Science.gov

Sample records for achieve substantial improvements

  1. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to successfully complete a program improvement plan. 1355.36 Section 1355.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  2. Faculty Development on Item Writing Substantially Improves Item Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeem, Naghma; van der Vleuten, Cees; Alfaris, Eiad Abdelmohsen

    2012-01-01

    The quality of items written for in-house examinations in medical schools remains a cause of concern. Several faculty development programs are aimed at improving faculty's item writing skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a faculty development program in item development. An objective method was developed and used…

  3. The Dutch Gender Gap in Mathematics: Small for Achievement, Substantial for Beliefs and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meelissen, Martina; Luyten, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In general, studies on gender and mathematics show that the advantage held by boys over girls in mathematics achievement has diminished markedly over the last 40 years. Some researchers even argue that gender differences in mathematics achievement are no longer a relevant issue. However, the results of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study…

  4. Finishing the Job: Improving the Achievement of Vocational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Presson, Alice

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)-State Vocational Education Consortium's commitment to higher standards for and greater achievement of vocational students has brought substantial gains in student performance. SREB's High Schools That Work (HSTW), a school improvement initiative, documents achievement gains by vocational students. Data…

  5. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  6. Improving Achievement in Gaelic. Improving Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the development of provision for Gaelic education in Scottish schools, 11 years on from the Inspectorate's last major review of the area. The report sets out to provide an update showing what progress has been achieved since that time, with a specific focus on pre-school, primary and secondary…

  7. Improving Student Achievement through Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finck, Chip; Hansen, Cynthia; Jensen, Jane

    This report describes a program for improving moral character to increase academic achievement. Targeted population consisted of middle school students in a growing middle class community in a northern suburb of Chicago, Illinois. The problem, an absence of proper moral character, was documented through data collected from discipline referrals to…

  8. Handbook of Research on Improving Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon, Ed.

    This handbook is designed to identify classroom practices that research has shown to result in higher student achievement. The fundamental idea behind this book is that in order to succeed, efforts to improve instruction must foucs on the existing knowledge base about effective teaching and learning. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction" (Gordon…

  9. Improving Student Achievement Using Expert Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Ronny; Smith, Bob; Leech, Don

    2004-01-01

    Both educators and the public are demanding improvements in student achievement and school performance. However, students meeting the highest college admission standards are increasingly selecting fields of study other than teaching. How can we increase teacher competence when many of our brightest teacher prospects are going into other fields?…

  10. Improving Student Achievement through Alternative Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Jermaine; Matyasec, Maryann

    An attempt was made to improve students' academic grades and students' opinions of themselves as learners through the use of alternative assessments. The format of mastery learning using the direct instruction practice model was combined with performance-based assessment to increase achievement, self-esteem, and higher level thinking skills.…

  11. PeaksDB: New Software for Substantially Improved Peptide Identification from Orbitrap ETD Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Xin, L.; Shan, B.; Chen, W.; Ma, B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To substantially improve the peptide identification sensitivity and accuracy from the Orbitrap ETD data with computational methods. Method: The algorithm takes full advantage of the characteristics of the Orbitrap ETD data, including: (1) high mass resolution of the precursor ions, and (2) the distributions of different fragment ion types in the MS/MS scans. For the first characteristic, a pre-search step is conducted to determine the precursor mass error distribution. This does not only make the precursor mass more accurate by a software recalibration, but also allows the use of the mass error as an important feature in the peptide-spectrum matching score function. For the second characteristic, the frequencies of different fragment ion types at different precursor charge states are statistically learned, and used in the score calculation. Moreover, the precursor-related ions in the MS/MS spectra are removed. Additionally, the score function makes use of the similarity between a database peptide and the de novo sequencing result. Result: PeaksDB was compared against three other search engines: MSGF-DB, Mascot, and ZCore. The same shuffled decoy database was appended to the target database and searched together to estimate the false discovery rate (FDR) of each individual engine. The same search parameters were used for all engines except that MSGFDB does not support variable PTMs. If no variable PTM is allowed, the numbers of identified peptides of different engines at 1% FDR are: PeaksDB (2356) > MSGF-DB (2147) > Mascot (1459) > ZCore (1030). If a few common PTMs are allowed, the numbers change to PeaksDB (3501) > Mascot (2677) > MSGF-DB (2147) > ZCore(1125). Conclusion: PeaksDB substantially improved the sensitivity and accuracy of peptide identifications on Orbitrap ETD data. At 1% false discovery rate, PeaksDB identified 1.3 to 1.6 times as many peptides as Mascot 2.3.

  12. Pancreatic cancer-improved care achievable

    PubMed Central

    Buanes, Trond A

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive cancers, and the decline in mortality observed in most other cancer diseases, has so far not taken place in pancreatic cancer. Complete tumor resection is a requirement for potential cure, and the reorganization of care in the direction of high patient-volume centers, offering multimodal treatment, has improved survival and Quality of Life. Also the rates and severity grade of complications are improving in high-volume pancreatic centers. One of the major problems worldwide is underutilization of surgery in resectable pancreatic cancer. Suboptimal investigation, follow up and oncological treatment outside specialized centers are additional key problems. New chemotherapeutic regimens like FOLFIRINOX have improved survival in patients with metastatic disease, and different adjuvant treatment options result in well documented survival benefit. Neoadjuvant treatment is highly relevant, but needs further evaluation. Also adjuvant immunotherapy, in the form of vaccination with synthetic K-Ras-peptides, has been shown to produce long term immunological memory in cytotoxic T-cells in long term survivors. Improvement in clinical outcome is already achievable and further progress is expected in the near future for patients treated with curative as well as palliative intention. PMID:25132756

  13. Improving Student Achievement in Math and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.

    1998-01-01

    As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order

  14. Do Charter Schools Improve Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Melissa A.; Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Silverberg, Marsha K.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a lottery-based study of the impacts of a broad set of 33 charter middle schools across 13 states on student achievement. To estimate charter school impacts, we compare test score outcomes of students admitted to these schools through the randomized admissions lotteries with outcomes of applicants who were not…

  15. Proven Strategies for Improving Learning & Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Duane

    The purpose of this book is to give student support personnel tools that: (1) will be recognized by educators as directly related to enhancing academic performance; (2) can be used with confidence that they will have the desired impact on achievement; and (3) are culturally sensitive. Chapters contain detailed presentation of the technology as…

  16. A Statistical Approach to Identifying Schools Demonstrating Substantial Improvement in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Coby; Lindsay, Jim; Condon, Chris; Wan, Yinmei

    2012-01-01

    The rising tide behind the school turnaround movement is significant, as national education leaders continue to call for the rapid improvement of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To date, little work has been done to identify schools that are drastically improving their performance. Using publically available school-level student…

  17. Reshaping Personnel Policies to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.; Gerstein, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The "Getting Down to Facts" (GDTF) studies released in March 2007 offered a clear diagnosis of the issues facing California's education system. Now, as California moves beyond the facts and begins the search for ways to improve the performance of California schools and students, the state faces a critical policy dilemma. On the one hand, the…

  18. Strategic School Funding for Improved Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.; Brown, James R.; Levin, Jesse; Jubb, Steve; Harper, Dorothy; Tolleson, Ray; Manship, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This article features Strategic School Funding for Results (SSFR) project, a new joint initiative of the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Pivot Learning Partners (PLP) aimed at improving school finance, human resources, and management systems in large urban school districts. The goal of the project is to develop and implement more…

  19. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included…

  20. Science Achievement for All: Improving Science Performance and Closing Achievement Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Julie K.; Ash, Gwynne

    2012-11-01

    This article addresses the serious and growing need to improve science instruction and science achievement for all students. We will describe the results of a 3-year study that transformed science instruction and student achievement at two high-poverty ethnically diverse public elementary schools in Texas. The school-wide intervention included purposeful planning, inquiry science instruction, and contextually rich academic science vocabulary development. In combination, these instructional practices rapidly improved student-science learning outcomes and narrowed achievement gaps across diverse student populations.

  1. How Much Can Spatial Training Improve STEM Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Uttal, David

    2015-01-01

    Spatial training has been indicated as a possible solution for improving Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) achievement and degree attainment. Advocates for this approach have noted that the correlation between spatial ability and several measures of STEM achievement suggests that spatial training should focus on improving…

  2. Improvements in Interval Time Tracking and Effects on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on students' reading achievement. 86 participants completed pre- and post-test measures of reading achievement (i.e., Woodcock-Johnson III, Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Test of Word Reading Efficiency, and Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency). Students in the…

  3. Does Children's Academic Achievement Improve when Single Mothers Marry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagmiller, Robert L., Jr.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Veliz, Philip; Clements, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Promoting marriage, especially among low-income single mothers with children, is increasingly viewed as a promising public policy strategy for improving developmental outcomes for disadvantaged children. Previous research suggests, however, that children's academic achievement either does not improve or declines when single mothers marry. In this…

  4. An Action Plan for Improving Mediocre or Stagnant Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Kimberley B.

    2013-01-01

    Although all of the schools in the target school system adhere to a school improvement process, achievement scores remain mediocre or stagnant within the overseas school in Italy that serves children of United States armed service members. To address this problem, this study explored the target school's improvement process to discover how…

  5. Professional Learning Communities That Initiate Improvement in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royer, Suzanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Quality teaching requires a strong practice of collaboration, an essential building block for educators to improve student achievement. Researchers have theorized that the implementation of a professional learning community (PLC) with resultant collaborative practices among teachers sustains academic improvement. The problem addressed specifically…

  6. Improving the Teaching of Economics: Achievements and Aspirations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, G. L.; Kelley, Allen C.

    Achievements and possible future projects of the American Economic Association's Committee on Economic Education (CEE), whose goal is to improve teaching in college and university economics, are discussed. The Teacher Training Program (TTP) was established by the CEE in the 1970's to develop programs to train economic educators. To date the…

  7. Using Students' Cultural Heritage to Improve Academic Achievement in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses an approach to teaching used at Calexico Unified School District, a California-Mexican border high school, by a group of teachers working to make teaching and learning more relevant to Chicano and Mexican students' lives and to improve their academic achievement in writing. An off-shoot of a training program for English…

  8. Improving Students' Social Skills and Achievement through Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caparos, Jennifer; Cetera, Colleen; Ogden, Lynn; Rossett, Kathryn

    This action research project evaluated a program designed to increase the use of appropriate social skills and improve academic achievement. The targeted population was comprised of first through third graders in four separate communities located in northeast Illinois. Evidence of the problem included teacher observational checklists denoting…

  9. Using Site-Based Budgeting To Improve Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Advances the use of school-based budgeting to improve student achievement. Describes four steps to implementing school-based budgeting: Access the current situation, set priorities and make decisions, plan action steps and benchmarks, and analyze choices and build the budget. Includes case study of the implementation of school-based budgeting at…

  10. Systems Thinking: A Skill to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Bill; Peltier, Gary; Perreault, George

    2004-01-01

    This article examines how schools can avoid barriers to systems thinking in relation to improving student achievement. It then illustrates common errors associated with non-systems thinking and recommends solutions. Educators who understand that schools are complex interdependent social systems can move their organizations forward. Unfortunately,…

  11. New Directions in Social Psychological Interventions to Improve Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy D.; Buttrick, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    Attempts to improve student achievement typically focus on changing the educational environment (e.g., better schools, better teachers) or on personal characteristics of students (e.g., intelligence, self-control). The 6 articles in this special issue showcase an additional approach, emanating from social psychology, which focuses on students'…

  12. Understanding the Change Styles of Teachers to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Arlene May Green

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the understanding of teacher change styles to improve student achievement. Teachers from public schools in a state located in the northern plains were surveyed regarding their Change Styles (preferred approaches to change) and flexibility scores. The results were statistically analyzed to determine if there were…

  13. Improving Student Achievement through the Use of Music Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogla-Krupke, Cheryl

    This report describes a program to improve student achievement through the use of music strategies. The targeted population was fifth-grade students in a small Iowa community. The absence of music integration into the social studies area was observed through data that displayed the lack of motivation and in-depth learning by the students. Analysis…

  14. High-fertility phenotypes: two outbred mouse models exhibit substantially different molecular and physiological strategies warranting improved fertility.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Martina; Michaelis, Marten; Hoeflich, Andreas; Sobczak, Alexander; Schoen, Jennifer; Weitzel, Joachim M

    2014-01-01

    Animal models are valuable tools in fertility research. Worldwide, there are more than 400 transgenic or knockout mouse models available showing a reproductive phenotype; almost all of them exhibit an infertile or at least subfertile phenotype. By contrast, animal models revealing an improved fertility phenotype are barely described. This article summarizes data on two outbred mouse models exhibiting a 'high-fertility' phenotype. These mouse lines were generated via selection over a time period of more than 40 years and 161 generations. During this selection period, the number of offspring per litter and the total birth weight of the entire litter nearly doubled. Concomitantly with the increased fertility phenotype, several endocrine parameters (e.g. serum testosterone concentrations in male animals), physiological parameters (e.g. body weight, accelerated puberty, and life expectancy), and behavioral parameters (e.g. behavior in an open field and endurance fitness on a treadmill) were altered. We demonstrate that the two independently bred high-fertility mouse lines warranted their improved fertility phenotype using different molecular and physiological strategies. The fertility lines display female- as well as male-specific characteristics. These genetically heterogeneous mouse models provide new insights into molecular and cellular mechanisms that enhance fertility. In view of decreasing fertility in men, these models will therefore be a precious information source for human reproductive medicine. Translated abstract A German translation of abstract is freely available at http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/147/4/427/suppl/DC1. PMID:24248751

  15. Substantial improvement of perovskite solar cells stability by pinhole-free hole transport layer with doping engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Min-Cherl; Raga, Sonia R.; Ono, Luis K.; Qi, Yabing

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated perovskite solar cells using a triple-layer of n-type doped, intrinsic, and p-type doped 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) (n-i-p) as hole transport layer (HTL) by vacuum evaporation. The doping concentration for n-type doped spiro-OMeTAD was optimized to adjust the highest occupied molecular orbital of spiro-OMeTAD to match the valence band maximum of perovskite for efficient hole extraction while maintaining a high open circuit voltage. Time-dependent solar cell performance measurements revealed significantly improved air stability for perovskite solar cells with the n-i-p structured spiro-OMeTAD HTL showing sustained efficiencies even after 840 h of air exposure. PMID:25985417

  16. Marker-free plasmids for gene therapeutic applications--lack of antibiotic resistance gene substantially improves the manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Mairhofer, Jürgen; Cserjan-Puschmann, Monika; Striedner, Gerald; Nöbauer, Katharina; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Grabherr, Reingard

    2010-04-01

    Plasmid DNA is being considered as a promising alternative to traditional protein vaccines or viral delivery methods for gene therapeutic applications. DNA-based products are highly flexible, stable, are easily stored and can be manufactured on a large scale. Although, much safer than viral approaches, issues have been raised with regard to safety due to possible integration of plasmid DNA into cellular DNA or spread of antibiotic resistance genes to intestinal bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Accordingly, there is interest in methods for the production of plasmid DNA that lacks the antibiotic resistance gene to further improve their safety profile. Here, we report for the first time the gram-scale manufacturing of a minimized plasmid that is devoid of any additional sequence elements on the plasmid backbone, and merely consists of the target expression cassette and the bacterial origin of replication. Three different host/vector combinations were cultivated in a fed-batch fermentation process, comparing the progenitor strain JM108 to modified strains JM108murselect, hosting a plasmid either containing the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase which provides kanamycin resistance, or a marker-free variant of the same plasmid. The metabolic load exerted by expression of the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase was monitored by measuring ppGpp- and cAMP-levels. Moreover, we revealed that JM108 is deficient of the Lon protease and thereby refined the genotype of JM108. The main consequences of Lon-deficiency with regard to plasmid DNA production are discussed herein. Additionally, we found that the expression of the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, conferring resistance to kanamycin, was very high in plasmid DNA producing processes that actually inclusion bodies were formed. Thereby, a severe metabolic load on the host cell was imposed, detrimental for overall plasmid yield. Hence, deleting the antibiotic resistance gene from the vector backbone is not only beneficial

  17. Evidence that Smaller Schools Do Not Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; Zwerling, Harris L.

    2006-01-01

    If more small schools than "expected" are among the high achievers, then creating more small schools would raise achievement across the board, many proponents of small schools have argued. In this article, the authors challenge the faulty logic of such inferences. Many claims have been made about the advantages of smaller schools. One is that,…

  18. Healthcare systems engineering: an interdisciplinary approach to achieving continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Klein, Cerry; Stone, Tamara T

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that a systems approach can significantly enhance healthcare improvement efforts in patient safety, service quality and healthcare cost containment. The application of systems thinking to healthcare improvement encompasses three key principles: the systems perspective of healthcare processes, structured problem solving and the closed loop of continuous system improvement. These are encapsulated in a conceptual framework of continuous system improvement, which includes a reference architecture model and an analysis and design process model. Combined into a closed-loop, this framework allows users to understand and appropriately apply relevant functions, issues and analytical techniques. Practical applications of the framework are presented. PMID:18048245

  19. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  20. Capacity Building for a School Improvement Program, Achievement Directed Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graeber, Anna O.; And Others

    This report describes and evaluates efforts to enhance school districts' capacity to implement and institutionalize the monitoring and management system for an instructional leadership program called Achievement Directed Leadership (ADL). Chapter one introduces the report's methodology, limitations, and structure. Chapter two first states the…

  1. Improving Secondary School Students' Achievement using Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Erik; Haapanen, Rebecca; Hall, Erin; Mantonya, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a program for increasing students' intrinsic motivation in an effort to increase academic achievement. The targeted population consisted of secondary level students in a middle to upper-middle class suburban area. The students of the targeted secondary level classes appeared to be disengaged from learning due to a lack of…

  2. Does Video-Autotutorial Instruction Improve College Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, K. M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Compares student achievement in an upper-division college introductory course taught by the video-autotutorial method with that in two comparable courses taught by the lecture-discussion method. Pre-post tests of 623 students reveal that video-autotutorial students outperform lecture/discussion participants at all ability levels and that in…

  3. Middle School Practices Improve Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Steven B.; Flowers, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Examined how interdisciplinary team practices and classroom instructional practices affected student achievement in high poverty middle schools in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Found that when the combined effects of family poverty level, teaming and common planning time, and duration of teaming were considered, there was a relationship…

  4. Helping Students Improve Academic Achievement and School Success Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigman, Greg; Campbell, Chari

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a study evaluating the impact of school-counselor-led interventions on student academic achievement and school success behavior. A group counseling and classroom guidance model called student success skills (SSS) was the primary intervention. The focus of the SSS model was on three sets of skills identified in several…

  5. Instruction and Achievement in Chicago Elementary Schools. Improving Chicago's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julia B.; Lee, Valerie E.; Newmann, Fred M.

    This study focused on the link between different forms of instruction and learning in Chicago, Illinois, elementary schools. It used teachers' survey reports about their instruction in the 1997-1997 school year and linked these reports with achievement gains. The study tested the common assumption that the nature of standardized assessments…

  6. An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taik

    2010-01-01

    The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in…

  7. Organizational management practices for achieving software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, Ronald Kirk

    2004-01-01

    The crisis in developing software has been known for over thirty years. Problems that existed in developing software in the early days of computing still exist today. These problems include the delivery of low-quality products, actual development costs that exceed expected development costs, and actual development time that exceeds expected development time. Several solutions have been offered to overcome out inability to deliver high-quality software, on-time and within budget. One of these solutions involves software process improvement. However, such efforts often fail because of organizational management issues. This paper discusses business practices that organizations should follow to improve their chances of initiating and sustaining successful software process improvement efforts.

  8. Achieving process control through improved grinding techniques for ferrite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, J.

    1995-09-01

    In manufacturing soft ferrite materials the particle size of the raw material has a significant impact on the reactivity of calcination. The control of particle size distribution and final formulation at wet milling after calcining impacts the reactivity during sintering and the magnetic properties of the final product. This paper will deal with steps taken to improve process control during the grinding operations of raw material and calcine in soft ferrite production. Equipment modifications as well as changes to the grinding and material handling techniques will be included. All examples of process control and improvements will be supported by data.

  9. Achieving improved cycle efficiency via pressure gain combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Gemmen, R.S.; Janus, M.C.; Richards, G.A.; Norton, T.S.; Rogers, W.A.

    1995-04-01

    As part of the Department of Energy`s Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Program, an investigation is being performed to evaluate ``pressure gain`` combustion systems for gas turbine applications. This paper presents experimental pressure gain and pollutant emission data from such combustion systems. Numerical predictions for certain combustor geometries are also presented. It is reported that for suitable aerovalved pulse combustor geometries studied experimentally, an overall combustor pressure gain of nearly 1 percent can be achieved. It is also shown that for one combustion system operating under typical gas turbine conditions, NO{sub x} and CO emmissions, are about 30 ppmv and 8 ppmv, respectively.

  10. Feedback to achieve improved sign-out technique.

    PubMed

    Doers, Matthew E; Beniwal-Patel, Poonam; Kuester, Jessica; Fletcher, Kathlyn E

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the quality of sign-out documents within the internal medicine residency, a quality improvement intervention was developed and implemented. Written sign-outs were collected from general medicine ward teams and graded using an 11-point checklist; in-person feedback was then given directly to the ward teams. Documentation of many of the 11 elements improved: mental status (22% to 66%, P < .0001), decisionality (40% to 66%, P < .0001), lab/test results (63% to 69%, P < .0001), level of acuity (34% to 50%, P < .0001), anticipatory guidance (69% to 82%, P < .0001), and future plans (35% to 38%, P < .0005). The use of vague language declined (41% to 26%, P < .0001). The mean total scores improved from 7.0 to 8.2 out of a possible 11 (P < .0001). As new house staff rotated onto the services, improvement over time was sustained with 1 feedback session per team, per month. Similar interventions could be made in other programs and other institutions. PMID:24878514

  11. ACHIEVING IRRIGATION RETURN FLOW QUALITY CONTROL THROUGH IMPROVED LEGAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The key to irrigated agricultural return flow quality control is proper utilization and management of the resource itself, and an accepted tool in out society is the law. This project is designed to develop legal alternatives that will facilitate the implementation of improved wa...

  12. Community Schools Seek to Improve High School Achievement, College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The Coalition for Community Schools, an alliance of more than 150 national, state, and local organizations, is bringing public schools in partnership with community resources to improve student success. While that might seem like an abstract idea, it has very concrete goals, such as boosting high school graduation rates and college readiness.…

  13. Achieving Continuous Improvement: Theories that Support a System Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armel, Donald

    Focusing on improvement is different than focusing on quality, quantity, customer satisfaction, and productivity. This paper discusses Open System Theory, and suggests ways to change large systems. Changing a system (meaning the way all the parts are connected) requires a considerable amount of data gathering and analysis. Choosing the proper…

  14. Using Curriculum-Based Measurement to Improve Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Response to intervention (RTI) is on the radar screen of most principals these days--finding out what it is, how it can improve teaching and learning, and what needs to be done to implement it effectively. One critical component of RTI that will require particular attention from principals is student progress monitoring, which is required in every…

  15. Improving Student Achievement in Solving Mathematical Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roti, Joan; Trahey, Carol; Zerafa, Susan

    This report describes a program for improving students' comprehension of the language of mathematical problems. The targeted population consists of 5th and 6th grade multi-age students and multi-age learners with special needs at a middle school located outside a major city in a Midwestern community. Evidence for the existence of this problem…

  16. Improving International Research with Clinical Specimens: 5 Achievable Objectives

    PubMed Central

    LaBaer, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Our increased interest in translational research has created a large demand for blood, tissue and other clinical samples, which find use in a broad variety of research including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested internationally on the collection, storage and distribution of samples. Nevertheless, many researchers complain in frustration about their inability to obtain relevant and/or useful samples for their research. Lack of access to samples, poor condition of samples, and unavailability of appropriate control samples have slowed our progress in the study of diseases and biomarkers. In this editorial, I focus on five major challenges that thwart clinical sample use for translational research and propose near term objectives to address them. They include: (1) defining our biobanking needs; (2) increasing the use of and access to standard operating procedures; (3) mapping inter-observer differences for use in normalizing diagnoses; (4) identifying natural internal protein controls; and (5) redefining the clinical sample paradigm by building partnerships with the public. In each case, I believe that we have the tools at hand required to achieve the objective within 5 years. Potential paths to achieve these objectives are explored. However we solve these problems, the future of proteomics depends on access to high quality clinical samples, collected under standardized conditions, accurately annotated and shared under conditions that promote the research we need to do. PMID:22998582

  17. Student Achievement Goal Setting: Using Data to Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Grant, Leslie W.

    2009-01-01

    The first book in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice series focuses on improving student achievement through academic goal setting. It offers the tools and plan of action to use performance data to improve instructional practice and increase student achievement. The book is divided into three parts: (1) How Student Achievement Data Can Be…

  18. Caseworker judgments and substantiation.

    PubMed

    Cross, Theodore P; Casanueva, Cecilia

    2009-02-01

    Substantiation can have an important effect on what interventions are pursued for children investigated for maltreatment, but researchers lack knowledge about how the decision to substantiate is made. Using information from 4,515 children from a national probability study of children investigated for maltreatment, this study examined how caseworker judgments of harm, risk, and evidence predicted substantiation. The substantiation rate was 29.9%, but the majority of cases were substantiated when caseworkers reported at least moderate harm, at least moderate risk, and/or probably to clearly sufficient evidence. Each judgment variable significantly predicted substantiation in a multivariable model, with evidence the strongest predictor. Child gender and age were significant predictors beyond harm, risk, and evidence, suggesting that other judgments also influence substantiation. In 9 of 100 cases, reports were not substantiated despite moderate to severe harm. Thus, substantiation is generally based on judgments of harm, risk, and evidence but not exclusively. The findings underline previous researchers' conclusions that substantiation is a flawed measure of child maltreatment and suggest that policy and practice related to substantiation are due for a fresh appraisal by state child welfare service agencies. PMID:18794302

  19. Effects of Improvements in Interval Timing on the Mathematics Achievement of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on mathematics achievement. A total of 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grades completed pre- and posttest measures of mathematics achievement from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Students in the experimental group participated in a 4-week intervention…

  20. Acute administration of high doses of taurine does not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Fabio; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Rocha, Leandro George Spinola do Amaral; Mesquita, Camila Angélica Asahi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute administration of taurine overload on time to exhaustion (TTE) of high-intensity running performance and alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT). The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (age: 25 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 50.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed an incremental treadmill-running test until voluntary exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake and exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake. Subsequently, participants completed randomly 2 bouts of supramaximal treadmill-running at 110% exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion (placebo (6 g dextrose) or taurine (6 g) supplementation), separated by 1 week. MAODALT was determined using a single supramaximal effort by summating the contribution of the phosphagen and glycolytic pathways. When comparing the results of the supramaximal trials (i.e., placebo and taurine conditions) no differences were observed for high-intensity running TTE (237.70 ± 66.00 and 277.30 ± 40.64 s; p = 0.44) and MAODALT (55.77 ± 8.22 and 55.06 ± 7.89 mL·kg(-1); p = 0.61), which seem to indicate trivial and unclear differences using the magnitude-based inferences approach, respectively. In conclusion, acute 6 g taurine supplementation before exercise did not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and showed an unclear effect on MAODALT. PMID:27109264

  1. Improving Reliability and Validity of "Achievement via Conformance" Through Computer Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Donald E.

    This paper describes an experiment conducted in order to improve the reliability and validity of the Achievement via Conformance (AC) scale of the California Psychological Inventory (CPI). The primary goal of AC is to identify those factors of interest and motivation which facilitate achievement in any setting where conformance is positive…

  2. Effective Strategies Urban Superintendents Utilize That Improve the Academic Achievement for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prioleau, Lushandra

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effective strategies, resources, and programs urban superintendents utilize to improve the academic achievement for African-American males. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research questions regarding urban superintendents and the academic achievement for African-American males: What…

  3. Improving Education Achievement and Attainment in Luxembourg. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 508

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard

    2006-01-01

    Improving education achievement in Luxembourg is a priority for strengthening productivity growth and enhancing residents' employment prospects in the private sector, where employers mainly hire cross-border workers. Student achievement in Luxembourg is below the OECD average according to the 2003 OECD PISA study, with the performance gap between…

  4. Improving Student Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics through Teaching to the Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednar, Janet; Coughlin, Jane; Evans, Elizabeth; Sievers, Theresa

    This action research project described strategies for improving student motivation and achievement in mathematics through multiple intelligences. The targeted population consisted of kindergarten, third, fourth, and fifth grade students located in two major Midwestern cities. Documentation proving low student motivation and achievement in…

  5. Breaking through barriers: using technology to address executive function weaknesses and improve student achievement.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Assistive technologies provide significant capabilities for improving student achievement. Improved accessibility, cost, and diversity of applications make integration of technology a powerful tool to compensate for executive function weaknesses and deficits and their impact on student performance, learning, and achievement. These tools can be used to compensate for decreased working memory, poor time management, poor planning and organization, poor initiation, and decreased memory. Assistive technology provides mechanisms to assist students with diverse strengths and weaknesses in mastering core curricular concepts. PMID:25010083

  6. Teachers' Perception of Their Principal's Leadership Style and the Effects on Student Achievement in Improving and Non-Improving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Brenda Kay

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of their school leaders influence student achievement in their schools. The extent of this influence is examined in this study. This quantitative study examined teachers' perceptions of the leadership style of their principals as transformational, transactional or passive-avoidant in improving and non-improving schools in…

  7. Integrating empowerment evaluation and quality improvement to achieve healthcare improvement outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wandersman, Abraham; Alia, Kassandra Ann; Cook, Brittany; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    While the body of evidence-based healthcare interventions grows, the ability of health systems to deliver these interventions effectively and efficiently lags behind. Quality improvement approaches, such as the model for improvement, have demonstrated some success in healthcare but their impact has been lessened by implementation challenges. To help address these challenges, we describe the empowerment evaluation approach that has been developed by programme evaluators and a method for its application (Getting To Outcomes (GTO)). We then describe how GTO can be used to implement healthcare interventions. An illustrative healthcare quality improvement example that compares the model for improvement and the GTO method for reducing hospital admissions through improved diabetes care is described. We conclude with suggestions for integrating GTO and the model for improvement. PMID:26178332

  8. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  9. School Improvement Plans and Student Achievement: Preliminary Evidence from the Quality and Merit Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Andrea; Rastelli, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This study provides preliminary evidence from an Italian in-service training program addressed to lower secondary school teachers which supports school improvement plans (SIPs). It aims at exploring the association between characteristics/contents of SIPs and student improvement in math achievement. Pre-post standardized tests and text analysis of…

  10. Training Theory of Mind and Executive Control: A Tool for Improving School Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2008-01-01

    In the preschool years, there are marked improvements in theory of mind (ToM) and executive functions. And, children's competence in these two core cognitive domains is associated with their academic achievement. Therefore, training ToM and executive control could be a valuable tool for improving children's success in school. This article reviews…

  11. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  12. Substantial evidence of effect.

    PubMed

    Gould, A Lawrence

    2002-02-01

    Pressures for rapid drug development, especially for treatments that may affect public health significantly, drive a need to reconsider what is necessary to establish the "substantial evidence" of efficacy and safety required for regulatory approval. The concept of substantial evidence of effect can be stated fairly simply in principle, but its application to the evaluation of findings from real clinical drug development programs can be quite complicated and depend on circumstances relating to the population studied and the condition being treated. This paper discusses a number of considerations that arise in attempting to address this issue. These include confirmation of efficacy/safety as opposed to replication of results, the use of surrogates for the clinical outcome, ethical considerations, the use of trials aimed at demonstrating equivalence or noninferiority instead of superiority of a new drug, and the balance between benefits and risks. Recent developments such as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines dealing with statistical principles and choice of control group, and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidances interpreting the 1998 Modernization Act identify useful alternative definitions of substantial evidence and also identify when a single study can be enough to demonstrate a clinically important effect. The primary difficulty with the use of noninferiority trials is the need to demonstrate assay sensitivity or validity, i.e., that the trial would have demonstrated the superiority of the active control treatment to placebo had the trial included a placebo group. Failure to demonstrate a significant difference between the presumed active treatments and an inactive control precludes a definitive conclusion of assay validity, but external evidence, e.g., from trials demonstrating the activity of the active control, may yet justify concluding that the trial was assay valid. Issues of interpretation of important unexpected

  13. Effects of simulated interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequalities in educational achievement.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718

  14. Effects of Simulated Interventions to Improve School Entry Academic Skills on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718

  15. The Consequences of "School Improvement": Examining the Association between Two Standardized Assessments Measuring School Improvement and Student Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltese, Adam V.; Hochbein, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    For more than half a century concerns about the ability of American students to compete in a global workplace focused policymakers' attention on improving school performance generally, and student achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) specifically. In its most recent form--No Child Left Behind--there is evidence…

  16. Audit-based education: a potentially effective program for improving guideline achievement in CKD patients.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Rotmans, Joris I

    2013-09-01

    The achievement of treatment guidelines in patients with chronic kidney disease is poor, and more efforts are needed to improve this. Audit-based education is a program that may contribute to this improvement. de Lusignana et al. investigated whether audit-based education is effective in lowering systolic blood pressure in a primary-care setting. Although the program is inventive and promising, several adjustments are needed before it can be applied as an effective strategy. PMID:23989357

  17. Improving Mathematics Achievement for All California Students: The Report of the California Mathematics Task Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document is the result of the California Mathematics Task Force assigned to address the need to improve the mathematics achievement of California's students. Five recommendations are made and discussed: (1) The State Superintendent of Public Instruction (SSPI) must establish clear and specific content and performance standards for mathematics…

  18. Supporting Instructional Improvement in Low-Performing Schools to Increase Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    This is an impact evaluation of the Technical Support to Failing Schools Program, a Chilean compensatory program that provided 4-year in-school technical assistance to low-performing schools to improve students' academic achievement. The author implemented a quasi-experimental design by using difference-in-differences estimation combined with…

  19. Dynamic Geometry Software Improves Mathematical Achievement: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kan Kan; Leung, Siu Wai

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic geometry software (DGS) aims to enhance mathematics education. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated the quasi-experimental studies on the effectiveness of DGS-based instruction in improving students' mathematical achievement. Research articles published between 1990 and 2013 were identified from major databases according to a…

  20. What Matters for Elementary Literacy Coaching? Guiding Principles for Instructional Improvement and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Allier, Susan; Elish-Piper, Laurie; Bean, Rita M.

    2010-01-01

    Literacy coaches provide job-embedded professional development for teachers, and the number of literacy coaches in elementary schools is increasing. Although literacy coaching offers promise in terms of improving teacher practice and student achievement, guidance is needed regarding the qualifications, activities, and roles of literacy coaches.…

  1. Instructional Leadership Influence on Collective Teacher Efficacy to Improve School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancera, Samuel F.; Bliss, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether instructional leadership functions, as defined in Hallinger's Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale, positively influence collective teacher efficacy to improve school achievement. Teachers from sample schools provided data for measures of collective teacher efficacy and instructional…

  2. Investing in Educator Data Literacy Improves Student Achievement. Evidence of Impact: The Oregon Data Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007 the Oregon DATA Project has been investing resources to provide educators on-the-job training around effective data use to improve student achievement. New evidence shows that their efforts are paying off. A 2011 Oregon DATA Project report detailed the impact of their investment in the state's educators, finding the following: (1)…

  3. Improving Student Interest and Achievement in Social Studies Using a Multiple Intelligence Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Chris; Hermiz, Carmen; Lagioia-Peddy, Jennifer; Levine-Albuck, Valerie

    This action research paper describes a program initiated by teacher researchers to improve academic achievement and interest in social studies. The targeted group consisted of fifth graders in a lower middle class community in the Midwest. Analysis of the problem-causes data show three main factors: curriculum, attitude, and effect. In regard to…

  4. Staff Development Designed To Improve the Achievement of Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn; Majors, Martha

    This paper describes how the University of Massachusetts (Boston) developed partnership programs to improve achievement of students with significant disabilities just beginning to participate in a standards-based general curriculum. Fundamental to the effort was development of a 12-credit graduate certificate program focused on adapting the…

  5. Improving Teaching Capacity to Increase Student Achievement: The Key Role of Data Interpretation by School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, David; Smith, Richard; Provost, Steven; Madden, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper argues that in a well-organised school with strong leadership and vision coupled with a concerted effort to improve the teaching performance of each teacher, student achievement can be enhanced. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that while macro-effect sizes such as "whole of school" metrics are useful for…

  6. Improving High School Students' Mathematics Achievement through the Use of Motivational Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portal, Jamie; Sampson, Lisa

    This report describes a program for motivating students in mathematics in order to improve achievement at the high school level. The targeted population consisted of high school students in a middle class community located in a suburb of a large metropolitan area. The problems of underachievement were documented through data collected from surveys…

  7. Improving Achievement in Low-Performing Schools: Key Results for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Randolph E.; Burke, Mary Ann

    2004-01-01

    As accountability in schools becomes more crucial, educators are looking for comprehensive and innovative management practices that respond to challenges and realities of student academic achievement. In order to improve academic performance and the quality of instruction, the entire school community needs to be involved. This book provides six…

  8. Analyzing Academic Achievement of Junior High School Students by an Improved Rough Set Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Ping-Feng; Lyu, Yi-Jia; Wang, Yu-Min

    2010-01-01

    Rough set theory (RST) is an emerging technique used to deal with problems in data mining and knowledge acquisition. However, the RST approach has not been widely explored in the field of academic achievement. This investigation developed an improved RST (IMRST) model, which employs linear discriminant analysis to determine a reduct of RST, and…

  9. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  10. Criteria for substantiating claims.

    PubMed

    Aggett, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Claims are used to support public health advocacy and marketing. Their evidence base is variable. Claims are made on (i) nutrient content, (ii) comparative merits, (iii) health benefits, and (iv) medical benefits. Experience with therapeutic agents has aided the development of recommendations for the substantiation of health claims for foods and food components, with which dietary supplements would be included. An EU Concerted Activity, Functional Food Science in Europe, suggested that such claims should be based on the general outcomes of 'enhanced function' and 'reduced risk of disease'. A further EU Concerted Activity, The Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods, proposed that the evidence base should provide: a characterization of the food or food component to which the claimed effect is attributed; human data, primarily from intervention studies that represent the target populations for the claim; a dose-response relationship: evidence of allowing for confounders including lifestyle, consumption patterns, background diet and food matrix; an appropriate duration for the study; a measure of compliance; and have adequate statistical power to test the hypothesis. When ideal endpoints are not easily accessible for measurement, validated and quality assured markers of the intermediate or final outcomes could be used, as long as their relationship is well characterized. Overall, the totality and coherence of published and unpublished evidence should be considered. Assessments for substantiation need expert judgement, weighting of the strength of the claim, and intelligent use of the criteria applied on an individual basis with respect both to gaps in knowledge and to any need for new knowledge and data. PMID:17913223

  11. Does Children’s Academic Achievement Improve when Single Mothers Marry?

    PubMed Central

    Wagmiller, Robert L.; Gershoff, Elizabeth; Veliz, Philip; Clements, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Promoting marriage, especially among low-income single mothers with children, is increasingly viewed as a promising public policy strategy for improving developmental outcomes for disadvantaged children. Previous research suggests, however, that children’s academic achievement either does not improve or declines when single mothers marry. In this paper, we argue that previous research may understate the benefits of mothers’ marriages to children from single-parent families because (1) the short-term and long-term developmental consequences of marriage are not adequately distinguished and (2) child and family contexts in which marriage is likely to confer developmental advantages are not differentiated from those that do not. Using multiple waves of data from the ECLS-K, we find that single mothers’ marriages are associated with modest but statistically significant improvements in their children’s academic achievement trajectories. However, only children from more advantaged single-parent families benefit from their mothers’ marriage. PMID:21611134

  12. Recipe for Success: An Updated Parents' Guide to Improving Colorado Schools and Student Achievement. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taher, Bonnie; Durr, Pamela

    This guide describes ways that parents can help improve student achievement and school quality. It answers such questions as how to choose the right early-education opportunity for a preschooler, how to make sure a 5-year-old is ready for school, how to help a daughter do well in school, how to work with a daughter's or son's teachers, how to help…

  13. Estimates of achievable potential for electricity efficiency improvements in U.S. residences

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard

    1993-05-01

    This paper investigates the potential for public policies to achieve electricity efficiency improvements in US residences. This estimate of achievable potential builds upon a database of energy-efficient technologies developed for a previous study estimating the technical potential for electricity savings. The savings potential and cost for each efficiency measure in the database is modified to reflect the expected results of policies implemented between 1990 and 2010. Factors included in these modifications are: the market penetration of efficiency measures, the costs of administering policies, and adjustments to the technical potential measures to reflect the actual energy savings and cost experienced in the past. When all adjustment factors are considered, this study estimates that policies can achieve approximately 45% of the technical potential savings during the period from 1990 to 2010. Thus, policies can potentially avoid 18% of the annual frozen-efficiency baseline electricity consumption forecast for the year 2010. This study also investigates the uncertainty in best estimate of achievable potential by estimating two alternative scenarios -- a

  14. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  15. US objectives generally achieved at broadcasting satellite international conference. Improvements can help in future conferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-08-01

    The implementation of broadcasting satellite service for the Western Hemisphere was planned. Broadcasting satellites transmit television programs and other information services from Earth orbit to home or office antennas. At the request of the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State and the Judiciary, GAO reviewed conference results as compared to established conference objectives and examined the interagency coordination of U.S. participation in this international conference. The United States basically achieved its two most important conference objectives: adopting a technically and procedurally flexible plan for broadcasting satellite service and obtaining a sufficient allocation of satellite orbit slots and frequencies to meet domestic needs. The U.S. was unable, however, to obtain agreement on adopting a maximum signal power level for satellites. The Department of State could improve its preparation, internal coordination, and administrative support for future international conferences and recommends actions to the Secretary of State to improve its international telecommunications activities.

  16. Leveraging Improvements in Precipitation Measuring from GPM Mission to Achieve Prediction Improvements in Climate, Weather and Hydrometeorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    The main scientific goal of the GPM mission, currently planned for start in the 2007 time frame, is to investigate important scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing Operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve approximately 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the core satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrate retrievals to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, currently involving a partnership between NASA in the US and the National Space Development Agency in Japan. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international partners and domestic scientific agencies and institutions, as well as participation by individual scientists from academia, government, and the private sector to fulfill mission goals and to pave

  17. A physical education trial improves adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement: the EDUFIT study.

    PubMed

    Ardoy, D N; Fernández-Rodríguez, J M; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Castillo, R; Ruiz, J R; Ortega, F B

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the effects of an intervention focused on increasing the time and intensity of Physical Education (PE), on adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement. A 4-month group-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 67 adolescents from South-East Spain, 2007. Three classes were randomly allocated into control group (CG), experimental group 1 (EG1) and experimental group 2 (EG2). CG received usual PE (two sessions/week), EG1 received four PE sessions/week and EG2 received four PE sessions/week of high intensity. Cognitive performance (non-verbal and verbal ability, abstract reasoning, spatial ability, verbal reasoning and numerical ability) was assessed by the Spanish Overall and Factorial Intelligence Test, and academic achievement by school grades. All the cognitive performance variables, except verbal reasoning, increased more in EG2 than in CG (all P < 0.05). Average school grades (e.g., mathematics) increased more in EG2 than in CG. Overall, EG2 improved more than EG1, without differences between EG1 and CG. Increased PE can benefit cognitive performance and academic achievement. This study contributes to the current knowledge by suggesting that the intensity of PE sessions might play a role in the positive effect of physical activity on cognition and academic success. Future studies involving larger sample sizes should confirm or contrast these preliminary findings. PMID:23826633

  18. Employee Perceptions of Progress with Implementing a Student-Centered Model of Institutional Improvement: An Achieving the Dream Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Annesa LeShawn

    2011-01-01

    Achieving the Dream is a national initiative focused on helping more community college students succeed, particularly students of color and low-income students. Achieving the Dream's student-centered model of institutional improvement focuses on eliminating gaps and raising student achievement by helping institutions build a culture of evidence…

  19. Improving quality and reducing inequities: a challenge in achieving best care

    PubMed Central

    Nicewander, David A.; Qin, Huanying; Ballard, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The health care quality chasm is better described as a gulf for certain segments of the population, such as racial and ethnic minority groups, given the gap between actual care received and ideal or best care quality. The landmark Institute of Medicine report Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century challenges all health care organizations to pursue six major aims of health care improvement: safety, timeliness, effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and patient-centeredness. “Equity” aims to ensure that quality care is available to all and that the quality of care provided does not differ by race, ethnicity, or other personal characteristics unrelated to a patient's reason for seeking care. Baylor Health Care System is in the unique position of being able to examine the current state of equity in a typical health care delivery system and to lead the way in health equity research. Its organizational vision, “culture of quality,” and involved leadership bode well for achieving equitable best care. However, inequities in access, use, and outcomes of health care must be scrutinized; the moral, ethical, and economic issues they raise and the critical injustice they create must be remedied if this goal is to be achieved. Eliminating any observed inequities in health care must be synergistically integrated with quality improvement. Quality performance indicators currently collected and evaluated indicate that Baylor Health Care System often performs better than the national average. However, there are significant variations in care by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status that indicate the many remaining challenges in achieving “best care” for all. PMID:16609733

  20. From Guide to Practice: Improving Your After School Science Program to Increase Student Academic Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous science organizations, such as NASA, offer educational outreach activities geared towards after school. For some programs, the primary goal is to grow students' love of science. For others, the programs are also intended to increase academic achievement. For those programs looking to support student learning in out-of-school time environments, aligning the program with learning during the classroom day can be a challenge. The Institute for Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse, put together a 'Practice Guide' for maximizing learning time beyond the regular school day. These practice guides provide concrete recommendations for educators supported by research. While this guide is not specific to any content or subject-area, the recommendations provided align very well with science education. After school science is often viewed as a fun, dynamic environment for students. Indeed, one of the recommendations to ensure time is structured according to students' needs is to provide relevant and interesting experiences. Given that our after school programs provide such creative environments for students, what other components are needed to promote increased academic achievement? The recommendations provided to academic achievement, include: 1. Align Instruction, 2. Maximize Attendance and Participation, 3. Adapt Instruction, 4. Provide Engaging Experiences, and 5. Evaluate Program. In this session we will examine these five recommendations presented in the Practice Guide, discuss how these strategies align with science programs, and examine what questions each program should address in order to provide experiences that lend themselves to maximizing instruction. Roadblocks and solutions for overcoming challenges in each of the five areas will be presented. Jessica Taylor will present this research based on her role as an author on the Practice Guide, 'Improving Academic Achievement in Out-of-School Time' and her experience working in various informal science

  1. Pre-operative Thresholds for Achieving Meaningful Clinical Improvement after Arthroscopic Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U.; Fields, Kara G.; Nawabi, Danyal H.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Ranawat, Anil S.

    2016-01-01

    sagittal CEA was the only variable maintaining significance (p = 0.032). Conclusion: We used a large prospective hip arthroscopy database to identify pre-operative patient outcome score thresholds predictive of meaningful post-operative outcome improvement after arthroscopic FAI treatment. This is the largest reported hip arthroscopy cohort to define MCID and the first to do so for iHOT-33. The HOS-ADL may have the best predictive ability for achieving MCID after hip arthroscopy. Patients with relatively high pre-operative ADL, quality of life and functional status appear to have a high chance for achieveing MCID up to our defined thresholds. Hip dysplasia is an important outcome modifier. The findings of this study may be useful for managing preoperative expectation for patients undergoing arthroscopic FAI surgery.

  2. Achievement for All: improving psychosocial outcomes for students with special educational needs and disabilities.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-04-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA) programme that was designed to improve outcomes for students with SEND through: (1) academic assessment, tracking and intervention, (2) structured conversations with parents, and (3) developing provision to improve wider outcomes (e.g. positive relationships). Using a quasi-experimental, pre-test-post-test control group design, we assessed the impact of AfA on teacher ratings of the behaviour problems, positive relationships and bullying of students with SEND over an 18-month period. Participants were 4758 students with SEND drawn from 323 schools across England. Our main impact analysis demonstrated that AfA had a significant impact on all three response variables when compared to usual practice. Hierarchical linear modelling of data from the intervention group highlighted a range of school-level contextual factors and implementation activities and student-level individual differences that moderated the impact of AfA on our study outcomes. The implications of our findings are discussed, and study strengths and limitations are noted. PMID:23380579

  3. The Stories Clinicians Tell: Achieving High Reliability and Improving Patient Safety

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Daniel L; Stewart, Kevin O

    2016-01-01

    The patient safety movement has been deeply affected by the stories patients have shared that have identified numerous opportunities for improvements in safety. These stories have identified system and/or human inefficiencies or dysfunctions, possibly even failures, often resulting in patient harm. Although patients’ stories tell us much, less commonly heard are the stories of clinicians and how their personal observations regarding the environments they work in and the circumstances and pressures under which they work may degrade patient safety and lead to harm. If the health care industry is to function like a high-reliability industry, to improve its processes and achieve the outcomes that patients rightly deserve, then leaders and managers must seek and value input from those on the front lines—both clinicians and patients. Stories from clinicians provided in this article address themes that include incident identification, disclosure and transparency, just culture, the impact of clinical workload pressures, human factors liabilities, clinicians as secondary victims, the impact of disruptive and punitive behaviors, factors affecting professional morale, and personal failings. PMID:26580146

  4. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i) intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii) training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i) the malaria intervention alone; (ii) the literacy intervention alone; (iii) both interventions combined; or (iv) control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of educational achievement

  5. Structuring Out-of-School Time to Improve Academic Achievement. IES Practice Guide. NCEE 2009-012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Megan; Borman, Geoffrey; Capizzano, Jeffrey; Parsley, Danette; Ross, Steven; Schirm, Allen; Taylor, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Out-of-school time programs can enhance academic achievement by helping students learn outside the classroom. The purpose of this practice guide is to provide recommendations for organizing and delivering school-based out-of-school time (OST) programs to improve the academic achievement of student participants. The five recommendations in this…

  6. Improving Science Achievement and Attitudes of Students With and Without Learning Disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders-White, Pamela

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of structured note-taking compared to traditional note-taking on the acquisition of scientific knowledge for students with and without learning disabilities (LD) and students with reading difficulties (RD). An additional purpose was to examine whether the two note-taking methods affected students' attitudes toward science. The sample population consisted of 203 fifth grade students across four public schools in the southern area of the United States. A standardized instrument aligned to Florida's science standards was used to measure the acquisition of scientific knowledge and the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes. For meaningful analyses, students with LD and students with RD were collapsed to form a single group due to the small numbers of participants in each of the subgroups; the collapsed group was referred to as "low achievers." A three-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to determine the effects of the pretest-posttest Science Interim assessment by group, type of student, and gender. The pretest-posttest Science Interim assessment scores were the within-group factor, while group, type of student, and gender were the between-groups factors. Results revealed that there was a significant interaction between the pretest-posttest Science Interim assessment and group, F(1, 191) = 9.320, p = .003, indicating that scientific knowledge scores increased for the experimental group, but decreased for the control group. Results also indicated that there was a significant three-way interaction between the pretest-posttest Science Interim assessment, group, and gender, F(1, 191) = 5.197, p = .024, showing that all participants in the experimental group improved their scores; while in the control group, female scores decreased and male scores increased. Participants in the experimental and control groups did not show improved attitudes

  7. Improved single-cell culture achieved using micromolding in capillaries technology coupled with poly (HEMA)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fang; Jiang, Jin; Chang, Honglong; Xie, Li; Deng, Jinjun; Ma, Zhibo; Yuan, Weizheng

    2015-01-01

    Cell studies at the single-cell level are becoming more and more critical for understanding the complex biological processes. Here, we present an optimization study investigating the positioning of single cells using micromolding in capillaries technology coupled with the cytophobic biomaterial poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly (HEMA)). As a cytophobic biomaterial, poly (HEMA) was used to inhibit cells, whereas the glass was used as the substrate to provide a cell adhesive background. The poly (HEMA) chemical barrier was obtained using micromolding in capillaries, and the microchannel networks used for capillarity were easily achieved by reversibly bonding the polydimethylsiloxane mold and the glass. Finally, discrete cell adhesion regions were presented on the glass surface. This method is facile and low cost, and the reagents are commercially available. We validated the cytophobic abilities of the poly (HEMA), optimized the channel parameters for higher quality and more stable poly (HEMA) patterns by investigating the effects of changing the aspect ratio and the width of the microchannel on the poly (HEMA) grid pattern, and improved the single-cell occupancy by optimizing the dimensions of the cell adhesion regions. PMID:26339307

  8. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-193.25 What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to... management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25... that needed records can be found rapidly to conduct agency business, to ensure that records...

  9. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25...-193.25 What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to... of temporary records. Retention and disposal of records is governed by NARA regulations in 36...

  10. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25...-193.25 What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to... of temporary records. Retention and disposal of records is governed by NARA regulations in 36...

  11. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25...-193.25 What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to... of temporary records. Retention and disposal of records is governed by NARA regulations in 36...

  12. 41 CFR 102-193.25 - What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... management business process improvements should my agency strive to achieve? 102-193.25 Section 102-193.25...-193.25 What type of records management business process improvements should my agency strive to... of temporary records. Retention and disposal of records is governed by NARA regulations in 36...

  13. Using Technology To Improve Academic Achievement in Out-of-School-Time Programs in Washington, D.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Meredith; Russell, Victoria; Chaplin, Duncan; Raphael, Jacqueline; Fu, Helen; Anthony, Emily

    This paper describes implementation of the federal government's DC 21st Century Community Learning Center (DC 21st CCLC) program during the summer of 2001, focusing on the use of computer technology to improve academic achievement. The DC 21st CCLC program provides funding to schools in the District of Columbia to improve their out-of-school-time…

  14. What Effective Principals Do to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Elizabeth Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this mixed method study were to (a) Examine the relationships among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership, and student achievement; (b) examine the differences among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership and student achievement; and (c) investigate what effective principals do to improve…

  15. How Urban School Superintendents Effectively Use Data Driven Decision Making to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Lonny Gene

    2010-01-01

    With the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2002, schools, districts, and therefore, superintendents have been held increasingly accountable for the achievement of the students. The states and federal governments have used student achievement data to measure the progress and success of schools and districts and have held districts…

  16. Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in Improving Achievement of Urban School Districts. Education Outlook. No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In one of the first large-scale analyses of urban trends on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Council of the Great City Schools and the American Institutes for Research identified urban school systems that demonstrated high achievement or significant achievement gains on the NAEP, and examined possible factors behind…

  17. Improving Student Achievement: Can 9th Grade Academies Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald Anthony; Peasant, Eddie J.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on student achievement in ninth grade schools or academies compared to ninth grade students enrolled in traditional high schools. Student achievement was measured by standardized test scores. Other variables tested were gender and ethnicity. All students used in this study were enrolled in the ninth grade during the 2005-2006…

  18. Developing and Improving Modified Achievement Level Descriptors: Rationale, Procedures, and Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quenemoen, Rachel; Albus, Debra; Rogers, Chris; Lazarus, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    Some states are developing alternate assessments based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) to measure the academic achievement of some students with disabilities (Albus, Lazarus, Thurlow, & Cormier, 2009; Lazarus, Thurlow, Christensen, & Cormier, 2007). These assessments measure the same content as the general assessment for a given…

  19. Improving Upper Grade Math Achievement via the Integration of a Culturally Responsive Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajkos, Diane; Klein-Collins, John

    This report describes an intervention program for increasing mathematical achievement of African American students. Within the targeted population, it was evident that the disparity in math achievement between African American and White students was increasing each year. The targeted population consisted of sixth, seventh, and eighth grade…

  20. Foundations for Success: Case Studies of How Urban School Systems Improve Student Achievement [and] Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snipes, Jason; Doolittle, Fred; Herlihy, Corinne

    This report examines the experiences of three large urban school districts (and part of a fourth) that raised academic performance for their districts as a whole, while also reducing racial differences in achievement. Educational challenges included low achievement, political conflict, inexperienced teachers, low expectations, and lack of…

  1. Substantially oxygen-free contact tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  2. Substantially Oxygen-Free Contact Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  3. Production of substantially pure fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, H.J.; Gallian, J.J.; Leeper, S.A.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for the production of a substantially pure product containing greater than 60% fructose. It comprises: combining a sucrose-containing substrate with effective amounts of a levansucrase enzyme preparation to form levan and glucose; purifying the levan by at least one of the following purification methods: ultrafiltration, diafiltration, hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, liquid--liquid partition, solvent extraction, chromatography, and precipitation; hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose substantially free of glucose and sucrose; and recovering the fructose by at least one of the following recovery methods: hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, evaporation, drying, crystallization, and chromatography.

  4. Melting of the charge-ordered state under substantially lower magnetic field in structurally improved Pr1-xCaxMnO3 (x = 0.3 - 0.5) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elovaara, T.; Ahlqvist, T.; Majumdar, S.; Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P.

    2015-05-01

    We report melting of the charge-ordered state in low bandwidth manganite PCMO (x=0.3-0.5) thin films under substantially lower magnetic field. Two different in situ post-deposition annealing conditions were applied on the PCMO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at a deposition temperature of 500 °C, which is significantly lower compared to the traditional deposition temperature for complex oxides. Thorough structural and magnetic characterization of these two films show improved crystalline and magnetic properties in PCMO thin films annealed at a lower temperature that leads to stronger ferromagnetic interaction at the cost of charge- and orbital-ordered states. In these structurally improved film a larger irreversible metamagnetic transition can be observed and the onset magnetic field required to melt the charge-ordered state reduces to only around 2 T at 70 K temperature in the sample with x=0.4 and nearly around 2.5 T for x=0.5. Additionally, the in situ post-deposition annealing at 500 °C decreases the insulator-metal transition about 2.5 T when compared to the samples annealed at 700 °C. Therefore, a larger colossal magnetoresistance effect is observed under a moderate value of applied magnetic field in these PCMO films with better crystalline order. This result is of extreme importance for the future generation of oxide electronics using phase-change property of strongly correlated materials.

  5. Production of substantially pure fructose

    DOEpatents

    Hatcher, Herbert J.; Gallian, John J.; Leeper, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.

  6. Quality improvement initiatives in neonatal intensive care unit networks: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vibhuti; Warre, Ruth; Lee, Shoo K

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal intensive care unit networks that encompass regions, states, and even entire countries offer the perfect platform for implementing continuous quality improvement initiatives to advance the health care provided to vulnerable neonates. Through cycles of identification and implementation of best available evidence, benchmarking, and feedback of outcomes, combined with mutual collaborative learning through a network of providers, the performance of health care systems and neonatal outcomes can be improved. We use examples of successful neonatal networks from across North America to explore continuous quality improvement in the neonatal intensive care unit, including the rationale for the formation of neonatal networks, the role of networks in continuous quality improvement, quality improvement methods and outcomes, and barriers to and facilitators of quality improvement. PMID:24268090

  7. Does Spending More on Education Improve Academic Achievement? Backgrounder. No. 2179

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lips, Dan; Watkins, Shanea J.; Fleming, John

    2008-01-01

    Debates about how to improve public education in America often focus on whether government should spend more on education. Federal and state policymakers proposing new education programs often base their arguments on the need to provide more resources to schools to improve opportunities for students. Many Americans seem to share this view. While…

  8. Improving Service Quality: Achieving High Performance in the Public and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milakovich, Michael E.

    Quality-improvement principles are a sound means to respond to customer needs. However, when various quality and productivity theories and methods are applied, it is very difficult to consistently deliver quality results, especially in quasi-monopolistic, non-competitive, and regulated environments. This book focuses on quality-improvement methods…

  9. Using Weblog in Cooperative Learning to Improve the Achievement of History Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leng, Lim Hooi; Leng, Chin Hai; Abedalaziz, Nabeel

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the use of Weblog in Cooperative Learning to enhance students' learning of History. The main issues of this study were the lack of interest and low achievement scores in History learning. The objectives of this study are to explore the incorporation of Weblog in Cooperative Learning within the teaching and learning…

  10. The Role of School Culture in Improving Student Achievement in POS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Kirsten; Castellano, Marisa; Overman, Laura T.; Aliaga, Oscar A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past five years, the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE) has sponsored five research studies of Programs of Study (POS)--including three ongoing longitudinal projects--with the goal of informing the field about how and under what conditions POS impact student engagement, achievement, and transition to…

  11. Improving Low Achievers' Academic Performance at University by Changing the Social Value of Mastery Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Meier, Emanuele; Brandner, Catherine; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that, in a university context, mastery goals are highly valued and that students may endorse these goals either because they believe in their utility (i.e., social utility), in which case mastery goals are positively linked to achievement, or to create a positive image of themselves (i.e., social desirability), in which…

  12. Can College Actions Improve the Academic Achievement of At-Risk Minority Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    This study examined factors affecting academic achievement of at-risk minority students to evaluate intervention strategies designed to assist such students. Data were obtained on 2,386 first-time college students entering Prince George's Community College (Maryland) in fall 1990. Factor analysis identified 10 variables that explained a…

  13. Using Culturally Competent Responsive Services to Improve Student Achievement and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, Rita; Grothaus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates standards blending, the integration of core academic and school counseling standards, as a culturally alert responsive services strategy to assist in closing the achievement gap while also enhancing employability skills and culturally salient career competencies. The responsive services intervention described in this…

  14. Teacher Leaders at Work: Analyzing Standardized Achievement Data to Improve Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, John E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe how 24 elementary and middle school teacher leaders analyzed standardized achievement test scores, utilizing four different approaches: comparing to the norm, analyzing trends, correlating data, and disaggregating data. The analyses were conducted in order to effect positive change in student learning and…

  15. Teaching Test-Taking Strategies to Improve the Academic Achievement of Students with Mild Mental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretlow, Allison G.; Lo, Ya-yu; White, Richard B.; Jordan, LuAnn

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of teaching a test-taking strategy to 4 fourth- and fifth-grade students with mild mental disabilities on reading and math achievement. The intervention consisted of a direct and explicit instructional method using a mnemonic strategy. The participants' acquisition and application of the test-taking strategy on…

  16. Improving Student Achievement in Language Arts through Implementation of Multiple Intelligences Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geimer, Mandy; Getz, Jennifer; Pochert, Terry; Pullam, Karen

    Student achievement has been low in language arts in Suburban Chicago, Illinois school districts. This action research project was designed to determine the effect of incorporating multiple intelligence strategies into the language arts curriculum. The targeted students were in the second, third, and fifth grades, in a western suburb of Chicago,…

  17. Leveraging Quality Improvement to Achieve Student Learning Assessment Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Nancy Gentry

    2009-01-01

    Mounting pressure for transformational change in higher education driven by technology, globalization, competition, funding shortages, and increased emphasis on accountability necessitates that universities implement reforms to demonstrate responsiveness to all stakeholders and to provide evidence of student achievement. In the face of the demand…

  18. Achievement for All: Improving Psychosocial Outcomes for Students with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-01-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA)…

  19. Major Field Achievement Test in Business: Guidelines for Improved Outcome Scores--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, J. Patrick; White, Jason T.

    2007-01-01

    Outcomes measurements have always been an important part of proving to outside constituencies how you "measure up" to other schools with your business programs. A common nationally-normed exam that is used is the Major Field Achievement Test in Business from Educational Testing Services. Our paper discusses some guidelines that we are "pilot…

  20. Concept Mapping Strategy: An Effective Tool for Improving Students' Academic Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakiyo, John; Waziri, Kawu

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the use of concept mapping teaching method on secondary school students' academic achievement in biology. Two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The design of the study was quasi-experimental design with 122 Senior Secondary students selected purposively from two senior secondary schools in…

  1. Teacher Professional Development to Improve Science and Literacy Achievement of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Buxton, Cory A.

    2013-01-01

    The school-aged population in the United States is becoming more culturally and linguistically diverse, while achievement gaps across content areas persist. At the same time, more rigorous academic demands are being placed on all students, including English language learners (ELLs). Teachers of ELLs face the double challenge of promoting English…

  2. The Single-Gender Classroom: Improving Middle School Students' Achievement in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, William V., III.

    2012-01-01

    At Joseph Case Junior High School, a school located in Swansea, Massachusetts for students in grades six through eight; there was a problematic trend in regard to student achievement in mathematics. Upon completion of an analysis of student cohort results in mathematics on the MCAS (Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System), there was an…

  3. Does NCLB Improve the Achievement of Students with Disabilities? A Regression Discontinuity Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) holds public schools accountable for the academic achievement of student subgroups that are larger than the state minimum-subgroup-size threshold. In 2004, California added students with disabilities to the NCLB subgroup categories. Using a regression discontinuity design, this study compared the academic…

  4. Using Self-Correction to Improve the Spelling Performance of Low-Achieving Third Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirtz, Connie L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of two spelling strategies (traditional versus self-correction) on spelling performance of six low-achieving third-grade students found the self-correction procedure more effective than the traditional condition and also helped students maintain their ability to correctly spell previously learned words. (Author/DB)

  5. Traditional Teaching Strategies versus Cooperative Teaching Strategies: Which Can Improve Achievement Scores in Chinese Middle Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, William P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines two teaching styles in Chinese middle schools, traditional lecture-based and cooperative learning. The study uses simple descriptive statistics to analyze economic status and achievement scores for both strategies in four Chinese middle schools. There were 145 randomly selected middle school students involved in the study. The…

  6. Comparing District Achievement to Improve Decision Making in Clark County, Nevada. Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In response to changing demographics, a tightening budget, and drastic achievement gaps (white students outperform Latino students on standardized tests) the Clark County School District in Nevada (the fifth largest district in the country) commissioned, in 2011, an educational and operational efficiency review. The district commissioned the…

  7. Closing the Achievement Gap: Principles for Improving the Educational Success of All Students. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    This digest reviews educational policies and practices that have been proven effective in closing the achievement gap, offering a list of resources with detailed information about them. The digest focuses on state and district roles (e.g., developing and implementing educational goals, rigorous standards, and accountability standards and providing…

  8. Improving Parental Involvement and Reading Achievement of Caribbean Immigrant Adolescents through Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this applied dissertation study was to determine the relative impact of parental involvement, parental school perception, student generation status, and Caribbean adolescents' own attitudes and behavior towards academic achievement and reading comprehension skills. For this study, 45 Caribbean parents from Grenadian, Guyanese,…

  9. Effectiveness of a Metacognitive Reading Strategies Program for Improving Low Achieving EFL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Nasrah Mahmoud; Tawalbeh, Tha'er Issa

    2015-01-01

    As the training of language learners was a main concern of EFL teachers, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive reading strategies instruction (MRSI) on Taif University EFL students who achieved low results in reading. The final sample of this study was (21) female university students. The sample was divided into two groups;…

  10. Is There a Relationship between the Play Attention Program and Improved Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Jenny Ann

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its effects on student academic achievement have been researched for many years. There have been many interventions that have been used in treating ADHD that have been found successful when implemented consistently. Some of the interventions that have been researched in the past are behavior…

  11. Improving Elementary American Indian Students' Math Achievement with Inquiry-Based Mathematics and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Jamalee; Hamann, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Project Inquiry-Based Mathematics was a National Science Foundation Math-Science Partnership implemented in a Great Plains city school district with a significant K-12 Native American population. One goal of the project was to reduce the achievement gap between Native American and non-Native students enrolled in district. This gap reduction was to…

  12. Improving Astronomy Achievement and Attitude through Astronomy Summer Project: A Design, Implementation and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Türk, Cumhur; Kalkan, Hüseyin; Iskeleli', Nazan Ocak; Kiroglu, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of an astronomy summer project implemented in different learning activities on elementary school students, pre-service elementary teachers and in-service teachers' astronomy achievement and their attitudes to astronomy field. This study is the result of a five-day, three-stage, science school,…

  13. The Effect of Using Activities Improving Scientific Literacy on Students' Achievement in Science and Technology Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucluer, Efe; Kesercioglu, Teoman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is examining the effect of the using scientific literacy development activities on students' achievement. The study was carried out in a primary school in Buca Izmir for 2010-2011 academic years. System of our body was chosen as a study topic in our search which took 6 weeks. Pre-post test semi experimental control model was…

  14. Turnaround Schools: Practices Used by Nationally Recognized Principals to Improve Student Achievement in High Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Angela Antuanette

    2012-01-01

    The specific purpose of this study was to identify the practices used by leaders of National Blue Ribbon Awarded Schools to successfully turnaround a school or to maintain proficient achievement scores within the school. The school principals answered a four part questionnaire for this study. Part 1 of the questionnaire asked about the extent to…

  15. A Mobile Gamification Learning System for Improving the Learning Motivation and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, C-H.; Cheng, C-H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate how a gamified learning approach influences science learning, achievement and motivation, through a context-aware mobile learning environment, and explains the effects on motivation and student learning. A series of gamified learning activities, based on MGLS (Mobile Gamification Learning System), was developed and…

  16. 78 FR 69336 - Title I-Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... FR 52467) a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding modified academic achievement standards and... period for seven days. DATES: For the proposed rule published on August 23, 2013 (78 FR 52467), written... August 23, 2013, we published a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register (78 FR...

  17. Programming in Pairs with Alice to Improve Confidence, Enjoyment, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Clark, Cathy; Courte, Jill; Howard, Elizabeth V.

    2006-01-01

    Students in an introductory computing class participated in a study investigating the impact of using a graphics programming environment (Alice) and pair-programming on confidence, enjoyment and achievement. Sixty-four participants completed a short questionnaire and a content pre-test about computer programming concepts. Students were then…

  18. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, Jeffrey, D.; Jansen, John, R.; Janke, David, H.; Plowman, Catherine, M.

    2003-02-26

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results.

  19. Reading in Upward Bound: An Evaluation of a Reading Improvement Course and an Analysis of Some Correlates of Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwaltney, Wayne Keith

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a seven-week reading improvement course for Upward Bound students and to analyze select correlates of reading achievement. Sixty Upward Bound students attending a summer session at Murray State University in Murray, Kentucky, served as the sample. The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental…

  20. Improving Learning Achievements, Motivations and Problem-Solving Skills through a Peer Assessment-Based Game Development Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hung, Chun-Ming; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a peer assessment-based game development approach is proposed for improving students' learning achievements, motivations and problem-solving skills. An experiment has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in a science course at an elementary school. A total of 167 sixth graders participated in…

  1. Improving Science, Technology and Mathematics Students' Achievement: Imperatives for Teacher Preparation in the Caribbean Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunkola, Babalola J.

    2012-01-01

    The concerns of this article are the unacceptable status of Science, Technology and Mathematics (STM) Education in the Caribbean and how to improve the students' achievement in the subjects involved through the instrumentality of better preparation of teachers by the Colleges and University faculties training teachers in the region. The index for…

  2. An Investigation of World Language Teachers' Use of Student Performance Data to Inform Teaching and to Help Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffi, Bruno N.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the types of content-based student performance data World Language teachers used to improve instruction and student academic achievement, the purposes for which they used data, the issues they encountered, and the suggestions they made for more effective use of data. The Standards for Foreign Language Learning…

  3. Experimental Evaluations of Two Strategies to Improve Reading Achievement in Kenya: Enhanced Literacy Instruction and Treatment of Malaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jukes, Matthew; Dubeck, Margaret; Brooker, Simon; Wolf, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    There is less quality evidence on how malaria may affect cognitive abilities and educational achievement or on how schools can tackle the problem of malaria among school children. A randomised trial among Sri Lankan children showed that weekly malaria chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine can improve school examination scores. The Health and Literacy…

  4. GUIDELINES FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILER PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT. (BOILER ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES TO MINIMIZE AIR POLLUTION AND TO ACHIEVE EFFICIENT USE OF FUEL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended procedures for improving industrial boiler performance to minimize air pollution and to achieve efficient use of fuel are given. It is intended for use by industrial boiler operators to perform an efficiency and emissions tune-up on boilers firing gas, oil, or coal. P...

  5. A University Engagement Model for Achieving Technology Adoption and Performance Improvement Impacts in Healthcare, Manufacturing, and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnis, David R.; Sloan, Mary Anne; Snow, L. David; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2014-01-01

    The Purdue Technical Assistance Program (TAP) offers a model of university engagement and service that is achieving technology adoption and performance improvement impacts in healthcare, manufacturing, government, and other sectors. The TAP model focuses on understanding and meeting the changing and challenging needs of those served, always…

  6. Improving Achievement in Secondary Schools: Impact of a Literacy Project on Reading Comprehension and Secondary School Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mei Kuin; Wilson, Aaron; McNaughton, Stuart; Hsiao, Selena

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether a literacy intervention involving generic and content area literacy components can improve both achievement on a standardized reading test and the attainment of secondary school qualifications, and whether the intervention can be implemented by teachers in their regular classroom settings. We report on a design-based…

  7. Top 10 Ways to Improve Science Achievement: Actions for School Principals, Assistant Principals, Department Chairs and School Improvement Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2007

    2007-01-01

    High Schools That Work (HSTW) Assessment data show the need to improve science education in both the middle grades and high school. Science education increases students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills. This publication is designed to help principals, other school leaders and teachers identify rigorous instruction and successfully…

  8. Emerging Evidence on Improving High School Student Achievement and Graduation Rates: The Effects of Four Popular Improvement Programs. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Corinne M.; Quint, Janet

    2006-01-01

    The National High School Center released methods for improving low-performing high schools based on some of the most rigorous research currently available in the school reform arena. This research brief identifies lessons learned as well as key practices used to strengthen high schools and is based on evaluations of four widely used high school…

  9. Evaluation and capacity building to improve precollege science and mathematics achievement in the US: 10 CFR, Part 605

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The National Center for Improving Science Education has undertaken activities to achieve evaluation goals for DOE's Precollege programs: develop means to determine program quality; develop means for determining the contribution of DOE precollege programs to both teacher enhancement and student achievement; provide evaluation designs and instruments and reports of program quality and impact; and strengthen both DOE's and the Labs' capacity to do both short- and long-term planning as well as deliver effective programs and evaluation. Appendices include evaluation/technical assistance report, profiling teacher research participation and teacher development programs, teacher surveys, impact assessment design, and teacher research participation programs anecdotes for 8 labs.

  10. Creating a Longitudinal Data System: Using Data To Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2006

    2006-01-01

    Policymakers and educators need longitudinal data systems capable of providing timely, valid and relevant data. Access to these data gives teachers the information they need to tailor instruction to help each student improve, gives administrators the resources and information to effectively and efficiently manage, and enables policymakers to…

  11. Resource Allocation Practices in Three Charter Middle Schools in Relation to Student Achievement Improvement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo-Contreras, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a better understanding of the allocation of resources used to improve student learning outcomes in three middle schools within a Charter Management Organization (CMO). The three middle schools that participated in the study have similar demographics and serve students in low socio-economic areas of Los…

  12. An Individualized Approach To Improve Reading Achievement Levels and Behavior of Learning Disabled Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebron, Preston T., Jr.

    In this practicum, 15 learning-disabled pupils in grades two and three participated in an individualized program featuring mastery learning, a personalized system of instruction, attention to learning style and modality, and behavior modification, in order to improve reading levels and poor behavior. Program components included learning stations,…

  13. What Is the Best Way to Achieve Broader Reach of Improved Practices in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a common problem in higher education--how to create more widespread use of improved practices, often commonly referred to as innovations. I argue that policy models of scale-up are often advocated in higher education but that they have a dubious history in community development and K-12 education and that higher education…

  14. Creating Birds of Similar Feathers: Leveraging Similarity to Improve Teacher-Student Relationships and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Brinkworth, Maureen E.; King, Aaron M.; Hsu, Laura M.; McIntyre, Joseph; Rogers, Todd

    2016-01-01

    When people perceive themselves as similar to others, greater liking and closer relationships typically result. In the first randomized field experiment that leverages actual similarities to improve real-world relationships, we examined the affiliations between 315 9th grade students and their 25 teachers. Students in the treatment condition…

  15. Achieving World-Class Schools: Mastering School Improvement Using a Genetic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmelman, Paul L.; Kroeze, David J.

    In providing its program for education reform, this book uses, as an analogy, the genetic model taken from the Human Genome project. In the first part, "Theoretical Underpinnings," the book explains why a genetic model can be used to improve school systems; describes the critical components of a world-class school system; and details the genetic…

  16. Effects of Simulated Interventions to Improve School Entry Academic Skills on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lynch, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764,…

  17. Improving Student Achievement in Introductory Computer Science Courses Using Peer-Led Team Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Sonya Maria

    2013-01-01

    There has been a steady decline of majors in the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics ("STEM majors"). In an effort to improve recruitment and retention in "STEM" majors, an active-learning methodology--"peer-led team learning" ("PLTL")--was implemented by the participating…

  18. Increasing Student Achievement and Improving Self-Esteem through a Community Building Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupo, Concetta M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on improving students' self-esteem through community building at an elementary school in a low socioeconomic community where over 55% of the students live below the poverty line. Orefield and Yun state in their 1999 article, "Resegregation of America's schools," "school level poverty is related to many…

  19. Evaluating and Improving Student Achievement in Business Programs: The Effective Use of Standardized Assessment Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, H. Tyrone; Duhon, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Having made "continuous improvement" the theme of its accreditation process a decade ago, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) is poised to make "assurance of learning" the current focus of the faculty/student exchange. In this article, the authors discuss how to use standardized assessment tests appropriately and…

  20. Combined Fluency and Cognitive Strategies Instruction Improves Mathematics Achievement in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Martha; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Stroud, Rena; Royer, James M.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight second grade students from two states (Georgia and Massachusetts) participated in an experiment in which they were randomly assigned to either (1) a computer program designed to increase fluency in addition and subtraction, (2) a program designed to improve cognitive strategy use for addition and subtraction, (3) a…

  1. Improving Student Achievement in Alaska. Alaska Goals 2000 Annual Report, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Alaska Goals 2000 is part of a coordinated, statewide effort to improve public education for all students in Alaska. In 1997-1998, 90% of Alaska's federal funding was used to fund grants to local school districts, and 10% was used to fund state-level activities through the Alaska Department of Education. During 1997-1998, curriculum frameworks and…

  2. School Stability: Improving Academic Achievement for NJ Foster Children. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard-Rance, Kourtney; Parello, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Children in New Jersey's foster care system are more likely to remain in their home school when they enter foster care, thanks to a law passed in 2010, giving these fragile children improved educational stability. The law allows children to remain in their "school of origin" when they are placed in foster care, even if the foster…

  3. What We Know about Student Achievement and School Improvement in Kansas. Focus On...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Educational improvement can be measured over time and against benchmarks in four key areas: (1) mastery of basic reading and math skills; (2) high school completion; (3) preparation for postsecondary education; and (4) adult educational attainment. The first three reflect how the school system prepares students for postsecondary education. The…

  4. Teachers Unions and Management Partnerships: How Working Together Improves Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Saul A.; McCarthy, John E.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, the debate over public school reform has created friction between teachers unions, administrators, school boards, parents, policymakers, and other stakeholders in public education and has fueled disagreements over how to improve the quality of teaching and learning for children. While many factors make consensus elusive…

  5. Using Motivational Strategies To Improve Academic Achievement of Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKeyrel, Angela; Dernovish, Julie; Epperly, Annette; McKay, Victoria

    This action research project sought to improve student motivation in order to increase academic performance among eighth graders in an urban community. Evidence of academic underachievement and lack of student participation was documented by means of teacher observations, incomplete and missing assignments, and student questionnaires. Student,…

  6. Leaders of Learning: How District, School, and Classroom Leaders Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFour, Richard; Marzano, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In their first coauthored book, Dr. DuFour and Dr. Marzano have combined their passions to articulate how effective leaders foster continuous improvement at the district, school, and classroom levels. The book focuses on district leadership, principal leadership, and team leadership and addresses how individual teachers can be most effective in…

  7. Effective Strategies That Urban Superintendents Use That Improve the Academic Achievement for African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Cardenas

    2013-01-01

    The roles of urban superintendents are crucial to improving the educational outlook for the neediest students, specifically the African-American males. The roles and responsibilities of the urban school superintendent today are more numerous, complex, and demanding than in the past. The expectations of today's urban superintendents are to be…

  8. Improving Reading Achievement of First Grade Students by Integrating Phonics Skills into a Whole Language Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batjes, Kathy; Brown, Theresa

    An action research study implemented a program for improving the reading ability of first-grade students who enter school with low reading readiness skills. The targeted population came from a mid-size, middle-class town in northern Illinois that has experienced recent growth and socioeconomic changes. The problem was evidenced by teacher…

  9. Teacher Self-Evaluation of Renewal Efforts of Their Teaching Practices To Improve Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain, Cheryl; Drummond, Robert J.; Senterfitt, Heather D.

    This study evaluated how teachers perceived their efforts to improve their teaching practices by participating in the Jacksonville Urban Educational Partnership (JUEP), a Professional Development School (PDS). The JUEP was designed to create sustained, high quality, professional development systems for inservice educators in three PDSs. The study…

  10. Techniques for mass resolution improvement achieved by typical plasma mass analyzers: Modeling and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaou, Georgios; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Fedorov, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Mass separation and particularly distinction between atomic ions and molecular ions are essential in understanding a wide range of plasma environments, with each consisted of different species with various properties. In this study we present the optimization results of light-weight (about 2 kg) magnetic mass analyzers with high g-factor for Rosetta (Ion Composition Analyser: ICA) and for Mars Express and Venus Express (Ion Mass Analyser: IMA). For the instrument's optimization we use SIMION, a 3D ion tracing software in which we can trace particle beams of several energies and directions, passing through the instrument's units. We first reproduced ICA and IMA results, which turned out to be different from simple models for low energy (< 100 eV). We then change the mechanical structure of several units of the instrument and we quantify the new mass resolution achieved with each change. Our goal is to find the optimal instrument's structure, which will allow us to achieve a proper mass resolution to distinguish atomic nitrogen from atomic oxygen for the purposes of a future magnetospheric mission.

  11. Sectionalizing interconnected transmission network to improve system performance and achieve fault current reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, B.

    1998-12-31

    An analysis was recently undertaken at Northern States Power Company (NSP) in an attempt to identify the advantages and disadvantages of sectionalizing Twin Cities metropolitan area transmission system. Five specific sectionalization schemes were developed to evaluate the transmission system performance associated with each scenario. These schemes were judged against the following performance characteristics: fault current level, severity of voltage depression during faults, NSP system losses, system through flow and contingency operation. Study results indicated that by careful application of the splitting scheme, sectionalization can provide significant performance improvements and still have economic feasibility. A comparison between sectionalization costs (increased system losses) and its benefits (improved performance) would help determine to what degree sectionalization is economically feasible and make the final decision. Of the five schemes tested, the contour that appeared the best in terms of reliability, performance and economics was chosen for implementation in NSP system during 1997 summer.

  12. Improving University Ranking to Achieve University Competitiveness by Management Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachyar, M.; Dewi, F.

    2015-05-01

    One way to increase university competitiveness is through information system management. A literature review was done to find information system factors that affect university performance in Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) University Ranking: Asia evaluation. Information system factors were then eliminated using Delphi method through consensus of 7 experts. Result from Delphi method was used as measured variables in PLS-SEM. Estimation with PLS-SEM method through 72 respondents shows that the latent variable academic reputation and citation per paper have significant correlation to university competitiveness. In University of Indonesia (UI) the priority to increase university competitiveness as follow: (i) network building in international conference, (ii) availability of research data to public, (iii) international conference information, (iv) information on achievements and accreditations of each major, (v) ease of employment for alumni.

  13. Identification of Energy Efficiency Opportunities through Building Data Analysis and Achieving Energy Savings through Improved Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, Bill

    2014-09-04

    This chapter will highlight analysis techniques to identify energy efficiency opportunities to improve operations and controls. A free tool, Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM), will be used to assist in the analysis of whole-building, sub-metered, and/or data from the building automation system (BAS). Appendix A describes the features of ECAM in more depth, and also provide instructions for downloading ECAM and all resources pertaining to using ECAM.

  14. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme. PMID:26194882

  15. Achieving health, safety, and performance improvements through enhanced cost visibility and workplace partnerships.

    PubMed

    Grant, Katharyn A; Garland, John G; Joachim, Todd C; Wallen, Andrew; Vital, Twyla

    2003-01-01

    Reduction in the environment, safety, and occupational health (ESOH) component of operational costs requires not only a better understanding of ESOH costs and requirements, but also the formation of effective partnerships between ESOH professionals, financial analysts, and shop workers to identify viable improvements to current practices. This article presents two case studies of efforts to enhance productivity and ESOH in corrosion control facilities at Randolph Air Force Base (AFB), Texas, and Robins AFB, Ga. At each site, activity-based cost models were created to increase the visibility of ESOH-related costs and target improvement opportunities. Analysis of the strip-and-paint processes for the T-38 aircraft at Randolph and the F-15 radome and C-141 aft cowl at Robins revealed that a large proportion of operating costs were tied to ESOH requirements and practices (22 and 39%, respectively). In each case ESOH professionals teamed with shop personnel to identify potential improvements in personal protective equipment use, waste disposal, tool selection, and work methods. This approach yielded alternatives projected to reduce total shop costs by 5 to 7%. This case study demonstrates how workplaces can identify cost-saving and efficiency-enhancing practices by partnering with ESOH professionals in planning and decision-making activities. PMID:14521429

  16. Public goods and private interests: The role of voluntary green power demand in achieving environmental improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiser, Ryan Hayes

    ; this finding differs substantially from the extant literature on firm motivations to pursue environmental initiatives. Meanwhile, a mail survey of marketers illustrates the importance of policy in stimulating the green power market. Finally, responses to contingent valuation and opinion surveys show that U.S. residents prefer collective payments for renewable energy over voluntary programs. Overall, this analysis presents a more nuanced understanding of the "green" market than traditionally offered by neoclassical economics and environmental marketing. Some evidence of free riding is found, but this work also identifies other barriers to the development of the green market. The study concludes that green power marketing may increase renewables supply, but that traditional public policy supports should not be abandoned in the hope that customer-driven markets will take up the slack.

  17. Achieving Exceptional Grain Refinement through Severe Plastic Deformation: New Approaches for Improving the Processing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, Ruslan Z.; Langdon, Terence G.

    2011-10-01

    The processes of equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and high-pressure torsion (HPT) are now established for the fabrication of ultrafine-grained metals having superior properties by comparison with their coarse-grained counterparts. This article examines the recent developments designed to improve the processing technology of ECAP and HPT and to establish these techniques as viable procedures for use in industrial applications. Based on these developments, it is reasonable to anticipate these processing procedures will experience increasing use in the fabrication of commercial products.

  18. Clinical decision support systems for improving diagnostic accuracy and achieving precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Christian; Nalley, Kip; Mannion, Ciaran; Bhattacharyya, Pritish; Blake, Patrick; Pecora, Andrew; Goy, Andre; Suh, K Stephen

    2015-01-01

    As research laboratories and clinics collaborate to achieve precision medicine, both communities are required to understand mandated electronic health/medical record (EHR/EMR) initiatives that will be fully implemented in all clinics in the United States by 2015. Stakeholders will need to evaluate current record keeping practices and optimize and standardize methodologies to capture nearly all information in digital format. Collaborative efforts from academic and industry sectors are crucial to achieving higher efficacy in patient care while minimizing costs. Currently existing digitized data and information are present in multiple formats and are largely unstructured. In the absence of a universally accepted management system, departments and institutions continue to generate silos of information. As a result, invaluable and newly discovered knowledge is difficult to access. To accelerate biomedical research and reduce healthcare costs, clinical and bioinformatics systems must employ common data elements to create structured annotation forms enabling laboratories and clinics to capture sharable data in real time. Conversion of these datasets to knowable information should be a routine institutionalized process. New scientific knowledge and clinical discoveries can be shared via integrated knowledge environments defined by flexible data models and extensive use of standards, ontologies, vocabularies, and thesauri. In the clinical setting, aggregated knowledge must be displayed in user-friendly formats so that physicians, non-technical laboratory personnel, nurses, data/research coordinators, and end-users can enter data, access information, and understand the output. The effort to connect astronomical numbers of data points, including '-omics'-based molecular data, individual genome sequences, experimental data, patient clinical phenotypes, and follow-up data is a monumental task. Roadblocks to this vision of integration and interoperability include ethical, legal

  19. Achieving crop stress tolerance and improvement--an overview of genomic techniques.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Saiema; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Rehman, Muneeb U; Arif, Ahmad; Anjum, Naser A

    2015-12-01

    The inexorable exposure of plants to the combinations of abiotic stresses has affected the worldwide food supply. The crop improvement against these abiotic stresses has been captivating approach to increase the yield and enhance the stress tolerance. By using traditional and modern breeding methods, the characters that confer tolerance to these stresses were accomplished. No doubt genetic engineering and molecular breeding have helped in comprehending the intricate nature of stress response. Understanding of abiotic stress-involved cellular pathways provides vital information on such responses. On the other hand, genomic research for crop improvement has raised new assessments in breeding new varieties against abiotic stresses. Interpretation of responses of the crop plants under stress is of great significance by studying the main role of crops in food and biofuel production. This review presents genomic-based approaches revealing the complex networks controlling the mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance, and the possible modes of assimilating information attained by genomic-based approaches due to the advancement in isolation and functional analysis of genes controlling the yield and abiotic stress tolerance are discussed. PMID:26440315

  20. Strategies To Boost Maternal Immunization To Achieve Further Gains In Improved Maternal And Newborn Health.

    PubMed

    Steedman, Mark R; Kampmann, Beate; Schillings, Egbert; Al Kuwari, Hanan; Darzi, Ara

    2016-02-01

    Despite the indisputable successes of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, which include goals on improving maternal health and reducing child mortality, millions of mothers and newborns still die tragically and unnecessarily each year. Many of these deaths result from vaccine-preventable diseases, since obstacles such as cost and accessibility have hampered efforts to deliver efficacious vaccines to those most in need. Additionally, many vaccines given to mothers and children under age five are not suitable for newborns, since their maturing immune systems do not respond optimally during the first few months of life. Maternal immunization-the process by which a pregnant woman's immune system is fortified against a particular disease and the protection is then transferred to her unborn child-has emerged as a strategy to prevent many unnecessary maternal and newborn deaths. We review vaccines that are already used for maternal immunization, analyze vaccines under development that could be used for maternal immunization strategies in the future, and recommend that policy makers use maternal immunization for improved maternal and newborn health. PMID:26858385

  1. Can developing countries achieve adequate improvements in child health outcomes without engaging the private sector?

    PubMed Central

    Bustreo, Flavia; Harding, April; Axelsson, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The private sector exerts a significant and critical influence on child health outcomes in developing countries, including the health of poor children. This article reviews the available evidence on private sector utilization and quality of care. It provides a framework for analysing the private sector's influence on child health outcomes. This influence goes beyond service provision by private providers and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Pharmacies, drug sellers, private suppliers, and food producers also have an impact on the health of children. Many governments are experimenting with strategies to engage the private sector to improve child health. The article analyses some of the most promising strategies, and suggests that a number of constraints make it hard for policy-makers to emulate these approaches. Few experiences are clearly described, monitored, and evaluated. The article suggests that improving the impact of child health programmes in developing countries requires a more systematic analysis of how to engage the private sector most effectively. The starting point should include the evaluation of the presence and potential of the private sector, including actors such as professional associations, producer organizations, community groups, and patients' organizations. PMID:14997241

  2. Anti-idiotypic antibodies as cancer vaccines: achievements and future improvements

    PubMed Central

    Ladjemi, Maha Z.

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), researchers have tried to develop immune-based anti-cancer therapies. Thanks to their specificity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) offer the major advantage to induce fewer side effects than those caused by non-specific conventional treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy). Passive immunotherapy by means of mAbs or cytokines has proved efficacy in oncology and validated the use of immune-based agents as part of anti-cancer treatment options. The next step was to try to induce an active immune protection aiming to boost own’s host immune defense against TAAs. Cancer vaccines are thus developed to specifically induce active immune protection targeting only tumor cells while preserving normal tissues from a non-specific toxicity. But, as most of TAAs are self antigens, an immune tolerance against them exists representing a barrier to effective vaccination against these oncoproteins. One promising approach to break this immune tolerance consists in the use of anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) mAbs, so called Ab2, as antigen surrogates. This vaccination strategy allows also immunization against non-proteic antigens (such as carbohydrates). In some clinical studies, anti-Id cancer vaccines indeed induced efficient humoral and/or cellular immune responses associated with clinical benefit. This review article will focus on recent achievements of anti-Id mAbs use as cancer vaccines in solid tumors. PMID:23133825

  3. Synthesis of substantially monodispersed colloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Stoeva, Savka (Inventor); Sorensen, Christopher (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of forming ligated nanoparticles of the formula Y(Z).sub.x where Y is a nanoparticle selected from the group consisting of elemental metals having atomic numbers ranging from 21-34, 39-52, 57-83 and 89-102, all inclusive, the halides, oxides and sulfides of such metals, and the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal halides, and Z represents ligand moieties such as the alkyl thiols. In the method, a first colloidal dispersion is formed made up of nanoparticles solvated in a molar excess of a first solvent (preferably a ketone such as acetone), a second solvent different than the first solvent (preferably an organic aryl solvent such as toluene) and a quantity of ligand moieties; the first solvent is then removed under vacuum and the ligand moieties ligate to the nanoparticles to give a second colloidal dispersion of the ligated nanoparticles solvated in the second solvent. If substantially monodispersed nanoparticles are desired, the second dispersion is subjected to a digestive ripening process. Upon drying, the ligated nanoparticles may form a three-dimensional superlattice structure.

  4. Exemplary Care and Learning Sites: A Model for Achieving Continual Improvement in Care and Learning in the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ogrinc, Greg; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Stevenson, Katherine M.; Shalaby, Marc; Beard, Albertine S.; Thörne, Karin E.; Coleman, Mary T.; Baum, Karyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Problem Current models of health care quality improvement do not explicitly describe the role of health professions education. The authors propose the Exemplary Care and Learning Site (ECLS) model as an approach to achieving continual improvement in care and learning in the clinical setting. Approach From 2008–2012, an iterative, interactive process was used to develop the ECLS model and its core elements—patients and families informing process changes; trainees engaging both in care and the improvement of care; leaders knowing, valuing, and practicing improvement; data transforming into useful information; and health professionals competently engaging both in care improvement and teaching about care improvement. In 2012–2013, a three-part feasibility test of the model, including a site self-assessment, an independent review of each site’s ratings, and implementation case stories, was conducted at six clinical teaching sites (in the United States and Sweden). Outcomes Site leaders reported the ECLS model provided a systematic approach toward improving patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. Most sites found it challenging to incorporate the patients and families element. The trainee element was strong at four sites. The leadership and data elements were self-assessed as the most fully developed. The health professionals element exhibited the greatest variability across sites. Next Steps The next test of the model should be prospective, linked to clinical and educa tional outcomes, to evaluate whether it helps care delivery teams, educators, and patients and families take action to achieve better patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. PMID:26760058

  5. How PEPFAR's public-private partnerships achieved ambitious goals, from improving labs to strengthening supply chains.

    PubMed

    Sturchio, Jeffrey L; Cohen, Gary M

    2012-07-01

    The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), established in 2003, is widely recognized as one of the most ambitious and successful bilateral programs ever implemented to address a single disease. Part of the program's success is attributable to the participation of the private sector, working in partnership with the US and local governments and implementing organizations to maximize the reach and effectiveness of every dollar spent. We examined key public-private partnerships that grew out of PEPFAR to identify features that have made them effective. For example, PEPFAR's Supply Chain Management System took advantage of private industry's best practices in logistics, and a partnership with the medical technology company BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company) improved laboratory systems throughout sub-Saharan Africa. We found that setting ambitious goals, enlisting both global and local partners, cultivating a culture of collaboration, careful planning, continuous monitoring and evaluation, and measuring outcomes systematically led to the most effective programs. The Office of the US Global AIDS Coordinator and PEPFAR should continue to strengthen their capacity for private-sector partnerships, learning from a decade of experience and identifying new ways to make smart investments that will make the most efficient use of taxpayer resources, expand proven interventions more rapidly, and help ensure the sustainability of key programs. PMID:22778334

  6. Mismatched partners that achieve postpairing behavioral similarity improve their reproductive success

    PubMed Central

    Laubu, Chloé; Dechaume-Moncharmont, François-Xavier; Motreuil, Sébastien; Schweitzer, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral similarity between partners is likely to promote within-pair compatibility and to result in better reproductive success. Therefore, individuals are expected to choose a partner that is alike in behavioral type. However, mate searching is very costly and does not guarantee finding a matching partner. If mismatched individuals pair, they may benefit from increasing their similarity after pairing. We show in a monogamous fish species—the convict cichlid—that the behavioral similarity between mismatched partners can increase after pairing. This increase resulted from asymmetrical adjustment because only the reactive individual became more alike its proactive partner, whereas the latter did not change its behavior. The mismatched pairs that increased their similarity not only improved their reproductive success but also raised it up to the level of matched pairs. While most studies assume that assortative mating results from mate choice, our study suggests that postpairing adjustment could be an alternative explanation for the high behavioral similarity between partners observed in the field. It also explains why interindividual behavioral differences can be maintained within a given population. PMID:26973869

  7. Monitoring Hip and Elbow Dysplasia Achieved Modest Genetic Improvement of 74 Dog Breeds over 40 Years in USA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Qian; Todhunter, Rory J.; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2013-01-01

    Hip (HD) and Elbow Dysplasia (ED) are two common complex developmental disorders of dogs. In order to decrease their prevalence and severity, the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) has a voluntary registry of canine hip and elbow conformation certified by boarded radiologists. However, the voluntarily reports have been severely biased against exposing dogs with problems, especially at beginning period. Fluctuated by additional influential factors such as age, the published raw scores barely showed trends of improvement. In this study, we used multiple-trait mixed model to simultaneously adjust these factors and incorporate pedigree to derive Estimated Breeding Values (EBV). A total of 1,264,422 dogs from 74 breeds were evaluated for EBVs from 760,455 hip scores and 135,409 elbow scores. These EBVs have substantially recovered the reporting bias and the other influences. Clear and steady trends of genetic improvement were observed over the 40 years since 1970. The total genetic improvements were 16.4% and 1.1% of the phenotypic standard deviation for HD and ED, respectively. The incidences of dysplasia were 0.83% and 2.08%, and the heritabilities were estimated as 0.22 and 0.17 for hip and elbow scores, respectively. The genetic correlation between them was 0.12. We conclude that EBV is more effective than reporting raw phenotype. The weak genetic correlation suggested that selection based on hip scores would also slightly improve elbow scores but it is necessary to allocate effort toward improvement of elbow scores alone. PMID:24124555

  8. Monitoring Hip and Elbow Dysplasia achieved modest genetic improvement of 74 dog breeds over 40 years in USA.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yali; Wang, Yachun; Lu, Xuemei; Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Qian; Todhunter, Rory J; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2013-01-01

    Hip (HD) and Elbow Dysplasia (ED) are two common complex developmental disorders of dogs. In order to decrease their prevalence and severity, the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) has a voluntary registry of canine hip and elbow conformation certified by boarded radiologists. However, the voluntarily reports have been severely biased against exposing dogs with problems, especially at beginning period. Fluctuated by additional influential factors such as age, the published raw scores barely showed trends of improvement. In this study, we used multiple-trait mixed model to simultaneously adjust these factors and incorporate pedigree to derive Estimated Breeding Values (EBV). A total of 1,264,422 dogs from 74 breeds were evaluated for EBVs from 760,455 hip scores and 135,409 elbow scores. These EBVs have substantially recovered the reporting bias and the other influences. Clear and steady trends of genetic improvement were observed over the 40 years since 1970. The total genetic improvements were 16.4% and 1.1% of the phenotypic standard deviation for HD and ED, respectively. The incidences of dysplasia were 0.83% and 2.08%, and the heritabilities were estimated as 0.22 and 0.17 for hip and elbow scores, respectively. The genetic correlation between them was 0.12. We conclude that EBV is more effective than reporting raw phenotype. The weak genetic correlation suggested that selection based on hip scores would also slightly improve elbow scores but it is necessary to allocate effort toward improvement of elbow scores alone. PMID:24124555

  9. Exercise Improves Executive Function and Achievement and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Austin, Benjamin P.; Miller, Patricia H.; Yanasak, Nathan E.; Allison, Jerry D.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This experiment tested the hypothesis that exercise would improve executive function. Design Sedentary, overweight 7- to 11-year-old children (N = 171, 56% female, 61% Black, M ± SD age 9.3 ± 1.0 yrs, body mass index (BMI) 26 ± 4.6 kg/m2, BMI z-score 2.1 ± 0.4) were randomized to 13 ± 1.6 weeks of an exercise program (20 or 40 minutes/day), or a control condition. Main outcome measures Blinded, standardized psychological evaluations (Cognitive Assessment System and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III) assessed cognition and academic achievement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging measured brain activity during executive function tasks. Results Intent to treat analysis revealed dose response benefits of exercise on executive function and mathematics achievement. Preliminary evidence of increased bilateral prefrontal cortex activity and reduced bilateral posterior parietal cortex activity due to exercise was also observed. Conclusion Consistent with results obtained in older adults, a specific improvement on executive function and brain activation changes due to exercise were observed. The cognitive and achievement results add evidence of dose response, and extend experimental evidence into childhood. This study provides information on an educational outcome. Besides its importance for maintaining weight and reducing health risks during a childhood obesity epidemic, physical activity may prove to be a simple, important method of enhancing aspects of children’s mental functioning that are central to cognitive development. This information may persuade educators to implement vigorous physical activity. PMID:21299297

  10. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substance any substantial new issues upon which the Secretary did not reach a conclusion in the rulemaking... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new... of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence. (a) Substantial new issues....

  11. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance any substantial new issues upon which the Secretary did not reach a conclusion in the rulemaking... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new... of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence. (a) Substantial new issues....

  12. Out-of-School-Time Academic Programs to Improve School Achievement: A Community Guide Health Equity Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Knopf, John A.; Hahn, Robert A.; Proia, Krista K.; Truman, Benedict I.; Johnson, Robert L.; Muntaner, Carles; Fielding, Jonathan E.; Jones, Camara Phyllis; Fullilove, Mindy T.; Hunt, Pete C.; Qu, Shuli; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Milstein, Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Context Low-income and minority status in the United States are associated with poor educational outcomes, which, in turn, reduce the long-term health benefits of education. Objective This systematic review assessed the extent to which out-of-school-time academic (OSTA) programs for at-risk students, most of whom are from low-income and racial/ethnic minority families, can improve academic achievement. Because most OSTA programs serve low-income and ethnic/racial minority students, programs may improve health equity. Design Methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used. An existing systematic review assessing the effects of OSTA programs on academic outcomes (Lauer et al 2006; search period 1985–2003) was supplemented with a Community Guide update (search period 2003–2011). Main Outcome Measure Standardized mean difference. Results Thirty-two studies from the existing review and 25 studies from the update were combined and stratified by program focus (ie, reading-focused, math-focused, general academic programs, and programs with minimal academic focus). Focused programs were more effective than general or minimal academic programs. Reading-focused programs were effective only for students in grades K-3. There was insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness on behavioral outcomes and longer-term academic outcomes. Conclusions OSTA programs, particularly focused programs, are effective in increasing academic achievement for at-risk students. Ongoing school and social environments that support learning and development may be essential to ensure the longer-term benefits of OSTA programs. PMID:26062096

  13. Achieving change in primary care—effectiveness of strategies for improving implementation of complex interventions: systematic review of reviews

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Rosa; Stevenson, Fiona; Ong, Bie Nio; Dziedzic, Krysia; Treweek, Shaun; Eldridge, Sandra; Everitt, Hazel; Kennedy, Anne; Qureshi, Nadeem; Rogers, Anne; Peacock, Richard; Murray, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify, summarise and synthesise available literature on the effectiveness of implementation strategies for optimising implementation of complex interventions in primary care. Design Systematic review of reviews. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PsychINFO were searched, from first publication until December 2013; the bibliographies of relevant articles were screened for additional reports. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Eligible reviews had to (1) examine effectiveness of single or multifaceted implementation strategies, (2) measure health professional practice or process outcomes and (3) include studies from predominantly primary care in developed countries. Two reviewers independently screened titles/abstracts and full-text articles of potentially eligible reviews for inclusion. Data synthesis Extracted data were synthesised using a narrative approach. Results 91 reviews were included. The most commonly evaluated strategies were those targeted at the level of individual professionals, rather than those targeting organisations or context. These strategies (eg, audit and feedback, educational meetings, educational outreach, reminders) on their own demonstrated a small to modest improvement (2–9%) in professional practice or behaviour with considerable variability in the observed effects. The effects of multifaceted strategies targeted at professionals were mixed and not necessarily more effective than single strategies alone. There was relatively little review evidence on implementation strategies at the levels of organisation and wider context. Evidence on cost-effectiveness was limited and data on costs of different strategies were scarce and/or of low quality. Conclusions There is a substantial literature on implementation strategies aimed at changing professional practices or behaviour. It remains unclear which implementation strategies are more likely to be effective than others and under what conditions

  14. Cardiorespiratory Improvements Achieved by American College of Sports Medicine’s Exercise Prescription Implemented on a Mobile App

    PubMed Central

    Rospo, Gianluca; Valsecchi, Viola; Bonomi, Alberto G; Thomassen, Inge WJ; van Dantzig, Saskia; La Torre, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Strong evidence shows that an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) reduces cardiovascular disease risk. Objective To test whether a scientifically endorsed program to increase CRF and PA, implemented on an easy-to-use, always-accessible mobile app would be effective in improving CRF. Methods Of 63 healthy volunteers participating, 18 tested the user interface of the Cardio-Fitness App (CF-App); and 45 underwent a 2-week intervention period, of whom 33 eventually concluded it. These were assigned into three groups. The Step-based App (Step-App) group (n=8), followed 10,000 steps/day prescription, the CF-App group (n=13), and the Supervised Cardio-Fitness (Super-CF) group (n=12), both followed a heart rate (HR)-based program according to American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines, but either implemented on the app, or at the gym, respectively. Participants were tested for CRF, PA, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP), resting, exercise, and recovery HR. Results CRF increased in all groups (+4.9%; P<.001). SBP decreased in all groups (-2.6 mm Hg; P=.03). DBP decrease was higher in the Super-CF group (-3.5 mm Hg) than in the Step-App group (-2.1 mm Hg; P<.001). Posttest exercise HR decreased in all groups (-3.4 bpm; P=.02). Posttest recovery HR was lower in the Super-CF group (-10.1 bpm) than in the other two groups (CF-App: -4.9 bpm, Step-App: -3.3 bpm; P<.001). The CF-App group, however, achieved these improvements with more training heart beats (P<.01). Conclusions A 10,000 steps/day target-based app improved CRF similar to an ACSM guideline-based program whether it was implemented on a mobile app or in supervised gym sessions. PMID:27339153

  15. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  16. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1−x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  17. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times duemore » to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  18. Improved yields of full-length functional human FGF1 can be achieved using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Adele; Bill, Roslyn M; Gustafsson, Lena; Hedfalk, Kristina

    2007-03-01

    We have produced human fibroblast growth factor 1 (hFGF1) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris in order to obtain the large amounts of active protein required for subsequent functional and structural characterization. Four constructs were made to examine both intracellular and secreted expression, with variations in the location of the His6 tag at either end of the peptide. hFGF1 could be produced from all four constructs in shake flasks, but production was optimized by growing only the highest-yielding of these strains, which produced hFGF1 intracellularly, under tightly controlled conditions in a 3 L fermentor. One hundred and eight milligrams of pure protein was achieved per liter culture (corresponding to 0.68 mg of protein per gram of wet cells), the function of which was verified using NIH 3T3 cell cultures. This is a 30-fold improvement over previously reported yields of full-length hFGF1. PMID:17134911

  19. 46 CFR 28.501 - Substantial alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substantial alterations. 28.501 Section 28.501 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.501 Substantial alterations. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a vessel that is...

  20. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public... Inventory, the claim must be reasserted and substantiated at the time the Notice of Commencement (NOC) is... Inventory. (2) The submitter must substantiate the claim for confidentiality of the microorganism...

  1. 77 FR 39452 - Substantial Business Activities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., June 12, 2012 (77 FR 34887) regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities...- 107889-12), which was the subject of FR. Doc. 2012-14238, is corrected as follows: On page 34887, column... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities; Correction...

  2. Substantial improvement of nanotube processability by freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Maugey, M; Neri, W; Zakri, C; Derré, A; Pénicaud, A; Noé, L; Chorro, M; Launois, P; Monthioux, M; Poulin, P

    2007-08-01

    As-produced carbon nanotubes often contain a fraction of impurities such as metal catalysts, inorganic supports, and carbon by-products. These impurities can be partially removed by using acidic dissolution. The resulting nanotube materials have to be dried to form a powder. The processability of nanotubes subjected to regular (thermal vaporisation) drying is particularly difficult because capillary forces pack and stick the nanotubes irreversibly, which limits their dispersability in polymeric matrices or solvents. We show that this dramatic limitation can be circumvented by using freeze-drying instead of regular-drying during nanotube purification process. In this case, the nanotubes are trapped in frozen water which is then sublimated. As a result the final powder is significantly less compact and, more important, the nanotubes can be easily dispersed with no apparent aggregates, thereby greatly enhancing their processability, e.g., they can be used to make homogeneous composites and fibers. Results from coagulation spinning from water-based dispersions of regularly-dried and freeze-dried nanotubes are compared. We also show that freeze-dried materials, in contrast to regularly-dried materials, can be dissolved in organic polar solvents using alkali-doped nanotubes. High resolution TEM and XRD analysis demonstrate that the nanotube structure and quality are not affected at the nanoscale by freeze-drying treatments. PMID:17685277

  3. A Mixed-Methods Study of the Transformation Model for Rapid Improvement of Low Achieving Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson Duina, Angela

    2013-01-01

    New regulations attached to ARRA funding of federal School Improvement Fund grants aimed at producing rapid turnaround of low performing schools were highly criticized as unsuitable for rural schools. This mixed-methods study looked at the implementation of the School Improvement Fund Transformation Model in two rural Maine high schools during the…

  4. In Their Own Words: Erasing Deficits and Exploring What Works to Improve K-12 and Postsecondary Black Male School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Chezare A.; Douglas, Ty-Ron M. O.; Howard, Tyrone C.

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the imperative for strengths-based research to counter deficit perceptions and perspectives of Black males in contemporary discussions of their school achievement in the United States. The importance of young men of color in shaping research agendas, practice, and public policy is argued followed by a brief overview of the…

  5. Improving Secondary School Students' Achievement and Retention in Biology through Video-Based Multimedia Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yaki, Akawo Angwal; Gana, Eli S.; Ughovwa, Queen Eguono

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of video-based multimedia instruction on secondary school students' achievement and retention in biology. In Nigeria, 120 students (60 boys and 60 girls) were randomly selected from four secondary schools assigned either into one of three experimental groups: Animation + Narration; Animation + On-screen Text;…

  6. The Potential for School-Based Interventions That Target Executive Function to Improve Academic Achievement: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin; Parkinson, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This article systematically reviews what is known empirically about the association between executive function and student achievement in both reading and math and critically assesses the evidence for a causal association between the two. Using meta-analytic techniques, the review finds that there is a moderate unconditional association between…

  7. From Compliance to Service: Evolving the State Role to Support District Data Efforts to Improve Student Achievement. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of state, national and federal leadership and political will, states have dramatically increased their capacity to collect robust longitudinal education data. However, without an equally ambitious effort to ensure access and build stakeholders' capacity to use data to increase student achievement, these infrastructure investments…

  8. From Compliance to Service: Evolving the State Role to Support District Data Efforts to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    As a result of state, national and federal leadership and political will, states have dramatically increased their capacity to collect robust longitudinal education data. However, without an equally ambitious effort to ensure access and build stakeholders' capacity to use data to increase student achievement, these infrastructure investments…

  9. Surmounting the Challenges of Improving Academic Performance: Closing the Achievement Gap through Social-Emotional and Character Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; White, Gwyne; Stepney, Cesalie

    2014-01-01

    While educators and policy makers have an intuitive understanding of the influence of socioeconomic factors and race on student achievement, these factors make the current emphasis on standardized test scores as a primary criterion for evaluating schools and teachers indefensible and ineffective. The research presented illustrates the limits of…

  10. Do Career and Technical Education Programs of Study Improve Student Achievement? Preliminary Analyses from a Rigorous Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Marisa; Sundell, Kirsten; Overman, Laura T.; Aliaga, Oscar A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the impact of programs of study on high school academic and technical achievement. Two districts are participating in experimental and quasi-experimental strands of the study. This article describes the sample selection, baseline characteristics, study design, career and technical education and academic achievement…

  11. Massachusetts Charter Public Schools: Best Practices Using Data to Improve Student Achievement in Springfield. White Paper No. 142

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candal, Cara Stillings

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies continue to shine light on high-performing charter schools. While Boston-area charter schools--a concentrated group of high-performers--garner more attention than others, many excellent schools outside of Boston have been quietly chipping away at the achievement gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students. One of these schools…

  12. The Path to Math: Leadership Matters Effective Practices of Principals That Improve Student Achievement in Secondary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyo, Michelle Hyo Jung

    2013-01-01

    The quality of school leadership is linked to student academic achievement (Leithwood et al., 2004; Thompson & Barnes, 2007; Glatthorn & Jailall, 1997; Lezotte, 1991; Edmonds, 1979; Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Crum & Sherman, 2008). The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional leadership (IL) of high school principals and…

  13. Neurofeedback as an Intervention to Improve Reading Achievement in Students with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Jeffry P.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that attention deficits have a deleterious effect on academic achievement. Impairments in attention, and not hyperactivity/impulsivity, are associated with learning difficulties and academic problems in students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To date, most studies have focused on symptoms…

  14. "Does Charter School Attendance Improve Test Scores?" Comments and Reactions on the Arizona Achievement Study. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Christopher; Hollenbeck, Kevin

    In a recent report, Lewis Solmon, Kern Paark, and David Garcia (2001) seek to identify the impact of attending charter schools on student achievement using data from Arizona. Based on a sophisticated statistical analysis, these authors report that charter school attendance increases test score gains of students. This note raises some questions…

  15. Schooling and Cognitive Achievements of Children in Morocco: Can the Government Improve Outcomes? World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 264.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; And Others

    This paper uses data from the Morocco Living Standard Survey in an econometric investigation of the relative effectiveness of supply- and demand-side factors in determining educational outcomes. A wide range of factors are examined that may be responsible for differences in grade completion levels and achievement among sexes, regions, and urban…

  16. Learning Achievement Improvement Efforts Course Learn and Learning Using the Jigsaw Method and Card Media in STKIP PGRI Ngawi 2014/2015 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haryono

    2015-01-01

    Subject Teaching and Learning is a basic educational courses that must be taken by all student teachers. Class Action Research aims to improve student achievement Teaching and Learning course by applying Jigsaw and media cards. Research procedures using Classroom Action Research (CAR) with multiple cycles. Each cycle includes four phases:…

  17. Indirect Effects of the Family Check-up on School-Age Academic Achievement through Improvements in Parenting in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that the impact of the Family Check-Up on parent use of positive behavior support would indirectly improve academic achievement scores at school age. The study included a sample of 731 high-risk families recruited from Women, Infant, and Children Supplemental Nutrition Program settings in 3 geographically…

  18. Improving the Teaching and Learning of Science in a Suburban Junior High School on Long Island: Achieving Parity through Cogenerative Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eileen Perman

    2010-01-01

    The research in this dissertation focuses on ways to improve the teaching and learning of science in a suburban junior high school on Long Island, New York. The study is my attempt to find ways to achieve parity in my classroom in terms of success in science. I was specifically looking for ways to encourage Black female students in my classroom…

  19. Collaborating to Create Change: How El Paso Community College Improved the Readiness of Its Incoming Students through Achieving the Dream. Culture of Evidence Series, Report No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerrigan, Monica Reid; Slater, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Launched in 2003, "Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count" is a multiyear national initiative designed to improve educational outcomes for community college students, particularly students of color and low-income students. Supported by Lumina Foundation for Education and other funders, the initiative has grown to include 98 community…

  20. Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition and Resource Systems Program (Project HAITI STARS), 1989-90. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    A final evaluation was conducted in the 1989-90 school year of New York City (New York) Board of Education's project, Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition and Resource Systems (HAITI STARS). The project served 524 limited-English-proficient Spanish-speaking students at Far Rockaway High…

  1. Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition And Resource Systems Program (Project HAITI STARS). Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OER Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, Marc A.

    The Higher Achievement and Improvement Through Instruction with Computers and Scholarly Transition And Resource Systems program (Project HAITI STARS), a federally-funded bilingual education program, served 425 students of limited English proficiency at three high schools in New York City during its fifth contract year. Students received…

  2. How to Implement the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning as an Ethical Decision-Making Process to Improve Academic Achievement--Ten Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Desiree A.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2006-01-01

    "Values, purposes, and understandings are fragile achievements and give way all too readily to attitudes of futility, frustration, and doubt" (Kritsonis, 2007, pg. 7). Ethical decision-making is one way for school leaders to contribute to improving education. Effecting change is the duty of school principals; this may often come in making…

  3. The Efforts to Improve Mathematics Learning Achievement Results of High School Students as Required by Competency-Based Curriculum and Lesson Level-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidabutar, Ropinus

    2016-01-01

    The research was aimed to investigate the effect of various, innovated teaching models to improved the student's achievement in various topic in Mathematics. The study was conduct experiment by using innovated teaching with contextual, media and web which are the compared. with conventional teaching method. The result showed the innovation in the…

  4. Improving Reading Achievement of Chapter 1 Pull-Out Students through Self-Esteem Building Classes Involving Buddy Group and Teacher Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershfield, Marlene

    A practicum attempted to improve the low reading achievement of Chapter 1 students in a low socioeconomic fifth-grade class by implementing a self-esteem building program. Activities were designed in a workbook format to complement class instruction in self-esteem building exercises. An emphasis on critical thinking skills was incorporated into…

  5. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... microorganism identity confidential in the MCAN and wants the identity to be listed on the confidential... submitted under § 725.190. Otherwise, EPA will list the specific microorganism identity on the public Inventory. (2) The submitter must substantiate the claim for confidentiality of the microorganism...

  6. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substantiation requirements. 725.94 Section 725.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.94...

  7. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... microorganism identity confidential in the MCAN and wants the identity to be listed on the confidential... submitted under § 725.190. Otherwise, EPA will list the specific microorganism identity on the public Inventory. (2) The submitter must substantiate the claim for confidentiality of the microorganism...

  8. 24 CFR 902.79 - Substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Notification of substantial default and response. If information from an annual assessment or audit, or any... substantively accurate; and (v) Notification to the PHA that, absent a satisfactory response in accordance with... determined to be an emergency, or in any case where the events or conditions precipitating the...

  9. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies, such as a study in a target species, study in laboratory animals... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS General Provisions § 514.4 Substantial...

  10. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effectiveness of the new animal drug involved that the new animal drug will have the effect it purports or is... have its intended effect. (b) Characteristics of substantial evidence—(1) Qualifications of experts... for use other than in animal feed or drinking water. (iii) Antibacterial with respect to a...

  11. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... effectiveness of the new animal drug involved that the new animal drug will have the effect it purports or is... have its intended effect. (b) Characteristics of substantial evidence—(1) Qualifications of experts... for use other than in animal feed or drinking water. (iii) Antibacterial with respect to a...

  12. Using M and S to Improve Human Decision Making and Achieve Effective Problem Solving in an International Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Vanessa L.; Landess, David J.

    2012-01-01

    In the international arena, decision makers are often swayed away from fact-based analysis by their own individual cultural and political bias. Modeling and Simulation-based training can raise awareness of individual predisposition and improve the quality of decision making by focusing solely on fact vice perception. This improved decision making methodology will support the multinational collaborative efforts of military and civilian leaders to solve challenges more effectively. The intent of this experimental research is to create a framework that allows decision makers to "come to the table" with the latest and most significant facts necessary to determine an appropriate solution for any given contingency.

  13. Achieving a culture of continuous improvement by adopting the principles of self-assessment and business excellence.

    PubMed

    Jackson, S

    1999-01-01

    Following a brief description of the inception of self-assessment and the European Foundation for Quality business excellence model, this article describes how one clinical directorate in an NHS Trust used the principles of both to secure a culture of continuous improvement. The journey from a mainly hierarchical, bureaucratic, individualist culture to one where the norms, values and beliefs reflected teamwork, involvement and empowerment is described. The highs, lows and learning points are all included, in an attempt to enlighten other healthcare organisations considering the benefits and pitfalls of using the business excellence model to improve the quality of their healthcare delivery. PMID:10537858

  14. Evaluation and capacity building to improve precollege science and mathematics achievement in the US: 10 CFR, Part 605. Technical progress report, June--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The National Center for Improving Science Education has undertaken activities to achieve evaluation goals for DOE`s Precollege programs: develop means to determine program quality; develop means for determining the contribution of DOE precollege programs to both teacher enhancement and student achievement; provide evaluation designs and instruments and reports of program quality and impact; and strengthen both DOE`s and the Labs` capacity to do both short- and long-term planning as well as deliver effective programs and evaluation. Appendices include evaluation/technical assistance report, profiling teacher research participation and teacher development programs, teacher surveys, impact assessment design, and teacher research participation programs anecdotes for 8 labs.

  15. A Project-Based Digital Storytelling Approach for Improving Students' Learning Motivation, Problem-Solving Competence and Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Chun-Ming; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Huang, Iwen

    2012-01-01

    Although project-based learning is a well-known and widely used instructional strategy, it remains a challenging issue to effectively apply this approach to practical settings for improving the learning performance of students. In this study, a project-based digital storytelling approach is proposed to cope with this problem. With a…

  16. The Impact of School Improvement Grants on Achievement: Plans for a National Evaluation Using a Regression Discontinuity Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deke, John; Dragoset, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Does receipt of School Improvement Grants (SIG) funding to implement a school intervention model have an impact on outcomes for low-performing schools? This study answers this question using a regression discontinuity design (RDD) that exploits cutoff values on the continuous variables used to define SIG eligibility tiers, comparing outcomes in…

  17. Taking Off! Sharing State-Level Accountability Strategies. Using Academic and Vocational Accountability Strategies To Improve Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Mikala L.; O'Driscoll, Patricia; Hudecki, Phyllis

    This document shares lessons learned related to states' strategies to improve accountability. Case studies describe promising practices or particular strategies within an accountability system that have operationalized six standards identified by the National Association of State Boards of Education. The introduction discusses accountability and…

  18. Do Incentive-Based Programs Improve Teacher Quality and Student Achievement? An Analysis of Implementation in 12 Urban Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaimal, Girija; Jordan, Will J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Policymakers have increasingly advocated for incentive-based approaches for improving urban schools. Purpose of the study: Few studies have examined the implementation of incentive based approaches in the urban charter school context. This paper presents research findings from a 4-year longitudinal study of the implementation of a…

  19. Performance Incentives to Improve Community College Completion: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative. A State Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulock, Nancy; Jenkins, Davis

    2011-01-01

    Amid growing signs of America's weakening position in the global economy, federal and state policymakers and major foundations have set ambitious goals for increasing postsecondary attainment in the United States. Given changing U.S. demographics, it has become clear that these national goals are attainable only with vastly improved outcomes among…

  20. Yes We Can! Improving Urban Schools through Innovative Educational Reform. Contemporary Perspectives on Access, Equity, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Leanne L., Ed.; Lewis, Chance W., Ed.; Carter, Norvella, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Yes We Can: Improving Urban Schools through Innovative Educational Reform is a empirically-based book on urban education reform to not only proclaim that hope is alive for urban schools, but to also produce a body of literature that examines current practices and then offer practical implications for all involved in this arduous task. This book is…

  1. Child abuse and neglect in Turkey: professional, governmental and non-governmental achievements in improving the national child protection system.

    PubMed

    Akco, Seda; Dagli, Tolga; Inanici, Mehmet Akif; Kaynak, Hatice; Oral, Resmiye; Sahin, Figen; Sofuoglu, Zeynep; Ulukol, Betul

    2013-11-01

    Since ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1995, significant efforts were made in Turkey to improve protection of children from abuse and neglect. The government took steps to amend relevant laws. Several state departments recognized the need for professional in-service training of relevant governmental agency staff. University hospitals established numerous hospital-based multidisciplinary child protection centres. The government established an Interministerial Higher Council, which has been overseeing the foundation of 13 child advocacy centres for a multidisciplinary and interagency response to child sexual abuse. In addition to undertaking research, non-governmental organizations contributed to this process by instituting professional and public education. These ground-breaking developments in the last decade give promise of even further improvement in the national child protection system from investigative, child protective and rehabilitative perspectives. PMID:24070409

  2. Sensitivity improvement of an electrical sensor achieved by control of biomolecules based on the negative dielectrophoretic force.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jung Ho; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-11-15

    Effective control of nano-scale biomolecules can enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection of an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor. Manipulation of the biomolecules by dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially the negative DEP (nDEP) force, so that they are trapped between electrodes (sensing regions) was predicted to increase the binding efficiency of the antibody and target molecules, leading to a more effective reaction. To prove this concept, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein were respectively trapped between the sensing region owing to the nDEP force under 5V and 0.05V, which was verified with COMSOL simulation. Using the simulation value, the resistance change (ΔR/Rb) of the IME sensor from the specific antibody-antigen reaction of the two biomolecules and the change in fluorescence intensity were compared in the reference (pDEP) and nDEP conditions. The ΔR/Rb value improved by about 2-fold and 1.66-fold with nDEP compared to the reference condition with various protein concentrations, and these increases were confirmed with fluorescence imaging. Overall, nDEP enhanced the detection sensitivity for Aβ42 and PSA by 128% and 258%, respectively, and the limit of detection improved by up to 2-orders of magnitude. These results prove that DEP can improve the biosensor's performance. PMID:27449966

  3. Human ergology that promotes participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions at grassroots workplaces: achievements and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work. PMID:25665213

  4. Can Community and School-Based Supports Improve the Achievement of First-Generation Immigrant Children Attending High-Poverty Schools?

    PubMed

    Dearing, Eric; Walsh, Mary E; Sibley, Erin; Lee-St John, Terry; Foley, Claire; Raczek, Anastacia E

    2016-05-01

    Using a quasi-experimental design, the effects of a student support intervention were estimated for the math and reading achievement of first-generation immigrant children (n = 667, M = 11.05 years of age) attending high-poverty, urban elementary schools. The intervention was designed to help schools identify developmental strengths and barriers to learning and, in turn, connect children to community and school supports aligned with their strengths and needs. By exploiting within-school changes in the implementation of the intervention, the present study revealed statistically and practically significant treatment effects indicating improvements in math and reading achievement at the end of elementary school. In addition, the intervention appears to considerably narrow achievement gaps between English language learners and immigrant children proficient in English. PMID:27028490

  5. Indirect Effects of the Family Check-Up on School-Age Academic Achievement Through Improvements in Parenting in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that the impact of the Family Check-Up on parent use of positive behavior support would indirectly improve academic achievement scores at school age. The study included a sample of 731 high-risk families recruited from Women, Infant, and Children Supplemental Nutrition Program settings in 3 geographically distinct areas. The results demonstrated that changes in positive parenting between the child ages of 2 and 3 were associated with higher scores on children’s school-age academic achievement, as measured by the Woodcock–Johnson III (W-J) Academic Skills composite. Moreover, structural equation modeling revealed that random assignment to the intervention was associated with higher levels of children’s academic achievement at age 5 and age 7.5 indirectly, through greater increases in parents’ use of positive behavior support in intervention families than in control families. Results are discussed with respect to the potential of a brief parenting intervention for improving parenting practices that promote academic achievement up to 5 years later. The results have promising implications for efforts to promote child adaptation in the school environment. PMID:24319295

  6. Does Pluto have a substantial atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of CH4 ice on Pluto implies that Pluto may have a substantial atmosphere consisting of heavy gases. Without such an atmosphere, sublimation of the CH4 ice would be so rapid on a cosmogonic time scale that either such an atmosphere would soon develop through the exposure of gases trapped in the CH4 ice or else the surface CH4 ice would soon be all sublimated away as other, more stable, ices became exposed. If such stable ices were present from the beginning, the existence of CH4 frosts would also imply that Pluto's present atmosphere contains a remnant of its primordial atmosphere.

  7. The effectiveness of a standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum on improving the academic achievement in chemistry for high school students in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mupanduki, Blessing T.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether integrating chemistry and mathematics curricula and teaching practices significantly improves academic achievement in chemistry among high school students in Southern California. The study was conducted during the 2008--2009 academic year. A quasi-experimental research design was used to explore the effects of a standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum (Integrated CHEMAT) and teaching practices on student academic achievement when compared to a traditional standards-based chemistry curriculum (Regular CHEM) and teaching practices. Academic achievement was based on a researcher-created Chemistry Achievement Assessment (CHAAS). The sample population involved in the research included 136 high school chemistry students attending high school in a Southern California rural school district. The research involved 2 groups of 68 students each: the experimental group and the control group. The data were analyzed using SPSS independent samples t-test, one-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and profile analysis. Statistical significance was determined at the .05 and .001 levels. Significant differences were found when analyzing the effects of the standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum and teaching practices. All 3 statistical analysis procedures (the independent samples t-test, MANCOVA, and profile analysis) indicated that students in the integrated CHEMAT program scored significantly higher than the students in the regular CHEM program in achievement scores based on the results of the CHAAS.

  8. Achieving equity in HIV-treatment outcomes: can social protection improve adolescent ART-adherence in South Africa?

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, L. D.; Toska, E.; Orkin, F. M.; Meinck, F.; Hodes, R.; Yakubovich, A. R.; Sherr, L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low ART-adherence amongst adolescents is associated with morbidity, mortality and onward HIV transmission. Reviews find no effective adolescent adherence-promoting interventions. Social protection has demonstrated benefits for adolescents, and could potentially improve ART-adherence. This study examines associations of 10 social protection provisions with adherence in a large community-based sample of HIV-positive adolescents. All 10–19-year-olds ever ART-initiated in 53 government healthcare facilities in a health district of South Africa’s Eastern Cape were traced and interviewed in 2014–2015 (n = 1175 eligible). About 90% of the eligible sample was included (n = 1059). Social protection provisions were “cash/cash in kind”: government cash transfers, food security, school fees/materials, school feeding, clothing; and “care”: HIV support group, sports groups, choir/art groups, positive parenting and parental supervision/monitoring. Analyses used multivariate regression, interaction and marginal effects models in SPSS and STATA, controlling for socio-demographic, HIV and healthcare-related covariates. Findings showed 36% self-reported past-week ART non-adherence (<95%). Non-adherence was associated with increased opportunistic infections (p = .005, B .269, SD .09), and increased likelihood of detectable viral load at last test (>75 copies/ml) (aOR 1.98, CI 1.1–3.45). Independent of covariates, three social protection provisions were associated with reduced non-adherence: food provision (aOR .57, CI .42–.76, p < .001); HIV support group attendance (aOR .60, CI .40–.91, p < .02), and high parental/caregiver supervision (aOR .56, CI .43–.73, p < .001). Combination social protection showed additive benefits. With no social protection, non-adherence was 54%, with any one protection 39–41%, with any two social protections, 27–28% and with all three social protections, 18%. These results demonstrate that social protection provisions

  9. Achieving equity in HIV-treatment outcomes: can social protection improve adolescent ART-adherence in South Africa?

    PubMed

    Cluver, L D; Toska, E; Orkin, F M; Meinck, F; Hodes, R; Yakubovich, A R; Sherr, L

    2016-03-01

    Low ART-adherence amongst adolescents is associated with morbidity, mortality and onward HIV transmission. Reviews find no effective adolescent adherence-promoting interventions. Social protection has demonstrated benefits for adolescents, and could potentially improve ART-adherence. This study examines associations of 10 social protection provisions with adherence in a large community-based sample of HIV-positive adolescents. All 10-19-year-olds ever ART-initiated in 53 government healthcare facilities in a health district of South Africa's Eastern Cape were traced and interviewed in 2014-2015 (n = 1175 eligible). About 90% of the eligible sample was included (n = 1059). Social protection provisions were "cash/cash in kind": government cash transfers, food security, school fees/materials, school feeding, clothing; and "care": HIV support group, sports groups, choir/art groups, positive parenting and parental supervision/monitoring. Analyses used multivariate regression, interaction and marginal effects models in SPSS and STATA, controlling for socio-demographic, HIV and healthcare-related covariates. Findings showed 36% self-reported past-week ART non-adherence (<95%). Non-adherence was associated with increased opportunistic infections (p = .005, B .269, SD .09), and increased likelihood of detectable viral load at last test (>75 copies/ml) (aOR 1.98, CI 1.1-3.45). Independent of covariates, three social protection provisions were associated with reduced non-adherence: food provision (aOR .57, CI .42-.76, p < .001); HIV support group attendance (aOR .60, CI .40-.91, p < .02), and high parental/caregiver supervision (aOR .56, CI .43-.73, p < .001). Combination social protection showed additive benefits. With no social protection, non-adherence was 54%, with any one protection 39-41%, with any two social protections, 27-28% and with all three social protections, 18%. These results demonstrate that social protection provisions, particularly combinations of "cash

  10. General chemistry courses that can affect achievement: An action research study in developing a plan to improve undergraduate chemistry courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shweikeh, Eman

    Over the past 50 years, considerable research has been dedicated to chemistry education. In evaluating principal chemistry courses in higher education, educators have noted the learning process for first-year general chemistry courses may be challenging. The current study investigated perceptions of faculty, students and administrators on chemistry education at three institutions in Southern California. Via action research, the study sought to develop a plan to improve student engagement in general chemistry courses. A mixed method was utilized to analyze different perceptions on key factors determining the level of commitment and engagement in general chemistry education. The approach to chemistry learning from both a faculty and student perspective was examined including good practices, experiences and extent of active participation. The research study considered well-known measures of effective education with an emphasis on two key components: educational practices and student behavior. Institutional culture was inclusively assessed where cognitive expectations of chemistry teaching and learning were communicated. First, the extent in which faculty members are utilizing the "Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education" in their instruction was explored. Second, student attitudes and approaches toward chemistry learning were examined. The focus was on investigating student understanding of the learning process and the structure of chemistry knowledge. The seven categories used to measure students' expectations for learning chemistry were: effort, concepts, math link, reality link, outcome, laboratory, and visualization. This analysis represents the views of 16 faculty and 140 students. The results validated the assertion that students need some competencies and skills to tackle the challenges of the chemistry learning process to deeply engage in learning. A mismatch exists between the expectations of students and those of the faculty

  11. Injection of Xenopus eggs before activation, achieved by control of extracellular factors, improves plasmid DNA replication after activation.

    PubMed

    Wangh, L J

    1989-05-01

    Injection of molecular probes into unfertilized Xenopus eggs requires suppression of activation. But the unfertilized egg is poised for activity, and pricking, like sperm penetration, triggers the start of the first cell cycle. Methods of suppressing activation generally rely on introduction of drugs into the cell, but some of these techniques are irreversible. I report here that injection without activation can also be accomplished by simply limiting extracellular free Ca2+ to 1-2 microM. The site of injection heals, but the cortex does not contract. Gentle modification of the vitelline envelope, which causes it to become tougher, improves the rate of healing to about 100%. Healed eggs are stable for hours and can be activated when needed. Injection of a plasmid derived from type 1 bovine papilloma virus revealed that replication occurs only after activation, but preloading the DNA markedly increased the efficiency of first-round replication. DNA interaction with the unactivated egg cytoplasm may therefore be required for efficient replication of exogenous DNA. The new procedures described here are likely to be of general utility. PMID:2559091

  12. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  13. Enhancement of filterability in MBR achieved by improvement of supernatant and floc characteristics via filter aids addition.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jing; Qiu, Jiangping; Wong, Fook-sin; Li, Yaozhong

    2008-08-01

    Reduction of membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBR) by addition of three typical filter aids (aluminum sulfate (Al(2)(SO(4))(3)), polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) and Chitosan) was investigated. The effects of filter aids on membrane pore blocking, gel layer and cake layer resistance were analyzed respectively. Significant improvement of the sustainable filtration was demonstrated in the filter aids added MBRs. The membrane fouling rate of the MBRs operated under 20L/m(2)h flux was in the order of Control MBR (no filter aid added)>Al(2)(SO(4))(3) added MBR>Chitosan added MBR>PFS added MBR. Membrane inner fouling due to pore blocking was analyzed by means of Fourier-transform infrared microscope (FTIR). Compared to the control MBR, significantly low protein and carbohydrate concentrations were measured in the membranes of the filter aids added MBRs, indicating that filter aids could effectively alleviate membrane pore blocking. Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analysis suggested that both the concentration and molecular weight distribution of the macromolecules in supernatant play an important role in gel layer formation and loss of membrane porosity. The reduction of fouling rate in the filter aids added MBRs could be attributed to lower concentration and reduction in molecular weight of macromolecules in supernatant. The specific cake resistance (alpha(c)), mean floc size (d(p)) and fractal dimension of the flocs (df) in the filter aids added MBRs were also investigated. It was demonstrated that alpha(c) decreased with the increase of d(p) and with the decrease of df, which is in consistent with the model prediction. PMID:18694586

  14. Achieving a "Grand Convergence" in Global Health by 2035: Rwanda Shows the Way Comment on "Improving the World's Health Through the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Perspectives From Rwanda".

    PubMed

    Yamey, Gavin; Fewer, Sara; Beyeler, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Global Health 2035, the report of The Lancet Commission on Investing in Health, laid out a bold, highly ambitious framework for making rapid progress in improving global public health outcomes. It showed that with the right health investments, the international community could achieve a "grand convergence" in global health-a reduction in avertable infectious, maternal, and child deaths down to universally low levels-within a generation. Rwanda's success in rapidly reducing such deaths over the last 20 years shows that convergence is feasible. Binagwaho and Scott have argued that 5 lessons from this success are the importance of equity, quality health services, evidence-informed policy, intersectoral collaboration, and effective collaboration between countries and multilateral agencies. This article re-examines these lessons through the lens of the Global Health 2035 report to analyze how the experience in Rwanda might be generalized for other countries to making progress towards achieving a grand convergence. PMID:26673345

  15. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  16. EARLY CHILDHOOD INVESTMENTS SUBSTANTIALLY BOOST ADULT HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report the long-term health impacts of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143, while only 126 among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, while none in the treatment group is. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:24675955

  17. Gasdynamic substantiation of physical theory of meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Lidia A.; Tirskiy, Grigoriy A.

    2014-12-01

    Physical theory of meteors developing since 30s of the last century, based on two ordinary differential equations: the equation of motion for the center of mass of meteoroid and equation of meteoroid ablation. These equations contain drag and heat transfer coefficients, which are share of momentum and energy transferred from gas to meteoroid and effective enthalpy of mass loss. Accounting for different values of these coefficients substantially changes meteoroid ballistics compared with the results of simple physical theory of meteors. For the drag coefficient a simple interpolation formula is valid for all flow regimes and depends on the Reynolds number. The heat transfer coefficient represented in the form of the approximation depending on density and meteoroid radius. Based on the law of conservation of mass and energy at the front of meteoroid melting and evaporation the explicit expression for the effective enthalpy of mass loss Q was obtained, depending on the speed of the meteoroid and heterogeneous reactions on the surface. Classical solution gives a significant deviation from the exact one obtained in present study for small bodies (1 mm) at high altitudes and high speeds.

  18. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  19. Does Homework Really Improve Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Should public school teachers assign daily homework? Should school districts have policies requiring teachers to assign homework? Is homework beneficial to students? Do students learn from completing daily homework? In this article, a review of literature is included offering pros and cons to students doing homework with various counterpoint…

  20. Teaching Triarchically Improves School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Torff, Bruce; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    1998-01-01

    Two studies involving 213 third graders and 141 eighth graders tested the triarchic structure of human intelligence as applied to the classroom by emphasizing traditional instruction, critical thinking, and triarchically based instruction (analytical, creative, and practical). Results support the superiority of triarchically-based instruction.…

  1. Improving Achievement Via Essay Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Ohmer

    1979-01-01

    The benefits of using essay tests rather than objective tests in professional education programs are discussed. Essay tests offer practice in writing, creativity and formal communications. Guidelines for using and scoring a sample essay test in biology are presented. (BH)

  2. Dollars for Sense: Assessing Achievement Gaps in Arkansas in the Context of Substantial Funding Increases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Joshua; Jensen, Nathan C.; Ritter, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-four of the fifty states have experienced school finance lawsuits as a consequence of funding gaps between rich and poor districts. In some states, such as Kentucky, lawsuits brought about by property-poor districts have resulted in a statewide remedy that reforms the property tax system and seeks to provide every child with an adequate…

  3. Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves

  4. Closing the social-class achievement gap: a difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicole M; Hamedani, MarYam G; Destin, Mesmin

    2014-04-01

    College students who do not have parents with 4-year degrees (first-generation students) earn lower grades and encounter more obstacles to success than do students who have at least one parent with a 4-year degree (continuing-generation students). In the study reported here, we tested a novel intervention designed to reduce this social-class achievement gap with a randomized controlled trial (N = 168). Using senior college students' real-life stories, we conducted a difference-education intervention with incoming students about how their diverse backgrounds can shape what they experience in college. Compared with a standard intervention that provided similar stories of college adjustment without highlighting students' different backgrounds, the difference-education intervention eliminated the social-class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students' tendency to seek out college resources (e.g., meeting with professors) and, in turn, improving their end-of-year grade point averages. The difference-education intervention also improved the college transition for all students on numerous psychosocial outcomes (e.g., mental health and engagement). PMID:24553359

  5. Postmastectomy Radiation Improves the Outcome of Patients With Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Who Achieve a Pathologic Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Sean E.; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.; Huang, Eugene H.; Tucker, Susan L.; Kau, S.-W.C.; Yu, T.-K.; Strom, Eric A.; Oh, Julia L.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Tereffe, Welela; Hunt, Kelly K.; Kuerer, Henry M.; Sahin, Aysegul A.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Buchholz, Thomas A. . E-mail: tbuchhol@mdanderson.org

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of postmastectomy radiation therapy in women with breast cancer who achieved a pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified 226 patients treated at our institution who achieved a pCR at surgery after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Of these, the 106 patients without inflammatory breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy were analyzed. The patients' clinical stages at diagnosis were I in 2%, II in 31%, IIIA in 30%, IIIB in 25%, and IIIC in 11% (American Joint Committee on Cancer 2003 system). Of the patients, 92% received anthracycline-based chemotherapy, and 38% also received a taxane. A total of 72 patients received postmastectomy radiation therapy, and 34 did not. The actuarial rates of local-regional recurrence (LRR) and survival of the two groups were compared using the log-rank test. Results: The median follow-up of surviving patients was 62 months. Use of radiation therapy did not affect the 10-year rates of LRR for patients with Stage I or II disease (the 10-year LRR rates were 0% for both groups). However, the 10-year LRR rate for patients with Stage III disease was significantly improved with radiation therapy (7.3% {+-} 3.5% with vs. 33.3% {+-} 15.7% without; p 0.040). Within this cohort, use of radiation therapy was also associated with improved disease-specific and overall survival. Conclusion: Postmastectomy radiation therapy provides a significant clinical benefit for breast cancer patients who present with clinical Stage III disease and achieve a pCR after neoadjuvant chemothearpy.

  6. Enhanced loading regimen of teicoplanin is necessary to achieve therapeutic pharmacokinetics levels for the improvement of clinical outcomes in patients with renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Takesue, Y; Nakajima, K; Ichiki, K; Doita, A; Wada, Y; Tsuchida, T; Takahashi, Y; Ishihara, M; Ikeuchi, H; Uchino, M; Kimura, T

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of teicoplanin according to the pharmacokinetics (PK) therapeutic level achieved in patients with renal dysfunction. Target trough concentration (Cmin) was ≥15-30 μg/ml which has been recommended in patients with normal renal function. Adult patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) who were treated by teicoplanin were included in the study. We adopted two types of regimen for the initial 3 days: the conventional regimen, and the enhanced loading regimen (10 mg/kg twice daily on the 1st day, followed by 6.7-10 mg/kg once daily for the 2nd and 3rd days]. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients were evaluated for safety, and 106 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections were evaluated for clinical efficacy. A significantly higher success rate was obtained in patients who achieved the target initial Cmin compared with those that did not (75.0 % vs 50.0 %, p = 0.008). In a multivariate analysis, initial Cmin ≥15 μg/ml was an independent factor for clinical success (adjusted odds ratio: 4.20, 95 % confidence interval: 1.34-13.15). In patients with 15-30 μg/ml of maximal Cmin during therapy, nephrotoxicity occurred in 13.1 %, and hepatotoxicity in 2.6 %, and these incidences were not significantly higher compared with those patients with <15 μg/ml. In conclusion, achievement of Cmin of 15-30 μg/ml without delay was necessary to improve clinical outcomes for the treatment by teicoplanin in patients with renal dysfunction. Further investigation is required regarding the optimal loading regimen to achieve the therapeutic levels in those patients. PMID:27278654

  7. Using optimal combination of teaching-learning methods (open book assignment and group tutorials) as revision exercises to improve learning outcome in low achievers in biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Suryapriya, R; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2016-07-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving the learning outcome. About 143 graduate medical students were classified into low (<50%: group 1, n = 23), medium (50-75%: group 2, n = 74), and high (>75%: group 3, n = 46) achievers, based on their internal assessment marks. After the regular teaching module on the topics "Vitamins and Enzymology", all the students attempted an open book assignment without peer consultation. Then all the students participated in group tutorials. The effects on the groups were evaluated by pre and posttests at the end of each phase, with the same set of MCQs. Gain from group tutorials and overall gain was significantly higher in the low achievers, compared to other groups. High and medium achievers obtained more gain from open book assignment, than group tutorials. The overall gain was significantly higher than the gain obtained from open book assignment or group tutorials, in all three groups. All the three groups retained the gain even after 1 week of the exercise. Hence, optimal use of novel T-L methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) as revision exercises help in strengthening concepts in Biochemistry in this oft neglected group of low achievers in graduate medical education. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):321-325, 2016. PMID:26891594

  8. Exploratory Analyses of the Long-Term Effects of Improving Behavior, Attendance, and Educational Achievement in Grades 1-6 and 8-12. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Richard; Gibson, Neal

    2012-01-01

    We studied relationships among background characteristics, behavioral infractions, punishments, attendance, and educational achievement, using longitudinal data of students in grades 1-6 and 8-12. We estimated how much hypothesized early improvements in educational achievement or sustained improvements in behavior and attendance might ultimately…

  9. Substantiation of International Nanomaterials Security Group Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnov, A.; Sadovnikov, S.; Panfilov, S.; Magarshak, Yu.

    Nanotechnology has achieved the status as one of the critical R&D area. Scientists use the unique properties of atomic and molecular assemblages built at the nanometer scale. The ability to manipulate the physical, chemical, and biological properties of molecules and particles affords to design agents with set up properties. But the technology allows creating not only useful agents. Possible accidental or deliberate creation of new nanoparticles (NPs) with dangerous properties is highly probable minor product of progress in the new area. The article briefly describes some pathways in development and implementation of NPs for medicinal and the similar purposes. Some of NPs can effective facilitate and mask transport of various agents in various environments. Possible creation of new dangerous NPs (e.g. conjugates based on combination of extensively use NPs and chemical, biological and radioactive agents) as well as creation of brand new NPs and nanodevices with unique properties needs creation of international multidiscipline community for security evaluation of nanomaterials and technologies. The community will forecast possible dangerous unexpectedness in the field of nanoscale materials and devices and suggests rational pathways for prevention of the threats.

  10. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  11. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  12. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  13. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  14. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  15. Intra-arrest Hypothermia: Both Cold Liquid Ventilation with Perfluorocarbons and Cold Intravenous Saline Rapidly Achieve Hypothermia, but Only Cold Liquid Ventilation Improves Resumption of Spontaneous Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Riter, Henry G.; Brooks, Leonard A.; Pretorius, Andrew M.; Ackermann, Laynez W.; Kerber, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Rapid intra-arrest induction of hypothermia using total liquid ventilation (TLV) with cold perfluorocarbons improves resuscitation outcome from ventricular fibrillation (VF). Cold saline intravenous infusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a simpler method of inducing hypothermia. We compared these 2 methods of rapid hypothermia induction for cardiac resuscitation. Methods Three groups of swine were studied: cold preoxygenated TLV (TLV, n=8), cold intravenous saline infusion (S, n=8), and control (C, n=8). VF was electrically induced. Beginning at 8 minutes of VF, TLV and S animals received 3 minutes of cold TLV or rapid cold saline infusion. After 11 minutes of VF, all groups received standard air ventilation and closed chest massage. Defibrillation was attempted after 3 minutes of CPR (14 minutes of VF). The end point was resumption of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Results Pulmonary arterial (PA) temperature decreased after 1 minute of CPR from 37.2°C to 32.2°C in S and from 37.1°C to 34.8°C in TLV (S or TLV vs. C p<0.0001). Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was higher in TLV than S animals during the initial 3 minutes of CPR. Arterial pO2 was higher in the preoxygenated TLV animals. ROSC was achieved in 7 of 8 TLV, 2 of 8 S, and 1 of 8 C (TLV vs. C, p=0.03). Conclusions Moderate hypothermia was achieved rapidly during VF and CPR using both cold saline infusion and cold TLV, but ROSC was higher than control only in cold TLV animals, probably due to better CPP and pO2. The method by which hypothermia is achieved influences ROSC. PMID:19249149

  16. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  3. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  5. The Cardiovascular Intervention Improvement Telemedicine Study (CITIES): Rationale for a Tailored Behavioral and Educational Pharmacist-Administered Intervention for Achieving Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zullig, Leah L.; Melnyk, S. Dee; Stechuchak, Karen M.; McCant, Felicia; Danus, Susanne; Oddone, Eugene; Bastian, Lori; Olsen, Maren; Edelman, David; Rakley, Susan; Morey, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are significant, but often preventable, contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Medication and behavioral nonadherence are significant barriers to successful hypertension, hyperlidemia, and diabetes management. Our objective was to describe the theoretical framework underlying a tailored behavioral and educational pharmacist-administered intervention for achieving CVD risk reduction. Materials and Methods: Adults with poorly controlled hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia were enrolled from three outpatient primary care clinics associated with the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Durham, NC). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a pharmacist-administered, tailored, 1-year telephone-based intervention or usual care. The goal of the study was to reduce the risk for CVD through a theory-driven intervention to increase medication adherence and improve health behaviors. Results: Enrollment began in November 2011 and is ongoing. The target sample size is 500 patients. Conclusions: The Cardiovascular Intervention Improvement Telemedicine Study (CITIES) intervention has been designed with a strong theoretical underpinning. The theoretical foundation and intervention are designed to encourage patients with multiple comorbidities and poorly controlled CVD risk factors to engage in home-based monitoring and tailored telephone-based interventions. Evidence suggests that clinical pharmacist-administered telephone-based interventions may be efficiently integrated into primary care for patients with poorly controlled CVD risk factors. PMID:24303930

  6. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  7. The Nature and Substantiation of Official Sexual Abuse Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckenrode, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 796 New York sexual abuse reports was studied to explore factors associated with substantiation of the reports following an investigation. Substantiation rates increased with the child's age, and reports were more likely to be substantiated when they involved female children or came from a mandated source. (Author/JDD)

  8. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  9. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing...

  10. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  11. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  12. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  13. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause substantial and grievous economic injury to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  14. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause substantial and grievous economic injury to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  15. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A State must come into substantial compliance... statutes, regulations, administrative procedures and practices, organizational structures, internal...

  16. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., organizational structures, internal control mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A...

  17. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., organizational structures, internal control mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A...

  18. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., organizational structures, internal control mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A...

  19. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., organizational structures, internal control mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A...

  20. The Constitution of the Human Embryo as Substantial Change.

    PubMed

    Alvargonzález, David

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzes the transformation from the human zygote to the implanted embryo under the prism of substantial change. After a brief introduction, it vindicates the Aristotelian ideas of substance and accident, and those of substantial and accidental change. It then claims that the transformation from the multicelled zygote to the implanted embryo amounts to a substantial change. Pushing further, it contends that this substantial change cannot be explained following patterns of genetic reductionism, emergence, and self-organization, and proposes Gustavo Bueno's idea of anamorphosis as a means to encapsulate criticism against such positions. PMID:26850033

  1. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  7. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Substantiality test. 1.528-4 Section 1.528-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Homeowners Associations § 1.528-4 Substantiality test. (a) In general. In...

  8. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  9. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  10. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  11. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  12. 20 CFR 627.477 - Governor's determination of substantial violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governor's determination of substantial... Standards § 627.477 Governor's determination of substantial violation. (a) Except as provided at paragraph (d) of this section, if, as a result of financial and compliance audits or otherwise, the...

  13. Differentiating between substantiated, suspected, and unsubstantiated maltreatment in Canada.

    PubMed

    Trocmé, Nico; Knoke, Della; Fallon, Barbara; MacLaurin, Bruce

    2009-02-01

    The decision to substantiate is a key factor in determining eligibility for services and decisions to press criminal charges or to remove a child, and it is frequently the basis for selecting samples of maltreated children or to measure recidivism or intervention effectiveness. Although there is a growing body of research on case substantiation in the United States, few studies have examined this decision in other jurisdictions. Using data from the 2003 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, this study examines the profiles of a national sample of 10,010 investigations. Multivariate analyses reveal that substantiation decisions are generally made in a fashion that is relatively consistent with the clinical characteristics of cases. Along with severity of harm, parent risk factors, and housing risk factors, police referrals are among the most important predictors of case substantiation. Cases involving multiple forms of maltreatment are also more likely to be substantiated. PMID:18710956

  14. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  15. Making Sense of the Links: Professional Development, Teacher Practices, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Marjorie R.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Although there is substantial evidence that high-quality professional development can improve teacher practices, less evidence exists for the effects of teacher professional development on intermediate outcomes, such as teacher practices, and their ultimate effects on K-12 student achievement. This work links professional…

  16. School Quality and Cognitive Achievement Production: A Case Study of Rural Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Jere R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines determinants of cognitive achievement in rural Pakistan, controlling for cognitive ability, family background, various school quality measures, and educational attainment. Estimates indicate substantial variation in school effectiveness. Investments that improve teacher quality and increase student exposure to teachers are likely to have…

  17. Raising Reading Achievement in an "At Risk", Low Socioeconomic, Multicultural Intermediate School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jo; Grimley, Michael; Greenwood, Janinka; Parkhill, Faye

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on a multicultural, low socioeconomic, intermediate school that over the 4 years of this longitudinal, qualitative, case study made substantial positive shifts in developing a more effective learning environment and improving students' reading achievement. The study found that the factors appearing to have the most influence…

  18. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  19. State Test Score Trends through 2008-09, Part 4: Is Achievement Improving and Are Gaps Narrowing for Title I Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; McMurrer, Jennifer; Silva, Malini R.

    2011-01-01

    Title I provides extra instructional services designed to raise achievement for low-performing students in schools with relatively high poverty rates, and for all students in many of the nation's highest-poverty schools. To learn more about how well Title I students are performing academically, the Center on Education Policy (CEP) compared…

  20. Does Self-Regulated Learning-Skills Training Improve High-School Students' Self-Regulation, Math Achievement, and Motivation While Using an Intelligent Tutor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrus, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This study empirically evaluated the effectiveness of the instructional design, learning tools, and role of the teacher in three versions of a semester-long, high-school remedial Algebra I course to determine what impact self-regulated learning skills and learning pattern training have on students' self-regulation, math achievement, and…

  1. Project LEAP: The Labor Education Achievement Program. A Program To Improve the Literacy Level and Productivity of the Workforce. Final Project Report. April 1, 1991-September 30, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Baltimore Council of AFL-CIO Unions, MD.

    Maryland's Labor Education Achievement Program (LEAP) worked with a wide diversity of union workers in multiple industries and within numerous private companies and public agencies over a dispersed geographic area. Staff development included a workshop for local coordinators and a teacher inservice training session. LEAP provided…

  2. An Augmented Reality-Based Mobile Learning System to Improve Students' Learning Achievements and Motivations in Natural Science Inquiry Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Tosti H. C.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an augmented reality-based mobile learning system is proposed for conducting inquiry-based learning activities. An experiment has been conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed approach in terms of learning achievements and motivations. The subjects were 57 fourth graders from two classes taught by the same teacher in…

  3. Using School Reform Models to Improve Reading Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Direct Instruction and Success for All in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Nunnery, John A.; Goldfeder, Elizabeth; McDonald, Aaron; Rachor, Robert; Hornbeck, Matthew; Fleischman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness in an urban school district of 2 of the most widely used Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) programs-Direct Instruction (DI), implemented in 9 district elementary schools, and Success for All (SFA), implemented in 2 elementary schools. In examining impacts on student achievement and school change outcomes…

  4. A Class Size Reduction (CSR) Implementation Plan Based on an Evaluative Study of CSRs for the Improvement of Third Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandyke, Barbara Adrienne

    2009-01-01

    For too long, educators have been left to their own devices when implementing educational policies, initiatives, strategies, and interventions, and they have longed to see the full benefits of these programs, especially in reading achievement. However, instead of determining whether a policy/initiative is working, educators have been asked to…

  5. The Daily Disciplines of Leadership: How To Improve Student Achievement, Staff Motivation, and Personal Organization. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    This guide is intended to be a practical primer to help education leaders meet the daily challenges of school leadership. It shows how to include leadership in an integrated system of educational accountability, teaching, and curriculum for student achievement; how to do away with ineffective, obsolete, and unnecessary practices; and how to…

  6. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  7. Use of Rasch Rating Scale Modeling to Develop and Validate a Measure of District-Level Characteristics and Practices Identified to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Paul J., III

    2012-01-01

    Increasing qualitative evidence in the literature supports specific characteristics and practices, presented from a distributed leadership perspective, to be prevalent in school districts that demonstrate significant increases in student achievement. Quantitative evidence linking these identified district-level characteristics and practices to…

  8. Examining School Improvement through the Lens of Principal and Teacher Flow of Influence in High-Achieving, High-Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murley, Lisa Downing; Keedy, John L.; Welsh, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the social exchange theory of Homans, Gouldner, and Malinowski, this sociocultural analysis of three elementary schools focused on principal-teacher and teacher-teacher exchanges of instructional influence. Two questions were asked: (a) In what ways, if any, do principals and teachers in high-achieving, high-poverty schools exchange…

  9. School Improvement in Petersburg: A Comprehensive Three-Year Study of the Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools Initiative Model IV Intervention. Final Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Joanna; Smith, Karen; Marr, Linda; Wyshynski, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Dr. Jo Lynne DeMary, Virginia's state superintendent of public instruction, requested that the Appalachia Educational Laboratory at Edvantia work in partnership with the Virginia Department of Education and Petersburg City Schools to design and test the Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools Initiative (PA+SS) Model IV Intervention. The goal…

  10. Is It Possible to Improve Mathematical Achievement by Means of Self-Regulation Strategies? Evaluation of an Intervention in Regular Math Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perels, Franziska; Dignath, Charlotte; Schmitz, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    After the effectiveness of self-regulation training outside school was demonstrated, a self-regulation intervention was developed to foster the learning achievement in regular math classes. Based on the theoretical framework of self-regulated learning, self-regulation training was integrated into a math class unit. The evaluation of the…

  11. 26 CFR 1.507-6 - Substantial contributor defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... taxable years. Status as a substantial contributor, however, will date from the time when the donor first... October 9, 1969, H (W's spouse at the time of the 1941 gift) is considered to have made such...

  12. 26 CFR 1.274-5 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantiation requirements. 1.274-5 Section 1.274-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.274-5 Substantiation requirements. (a)-(b) . For further guidance, see § 1.274-5T(a) and...

  13. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  14. Closing the Gap: A Report on the Wingspread Conference "Beyond the Standards Horse Race: Implementation, Assessment, and Accountability--the Keys to Improving Student Achievement" (Racine, Wisconsin, November 2-4, 1999). Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Terri, Ed.; Holmes, Madelyn, Ed.

    This report highlights results from the 1999 Wingspread Conference on improving student achievement, a gathering of educators, leaders, and policymakers that opened a dialogue about barriers to full implementation of high standards for all students. Participants discussed five papers that examined these issues from top to bottom--from the…

  15. Improving Student Achievement through Technology. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (March 15, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness, Committee on Education and the Workforce to met on Thursday, March 15, 2001 at 10:06 a.m., in Room 2175, Rayburn House Office Building, Hon. Howard P. "Buck" McKeon, Chairman of the Subcommittee presiding, to hear testimony on the use of technology to improve student achievement.Under Committee…

  16. Testimony of Dr. Willard Sakiestewa Gilbert, President National Indian Education Association before the Education and Labor Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education on Challenges Facing Bureau of Indian Education Schools in Improving Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Willard Sakiestewa

    2008-01-01

    In this testimony, Dr. Willard Sakiestewa Gilbert talks on behalf of the National Indian Education Association with regard to the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) and challenges facing BIE schools in improving student achievement. Founded in 1969, the National Indian Education Association (NIEA) is the largest organization in the nation dedicated…

  17. WWC Review of the Report "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For the 2014 study, "Closing the Social-Class Achievement Gap: A Difference-Education Intervention Improves First-Generation Students' Academic Performance and All Students' College Transition," researchers investigated the impact of attending a moderated panel on incoming freshmen's adjustment to college. The panel…

  18. Closing the Achievement Gap by Improving Reading Instruction. Hearing before the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (Orlando, Florida, November 13, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    A field hearing of the United States House of Representatives' Committee on Education and the Workforce, entitled "Closing the Achievement Gap by Improving Reading Instruction," was held at Lancaster Elementary School in Orlando, Florida, on November 13, 2001. The hearing begins with welcoming statements by the committee chairman and one of the…

  19. Improving the teaching and learning of science in a suburban junior high school on Long Island: Achieving parity through cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Eileen Perman

    The research in this dissertation focuses on ways to improve the teaching and learning of science in a suburban junior high school on Long Island, New York. The study is my attempt to find ways to achieve parity in my classroom in terms of success in science. I was specifically looking for ways to encourage Black female students in my classroom and in other classrooms to continue their science education into the upper grades. The participants were the 27 students in the class, a friend of one of the students, and I, as the teacher-researcher. In order to examine the ways in which structure mediates the social and historical contexts of experiences in relation to teacher and student practices in the classroom, I used collaborative research; autobiographical reflection; the sociology of emotions; immigration, racialization, and ethnicity, and cogenerative dialogues (cogens) as tools. Cogenerative dialogues are a way for students and teachers to accept shared responsibility for teaching and learning. This study is of importance because of my school's very diverse student body. The school has a large minority population and therefore shares many of the characteristics of urban schools. In my study I look at why there are so few Black female students in the advanced science courses offered by our district and how this problem can be addressed. I used a variety of qualitative approaches including critical ethnography and micro analysis to study the teaching and learning of science. In addition to the usual observational, methodological, and theoretical field notes, I videotaped and audiotaped lessons and had discussions with students and teachers, one-on-one and in groups. In the first year the cogenerative group consisted of two Black female students. In the second year of the study there were four Black and one White-Hispanic female students in the cogen group. In my research I studied the interactions of the students between lessons and during laboratory activities as

  20. Improving the teaching and learning of science in a suburban junior high school on Long Island: Achieving parity through cogenerative dialogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Eileen Perman

    The research in this dissertation focuses on ways to improve the teaching and learning of science in a suburban junior high school on Long Island, New York. The study is my attempt to find ways to achieve parity in my classroom in terms of success in science. I was specifically looking for ways to encourage Black female students in my classroom and in other classrooms to continue their science education into the upper grades. The participants were the 27 students in the class, a friend of one of the students, and I, as the teacher-researcher. In order to examine the ways in which structure mediates the social and historical contexts of experiences in relation to teacher and student practices in the classroom, I used collaborative research; autobiographical reflection; the sociology of emotions; immigration, racialization, and ethnicity, and cogenerative dialogues (cogens) as tools. Cogenerative dialogues are a way for students and teachers to accept shared responsibility for teaching and learning. This study is of importance because of my school's very diverse student body. The school has a large minority population and therefore shares many of the characteristics of urban schools. In my study I look at why there are so few Black female students in the advanced science courses offered by our district and how this problem can be addressed. I used a variety of qualitative approaches including critical ethnography and micro analysis to study the teaching and learning of science. In addition to the usual observational, methodological, and theoretical field notes, I videotaped and audiotaped lessons and had discussions with students and teachers, one-on-one and in groups. In the first year the cogenerative group consisted of two Black female students. In the second year of the study there were four Black and one White-Hispanic female students in the cogen group. In my research I studied the interactions of the students between lessons and during laboratory activities as

  1. Measuring Substantial Reduction in Functioning in Patients with CFS

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Brown, Molly; Evans, Meredyth; Anderson, Valerie; Lerch, Athena; Brown, Abigail; Hunnell, Jessica; Porter, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Purpose All of the major current case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) specify substantial reductions in previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities to meet criteria. Difficulties have been encountered in operationalizing “substantial reductions.” For example, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) has been used to determine whether individuals met the CFS disability criterion. However, previous methods of using the SF-36 have been prone to including people without substantial reductions in key areas of physical functioning when diagnosing CFS. This study sought to empirically identify the most appropriate SF-36 subscales for measuring substantial reductions in patients with CFS. Method The SF-36 was administered to two samples of patients with CFS: one recruited from tertiary care and the other a community-based sample; as well as a non-fatigued control group. Receiver operating characteristics were used to determine optimal cutoff scores for identifying patients with CFS. Results The SF-36 Role-Emotional subscale had the worst sensitivity and specificity, whereas the Vitality, Role-Physical, and Social Functioning subscales had the best sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Based on evidence from this study, potential criteria for defining substantial reductions in functioning and diagnosing CFS is provided. PMID:20617920

  2. Social-Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap.

    PubMed

    Becker, Bronwyn E; Luthar, Suniya S

    2002-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social-emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social-emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students' learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social-emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  3. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  4. Title III Accountability and District Improvement Efforts: A Closer Look. ESEA Evaluation Brief: The English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanenbaum, Courtney; Anderson, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    "Title III Accountability and District Improvement Efforts: A Closer Look" (2010) summarizes findings from interviews with six Title III Directors and nine Title III district-level directors in the spring of 2009. States and districts were selected in order to collect information from some entities with a long history of serving English Learners…

  5. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review of the Report "Exercise Improves Executive Function and Achievement and Alters Brain Activation in Overweight Children: A Randomized, Controlled Trial"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined whether exercise offered to sedentary, overweight children ages 7 to 11 improved executive function--defined as strategy execution when presented with a novel task--and academic performance in reading and math. The study authors analyzed data on about 170 students from Georgia who were recruited in five cohorts from 2003 to…

  6. Southern Education and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act: An Analysis of Historic Federal Funding to Improve the South's Low-Achieving Schools. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The new federal stimulus law, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), offers Southern states a historic opportunity to improve public education from pre-school through college especially for low income students. ARRA allocates over $100 billion directly to the 15 states of the South for creating jobs and spurring economic…

  7. The Rice coding algorithm achieves high-performance lossless and progressive image compression based on the improving of integer lifting scheme Rice coding algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Xie Cheng; Su, Yan; Wei, Zhang

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, a modified algorithm was introduced to improve Rice coding algorithm and researches of image compression with the CDF (2,2) wavelet lifting scheme was made. Our experiments show that the property of the lossless image compression is much better than Huffman, Zip, lossless JPEG, RAR, and a little better than (or equal to) the famous SPIHT. The lossless compression rate is improved about 60.4%, 45%, 26.2%, 16.7%, 0.4% on average. The speed of the encoder is faster about 11.8 times than the SPIHT's and its efficiency in time can be improved by 162%. The speed of the decoder is faster about 12.3 times than that of the SPIHT's and its efficiency in time can be rasied about 148%. This algorithm, instead of largest levels wavelet transform, has high coding efficiency when the wavelet transform levels is larger than 3. For the source model of distributions similar to the Laplacian, it can improve the efficiency of coding and realize the progressive transmit coding and decoding.

  8. Reducing Stereotype Threat in Classrooms: A Review of Social-Psychological Intervention Studies on Improving the Achievement of Black Students. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-076

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Joshua; Cohen, Geoffrey; McColskey, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Stereotype threat arises from a fear among members of a group of reinforcing negative stereotypes about the intellectual ability of the group. This report identifies three randomized controlled trial studies that use classroom-based strategies to reduce stereotype threat and improve the academic performance of Black students, narrowing their…

  9. Reducing Stereotype Threat in Classrooms: A Review of Social-Psychological Intervention Studies on Improving the Achievement of Black Students. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-076

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Joshua; Cohen, Geoffrey; McColskey, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Stereotype threat arises from a fear among members of a group of reinforcing negative stereotypes about the intellectual ability of the group. This report identifies three randomized controlled trial studies that use classroom-based strategies to reduce stereotype threat and improve the academic performance of Black students, narrowing their…

  10. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  11. Progress Made on a Plan To Integrate Planning, Budgeting, Assessment and Quality Principles To Achieve Institutional Improvement. First Year Report. AIR 1996 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Susan R.; And Others

    This paper describes first year implementation efforts of Southwest Texas (SWT) State University to develop a system to integrate planning, budgeting, assessment, and quality to improve the delivery of education and other services to all the institution's customers. The document addresses the common situation when an organization already has…

  12. The Effect of Improved School Climate over Time on Fifth-Grade Students' Achievement Assessment Scores and Teacher Administered Grade Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of improved school climate, as teachers' beliefs changed from negative to positive over time, on students' reading, math, and writing assessment scores and teacher administered grade scores in reading, math, and writing. Overall, findings indicate that lose, maintain, or improve…

  13. Implementation of the Peer-Led Team-Learning Instructional Model as a Stopgap Measure Improves Student Achievement for Students Opting Out of Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Julia J.; Carter, B. Elijah; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    In entry-level university courses in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, students participating in associated laboratory sessions generally do better than those who have no related lab classes. This is a problem when, for various reasons, not enough lab sections can be offered for students and/or when students opt out of optional available lab courses. Faced with such a situation, this study evaluated the efficacy of the peer-led team-learning (PLTL) instructional model as a potential method for narrowing the achievement gap among undergraduate students electing not to enroll in an optional laboratory component of an introductory biology course. In peer-led workshops, small groups of students participated in solving problems and other activities that encouraged active learning. Students led by peer leaders attained significantly higher exam and final course grades in introductory biology than comparable students not participating in PLTL. Among the introductory biology students who opted not to enroll in the optional lab course, those who participated in PLTL averaged more than a letter grade higher than those who did not. This difference was statistically significant, and the PLTL workshops almost entirely closed the achievement gap in lecture exam and final grades for students who did not take the lab. PMID:25673354

  14. Implementation of the peer-led team-learning instructional model as a stopgap measure improves student achievement for students opting out of laboratory.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Julia J; Carter, B Elijah; Wiles, Jason R

    2015-03-01

    In entry-level university courses in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, students participating in associated laboratory sessions generally do better than those who have no related lab classes. This is a problem when, for various reasons, not enough lab sections can be offered for students and/or when students opt out of optional available lab courses. Faced with such a situation, this study evaluated the efficacy of the peer-led team-learning (PLTL) instructional model as a potential method for narrowing the achievement gap among undergraduate students electing not to enroll in an optional laboratory component of an introductory biology course. In peer-led workshops, small groups of students participated in solving problems and other activities that encouraged active learning. Students led by peer leaders attained significantly higher exam and final course grades in introductory biology than comparable students not participating in PLTL. Among the introductory biology students who opted not to enroll in the optional lab course, those who participated in PLTL averaged more than a letter grade higher than those who did not. This difference was statistically significant, and the PLTL workshops almost entirely closed the achievement gap in lecture exam and final grades for students who did not take the lab. PMID:25673354

  15. Method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water

    DOEpatents

    Chapman-Irwin, Patricia; Feist, Thomas Paul

    2002-04-02

    A method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water is disclosed. The method includes providing a multilayer cell comprising two solid, non porous current collectors, separated by two porous electrodes with a separator between the two electrodes, sealing the cell with a reclosable hermetic closure. Water inside the closure is dissociated by an applied voltage to the cell and escapes in the form of hydrogen and oxygen when the closure is unmated, the closure is then mated to hermetically seal the cell which is substantially free of water.

  16. Improving temporal coherence to enhance gain and improve detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Ronald A.; Rice, Heath E.

    2008-04-01

    Temporal coherence is an important property of many acoustic signals. This paper discusses two fluctuation-based signal processors that improve the temporal coherence of phase and amplitude. Then they exploit the improved coherences to achieve substantial gains, such as, elimination of all noise to achieve exceptionally large "noise-free" automatic detections of temporally coherent signals. Both processors are discussed. One exploits phase fluctuations and the other one exploits amplitude fluctuations. The exploited parameters and signal processors are defined. Results are presented for automatic signal detection of a heavy treaded / tracked vehicle, a helicopter, a fast-boat in shallow coastal water, and a submerged source in the ocean.

  17. Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) With Improved Selectivity Achieved By Ion Pulse Compression Using In-Source Time-of-flight Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mishin, V. I.; Malinovsky, A. L.; Mishin, D. V.

    2009-03-17

    This paper describes for the first time the improved selectivity of the RILIS made possible by the time-of-flight (TOF) ion bunch compression. Brief description of the compression principles and some preliminary experimental results are presented. In the off-line experiments short ion peaks of natural Li, Na, K, Tm and Yb are observed as ions leave the RILIS-TOF structure. For Tm the ion peaks of 5 {mu}s half-height duration are detected and 1 {mu}s peaks for Sn are predicted. In view of the repetition rate of the ISOLDE-RILIS lasers it is hoped that the selectivity of Sn isotopes production may be improved as much as 100 employing the RILIS with the TOF ion bunch compression and a gating technique.

  18. Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.

    PubMed

    Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices. PMID:19685178

  19. 76 FR 38961 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... / Tuesday, July 5, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and... Substantial Equivalence Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to establish procedures...

  20. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a substantial owner. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for... does not exceed the limitation (as of the date the reportable event occurs) under section...

  1. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution to a substantial owner. 4043.27 Section 4043.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a...

  2. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a substantial owner. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for... does not exceed the limitation (as of the date the reportable event occurs) under section...

  3. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution to a substantial owner. 4043.27 Section 4043.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a...

  4. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a substantial owner. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for... does not exceed the limitation (as of the date the reportable event occurs) under section...

  5. 77 FR 35245 - Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... entitled ``Department Programs and Activities Excluded from Executive Order 12372,'' (50 FR 47034). However... October 14, 2011, (76 FR 63846), the agency requested comments regarding implementing the Substantially... Guarantees. The Catalog is available on the Internet at http://www.cfda.gov . Executive Order 12372...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  11. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substantial compliance with application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  12. 76 FR 737 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this proposed rule to establish procedures for requesting an exemption from the substantial equivalence requirements of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The proposed rule would describe the process and statutory criteria for requesting an exemption and explain how FDA would review requests for......

  13. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substantial compliance with application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  14. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substantial compliance with application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  15. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity. 7.105-2 Section 7.105-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... because of a physical or mental impairment accepts sheltered employment in a protected environment...

  16. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity. 7.105-2 Section 7.105-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... because of a physical or mental impairment accepts sheltered employment in a protected environment...

  17. Mistreatment in Assisted Living Facilities: Complaints, Substantiations, and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Linda R.; Guo, Guifang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Use archived public data from Arizona to explore relationships among selected institutional and resident risk and situation-specific factors and complaints and substantiated allegations of various types of mistreatment in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Design and Methods: An exploratory/descriptive 2-group design was…

  18. 29 CFR 4.12 - Substantial interest proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures set forth at 29 CFR part 6. (f) Referral to the Administrative Review Board. When the person or... accordance with the procedures set forth at 29 CFR part 8. ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Substantial interest proceedings. 4.12 Section 4.12...

  19. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  20. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  1. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  2. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  3. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  4. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substantial compliance with application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. Receta para el Exito. Una Guia Actualizada para Padres sobre el Mejoramiento de las Escuelas de Colorado y Logros Estudiantiles (Recipe for Success: An Updated Parents' Guide to Improving Colorado Schools and Student Achievement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taher, Bonnie; Durr, Pamela

    This Spanish language guide describes ways that parents can help improve student achievement and school quality. It answers such questions as: how to choose the right early-education opportunity for a preschooler; how to make sure a 5-year-old is ready for school; how to help a daughter do well in school; how to work with a daughter's or son's…

  6. In pursuit of high-value healthcare: the case for improving quality and achieving equity in a time of healthcare transformation.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and current efforts in payment reform signal the beginning of a significant transformation for the US healthcare system. As we embark on this transformation, disparities have emerged as the hallmark of low-value healthcare--care that does not meet quality standards, is inefficient, and is usually of high cost. A new set of structures is being developed to facilitate increased access to care that is cost-effective and high in quality--otherwise known as high-value healthcare. Addressing disparities and achieving equity are the perfect target areas for recouping value, and doing so will pave the way for high-value healthcare. As healthcare leaders make difficult choices, they should consider the realities of healthcare equity. First, racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare persist and are a clear sign of poor-quality, low-value healthcare. Second, the root causes of these disparities are complex, but a well-developed set of evidence-based approaches is available to help leaders address healthcare inequity. Third, evidence suggests that being inattentive to the root causes of disparities adversely affects efficiency and an organization's bottom line. Finally, if healthcare organizations are progressive, thoughtful, and prepared for success in such an environment, a new healthcare system that offers accessible, high-value, equitable, culturally competent, and high-quality care to all is well within reach. PMID:25291891

  7. Improved methods for achieving the equilibrium number of phases in mixtures suitable for use in battery electrodes e. g. , for lithiating FeS/sub 2/

    DOEpatents

    Guidotti, R.A.

    1986-06-10

    A method is disclosed for preparing lithiated, particulate FeS/sub 2/ useful as a catholyte material in a lithium thermal battery, whereby the latter's voltage regulation properties are improved. The method comprises admixing FeS/sub 2/ and an amount of a lithium-containing compound, whereby the resultant total composition falls in an invariant region of the metallurgical phase diagram of its constituent components. Said lithium-containing compound and FeS/sub 2/ are admixed together with a solid electrolyte compatible with said catholyte, and the mixture is heated at a temperature above the melting point of said electrolyte and at which said mixture reaches its thermodynamic equilibrium number of phases.

  8. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2011-01-13

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/ or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  9. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Boyer, B. D.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2010-11-24

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  10. Substantial Life Extension and the Fair Distribution of Healthspans.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging technologies. However, the practical and ethical drawbacks of banning receive little attention, and the viability of alternative policies is seldom considered. Moreover, where ethicists do propose alternatives, there is scant effort to consider their merits in light of developing world priorities. In response to these shortcomings, I distinguish four policy options and, on the basis of a plausible intuition about fairness, evaluate their implications for a fair distribution of healthy lifespans. I claim that even in developing nations it would be fairest to favor policies that promote equal access to at least one promising category of substantially life-extending intervention: calorie restriction mimetics. PMID:27465775

  11. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. PMID:25312387

  12. Automatic Filtering and Substantiation of Drug Safety Signals

    PubMed Central

    Bauer-Mehren, Anna; van Mullingen, Erik M.; Avillach, Paul; Carrascosa, María del Carmen; Garcia-Serna, Ricard; Piñero, Janet; Singh, Bharat; Lopes, Pedro; Oliveira, José L.; Diallo, Gayo; Ahlberg Helgee, Ernst; Boyer, Scott; Mestres, Jordi; Sanz, Ferran; Kors, Jan A.; Furlong, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    Drug safety issues pose serious health threats to the population and constitute a major cause of mortality worldwide. Due to the prominent implications to both public health and the pharmaceutical industry, it is of great importance to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which an adverse drug reaction can be potentially elicited. These mechanisms can be investigated by placing the pharmaco-epidemiologically detected adverse drug reaction in an information-rich context and by exploiting all currently available biomedical knowledge to substantiate it. We present a computational framework for the biological annotation of potential adverse drug reactions. First, the proposed framework investigates previous evidences on the drug-event association in the context of biomedical literature (signal filtering). Then, it seeks to provide a biological explanation (signal substantiation) by exploring mechanistic connections that might explain why a drug produces a specific adverse reaction. The mechanistic connections include the activity of the drug, related compounds and drug metabolites on protein targets, the association of protein targets to clinical events, and the annotation of proteins (both protein targets and proteins associated with clinical events) to biological pathways. Hence, the workflows for signal filtering and substantiation integrate modules for literature and database mining, in silico drug-target profiling, and analyses based on gene-disease networks and biological pathways. Application examples of these workflows carried out on selected cases of drug safety signals are discussed. The methodology and workflows presented offer a novel approach to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse drug reactions. PMID:22496632

  13. Improved continuity of reduced graphene oxide on polyester fabric by use of polypyrrole to achieve a highly electro-conductive and flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendjchi, Amirhosein; Khajavi, Ramin; Yousefi, Ali Akbar; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail

    2016-02-01

    A flexible and highly conductive fabric can be applied for wearable electronics and as a pliable counter electrode for photovoltaics. Methods such as surface coating of fabrics with conductive polymers and materials have been developed, but the roughness of fabric is a challenge because it creates discontinuity in the coated layer. The present study first coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric with reduced graphene oxide sheets; RGO and then filled the gaps with polypyrrole (PPy). The samples were first dipped in graphene oxide (GO) and then reduced to RGO. They were next coated with PPy by in situ polymerization. The results showed that the presence of oxidative agent during synthesis of PPy oxidized the RGO to some extent on the previously RGO-coated samples. PPy was more uniform on samples pre-coated with RGO in comparison those coated with raw PET. The RGO-PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values than samples coated only with PPy and RGO, respectively. There was no significant difference between the tenacity of samples but the bending rigidity of samples increased. The RGO-PPy coated fabric displayed properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric.

  14. Problems in Achieving a Quantitative Approach to Technologic Proliferation Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Wiborg, James C.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Zentner, Michael D.

    2001-07-06

    In spite of setbacks, substantial success has been achieved by the various nonproliferation efforts over the past 50 years. Because the pace of technology evolution remains high and the cost of entry to nuclear weapons technology is decreasing, improved approaches are critical if similar success is to be achieved over the next 20 years. Recent analyses have been published that provide a semi-quantitative assessment of proliferation risk, which can serve as the foundation for a meaningful quantitative approach to assessing proliferation risk. These methods represent an important step, but represent only one step in the work that must be achieved in the next few years. This paper presents perspectives on evaluating the merits of institutional arrangements and the role of design versus institutional features in proliferation prevention. It concludes by proposing methodology and quantitative approaches to be considered for evaluating proliferation-resistant measures in innovative reactor and fuel cycle technologies.

  15. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of funds withheld by the Department, in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR 30.13. ... Section 1355.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  16. Substantiating the need to apply a sociocultural lens to the preparation of teachers in an effort to achieve science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Mara

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative, sociocultural study examines how teacher preparation programs may have deliberate impact on science reform by unearthing the complex layers of diversity inherent in the contextual reality of education. This study was conducted in one of the largest school districts in the Southeastern United States, serving a predominately Hispanic population comprising 65 % of its student body, followed by African Americans at 24 %. The representative subjects utilized for this study were elementary education undergraduate students and later a percentage of the same subjects, as practicing teachers in the field. All subjects were exposed to inquiry based methodology in science teaching as part of their undergraduate studies with emphasis on the learning cycle, facilitation of student voice and exposure to the nature of science. The goal of science education was emphasized to students as purposeful in promoting scientific literacy. This study is framed by sociocultural theory grounded in a social constructivist paradigm with the understanding that science learning takes place within social and collaborative processes leading to internalization and greater sense of self-efficacy. The study examines the perception of education students' beliefs about scientists as well as reflections on their own learning of science as elementary students themselves. As present practicing teachers, perspectives from their position in the field were obtained via interviews. Interviews served to elicit reflections on present practice as related to previous perceptions, in order to analyze whether these were pervasive in framing practice as well as self-perceptions related to science. A lack of change of these perceptions may underscore the importance of an emphasis on issues of gender, culture and social factors within teacher preparation, specific to science teaching and learning. Cognizance of such factors are believed to support internalization and hence greater understanding of the complexities framing science teaching and learning, leading to an actual paradigm shift in our elementary science classrooms.

  17. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of 45 CFR 30.18. ... Section 1355.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  18. Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) to Achieve Inclusive and Sustainable Health Development: Three Essential Strategies Drawn From Asian Experience Comment on "Improving the World's Health Through the Post-2015 Development Agenda: Perspectives from Rwanda".

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Huang, Cheng; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    Binagwaho and colleagues' perspective piece provided a timely reflection on the experience of Rwanda in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and a proposal of 5 principles to carry forward in post-2015 health development. This commentary echoes their viewpoints and offers three lessons for health policy reforms consistent with these principles beyond 2015. Specifically, we argue that universal health coverage (UHC) is an integrated solution to advance the global health development agenda, and the three essential strategies drawn from Asian countries' health reforms toward UHC are: (1) Public financing support and sequencing health insurance expansion by first extending health insurance to the extremely poor, vulnerable, and marginalized population are critical for achieving UHC; (2) Improved quality of delivered care ensures supply-side readiness and effective coverage; (3) Strategic purchasing and results-based financing creates incentives and accountability for positive changes. These strategies were discussed and illustrated with experience from China and other Asian economies. PMID:26673477

  19. The School Improvement Grant Rollout in America's Great City Schools: School Improvement Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachlan-Hache, Jonathon; Naik, Manish; Casserly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The School Improvement Grant (SIG) program, initially enacted as part of the "No Child Left Behind" amendments to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, underwent a substantial transformation under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Under the new program, states identified 2,172 persistently low-achieving schools nationally…

  20. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  1. Compressed air system upgrade results in substantial energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights a compressed air system upgrade at BWX Technologies manufacturing plant in Lynchburg, Virginia, which replaced antiquated compressors and dryers and implemented an improved control strategy, resulting in improved energy efficiency and savings in energy and maintenance costs.

  2. RF Sputtering for preparing substantially pure amorphous silicon monohydride

    DOEpatents

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1982-10-12

    A process for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous silicon hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  3. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  4. Clozapine-induced dysphagia with secondary substantial weight loss.

    PubMed

    Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. PMID:27543610

  5. Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.

  6. Method and apparatus for a substantially coaxial injector element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Mark D. (Inventor); Miyata, Shinjiro (Inventor); Farhangi, Shahram (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A system to provide a two piece robust fluid injector. According to various embodiments, the fluid injector is a fuel injector for a combustion engine. The injector includes two coaxially formed annuluses. One annulus is formed in a face plate and the second annulus or hole is defined by a tube extending through the face plate. The tube extends through the face plate in a portion of a through bore which also is used to define the second annulus. The second annulus is formed using a throughbore through which the tube extends. This allows the second annulus to always be formed inherently and precisely substantially coaxial with the first annulus. Moreover, the second annulus can be formed with a much greater tolerance than if other independent components needed to be added.

  7. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  8. Improving the Achievement of Minority Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John A.

    1988-01-01

    In 1984, a Maryland elementary school publicized standardized test scores showing black students trailing white students by 25 points. Alarmed by this gap, a district task force found the root cause--negative attitudes about black students' potential--and launched an effective schools process in 171 schools. Two supporting programs are described.…

  9. Computer Networks Improve Student Achievement, School Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Using computer networking programs at two high schools as examples, this article describes what principals should know about networking. The many advantages of computer networking in schools will remain beneficial so long as the principal's objectives are met. Tips are provided for assessing the network. (eight references) (MLH)

  10. Dietary Measures to Improve Behavior and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Hugh W. S., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Reported are results of nutritional treatment (to correct deviant blood sugar curves) on the behavioral and academic performances of 260 children and young adults with wide ranges of learning and behavioral problems. (MC)

  11. Can Emphasising Cognitive Development Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K.; Gadzichowski, Marinka K.; Gallington, Deborah A.; Saracina, Robin P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children ordinarily begin their formal education at the age when the great majority of them are capable of understanding the role of addition and subtraction in changing number. In determining critical differences they can apply the oddity principle--the first "pure" abstraction that children ever develop--understanding that when all…

  12. Factors Influencing Improved Student Achievement in Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Patrick D.

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of the last decade, Congress passed and President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2002. Key provisions of this act focused on holding schools accountable to ensure that all students met state established standards. In Virginia, the state Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments form the basis of…

  13. Improved Reading Achievement: It's Union Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

    This booklet discusses the importance of all students being guaranteed a carefully crafted and appropriately balanced approach to reading instruction. Section 1, "Beginning Reading Instruction," discusses variation and inequity in reading instruction and reading skills nationwide. The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) has made it a priority to…

  14. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  15. Weighted mutual information analysis substantially improves domain-based functional network models

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jung Eun; Lee, Insuk

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Functional protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks elucidate molecular pathways underlying complex phenotypes, including those of human diseases. Extrapolation of domain–domain interactions (DDIs) from known PPIs is a major domain-based method for inferring functional PPI networks. However, the protein domain is a functional unit of the protein. Therefore, we should be able to effectively infer functional interactions between proteins based on the co-occurrence of domains. Results: Here, we present a method for inferring accurate functional PPIs based on the similarity of domain composition between proteins by weighted mutual information (MI) that assigned different weights to the domains based on their genome-wide frequencies. Weighted MI outperforms other domain-based network inference methods and is highly predictive for pathways as well as phenotypes. A genome-scale human functional network determined by our method reveals numerous communities that are significantly associated with known pathways and diseases. Domain-based functional networks may, therefore, have potential applications in mapping domain-to-pathway or domain-to-phenotype associations. Availability and Implementation: Source code for calculating weighted mutual information based on the domain profile matrix is available from www.netbiolab.org/w/WMI. Contact: Insuklee@yonsei.ac.kr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27207946

  16. Operational health information exchanges show substantial growth, but long-term funding remains a concern.

    PubMed

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Bates, David W; Jha, Ashish K

    2013-08-01

    Policy makers are actively promoting the electronic exchange of health information to improve the quality and efficiency of health care. We conducted a national survey of organizations facilitating health information exchange, to assess national progress. We found that 30 percent of hospitals and 10 percent of ambulatory practices now participate in one of the 119 operational health information exchange efforts across the United States, substantial growth from prior surveys. However, we also found that 74 percent of health information exchange efforts report struggling to develop a sustainable business model. Our findings suggest that despite progress, there is a substantial risk that many current efforts to promote health information exchange will fail when public funds supporting these initiatives are depleted. PMID:23840051

  17. Neutron star glitches have a substantial minimum size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, C. M.; Antonopoulou, D.; Stappers, B. W.; Watts, A.; Lyne, A. G.

    2014-05-01

    Glitches are sudden spin-up events that punctuate the steady spin-down of pulsars and are thought to be due to the presence of a superfluid component within neutron stars. The precise glitch mechanism and its trigger, however, remain unknown. The size of glitches is a key diagnostic for models of the underlying physics. While the largest glitches have long been taken into account by theoretical models, it has always been assumed that the minimum size lay below the detectability limit of the measurements. In this paper we define general glitch detectability limits and use them on 29 yr of daily observations of the Crab pulsar, carried out at Jodrell Bank Observatory. We find that all glitches lie well above the detectability limits and by using an automated method to search for small events we are able to uncover the full glitch size distribution, with no biases. Contrary to the prediction of most models, the distribution presents a rapid decrease of the number of glitches below ˜0.05 μHz. This substantial minimum size indicates that a glitch must involve the motion of at least several billion superfluid vortices and provides an extra observable which can greatly help the identification of the trigger mechanism. Our study also shows that glitches are clearly separated from all the other rotation irregularities. This supports the idea that the origin of glitches is different to that of timing noise, which comprises the unmodelled random fluctuations in the rotation rates of pulsars.

  18. Familial Influences on Recantation in Substantiated Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P; Rivard, Jillian R; Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A

    2016-08-01

    The underlying reasons for recantation in children's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been debated in recent years. In the present study, we examined the largest sample of substantiated CSA cases involving recantations to date (n = 58 cases). We specifically matched those cases to 58 nonrecanters on key variables found to predict recantation in prior research (i.e., child age, alleged parent figure perpetrator, and caregiver unsupportiveness). Bivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when they were (1) initially removed from home postdisclosure and (2) initially separated from siblings postdisclosure. Multivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed belief in the children's allegations and more likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed disbelief in the allegations and when visitations with the alleged perpetrator were recommended at their first hearing. Results have implications for understanding the complex ways in which social processes may motivate some children to retract previous reports of sexual abuse. PMID:27234520

  19. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    DOEpatents

    Bharacharya, Raghuthan; Parilla, Philip A.; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material.

  20. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    DOEpatents

    Bharacharya, R.; Parilla, P.A.; Blaugher, R.D.

    1995-12-19

    A process is disclosed for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material. 3 figs.

  1. Substantial proportion of global streamflow less than three months old

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, Scott; Kirchner, James W.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycles, contaminant transport and chemical weathering are regulated by the speed at which precipitation travels through landscapes and reaches streams. Streamflow is a mixture of young and old precipitation, but the global proportions of these young and old components are not known. Here we analyse seasonal cycles of oxygen isotope ratios in rain, snow and streamflow compiled from 254 watersheds around the world, and calculate the fraction of streamflow that is derived from precipitation that fell within the past two or three months. This young streamflow accounts for about a third of global river discharge, and comprises at least 5% of discharge in about 90% of the catchments we investigated. We conclude that, although typical catchments have mean transit times of years or even decades, they nonetheless can rapidly transmit substantial fractions of soluble contaminant inputs to streams. Young streamflow is less prevalent in steeper landscapes, which suggests they are characterized by deeper vertical infiltration. Because young streamflow is derived from less than 0.1% of global groundwater storage, we conclude that this thin veneer of aquifer storage will have a disproportionate influence on stream water quality.

  2. Substantial SNP-based heritability estimates for working memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, C; Gschwind, L; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Milnik, A; Egli, T; Heck, A; de Quervain, D J-F; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is an important endophenotype in neuropsychiatric research and its use in genetic association studies is thought to be a promising approach to increase our understanding of psychiatric disease. As for any genetically complex trait, demonstration of sufficient heritability within the specific study context is a prerequisite for conducting genetic studies of that trait. Recently developed methods allow estimating trait heritability using sets of common genetic markers from genome-wide association study (GWAS) data in samples of unrelated individuals. Here we present single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates (h2SNP) for a WM phenotype. A Caucasian sample comprising a total of N=2298 healthy and young individuals was subjected to an N-back WM task. We calculated the genetic relationship between all individuals on the basis of genome-wide SNP data and performed restricted maximum likelihood analyses for variance component estimation to derive the h2SNP estimates. Heritability estimates for three 2-back derived WM performance measures based on all autosomal chromosomes ranged between 31 and 41%, indicating a substantial SNP-based heritability for WM traits. These results indicate that common genetic factors account for a prominent part of the phenotypic variation in WM performance. Hence, the application of GWAS on WM phenotypes is a valid method to identify the molecular underpinnings of WM. PMID:25203169

  3. ''Substantial Margin of Safety'': A New Approach to HLW Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M. S.

    2002-02-28

    In the Spring of 2001, the National Research Council published ''Disposition of High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Continuing Societal and Technical Challenges.'' (1) While finding the technical case for deep geologic disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel robust, the report focused new attention on societal issues and decision-making. The report appeared against a backdrop of heightened controversy about the development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper identifies three principal reasons for the National Research Council committee's finding that ''Difficulties in achieving public support have been seriously underestimated in the past, and opportunities to gain public trust have been missed.''

  4. Challenges in achieving food security in India.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-12-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of "Halving hunger by 2015". Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: 'traditional concept' which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; 'socio-demographic concept' which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; 'politico-developmental concept' comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  5. Challenges in Achieving Food Security in India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, R Prakash; Palanivel, C

    2011-01-01

    First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of intersectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. If the Millennium Development Goal is to be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve food and nutrition security have to increase considerably. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. PMID:23113100

  6. Substantial Alterations of the Cutaneous Bacterial Biota in Psoriatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhan; Tseng, Chi-hong; Strober, Bruce E.; Pei, Zhiheng; Blaser, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    For psoriasis, an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the skin, the microbial biota has not been defined using cultivation-independent methods. We used broad-range 16S rDNA PCR for archaea and bacteria to examine the microbiota of normal and psoriatic skin. From 6 patients, 19 cutaneous samples (13 from diseased skin and 6 from normal skin) were obtained. Extracted DNA was subjected to the broad range PCR, and 1,925 cloned products were compared with 2,038 products previously reported from healthy persons. Using 98% sequence identity as a species boundary, 1,841 (95.6%) clones were similar to known bacterial 16S rDNA, representing 6 phyla, 86 genera, or 189 species-level operational taxonomic unit (SLOTU); 84 (4.4%) clones with <98% identity probably represented novel species. The most abundant and diverse phylum populating the psoriatic lesions was Firmicutes (46.2%), significantly (P<0.001) overrepresented, compared to the samples from uninvolved skin of the patients (39.0%) and healthy persons (24.4%). In contrast, Actinobacteria, the most prevalent and diverse phylum in normal skin samples from both healthy persons (47.6%) and the patients (47.8%), was significantly (P<0.01) underrepresented in the psoriatic lesion samples (37.3%). Representation of Propionibacterium species were lower in the psoriatic lesions (2.9±5.5%) than from normal persons (21.1±18.2%; P<0.001), whereas normal skin from the psoriatic patients showed intermediate levels (12.3±21.6%). We conclude that psoriasis is associated with substantial alteration in the composition and representation of the cutaneous bacterial biota. PMID:18648509

  7. Why cirrus cloud seeding cannot substantially cool the planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Blaž; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    The net warming effect of cirrus clouds has driven part of the geoengineering research toward the idea of decreasing their occurrence frequency by seeding them with efficient ice nucleating particles. We study responses of cirrus clouds to simplified global seeding strategies in terms of their radiative fluxes with the help of the ECHAM-HAM general circulation model. Our cirrus scheme takes into account the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, preexisting ice crystals, and the full spectrum of updraft velocities. While we find that the cirrus cloud radiative effect evaluated from our model is positive and large enough (5.7 W/m2) to confirm their geoengineering potential, none of the seeding strategies achieves a significant cooling due to complex microphysical mechanisms limiting their climatic responses. After globally uniform seeding is applied, we observe an increase in cirrus cloud cover, a decrease in ice crystal number concentration, and a decrease in ice crystal radius. An analysis of their respective radiative contributions points to the ice crystal radius decrease as the main factor limiting seeding effectiveness.

  8. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  9. Comparative RNA sequencing reveals substantial genetic variation in endangered primates

    PubMed Central

    Perry, George H.; Melsted, Páll; Marioni, John C.; Wang, Ying; Bainer, Russell; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Michelini, Katelyn; Zehr, Sarah; Yoder, Anne D.; Stephens, Matthew; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Gilad, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genomic studies in primates have yielded important insights into the evolutionary forces that shape genetic diversity and revealed the likely genetic basis for certain species-specific adaptations. To date, however, these studies have focused on only a small number of species. For the majority of nonhuman primates, including some of the most critically endangered, genome-level data are not yet available. In this study, we have taken the first steps toward addressing this gap by sequencing RNA from the livers of multiple individuals from each of 16 mammalian species, including humans and 11 nonhuman primates. Of the nonhuman primate species, five are lemurs and two are lorisoids, for which little or no genomic data were previously available. To analyze these data, we developed a method for de novo assembly and alignment of orthologous gene sequences across species. We assembled an average of 5721 gene sequences per species and characterized diversity and divergence of both gene sequences and gene expression levels. We identified patterns of variation that are consistent with the action of positive or directional selection, including an 18-fold enrichment of peroxisomal genes among genes whose regulation likely evolved under directional selection in the ancestral primate lineage. Importantly, we found no relationship between genetic diversity and endangered status, with the two most endangered species in our study, the black and white ruffed lemur and the Coquerel's sifaka, having the highest genetic diversity among all primates. Our observations imply that many endangered lemur populations still harbor considerable genetic variation. Timely efforts to conserve these species alongside their habitats have, therefore, strong potential to achieve long-term success. PMID:22207615

  10. Color filter array patterns for small-pixel image sensors with substantial cross talk.

    PubMed

    Anzagira, Leo; Fossum, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Digital image sensor outputs usually must be transformed to suit the human visual system. This color correction amplifies noise, thus reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the image. In subdiffraction-limit (SDL) pixels, where optical and carrier cross talk can be substantial, this problem can become significant when conventional color filter arrays (CFAs) such as the Bayer patterns (RGB and CMY) are used. We present the design and analysis of new color filter array patterns for improving the color error and SNR deterioration caused by cross talk in these SDL pixels. We demonstrate an improvement in the color reproduction accuracy and SNR in high cross-talk conditions. Finally, we investigate the trade-off between color accuracy and SNR for the different CFA patterns. PMID:26366487

  11. Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sivaraju, Adithya; Nussbaum, Ilisa; Cardoza, Candace S; Mattson, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG) and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients. PMID:26005637

  12. Exact alpha-error determination for two-stage sampling strategies to substantiate freedom from disease.

    PubMed

    Kopacka, I; Hofrichter, J; Fuchs, K

    2013-05-01

    Sampling strategies to substantiate freedom from disease are important when it comes to the trade of animals and animal products. When considering imperfect tests and finite populations, sample size calculation can, however, be a challenging task. The generalized hypergeometric formula developed by Cameron and Baldock (1998a) offers a framework that can elegantly be extended to multi-stage sampling strategies, which are widely used to account for disease clustering at herd-level. The achieved alpha-error of such surveys, however, typically depends on the realization of the sample and can differ from the pre-calculated value. In this paper, we introduce a new formula to evaluate the exact alpha-error induced by a specific sample. We further give a numerically viable approximation formula and analyze its properties using a data example of Brucella melitensis in the Austrian sheep population. PMID:23103193

  13. Substantiation of Reference Method For Determining Concrete's Freeze-Thaw Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolskiy, S.; Pertseva, O.

    2016-04-01

    It has been analytically proved that using concrete's rate of set e as a measure of damage, instead of decreasing of tensile strength R, increases freeze-thaw resistance's accuracy of estimation a lot under otherwise equal conditions by the time of freeze-thaw cycling. Also it has been experimentally shown that ratio of relative decreasing R to ε in direction, perpendicular to compression, is assumed to be independent on values R and ε for a given concrete and on the ways of achieving them during mechanical or freeze-thaw cycling. Taking this into account patented methods for estimation of concrete's freeze-thaw resistance as per values R and e received after freezing and thawing cycles of some specimens and their postliminary failure by linear compression was substantiated.

  14. Substantial creep in healing human Achilles tendons. A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Aspenberg, Per; Schepull, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background healing after rupture of the Achilles tendon can be described in terms of mechanical properties of the new-formed tissue, constituting the tendon callus. In previous human studies, the elastic modulus and the density remained almost constant during 3 months after mobilization started, and then improved up to one year. So far, time-dependent deformation of the healing human tendon has not been reported. Methods in a series of 16 patients, operated with Achilles tendon suture, we implanted tantalum beads into the tendon and measured the distance between them repeatedly during 3 min of constant loading, using an ordinary image intensifier. The patients unloaded their leg for 30 min before the test. To avoid bias, all images were investigated in a randomized and blinded order. Results total strain during 3 min of constant loading at 7 weeks post injury amounted to 5%, and at 19 weeks to 3%. About half of the strain, after the loading was applied, occurred during the second and third min. Considerable strain also occurred just before loading, when the patient was told that a load would be applied, but before this was actually done. Conclusion the measurements were crude, and this study should be seen as a pilot. Still, visco-elastic properties seem to dominate the mechanical behavior the healing Achilles tendon from start of mobilization to 19 weeks, at least when tested after 30 min rest. This deserves further studies with more precise methods. PMID:26605187

  15. Achieving Extreme Utilization of Excitons by an Efficient Sandwich-Type Emissive Layer Architecture for Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off and Improved Operational Stability in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongbin; Sun, Ning; Zhu, Liping; Sun, Hengda; Wang, Jiaxiu; Yang, Dezhi; Qiao, Xianfeng; Chen, Jiangshan; Alshehri, Saad M; Ahamad, Tansir; Ma, Dongge

    2016-02-10

    It has been demonstrated that the efficiency roll-off is generally caused by the accumulation of excitons or charge carriers, which is intimately related to the emissive layer (EML) architecture in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this article, an efficient sandwich-type EML structure with a mixed-host EML sandwiched between two single-host EMLs was designed to eliminate this accumulation, thus simultaneously achieving high efficiency, low efficiency roll-off and good operational stability in the resulting OLEDs. The devices show excellent electroluminescence performances, realizing a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 24.6% with a maximum power efficiency of 105.6 lm W(-1) and a maximum current efficiency of 93.5 cd A(-1). At the high brightness of 5,000 cd m(-2), they still remain as high as 23.3%, 71.1 lm W(-1), and 88.3 cd A(-1), respectively. And, the device lifetime is up to 2000 h at initial luminance of 1000 cd m(-2), which is significantly higher than that of compared devices with conventional EML structures. The improvement mechanism is systematically studied by the dependence of the exciton distribution in EML and the exciton quenching processes. It can be seen that the utilization of the efficient sandwich-type EML broadens the recombination zone width, thus greatly reducing the exciton quenching and increasing the probability of the exciton recombination. It is believed that the design concept provides a new avenue for us to achieve high-performance OLEDs. PMID:26828128

  16. 26 CFR 1.6662-5T - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial and gross valuation misstatements... Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-5T Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter... related to section 482—(i) Substantial valuation misstatement. There is a substantial...

  17. The Ohio Vocational Education Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Instructional Materials Lab.

    The Ohio Vocational Achievement Tests are specially designed instruments for use by teachers, supervisors, and administrators to evaluate and diagnose vocational achievement for improving instruction in secondary vocational programs at the 11th and 12th grade levels. This guide explains the Ohio Vocational Achievement Tests and how they are used.…

  18. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  19. Health and Nutrition: Preconditions for Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    This paper discusses the importance of maternal and infant health for children's educational achievement. Education, health, and nutrition are so closely related that changes in one causes changes in the others. Improvement of maternal and preschooler health and nutrition is a precondition for improved educational achievement. Although parental…

  20. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  1. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  2. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  3. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  4. Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Barbe MA; van Zundert, André AJ

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS) in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer's dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer's room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient. PMID:27212719

  5. A novel Compton camera design featuring a rear-panel shield for substantial noise reduction in gamma-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Fujita, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Taya, T.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Sakurai, N.; Adachi, S.; Uchiyama, T.

    2014-12-01

    After the Japanese nuclear disaster in 2011, large amounts of radioactive isotopes were released and still remain a serious problem in Japan. Consequently, various gamma cameras are being developed to help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation. The Compton camera utilizes the kinematics of Compton scattering to contract images without using a mechanical collimator, and features a wide field of view. For instance, we have developed a novel Compton camera that features a small size (13 × 14 × 15 cm3) and light weight (1.9 kg), but which also achieves high sensitivity thanks to Ce:GAGG scintillators optically coupled wiith MPPC arrays. By definition, in such a Compton camera, gamma rays are expected to scatter in the ``scatterer'' and then be fully absorbed in the ``absorber'' (in what is called a forward-scattered event). However, high energy gamma rays often interact with the detector in the opposite direction - initially scattered in the absorber and then absorbed in the scatterer - in what is called a ``back-scattered'' event. Any contamination of such back-scattered events is known to substantially degrade the quality of gamma-ray images, but determining the order of gamma-ray interaction based solely on energy deposits in the scatterer and absorber is quite difficult. For this reason, we propose a novel yet simple Compton camera design that includes a rear-panel shield (a few mm thick) consisting of W or Pb located just behind the scatterer. Since the energy of scattered gamma rays in back-scattered events is much lower than that in forward-scattered events, we can effectively discriminate and reduce back-scattered events to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the images. This paper presents our detailed optimization of the rear-panel shield using Geant4 simulation, and describes a demonstration test using our Compton camera.

  6. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Uluisik, Selman; Chapman, Natalie H; Smith, Rebecca; Poole, Mervin; Adams, Gary; Gillis, Richard B; Besong, Tabot M D; Sheldon, Judith; Stiegelmeyer, Suzy; Perez, Laura; Samsulrizal, Nurul; Wang, Duoduo; Fisk, Ian D; Yang, Ni; Baxter, Charles; Rickett, Daniel; Fray, Rupert; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Powell, Ann L T; Harding, Stephen E; Craigon, Jim; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Fich, Eric A; Sun, Li; Domozych, David S; Fraser, Paul D; Tucker, Gregory A; Grierson, Don; Seymour, Graham B

    2016-09-01

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain 'non-ripening mutations' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. PMID:27454737

  7. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  8. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 842... early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or... budgetary situation that will result in an excess of personnel because of a substantial...

  9. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 831...-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce... situation that will result in an excess of personnel because of a substantial delayering,...

  10. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 842... early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or... budgetary situation that will result in an excess of personnel because of a substantial...

  11. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 842... early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or... budgetary situation that will result in an excess of personnel because of a substantial...

  12. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 831...-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce... situation that will result in an excess of personnel because of a substantial delayering,...

  13. 24 CFR 115.201 - The two phases of substantial equivalency certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The two phases of substantial... ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.201 The two phases of.... The Department has developed a two-phase process of substantial equivalency certification....

  14. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E (section 671...

  15. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  16. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  17. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  18. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  19. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determining substantial financial risk and majority... Provider-Sponsored Organizations § 422.356 Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (a) Determining substantial financial risk. The PSO must demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction...

  20. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  1. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  2. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  3. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  4. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  5. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  19. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  20. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…