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Sample records for achieve substantial reductions

  1. Measuring Substantial Reduction in Functioning in Patients with CFS

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Brown, Molly; Evans, Meredyth; Anderson, Valerie; Lerch, Athena; Brown, Abigail; Hunnell, Jessica; Porter, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Purpose All of the major current case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) specify substantial reductions in previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities to meet criteria. Difficulties have been encountered in operationalizing “substantial reductions.” For example, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) has been used to determine whether individuals met the CFS disability criterion. However, previous methods of using the SF-36 have been prone to including people without substantial reductions in key areas of physical functioning when diagnosing CFS. This study sought to empirically identify the most appropriate SF-36 subscales for measuring substantial reductions in patients with CFS. Method The SF-36 was administered to two samples of patients with CFS: one recruited from tertiary care and the other a community-based sample; as well as a non-fatigued control group. Receiver operating characteristics were used to determine optimal cutoff scores for identifying patients with CFS. Results The SF-36 Role-Emotional subscale had the worst sensitivity and specificity, whereas the Vitality, Role-Physical, and Social Functioning subscales had the best sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Based on evidence from this study, potential criteria for defining substantial reductions in functioning and diagnosing CFS is provided. PMID:20617920

  2. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 842... early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or... budgetary situation that will result in an excess of personnel because of a substantial...

  3. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 831...-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce... situation that will result in an excess of personnel because of a substantial delayering,...

  4. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 842... early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or... budgetary situation that will result in an excess of personnel because of a substantial...

  5. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 842... early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or... budgetary situation that will result in an excess of personnel because of a substantial...

  6. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 831...-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce... situation that will result in an excess of personnel because of a substantial delayering,...

  7. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 842... early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or..., reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring or...

  8. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring. 831...-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce..., reduction in force, transfer of function, or other workforce restructuring or reshaping, consistent...

  9. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  10. The Dutch Gender Gap in Mathematics: Small for Achievement, Substantial for Beliefs and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meelissen, Martina; Luyten, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In general, studies on gender and mathematics show that the advantage held by boys over girls in mathematics achievement has diminished markedly over the last 40 years. Some researchers even argue that gender differences in mathematics achievement are no longer a relevant issue. However, the results of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study…

  11. Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sivaraju, Adithya; Nussbaum, Ilisa; Cardoza, Candace S; Mattson, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG) and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients. PMID:26005637

  12. Substantial Humic Acid Adsorption to Activated Carbon Air Cathodes Produces a Small Reduction in Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wulin; Watson, Valerie J; Logan, Bruce E

    2016-08-16

    Long-term operation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can result in substantial degradation of activated carbon (AC) air-cathode performance. To examine a possible role in fouling from organic matter in water, cathodes were exposed to high concentrations of humic acids (HA). Cathodes treated with 100 mg L(-1) HA exhibited no significant change in performance. Exposure to 1000 mg L(-1) HA decreased the maximum power density by 14% (from 1310 ± 30 mW m(-2) to 1130 ± 30 mW m(-2)). Pore blocking was the main mechanism as the total surface area of the AC decreased by 12%. Minimization of external mass transfer resistances using a rotating disk electrode exhibited only a 5% reduction in current, indicating about half the impact of HA adsorption was associated with external mass transfer resistance and the remainder was due to internal resistances. Rinsing the cathodes with deionized water did not restore cathode performance. These results demonstrated that HA could contribute to cathode fouling, but the extent of power reduction was relatively small in comparison to large mass of humics adsorbed. Other factors, such as biopolymer attachment, or salt precipitation, are therefore likely more important contributors to long-term fouling of MFC cathodes. PMID:27414751

  13. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to successfully complete a program improvement plan. 1355.36 Section 1355.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  14. Substantial reduction of critical current for magnetization switching in an exchange-biased spin valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Nozaki, T.; Abe, S.; Ochiai, T.; Hirohata, A.; Tezuka, N.; Inomata, K.

    2004-06-01

    Great interest in current-induced magnetic excitation and switching in a magnetic nanopillar has been caused by the theoretical predictions of these phenomena. The concept of using a spin-polarized current to switch the magnetization orientation of a magnetic layer provides a possible way to realize future 'current-driven' devices: in such devices, direct switching of the magnetic memory bits would be produced by a local current application, instead of by a magnetic field generated by attached wires. Until now, all the reported work on current-induced magnetization switching has been concentrated on a simple ferromagnet/Cu/ferromagnet trilayer. Here we report the observation of current-induced magnetization switching in exchange-biased spin valves (ESPVs) at room temperature. The ESPVs clearly show current-induced magnetization switching behaviour under a sweeping direct current with a very high density. We show that insertion of a ruthenium layer between an ESPV nanopillar and the top electrode effectively decreases the critical current density from about 108 to 107 A cm-2. In a well-designed 'antisymmetric' ESPV structure, this critical current density can be further reduced to 2 × 106 A cm-2. We believe that the substantial reduction of critical current could make it possible for current-induced magnetization switching to be directly applied in spintronic devices, such as magnetic random-access memory.

  15. Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Demas, James N.; Jones, Wesley M.; Keller, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequenices. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may reduced to tis unquenched value.

  16. Method for the substantial reduction of quenching effects in luminescence spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Demas, J.N.; Jones, W.M.; Keller, R.A.

    1987-06-26

    Method for reducing quenching effects in analytical luminescence measurements. Two embodiments of the present invention are described which relate to a form of time resolution based on the amplitudes and phase shifts of modulated emission signals. In the first embodiment, the measured modulated emission signal is substantially independent of sample quenching at sufficiently high frequencies. In the second embodiment, the modulated amplitude and the phase shift between the emission signal and the excitation source are simultaneously measured. Using either method, the observed modulated amplitude may be reduced to its unquenched value. 3 figs.

  17. Substantial Reduction of Parenchymal Cerebral Blood Flow in Mice with Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yorito; Enmi, Jun-Ichiro; Iguchi, Satoshi; Saito, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yumi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) mouse model, which replicates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and white matter ischemic lesions, is considered to model some aspects of vascular cognitive impairment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the brain surface post-BCAS have been demonstrated by laser speckle flowmetry, but CBF levels in the brain parenchyma remain unknown. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were subjected to BCAS using external microcoils. Brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was conducted to visualize the intracranial main arteries while arterial spin labeling (ASL) was used to measure cortical and subcortical parenchymal CBF levels before and after BCAS. Brain MRA showed anterior circulation flow was substantially decreased until 14 days post-BCAS, which gradually but incompletely recovered over the following 14 days, with probable growth of collaterals from the posterior cerebral artery. ASL showed that cortical and subcortical parenchymal CBF remained decreased at approximately 50% of the baseline level during 1 and 14 days post-BCAS, recovering to approximately 70% at day 28. CBF levels in the parenchyma were lower than the cortical superficial region in the BCAS model and remained decreased without recovery during the first 2 weeks post-BCAS. These results suggest that the BCAS model reliably replicates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. PMID:27535801

  18. Substantial Reduction of Parenchymal Cerebral Blood Flow in Mice with Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Yorito; Enmi, Jun-ichiro; Iguchi, Satoshi; Saito, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yumi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) mouse model, which replicates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and white matter ischemic lesions, is considered to model some aspects of vascular cognitive impairment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the brain surface post-BCAS have been demonstrated by laser speckle flowmetry, but CBF levels in the brain parenchyma remain unknown. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were subjected to BCAS using external microcoils. Brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was conducted to visualize the intracranial main arteries while arterial spin labeling (ASL) was used to measure cortical and subcortical parenchymal CBF levels before and after BCAS. Brain MRA showed anterior circulation flow was substantially decreased until 14 days post-BCAS, which gradually but incompletely recovered over the following 14 days, with probable growth of collaterals from the posterior cerebral artery. ASL showed that cortical and subcortical parenchymal CBF remained decreased at approximately 50% of the baseline level during 1 and 14 days post-BCAS, recovering to approximately 70% at day 28. CBF levels in the parenchyma were lower than the cortical superficial region in the BCAS model and remained decreased without recovery during the first 2 weeks post-BCAS. These results suggest that the BCAS model reliably replicates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. PMID:27535801

  19. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-07-02

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.

  20. Palladium-platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-07-01

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. These results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.

  1. Palladium-platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A; Mavrikakis, Manos; Xia, Younan

    2015-01-01

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can be attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. These results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability. PMID:26133469

  2. Can fisheries management make substantial progress towards further reductions in sport fish PCB concentrations?

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Great Lakes managers continue to be concerned by PCB concentrations in Great Lakes sport fish. A reduction in sport fish consumption advisory levels would heighten public concern and increase pressure on managers to reduce contaminant levels in sport fish. PCB concentrations in Great Lakes sediments remain high and exchange with the water column is significant. Atmospheric inputs help maintain PCB availability in the Great Lakes. However, it is not technically feasible to control sediment and atmospheric inputs. Here the author uses a detailed age-structured simulation model of chinook salmon, alewife and rainbow smelt to examine the potential for fish management actions to make progress towards reducing PCB concentrations of sport fish consumed by humans. Chinook salmon PCB concentrations were found to be more affected by prey PCB concentrations than chinook salmon growth rates. Salmonid predators selectively attack the largest prey, but these prey are likely the oldest and most contaminated. The interaction between size selective predation by chinook salmon and their growth rates suggests that there is an ideal stocking level of sport fish that should keep the average prey fish small, and therefore have relatively low PCE concentrations, but not reduce the age structure of the alewife population to include few reproductive individuals. These results are applicable to other stocked salmonids too, (e.g., lake trout, brown trout, coho salmon, steelhead) because they also exhibit size selective predation and their recruitment is primarily by stocking.

  3. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; et al

    2015-07-02

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can bemore » attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.« less

  4. Greenidge multi-pollutant project achieves emissions reduction goals

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Performance testing at the Greenridge Multi-Pollutant Project has met or exceeded project goals, indicating that deep emission reduciton sin small, difficult-to-retrofit power plants can be achieved. The technology fitted at the 107 MWe AES Greenridge Unit 4 includes a hybrid selective non-catalytic reduction/selective catalytic reduction system for NOx control (NOxOUT CASCADE) and a Turbosorp circulating fluidized bed dry scrubber system for SO{sub 2}, mercury, SO{sub 3} HC and Hf control. 2 figs.

  5. A novel Compton camera design featuring a rear-panel shield for substantial noise reduction in gamma-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kishimoto, A.; Fujita, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Taya, T.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Sakurai, N.; Adachi, S.; Uchiyama, T.

    2014-12-01

    After the Japanese nuclear disaster in 2011, large amounts of radioactive isotopes were released and still remain a serious problem in Japan. Consequently, various gamma cameras are being developed to help identify radiation hotspots and ensure effective decontamination operation. The Compton camera utilizes the kinematics of Compton scattering to contract images without using a mechanical collimator, and features a wide field of view. For instance, we have developed a novel Compton camera that features a small size (13 × 14 × 15 cm3) and light weight (1.9 kg), but which also achieves high sensitivity thanks to Ce:GAGG scintillators optically coupled wiith MPPC arrays. By definition, in such a Compton camera, gamma rays are expected to scatter in the ``scatterer'' and then be fully absorbed in the ``absorber'' (in what is called a forward-scattered event). However, high energy gamma rays often interact with the detector in the opposite direction - initially scattered in the absorber and then absorbed in the scatterer - in what is called a ``back-scattered'' event. Any contamination of such back-scattered events is known to substantially degrade the quality of gamma-ray images, but determining the order of gamma-ray interaction based solely on energy deposits in the scatterer and absorber is quite difficult. For this reason, we propose a novel yet simple Compton camera design that includes a rear-panel shield (a few mm thick) consisting of W or Pb located just behind the scatterer. Since the energy of scattered gamma rays in back-scattered events is much lower than that in forward-scattered events, we can effectively discriminate and reduce back-scattered events to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the images. This paper presents our detailed optimization of the rear-panel shield using Geant4 simulation, and describes a demonstration test using our Compton camera.

  6. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  7. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  8. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  9. 48 CFR 970.5232-1 - Reduction or suspension of advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... advance, partial, or progress payments upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. 970.5232-1 Section... upon finding of substantial evidence of fraud. As prescribed in 970.3200-1-1, insert the following... Contractor's request for advance, partial, or progress payment is based on fraud. (b) The Contractor shall...

  10. Vouchers, Class Size Reduction, and Student Achievement: Considering the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    Proponents of private school vouchers argue that vouchers empower poor families and raise the academic achievement of poor children. They also argue that vouchers may improve achievement by forcing the public schools to compete in an education marketplace in which poor parents hold the power of the purse. Juxtaposed against this issue of vouchers…

  11. Achieving high data reduction with integral cubic B-splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.

    1993-01-01

    During geometry processing, tangent directions at the data points are frequently readily available from the computation process that generates the points. It is desirable to utilize this information to improve the accuracy of curve fitting and to improve data reduction. This paper presents a curve fitting method which utilizes both position and tangent direction data. This method produces G(exp 1) non-rational B-spline curves. From the examples, the method demonstrates very good data reduction rates while maintaining high accuracy in both position and tangent direction.

  12. Performance evaluation of iterative reconstruction algorithms for achieving CT radiation dose reduction - a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Cristina T; Tamm, Eric P; Cody, Dianna D; Liu, Xinming; Jensen, Corey T; Wei, Wei; Kundra, Vikas; Rong, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize image quality and dose performance with GE CT iterative reconstruction techniques, adaptive statistical iterative recon-struction (ASiR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), over a range of typical to low-dose intervals using the Catphan 600 and the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantoms. The scope of the project was to quantitatively describe the advantages and limitations of these approaches. The Catphan 600 phantom, supplemented with a fat-equivalent oval ring, was scanned using a GE Discovery HD750 scanner at 120 kVp, 0.8 s rotation time, and pitch factors of 0.516, 0.984, and 1.375. The mA was selected for each pitch factor to achieve CTDIvol values of 24, 18, 12, 6, 3, 2, and 1 mGy. Images were reconstructed at 2.5 mm thickness with filtered back-projection (FBP); 20%, 40%, and 70% ASiR; and MBIR. The potential for dose reduction and low-contrast detectability were evaluated from noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements in the CTP 404 module of the Catphan. Hounsfield units (HUs) of several materials were evaluated from the cylinder inserts in the CTP 404 module, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated from the air insert. The results were con-firmed in the anthropomorphic Kyoto Kagaku abdomen phantom at 6, 3, 2, and 1mGy. MBIR reduced noise levels five-fold and increased CNR by a factor of five compared to FBP below 6mGy CTDIvol, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. Compared to ASiR and FBP, HU in images reconstructed with MBIR were consistently lower, and this discrepancy was reversed by higher pitch factors in some materials. MBIR improved the conspicuity of the high-contrast spatial resolution bar pattern, and MTF quantification confirmed the superior spatial resolution performance of MBIR versus FBP and ASiR at higher dose levels. While ASiR and FBP were relatively insensitive to changes in dose and pitch, the spatial resolution for MBIR

  13. Friction drag reduction achievable by near-wall turbulence manipulation in spatially developing boundary-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannier, Amaury; Garnier, Eric; Sagaut, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Various control strategies, such as active feedback control or riblets, end up restraining near-wall turbulence. An analytical study is conducted to estimate the drag-reduction achievable by such control in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary-layers. Based on an idealized control which damps all fluctuations within a near-wall layer, a composite flow profile is established. It leads to explicit models for both the drag-reduction and the boundary-layer development rate. A skin-friction decomposition is applied and gives physical insights on the underlying phenomena. The control is found to alter the spatial development of the boundary-layer, resulting in detrimental impact on the skin-friction. However, the drag-reducing mechanism, attributed to the turbulence weakening, is found predominant and massive drag reductions remain achievable at high Reynolds number, although a minute part of the boundary-layer is manipulated. The model is finally assessed against Large Eddy Simulations of riblet-controlled flow.

  14. Substantial evidence of effect.

    PubMed

    Gould, A Lawrence

    2002-02-01

    findings are illustrated in the recent experience with the alpha- and beta-blocker carvedilol, where there was a significant reduction in mortality among patients on carvedilol relative to placebo, but a treatment effect could not be demonstrated for the primary outcome. Experience with trials of thrombolytic agents illustrates alternative strategies for demonstrating substantial evidence of effect. Finally, meta-analyses can contribute to the substantial evidence by synthesizing the findings from separate trials to provide a perspective on drug performance in a heterogeneous population of patients that no single trial could provide. PMID:12146720

  15. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    SciTech Connect

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase in the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.

  16. Achieving CO2 reductions in Colombia: Effects of carbon taxes and abatement targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Calderón, Silvia; Alvarez, Andres Camilo; Loboguerrero, Ana Maria; Arango, Santiago; Calvin, Katherine; Kober, Tom; Daenzer, Kathryn; Fisher-Vanden, Karen

    2015-06-03

    In this paper we investigate CO2 emission scenarios for Colombia and the effects of implementing carbon taxes and abatement targets on the energy system. By comparing baseline and policy scenario results from two integrated assessment partial equilibrium models TIAM-ECN and GCAM and two general equilibrium models Phoenix and MEG4C, we provide an indication of future developments and dynamics in the Colombian energy system. Currently, the carbon intensity of the energy system in Colombia is low compared to other countries in Latin America. However, this trend may change given the projected rapid growth of the economy and the potential increase inmore » the use of carbon-based technologies. Climate policy in Colombia is under development and has yet to consider economic instruments such as taxes and abatement targets. This paper shows how taxes or abatement targets can achieve significant CO2 reductions in Colombia. Though abatement may be achieved through different pathways, taxes and targets promote the entry of cleaner energy sources into the market and reduce final energy demand through energy efficiency improvements and other demand-side responses. The electric power sector plays an important role in achieving CO2 emission reductions in Colombia, through the increase of hydropower, the introduction of wind technologies, and the deployment of biomass, coal and natural gas with CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Uncertainty over the prevailing mitigation pathway reinforces the importance of climate policy to guide sectors toward low-carbon technologies. This paper also assesses the economy-wide implications of mitigation policies such as potential losses in GDP and consumption. As a result, an assessment of the legal, institutional, social and environmental barriers to economy-wide mitigation policies is critical yet beyond the scope of this paper.« less

  17. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenesh R.; Clark, Ezra L.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices.

  18. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meenesh R; Clark, Ezra L; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-11-10

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32-42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0-0.9 V, 0.9-1.95 V, and 1.95-3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices. PMID:26504215

  19. Thermodynamic and achievable efficiencies for solar-driven electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide to transportation fuels

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Meenesh R.; Clark, Ezra L.; Bell, Alexis T.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, achievable, and realistic efficiency limits of solar-driven electrochemical conversion of water and carbon dioxide to fuels are investigated as functions of light-absorber composition and configuration, and catalyst composition. The maximum thermodynamic efficiency at 1-sun illumination for adiabatic electrochemical synthesis of various solar fuels is in the range of 32–42%. Single-, double-, and triple-junction light absorbers are found to be optimal for electrochemical load ranges of 0–0.9 V, 0.9–1.95 V, and 1.95–3.5 V, respectively. Achievable solar-to-fuel (STF) efficiencies are determined using ideal double- and triple-junction light absorbers and the electrochemical load curves for CO2 reduction on silver and copper cathodes, and water oxidation kinetics over iridium oxide. The maximum achievable STF efficiencies for synthesis gas (H2 and CO) and Hythane (H2 and CH4) are 18.4% and 20.3%, respectively. Whereas the realistic STF efficiency of photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) can be as low as 0.8%, tandem PECs and photovoltaic (PV)-electrolyzers can operate at 7.2% under identical operating conditions. We show that the composition and energy content of solar fuels can also be adjusted by tuning the band-gaps of triple-junction light absorbers and/or the ratio of catalyst-to-PV area, and that the synthesis of liquid products and C2H4 have high profitability indices. PMID:26504215

  20. Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-01-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

  1. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  2. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  3. Use of hazard assessments to achieve risk reduction in the USDOE Stockpile Stewardship (SS-21) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Bott, T.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; DeYoung, L.; Hockert, J.

    1995-07-01

    This paper summarizes the nuclear explosive hazard assessment activities performed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) Stockpile Stewardship Demonstration Project SS-21, better known as the ``Seamless Safety`` program. Past practice within the DOE Complex has dictated the use of a significant number of post-design/fabrication safety reviews to analyze the safety associated with operations on nuclear explosives and to answer safety questions. These practices have focused on reviewing-in or auditing-in safety vs incorporating safety in the design process. SS-21 was proposed by the DOE as an avenue to develop a program to ``integrate established, recognized, verifiable safety criteria into the process at the design stage rather than continuing the reliance on reviews, evaluations and audits.`` The entire Seamless Safety design and development process is verified by a concurrent hazard assessment (HA). The primary purpose of the SS-21 Demonstration Project HA was to demonstrate the feasibility of performing concurrent HAs as part of an engineering design and development effort and then to evaluate the use of the HA to provide an indication in the risk reduction or gain in safety achieved. To accomplish this objective, HAs were performed on both baseline (i.e., old) and new (i.e. SS-21) B61-0 Center Case Section disassembly processes. These HAs were used to support the identification and documentation of weapon- and process-specific hazards and safety-critical operating steps. Both HAs focused on identifying accidents that had the potential for worker injury, public health effects, facility damage, toxic gas release, and dispersal of radioactive materials. A comparison of the baseline and SS-21 process risks provided a semi-quantitative estimate of the risk reduction gained via the Seamless Safety process.

  4. Caseworker judgments and substantiation.

    PubMed

    Cross, Theodore P; Casanueva, Cecilia

    2009-02-01

    Substantiation can have an important effect on what interventions are pursued for children investigated for maltreatment, but researchers lack knowledge about how the decision to substantiate is made. Using information from 4,515 children from a national probability study of children investigated for maltreatment, this study examined how caseworker judgments of harm, risk, and evidence predicted substantiation. The substantiation rate was 29.9%, but the majority of cases were substantiated when caseworkers reported at least moderate harm, at least moderate risk, and/or probably to clearly sufficient evidence. Each judgment variable significantly predicted substantiation in a multivariable model, with evidence the strongest predictor. Child gender and age were significant predictors beyond harm, risk, and evidence, suggesting that other judgments also influence substantiation. In 9 of 100 cases, reports were not substantiated despite moderate to severe harm. Thus, substantiation is generally based on judgments of harm, risk, and evidence but not exclusively. The findings underline previous researchers' conclusions that substantiation is a flawed measure of child maltreatment and suggest that policy and practice related to substantiation are due for a fresh appraisal by state child welfare service agencies. PMID:18794302

  5. ACHIEVEMENTS IN SOURCE REDUCTION AND RECYCLING FOR TEN INDUSTRIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report produces 20 short write-ups of examples of recent industry initiatives to implement source reduction and recycling. hese examples are taken from 10 different industries. ach write-up contains a description of the company, an overview of the source reduction/recycling ...

  6. Dropout Reduction through Employment Achievement and Motivation (Project DREAM). 1990-91 Final Evaluation Profile. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Research, Evaluation, and Assessment.

    An evaluation was done of New York City Public Schools' Dropout Reduction through Employment, Achievement, and Motivation Program (Project DREAM), which served poor Spanish-speaking immigrant high school students. The program operated at South Bronx High School serving 444 mostly immigrant students of limited English proficiency. The program…

  7. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  8. Perceived social loafing and anticipated effort reduction among young football (soccer) players: an achievement goal perspective.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motivational climates, personal achievement goals, and three different aspects of social loafing in football (soccer). 170 male competitive football players completed questionnaires assessing perceived motivational climate, achievement goal, and measures of perceived social loafing (anticipation of lower effort amongst their teammates and themselves). The results indicated a marginal but significant positive relationship between an ego-oriented achievement goal and perceived social loafing. In addition, a mastery climate was negatively associated with perceived social loafing and anticipation of lower effort of team members, particularly for athletes who also strongly endorsed a task-oriented achievement goal. A performance climate, in contrast, related positively with these two aspects of social loafing. A mastery climate also related negatively to the third aspect of social loafing, i.e., players' readiness to reduce their own effort in response to their perception of social loafing among their teammates. PMID:17688105

  9. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  10. Role of fuel carbon intensity in achieving 2050 greenhouse gas reduction goals within the light-duty vehicle sector.

    PubMed

    Melaina, M; Webster, K

    2011-05-01

    Recent U.S. climate change policy developments include aggressive proposals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, including cap-and-trade legislation with a goal of an 83% reduction below 2005 levels by 2050. This study examines behavioral and technological changes required to achieve this reduction within the light-duty vehicle (LDV) sector. Under this "fair share" sectoral assumption, aggressive near-term actions are necessary in three areas: vehicle miles traveled (VMT), vehicle fuel economy (FE), and fuel carbon intensity (FCI). Two generic scenarios demonstrate the important role of FCI in meeting the 2050 goal. The first scenario allows deep reductions in FCI to compensate for relatively modest FE improvements and VMT reductions. The second scenario assumes optimistic improvements in FE, relatively large reductions in VMT and less aggressive FCI reductions. Each generic scenario is expanded into three illustrative scenarios to explore the theoretical implications of meeting the 2050 goal by relying exclusively on biofuels and hybrid vehicles, biofuels and plug-in hybrid vehicles, or hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles. These scenarios inform a discussion of resource limitations, technology development and deployment challenges, and policy goals required to meet the 2050 GHG goal for LDVs. PMID:21456550

  11. Fan noise reduction achieved by removing tip flow irregularities behind the rotor - forward arc test configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The noise source caused by the interaction of the rotor tip flow irregularities (vortices and velocity defects) with the downstream stator vanes was studied. Fan flow was removed behind a 0.508 meter (20 in.) diameter model turbofan through an outer wall slot between the rotor and stator. Noise measurements were made with far-field microphones positioned in an arc about the fan inlet and with a pressure transducer in the duct behind the stator. Little tone noise reduction was observed in the forward arc during flow removal; possibly because the rotor-stator interaction noise did not propagate upstream through the rotor. Noise reductions were maded in the duct behind the stator and the largest decrease occurred with the first increment of flow removal. This result indicates that the rotor tip flow irregularity-stator interaction is as important a noise producing mechanism as the normally considered rotor wake-stator interaction.

  12. What happens to the large eddies when net drag reduction is achieved by outer flow manipulators?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falco, R. E.; Rashidnia, N.

    1987-01-01

    The tandem-arranged parallel plate manipulator (TAPPM) presently used to generate a flow with net drag reduction is conditionally sampled and found to exhibit significant changes of the boundary layer's large-scale motions at 20 delta(0), where delta(0) is the boundary layer thickness at the upstream plate of the TAPPM. Flow fields in the 'valleys' are equally affected. Both turbulent and irrotational flows then reestablish themselves by 50 delta(0). Flow visualization indicates that the TAPPM wake is very coherent at 20 delta(0), and has not yet spread into the wall region, while large scale motions and the ambient response flow continue to exhibit dynamic changes. This indicates that the shielding effect of the TAPPM's wake prolongs suppression of large-scale motions, thereby reducing skin friction over a sufficiently long extent of the boundary layer to overcome device drag and yield net drag reductions.

  13. How to Achieve Transparency in Public-Private Partnerships Engaged in Hunger and Malnutrition Reduction.

    PubMed

    Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Bird, Julia K

    2016-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder partnerships are important facilitators of improving nutrition in developing countries to achieve the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. Often, the role of industry is challenged and questions are raised as to the ethics of involving for-profit companies in humanitarian projects. The Second International Conference on Nutrition placed great emphasis on the role of the private sector, including industry, in multi-stakeholder partnerships to reduce hunger and malnutrition. Governments have to establish regulatory frameworks and institutions to guarantee fair competition and invest in infrastructure that makes investments for private companies attractive, eventually leading to economic growth. Civil society organizations can contribute by delivering nutrition interventions and behavioral change-related communication to consumers, providing capacity, and holding governments and private sector organizations accountable. Industry provides technical support, innovation, and access to markets and the supply chain. The greatest progress and impact can be achieved if all stakeholders cooperate in multi-stakeholder partnerships aimed at improving nutrition, thereby strengthening local economies and reducing poverty and inequality. Successful examples of public-private partnerships exist, as well as examples in which these partnerships did not achieve mutually agreed objectives. The key requirements for productive alliances between industry and civil society organizations are the establishment of rules of engagement, transparency and mutual accountability. The Global Social Observatory performed a consultation on conflicts of interest related to the Scaling Up Nutrition movement and provided recommendations to prevent, identify, manage and monitor potential conflicts of interest. Multi-stakeholder partnerships can be successful models in improving nutrition if they meet societal demand with transparent decision-making and execution. Solutions to

  14. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  15. Criteria for substantiating claims.

    PubMed

    Aggett, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Claims are used to support public health advocacy and marketing. Their evidence base is variable. Claims are made on (i) nutrient content, (ii) comparative merits, (iii) health benefits, and (iv) medical benefits. Experience with therapeutic agents has aided the development of recommendations for the substantiation of health claims for foods and food components, with which dietary supplements would be included. An EU Concerted Activity, Functional Food Science in Europe, suggested that such claims should be based on the general outcomes of 'enhanced function' and 'reduced risk of disease'. A further EU Concerted Activity, The Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods, proposed that the evidence base should provide: a characterization of the food or food component to which the claimed effect is attributed; human data, primarily from intervention studies that represent the target populations for the claim; a dose-response relationship: evidence of allowing for confounders including lifestyle, consumption patterns, background diet and food matrix; an appropriate duration for the study; a measure of compliance; and have adequate statistical power to test the hypothesis. When ideal endpoints are not easily accessible for measurement, validated and quality assured markers of the intermediate or final outcomes could be used, as long as their relationship is well characterized. Overall, the totality and coherence of published and unpublished evidence should be considered. Assessments for substantiation need expert judgement, weighting of the strength of the claim, and intelligent use of the criteria applied on an individual basis with respect both to gaps in knowledge and to any need for new knowledge and data. PMID:17913223

  16. Furnace veneering systems of special design help achieve energy reduction goals at Armco

    SciTech Connect

    Caspersen, L.J.

    1982-12-01

    A steel company conserves energy by veneering reheat furnaces with a ceramic fiber modular system. The furnace lining system incorporates several grades of veneering materials (modules, cements, coatings) whose application is matched to the exact conditions in the furnace. Zoned linings utilize a combination of grades of alumina-silica modules to achieve thermally efficient yet durable performance. High temperature cements exhibit good tackiness, easy module penetration and high strength retention after firing. A protective coating is sprayed in a thin layer over the modules and can be easily reapplied at a later date should it be necessary. Benefits include greater thermal control (temperature responsiveness and heating uniformity), less over-firing, less fuel use, and less heat loss. Fuel efficiency is increased by 20 to 50%.

  17. Robust Airfoil Optimization to Achieve Consistent Drag Reduction Over a Mach Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Huyse, Luc; Padula, Sharon; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We prove mathematically that in order to avoid point-optimization at the sampled design points for multipoint airfoil optimization, the number of design points must be greater than the number of free-design variables. To overcome point-optimization at the sampled design points, a robust airfoil optimization method (called the profile optimization method) is developed and analyzed. This optimization method aims at a consistent drag reduction over a given Mach range and has three advantages: (a) it prevents severe degradation in the off-design performance by using a smart descent direction in each optimization iteration, (b) there is no random airfoil shape distortion for any iterate it generates, and (c) it allows a designer to make a trade-off between a truly optimized airfoil and the amount of computing time consumed. For illustration purposes, we use the profile optimization method to solve a lift-constrained drag minimization problem for 2-D airfoil in Euler flow with 20 free-design variables. A comparison with other airfoil optimization methods is also included.

  18. High resolution anoscopy may be useful in achieving reductions in anal cancer local disease failure rates.

    PubMed

    Goon, P; Morrison, V; Fearnhead, N; Davies, J; Wilson, C; Jephcott, C; Sterling, J; Crawford, R

    2015-05-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon, with an incidence rate of 0.5-1.0 per 100,000 of the population but incidence rates have been steadily increasing over the last 3 decades. Biological and epidemiological evidence have been mounting and demonstrate that anal cancer has many similarities to cervical cancer, especially in regard to its aetiology. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) of the anal region – analogous to colposcopy of the cervix, is a technique that is not well-known in the medical and surgical fraternity. Evidence to support the use of HRA for detection and treatment in the surveillance of AIN exists and strongly suggests that it is beneficial, resulting in reduced rates of cancer progression. Pilot data from our study showed a local disease failure rate of 1.73 per 1000 patient-months compared with a published rate of 9.89 per 1000 patient-months. This demonstrates a 5.72-fold reduction in local disease failure rates of patients with T1-T3 tumours; the data therefore suggests that use of HRA for detection and treatment in surveillance of anal cancer patients will help prevent local regional relapse at the anal site. There is an urgent need for a large, randomised controlled clinical trial to definitively test this hypothesis. PMID:24373061

  19. Evaluation of progress in achieving TMDL mandated nitrogen reductions in the Neuse River basin, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Lebo, Martin E; Paerl, Hans W; Peierls, Benjamin L

    2012-01-01

    Management efforts to control excess algal growth in the Neuse River and Estuary, North Carolina began in the 1980s, with an initial focus on phosphorus (P) input reduction. However, continued water quality problems in the 1990s led to development of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for nitrogen (N) in 1999 to improve conditions in N-sensitive estuarine waters. Evaluation of the effectiveness of management actions implemented in the Neuse River basin is a challenging endeavor due to natural variations in N export associated with climate. A simplified approach is presented that allows evaluation of trends in flow-normalized nutrient loading to provide feedback on effectiveness of implemented actions to reduce N loading to estuarine waters. The approach is applied to five watershed locations, including the headwaters of the Neuse Estuary. Decreases in nitrate + nitrite (NO(3)-N) concentrations occurred throughout the basin and were largest just downstream of the Raleigh metropolitan area. Conversely, concentrations of total Kjeldahl N (TKN) increased at many stations, particularly under high flow conditions. This indicates a relative increase in organic N (Org-N) inputs since the mid-1990s. Overall, patterns in different N fractions at watershed stations indicate both partial success in reducing N inputs and ongoing challenges for N loading under high flow conditions. In downstream waters, NO(3)-N concentrations decreased concurrent with TMDL implementation in the upper portion of the estuary but not in the middle and lower reaches. The lack of progress in the middle and lower reaches of the estuary may, at least in part, be affected by remineralization of settled particle-bound N deposited under high river flows. PMID:22037617

  20. [5 years of "concerted action dose reduction in CT" -- what has been achieved and what remains to be done?].

    PubMed

    Nagel, H D; Blobel, J; Brix, G; Ewen, K; Galanski, M; Höfs, P; Loose, R; Prokop, M; Schneider, K; Stamm, G; Stender, H-S; Süss, C; Türkay, S; Vogel, H; Wucherer, M

    2004-11-01

    In May 1998, the German "Concerted Action Dose Reduction in CT" was founded by all parties involved in CT. Its intention was to achieve a significant reduction of the radiation exposure caused by CT, a matter that has increasingly been considered a major challenge since the early nineties. As a result of a number of joint efforts, the essential preconditions have been established by now. The fifth anniversary of the Concerted Action gave rise for both retrospection and outlook on the tasks that have already been accomplished and those that still need to be done. For this purpose, a one-day symposium took place in Berlin on November 4, 2003. The contents of a total of 18 contributions will be outlined here in brief. PMID:15497088

  1. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic composite nacelle. [for achieving reductions in community noise and operating expense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.

  2. Reduction of exposure to acrylamide: achievements, potential of optimization, and problems encountered from the perspectives of a Swiss enforcement laboratory.

    PubMed

    Grob, Koni

    2005-01-01

    The most important initiatives taken in Switzerland to reduce exposure of consumers to acrylamide are the separate sale of potatoes low in reducing sugars for roasting and frying, the optimization of the raw material and preparation of french fries, and campaigns to implement suitable preparation methods in the gastronomy and homes. Industry works on improving a range of other products. Although these measures can reduce high exposures by some 80%, they have little effect on the background exposure resulting from coffee, bread, and numerous other products for which no substantial improvement is in sight. At this stage, improvements should be achieved by supporting voluntary activity rather than legal limits. Committed and consistent risk communication is key, and the support of improvements presupposes innovative approaches. PMID:15759749

  3. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  4. Acid and reduction stimulated logic "and"-type combinational release mode achieved in DOX-loaded superparamagnetic nanogel.

    PubMed

    Song, Meifang; Xue, Yanan; Chen, Lidi; Xia, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Lei; Yu, Bo; Long, Sihui; Huang, Shiwen; Yu, Faquan

    2016-08-01

    A superparamagnetic nanogel featured with a logic "and"-type pH/reduction combinational stimulated release mode was fabricated as a drug delivery system by virtue of parallel crosslinking. The disulfide bond and electrostatic interaction between thiolated alginate (SA-SH) and thiolated/aminated iron oxide nanoparticles (SH-MION-NH2) were employed to achieve the mechanism. The obtained DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel is 122.7±20.3nm in size with superparamagnetism. The combinational conditions of pH5.0/10mM glutathione (GSH) stimulated a significantly high accumulative release. However, either pH7.4/10mM (GSH) or pH5.0 alone induced much low release. This verified the typical logic "and"-type combinationally stimulated release mode. In vitro cytotoxicity tests clearly illustrated the effective selectivity of killing the human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with IC50 of 1.01μg/mL and the human hepatoma cells (HepG2) with IC50 of 1.57μg/mL but significantly low cytotoxicity to the cercopithecus aethiops kidney cells (Vero). CLSM presented the internationalization of the nanogel into cytoplasm and nuclei with time. In vivo investigation revealed that the selective intratumoral accumulation and antitumor efficacy were considerably advantageous over free DOX whereas low systemic toxicity exhibited up-regulated security as compared to free DOX. Overall, the DOX-loaded magnetic nanogel with enhanced antitumor efficacy and down-regulated adverse effect was a promising nanoplatform for the clinical chemotherapy of malignancy. PMID:27157762

  5. Teacher Layoffs, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: The Implementation and Consequences of a Discretionary Reduction-in-Force Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that "last hired, first fired" policies maximize the number of teachers subject to reductions in force by eliminating those teachers that are lowest on the pay scale first. Until now, advocates of effectiveness-based reduction-in-force (RIF) policies could only point to simulated policy exercises as evidence of the…

  6. China's Pathways to Achieving 40% ~ 45% Reduction in CO{sub 2} Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020: Sectoral Outlook and Assessment of Savings Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Ke, Jing

    2011-09-30

    Achieving China’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity (CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP) by 40% to 45% percent below 2005 levels by 2020 will require the strengthening and expansion of energy efficiency policies across the buildings, industries and transport sectors. This study uses a bottom-up, end-use model and two scenarios -- an enhanced energy efficiency (E3) scenario and an alternative maximum technically feasible energy efficiency improvement (Max Tech) scenario – to evaluate what policies and technical improvements are needed to achieve the 2020 carbon intensity reduction target. The findings from this study show that a determined approach by China can lead to the achievement of its 2020 goal. In particular, with full success in deepening its energy efficiency policies and programs but following the same general approach used during the 11th Five Year Plan, it is possible to achieve 49% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions per unit of GDP (CO{sub 2} emissions intensity) in 2020 from 2005 levels (E3 case). Under the more optimistic but feasible assumptions of development and penetration of advanced energy efficiency technology (Max Tech case), China could achieve a 56% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions intensity in 2020 relative to 2005 with cumulative reduction of energy use by 2700 Mtce and of CO{sub 2} emissions of 8107 Mt CO{sub 2} between 2010 and 2020. Energy savings and CO{sub 2} mitigation potential varies by sector but most of the energy savings potential is found in energy-intensive industry. At the same time, electricity savings and the associated emissions reduction are magnified by increasing renewable generation and improving coal generation efficiency, underscoring the dual importance of end-use efficiency improvements and power sector decarbonization.

  7. Production of substantially pure fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, H.J.; Gallian, J.J.; Leeper, S.A.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for the production of a substantially pure product containing greater than 60% fructose. It comprises: combining a sucrose-containing substrate with effective amounts of a levansucrase enzyme preparation to form levan and glucose; purifying the levan by at least one of the following purification methods: ultrafiltration, diafiltration, hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, liquid--liquid partition, solvent extraction, chromatography, and precipitation; hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose substantially free of glucose and sucrose; and recovering the fructose by at least one of the following recovery methods: hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, evaporation, drying, crystallization, and chromatography.

  8. Production of substantially pure fructose

    DOEpatents

    Hatcher, Herbert J.; Gallian, John J.; Leeper, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.

  9. Dose reduction of up to 89% while maintaining image quality in cardiovascular CT achieved with prospective ECG gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londt, John H.; Shreter, Uri; Vass, Melissa; Hsieh, Jiang; Ge, Zhanyu; Adda, Olivier; Dowe, David A.; Sabllayrolles, Jean-Louis

    2007-03-01

    We present the results of dose and image quality performance evaluation of a novel, prospective ECG-gated Coronary CT Angiography acquisition mode (SnapShot Pulse, LightSpeed VCT-XT scanner, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI), and compare it to conventional retrospective ECG gated helical acquisition in clinical and phantom studies. Image quality phantoms were used to measure noise, slice sensitivity profile, in-plane resolution, low contrast detectability and dose, using the two acquisition modes. Clinical image quality and diagnostic confidence were evaluated in a study of 31 patients scanned with the two acquisition modes. Radiation dose reduction in clinical practice was evaluated by tracking 120 consecutive patients scanned with the prospectively gated scan mode. In the phantom measurements, the prospectively gated mode resulted in equivalent or better image quality measures at dose reductions of up to 89% compared to non-ECG modulated conventional helical scans. In the clinical study, image quality was rated excellent by expert radiologist reviewing the cases, with pathology being identical using the two acquisition modes. The average dose to patients in the clinical practice study was 5.6 mSv, representing 50% reduction compared to a similar patient population scanned with the conventional helical mode.

  10. Biocatalytic reduction of racemic 2-arenoxycycloalkanones by yeasts P. glucozyma and C. glabrata: one way of achieving chiral 2-arenoxycycloalcohols.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Cecilia; Peña, Miguel; Del Olmo, Marcel Lí

    2016-06-01

    Chiral β-aryloxy alcohols are interesting building blocks that form part of drugs like β adrenergic antagonists. Acquiring cyclic rigid analogs to obtain more selective drugs is interesting. Thus, we used whole cells of yeast strains Pichia glucozyma and Candida glabrata to catalyze the reduction of several 2-arenoxycycloalkanones to produce chiral 2-arenoxycycloalcohols with good/excellent enantioselectivity. In both cases, the alcohol configuration that resulted from the carbonyl group reduction was S. Yeast P. glucozyma allowed the conversion of both enantiomers of the starting material to produce 2-arenoxycycloalcohols with configuration (1S, 2R) and (1S, 2S). The reaction with C. glabrata nearly always allowed the kinetic resolution of the starting ketone, recovering 2-arenoxycycloalkanone with configuration S and (1S, 2R)-2-arenoxycycloalcohol.All the four possible stereoisomers of 2-phenoxycyclohexanol and the two enantiomers of 2-phenoxycyclohexanone were obtained by combining the biocatalyzed reaction with the oxidation/reduction of the chiral compounds with standard reagents. This is a simple approach for the synthesis of the rigid chiral moiety 2-arenoxycycloalcohols contained in putative β-blockers 2-arenoxycycloalkanepropanolamines. PMID:26754816

  11. Justice policy reform for high-risk juveniles: using science to achieve large-scale crime reduction.

    PubMed

    Skeem, Jennifer L; Scott, Elizabeth; Mulvey, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    After a distinctly punitive era, a period of remarkable reform in juvenile crime regulation has begun. Practical urgency has fueled interest in both crime reduction and research on the prediction and malleability of criminal behavior. In this rapidly changing context, high-risk juveniles--the small proportion of the population where crime becomes concentrated--present a conundrum. Research indicates that these are precisely the individuals to treat intensively to maximize crime reduction, but there are both real and imagined barriers to doing so. Mitigation principles (during early adolescence, ages 10-13) and institutional placement or criminal court processing (during mid-late adolescence, ages 14-18) can prevent these juveniles from receiving interventions that would best protect public safety. In this review, we synthesize relevant research to help resolve this challenge in a manner that is consistent with the law's core principles. In our view, early adolescence offers unique opportunities for risk reduction that could (with modifications) be realized in the juvenile justice system in cooperation with other social institutions. PMID:24437434

  12. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research

    PubMed Central

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  13. Supervised, Multivariate, Whole-Brain Reduction Did Not Help to Achieve High Classification Performance in Schizophrenia Research.

    PubMed

    Janousova, Eva; Montana, Giovanni; Kasparek, Tomas; Schwarz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We examined how penalized linear discriminant analysis with resampling, which is a supervised, multivariate, whole-brain reduction technique, can help schizophrenia diagnostics and research. In an experiment with magnetic resonance brain images of 52 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 52 healthy controls, this method allowed us to select brain areas relevant to schizophrenia, such as the left prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulum, the right anterior insula, the thalamus, and the hippocampus. Nevertheless, the classification performance based on such reduced data was not significantly better than the classification of data reduced by mass univariate selection using a t-test or unsupervised multivariate reduction using principal component analysis. Moreover, we found no important influence of the type of imaging features, namely local deformations or gray matter volumes, and the classification method, specifically linear discriminant analysis or linear support vector machines, on the classification results. However, we ascertained significant effect of a cross-validation setting on classification performance as classification results were overestimated even though the resampling was performed during the selection of brain imaging features. Therefore, it is critically important to perform cross-validation in all steps of the analysis (not only during classification) in case there is no external validation set to avoid optimistically biasing the results of classification studies. PMID:27610072

  14. Footprint reduction's 'multiple paybacks'.

    PubMed

    2010-06-01

    Some of the measures that EFM personnel can take to further reduce their estates' carbon footprint at a time when pressure to cut energy consumption must be balanced both against the requirement to create the best possible patient environment, and new medical technology that may require substantial energy to operate, were the focus of a recent IHEEM carbon reduction seminar in London. The one-day event, "Planning to achieve Carbon Reduction Commitment targets for healthcare premises", also included a look at the key steps affected healthcare organisations, and especially their estates teams, need to be taking already to ensure compliance with the new Carbon Reduction Commitment scheme. PMID:20597381

  15. CHP project brings substantial savings.

    PubMed

    Newman, Alan

    2014-02-01

    With the NHS having committed to reduce its carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Alan Newman, a partner at building services engineers, Troup Bywaters + Anders (TB+A), describes how, with the company's expertise and help, customer, the East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust, 'surpassed the targets two years in advance'. As he explains, the key element of an ambitious carbon reduction scheme that won the 2013 IHEEM Healthcare Estates Sustainability Award (HEJ - November 2013) was a new combined heat and power-based energy centre at the Trust's Lister Hospital in Stevenage. PMID:24620490

  16. [ADVANCE-ON Trial; How to Achieve Maximum Reduction of Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes].

    PubMed

    Kanorskiĭ, S G

    2015-01-01

    Of 10,261 patients with type 2 diabetes who survived to the end of a randomized ADVANCE trial 83% were included in the ADVANCE-ON project for observation for 6 years. The difference in the level of blood pressure which had been achieved during 4.5 years of within trial treatment with fixed perindopril/indapamide combination quickly vanished but significant decrease of total and cardiovascular mortality in the group of patients treated with this combination for 4.5 years was sustained during 6 years of post-trial follow-up. The results can be related to gradually weakening protective effect of perindopril/indapamide combination on cardiovascular system, and are indicative of the expedience of long-term use of this antihypertensive therapy for maximal lowering of mortality of patients with diabetes. PMID:26164995

  17. Achieving Peak Flow and Sediment Loading Reductions through Increased Water Storage in the Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near

  18. Carbon mass balance and microbial ecology in a laboratory scale reactor achieving simultaneous sludge reduction and nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei; Li, Liang; Kotay, Shireen Meher; Goel, Ramesh

    2014-04-15

    Solids reduction in activated sludge processes (ASP) at source using process manipulation has been researched widely over the last two-decades. However, the absence of nutrient removal component, lack of understanding on the organic carbon, and limited information on key microbial community in solids minimizing ASP preclude the widespread acceptance of sludge minimizing processes. In this manuscript, we report simultaneous solids reduction through anaerobiosis along with nitrogen and phosphorus removals. The manuscript also reports carbon mass balance using stable isotope of carbon, microbial ecology of nitrifiers and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Two laboratory scale reactors were operated in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic (A(2)O) mode. One reactor was run in the standard mode (hereafter called the control-SBR) simulating conventional A(2)O type of activated sludge process and the second reactor was run in the sludge minimizing mode (called the modified-SBR). Unlike other research efforts where the sludge minimizing reactor was maintained at nearly infinite solids retention time (SRT). To sustain the efficient nutrient removal, the modified-SBR in this research was operated at a very small solids yield rather than at infinite SRT. Both reactors showed consistent NH3-N, phosphorus and COD removals over a period of 263 days. Both reactors also showed active denitrification during the anoxic phase even if there was no organic carbon source available during this phase, suggesting the presence of denitrifying PAOs (DNPAOs). The observed solids yield in the modified-SBR was 60% less than the observed solids yield in the control-SBR. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for the modified-SBR was almost 44% more than the control-SBR under identical feeding conditions, but was nearly the same for both reactors under fasting conditions. The modified-SBR showed greater diversity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and PAOs compared to the control-SBR. The diversity of PAOs

  19. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  20. Synthesis of substantially monodispersed colloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Stoeva, Savka (Inventor); Sorensen, Christopher (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of forming ligated nanoparticles of the formula Y(Z).sub.x where Y is a nanoparticle selected from the group consisting of elemental metals having atomic numbers ranging from 21-34, 39-52, 57-83 and 89-102, all inclusive, the halides, oxides and sulfides of such metals, and the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal halides, and Z represents ligand moieties such as the alkyl thiols. In the method, a first colloidal dispersion is formed made up of nanoparticles solvated in a molar excess of a first solvent (preferably a ketone such as acetone), a second solvent different than the first solvent (preferably an organic aryl solvent such as toluene) and a quantity of ligand moieties; the first solvent is then removed under vacuum and the ligand moieties ligate to the nanoparticles to give a second colloidal dispersion of the ligated nanoparticles solvated in the second solvent. If substantially monodispersed nanoparticles are desired, the second dispersion is subjected to a digestive ripening process. Upon drying, the ligated nanoparticles may form a three-dimensional superlattice structure.

  1. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  2. An examination of factors contributing to a reduction in subgroup differences on a constructed-response paper-and-pencil test of scholastic achievement.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Bryan D; Arthur, Winfred

    2007-05-01

    The authors investigated subgroup differences on a multiple-choice and constructed-response test of scholastic achievement in a sample of 197 African American and 258 White test takers. Although both groups had lower mean scores on the constructed-response test, the results showed a 39% reduction in subgroup differences compared with the multiple-choice test. The results demonstrate that the lower subgroup differences were explained by more favorable test perceptions for African Americans on the constructed-response test. In addition, the two test formats displayed comparable levels of criterion-related validity. The results suggest that the constructed-response test format may be a viable alternative to the traditional multiple-choice test format in efforts to simultaneously use valid predictors of performance and minimize subgroup differences in high-stakes testing. PMID:17484558

  3. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substance any substantial new issues upon which the Secretary did not reach a conclusion in the rulemaking... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new... of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence. (a) Substantial new issues....

  4. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance any substantial new issues upon which the Secretary did not reach a conclusion in the rulemaking... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new... of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence. (a) Substantial new issues....

  5. The Impacts of Budget Reductions on Indiana's Public Schools: The Impact of Budget Changes on Student Achievement, Personnel, and Class Size for Public School Corporations in the State of Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Del W.; Boyland, Lori G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, economic downturn and changes to Indiana's school funding have resulted in significant financial reductions in General Fund allocations for many of Indiana's public school corporations. The main purpose of this statewide study is to examine the possible impacts of these budget reductions on class size and student achievement. This…

  6. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  7. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1−x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  8. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times duemore » to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  9. TIGRE: Combinator graph reduction on the RTX 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koopman, Philip, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An efficient evaluation technique is examined for lazy functional programs based on combinator graph reduction. Graph reduction is widely believed to be slow and inefficient, but an abstract machine called the Threaded Interpretive Graph Reduction Engine (TIGRE) achieves a substantial speedup over previous reduction techniques. The runtime system of TIGRE is a threaded system that permits self-modifying program execution with compiler-guaranteed safety. This paper describes an implementation of TIGRE in Forth for the Harris RTX 2000 stack processor.

  10. The Cardiovascular Intervention Improvement Telemedicine Study (CITIES): Rationale for a Tailored Behavioral and Educational Pharmacist-Administered Intervention for Achieving Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zullig, Leah L.; Melnyk, S. Dee; Stechuchak, Karen M.; McCant, Felicia; Danus, Susanne; Oddone, Eugene; Bastian, Lori; Olsen, Maren; Edelman, David; Rakley, Susan; Morey, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are significant, but often preventable, contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Medication and behavioral nonadherence are significant barriers to successful hypertension, hyperlidemia, and diabetes management. Our objective was to describe the theoretical framework underlying a tailored behavioral and educational pharmacist-administered intervention for achieving CVD risk reduction. Materials and Methods: Adults with poorly controlled hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia were enrolled from three outpatient primary care clinics associated with the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center (Durham, NC). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a pharmacist-administered, tailored, 1-year telephone-based intervention or usual care. The goal of the study was to reduce the risk for CVD through a theory-driven intervention to increase medication adherence and improve health behaviors. Results: Enrollment began in November 2011 and is ongoing. The target sample size is 500 patients. Conclusions: The Cardiovascular Intervention Improvement Telemedicine Study (CITIES) intervention has been designed with a strong theoretical underpinning. The theoretical foundation and intervention are designed to encourage patients with multiple comorbidities and poorly controlled CVD risk factors to engage in home-based monitoring and tailored telephone-based interventions. Evidence suggests that clinical pharmacist-administered telephone-based interventions may be efficiently integrated into primary care for patients with poorly controlled CVD risk factors. PMID:24303930

  11. 46 CFR 28.501 - Substantial alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substantial alterations. 28.501 Section 28.501 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.501 Substantial alterations. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a vessel that is...

  12. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public... Inventory, the claim must be reasserted and substantiated at the time the Notice of Commencement (NOC) is... Inventory. (2) The submitter must substantiate the claim for confidentiality of the microorganism...

  13. 77 FR 39452 - Substantial Business Activities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., June 12, 2012 (77 FR 34887) regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities...- 107889-12), which was the subject of FR. Doc. 2012-14238, is corrected as follows: On page 34887, column... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities; Correction...

  14. Building Eco-Informatics: Examining the Dynamics of Eco-Feedback Design and Peer Networks to Achieve Sustainable Reductions in Energy Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Rishee K.

    2013-01-01

    The built environment accounts for a substantial portion of energy consumption in the United States and in many parts of the world. Due to concerns over rising energy costs and climate change, researchers and practitioners have started exploring the area of eco-informatics to link information from the human, natural and built environments.…

  15. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... microorganism identity confidential in the MCAN and wants the identity to be listed on the confidential... submitted under § 725.190. Otherwise, EPA will list the specific microorganism identity on the public Inventory. (2) The submitter must substantiate the claim for confidentiality of the microorganism...

  16. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substantiation requirements. 725.94 Section 725.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.94...

  17. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... microorganism identity confidential in the MCAN and wants the identity to be listed on the confidential... submitted under § 725.190. Otherwise, EPA will list the specific microorganism identity on the public Inventory. (2) The submitter must substantiate the claim for confidentiality of the microorganism...

  18. 24 CFR 902.79 - Substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Notification of substantial default and response. If information from an annual assessment or audit, or any... substantively accurate; and (v) Notification to the PHA that, absent a satisfactory response in accordance with... determined to be an emergency, or in any case where the events or conditions precipitating the...

  19. Substantially oxygen-free contact tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  20. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies, such as a study in a target species, study in laboratory animals... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUG APPLICATIONS General Provisions § 514.4 Substantial...

  1. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effectiveness of the new animal drug involved that the new animal drug will have the effect it purports or is... have its intended effect. (b) Characteristics of substantial evidence—(1) Qualifications of experts... for use other than in animal feed or drinking water. (iii) Antibacterial with respect to a...

  2. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... effectiveness of the new animal drug involved that the new animal drug will have the effect it purports or is... have its intended effect. (b) Characteristics of substantial evidence—(1) Qualifications of experts... for use other than in animal feed or drinking water. (iii) Antibacterial with respect to a...

  3. Substantially Oxygen-Free Contact Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  4. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (P<0.0001). Increases in heat and RH were associated with corresponding reductions in E. coli O157:H7 and in germination rate (P<0.05). The order of lethality for the different treatments was generally as follows: no treatment <55 °C/25-65% RH ≒60 °C/25-45% RH ≒65 °C/25% RH <55 °C/85% RH =60 °C/65% RH <55 °C/100% RH =60 °C/85-100% RH =65 °C/45-100% RH. The most effective condition, 65 °C/45% RH, completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds (7.0 log CFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm. PMID:25732001

  5. Modelling pathogen log10 reduction values achieved by activated sludge treatment using naïve and semi naïve Bayes network models.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Guido; Roser, David J; Sisson, Scott A; Keegan, Alexandra; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-11-15

    Risk management for wastewater treatment and reuse have led to growing interest in understanding and optimising pathogen reduction during biological treatment processes. However, modelling pathogen reduction is often limited by poor characterization of the relationships between variables and incomplete knowledge of removal mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the applicability of Bayesian belief network models to represent associations between pathogen reduction, and operating conditions and monitoring parameters and predict AS performance. Naïve Bayes and semi-naïve Bayes networks were constructed from an activated sludge dataset including operating and monitoring parameters, and removal efficiencies for two pathogens (native Giardia lamblia and seeded Cryptosporidium parvum) and five native microbial indicators (F-RNA bacteriophage, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci). First we defined the Bayesian network structures for the two pathogen log10 reduction values (LRVs) class nodes discretized into two states (< and ≥ 1 LRV) using two different learning algorithms. Eight metrics, such as Prediction Accuracy (PA) and Area Under the receiver operating Curve (AUC), provided a comparison of model prediction performance, certainty and goodness of fit. This comparison was used to select the optimum models. The optimum Tree Augmented naïve models predicted removal efficiency with high AUC when all system parameters were used simultaneously (AUCs for C. parvum and G. lamblia LRVs of 0.95 and 0.87 respectively). However, metrics for individual system parameters showed only the C. parvum model was reliable. By contrast individual parameters for G. lamblia LRV prediction typically obtained low AUC scores (AUC < 0.81). Useful predictors for C. parvum LRV included solids retention time, turbidity and total coliform LRV. The methodology developed appears applicable for predicting pathogen removal efficiency in water treatment

  6. A Class Size Reduction (CSR) Implementation Plan Based on an Evaluative Study of CSRs for the Improvement of Third Grade Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandyke, Barbara Adrienne

    2009-01-01

    For too long, educators have been left to their own devices when implementing educational policies, initiatives, strategies, and interventions, and they have longed to see the full benefits of these programs, especially in reading achievement. However, instead of determining whether a policy/initiative is working, educators have been asked to…

  7. Does Pluto have a substantial atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of CH4 ice on Pluto implies that Pluto may have a substantial atmosphere consisting of heavy gases. Without such an atmosphere, sublimation of the CH4 ice would be so rapid on a cosmogonic time scale that either such an atmosphere would soon develop through the exposure of gases trapped in the CH4 ice or else the surface CH4 ice would soon be all sublimated away as other, more stable, ices became exposed. If such stable ices were present from the beginning, the existence of CH4 frosts would also imply that Pluto's present atmosphere contains a remnant of its primordial atmosphere.

  8. Impact of diabetes duration on achieved reductions in glycated haemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose and body weight with liraglutide treatment for up to 28 weeks: a meta-analysis of seven phase III trials.

    PubMed

    Seufert, J; Bailey, T; Barkholt Christensen, S; Nauck, M A

    2016-07-01

    This meta-analysis of seven randomized, placebo-controlled studies (total 3222 patients) evaluated whether type 2 diabetes (T2D) duration affects the changes in blood glucose control and body weight that can be achieved with liraglutide and placebo. With liraglutide 1.2 mg, shorter diabetes duration was associated with a significantly greater, but clinically non-relevant, difference in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) reduction (p < 0.05), i.e. a 0.18% (1.96 mmol/mol) reduction in HbA1c per 10 years shorter diabetes duration. With liraglutide 1.8 mg, shorter diabetes duration was associated with a small but statistically significant trend for greater fasting plasma glucose (FPG) reduction (p < 0.05), i.e. a 0.38 mmol/l reduction in FPG per 10 years shorter diabetes duration. Neither the liraglutide 1.8 mg nor placebo results showed a significant association between HbA1c and diabetes duration and neither the liraglutide 1.2 mg nor placebo results showed a significant association between FPG and diabetes duration. Likewise, neither liraglutide nor placebo showed a significant association between change in weight and diabetes duration. These results suggest diabetes duration has a clinically negligible effect on achievable blood glucose control and weight outcomes with liraglutide and placebo in patients with T2D. PMID:26679282

  9. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity by blind... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is 55 years old or older is entitled to an O/M benefit based on disability while he or she is working...

  10. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity by blind... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is 55 years old or older is entitled to an O/M benefit based on disability while he or she is working...

  11. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity by blind... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is 55 years old or older is entitled to an O/M benefit based on disability while he or she is working...

  12. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  13. EARLY CHILDHOOD INVESTMENTS SUBSTANTIALLY BOOST ADULT HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report the long-term health impacts of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143, while only 126 among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, while none in the treatment group is. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:24675955

  14. Gasdynamic substantiation of physical theory of meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Lidia A.; Tirskiy, Grigoriy A.

    2014-12-01

    Physical theory of meteors developing since 30s of the last century, based on two ordinary differential equations: the equation of motion for the center of mass of meteoroid and equation of meteoroid ablation. These equations contain drag and heat transfer coefficients, which are share of momentum and energy transferred from gas to meteoroid and effective enthalpy of mass loss. Accounting for different values of these coefficients substantially changes meteoroid ballistics compared with the results of simple physical theory of meteors. For the drag coefficient a simple interpolation formula is valid for all flow regimes and depends on the Reynolds number. The heat transfer coefficient represented in the form of the approximation depending on density and meteoroid radius. Based on the law of conservation of mass and energy at the front of meteoroid melting and evaporation the explicit expression for the effective enthalpy of mass loss Q was obtained, depending on the speed of the meteoroid and heterogeneous reactions on the surface. Classical solution gives a significant deviation from the exact one obtained in present study for small bodies (1 mm) at high altitudes and high speeds.

  15. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  16. Integration of health management and support systems is key to achieving cost reduction and operational concept goals of the 2nd generation reusable launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Phillip L.; Greene, Scott

    2002-07-01

    Our aerospace customers are demanding that we drastically reduce the cost of operating and supporting our products. Our space customer in particular is looking for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle systems to support more aircraft like operation. To achieve this goal requires more than an evolution in materials, processes and systems, what is required is a paradigm shift in the design of the launch vehicles and the processing systems that support the launch vehicles. This paper describes the Automated Informed Maintenance System (AIM) we are developing for NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Our system includes an Integrated Health Management (IHM) system for the launch vehicles and ground support systems, which features model based diagnostics and prognostics. Health Management data is used by our AIM decision support and process aids to automatically plan maintenance, generate work orders and schedule maintenance activities along with the resources required to execute these processes. Our system will automate the ground processing for a spaceport handling multiple RLVs executing multiple missions. To accomplish this task we are applying the latest web based distributed computing technologies and application development techniques.

  17. Combined steam-ultrasound treatment of 2 seconds achieves significant high aerobic count and Enterobacteriaceae reduction on naturally contaminated food boxes, crates, conveyor belts, and meat knives.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Larsen, Annette Baltzer; Krebs, Niels

    2015-02-01

    Food contact surfaces require rigorous sanitation procedures for decontamination, although these methods very often fail to efficiently clean and disinfect surfaces that are visibly contaminated with food residues and possible biofilms. In this study, the results of a short treatment (1 to 2 s) of combined steam (95°C) and ultrasound (SonoSteam) of industrial fish and meat transportation boxes and live-chicken transportation crates naturally contaminated with food and fecal residues were investigated. Aerobic counts of 5.0 to 6.0 log CFU/24 cm(2) and an Enterobacteriaceae spp. level of 2.0 CFU/24 cm(2) were found on the surfaces prior to the treatment. After 1 s of treatment, the aerobic counts were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced, and within 2 s, reductions below the detection limit (<10 CFU) were reached. Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit with only 1 s of treatment. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment was also applied on two different types of plastic modular conveyor belts with hinge pins and one type of flat flexible rubber belt, all visibly contaminated with food residues. The aerobic counts of 3.0 to 5.0 CFU/50 cm(2) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. were reduced to a level below the detection limit. Industrial meat knives were contaminated with aerobic counts of 6.0 log CFU/5 cm(2) on the handle and 5.2 log CFU/14 cm(2) on the steel. The level of Enterobacteriaceae spp. contamination was approximately 2.5 log CFU on the handle and steel. Two seconds of steam-ultrasound treatment reduced the aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae spp. to levels below the detection limit on both handle and steel. This study shows that the steam-ultrasound treatment may be an effective replacement for disinfection processes and that it can be used for continuous disinfection at fast process lines. However, the treatment may not be able to replace efficient cleaning processes used to remove high

  18. Dollars for Sense: Assessing Achievement Gaps in Arkansas in the Context of Substantial Funding Increases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Joshua; Jensen, Nathan C.; Ritter, Gary W.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-four of the fifty states have experienced school finance lawsuits as a consequence of funding gaps between rich and poor districts. In some states, such as Kentucky, lawsuits brought about by property-poor districts have resulted in a statewide remedy that reforms the property tax system and seeks to provide every child with an adequate…

  19. Clozapine-induced dysphagia with secondary substantial weight loss.

    PubMed

    Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. PMID:27543610

  20. Substantiation of International Nanomaterials Security Group Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnov, A.; Sadovnikov, S.; Panfilov, S.; Magarshak, Yu.

    Nanotechnology has achieved the status as one of the critical R&D area. Scientists use the unique properties of atomic and molecular assemblages built at the nanometer scale. The ability to manipulate the physical, chemical, and biological properties of molecules and particles affords to design agents with set up properties. But the technology allows creating not only useful agents. Possible accidental or deliberate creation of new nanoparticles (NPs) with dangerous properties is highly probable minor product of progress in the new area. The article briefly describes some pathways in development and implementation of NPs for medicinal and the similar purposes. Some of NPs can effective facilitate and mask transport of various agents in various environments. Possible creation of new dangerous NPs (e.g. conjugates based on combination of extensively use NPs and chemical, biological and radioactive agents) as well as creation of brand new NPs and nanodevices with unique properties needs creation of international multidiscipline community for security evaluation of nanomaterials and technologies. The community will forecast possible dangerous unexpectedness in the field of nanoscale materials and devices and suggests rational pathways for prevention of the threats.

  1. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  2. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  3. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  4. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  5. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  11. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  13. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  15. The Nature and Substantiation of Official Sexual Abuse Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckenrode, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A sample of 796 New York sexual abuse reports was studied to explore factors associated with substantiation of the reports following an investigation. Substantiation rates increased with the child's age, and reports were more likely to be substantiated when they involved female children or came from a mandated source. (Author/JDD)

  16. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  17. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing...

  18. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  19. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  20. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause “substantial and grievous economic injury” to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  1. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause substantial and grievous economic injury to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  2. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substantial and grievous economic injury. 825.218 Section... Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration to... cause substantial and grievous economic injury to the operations of the employer, not whether...

  3. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A State must come into substantial compliance... statutes, regulations, administrative procedures and practices, organizational structures, internal...

  4. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., organizational structures, internal control mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A...

  5. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., organizational structures, internal control mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A...

  6. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., organizational structures, internal control mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A...

  7. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., organizational structures, internal control mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A...

  8. The Constitution of the Human Embryo as Substantial Change.

    PubMed

    Alvargonzález, David

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzes the transformation from the human zygote to the implanted embryo under the prism of substantial change. After a brief introduction, it vindicates the Aristotelian ideas of substance and accident, and those of substantial and accidental change. It then claims that the transformation from the multicelled zygote to the implanted embryo amounts to a substantial change. Pushing further, it contends that this substantial change cannot be explained following patterns of genetic reductionism, emergence, and self-organization, and proposes Gustavo Bueno's idea of anamorphosis as a means to encapsulate criticism against such positions. PMID:26850033

  9. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Administration and General Provisions § 831.114 Voluntary early retirement... head of the agency. Examples include a Chief Human Capital Officer, an Assistant Secretary for Administration, a Director of Human Resources Management, or other official. (b) An agency's request...

  10. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The request must contain the following information: (1) Identification of the agency or specified... information required by paragraph (c) of this section. (f) OPM may approve an agency's request for voluntary... agency, or the initial portion of that period with a requirement for subsequent information...

  11. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designee. (c) The request must contain the following information: (1) Identification of the agency or... used, the request must include all of the information required by paragraph (c) of this section. (f... requirement for subsequent information and justification if the period covers multiple years. (g) After...

  12. Substantial Histone Reduction Modulates Genomewide Nucleosomal Occupancy and Global Transcriptional Output

    PubMed Central

    Celona, Barbara; Weiner, Assaf; Di Felice, Francesca; Mancuso, Francesco M.; Cesarini, Elisa; Rossi, Riccardo L.; Gregory, Lorna; Baban, Dilair; Rossetti, Grazisa; Grianti, Paolo; Pagani, Massimiliano; Bonaldi, Tiziana; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Friedman, Nir; Camilloni, Giorgio; Bianchi, Marco E.; Agresti, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    The basic unit of genome packaging is the nucleosome, and nucleosomes have long been proposed to restrict DNA accessibility both to damage and to transcription. Nucleosome number in cells was considered fixed, but recently aging yeast and mammalian cells were shown to contain fewer nucleosomes. We show here that mammalian cells lacking High Mobility Group Box 1 protein (HMGB1) contain a reduced amount of core, linker, and variant histones, and a correspondingly reduced number of nucleosomes, possibly because HMGB1 facilitates nucleosome assembly. Yeast nhp6 mutants lacking Nhp6a and -b proteins, which are related to HMGB1, also have a reduced amount of histones and fewer nucleosomes. Nucleosome limitation in both mammalian and yeast cells increases the sensitivity of DNA to damage, increases transcription globally, and affects the relative expression of about 10% of genes. In yeast nhp6 cells the loss of more than one nucleosome in four does not affect the location of nucleosomes and their spacing, but nucleosomal occupancy. The decrease in nucleosomal occupancy is non-uniform and can be modelled assuming that different nucleosomal sites compete for available histones. Sites with a high propensity to occupation are almost always packaged into nucleosomes both in wild type and nucleosome-depleted cells; nucleosomes on sites with low propensity to occupation are disproportionately lost in nucleosome-depleted cells. We suggest that variation in nucleosome number, by affecting nucleosomal occupancy both genomewide and gene-specifically, constitutes a novel layer of epigenetic regulation. PMID:21738444

  13. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substantial Harm Criteria C Appendix C to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The flowchart provided in Attachment C-I...

  19. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Substantiality test. 1.528-4 Section 1.528-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Homeowners Associations § 1.528-4 Substantiality test. (a) In general. In...

  20. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  1. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  2. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  3. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  4. 20 CFR 627.477 - Governor's determination of substantial violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governor's determination of substantial... Standards § 627.477 Governor's determination of substantial violation. (a) Except as provided at paragraph (d) of this section, if, as a result of financial and compliance audits or otherwise, the...

  5. Differentiating between substantiated, suspected, and unsubstantiated maltreatment in Canada.

    PubMed

    Trocmé, Nico; Knoke, Della; Fallon, Barbara; MacLaurin, Bruce

    2009-02-01

    The decision to substantiate is a key factor in determining eligibility for services and decisions to press criminal charges or to remove a child, and it is frequently the basis for selecting samples of maltreated children or to measure recidivism or intervention effectiveness. Although there is a growing body of research on case substantiation in the United States, few studies have examined this decision in other jurisdictions. Using data from the 2003 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, this study examines the profiles of a national sample of 10,010 investigations. Multivariate analyses reveal that substantiation decisions are generally made in a fashion that is relatively consistent with the clinical characteristics of cases. Along with severity of harm, parent risk factors, and housing risk factors, police referrals are among the most important predictors of case substantiation. Cases involving multiple forms of maltreatment are also more likely to be substantiated. PMID:18710956

  6. Reduction of aircraft gas turbine engine pollutant emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    To accomplish simultaneous reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen, required major modifications to the combustor. The modification most commonly used was a staged combustion technique. While these designs are more complicated than production combustors, no insurmountable operational difficulties were encountered in either high pressure rig or engine tests which could not be resolved with additional normal development. The emission reduction results indicate that reductions in unburned hydrocarbons were sufficient to satisfy both near and far-termed EPA requirements. Although substantial reductions were observed, the success in achieving the CO and NOx standards was mixed and depended heavily on the engine/engine cycle on which it was employed. Technology for near term CO reduction was satisfactory or marginally satisfactory. Considerable doubt exists if this technology will satisfy all far-term requirements.

  7. The reduction of surface plasmon losses in quasi-suspended graphene

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovkin, Alexander M.; Tao, Jin; Chao Yu, Xue; Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Jie Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Highly confined surface plasmons on graphene attract substantial interest as potential information carriers for highly integrated photonic data processing circuits. However, plasmon losses remain the main obstacle for implementation of such devices. In near-field microscopic experiments performed at the wavelength of 10 μm we show that a substantial reduction of plasmon damping can be achieved by placing a nanometric polymer nano-dots spacer between the graphene layer and the supporting silicon oxide slab making graphene quasi-suspended. We argue that reduction of plasmon losses is attributed to weaker coupling with substrate phonons in the quasi-suspended graphene. PMID:25943185

  8. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  9. Noise Reduction of Aircraft Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.

  10. 26 CFR 1.507-6 - Substantial contributor defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... taxable years. Status as a substantial contributor, however, will date from the time when the donor first... October 9, 1969, H (W's spouse at the time of the 1941 gift) is considered to have made such...

  11. 26 CFR 1.274-5 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantiation requirements. 1.274-5 Section 1.274-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible § 1.274-5 Substantiation requirements. (a)-(b) . For further guidance, see § 1.274-5T(a) and...

  12. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  13. Results of the pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A program was performed to evolve and demonstrate advanced combustor technology aimed at achieving the 1979 EPA standards for turboprop engines (Class P2). The engine selected for this program was the 501-D22A turboprop. Three combustor concepts were designed and tested in a combustor rig at the exact combustor operating conditions of the 50-D22A engine over the EPA landing-takeoff cycle. Each combustor concept exhibited pollutant emissions well below the EPA standards, achieving substantial reductions in unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and smoke emissions compared with emissions from the production combustor of this engine. Oxides of nitrogen emissions remained well below the EPA standards, also.

  14. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  15. Method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water

    DOEpatents

    Chapman-Irwin, Patricia; Feist, Thomas Paul

    2002-04-02

    A method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water is disclosed. The method includes providing a multilayer cell comprising two solid, non porous current collectors, separated by two porous electrodes with a separator between the two electrodes, sealing the cell with a reclosable hermetic closure. Water inside the closure is dissociated by an applied voltage to the cell and escapes in the form of hydrogen and oxygen when the closure is unmated, the closure is then mated to hermetically seal the cell which is substantially free of water.

  16. 76 FR 38961 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... / Tuesday, July 5, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and... Substantial Equivalence Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to establish procedures...

  17. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a substantial owner. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for... does not exceed the limitation (as of the date the reportable event occurs) under section...

  18. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distribution to a substantial owner. 4043.27 Section 4043.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a...

  19. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a substantial owner. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for... does not exceed the limitation (as of the date the reportable event occurs) under section...

  20. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution to a substantial owner. 4043.27 Section 4043.27 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a...

  1. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a substantial owner. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for... does not exceed the limitation (as of the date the reportable event occurs) under section...

  2. 77 FR 35245 - Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... entitled ``Department Programs and Activities Excluded from Executive Order 12372,'' (50 FR 47034). However... October 14, 2011, (76 FR 63846), the agency requested comments regarding implementing the Substantially... Guarantees. The Catalog is available on the Internet at http://www.cfda.gov . Executive Order 12372...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  8. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Substantial compliance with application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  9. 76 FR 737 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this proposed rule to establish procedures for requesting an exemption from the substantial equivalence requirements of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The proposed rule would describe the process and statutory criteria for requesting an exemption and explain how FDA would review requests for......

  10. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substantial compliance with application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  11. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Substantial compliance with application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  12. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity. 7.105-2 Section 7.105-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... because of a physical or mental impairment accepts sheltered employment in a protected environment...

  13. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity. 7.105-2 Section 7.105-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... because of a physical or mental impairment accepts sheltered employment in a protected environment...

  14. Mistreatment in Assisted Living Facilities: Complaints, Substantiations, and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Linda R.; Guo, Guifang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Use archived public data from Arizona to explore relationships among selected institutional and resident risk and situation-specific factors and complaints and substantiated allegations of various types of mistreatment in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Design and Methods: An exploratory/descriptive 2-group design was…

  15. 29 CFR 4.12 - Substantial interest proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures set forth at 29 CFR part 6. (f) Referral to the Administrative Review Board. When the person or... accordance with the procedures set forth at 29 CFR part 8. ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Substantial interest proceedings. 4.12 Section 4.12...

  16. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  17. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  18. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  19. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  20. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  1. 15 CFR 970.209 - Substantial compliance with application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substantial compliance with application requirements. 970.209 Section 970.209 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL...

  2. Radon reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, M.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials.

  3. Substantial Life Extension and the Fair Distribution of Healthspans.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging technologies. However, the practical and ethical drawbacks of banning receive little attention, and the viability of alternative policies is seldom considered. Moreover, where ethicists do propose alternatives, there is scant effort to consider their merits in light of developing world priorities. In response to these shortcomings, I distinguish four policy options and, on the basis of a plausible intuition about fairness, evaluate their implications for a fair distribution of healthy lifespans. I claim that even in developing nations it would be fairest to favor policies that promote equal access to at least one promising category of substantially life-extending intervention: calorie restriction mimetics. PMID:27465775

  4. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. PMID:25312387

  5. Automatic Filtering and Substantiation of Drug Safety Signals

    PubMed Central

    Bauer-Mehren, Anna; van Mullingen, Erik M.; Avillach, Paul; Carrascosa, María del Carmen; Garcia-Serna, Ricard; Piñero, Janet; Singh, Bharat; Lopes, Pedro; Oliveira, José L.; Diallo, Gayo; Ahlberg Helgee, Ernst; Boyer, Scott; Mestres, Jordi; Sanz, Ferran; Kors, Jan A.; Furlong, Laura I.

    2012-01-01

    Drug safety issues pose serious health threats to the population and constitute a major cause of mortality worldwide. Due to the prominent implications to both public health and the pharmaceutical industry, it is of great importance to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which an adverse drug reaction can be potentially elicited. These mechanisms can be investigated by placing the pharmaco-epidemiologically detected adverse drug reaction in an information-rich context and by exploiting all currently available biomedical knowledge to substantiate it. We present a computational framework for the biological annotation of potential adverse drug reactions. First, the proposed framework investigates previous evidences on the drug-event association in the context of biomedical literature (signal filtering). Then, it seeks to provide a biological explanation (signal substantiation) by exploring mechanistic connections that might explain why a drug produces a specific adverse reaction. The mechanistic connections include the activity of the drug, related compounds and drug metabolites on protein targets, the association of protein targets to clinical events, and the annotation of proteins (both protein targets and proteins associated with clinical events) to biological pathways. Hence, the workflows for signal filtering and substantiation integrate modules for literature and database mining, in silico drug-target profiling, and analyses based on gene-disease networks and biological pathways. Application examples of these workflows carried out on selected cases of drug safety signals are discussed. The methodology and workflows presented offer a novel approach to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse drug reactions. PMID:22496632

  6. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of funds withheld by the Department, in accordance with the provisions of 45 CFR 30.13. ... Section 1355.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  7. Substantiating the need to apply a sociocultural lens to the preparation of teachers in an effort to achieve science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Mara

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative, sociocultural study examines how teacher preparation programs may have deliberate impact on science reform by unearthing the complex layers of diversity inherent in the contextual reality of education. This study was conducted in one of the largest school districts in the Southeastern United States, serving a predominately Hispanic population comprising 65 % of its student body, followed by African Americans at 24 %. The representative subjects utilized for this study were elementary education undergraduate students and later a percentage of the same subjects, as practicing teachers in the field. All subjects were exposed to inquiry based methodology in science teaching as part of their undergraduate studies with emphasis on the learning cycle, facilitation of student voice and exposure to the nature of science. The goal of science education was emphasized to students as purposeful in promoting scientific literacy. This study is framed by sociocultural theory grounded in a social constructivist paradigm with the understanding that science learning takes place within social and collaborative processes leading to internalization and greater sense of self-efficacy. The study examines the perception of education students' beliefs about scientists as well as reflections on their own learning of science as elementary students themselves. As present practicing teachers, perspectives from their position in the field were obtained via interviews. Interviews served to elicit reflections on present practice as related to previous perceptions, in order to analyze whether these were pervasive in framing practice as well as self-perceptions related to science. A lack of change of these perceptions may underscore the importance of an emphasis on issues of gender, culture and social factors within teacher preparation, specific to science teaching and learning. Cognizance of such factors are believed to support internalization and hence greater understanding of the complexities framing science teaching and learning, leading to an actual paradigm shift in our elementary science classrooms.

  8. 45 CFR 1355.36 - Withholding Federal funds due to failure to achieve substantial conformity or failure to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of 45 CFR 30.18. ... Section 1355.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  9. Cost analysis for compliance with EPA's regional NOx emissions reductions for fossil-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.; Mann, A.; Ward, J.; Ramezan, M.

    1999-07-01

    To achieve a more stringent ambient-air ozone standard promulgated in 1997, the U.S. EPA has established summer NOx emissions limits for fossil-fired electric power generating units in the Ozone Transport Rulemaking region, consisting of 22 eastern and midwestern states and the District of Columbia. These jurisdictions are required to submit State Implementation Plans by September 1999 in response to EPA's rule, with compliance required by 2007. There are 1757 affected units in this region. In the present study, projected state-by-state growth rates for power production are used to estimate power production and NOx emissions by unit in the year 2007. NOx emissions reductions expected by January 1, 2000 due to Title IV compliance are estimated, leaving a substantial balance of emissions reductions to be achieved by post-combustion NOx control. Cost estimates are developed for achieving these remaining reductions.

  10. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  11. Variance Reduction for a Discrete Velocity Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Goldstein, D. B.

    2011-05-01

    We extend a variance reduction technique developed by Baker and Hadjiconstantinou [1] to a discrete velocity gas. In our previous work, the collision integral was evaluated by importance sampling of collision partners [2]. Significant computational effort may be wasted by evaluating the collision integral in regions where the flow is in equilibrium. In the current approach, substantial computational savings are obtained by only solving for the deviations from equilibrium. In the near continuum regime, the deviations from equilibrium are small and low noise evaluation of the collision integral can be achieved with very coarse statistical sampling. Spatially homogenous relaxation of the Bobylev-Krook-Wu distribution [3,4], was used as a test case to verify that the method predicts the correct evolution of a highly non-equilibrium distribution to equilibrium. When variance reduction is not used, the noise causes the entropy to undershoot, but the method with variance reduction matches the analytic curve for the same number of collisions. We then extend the work to travelling shock waves and compare the accuracy and computational savings of the variance reduction method to DSMC over Mach numbers ranging from 1.2 to 10.

  12. RF Sputtering for preparing substantially pure amorphous silicon monohydride

    DOEpatents

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1982-10-12

    A process for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous silicon hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  13. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  14. Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.

  15. Method and apparatus for a substantially coaxial injector element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Mark D. (Inventor); Miyata, Shinjiro (Inventor); Farhangi, Shahram (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A system to provide a two piece robust fluid injector. According to various embodiments, the fluid injector is a fuel injector for a combustion engine. The injector includes two coaxially formed annuluses. One annulus is formed in a face plate and the second annulus or hole is defined by a tube extending through the face plate. The tube extends through the face plate in a portion of a through bore which also is used to define the second annulus. The second annulus is formed using a throughbore through which the tube extends. This allows the second annulus to always be formed inherently and precisely substantially coaxial with the first annulus. Moreover, the second annulus can be formed with a much greater tolerance than if other independent components needed to be added.

  16. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  17. Metal-Catalyzed β-Functionalization of Michael Acceptors through Reductive Radical Addition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Streuff, Jan; Gansäuer, Andreas

    2015-11-23

    Transition-metal-catalyzed radical reactions are becoming increasingly important in modern organic chemistry. They offer fascinating and unconventional ways for connecting molecular fragments that are often complementary to traditional methods. In particular, reductive radical additions to α,β-unsaturated compounds have recently gained substantial attention as a result of their broad applicability in organic synthesis. This Minireview critically discusses the recent landmark achievements in this field in context with earlier reports that laid the foundation for today's developments. PMID:26471460

  18. Neutron star glitches have a substantial minimum size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, C. M.; Antonopoulou, D.; Stappers, B. W.; Watts, A.; Lyne, A. G.

    2014-05-01

    Glitches are sudden spin-up events that punctuate the steady spin-down of pulsars and are thought to be due to the presence of a superfluid component within neutron stars. The precise glitch mechanism and its trigger, however, remain unknown. The size of glitches is a key diagnostic for models of the underlying physics. While the largest glitches have long been taken into account by theoretical models, it has always been assumed that the minimum size lay below the detectability limit of the measurements. In this paper we define general glitch detectability limits and use them on 29 yr of daily observations of the Crab pulsar, carried out at Jodrell Bank Observatory. We find that all glitches lie well above the detectability limits and by using an automated method to search for small events we are able to uncover the full glitch size distribution, with no biases. Contrary to the prediction of most models, the distribution presents a rapid decrease of the number of glitches below ˜0.05 μHz. This substantial minimum size indicates that a glitch must involve the motion of at least several billion superfluid vortices and provides an extra observable which can greatly help the identification of the trigger mechanism. Our study also shows that glitches are clearly separated from all the other rotation irregularities. This supports the idea that the origin of glitches is different to that of timing noise, which comprises the unmodelled random fluctuations in the rotation rates of pulsars.

  19. Familial Influences on Recantation in Substantiated Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P; Rivard, Jillian R; Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A

    2016-08-01

    The underlying reasons for recantation in children's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been debated in recent years. In the present study, we examined the largest sample of substantiated CSA cases involving recantations to date (n = 58 cases). We specifically matched those cases to 58 nonrecanters on key variables found to predict recantation in prior research (i.e., child age, alleged parent figure perpetrator, and caregiver unsupportiveness). Bivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when they were (1) initially removed from home postdisclosure and (2) initially separated from siblings postdisclosure. Multivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed belief in the children's allegations and more likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed disbelief in the allegations and when visitations with the alleged perpetrator were recommended at their first hearing. Results have implications for understanding the complex ways in which social processes may motivate some children to retract previous reports of sexual abuse. PMID:27234520

  20. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    DOEpatents

    Bharacharya, Raghuthan; Parilla, Philip A.; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material.

  1. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    DOEpatents

    Bharacharya, R.; Parilla, P.A.; Blaugher, R.D.

    1995-12-19

    A process is disclosed for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material. 3 figs.

  2. Substantial proportion of global streamflow less than three months old

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, Scott; Kirchner, James W.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycles, contaminant transport and chemical weathering are regulated by the speed at which precipitation travels through landscapes and reaches streams. Streamflow is a mixture of young and old precipitation, but the global proportions of these young and old components are not known. Here we analyse seasonal cycles of oxygen isotope ratios in rain, snow and streamflow compiled from 254 watersheds around the world, and calculate the fraction of streamflow that is derived from precipitation that fell within the past two or three months. This young streamflow accounts for about a third of global river discharge, and comprises at least 5% of discharge in about 90% of the catchments we investigated. We conclude that, although typical catchments have mean transit times of years or even decades, they nonetheless can rapidly transmit substantial fractions of soluble contaminant inputs to streams. Young streamflow is less prevalent in steeper landscapes, which suggests they are characterized by deeper vertical infiltration. Because young streamflow is derived from less than 0.1% of global groundwater storage, we conclude that this thin veneer of aquifer storage will have a disproportionate influence on stream water quality.

  3. Substantial SNP-based heritability estimates for working memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, C; Gschwind, L; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Milnik, A; Egli, T; Heck, A; de Quervain, D J-F; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is an important endophenotype in neuropsychiatric research and its use in genetic association studies is thought to be a promising approach to increase our understanding of psychiatric disease. As for any genetically complex trait, demonstration of sufficient heritability within the specific study context is a prerequisite for conducting genetic studies of that trait. Recently developed methods allow estimating trait heritability using sets of common genetic markers from genome-wide association study (GWAS) data in samples of unrelated individuals. Here we present single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates (h2SNP) for a WM phenotype. A Caucasian sample comprising a total of N=2298 healthy and young individuals was subjected to an N-back WM task. We calculated the genetic relationship between all individuals on the basis of genome-wide SNP data and performed restricted maximum likelihood analyses for variance component estimation to derive the h2SNP estimates. Heritability estimates for three 2-back derived WM performance measures based on all autosomal chromosomes ranged between 31 and 41%, indicating a substantial SNP-based heritability for WM traits. These results indicate that common genetic factors account for a prominent part of the phenotypic variation in WM performance. Hence, the application of GWAS on WM phenotypes is a valid method to identify the molecular underpinnings of WM. PMID:25203169

  4. Television noise reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.

  5. ''Substantial Margin of Safety'': A New Approach to HLW Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Power, M. S.

    2002-02-28

    In the Spring of 2001, the National Research Council published ''Disposition of High-Level Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Continuing Societal and Technical Challenges.'' (1) While finding the technical case for deep geologic disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel robust, the report focused new attention on societal issues and decision-making. The report appeared against a backdrop of heightened controversy about the development of a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper identifies three principal reasons for the National Research Council committee's finding that ''Difficulties in achieving public support have been seriously underestimated in the past, and opportunities to gain public trust have been missed.''

  6. Substantial Alterations of the Cutaneous Bacterial Biota in Psoriatic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhan; Tseng, Chi-hong; Strober, Bruce E.; Pei, Zhiheng; Blaser, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    For psoriasis, an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the skin, the microbial biota has not been defined using cultivation-independent methods. We used broad-range 16S rDNA PCR for archaea and bacteria to examine the microbiota of normal and psoriatic skin. From 6 patients, 19 cutaneous samples (13 from diseased skin and 6 from normal skin) were obtained. Extracted DNA was subjected to the broad range PCR, and 1,925 cloned products were compared with 2,038 products previously reported from healthy persons. Using 98% sequence identity as a species boundary, 1,841 (95.6%) clones were similar to known bacterial 16S rDNA, representing 6 phyla, 86 genera, or 189 species-level operational taxonomic unit (SLOTU); 84 (4.4%) clones with <98% identity probably represented novel species. The most abundant and diverse phylum populating the psoriatic lesions was Firmicutes (46.2%), significantly (P<0.001) overrepresented, compared to the samples from uninvolved skin of the patients (39.0%) and healthy persons (24.4%). In contrast, Actinobacteria, the most prevalent and diverse phylum in normal skin samples from both healthy persons (47.6%) and the patients (47.8%), was significantly (P<0.01) underrepresented in the psoriatic lesion samples (37.3%). Representation of Propionibacterium species were lower in the psoriatic lesions (2.9±5.5%) than from normal persons (21.1±18.2%; P<0.001), whereas normal skin from the psoriatic patients showed intermediate levels (12.3±21.6%). We conclude that psoriasis is associated with substantial alteration in the composition and representation of the cutaneous bacterial biota. PMID:18648509

  7. The effects of alcohol use on academic achievement in high school.

    PubMed

    Balsa, Ana I; Giuliano, Laura M; French, Michael T

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's GPA abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that increases in alcohol consumption result in small yet statistically significant reductions in GPA for male students and in statistically non-significant changes for females. For females, however, higher levels of drinking result in self-reported academic difficulty. The fixed-effects results are substantially smaller than OLS estimates, underscoring the importance of addressing unobserved individual heterogeneity. PMID:21278841

  8. By how much does dietary salt reduction lower blood pressure? III--Analysis of data from trials of salt reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Law, M R; Frost, C D; Wald, N J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the reduction in blood pressure achieved in trials of dietary salt reduction is quantitatively consistent with estimates derived from blood pressure and sodium intake in different populations, and, if so, to estimate the impact of reducing dietary salt on mortality from stroke and ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN--Analysis of the results of 68 crossover trials and 10 randomised controlled trials of dietary salt reduction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Comparison of observed reductions in systolic blood pressure for each trial with predicted values calculated from between population analysis. RESULTS--In the 45 trials in which salt reduction lasted four weeks or less the observed reductions in blood pressure were less than those predicted, with the difference between observed and predicted reductions being greatest in the trials of shortest duration. In the 33 trials lasting five weeks or longer the predicted reductions in individual trials closely matched a wide range of observed reductions. This applied for all age groups and for people with both high and normal levels of blood pressure. In people aged 50-59 years a reduction in daily sodium intake of 50 mmol (about 3 g of salt), attainable by moderate dietary salt reduction would, after a few weeks, lower systolic blood pressure by an average of 5 mm Hg, and by 7 mm Hg in those with high blood pressure (170 mm Hg); diastolic blood pressure would be lowered by about half as much. It is estimated that such a reduction in salt intake by a whole Western population would reduce the incidence of stroke by 22% and of ischaemic heart disease by 16% [corrected]. CONCLUSIONS--The results from the trials support the estimates from the observational data in the accompanying two papers. The effect of universal moderate dietary salt reduction on mortality from stroke and ischaemic heart disease would be substantial--larger, indeed, than could be achieved by fully implementing recommended policy for

  9. Substantial optical dielectric enhancement by volume compression in LiAsSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fan; Brehm, John A.; Young, Steve M.; Kim, Youngkuk; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-05-01

    Based on first-principles calculations, we predict a substantial increase in the optical dielectric function of LiAsSe2 under pressure. We find that the optical dielectric constant is enhanced threefold under compression along all three axes by 3%. This enhancement is mainly due to the dimerization strength reduction of the one-dimensional (1D) As-Se chains in LiAsSe2, which significantly alters the wave function phase mismatch between two neighboring chains and changes the transition intensity. By developing a tight-binding model of the interacting 1D chains, the essential features of the low-energy electronic structure of LiAsSe2 are captured. Our findings are important for understanding the fundamental physics of LiAsSe2 and provide a feasible way to enhance the material optical response that can be applied to light harvesting for energy applications.

  10. Reduction of wind tunnel wall interference by controlled wall flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, S. (Editor); Joppa, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    An alternate method of testing was developed in which flow through the porous walls of the tunnel was actively controlled so as to approximate free air conditions in the neighborhood of the model during the test. The amount and distribution of the controlled flow through the walls is computed using a potential flow representation of the model based on the measured lift. Theoretical analysis is presented to prove the convergence of the method to free air conditions and to substantiate the general three-dimensional theory of operation when the normal flow distribution is continuous. A two-dimensional tunnel was constructed to evaluate the concept. Results show that substantial reduction of wall interference may be achieved with relatively low values of porosity of actively controlled walls.

  11. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  12. Financing Class Size Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Class size reduction has been shown to, among other things, improve academic achievement for all students and particularly for low-income and minority students. With the No Child Left Behind Act's heavy emphasis on scientifically based research, adequate yearly progress, and disaggregated results, one wonders why all children aren't enrolled in…

  13. Using scenario tree modelling for targeted herd sampling to substantiate freedom from disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to optimise the cost-effectiveness of active surveillance to substantiate freedom from disease, a new approach using targeted sampling of farms was developed and applied on the example of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) in Switzerland. Relevant risk factors (RF) for the introduction of IBR and EBL into Swiss cattle farms were identified and their relative risks defined based on literature review and expert opinions. A quantitative model based on the scenario tree method was subsequently used to calculate the required sample size of a targeted sampling approach (TS) for a given sensitivity. We compared the sample size with that of a stratified random sample (sRS) with regard to efficiency. Results The required sample sizes to substantiate disease freedom were 1,241 farms for IBR and 1,750 farms for EBL to detect 0.2% herd prevalence with 99% sensitivity. Using conventional sRS, the required sample sizes were 2,259 farms for IBR and 2,243 for EBL. Considering the additional administrative expenses required for the planning of TS, the risk-based approach was still more cost-effective than a sRS (40% reduction on the full survey costs for IBR and 8% for EBL) due to the considerable reduction in sample size. Conclusions As the model depends on RF selected through literature review and was parameterised with values estimated by experts, it is subject to some degree of uncertainty. Nevertheless, this approach provides the veterinary authorities with a promising tool for future cost-effective sampling designs. PMID:21843367

  14. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction in severe emphysema.

    PubMed

    Ingenito, Edward P; Wood, Douglas E; Utz, James P

    2008-05-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) produces physiological, symptomatic, and survival benefits in selected patients with advanced emphysema. Because it is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost, nonsurgical alternatives for achieving volume reduction have been developed. Three bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) approaches have shown promise and reached later-stage clinical trials. These include the following: (1) placement of endobronchial one-way valves designed to promote atelectasis by blocking inspiratory flow; (2) formation of airway bypass tracts using a radiofrequency catheter designed to facilitate emptying of damaged lung regions with long expiratory times; and (3) instillation of biological adhesives designed to collapse and remodel hyperinflated lung. The limited clinical data currently available suggest that all three techniques are reasonably safe. However, efficacy signals have been substantially smaller and less durable than those observed after LVRS. Studies to optimize patient selection, refine treatment strategies, characterize procedural safety, elucidate mechanisms of action, and characterize short- and longer-term effectiveness of these approaches are ongoing. Results will be available over the next few years and will determine whether BLVR represents a safe and effective alternative to LVRS. PMID:18453355

  15. Reducing the White-Nonwhite Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Madelaine

    It is well documented that there continues to be a gap between white and nonwhite student achievement. A study develops and tests a measure of white-nonwhite achievement gap reduction. The ultimate purpose is to use the measure as the dependent variable in a qualitative study of what works in reducing the gap. The strategy used in addressing this…

  16. Characterizing the distribution and rates of microbial sulfate reduction at Middle Valley hydrothermal vents

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kiana L; Rogers, Daniel R; Olins, Heather C; Vidoudez, Charles; Girguis, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have directly measured sulfate reduction at hydrothermal vents, and relatively little is known about how environmental or ecological factors influence rates of sulfate reduction in vent environments. A better understanding of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in hydrothermal vent ecosystems may be achieved by integrating ecological and geochemical data with metabolic rate measurements. Here we present rates of microbially mediated sulfate reduction from three distinct hydrothermal vents in the Middle Valley vent field along the Juan de Fuca Ridge, as well as assessments of bacterial and archaeal diversity, estimates of total biomass and the abundance of functional genes related to sulfate reduction, and in situ geochemistry. Maximum rates of sulfate reduction occurred at 90 °C in all three deposits. Pyrosequencing and functional gene abundance data revealed differences in both biomass and community composition among sites, including differences in the abundance of known sulfate-reducing bacteria. The abundance of sequences for Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms and higher sulfate reduction rates at elevated temperatures suggests that Thermodesulfovibro-like organisms may have a role in sulfate reduction in warmer environments. The rates of sulfate reduction presented here suggest that—within anaerobic niches of hydrothermal deposits—heterotrophic sulfate reduction may be quite common and might contribute substantially to secondary productivity, underscoring the potential role of this process in both sulfur and carbon cycling at vents. PMID:23535916

  17. Why cirrus cloud seeding cannot substantially cool the planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Blaž; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    The net warming effect of cirrus clouds has driven part of the geoengineering research toward the idea of decreasing their occurrence frequency by seeding them with efficient ice nucleating particles. We study responses of cirrus clouds to simplified global seeding strategies in terms of their radiative fluxes with the help of the ECHAM-HAM general circulation model. Our cirrus scheme takes into account the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing, preexisting ice crystals, and the full spectrum of updraft velocities. While we find that the cirrus cloud radiative effect evaluated from our model is positive and large enough (5.7 W/m2) to confirm their geoengineering potential, none of the seeding strategies achieves a significant cooling due to complex microphysical mechanisms limiting their climatic responses. After globally uniform seeding is applied, we observe an increase in cirrus cloud cover, a decrease in ice crystal number concentration, and a decrease in ice crystal radius. An analysis of their respective radiative contributions points to the ice crystal radius decrease as the main factor limiting seeding effectiveness.

  18. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  19. Comparative RNA sequencing reveals substantial genetic variation in endangered primates

    PubMed Central

    Perry, George H.; Melsted, Páll; Marioni, John C.; Wang, Ying; Bainer, Russell; Pickrell, Joseph K.; Michelini, Katelyn; Zehr, Sarah; Yoder, Anne D.; Stephens, Matthew; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Gilad, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Comparative genomic studies in primates have yielded important insights into the evolutionary forces that shape genetic diversity and revealed the likely genetic basis for certain species-specific adaptations. To date, however, these studies have focused on only a small number of species. For the majority of nonhuman primates, including some of the most critically endangered, genome-level data are not yet available. In this study, we have taken the first steps toward addressing this gap by sequencing RNA from the livers of multiple individuals from each of 16 mammalian species, including humans and 11 nonhuman primates. Of the nonhuman primate species, five are lemurs and two are lorisoids, for which little or no genomic data were previously available. To analyze these data, we developed a method for de novo assembly and alignment of orthologous gene sequences across species. We assembled an average of 5721 gene sequences per species and characterized diversity and divergence of both gene sequences and gene expression levels. We identified patterns of variation that are consistent with the action of positive or directional selection, including an 18-fold enrichment of peroxisomal genes among genes whose regulation likely evolved under directional selection in the ancestral primate lineage. Importantly, we found no relationship between genetic diversity and endangered status, with the two most endangered species in our study, the black and white ruffed lemur and the Coquerel's sifaka, having the highest genetic diversity among all primates. Our observations imply that many endangered lemur populations still harbor considerable genetic variation. Timely efforts to conserve these species alongside their habitats have, therefore, strong potential to achieve long-term success. PMID:22207615

  20. Comparison of Behavior Modification Approaches to Smoking Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Albert R.; Mcfall, Richard M.

    1971-01-01

    A Stimulus satiation technique and gradual reduction approach were compared to a cold turkey approach and a taste aversion technique (special pill to create cigarette aversion). All showed substantial initial reduction, but considerable relapse at a six month followup. (CJ)

  1. Exact alpha-error determination for two-stage sampling strategies to substantiate freedom from disease.

    PubMed

    Kopacka, I; Hofrichter, J; Fuchs, K

    2013-05-01

    Sampling strategies to substantiate freedom from disease are important when it comes to the trade of animals and animal products. When considering imperfect tests and finite populations, sample size calculation can, however, be a challenging task. The generalized hypergeometric formula developed by Cameron and Baldock (1998a) offers a framework that can elegantly be extended to multi-stage sampling strategies, which are widely used to account for disease clustering at herd-level. The achieved alpha-error of such surveys, however, typically depends on the realization of the sample and can differ from the pre-calculated value. In this paper, we introduce a new formula to evaluate the exact alpha-error induced by a specific sample. We further give a numerically viable approximation formula and analyze its properties using a data example of Brucella melitensis in the Austrian sheep population. PMID:23103193

  2. Substantiation of Reference Method For Determining Concrete's Freeze-Thaw Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolskiy, S.; Pertseva, O.

    2016-04-01

    It has been analytically proved that using concrete's rate of set e as a measure of damage, instead of decreasing of tensile strength R, increases freeze-thaw resistance's accuracy of estimation a lot under otherwise equal conditions by the time of freeze-thaw cycling. Also it has been experimentally shown that ratio of relative decreasing R to ε in direction, perpendicular to compression, is assumed to be independent on values R and ε for a given concrete and on the ways of achieving them during mechanical or freeze-thaw cycling. Taking this into account patented methods for estimation of concrete's freeze-thaw resistance as per values R and e received after freezing and thawing cycles of some specimens and their postliminary failure by linear compression was substantiated.

  3. Copper removal from water by chemical reduction with sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Lahoz, C.; Garcia-Herruzo, F.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Rodriguez, J.J. )

    1992-09-01

    The use of NaBH{sub 4} as a chemical reductant to precipitate copper from water has been studied. Initial Cu{sup 2+} concentrations of 25 and 40 mg have been checked, and complete removal can be achieved. When solid NaBH{sub 4} is fed, BH{sub 4}{sup {minus}} to Cu{sup 2+} molar ratios higher than 2 were needed. This can be substantially improved by using NaBH{sub 4} as a stabilized alkaline solution. A kinetic model is proposed which gives information about the relative rates of the two competitive reactions involved (Cu{sup 2+} and water reduction with BH{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) and allows the operating conditions leading to minimum BH{sub 4}{sup {minus}} consumption to be established.

  4. 26 CFR 1.6662-5T - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial and gross valuation misstatements... Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-5T Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter... related to section 482—(i) Substantial valuation misstatement. There is a substantial...

  5. RNAi-Mediated, Selective, and Substantial Reduction in Gossypol Levels From Cottonseed to Enhance Its Food and Feed Value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual, worldwide cottonseed output can potentially provide the protein requirements of half a billion people if it could be used directly as food. However, the presence of gossypol within seed-glands renders cottonseed toxic to humans and monogastric animals. Therefore, elimination of gossypol fr...

  6. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  7. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  8. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  9. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  10. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  11. Results of the pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A program was performed to evolve and demonstrate advanced combustor technology aimed at achieving the 1979 EPA standards for turboprop engines (Class P2). The engine selected for this program was the 501-D22A turboprop manufactured by Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors Corporation. Three combustor concepts were designed and tested in a combustor rig at the exact combustor operating conditions of the 501-D22A engine over the EPA landing-takeoff cycle. Each combustor concept exhibited pollutant emissions well below the EPA standards, achieving substantial reductions in unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and smoke emissions compared with emissions from the production combustor of this engine. Oxides of nitrogen emissions remained well below the EPA standards, also.

  12. Geometry Mediated Drag Reduction in Taylor-Couette Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raayai, Shabnam; McKinley, Gareth

    2015-11-01

    Micro-scale ribbed surfaces have been shown to be able to modify surface properties such as skin friction on both natural and fabricated surfaces. Previous experiments have shown that ribbed surfaces can reduce skin friction in turbulent flow by up to 4-8% in the presence of zero or mild pressure gradients. Our previous computations have shown a substantial reduction in skin friction using micro-scaled ribs of sinusoidal form in high Reynolds number laminar boundary layer flow. The mechanism of this reduction is purely viscous, through a geometrically-controlled retardation of the flow in the grooves of the surface. The drag reduction achieved depends on the ratio of the amplitude to the wavelength of the surface features and can be presented as a function of the wavelength expressed in dimensionless wall units. Here we extend this work, both experimentally and numerically, to consider the effect of similar ribs on steady viscous flow between concentric cylinders (Taylor-Couette flow). For the experimental work, the inner rotating cylinder (rotor) is machined with stream-wise V-groove structures and experiments are performed with fluids of different viscosity to compare the measured frictional torques to the corresponding values on a smooth flat rotor as a measure of drag reduction. The numerical work is performed using the OpenFOAM®open source software to compare the results and understand the physical mechanisms underlying this drag reduction phenomenon.

  13. Noise reduction in fossil power plant draft fans

    SciTech Connect

    Koopmann, G.H.; Neise, W.

    1983-10-01

    Using a 20 in. dia fan noise testing facility, which was constructed at the University of Houston for this project, it has been demonstrated that a substantial reduction in the noise level of a centrifugal fan which has a pronounced tone can be achieved by incorporating a quarter-wavelength resonator in the fan casing near the cut-off part of the scroll. The resonator is tuned to the blade passing frequency of the fan by adjusting its length. It acts to reduce the level of the tonal component of the noise by cancelling the sound producing pressure pulses generated by the interaction of the fluid leaving the impeller blades with the solid cut-off of the fan casing. By proper tuning of the resonator and placement of the resonator's perforated mouth near the cut-off region where the pressure fluctuations are most intense, reductions of up to 20 dB in the sound pressure level of the blade passing frequency tone have been observed. Integration of the resonator into the fan casing design provides noise level reductions in both inlet and outlet ducts simultaneously. Reductions are independent of changes in duct impedance due to different end conditions. While the noise reduction method is effective over a wide range of aerodynamic loading conditions, it does not adversely affect the performance of the fan.

  14. Achieving cost reductions in EOSDIS operations through technology evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsome, Penny; Moe, Karen; Harberts, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The earth observing system (EOS) data information system (EOSDIS) mission includes the cost-effective management and distribution of large amounts of data to the earth science community. The effect of the introduction of new information system technologies on the evolution of EOSDIS is considered. One of the steps taken by NASA to enable the introduction of new information system technologies into the EOSDIS is the funding of technology development through prototyping. Recent and ongoing prototyping efforts and their potential impact on the performance and cost-effectiveness of the EOSDIS are discussed. The technology evolution process as it related to the effective operation of EOSDIS is described, and methods are identified for the support of the transfer of relevant technology to EOSDIS components.

  15. Mn2O3 Slurry Achieving Reduction of Slurry Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishii, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Ko; Hanawa, Kenzo; Watanabe, Satoru; Arimoto, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Doi, Toshiro K.

    2012-04-01

    Fumed silica is widely used for SiO2 chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In semiconductor processes, only fresh slurry is used, the used slurry being disposed of. We have demonstrated that Mn2O3 abrasive slurry polishes dielectric SiO2 film, giving 4 times the removal rate of conventional fumed silica slurry. The higher removal rate reduces the total amount of slurry used, consequently reducing the amount of used slurry waste. The removal rate of Mn2O3 slurry remains constant for solid concentrations between l and 10 wt %, and stays constant without pad conditioning. These characteristics are very useful for slurry reuse. Remanufacture of Mn2O3 slurry from used slurry has been demonstrated, and the removal rates of the remanufactured and fresh slurries are the same. Reuse and remanufacturing drastically reduce the amount of waste.

  16. The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Rasheed, Sabrina; Hussain, Zakir; Chen, Lincoln C

    2013-11-23

    Bangladesh, the eighth most populous country in the world with about 153 million people, has recently been applauded as an exceptional health performer. In the first paper in this Series, we present evidence to show that Bangladesh has achieved substantial health advances, but the country's success cannot be captured simplistically because health in Bangladesh has the paradox of steep and sustained reductions in birth rate and mortality alongside continued burdens of morbidity. Exceptional performance might be attributed to a pluralistic health system that has many stakeholders pursuing women-centred, gender-equity-oriented, highly focused health programmes in family planning, immunisation, oral rehydration therapy, maternal and child health, tuberculosis, vitamin A supplementation, and other activities, through the work of widely deployed community health workers reaching all households. Government and non-governmental organisations have pioneered many innovations that have been scaled up nationally. However, these remarkable achievements in equity and coverage are counterbalanced by the persistence of child and maternal malnutrition and the low use of maternity-related services. The Bangladesh paradox shows the net outcome of successful direct health action in both positive and negative social determinants of health--ie, positives such as women's empowerment, widespread education, and mitigation of the effect of natural disasters; and negatives such as low gross domestic product, pervasive poverty, and the persistence of income inequality. Bangladesh offers lessons such as how gender equity can improve health outcomes, how health innovations can be scaled up, and how direct health interventions can partly overcome socioeconomic constraints. PMID:24268002

  17. 20 CFR 416.1226 - What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... substantially reduce your dependence on SSI or eliminate your need for title II disability benefits; Example 1: A Substantial Reduction Exists. Your SSI monthly payment amount is $101 and your PASS employment goal earnings will reduce your SSI payment by $90. We may consider that to be a substantial...

  18. Exploring potential mortality reductions in 9 European countries by improving diet and lifestyle: A modelling approach

    PubMed Central

    O'Flaherty, M.; Bandosz, P.; Critchley, J.; Capewell, S.; Guzman-Castillo, M.; Aspelund, T.; Bennett, K.; Kabir, K.; Björck, L.; Bruthans, J.; Hotchkiss, J.W.; Hughes, J.; Laatikainen, T.; Palmieri, L.; Zdrojewski, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) death rates have fallen across most of Europe in recent decades. However, substantial risk factor reductions have not been achieved across all Europe. Our aim was to quantify the potential impact of future policy scenarios on diet and lifestyle on CHD mortality in 9 European countries. Methods We updated the previously validated IMPACT CHD models in 9 European countries and extended them to 2010–11 (the baseline year) to predict reductions in CHD mortality to 2020(ages 25–74 years). We compared three scenarios: conservative, intermediate and optimistic on smoking prevalence (absolute decreases of 5%, 10% and 15%); saturated fat intake (1%, 2% and 3% absolute decreases in % energy intake, replaced by unsaturated fats); salt (relative decreases of 10%, 20% and 30%), and physical inactivity (absolute decreases of 5%, 10% and 15%). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results Under the conservative, intermediate and optimistic scenarios, we estimated 10.8% (95% CI: 7.3–14.0), 20.7% (95% CI: 15.6–25.2) and 29.1% (95% CI: 22.6–35.0) fewer CHD deaths in 2020. For the optimistic scenario, 15% absolute reductions in smoking could decrease CHD deaths by 8.9%–11.6%, Salt intake relative reductions of 30% by approximately 5.9–8.9%; 3% reductions in saturated fat intake by 6.3–7.5%, and 15% absolute increases in physical activity by 3.7–5.3%. Conclusions Modest and feasible policy-based reductions in cardiovascular risk factors (already been achieved in some other countries) could translate into substantial reductions in future CHD deaths across Europe. However, this would require the European Union to more effectively implement powerful evidence-based prevention policies. PMID:26812643

  19. 20 CFR 416.1181 - What is a plan to achieve self-support (PASS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dependence on SSI or eliminate your need for title II disability benefits; Example 1: A Substantial Reduction Exists. Your SSI monthly payment amount is $101 and your PASS employment goal earnings will reduce your SSI payment by $90. We may consider that to be a substantial reduction. Example 2: A...

  20. Clarithromycin substantially increases steady-state bosentan exposure in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Christoph; Schweizer, Yvonne; Hellwig, Regina; Wirsching, Theresia; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Burhenne, Juergen; Weiss, Johanna; Mikus, Gerd; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 inhibitor clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of bosentan. We also aimed to evaluate the impact of CYP2C9 and SLCO1B1 (encoding for OATP1B1) genotypes and their combination. Methods We assessed the effect of the OATP and CYP3A inhibitor clarithromycin on bosentan pharmacokinetics at steady state and concurrently quantified changes of CYP3A activity using midazolam as a probe drug. Sixteen healthy volunteers received therapeutic doses of bosentan (125 mg twice daily) for 14 days and clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily) concomitantly for the last 4 days, and bosentan pharmacokinetics was assessed on days 1, 10 and 14. Results Clarithromycin significantly increased bosentan area under the plasma concentration–time curve of the dosing interval 3.7-fold and peak concentration 3.8-fold in all participants irrespective of the genotype. Clarithromycin also reduced CYP3A activity (midazolam clearance) in all participants; however, these changes were not correlated to the changes of bosentan clearance. Conclusions Clarithromycin substantially increases the exposure to bosentan, suggesting that dose reductions may be necessary. PMID:23738582

  1. Future runoff from glacierized catchments in the Central Andes could substantially decrease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, Marlene; Schauwecker, Simone; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Drenkhan, Fabian; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Kaser, Georg; Suarez, Wilson; García Hernández, Javier; Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Ayros, Edwin; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    during the dry season when glacier melt water used to represent substantial amounts of total runoff in high Andean catchments. Seasonal shifts of water availability may be mitigated by artificial reservoirs, but possible reductions of annual runoff cannot be compensated by such constructions. Furthermore, these possible water shortages may interact with other climatic and non-climatic stressors as well as socioeconomic drivers such as agroindustrial development leading to an increased need of comprehensive adaptation strategies.

  2. 24 CFR 115.201 - The two phases of substantial equivalency certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The two phases of substantial... ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.201 The two phases of.... The Department has developed a two-phase process of substantial equivalency certification....

  3. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E (section 671...

  4. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  5. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  6. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  7. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  8. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determining substantial financial risk and majority... Provider-Sponsored Organizations § 422.356 Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (a) Determining substantial financial risk. The PSO must demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction...

  9. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  10. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  11. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  12. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  13. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  14. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  15. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  9. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  10. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  11. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  14. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J.; Marczak, Stanislaw

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  15. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  16. Finishing the Job: Improving the Achievement of Vocational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Presson, Alice

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB)-State Vocational Education Consortium's commitment to higher standards for and greater achievement of vocational students has brought substantial gains in student performance. SREB's High Schools That Work (HSTW), a school improvement initiative, documents achievement gains by vocational students. Data…

  17. Warming in the Yukon River Basin is Likely to Release Substantial Amounts of Soil Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juday, G. P.; Huntington, T. G.

    2005-12-01

    In recent decades the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in northwestern Canada and central Alaska has experienced a substantial warming trend resulting in a variety of geophysical and biological responses. Climatologic measurements consistent with rapid warming in the YRB during the last several decades of the 20th century include surface air temperature (especially daily minima), number of frost-free days, and the number of very warm days. During the 20th century daily maxima in the warm season in the YRB have increased only weakly, and modest autumn cooling occurred. Indirect indicators of warming include shrinkage in lake area, decreases in glacier mass, increased fire frequency and annual area burned, and changes in permafrost thickness and permafrost temperature. Changes in tree growth rates and susceptibility to pests have been related to warming and drying in interior Alaska. Oral histories of Alaska Natives have also revealed many other warming related changes in the YRB. If ongoing warming trends continue there is a concern that large stores of soil organic carbon (SOC) will be at risk for release to the atmosphere through heterotrophic decomposition. Warming tends to accelerate microbial decomposition at a faster rate than net primary productivity. One of the most important effects of warming in the YRB is likely to be its influence on the hydrologic and cryospheric regimes. Warming may be accompanied by soil drying and lowering of the water table in wetlands and lakes exposing more SOC to aerobic decomposition. A substantial portion of the YRB is underlain by permafrost that thaws to a variable depth (active layer) each summer. Increasing the thickness of the active layer exposes more SOC to microbial decomposition. Increasing the burned area results in direct SOC losses by oxidation during the fire and decreases albedo that warms surface soils and increases the thickness of the active layer. Warming and increasing length of the growing season increases seasonal

  18. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  19. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  20. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  1. Substantiation of the mechanism of biphoton nonresonance excitation of molecules of bacteriochlorophyll of purple bacteria by femtosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. Yu.

    2010-11-01

    In a series of published experimental works, there has been observed nonresonance biphoton excitation, by femtosecond IR pulses (1250-1500 nm) of molecules of bacteriochlorophyll-a and the pigment in the composition of light-absorbing natural "antenna" complexes of photosynthesizing purple bacteria. The authors of these works believe that IR quanta excite hypothetical forbidden levels of pigments of these bacteria in the dual frequency range of 625-750 nm. In this study, an alternative mechanism of intramolecular electron transport apparently responsible for this phenomenon is suggested and substantiated. The mechanism should manifest itself in powerful electric fields, which are achieved in the pulses of picofemtosecond lasers.

  2. Substantially reduced pre-patent parasite multiplication rates are associated with naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Douglas, A D; Andrews, L; Draper, S J; Bojang, K; Milligan, P; Gilbert, S C; Imoukhuede, E B; Hill, A V S

    2011-05-01

    Naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum's asexual blood stage reduces parasite multiplication at microscopically detectable densities. The effect of natural immunity on initial prepatent parasite multiplication during the period following a new infection has been uncertain, contributing to doubt regarding the utility of experimental challenge models for blood-stage vaccine trials. Here we present data revealing that parasite multiplication rates during the initial prepatent period in semi-immune Gambian adults are substantially lower than in malaria-naive participants. This supports the view that a blood-stage vaccine capable of emulating the disease-reducing effect of natural immunity could achieve a detectable effect during the prepatent period. PMID:21459819

  3. Soil respiration contributes substantially to urban carbon fluxes in the greater Boston area.

    PubMed

    Decina, Stephen M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Gately, Conor K; Getson, Jackie M; Reinmann, Andrew B; Short Gianotti, Anne G; Templer, Pamela H

    2016-05-01

    Urban areas are the dominant source of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (FFCO2) emissions. In the absence of binding international treaties or decisive U.S. federal policy for greenhouse gas regulation, cities have also become leaders in greenhouse gas reduction efforts through climate action plans. These plans focus on anthropogenic carbon flows only, however, ignoring a potentially substantial contribution to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations from biological respiration. Our aim was to measure the contribution of CO2 efflux from soil respiration to atmospheric CO2 fluxes using an automated CO2 efflux system and to use these measurements to model urban soil CO2 efflux across an urban area. We find that growing season soil respiration is dramatically enhanced in urban areas and represents levels of CO2 efflux of up to 72% of FFCO2 within greater Boston's residential areas, and that soils in urban forests, lawns, and landscaped cover types emit 2.62 ± 0.15, 4.49 ± 0.14, and 6.73 ± 0.26 μmolCO2 m(-2) s(-1), respectively, during the growing season. These rates represent up to 2.2 times greater soil respiration than rates found in nearby rural ecosystems in central Massachusetts (MA), a potential consequence of imported carbon amendments, such as mulch, within a general regime of landowner management. As the scientific community moves rapidly towards monitoring, reporting, and verification of CO2 emissions using ground based approaches and remotely-sensed observations to measure CO2 concentrations, our results show that measurement and modeling of biogenic urban CO2 fluxes will be a critical component for verification of urban climate action plans. PMID:26914093

  4. Industrial Waste Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-24

    US industry generates over 12 billion tons of wastes each year. These wastes consist of undesirable by-products of industrial production that are discarded into our environment. Energy is an integral part of these wastes; it is found in the embodied energy of industrial feedstocks not optimally used, in the energy content of the wastes themselves, and in the energy needed to transport, treat, and dispose of wastes. Estimates of the potential energy savings from reducing industrial wastes range from three to four quadrillion Btu per year -- enough to meet the annual energy needs of 30 million American homes. This document presents a plan for the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which has been designed to help achieve national goals for energy efficiency and waste minimization. The objective of the program is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes through cost-effective waste reduction. The initial program focus is on waste reduction opportunities in the production and use of chemicals, due to the significant amount of energy used in these activities and the large amounts of hazardous and toxic wastes they generate. The chemical industry will be the initial subject of a series of waste reduction opportunity assessments conducted as part of the program. Assessments of other industries and waste problems will follow.

  5. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  6. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... substantiation of environmental marketing claims. Section 5 of the FTC Act makes unlawful deceptive acts and... deceptive or unsubstantiated environmental advertising claims. A current list of environmental...

  7. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  8. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  9. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  10. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  11. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  12. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  13. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  14. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  15. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  16. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  17. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  18. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  19. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  20. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  1. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  2. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  3. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  4. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  5. 26 CFR 1.7874-3T - Substantial business activities (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rules in § 1.7874-2T(g), as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 12, 2012, or the rules set... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substantial business activities (temporary). 1... Substantial business activities (temporary). (a) Scope. This section provides rules regarding whether...

  6. 20 CFR 220.29 - Work that is considered substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment § 220.29 Work that is considered substantial gainful activity. Work is considered to be substantial gainful activity if it— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties... activity. 220.29 Section 220.29 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER...

  7. 20 CFR 220.29 - Work that is considered substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Employment § 220.29 Work that is considered substantial gainful activity. Work is considered to be substantial gainful activity if it— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties... activity. 220.29 Section 220.29 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER...

  8. 20 CFR 220.29 - Work that is considered substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Employment § 220.29 Work that is considered substantial gainful activity. Work is considered to be substantial gainful activity if it— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties... activity. 220.29 Section 220.29 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER...

  9. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  10. 26 CFR 1.103-11 - Bonds held by substantial users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bonds held by substantial users. 1.103-11 Section 1.103-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103-11 Bonds held by substantial users. (a) In...

  11. 26 CFR 1.103-11 - Bonds held by substantial users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bonds held by substantial users. 1.103-11 Section 1.103-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103-11 Bonds held by substantial users. (a) In...

  12. 26 CFR 1.103-11 - Bonds held by substantial users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bonds held by substantial users. 1.103-11 Section 1.103-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103-11 Bonds held by substantial users. (a) In...

  13. 26 CFR 1.103-11 - Bonds held by substantial users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds held by substantial users. 1.103-11 Section 1.103-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103-11 Bonds held by substantial users. (a) In...

  14. 26 CFR 1.103-11 - Bonds held by substantial users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bonds held by substantial users. 1.103-11 Section 1.103-11 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103-11 Bonds held by substantial users. (a) In...

  15. 26 CFR 1.162-17 - Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting and substantiation of certain business... Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-17 Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees... reporting of information on income tax returns by taxpayers who pay or incur ordinary and necessary...

  16. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  17. 24 CFR 247.10 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired. 247.10 Section 247.10 Housing and Urban... SUBSIDIZED AND HUD-OWNED PROJECTS HUD-Owned Projects § 247.10 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation... of substantial rehabilitation or demolition. Nothing in this subpart should be construed to affect...

  18. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  19. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  20. 24 CFR 247.10 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired. 247.10 Section 247.10 Housing and Urban... SUBSIDIZED AND HUD-OWNED PROJECTS HUD-Owned Projects § 247.10 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation... of substantial rehabilitation or demolition. Nothing in this subpart should be construed to affect...

  1. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  2. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence...

  3. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence...

  4. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence...

  5. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  6. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6043-3 - Return regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a). 1.6043-3..., termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a). (a) In... organization was exempt from taxation under section 501(a) shall provide the information will respect to...

  8. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  9. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged... Practice Requirements § 601.507 Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized... perjury) that the recognized representative prepared such submission and that the facts contained...

  10. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged... Practice Requirements § 601.507 Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized... perjury) that the recognized representative prepared such submission and that the facts contained...

  11. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged... Practice Requirements § 601.507 Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized... perjury) that the recognized representative prepared such submission and that the facts contained...

  12. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged... Practice Requirements § 601.507 Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized... perjury) that the recognized representative prepared such submission and that the facts contained...

  13. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Substantially bond-financed buildings. 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings....

  14. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substantially bond-financed buildings. 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings....

  15. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substantially bond-financed buildings. 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings....

  16. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substantially bond-financed buildings. 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings....

  17. 26 CFR 1.42-7 - Substantially bond-financed buildings. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Substantially bond-financed buildings. 1.42-7 Section 1.42-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.42-7 Substantially bond-financed buildings....

  18. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a... organization no longer exempt from taxation under section 501(a) and that during the period of its...

  4. 26 CFR 1.6662-5 - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...—(1) Substantial valuation misstatement. There is a substantial valuation misstatement if the value or... value or adjusted basis of any property claimed on a return of tax imposed under chapter 1 is 400... property-by-property basis. Assume, for example, that property A has a value of 60 but a taxpayer claims...

  5. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Substantial gainful activity by blind employee... § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is 55 years old or older is entitled to an O/M benefit based on disability while he or she is working...

  6. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Substantial gainful activity by blind employee... § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is 55 years old or older is entitled to an O/M benefit based on disability while he or she is working...

  7. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    DOEpatents

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  8. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature

  9. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  10. Experimental assessment of drag reduction by traveling waves in a turbulent pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auteri, F.; Baron, A.; Belan, M.; Campanardi, G.; Quadrio, M.

    2010-11-01

    We experimentally assess the capabilities of an active, open-loop technique for drag reduction in turbulent wall flows recently introduced by Quadrio et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 627, 161 (2009)]. The technique consists of generating streamwise-modulated waves of spanwise velocity at the wall, which travels in the streamwise direction. A proof-of-principle experiment has been devised to measure the reduction of turbulent friction in a pipe flow, in which the wall is subdivided into thin slabs that rotate independently in the azimuthal direction. Different speeds of nearby slabs provide, although in a discrete setting, the desired streamwise variation of transverse velocity. Our experiment confirms the available DNS results, and in particular, demonstrates the possibility of achieving large reductions of friction in the turbulent regime. Reductions up to 33% are obtained for slowly forward-traveling waves; backward-traveling waves invariably yield drag reduction, whereas a substantial drop of drag reduction occurs for waves traveling forward with a phase speed comparable to the convection speed of near-wall turbulent structures. A Fourier analysis is employed to show that the first harmonics introduced by the discrete spatial waveform that approximates the sinusoidal wave are responsible for significant effects that are indeed observed in the experimental measurements. Practical issues related to the physical implementation of this control scheme and its energetic efficiency are briefly discussed.

  11. Reduction of turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A. (Inventor); Brookfield, John M. (Inventor); Sell, Julian (Inventor); Hayden, Belva J. (Inventor); Ingard, K. Uno (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    In the invention, propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise characteristic of interaction of a turbomachine blade wake, produced by a turbomachine blade as the blade rotates, with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade, are reduced. This is accomplished by injection of fluid into the blade wake through a port in the rotor blade. The mass flow rate of the fluid injected into the blade wake is selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake. With this fluid injection, reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved. In a further noise reduction technique, boundary layer fluid is suctioned into the turbomachine blade through a suction port on the side of the blade that is characterized as the relatively low-pressure blade side. As with the fluid injection technique, the mass flow rate of the fluid suctioned into the blade is here selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake; reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved with this suction technique. Blowing and suction techniques are also provided in the invention for reducing noise associated with the wake produced by fluid flow around a stationary blade upstream of a rotating turbomachine.

  12. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  13. The Reciprocal Relations between Self-Concept, Motivation and Achievement: Juxtaposing Academic Self-Concept and Achievement Goal Orientations for Mathematics Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…

  14. Strategic focus on 3R principles reveals major reductions in the use of animals in pharmaceutical toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

  15. Strategic Focus on 3R Principles Reveals Major Reductions in the Use of Animals in Pharmaceutical Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Törnqvist, Elin; Annas, Anita; Granath, Britta; Jalkesten, Elisabeth; Cotgreave, Ian; Öberg, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    The principles of the 3Rs, Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, are being increasingly incorporated into legislations, guidelines and practice of animal experiments in order to safeguard animal welfare. In the present study we have studied the systematic application of 3R principles to toxicological research in the pharmaceutical industry, with particular focus on achieving reductions in animal numbers used in regulatory and investigatory in vivo studies. The work also details major factors influencing these reductions including the conception of ideas, cross-departmental working and acceptance into the work process. Data from 36 reduction projects were collected retrospectively from work between 2006 and 2010. Substantial reduction in animal use was achieved by different strategies, including improved study design, method development and project coordination. Major animal savings were shown in both regulatory and investigative safety studies. If a similar (i.e. 53%) reduction had been achieved simultaneously within the twelve largest pharmaceutical companies, the equivalent reduction world-wide would be about 150,000 rats annually. The results point at the importance of a strong 3R culture, with scientific engagement, collaboration and a responsive management being vital components. A strong commitment in leadership for the 3R is recommended to be translated into cross-department and inter-profession involvement in projects for innovation, validation and implementation. Synergies between all the three Rs are observed and conclude that in silico-, in vitro- and in vivo-methods all hold the potential for applying the reduction R and should be consequently coordinated at a strategic level. PMID:25054864

  16. 45 CFR 150.207 - Procedure for determining that a State fails to substantially enforce HIPAA requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... substantially enforce HIPAA requirements. 150.207 Section 150.207 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... HIPAA Requirements § 150.207 Procedure for determining that a State fails to substantially enforce HIPAA... is substantially enforcing HIPAA requirements....

  17. 45 CFR 150.207 - Procedure for determining that a State fails to substantially enforce HIPAA requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... substantially enforce HIPAA requirements. 150.207 Section 150.207 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... HIPAA Requirements § 150.207 Procedure for determining that a State fails to substantially enforce HIPAA... is substantially enforcing HIPAA requirements....

  18. 45 CFR 150.207 - Procedure for determining that a State fails to substantially enforce HIPAA requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... substantially enforce HIPAA requirements. 150.207 Section 150.207 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... HIPAA Requirements § 150.207 Procedure for determining that a State fails to substantially enforce HIPAA... is substantially enforcing HIPAA requirements....

  19. Drag reduction strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. Christopher

    1994-01-01

    previously a description was given of an active control scheme using wall transpiration that leads to a 15% reduction in surface skin friction beneath a turbulent boundary layer, according to direct numerical simulation. In this research brief further details of that scheme and its variants are given together with some suggestions as to how sensor/actuator arrays could be configured to reduce surface drag. The research which is summarized here was performed during the first half of 1994. This research is motivated by the need to understand better how the dynamics of near-wall turbulent flow can be modified so that skin friction is reduced. The reduction of turbulent skin friction is highly desirable in many engineering applications. Experiments and direct numerical simulations have led to an increased understanding of the cycle of turbulence production and transport in the boundary layer and raised awareness of the possibility of disrupting the process with a subsequent reduction in turbulent skin friction. The implementation of active feedback control in a computational setting is a viable approach for the investigation of the modifications to the flow physics that can be achieved. Bewley et al. and Hill describe how ideas from optimal control theory are employed to give 'sub-optimal' drag reduction schemes. The objectives of the work reported here is to investigate in greater detail the assumptions implicit within such schemes and their limitations. It is also our objective to describe how an array of sensors and actuators could be arranged and interconnected to form a 'smart' surface which has low skin friction.

  20. Substantiation and adverse appeal outcomes: content analysis and testing of Drake's harm/evidence model.

    PubMed

    Fakunmoju, Sunday Bolanle

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the influence of evidentiary and case characteristics on adverse appeal outcomes for substantiated cases of maltreatment. This article, therefore, reports on a sample of adverse appeal outcomes during a 2-year period. Using Drake's Harm/Evidence model to examine the adverse outcomes, the study describes differences between substantiated cases that were "modified" versus "overturned" during appeal, as well as differences in their evidentiary characteristics across different types of maltreatment. Content analysis and logistic regression analysis of administrative data were used to predict overturned versus modified outcome. Overall, child neglect, substantiated cases that did not meet basic evidentiary standards, and cases that were deemed as not credible were more likely to be overturned in comparison to being modified. A substantiation assessment framework (SAF) is developed and implications of Drake's Harm/Evidence model for investigating maltreatment as well as for understanding judicial decision making in appealed cases of maltreatment is highlighted. PMID:18612040

  1. 49 CFR 194.103 - Significant and substantial harm; operator's statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... plan review and approval, be treated as if it is expected to cause significant and substantial harm... a stress level greater than 50 percent of the specified minimum yield strength of the pipe, (4)...

  2. Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer

    DOEpatents

    Ankeny, Mark

    2016-03-29

    A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.

  3. [SUBSTANTIATION OF DOSE LIMITS FOR A NEW NORMATIVE DOCUMENT ON RADIATION SAFETY OF LONG-DURATION SPACE MISSIONS AT ORBIT ALTITUDES OF UP TO 500 KM].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Grigoriev, Yu G; Shafirkin, A V; Shurshakov, V A

    2016-01-01

    Review of the data of experimental radiobiology and epidemiological follow-up of large groups of people subjected to radiation exposures on Earth has been undertaken to substantiate dose limits for critical organs of cosmonauts in order to ensure good performance and vitality while on long-duration orbital missions. The career dose limits for cosmonauts and astronauts established earlier in the USSR and USA amounted to nothing more but banning the risk of cancer death increase to 3%. To apply more rigorous criteria of delayed radiation risks, the Russian limits for cosmonauts were revised to substantiate a 4-fold reduction of the average tissue equivalent dose maximum to 1 Sv. The total of cancer and non-cancer radiation risks over lifetime and probable reduction of mean life expectancy (MLE) were calculated using the model of radiation-induced mortality for mammals and taken as the main damage to health. The established dose limit is equal to the career dose for nuclear industry personnel set forth by Russian standard document NRB 99/2009. For better agreement of admissible threshold doses to critical human organs (bone marrow, lens and skin) in the revised radiation limits for long-duration space missions and radiation safety limits on Earth, reduction of dose limits for the critical organs were substantiated additionally; these limits comply with those for planned over-exposure on Earth in document NRB 99/2009. PMID:27347592

  4. Bosch CO2 Reduction System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. F.; King, C. D.; Keller, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    Development of a Bosch process CO2 reduction unit was continued, and, by means of hardware modifications, the performance was substantially improved. Benefits of the hardware upgrading were demonstrated by extensive unit operation and data acquisition in the laboratory. This work was accomplished on a cold seal configuration of the Bosch unit.

  5. Preload substantially influences the intervertebral disc stiffness in loading-unloading cycles of compression.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Schilling, Christoph; Dreischarf, Marcel

    2016-06-14

    Disc hydration is controlled by fluid imbibition and exudation and hence by applied load magnitude and history, internal osmotic pressure and disc conditions. It affects both the internal load distribution and external load-bearing of a disc while variations therein give rise to the disc time-dependent characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of changes in compression preload magnitude on the disc axial cyclic compression stiffness under physiological loading. After 20h of free hydration, effects of various preload magnitudes (no preload, 0.06 and 0.28MPa, applied for eight hours) and disc-bone preparation conditions on disc height and axial stiffness were investigated using 36 disc-bone and 24 isolated disc (without bony endplates) bovine specimens. After preloading, specimens were subjected to ten loading/unloading cycles each of 7.5min compression at 0.5MPa followed by 7.5min at 0.06MPa. Under 0.06MPa preload, the specimen height losses during high loading periods of cyclic loading were greater than corresponding height recoveries during low loading phases. This resulted in a progressive reduction in the specimen height and increase in its stiffness. Differences between disc height losses in high cyclic loads and between stiffness in both load increase and release phases were significant for 0 and 0.06MPa vs. 0.28MPa preload. Results highlight the significant role of disc preload magnitude/history and hence disc height and hydration on disc stiffness in loading/unloading and disc height loss in loading periods. Proper preconditioning and hence hydration level should be achieved if recovery in height loss similar to in vivo conditions is expected. PMID:27209550

  6. Scenario analysis to vehicular emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiurui; Fu, Liwei; Ji, Muse; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are increasingly becoming one of the important factors affecting the urban air quality in China. It is necessary and useful to policy makers to demonstrate the situation given the relevant pollutants reduction measures are taken. This paper predicted the reduction potentials of conventional pollutants (PM10, NOx, CO, HC) under different control strategies and policies in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during 2011-2020. There are the baseline and 5 control scenarios designed, which presented the different current and future possible vehicular emissions control measures. Future population of different kinds of vehicles were predicted based on the Gompertz model, and vehicle kilometers travelled estimated as well. After that, the emissions reduction under the different scenarios during 2011-2020 could be estimated using emission factors and activity level data. The results showed that, the vehicle population in the BTH region would continue to grow up, especially in Tianjin and Hebei. Comparing the different scenarios, emission standards updating scenario would achieve a substantial reduction and keep rising up for all the pollutants, and the scenario of eliminating high-emission vehicles can reduce emissions more effectively in short-term than in long-term, especially in Beijing. Due to the constraints of existing economical and technical level, the reduction effect of promoting new energy vehicles would not be significant, especially given the consideration of their lifetime impact. The reduction effect of population regulation scenario in Beijing cannot be ignorable and would keep going up for PM10, CO and HC, excluding NOx. Under the integrated scenario considering all the control measures it would achieve the maximum reduction potential of emissions, which means to reduce emissions of PM10, NOx, CO, HC, by 56%, 59%, 48%, 52%, respectively, compared to BAU scenario for the whole BTH region in 2020. PMID:27325548

  7. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  8. An adaptive model order reduction by proper snapshot selection for nonlinear dynamical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, P. S. B.; Anndif, M.; Teixeira, Y.; Pimenta, P. M.; Wriggers, P.

    2016-04-01

    Model Order Reduction (MOR) methods are employed in many fields of Engineering in order to reduce the processing time of complex computational simulations. A usual approach to achieve this is the application of Galerkin projection to generate representative subspaces (reduced spaces). However, when strong nonlinearities in a dynamical system are present and this technique is employed several times along the simulation, it can be very inefficient. This work proposes a new adaptive strategy, which ensures low computational cost and small error to deal with this problem. This work also presents a new method to select snapshots named Proper Snapshot Selection (PSS). The objective of the PSS is to obtain a good balance between accuracy and computational cost by improving the adaptive strategy through a better snapshot selection in real time (online analysis). With this method, it is possible a substantial reduction of the subspace, keeping the quality of the model without the use of the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD).

  9. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  10. The Australian paradox: a substantial decline in sugars intake over the same timeframe that overweight and obesity have increased.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Alan W; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-04-01

    Ecological research from the USA has demonstrated a positive relationship between sugars consumption and prevalence of obesity; however, the relationship in other nations is not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in obesity and sugar consumption in Australia over the past 30 years and to compare and contrast obesity trends and sugar consumption patterns in Australia with the UK and USA. Data on consumption of sugar in Australia, the UK and USA were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization for the years 1980-2003. The prevalence of obesity has increased 3 fold in Australians since 1980. In Australia, the UK and USA, per capita consumption of refined sucrose decreased by 23%, 10% and 20% respectively from 1980 to 2003. When all sources of nutritive sweeteners, including high fructose corn syrups, were considered, per capita consumption decreased in Australia (-16%) and the UK (-5%), but increased in the USA (+23%). In Australia, there was a reduction in sales of nutritively sweetened beverages by 64 million liters from 2002 to 2006 and a reduction in percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages between 1995 and 2007. The findings confirm an "Australian Paradox"--a substantial decline in refined sugars intake over the same timeframe that obesity has increased. The implication is that efforts to reduce sugar intake may reduce consumption but may not reduce the prevalence of obesity. PMID:22254107

  11. The Australian Paradox: A Substantial Decline in Sugars Intake over the Same Timeframe that Overweight and Obesity Have Increased

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Alan W.; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-01-01

    Ecological research from the USA has demonstrated a positive relationship between sugars consumption and prevalence of obesity; however, the relationship in other nations is not well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the trends in obesity and sugar consumption in Australia over the past 30 years and to compare and contrast obesity trends and sugar consumption patterns in Australia with the UK and USA. Data on consumption of sugar in Australia, the UK and USA were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization for the years 1980-2003. The prevalence of obesity has increased 3 fold in Australians since 1980. In Australia, the UK and USA, per capita consumption of refined sucrose decreased by 23%, 10% and 20% respectively from 1980 to 2003. When all sources of nutritive sweeteners, including high fructose corn syrups, were considered, per capita consumption decreased in Australia (−16%) and the UK (−5%), but increased in the USA (+23%). In Australia, there was a reduction in sales of nutritively sweetened beverages by 64 million liters from 2002 to 2006 and a reduction in percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages between 1995 and 2007. The findings confirm an “Australian Paradox”-a substantial decline in refined sugars intake over the same timeframe that obesity has increased. The implication is that efforts to reduce sugar intake may reduce consumption but may not reduce the prevalence of obesity. PMID:22254107

  12. Substantial differences in preparedness for emergency infection control measures among major hospitals in Japan: lessons from SARS.

    PubMed

    Imai, Teppei; Takahashi, Ken; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Hasegawa, Naoki; Chia, Sin Eng; Koh, David

    2006-06-01

    Emergency infection control measures are essential in hospitals. Although Japan was spared from the 2003 epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), hospitals were placed on high alert. The actual preparedness level of hospitals can be determined by examining individual perceptions among the hospital healthcare workers (HCWs). The objective of this study was to assess the level of preparedness of emergency infection control measures in Japan and to quantify the differences in preparedness across institutions and disciplines. From July to September 2003, a questionnaire survey concerning the perceptions of risks and countermeasures and knowledge about SARS was distributed at seven tertiary hospitals. Disciplines were categorized as emergency room (ER)/intensive care unit (ICU), surgical, medical, and "others". Of the 9978 questionnaires administered, 6929 valid responses were received and analyzed. After adjusting for age, sex, and job category, specific institutional measures (I-scores) were found to be more indicative of the level of preparedness across institutions and disciplines than were measures of overall effectiveness (E-scores) or knowledge of preventive measures (K-scores). In particular, the difference in I-scores was much more substantial across institutions than across disciplines. Across disciplines, surgical ranked lower than ER/ICU or medical. In conclusion, substantial differences in emergency infection control measures, as perceived by HCWs, exists among hospitals in Japan, with the differences across institutions exceeding those across disciplines. To achieve a higher level of preparedness for infectious diseases, institutions should designate and implement effective emergency infection control measures. PMID:16826344

  13. Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Acccord, or Midwestern Greenhouse gas Accord (MGA), is a regional agreement by governors of the states in the US Midwest and one Canadian province to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change. Signatories to the accord include the US states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Kansas, Ohio and South Dakota, and the Canadian Province of Manitoba. The accord, signed on November 15, 2007, established the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program, which aims to: establish greenhouse gas reduction targets and timeframes consistent with MGA member states' targets; develop a market-based and multi-sector cap-and-trade mechanism to help achieve those reduction targets; establish a system to enable tracking, management, and crediting for entities that reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and develop and implement additional steps as needed to achieve the reduction targets, such as a low-carbon fuel standards and regional incentives and funding mechanisms. The GHG registry will be managed by the Climate Registry, which manages the registry for other US state schemes. One of the first actions was to convene an Energy Security under Climate Stewardship Platform to guide future development of the Midwest's energy economy.

  14. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  15. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  16. Self-Regulation and Achievement Goals in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Edwards, Kelcey

    2011-01-01

    Although the causes of achievement are many and varied, it is widely assumed that "motivation" and "self-regulation" are crucial determinants of academic performance. Substantial evidence indicates that students who focus on learning and understanding course material are more likely to perform well academically (Dweck and Leggett, 1988).…

  17. L2 Teacher Characteristics as Predictors of Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbari, Ramin; Allvar, Nabi Karimi

    2010-01-01

    There is a substantial research base, mainly in mainstream education, acknowledging that teachers have a great impact on student achievement. However, as far as we know, little if any empirical evidence exists to enable us to determine which set of English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher characteristics correlates with positive student…

  18. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  19. Alliance for a Healthy Border: factors related to weight reduction and glycemic success.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohui; Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia; Pagán, José A; Balboa, Marvelia

    2012-04-01

    We examined the factors related to success in achieving weight reduction and glycemic control in Alliance for a Healthy Border (AHB), a chronic disease prevention program implemented from 2006 to 2009 through 12 federally qualified community health centers serving primarily Hispanics in communities located along the US-Mexico border region. We analyzed data from Phase I of AHB using logistic regression to examine the determinants of success in achieving weight reduction and glycemic control among the participants in AHB programs. Factors affecting weight reduction success were sex, age, employment status, income, insurance, diabetes, baseline body mass index (BMI), smoking status, family history of diabetes, session type, program duration, and physical activity changes. Factors affecting achievement of glycemic success included sex, age, employment status, diabetes, baseline BMI, family history of diabetes, program duration, and physical activity changes. We found that the AHB interventions were more successful in reducing participants' HbA1c level than BMI. In addition to sociodemographic factors, participants with better baseline health conditions (ie, participants without diabetes or family history of diabetes, normal BMI, former smokers) were more likely to achieve success after the interventions. Of the 4 key features defining each of the 12 interventions, session type and program duration were associated with success. Within a relatively short time period, physical activity improvements had a stronger effect on weight reduction and glycemic success than improvements in dietary habits. The effectiveness of diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevention programs can be improved substantially by considering these factors during program design and structure. PMID:22506803

  20. Temperature limited heater with a conduit substantially electrically isolated from the formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie

    2009-07-14

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. A conduit may be located in an opening in the formation. The conduit includes ferromagnetic material. An electrical conductor is positioned inside the conduit, and is electrically coupled to the conduit at or near an end portion of the conduit so that the electrical conductor and the conduit are electrically coupled in series. Electrical current flows in the electrical conductor in a substantially opposite direction to electrical current flow in the conduit during application of electrical current to the system. The flow of electrons is substantially confined to the inside of the conduit by the electromagnetic field generated from electrical current flow in the electrical conductor so that the outside surface of the conduit is at or near substantially zero potential at 25.degree. C. The conduit may generate heat and heat the formation during application of electrical current.

  1. Single-walled carbon nanotube transparent conductive films fabricated by reductive dissolution and spray coating for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Ostfeld, Aminy E.; Arias, Ana Claudia; Catheline, Amélie; Ligsay, Kathleen; Kim, Kee-Chan; Fogden, Siân; Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio

    2014-12-22

    Solutions of unbundled and unbroken single-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared using a reductive dissolution process. Transparent conductive films spray-coated from these solutions show a nearly twofold improvement in the ratio of electrical conductivity to optical absorptivity versus those deposited from conventional aqueous dispersions, due to substantial de-aggregation and sizable nanotube lengths. These transparent electrodes have been utilized to fabricate P3HT-PCBM organic solar cells achieving power conversion efficiencies up to 2.3%, comparable to those of solar cells using indium tin oxide transparent electrodes.

  2. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Brown, David W.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure layer of an implantable element in a substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation.

  3. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U), i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.

  4. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U),more » i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.« less

  5. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction.

    PubMed

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth's history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U), i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth's crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. Additionally, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium. PMID:25902522

  6. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    PubMed Central

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U), i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. Additionally, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium. PMID:25902522

  7. Cu(II) - Catalyzed Hydrazine Reduction of Ferrous Nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Karraker, D.G.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses the results of a study of catalyzed hydrazine reduction of ferrous nitrate. It is apparent that there is a substantial reaction between hydrazine and nitrate ion (or nitric acid) to produce HN3 during both the reduction of Fe(III) and during storage at room temperature.

  8. 77 FR 25109 - Notice of Information and Evidence Necessary To Substantiate Claim

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Register (74 FR 65702), notifying the public of VA's intent to amend its regulations regarding its duty to... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN46 Notice of Information and Evidence Necessary To Substantiate Claim... amend its regulations regarding VA's duty to notify a claimant of the information and evidence...

  9. 16 CFR 1115.12 - Information which should be reported; evaluating substantial product hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Subject firms should not delay reporting in order to determine to a certainty the existence of a... preliminarily determine whether the product reported upon presents a substantial product hazard. This... reported, unless the subject firm has investigated and determined that the information is not...

  10. 29 CFR 4219.18 - Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal in a plan year in which substantially all employers withdraw. 4219.18 Section 4219.18 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY Redetermination...

  11. An Exploratory Study of Drug-Exposed Infants: Case Substantiation and Subsequent Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, An-Pyng; Freese, Margaret P.; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This study explores factors related to drug-exposed infants' case substantiation and subsequent child maltreatment. Child protective services computerized administrative data (from January 1998 to October 2001) were obtained from an urban Nevada county. The data included 457 drug-exposed infant cases. Chi-square, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and…

  12. Evaluating the Policies that Lead to Substantial Tuition Variation at Public Land-Grant Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Brent

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the current state of, and the causes for, the substantial variation in the tuition rates of America's land-grant universities. This aim was pursued with the objective of trying to identify consistent and revealing policies and external characteristics related to the high level of variation that exists among…

  13. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reasonable basis substantiating the claim. A reasonable basis consists of competent and reliable evidence. In... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... qualified to do so, using procedures generally accepted in the profession to yield accurate and...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... was furnished to B. The Service detects this omission through its document matching program and... authority is present—(i) Evaluation of authorities. There is substantial authority for the tax treatment of... ruling addressing the same issue. An older private letter ruling, technical advice memorandum,...

  15. 76 FR 32215 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Substantiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... the time of obtaining substantiation. In the Federal Register of January 6, 2000 (65 FR 1000), FDA... products marketed in the U.S. (65 FR 1000 at 1045). Assuming that the flow of new products is 10 percent..., most probably a structure/ function claim (65 FR 1000 at 1046). Therefore, we assume that...

  16. 26 CFR 31.6053-4 - Substantiation requirements for tipped employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantiation requirements for tipped employees. 31.6053-4 Section 31.6053-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Administrative...

  17. 76 FR 21639 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Utah State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Register (75 FR 70888) in which we proposed to find the Utah SIP substantially inadequate to attain or... over the years. See 75 FR 70889-891. We direct the reader there for such background information. We..., 2010. We subsequently extended the public comment period through January 3, 2011. See 75 FR...

  18. 24 CFR 103.100 - Notification and referral to substantially equivalent State or local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification and referral to substantially equivalent State or local agencies. 103.100 Section 103.100 Housing and Urban Development... may accept interim referrals under 24 CFR part 115 with regard to the alleged discriminatory...

  19. 16 CFR 1115.12 - Information which should be reported; evaluating substantial product hazard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in accordance with § 1115.11, about product use, experience, performance, design, or manufacture... control, or production data. (2) Information about safety-related production or design change(s). (3... appropriate, in determining the substantiality of a hazard created by a product defect: (i) Pattern of...

  20. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative. 601.507 Section 601.507 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Conference and Practice Requirements § 601.507...

  1. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental marketing claims. 260.5 Section 260.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.5 Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims. Section 5 of the FTC Act makes unlawful deceptive acts...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the relevant aspects of Federal tax law. (5) Pass-through entities. In the case of tax shelter items... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and...

  3. Multidisciplinary Child Protection Decision Making About Physical Abuse: Determining Substantiation Thresholds and Biases

    PubMed Central

    Jent, Jason F.; Eaton, Cyd K.; Knickerbocker, Lauren; Lambert, Walter F.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Dandes, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the threshold at which multidisciplinary child protection team (CPT) professionals substantiate physical abuse allegations and the extent that they utilize potentially biased constructs in their decision making when presented with the same case evidence. State legal definitions of child maltreatment are broad. Therefore, the burden of interpretation is largely on CPT professionals who must determine at what threshold physical acts by parents surpass corporal discipline and constitute child physical abuse. Biased or subjective decisions may be made if certain case-specific characteristics or CPT professionals’ personal characteristics are used in making physical abuse determinations. Case vignettes with visual depictions of inflicted injuries were sent to CPT professionals in Florida and their substantiation decisions, personal beliefs about corporal discipline, and coercive discipline were collected. Results of the study demonstrated relatively high agreement among professionals across vignettes about what constitutes physical abuse. Further, CPT professionals strongly considered their perceptions of the severity of inflicted injuries in substantiation decisions. Although case specific characteristics did not bias decisions in a systematic way, some CPT professional characteristics influenced the substantiation of physical abuse. Practice implications and future directions of research are discussed. PMID:21804681

  4. 16 CFR 260.2 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims. 260.2 Section 260.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS § 260.2 Interpretation...

  5. Cumulative Stress and Substantiated Maltreatment: The Importance of Caregiver Vulnerability and Adult Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wekerle, Christine; Wall, Anne-Marie; Leung, Eman; Trocme, Nico

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Our goal is to assess the effect of caregiver vulnerabilities, singly and in combination, on the substantiation of child abuse (physical, sexual) and neglect, while controlling for relevant background variables. We test the moderator role of adult partner violence in qualifying the relationship between caregiver vulnerabilities and…

  6. 24 CFR 901.200 - Events or conditions that constitute substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Events or conditions that..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING MANAGEMENT ASSESSMENT PROGRAM § 901.200 Events or conditions that constitute substantial default. (a) The Department may determine that events have occurred...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1.6662-4 Section 1.6662-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-4...

  8. 29 CFR 15.5 - Administrative claim; evidence or information to substantiate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administrative claim; evidence or information to... § 15.5 Administrative claim; evidence or information to substantiate. (a) Personal injury. In support... following evidence or information: (1) A written report by the attending physician or dentist setting...

  9. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  10. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  11. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  12. Electrochemical depassivation of zero-valent iron for trichloroethene reduction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Jin, Song; Fallgren, Paul H; Swoboda-Colberg, Norbert G; Liu, Fei; Colberg, Patricia J S

    2012-11-15

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) composed of zero-valent iron (ZVI) are susceptible to passivation, resulting in substantially decreased rates of chlorinated solvent removal over time. In this study, the application of low electrical direct current (DC) to restore the reductive capacity of passivated ZVI was examined. Electrical current was applied to a laboratory column reactor filled with a mixture of pre-passivated ZVI and sand. Variable voltage settings (0-12 V) were applied through two stainless steel electrodes placed at the ends of the reactor. While only partial restoration of the reductive capacity of the passivated ZVI was observed, higher rates of trichloroethene (TCE) removal were always obtained when current was applied, and the rates of TCE removal were roughly proportional to the voltage level. Although differences were observed between the rates and extent of TCE removal within the column, it is noteworthy that TCE removal was not restricted to that region of the column where the electrons entered (i.e., at the cathode). While complete "depassivation" of ZVI may be difficult to achieve in practice, the application of DC demonstrated observable restoration of reactivity of the passivated ZVI. This study provides evidence that this approach may significantly extend the life of a ZVI PRB. PMID:23009798

  13. Fluoroscopic dose reduction using a digital television nose-reduction device

    SciTech Connect

    Albow, R.C.; Jaffe, C.C.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Markowitz, R.I.; Rosenfield, N.S.

    1983-07-01

    A digital video image processor, connected to a video system in a conventional pediatric fluoroscopy room, was used to determine whether the device could provide satisfactory fluoroscopic images during routine examinations when the x-ray tube was operated at substantially lower than normal radiation-dose levels. A 50% reduction resulted in image quality which was indistinguishable from conventional fluoroscopic views.

  14. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  15. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  16. Coherent diffractive imaging: towards achieving atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Dietze, S H; Shpyrko, O G

    2015-11-01

    The next generation of X-ray sources will feature highly brilliant X-ray beams that will enable the imaging of local nanoscale structures with unprecedented resolution. A general formalism to predict the achievable spatial resolution in coherent diffractive imaging, based solely on diffracted intensities, is provided. The coherent dose necessary to reach atomic resolution depends significantly on the atomic scale structure, where disordered or amorphous materials require roughly three orders of magnitude lower dose compared with the expected scaling of uniform density materials. Additionally, dose reduction for crystalline materials are predicted at certain resolutions based only on their unit-cell dimensions and structure factors. PMID:26524315

  17. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  18. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  19. Harming the Best: How Schools Affect the Black-White Achievement Gap. NBER Working Paper No. 14211

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    Sizeable achievement differences by race appear in early grades, but substantial uncertainty exists about the impact of school quality on the black-white achievement gap and particularly about its evolution across different parts of the achievement distribution. Texas administrative data show that the overall growth in the achievement gap between…

  20. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Brown, David W.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure monocrystalline layer of an implantable element in a monocrystalline substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a monocrystalline substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation. Also disclosed is an article made by the process.

  1. Process for forming one or more substantially pure layers in substrate material using ion implantation

    DOEpatents

    Musket, R.G.; Brown, D.W.; Munir, Z.A.

    1990-12-11

    A process is disclosed for forming a substantially pure layer of an implantable element in a substrate material by (a) selecting an implantable element and a substrate material to be implanted which, at the temperatures to be used, have limited mutual solubility in one another and do not form any intermediate phases with one another; (b) implanting a sufficient amount of the implantable element in the substrate material to permit formation of the desired substantially pure layer of the implantable element in the substrate material; and (c) annealing the implanted substrate material to form the desired layer. The annealing step may not be required if the desired layer was formed during the implantation. 2 figs.

  2. Leaky domino-modes in regular arrays of substantially thick metal nanostrips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voroshilov, Pavel M.; Simovski, Constantin R.

    2016-07-01

    In previous works, an efficient light trapping performed by arrays of metal nanoantennas whose building block was a slightly tapered (trapezoidal) substantially thick nanostrip was revealed. This light trapping implied a broad spectrum of solar light concentrated in a subwavelength depth of the semiconductor substrate. This is a very advantageous feature allowing our structure to enhance thin-film solar cells. However, the physics of the broadband resonant absorption in the substrate was not investigated. In the present paper, we show that our arrays support so-called leaky domino-modes, responsible for such the light trapping. These modes are multipole oscillations of the array of substantially thick nanostrips. In this work we have thoroughly studied these leaky modes relating them to resonances of high-order multipole moments and to broadband light-trapping effect.

  3. What would happen to Superstorm Sandy under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Shi, J. J.; Tao, W. K.; Kim, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on ensemble numerical simulations, we find that possible responses of Sandy-like superstorms under the influence of a substantially warmer Atlantic Ocean bifurcate into two groups. In the first group, storms are similar to present-day Sandy from genesis to extratropical transition, except they are much stronger, with peak Power Destructive Index (PDI) increased by 50-80%, heavy rain by 30-50%, and maximum storm size (MSS) approximately doubled. In the second group, storms amplify substantially over the interior of the Atlantic warm pool, with peak PDI increased by 100-160%, heavy rain by 70-180%, and MSS more than tripled compared to present-day Superstorm Sandy. These storms when exiting the warm pool, recurve northeastward out to sea, subsequently interact with the developing midlatitude storm by mutual counterclockwise rotation around each other and eventually amplify into a severe Northeastern coastal storm, making landfall over the extreme northeastern regions from Maine to Nova Scotia.

  4. Operational health information exchanges show substantial growth, but long-term funding remains a concern.

    PubMed

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Bates, David W; Jha, Ashish K

    2013-08-01

    Policy makers are actively promoting the electronic exchange of health information to improve the quality and efficiency of health care. We conducted a national survey of organizations facilitating health information exchange, to assess national progress. We found that 30 percent of hospitals and 10 percent of ambulatory practices now participate in one of the 119 operational health information exchange efforts across the United States, substantial growth from prior surveys. However, we also found that 74 percent of health information exchange efforts report struggling to develop a sustainable business model. Our findings suggest that despite progress, there is a substantial risk that many current efforts to promote health information exchange will fail when public funds supporting these initiatives are depleted. PMID:23840051

  5. Do convective schemes substantially alter simulated global climate and cloud feedback?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, S. C.; Webb, M.; Lock, A.; Bretherton, C. S.; Bony, S.; Cole, J. N.; Idelkadi, A.; Kang, S. M.; Koshiro, T.; Kawai, H.; Ogura, T.; Roehrig, R.; Shin, Y.; Mauritsen, T.; Vial, J.; Watanabe, M.; Woelfle, M.; Zhao, M.; Cairns, C. W.; Vallis, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate CFMIP-2 AMIP and AMIP+4K experiments with ten climate models which have had their convective parametrizations turned off. Previous studies have suggested that parameterized convection may be a leading source of inter-model spread in cloud feedbacks and other aspects. We find that model biases in 'ConvOff' runs (those with the convective schemes switched off), for example in tropical lapse rate and relative humidity, are generally smaller than intermodel differences in these fields, in spite of the fact that these fields are widely thought to be controlled by convective processes. This suggests that, to a considerable extent, explicitly resolved convection is able to do most of the overall job of convection in modern climate models at least with respect to phenomena at large scales. We find moreover that 'ConvOff' models have a similar overall range of cloud feedbacks compared to the standard configurations. Furthermore, applying a simple bias correction method to allow for differences in present day global cloud radiative effects substantially reduces the differences between the cloud feedbacks with and without parametrized convection in the individual models. We conclude that, while parametrized convection influences the strength of the cloud feedbacks substantially in some models, other processes must also contribute substantially to the overall inter-model spread. The positive shortwave cloud feedbacks seen in the models in subtropical regimes associated with shallow clouds are still present in the ConvOff experiments. Inter-model spread in shortwave cloud feedback increases slightly in regimes associated with trade cumulus in the ConvOff experiments but is quite similar in the most stable sub-tropical regimes associated with stratocumulus clouds. Inter-model spread in longwave cloud feedbacks in strongly precipitating regions of the tropics is substantially reduced in the ConvOff experiments however, indicating a considerable local contribution

  6. Engineering-geological substantiation of the designs of underground hydraulic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kolichko, A.V.; Razumov, V.K.

    1987-08-01

    The characteristics of engineering-geological substantiation of tunnel facilities for hydroelectric power plants in the mountainous regions of Central Asia and the Caucasus are determined by the current tectonic, seismic, and geologic processes going on there. This paper proposes methodologies for constructing models that are responsive to the peculiarities of the region and that can be used to optimize the tunnels throughout design and construction.

  7. Personality Correlates of Over-Achievement and Under-Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, L. G.; Vernon, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    Canadian seventh-graders were given intelligence, mathematics, and English tests. These scores and their class grades were compared with personality questionnaire measures of aggression, self-concept, and attitudes. Substantial correlations were obtained between the ability and personality variables, with marked sex differences. (Author/SJL)

  8. A Novel Nonlinear Companding Transform for PAPR Reduction in Lattice-OFDM System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Siming; Shen, Yuehong; Yuan, Zhigang; Jian, Wei; Miao, Yuwei

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a novel companding scheme is proposed to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of lattice orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (LOFDM) system. By transforming the statistics of original signals into a specified distribution form, which is defined by a continuous sine function, this scheme can achieve a simple companding form as well as an improved PAPR and bit-error-rate (BER) performance. Moreover, by introducing the variable companding parameters in the desired probability density function (PDF), a great design flexibility in the companding form and an effective trade-off between the PAPR reduction and BER performance can be achieved to satisfy various system demands. The general formulas of the proposed scheme are derived and a theoretical analysis regarding the achievable transform gain and the selection criteria of companding parameters are also conducted. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can substantially outperform the conventional μ-law companding, exponential companding (EC), piecewise companding (PC) in terms of PAPR reduction, BER performance and bandwidth efficiency.

  9. Analog VLSI system for active drag reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, B.; Goodman, R.; Jiang, F.; Tai, Y.C.; Tung, S.; Ho, C.M.

    1996-10-01

    In today`s cost-conscious air transportation industry, fuel costs are a substantial economic concern. Drag reduction is an important way to reduce costs. Even a 5% reduction in drag translates into estimated savings of millions of dollars in fuel costs. Drawing inspiration from the structure of shark skin, the authors are building a system to reduce drag along a surface. Our analog VLSI system interfaces with microfabricated, constant-temperature shear stress sensors. It detects regions of high shear stress and outputs a control signal to activate a microactuator. We are in the process of verifying the actual drag reduction by controlling microactuators in wind tunnel experiments. We are encouraged that an approach similar to one that biology employs provides a very useful contribution to the problem of drag reduction. 9 refs., 21 figs.

  10. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  11. Noise reduction experience at Hughes Helicopter, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiram, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Noise reduction is mostly limited to light helicopters whose noise signature is dominated by their tail rotors. It is primarily hardware oriented. Well known noise reduction techniques such as reduction of rotor speeds with an accompanying increase in solidity to maintain performance, engine noise reduction with the use of exhaust mufflers, and acoustic blanketing of transmission and engine compartment are used. The concept of blade phasing as a means of reducing tail rotor noise is also used. Engine noise (exhaust noise), power train noise and airframe noise becomes important at low rotor tip speeds and means must be found to reduce these noise sources if further noise reductions are desired. The use of a special test rig aids in isolating the various noise sources and arriving at the penalties (performance or payload) involved in quieting them. Significant noise reduction are achieved for the light helicopter with minimum performance or weight penalties because of the dominance of a single noise source (the tail rotor).

  12. Social-Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap.

    PubMed

    Becker, Bronwyn E; Luthar, Suniya S

    2002-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social-emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social-emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students' learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social-emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  13. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  14. 26 CFR 1.678(a)-1 - Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Person other than grantor treated as substantial... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(a)-1 Person other than grantor treated as substantial owner; general rule....

  15. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  16. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  17. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  18. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  19. Drag reduction of a hairy disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Jun; Hu, David L.

    2011-10-01

    We investigate experimentally the hydrodynamics of a hairy disk immersed in a two-dimensional flowing soap film. Drag force is measured as a function of hair length, density, and coating area. An optimum combination of these parameters yields a drag reduction of 17%, which confirms previous numerical predictions (15%). Flow visualization indicates the primary mechanism for drag reduction is the bending, adhesion, and reinforcement of hairs trailing the disk, which reduces wake width and traps "dead water." Thus, the use of hairy coatings can substantially reduce an object's drag while negligibly increasing its weight.

  20. Vibration reduction in helicopter rotors using an active control surface located on the blade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millott, T. A.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1992-01-01

    A feasibility study of vibration reduction in a four-bladed helicopter rotor using individual blade control (IBC), which is implemented by an individually controlled aerodynamic surface located on each blade, is presented. For this exploratory study, a simple offset-hinged spring restrained model of the blade is used with fully coupled flap-lag-torsional dynamics for each blade. Deterministic controllers based on local and global system models are implemented to reduce 4/rev hub loads using both an actively controlled aerodynamic surface on each blade as well as conventional IBC, where the complete blade undergoes cyclic pitch change. The effectiveness of the two approaches for simultaneous reduction of the 4/rev hub shears and hub moments is compared. Conventional IBC requires considerably more power to achieve approximately the same level of vibration reduction as that obtained by implementing IBC using an active control surface located on the outboard segment of the blade. The effect of blade torsional flexibility on the vibration reduction effectiveness of the actively controlled surface was also considered and it was found that this parameter has a very substantial influence.

  1. Air quality and human health improvements from reductions in deforestation-related fire in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddington, C. L.; Butt, E. W.; Ridley, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Morgan, W. T.; Coe, H.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-10-01

    Roughly 15% of the Brazilian Amazon was deforested between 1976 and 2010. Fire is the dominant method through which forests and vegetation are cleared. Fires emit large quantities of particulate matter into the atmosphere, which degrades air quality and affects human health. Since 2004, Brazil has achieved substantial reductions in deforestation rates and associated deforestation fires. Here we assess the impact of this reduction on air quality and human health during non-drought years between 2001 and 2012. We analyse aerosol optical depth measurements obtained with satellite and ground-based sensors over southwest Brazil and Bolivia for the dry season, from August to October. We find that observed dry season aerosol optical depths are more than a factor of two lower in years with low deforestation rates in Brazil. We used a global aerosol model to show that reductions in fires associated with deforestation have caused mean surface particulate matter concentrations to decline by ~30% during the dry season in the region. Using particulate matter concentration response functions from the epidemiological literature, we estimate that this reduction in particulate matter may be preventing roughly 400 to 1,700 premature adult deaths annually across South America.

  2. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  3. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  4. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  5. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  6. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net emission reductions. 300.7 Section 300.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7 Net emission reductions. (a) Entities that intend to register emission reductions achieved must...

  7. Evaluation of the potential in radiation dose reduction for full-field digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasch, Kay-Uwe; Moftah, Belal A.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the image quality for different radiation doses in full-field digital mammography (FFDM). The potential of dose reductions is evaluated for both, the transition from screen-film mammography (SFM) to FFDM as well as within FFDM due to the optimization of exposure parameters. Exposures of a 4.5 cm breast phantom rendering different contrasts as well as bar patterns were made using a FFDM system (GE Senographe 2000D). For different kVp and mAs settings as well as different target/filter combinations chosen for the above exposures, average glandular dose (AGD), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and modulation transfer function (MTF) were determined. To benchmark the results, relative change of AGD was evaluated against SNR, CNR and MTF. Eventually, the results were normalized to AGD's rendered by settings typically used in today's clinical routine. For standard settings (automatic mode), both FFDM and SFM deliver approximately the same AGD of about 2.2 mGy. From that, AGD reduction can be substantial in FFDM if only SNR and high contrast CNR are considered. In this case, reduction of up to 40% can be achieved in a wide kVp range if switching from the standard target/filter combination Mo/Rh to Rh/Rh. However, if low contrast CNR is to remain unchanged, dose reduction is practically impossible. The change of peak voltage and target/filter material had no influence on MTF. Assuming current CNR requirements as standards, significant dose reduction in FFDM cannot be achieved. Only by compromising low contrast CNR levels AGD of up to 40% can be saved at current standards of SNR and high contrast CNR.

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Distal Radius Fracture Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Socransky, Steve; Skinner, Andrew; Bromley, Mark; Smith, Andrew; Anawati, Alexandre; Middaugh, Jeff; Ross, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Closed reduction of distal radius fractures (CRDRF) is a commonly performed emergency department (ED) procedure. The use of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) to diagnose fractures and guide reduction has previously been described. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the addition of PoCUS to CRDRF changed the perception of successful initial reduction. This was measured by the rate of further reduction attempts based on PoCUS following the initial clinical determination of achievement of best possible reduction. Methods  We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study, using a convenience sample of adult ED patients presenting with a distal radius fracture to five Canadian EDs. All study physicians underwent standardized PoCUS training for fractures. Standard clinically-guided best possible fracture reduction was initially performed. PoCUS was then used to assess the reduction adequacy. Repeat reduction was performed if deemed indicated. A post-reduction radiograph was then performed. Clinician impression of reduction adequacy was scored on a 5 point Likert scale following the initial clinically-guided reduction and following each PoCUS scan and the post-reduction radiograph. Results  There were 131 patients with 132 distal radius fractures. Twelve cases were excluded prior to analysis. There was no significant difference in the assessment of the initial reduction status by PoCUS as compared to the clinical exam (mean score: 3.8 vs. 3.9; p = 0.370; OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.72; p = 0.87). Significantly fewer cases fell into the uncertain category with PoCUS than with clinical assessment (2 vs 12; p = 0.008). Repeat reduction was performed in 49 patients (41.2%). Repeat reduction led to a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in the PoCUS determined adequacy of reduction (mean score: 4.3 vs 3.1; p < 0.001). In this group, the odds ratio for adequate vs. uncertain or inadequate reduction assessment using PoCUS was 12.5 (95% CI 3

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Distal Radius Fracture Reduction.

    PubMed

    Socransky, Steve; Skinner, Andrew; Bromley, Mark; Smith, Andrew; Anawati, Alexandre; Middaugh, Jeff; Ross, Peter; Atkinson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Closed reduction of distal radius fractures (CRDRF) is a commonly performed emergency department (ED) procedure. The use of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) to diagnose fractures and guide reduction has previously been described. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the addition of PoCUS to CRDRF changed the perception of successful initial reduction. This was measured by the rate of further reduction attempts based on PoCUS following the initial clinical determination of achievement of best possible reduction. Methods  We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study, using a convenience sample of adult ED patients presenting with a distal radius fracture to five Canadian EDs. All study physicians underwent standardized PoCUS training for fractures. Standard clinically-guided best possible fracture reduction was initially performed. PoCUS was then used to assess the reduction adequacy. Repeat reduction was performed if deemed indicated. A post-reduction radiograph was then performed. Clinician impression of reduction adequacy was scored on a 5 point Likert scale following the initial clinically-guided reduction and following each PoCUS scan and the post-reduction radiograph. Results  There were 131 patients with 132 distal radius fractures. Twelve cases were excluded prior to analysis. There was no significant difference in the assessment of the initial reduction status by PoCUS as compared to the clinical exam (mean score: 3.8 vs. 3.9; p = 0.370; OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.72; p = 0.87). Significantly fewer cases fell into the uncertain category with PoCUS than with clinical assessment (2 vs 12; p = 0.008). Repeat reduction was performed in 49 patients (41.2%). Repeat reduction led to a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in the PoCUS determined adequacy of reduction (mean score: 4.3 vs 3.1; p < 0.001). In this group, the odds ratio for adequate vs. uncertain or inadequate reduction assessment using PoCUS was 12.5 (95% CI 3

  10. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  11. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  12. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  13. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  14. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  15. Reductive dissolution of goethite by phenolic reductants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaKind, Judy S.; Stone, Alan T.

    1989-05-01

    The reductive dissolution of goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (α-Fe 2O 3) by phenolic reductants has been examined in order to improve the understanding of iron transformations in soils, sediments and aquifers. Rates of goethite reductive dissolution by hydroquinone increased as the pH was increased from pH 1.8 to 4.65, arid the following reaction stoichiometry was obeyed: 2 α- FeOOH + QH2 = 2 Fe2+ + Q + 4 OH-. As the pH was increased from pH 4.5 to 6.0, the reductive dissolution rate decreased to below the detection limit. At pH 3.4, the reductive dissolution of hematite was two orders of magnitude slower than goethite. The relationship between structure and reactivity was examined for a series of mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxybenzene reductants. Rates of reductive dissolution decreased in the following order: catechol ˜- hydroquinone > 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid > resorcinol-phenol-4-hydroxybenzoic acid.

  16. 26 CFR 301.6229(c)(2)-1T - Substantial omission of income (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to which the applicable period for assessing tax did not expire before September 24, 2009. (c... total of the amounts received or accrued from the sale of goods or services, to the extent required to be shown on the return, without reduction for the cost of those goods or services. (iii) For...

  17. Analyses of substantially different plasma current densities and safety factors reconstructed from magnetic diagnostics data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, F. S.; Kostomarov, D. P.; Suchkov, E. P.; Drozdov, V. V.; Solano, E. R.; Murari, A.; Matejcik, S.; Hawkes, N. C.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2011-10-01

    The problem of plasma current density and safety factor reconstruction using magnetic field measurements is considered. In the traditional formulation, the problem is strongly ill-posed. In particular, substantially different current densities and safety factors can be equally well attributed to the same set of measurements, given their experimental errors. In other words, the problem can be strongly unstable with respect to the input data. Different constraints are used in practice to make the problem more stable. This paper presents an accurate mathematical formulation of the inverse problem and its variants. A numerical algorithm is provided, which permits us to study the stability with respect to variations in the input data, to find all substantially different solutions, or to prove their absence, and to determine the confidence intervals of the reconstructions. The proposed method also allows establishing the maximum error for a given diagnostic (additional constraint), below which the diagnostic efficiently extracts one solution among several substantially different ones. Examples of very different current density and safety factor reconstructions for measurements with finite accuracy are presented for the original formulation of the inverse problem. Cases of MAST, JET and ITER-like plasmas are considered. It is shown that including the motional Stark effect (MSE) measurements as a constraint, provided the accuracy of MSE measurements is sufficient, allows identifying one solution among several very different ones, obtained without such a constraint. The maximum MSE diagnostics error for efficient identification of this solution is estimated for JET. The approach of this paper can be used for a wide range of ill-posed problems in physics and can help in selecting additional conditions, which can identify the most likely solution among several.

  18. Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops

    PubMed Central

    Catchpole, Gareth S.; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P.; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D.; Kell, Douglas B.; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John

    2005-01-01

    There is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome “fingerprinting” to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars. PMID:16186495

  19. The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component.

    PubMed

    Davis, Oliver S P; Band, Gavin; Pirinen, Matti; Haworth, Claire M A; Meaburn, Emma L; Kovas, Yulia; Harlaar, Nicole; Docherty, Sophia J; Hanscombe, Ken B; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Curtis, Charles J C; Strange, Amy; Freeman, Colin; Bellenguez, Céline; Su, Zhan; Pearson, Richard; Vukcevic, Damjan; Langford, Cordelia; Deloukas, Panos; Hunt, Sarah; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Potter, Simon C; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Edkins, Sarah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz A Z; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Barroso, Ines; Peltonen, Leena; Dale, Philip S; Petrill, Stephen A; Schalkwyk, Leonard S; Craig, Ian W; Lewis, Cathryn M; Price, Thomas S; Donnelly, Peter; Plomin, Robert; Spencer, Chris C A

    2014-01-01

    Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve. PMID:25003214

  20. Engine bleed air reduction in DC-10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    An 0.8 percent fuel savings was achieved by a reduction in engine bleed air through the use of cabin air recirculation. The recirculation system was evaluated in revenue service on a DC-10. The cabin remained comfortable with reductions in cabin fresh air (engine bleed air) as much as 50 percent. Flight test verified the predicted fuel saving of 0.8 percent.

  1. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  3. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  4. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  5. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  6. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  7. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  10. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  11. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  12. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  13. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  14. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  15. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  16. NOx reduction methods and apparatuses

    DOEpatents

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, M. Lou; Maupin, Gary D.

    2004-10-26

    A NO.sub.x reduction method includes treating a first gas containing NO.sub.x, producing a second gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second gas to N.sub.2, and producing a third gas containing less NO.sub.x than the first gas, substantially all of the third gas NO.sub.x being NO. The method also includes treating the third gas, producing a fourth gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the fourth gas to N.sub.2, and producing a fifth gas containing less NO.sub.x than the third gas, substantially all of the fifth gas NO.sub.x being NO. Treating the first and/or third gas can include treatment with a plasma. Reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second and/or fourth gas can include reducing with a catalyst. The method can further include controlling energy consumption of the plasmas independent of each other.

  17. Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Barbe MA; van Zundert, André AJ

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS) in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer's dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer's room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient. PMID:27212719

  18. Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone. PMID:26684963

  19. Chem-nuclear's midwest volume reduction facility

    SciTech Connect

    Loiselle, V.

    1987-01-01

    The 1985 amendments to the Low-Level Waste Policy Act mandated volume allocation limits for nuclear utilities over a 7-yr period ending December 31, 1992. Under the provisions of the act, nonsited regions of the US, such as the Midwest, have received more stringent volume limitations than the sited regions. Restrictions, however severe, are causing all nuclear utilities to carefully examine the source and volume generation of low-level wastes at their respective plants. Nuclear utilities dry active wastes (DAW), as compared to wet wastes, amount to 50 to 75% of wastes generated. The progress in reducing DAW can now be achieved with volume reduction by supercompaction. Chem-Nuclear established and licensed its Midwest Volume Reduction Facility (MWVRF) to provide an integrated volume reduction service. Although compaction of DAW is not new, supercompaction is. Through millions of pounds-force (as compared to tens of thousands pounds-force currently available from conventional equipment) much greater volume reduction can be achieved. The results of supercompaction is a product that approaches the theoretical density of its solid constituents - a logical and ultimate end point for compaction capability and volume reduction overall. The reduction service, equipment, and the facility interfacing with other services of transportation and disposal and the generator are discussed in detail. As a result of the integrated service, significant savings in waste management and volume allocation can be achieved.

  20. Wind load reduction for heliostats

    SciTech Connect

    Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.