhao, Xuanhe; Sijbesma, Rint P; Craig, Stephen L

    2014-09-10

    Hydrogels and organogels made from polymer networks are widely used in biomedical applications and soft, active devices for which the ability to sustain large deformations is required. The strain at which polymer networks fracture is typically improved through the addition of elements that dissipate energy, but these materials require extra work to achieve a given, desired level of deformation. Here, the addition of mechanically "invisible" supramolecular crosslinks causes substantial increases in the ultimate gel properties without incurring the added energetic costs of dissipation.

  20. Education Reform and Students At Risk. Volume III: Synthesis and Evaluation of Previous Efforts To Improve Educational Practice and Development of Strategies for Achieving Positive Outcomes. Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Robert J.

    Despite the widespread attention given to education reform, no substantial knowledge base has existed for identifying and implementing effective reforms for at-risk student populations. This document, the third of three volumes, describes the research design for a study that identified the essential mechanics of effective reforms for students at…

  1. Substantial Differences between Organ and Muscle Specific Tracer Incorporation Rates in a Lactating Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Nicholas A.; Hamer, Henrike M.; Pennings, Bart; Pellikaan, Wilbert F.; Senden, Joan M. G.; Gijsen, Annemie P.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to produce intrinsically L-[1-13C]phenylalanine labeled milk and beef for subsequent use in human nutrition research. The collection of the various organ tissues after slaughter allowed for us to gain insight into the dynamics of tissue protein turnover in vivo in a lactating dairy cow. One lactating dairy cow received a constant infusion of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine (450 µmol/min) for 96 h. Plasma and milk were collected prior to, during, and after the stable isotope infusion. Twenty-four hours after cessation of the infusion the cow was slaughtered. The meat and samples of the various organ tissues (liver, heart, lung, udder, kidney, rumen, small intestine, and colon) were collected and stored. Approximately 210 kg of intrinsically labeled beef (bone and fat free) with an average L-[1-13C]phenylalanine enrichment of 1.8±0.1 mole percent excess (MPE) was obtained. The various organ tissues differed substantially in L-[1-13C]phenylalanine enrichments in the tissue protein bound pool, the highest enrichment levels were achieved in the kidney (11.7 MPE) and the lowest enrichment levels in the skeletal muscle tissue protein of the cow (between 1.5–2.4 MPE). The estimated protein synthesis rates of the various organ tissues should be regarded as underestimates, particularly for the organs with the higher turnover rates and high secretory activity, due to the lengthened (96 h) measurement period necessary for the production of the intrinsically labeled beef. Our data demonstrates that there are relatively small differences in L-[1-13C]phenylalanine enrichments between the various meat cuts, but substantial higher enrichment values are observed in the various organ tissues. We conclude that protein turnover rates of various organs are much higher when compared to skeletal muscle protein turnover rates in large lactating ruminants. PMID:23826365

  2. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  3. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  4. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  5. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  6. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  7. [Achievement of endodontics at the edge of the century].

    PubMed

    Kierklo, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Endodontics is the branch of dentistry which deals with dental pulp pathology and treatment of root canals. There has been noted a significant improvement in this discipline recently, which has made a substantial increase in therapeutical efficiency and made dentists' work easier. It was possible due to dynamic development of new material technologies and clinical procedures. Aim of this paper was to present the current state of knowledge in endodontics. The most important achievements were especially stressed. Among the most important for development of present endodontics there are: new methods of canal length estimation, modem methods of visualization, nickel titanium rotary instrumentation, numerous gutta-percha obturation systems and also more biocompatible obturation materials.

  8. 20 CFR 404.446 - Definition of “substantial services” and “services.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Definition of “substantial services” and “services.” (a) General. In general, the substantial services test... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of âsubstantial servicesâ and...)(1). It is a test of whether, in view of all the services rendered by the individual and...

  9. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 416.972 Section 416.972 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial Gainful Activity § 416.972 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is...

  10. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  11. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  12. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  13. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  14. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  15. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity by blind... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is... substantial gainful activity that does not require skills or ability used in his or her previous work....

  16. 26 CFR 1.7874-3T - Substantial business activities (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substantial business activities (temporary). 1... Substantial business activities (temporary). (a) Scope. This section provides rules regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities in the relevant foreign country when compared...

  17. Neuroanatomical Correlates of the Income Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Allyson P.; Finn, Amy S.; Leonard, Julia A.; Jacoby Senghor, Drew S.; West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F.O.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the difference in academic achievement between higher- and lower-income students (i.e., the income achievement gap) is substantial and growing. Here, we investigated neuroanatomical correlates of this gap in adolescents (n = 58) in whom academic achievement was measured by statewide standardized testing. Cortical gray matter volume was significantly greater in students from higher-income backgrounds (n = 35) compared to students from lower-income backgrounds (n = 23), but cortical white matter volume and total cortical surface area did not differ between groups. Cortical thickness in all lobes of the brain was greater in students from higher-income than lower-income backgrounds. Thicker cortex, particularly in temporal and occipital lobes, was associated with better test performance. These results represent the first evidence that cortical thickness differs across broad swaths of the brain between higher- and lower-income students, and that cortical thickness is related to academic achievement test scores. PMID:25896418

  18. Analyzing Turkey's data from TIMSS 2007 to investigate regional disparities in eighth grade science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erberber, Ebru

    Turkey is expected to be a full member of the European Union (EU) by 2013. In the course of its integration into the EU, Turkey has been simultaneously facing access, quality, and equity issues in education. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made on increasing the access. However, improving the country's low level of education quality and achieving equity in quality education across the regions continue to be a monumental challenge in Turkey. Most recently, results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 indicated that Turkey's educational achievement at the eighth grade, the end of compulsory primary education in Turkey, was far below that of other countries in the EU. Considering Turkey's long standing socioeconomic disparities between the western and eastern parts of the country, the challenges of improving overall education quality are coupled with the challenges of achieving equity in learning outcomes for students across the regions. This dissertation used data from TIMSS 2007 to document the extent of Turkey's regional differences in science achievement at the eighth grade and to investigate factors associated with these differences. Findings from a series of analyses using hierarchical linear models suggested that attempts to increase Turkish students' achievement and close the achievement gaps between regions should target the students in the undeveloped regions, particularly in Southeastern Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia. Designing interventions to improve competency in Turkish and to compensate for the shortcomings of insufficient parental education, limited home educational resources, poor school climate for academic achievement, and inadequate instructional equipment and facilities might be expected to close the regional achievement gaps as well as raise the overall achievement level in Turkey.

  19. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  20. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  1. School Quality and the Black-White Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2007-01-01

    Substantial uncertainty exists about the impact of school quality on the black-white achievement gap. Our results, based on both Texas Schools Project (TSP) administrative data and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey (ECLS), differ noticeably from other recent analyses of the black-white achievement gap by providing strong evidence that…

  2. Social Deprivation, School-Level Achievement and Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Data from interviews with 299 teachers in 46 English primary schools revealed that the correlation between free school meals and achievement and between free school meals and special educational needs may stem from teacher judgments. The very poorest schools with the lowest achievement have substantially higher levels of special needs identified…

  3. Substantial tensile ductility in sputtered Zr-Ni-Al nano-sized metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Liontas, Rachel; Jafary-Zadeh, Mehdi; Zeng, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Yong -Wei; Mao, Wendy L.; Greer, Julia R.

    2016-08-04

    We investigate the mechanical behavior and atomic-level structure of glassy Zr-Ni-Al nano-tensile specimens with widths between 75 and 215 nm. We focus our studies on two different energy states: (1) as-sputtered and (2) sputtered then annealed below the glass transition temperature (Tg). In-situ tensile experiments conducted inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal substantial tensile ductility in some cases reaching >10% engineering plastic strains, >150% true plastic strains, and necking down to a point during tensile straining in specimens as wide as ~150 nm. We found the extent of ductility depends on both the specimen size and the annealing conditions. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD), we explain the observed mechanical behavior through changes in free volume as well as short- and medium-range atomic-level order that occur upon annealing. This work demonstrates the importance of carefully choosing the metallic glass fabrication method and post-processing conditions for achieving a certain atomic-level structure and free volume within the metallic glass, which then determine the overall mechanical response. Lastly, an important implication is that sputter deposition may be a particularly promising technique for producing thin coatings of metallic glasses with significant ductility, due to the high level of disorder and excess free volume resulting from the sputtering process and to the suitability of sputtering for producing thin coatings that may exhibit enhanced size-induced ductility.

  4. Childhood vaccination: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ndumbe, P

    1996-09-01

    As the goal of eradicating smallpox was being met, the World Health Organization created its Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in 1974 and reached its initial goal of achieving full vaccination of 80% of the world's children by 1990. This effort was aided by the creation of "cold chain" delivery systems and resulted in the annual saving of 3.5 million children in less-developed countries. Current EPI vaccination goals include 1) eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000, 2) elimination of neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, 3) control of measles and hepatitis B, and 4) immunization of 90% of the world's children 1 year or younger by the year 2000. Goals of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (formed in 1991) include 1) provision of an adequate supply of affordable, safe, and effective vaccines; 2) production of improved and new vaccines; and 3) simplification of the logistics of vaccine delivery. Future challenges are to sustain high vaccination coverage, reach the unreached, achieve proper storage of vaccines and reduce waste, integrate new vaccines into national programs, and achieve vaccine self-sufficiency. The fact that these challenges will be difficult to achieve is illustrated by the situation in Africa where the high immunization levels achieved in 1990 have dropped dramatically. Those who must act to implement immunization programs are health personnel, families, governments, and development partners. In order to achieve equity in health, every child must be reached, governments must be made accountable for programs, health workers must convince families of the importance of vaccination, delivery systems must be in place to take advantage of the new vaccines being delivered, and a multisectoral approach must be taken to assure sustainability.

  5. Substantiation of the mechanism of biphoton nonresonance excitation of molecules of bacteriochlorophyll of purple bacteria by femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. Yu.

    2010-11-01

    In a series of published experimental works, there has been observed nonresonance biphoton excitation, by femtosecond IR pulses (1250-1500 nm) of molecules of bacteriochlorophyll-a and the pigment in the composition of light-absorbing natural "antenna" complexes of photosynthesizing purple bacteria. The authors of these works believe that IR quanta excite hypothetical forbidden levels of pigments of these bacteria in the dual frequency range of 625-750 nm. In this study, an alternative mechanism of intramolecular electron transport apparently responsible for this phenomenon is suggested and substantiated. The mechanism should manifest itself in powerful electric fields, which are achieved in the pulses of picofemtosecond lasers.

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  7. Teaching for Successful Intelligence Raises School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Torff, Bruce; Grigorenko, Elena

    1998-01-01

    A "successful intelligence" intervention improved school achievement for a group of 225 ethnically diverse third-graders, both on performance assessments measuring analytical, creative, and practical achievements and on conventional multiple-choice memory assessments. Teaching for triarchic thinking facilitates factual recall, because learning…

  8. Student Achievement and National Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Luo, Xiaowei; Schofer, Evan; Meyer, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Educational policy around the world has increasingly focused on improving aggregate student achievement as a means to increase economic growth. In the last two decades, attention has focused especially on the importance of achievement in science and mathematics. Yet, the policy commitments involved have not been based on research evidence. The…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  10. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  11. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  12. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  13. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  14. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  15. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  16. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  17. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  18. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  19. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  20. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  1. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  2. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  3. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  4. Can disease management reduce health care costs by improving quality?

    PubMed

    Fireman, Bruce; Bartlett, Joan; Selby, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Disease management (DM) promises to achieve cost savings by improving the quality of care for chronic diseases. During the past decade the Permanente Medical Group in Northern California has implemented extensive DM programs. Examining quality indicators, utilization, and costs for 1996-2002 for adults with four conditions, we find evidence of substantial quality improvement but not cost savings. The causal pathway--from improved care to reduced morbidity to cost savings--has not produced sufficient savings to offset the rising costs of improved care. We conclude that the rationale for DM programs, like the rationale for any medical treatments, should rest on their effectiveness and value.

  5. Making Pre-K Count: Improving Math Instruction in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela A.; Mattera, Shira K.; Maier, Michelle F.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of a persistent achievement lag among low-income children despite substantial investments in early education, policymakers and practitioners continue to seek ways to improve the quality of children's preschool experiences. The Making Pre-K Count study addresses whether strengthening prekindergarten (pre-K) instruction in math,…

  6. Evaluating College Science and Mathematics Instruction: A Reform Effort That Improves Teaching Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton; Benford, Russell; Bloom, Irene; Carlson, Marilyn; Falconer, Kathleen; Hestenes, David; Judson, Eugene; Piburn, Michael; Sawada, Daiyo; Turley, Jeff; Wyckoff, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Reports evaluative data on five courses that have taken part in a curriculum reform effort called the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers (ACEPT). Discusses the effects of those teaching reforms on substantial improvements in student achievement. Includes principles of effective teaching, reformed teaching…

  7. Substantial generalization of sensorimotor learning from bilateral to unilateral movement conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinsung; Lei, Yuming; Xiong, Khongchee; Marek, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether bimanual skill learning can generalize to unimanual performance. For example, some investigators showed that dynamic adaptation could only partially generalize between bilateral and unilateral movement conditions, while others demonstrated complete generalization of visuomotor adaptation. Here, we identified three potential factors that might have contributed to the discrepancy between the two sets of findings. In our first experiment, subjects performed reaching movements toward eight targets bilaterally with a novel force field applied to both arms, then unilaterally with the force field applied to one arm. Results showed that the dynamic adaptation generalized completely from bilateral to unilateral movements. In our second experiment, the same force field was only applied to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. Results indicated complete transfer again. Finally, our subjects performed reaching movements toward a single target with the force field or a novel visuomotor rotation applied only to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. The reduced breadth of experience obtained during bilateral movements resulted in incomplete transfer, which explains previous findings of limited generalization. These findings collectively suggest a substantial overlap between the neural processes underlying bilateral and unilateral movements, supporting the idea that bilateral training, often employed in stroke rehabilitation, is a valid method for improving unilateral performance. However, our findings also suggest that while the neural representations developed during bilateral training can generalize to facilitate unilateral performance, the extent of generalization may depend on the breadth of experience obtained during bilateral training.

  8. Substantial tensile ductility in sputtered Zr-Ni-Al nano-sized metallic glass

    DOE PAGES

    Liontas, Rachel; Jafary-Zadeh, Mehdi; Zeng, Qiaoshi; ...

    2016-08-04

    We investigate the mechanical behavior and atomic-level structure of glassy Zr-Ni-Al nano-tensile specimens with widths between 75 and 215 nm. We focus our studies on two different energy states: (1) as-sputtered and (2) sputtered then annealed below the glass transition temperature (Tg). In-situ tensile experiments conducted inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal substantial tensile ductility in some cases reaching >10% engineering plastic strains, >150% true plastic strains, and necking down to a point during tensile straining in specimens as wide as ~150 nm. We found the extent of ductility depends on both the specimen size and the annealing conditions.more » Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD), we explain the observed mechanical behavior through changes in free volume as well as short- and medium-range atomic-level order that occur upon annealing. This work demonstrates the importance of carefully choosing the metallic glass fabrication method and post-processing conditions for achieving a certain atomic-level structure and free volume within the metallic glass, which then determine the overall mechanical response. Lastly, an important implication is that sputter deposition may be a particularly promising technique for producing thin coatings of metallic glasses with significant ductility, due to the high level of disorder and excess free volume resulting from the sputtering process and to the suitability of sputtering for producing thin coatings that may exhibit enhanced size-induced ductility.« less

  9. Substantial decline in hepatitis B virus infections following vaccine introduction in Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    Khetsuriani, Nino; Tishkova, Faina; Jabirov, Shamsidin; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Kamili, Saleem; Pirova, Zulfiya; Mosina, Liudmila; Gavrilin, Eugene; Ursu, Pavel; Drobeniuc, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background Tajikistan, considered highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a pre-vaccine era, introduced hepatitis B vaccine in 2002 and reported ≥80% coverage with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB3) since 2004. However, the impact of vaccine introduction has not been assessed. Methods We tested residual serum specimens from a 2010 national serosurvey for vaccine-preventable diseases in Tajikistan and assessed the prevalence of HBV infection across groups defined based on the birth cohorts’ routine infant hepatitis B vaccination program implementation and HepB3 coverage achieved (≥80% versus <80%). Serosurvey participants were selected through stratified multi-stage cluster sampling among residents of all regions of Tajikistan aged 1–24 years. All specimens were tested for antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) and those found positive were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Seroprevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared across subgroups using Satterthwaite-adjusted chi-square tests, accounting for the survey design and sampling weights. Results A total of 2188 samples were tested. Prevalence of HBV infection markers was lowest among cohorts with ≥80% HepB3 coverage (ages, 1–6 years): 2.1% (95% confidence interval, 1.1–4.3%) for anti-HBc, 0.4% (0.1–1.3%) for HBsAg, followed by 7.2% (4.1–12.4%) for anti-HBc and 2.1% (0.7–6.1%) for HBsAg among cohorts with <80% HepB3 coverage (ages, 7–8 years), by 12.0% (8.7–16.3%) for anti-HBc and 3.5% (2.2–5.6%) for HBsAg among children’s cohorts not targeted for vaccination (ages, 9–14 years), and 28.9% (24.5–33.8%) for anti-HBc and 6.8% (4.5–10.1%) for HBsAg among unvaccinated adult cohorts (ages, 15–24 years). Differences across groups were significant (p < 0.001, chi-square) for both markers. Conclusions The present study demonstrates substantial impact of hepatitis B vaccine introduction on reducing HBV infections in Tajikistan. To

  10. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  11. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  12. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary... liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation...

  13. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Return regarding liquidation, dissolution..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a... 5 taxable years preceding any liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Return regarding liquidation, dissolution..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a... 5 taxable years preceding any liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction...

  15. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Return regarding liquidation, dissolution..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a... 5 taxable years preceding any liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Return regarding liquidation, dissolution..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a... 5 taxable years preceding any liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction...

  17. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    DOEpatents

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  18. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  19. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  20. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... significant part of the financial risk of the PSO enterprise under the MA contract to each affiliated provider... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining substantial financial risk and majority...-Sponsored Organizations § 422.356 Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest....