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Sample records for achieve sufficient sensitivity

  1. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  2. Is Yield Increase Sufficient to Achieve Food Security in China?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  3. Impact of mobilization and remobilization strategies on achieving sufficient stem cell yields for autologous transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pusic, Iskra; Jiang, Shi Yuan; Landua, Scott; Uy, Geoffrey L; Rettig, Michael P; Cashen, Amanda F; Westervelt, Peter; Vij, Ravi; Abboud, Camille N; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith E; Sempek, Diane S; Smith, Angela L; DiPersio, John F

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine historic institutional autologous stem cell mobilization practices and evaluate factors influencing mobilization failure and kinetics. In this retrospective study we analyzed clinical records of 1834 patients who underwent stem cell mobilization for autologous transplantation from November 1995 to October 2006 at the Washington University in St. Louis. Successful mobilization was defined as collection of > or =2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. From 1834 consecutive patients, 1040 met our inclusion criteria (502 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [NHL], 137 Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 401 multiple myeloma [MM]). A total of 976 patients received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and 64 received G-CSF plus chemotherapy (G/C) for the initial mobilization. Although the median CD34(+) cell yield was higher in G/C group than in G-CSF alone group, the failure rates were similar: 18.8% and 18.6%, respectively. Overall, 53% of patients collected > or =2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg during the first apheresis with either mobilization regimen. Regardless of mobilization regimen used, MM patients had the highest total CD34(+) cell yield and required less aphereses to collect > or =2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. Mobilized, preapheresis, peripheral blood CD34(+) count correlated with first day apheresis yield (r = .877, P < .001) and 20 cells/microL was the minimum threshold needed for a successful day 1 collection. For the remobilization analysis we included patients from the whole database. A total of 269 of 1834 patients underwent remobilization using G/C, G-CSF, and/or GM-CSF, and G-CSF plus plerixafor. Only 23% of remobilized patients achieved > or =2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg and 29.7% failed to pool sufficient number of stem cells from both collections. Patients receiving G-CSF plus plerixafor had lowest failure rates, P = .03. NHL patients remobilized with G-CSF who waited > or =25 days before remobilization had lower CD34(+) cell yield than those

  4. Selective enhancement of insulin sensitivity in the mature adipocyte is sufficient for systemic metabolic improvements.

    PubMed

    Morley, Thomas S; Xia, Jonathan Y; Scherer, Philipp E

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunctional adipose tissue represents a hallmark of type 2 diabetes and systemic insulin resistance, characterized by fibrotic deposition of collagens and increased immune cell infiltration within the depots. Here we generate an inducible model of loss of function of the protein phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), a phosphatase critically involved in turning off the insulin signal transduction cascade, to assess the role of enhanced insulin signalling specifically in mature adipocytes. These mice gain more weight on chow diet and short-term as well as long-term high-fat diet exposure. Despite the increase in weight, they retain enhanced insulin sensitivity, show improvements in oral glucose tolerance tests, display reduced adipose tissue inflammation and maintain elevated adiponectin levels. These improvements also lead to reduced hepatic steatosis and enhanced hepatic insulin sensitivity. Prolonging insulin action selectively in the mature adipocyte is therefore sufficient to maintain normal systemic metabolic homeostasis. PMID:26243466

  5. Psychometric Approaches to the Identification of LD: IQ and Achievement Scores Are Not Sufficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis,David J; Fletcher,Jack M.; Stuebing,Karla K.; Lyon,G. Reid; Shaywitz,Bennett A; Shaywitz,Sally E.

    2005-01-01

    Simulated data were used to demonstrate that groups formed by imposing cut-points based on either discrepancy or low-achievement definitions of learning disabilities (LD) are unstable over time. Similar problems were demonstrated in longitudinal data from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, where 39% of the children designated as having LD in…

  6. Is referencing the posterior condyles sufficient to achieve a rectangular flexion gap in total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Schnurr, Christoph; Nessler, Jochen; König, Dietmar Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Femoral malrotation in total knee arthroplasty causes flexion gap instability. Conventional instruments mostly reference the posterior condylar angle (PCA). The aim of this study was to verify whether the computer-navigated flexion gap (GAP) method produces a rectangular flexion gap and if a balanced flexion gap could also be achieved by referencing the PCA. A total of 100 knee prostheses were analysed using the navigated GAP method, and flexion gap symmetry along with femoral rotation were recorded. The GAP technique resulted in a rectangular flexion gap with adequate femoral rotational alignment. If the PCA technique had been used, only 51% of the femoral components would have been implanted in correct femoral rotation; the remaining 49% would have implanted with flexion gap instability. The GAP technique produces a rectangular flexion gap. The referencing of the PCA was shown to be less reliable. Thus, modern knee prosthesis instrumentation should not base femoral rotation solely on the PCA. PMID:18956189

  7. Formation of interference-sensitive meiotic cross-overs requires sufficient DNA leading-strand elongation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiyue; Cheng, Zhihao; Wang, Cong; Hong, Yue; Su, Hang; Wang, Jun; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Ma, Hong; Wang, Yingxiang

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis halves diploid genomes to haploid and is essential for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. Meiotic recombination ensures physical association of homologs and their subsequent accurate segregation and results in the redistribution of genetic variations among progeny. Most organisms have two classes of cross-overs (COs): interference-sensitive (type I) and -insensitive (type II) COs. DNA synthesis is essential for meiotic recombination, but whether DNA synthesis has a role in differentiating meiotic CO pathways is unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis POL2A, the homolog of the yeast DNA polymerase-ε (a leading-strand DNA polymerase), is required for plant fertility and meiosis. Mutations in POL2A cause reduced fertility and meiotic defects, including abnormal chromosome association, improper chromosome segregation, and fragmentation. Observation of prophase I cell distribution suggests that pol2a mutants likely delay progression of meiotic recombination. In addition, the residual COs in pol2a have reduced CO interference, and the double mutant of pol2a with mus81, which affects type II COs, displayed more severe defects than either single mutant, indicating that POL2A functions in the type I pathway. We hypothesize that sufficient leading-strand DNA elongation promotes formation of some type I COs. Given that meiotic recombination and DNA synthesis are conserved in divergent eukaryotes, this study and our previous study suggest a novel role for DNA synthesis in the differentiation of meiotic recombination pathways. PMID:26392549

  8. The use of Jatropha curcas to achieve a self sufficient water distribution system: A case study in rural Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Alexandra

    The use of Jatropha curcas as a source of oil for fueling water pumps holds promise for rural communities struggling to achieve water security in arid climates. The potential for use in developing communities as an affordable, sustainable fuel source has been highly recommended for many reasons: it is easily propagated, drought resistant, grows rapidly, and has high-oil-content seeds, as well as medicinal and economic potential. This study uses a rural community in Senegal, West Africa, and calculates at what level of Jatropha curcas production the village is able to be self-sufficient in fueling their water system to meet drinking, sanitation and irrigation requirements. The current water distribution system was modelled to represent irrigation requirements for nine different Jatropha curcas cultivation and processing schemes. It was found that a combination of using recycled greywater for irrigation and a mechanical press to maximize oil recovered from the seeds of mature Jatropha curcas trees, would be able to operate the water system with no diesel required.

  9. [Non-allergic gluten sensitivity. A controversial disease - or not yet sufficiently explored?].

    PubMed

    Raithel, Martin; Kluger, Anna Katharina; Dietz, Birgit; Hetterich, Urban

    2016-07-01

    The avoidance of wheat, gluten and other cereal products is a growing phenomenon in industrialized countries. The diagnostic criteria of celiac disease and of food allergy to wheat flour and/or other cereals are clearly defined. Only about 0.5-25 % of the population are affected from both of these immunological diseases.Nevertheless, there exists a significantly greater proportion of people reporting at least subjectively significant complaints and quality of life improvements after switching to a wheat- or gluten-free diet. Celiac disease or wheat allergy cannot be detected in these individuals on the basis of established criteria. The absence of clear diagnostic autoimmune or allergic criteria in these wheat sensitive patients has resulted in the description of non-celiac gluten sensitivity.It is clinically detectable in only very few individuals and may manifest with either intestinal, extra-intestinal or neurovegetative and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. However, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity has to be differentiated critically from irritable bowel syndrome, carbohydrate malassimilation, postinfectious conditions and psychosomatic diseases.Pathophysiologically, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity is still poorly characterized; several non-immunological mechanisms are discussed to contribute to non-celiac gluten sensitivity. These include the effects of fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides, of trypsin inhibitors of amylase, and wheat lectin agglutinins, which may influence or modulate intestinal permeability and/or a non-specific immune or effector cell degranulation within the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, further metabolic effects with direct or indirect influence on the intestinal flora are currently discussed.In addition to subjectively reported changes in symptoms that may affect variably intestinal, as well as extra-intestinal and/or neuropsychiatric symptoms, some studies suggest that there is little reproducibility of

  10. Evaluating the Instructional Sensitivity of Four States' Student Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2016-01-01

    As state tests of student achievement are used for an increasingly wide array of high- and low-stakes purposes, evaluating their instructional sensitivity is essential. This article uses data from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Project to examine the instructional sensitivity of 4 states' mathematics and English…

  11. High IQ Is Sufficient to Explain the High Achievements in Math and Science of the East Asian Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that it is unnecessary to propose that Confucian values explain the high achievements in math and science of the North East Asian peoples, and that these can be satisfactorily and more parsimoniously be explained by their high IQs.

  12. TEACH (Train to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maulitz, Russell; Santarelli, Thomas; Barnieu, Joanne; Rosenzweig, Larry; Yi, Na Yi; Zachary, Wayne; OConnor, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Personnel from diverse ethnic and demographic backgrounds come together in both civilian and military healthcare systems, facing diagnoses that at one level are equalizers: coronary disease is coronary disease, breast cancer is breast cancer. Yet the expression of disease in individuals from different backgrounds, individual patient experience of disease as a particular illness, and interactions between patients and providers occurring in any given disease scenario, all vary enormously depending on the fortuity of the equation of "which patient happens to arrive in whose exam room." Previously, providers' absorption of lessons-learned depended on learning as an apprentice would when exposed over time to multiple populations. As a result, and because providers are often thrown into situations where communications falter through inadequate direct patient experience, diversity in medicine remains a training challenge. The questions then become: Can simulation and virtual training environments (VTEs) be deployed to short-track and standardize this sort of random-walk problem? Can we overcome the unevenness of training caused by some providers obtaining the valuable exposure to diverse populations, whereas others are left to "sink or swim"? This paper summarizes developing a computer-based VTE called TEACH (Training to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare). TEACH was developed to enhance healthcare providers' skills in delivering culturally sensitive care to African-American women with breast cancer. With an authoring system under development to ensure extensibility, TEACH allows users to role-play in clinical oncology settings with virtual characters who interact on the basis of different combinations of African American sub-cultural beliefs regarding breast cancer. The paper reports on the roll-out and evaluation of the degree to which these interactions allow providers to acquire, practice, and refine culturally appropriate communication skills and to

  13. Simvastatin Hydroxy Acid Fails to Attain Sufficient Central Nervous System Tumor Exposure to Achieve a Cytotoxic Effect: Results of a Preclinical Cerebral Microdialysis Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh T; Jacus, Megan O; Davis, Abigail D; Boulos, Nidal; Turner, David C; Vuppala, Pradeep K; Freeman, Burgess B; Gilbertson, Richard J; Stewart, Clinton F

    2016-04-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors were potent hits against a mouse ependymoma cell line, but their effectiveness against central nervous system tumors will depend on their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and attain a sufficient exposure at the tumor. Among 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors that had activity in vitro, we prioritized simvastatin (SV) as the lead compound for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies based on its potential for central nervous system penetration as determined from in silico models. Furthermore, we performed systemic plasma disposition and cerebral microdialysis studies of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in a murine model of ependymoma to characterize plasma and tumor extracellular fluid (tECF) pharmacokinetic properties. The murine dosage of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was equivalent to the maximum tolerated dose in patients (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) based on equivalent plasma exposure of simvastatin acid (SVA) between the two species. SV is rapidly metabolized in murine plasma with 15 times lower exposure compared with human plasma. SVA exposure in tECF was <33.8 ± 11.9 µg/l per hour, whereas the tumor to plasma partition coefficient of SVA was <0.084 ± 0.008. Compared with in vitro washout IC50 values, we did not achieve sufficient exposure of SVA in tECF to suggest tumor growth inhibition; therefore, SV was not carried forward in subsequent preclinical efficacy studies. PMID:26802130

  14. COMMENT ON: APPLYING SPECIES-SENSITIVITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ASSUMPTION OF DISTRIBUTION TYPE AND SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newman et al. (2000) addressed some important issues regarding the characterization of species-sensitivity distributions (SSDs) used in ecological risk assessments. A common assumption is that SSDs are log-normal, and this allows data sets to be analyzed by standard parametric me...

  15. FcRn binding is not sufficient for achieving systemic therapeutic levels of immunoglobulin G after oral delivery of enteric-coated capsules in cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Muzammil, Salman; Mabus, John R; Cooper, Philip R; Brezski, Randall J; Bement, Courtney B; Perkinson, Rob; Huebert, Norman D; Thompson, Suzanne; Levine, Dalia; Kliwinski, Connie; Bradley, Dino; Hornby, Pamela J

    2016-06-01

    Although much speculation has surrounded intestinally expressed FcRn as a means for systemic uptake of orally administered immunoglobulin G (IgG), this has not been validated in translational models beyond neonates or in FcRn-expressing cells in vitro. Recently, IgG1 intestinal infusion acutely in anesthetized cynomolgus resulted in detectable serum monoclonal antibody (mAb) levels. In this study, we show that IgG2 has greater protease resistance to intestinal enzymes in vitro and mice in vivo, due to protease resistance in the hinge region. An IgG2 mAb engineered for FcRn binding, was optimally formulated, lyophilized, and loaded into enteric-coated capsules for oral dosing in cynomolgus. Small intestinal pH 7.5 was selected for enteric delivery based on gastrointestinal pH profiling of cynomolgus by operator-assisted IntelliCap System(®). Milling of the lyophilized IgG2 M428L FcRn-binding variant after formulation in 10 mmol/L histidine, pH 5.7, 8.5% sucrose, 0.04% PS80 did not alter the physicochemical properties nor the molecular integrity compared to the batch released in PBS. Size 3 hard gel capsules (23.2 mg IgG2 M428L ~3 mg/kg) were coated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate for rapid dissolution at pH 7.5 in small intestine and FcRn binding of encapsulated mAb confirmed. Initial capsule dosing by endoscopic delivery into the small intestine achieved 0.2 + 0.1 ng/mL (n = 5) peak at 24 h. Weekly oral capsule dosing for 6 weeks achieved levels of 0.4 + 0.2 ng/mL and, despite increasing the dose and frequency, remained below 1 ng/mL. In conclusion, lyophilized milled mAb retains FcRn binding and molecular integrity for small intestinal delivery. The low systemic exposure has demonstrated the limitations of intestinal FcRn in non-human primates and the unfeasibility of employing this for therapeutic levels of mAb. Local mAb delivery with limited systemic exposure may be sufficient as a therapeutic for intestinal diseases. PMID

  16. Achieving tunable sensitivity in composite high-energy density materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkeev, Sergey; Tsyshevsky, Roman; Kuklja, Maija

    2015-06-01

    Laser irradiation provides a unique opportunity for selective, predictive, and controlled initiation of energetic materials. We propose a consistent micro-scale mechanism of photoexcitation at the interface, formed by a molecular energetic material and a metal oxide. A specific PETN-MgO model composite is used to illustrate and explain seemingly puzzling experiments on selective laser initiation of energetic materials, which reported that the presence of metal oxide additives triggered the photoinitiation by an unusually low energy. We suggest that PETN photodecomposition is catalyzed by oxygen vacancies (F0 centers) at the MgO surface. The proposed model suggests ways to tune sensitivity of energetic molecular materials to photoinitiation. Our quantum-chemical calculations suggest that the structural defects (e.g., oxygen vacancies) strongly interact with the molecular material (e.g., adsorbed energetic molecules) by inducing a charge transfer at the interface and hence play an imperative role in governing both energy absorption and energy release in the system. Our approach and conclusions provide a solid basis for novel design of energetic interfaces with desired properties and offers a new perspective in the field of explosive materials and devices.

  17. What Is the Nature of the Achievement Gap, Why Does It Persist and Are Government Goals Sufficient to Create Social Justice in the Education System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ruth; Burton, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The "achievement gap"--the term typically used to refer to differences in pupil attainment associated with social class, ethnicity and gender--remains an enduring obstacle to government goals of creating a socially just society. This article explores the nature of the achievement gap and some of the mechanisms that serve to perpetuate disadvantage…

  18. Amphetamine sensitization in mice is sufficient to produce both manic- and depressive-related behaviors as well as changes in the functional connectivity of corticolimbic structures.

    PubMed

    Pathak, G; Ibrahim, B A; McCarthy, S A; Baker, K; Kelly, M P

    2015-08-01

    It has been suggested that amphetamine abuse and withdrawal mimics the diverse nature of bipolar disorder symptomatology in humans. Here, we determined if a single paradigm of amphetamine sensitization would be sufficient to produce both manic- and depressive-related behaviors in mice. CD-1 mice were subcutaneously dosed for 5 days with 1.8 mg/kg d-amphetamine or vehicle. On days 6-31 of withdrawal, amphetamine-sensitized (AS) mice were compared to vehicle-treated (VT) mice on a range of behavioral and biochemical endpoints. AS mice demonstrated reliable mania- and depression-related behaviors from day 7 to day 28 of withdrawal. Relative to VT mice, AS mice exhibited long-lasting mania-like hyperactivity following either an acute 30-min restraint stress or a low-dose 1 mg/kg d-amphetamine challenge, which was attenuated by the mood-stabilizers lithium and quetiapine. In absence of any challenge, AS mice showed anhedonia-like decreases in sucrose preference and depression-like impairments in the off-line consolidation of motor memory, as reflected by the lack of spontaneous improvement across days of training on the rotarod. AS mice also demonstrated a functional impairment in nest building, an ethologically-relevant activity of daily living. Western blot analyses revealed a significant increase in methylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 (H3K9), but not lysine 4 (H3K4), in hippocampus of AS mice relative to VT mice. In situ hybridization for the immediate-early gene activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) further revealed heightened activation of corticolimbic structures, decreased functional connectivity between frontal cortex and striatum, and increased functional connectivity between the amygdala and hippocampus of AS mice. The effects of amphetamine sensitization were blunted in C57BL/6J mice relative to CD-1 mice. These results show that a single amphetamine sensitization protocol is sufficient to produce behavioral, functional, and biochemical

  19. The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Field, Catherine J.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Rabi, Doreen M.; Maggiore, Jack A.; O’Beirne, Maeve; Hanley, David A.; Eliasziw, Misha; Dewey, Deborah; Weinberg, Amy; Ross, Sue J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations. Methods Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) to determine 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day’s diet. Results Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. The median (IQR) reported vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was 600 (472) IU/day. There was a significant relationship between maternal reported dietary vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) and 25(OH)D and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in an adjusted linear regression model. Conclusions We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated. PMID:27367800

  20. The Development of Product Parity Sensitivity in Children with Mathematics Learning Disability and in Typical Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Parity helps us determine whether an arithmetic equation is true or false. The current research examines the development of sensitivity to parity cues in multiplication in typically achieving (TA) children (grades 2, 3, 4 and 6) and in children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD, grades 6 and 8), via a verification task. In TA children…

  1. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-12-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  2. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  3. Relations between shyness-sensitivity and internalizing problems in Chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Yang, Fan; Wang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Shy-sensitive children are likely to develop adjustment problems in today's urban China as the country has evolved into an increasingly competitive, market-oriented society. The main purpose of this one-year longitudinal study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between shyness-sensitivity and later internalizing problems in Chinese children. A sample of 1171 school-age children (591 boys, 580 girls) in China, initially at the age of 9 years, participated in the study. Data on shyness, academic achievement, and internalizing problems were collected from multiple sources including peer evaluations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. It was found that shyness positively and uniquely predicted later loneliness, depression, and teacher-rated internalizing problems, with the stability effect controlled, for low-achieving children, but not for high-achieving children. The results indicate that, consistent with the stress buffering model, academic achievement may be a buffering factor that serves to protect shy-sensitive children from developing psychological problems. PMID:23318940

  4. Working toward Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Nathan

    1985-01-01

    Upon arrival in the United States, the Southeast Asian "Boat People" faced a multitude of problems that would seem to have hindered their achieving economic self-sufficiency. Nonetheless, by the time of a 1982 research study which interviewed nearly 1,400 refugee households, 25 percent of all the households in the sample had achieved economic…

  5. Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina.

    PubMed

    An, Lin; Shen, Tueng T; Wang, Ruikang K

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents comprehensive and depth-resolved retinal microvasculature images within human retina achieved by a newly developed ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) system. Due to its high flow sensitivity, UHS-OMAG is much more sensitive to tissue motion due to the involuntary movement of the human eye and head compared to the traditional OMAG system. To mitigate these motion artifacts on final imaging results, we propose a new phase compensation algorithm in which the traditional phase-compensation algorithm is repeatedly used to efficiently minimize the motion artifacts. Comparatively, this new algorithm demonstrates at least 8 to 25 times higher motion tolerability, critical for the UHS-OMAG system to achieve retinal microvasculature images with high quality. Furthermore, the new UHS-OMAG system employs a high speed line scan CMOS camera (240 kHz A-line scan rate) to capture 500 A-lines for one B-frame at a 400 Hz frame rate. With this system, we performed a series of in vivo experiments to visualize the retinal microvasculature in humans. Two featured imaging protocols are utilized. The first is of the low lateral resolution (16 μm) and a wide field of view (4 × 3 mm(2) with single scan and 7 × 8 mm(2) for multiple scans), while the second is of the high lateral resolution (5 μm) and a narrow field of view (1.5 × 1.2 mm(2) with single scan). The great imaging performance delivered by our system suggests that UHS-OMAG can be a promising noninvasive alternative to the current clinical retinal microvasculature imaging techniques for the diagnosis of eye diseases with significant vascular involvement, such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:22029360

  6. Using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography to achieve comprehensive depth resolved microvasculature mapping for human retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Lin; Shen, Tueng T.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents comprehensive and depth-resolved retinal microvasculature images within human retina achieved by a newly developed ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) system. Due to its high flow sensitivity, UHS-OMAG is much more sensitive to tissue motion due to the involuntary movement of the human eye and head compared to the traditional OMAG system. To mitigate these motion artifacts on final imaging results, we propose a new phase compensation algorithm in which the traditional phase-compensation algorithm is repeatedly used to efficiently minimize the motion artifacts. Comparatively, this new algorithm demonstrates at least 8 to 25 times higher motion tolerability, critical for the UHS-OMAG system to achieve retinal microvasculature images with high quality. Furthermore, the new UHS-OMAG system employs a high speed line scan CMOS camera (240 kHz A-line scan rate) to capture 500 A-lines for one B-frame at a 400 Hz frame rate. With this system, we performed a series of in vivo experiments to visualize the retinal microvasculature in humans. Two featured imaging protocols are utilized. The first is of the low lateral resolution (16 μm) and a wide field of view (4 × 3 mm2 with single scan and 7 × 8 mm2 for multiple scans), while the second is of the high lateral resolution (5 μm) and a narrow field of view (1.5 × 1.2 mm2 with single scan). The great imaging performance delivered by our system suggests that UHS-OMAG can be a promising noninvasive alternative to the current clinical retinal microvasculature imaging techniques for the diagnosis of eye diseases with significant vascular involvement, such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.

  7. Modified surface loading process for achieving improved performance of the quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongxiu; Zhu, Jun; Xu, Yafeng; Zhou, Li; Dai, Songyuan

    2016-06-01

    Achieving high surface coverage of the colloidal quantum dots (QDs) on TiO2 films has been challenging for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Herein, a general surface engineering approach was proposed to increase the loading of these QDs. It was found that S2- treatment/QD re-uptake process can significantly improve the attachment of the QDs on TiO2 films. Surface concentration of the QDs was improved by ∼60%, which in turn greatly enhances light absorption and decreases carrier recombination in QDSCs. Ensuing QDSCs with optimized QD loading exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 3.66%, 83% higher than those fabricated with standard procedures.

  8. A Study to Assess the Achievement Motivation of Higher Secondary Students in Relation to Their Noise Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latha, Prema

    2014-01-01

    Disturbing sounds are often referred to as noise, and if extreme enough in degree, intensity or frequency, it is referred to as noise pollution. Achievement refers to a change in study behavior in relation to their noise sensitivity and learning in the educational sense by achieving results in changed responses to certain types of stimuli like…

  9. Relationship of Gender and Academic Achievement to Finnish Students' Intercultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the intercultural sensitivity of Finnish 12-16-year-old secondary school students (N=549) with a 23-item Intercultural Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ICSSQ). The ICSSQ is based on Bennett's (1993) Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS), which is a conceptual tool to situate certain reactions towards cultural…

  10. Necessary, but also Sufficient?

    PubMed

    Martens, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    Cell biologists are equipped with a plethora of techniques and approaches to unravel the fascinating inner working of the cell. Among these, biochemistry has the ability to define the machinery that is both necessary and sufficient for a given process and, therefore, to define its core mechanism. PMID:27142894

  11. When is Testing Sufficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda H.; Arthur, James D.; Stapko, Ruth K.; Davani, Darush

    1999-01-01

    The Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has been investigating how projects can determine when sufficient testing has been completed. For most projects, schedules are underestimated, and the last phase of the software development, testing, must be decreased. Two questions are frequently asked: "To what extent is the software error-free? " and "How much time and effort is required to detect and remove the remaining errors? " Clearly, neither question can be answered with absolute certainty. Nonetheless, the ability to answer these questions with some acceptable level of confidence is highly desirable. First, knowing the extent to which a product is error-free, we can judge when it is time to terminate testing. Secondly, if errors are judged to be present, we can perform a cost/benefit trade-off analysis to estimate when the software will be ready for use and at what cost. This paper explains the efforts of the SATC to help projects determine what is sufficient testing and when is the most cost-effective time to stop testing.

  12. A luciferin analogue generating near-infrared bioluminescence achieves highly sensitive deep-tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Iwano, Satoshi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Mitsumata, Shun; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Niwa, Haruki; Maki, Shojiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D-luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the emission maximum (λmax) of bioluminescence produced by D-luciferin is 562 nm where light is not highly penetrable in biological tissues. This emphasizes a need for developing a red-shifted bioluminescence imaging system to improve detection sensitivity of targets in deep tissue. Here we characterize the bioluminescent properties of the newly synthesized luciferin analogue, AkaLumine-HCl. The bioluminescence produced by AkaLumine-HCl in reactions with native firefly luciferase is in the near-infrared wavelength ranges (λmax=677 nm), and yields significantly increased target-detection sensitivity from deep tissues with maximal signals attained at very low concentrations, as compared with D-luciferin and emerging synthetic luciferin CycLuc1. These characteristics offer a more sensitive and accurate method for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging with native firefly luciferase in various animal models. PMID:27297211

  13. A luciferin analogue generating near-infrared bioluminescence achieves highly sensitive deep-tissue imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Iwano, Satoshi; Kiyama, Masahiro; Mitsumata, Shun; Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Niwa, Haruki; Maki, Shojiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae

    2016-01-01

    In preclinical cancer research, bioluminescence imaging with firefly luciferase and D-luciferin has become a standard to monitor biological processes both in vitro and in vivo. However, the emission maximum (λmax) of bioluminescence produced by D-luciferin is 562 nm where light is not highly penetrable in biological tissues. This emphasizes a need for developing a red-shifted bioluminescence imaging system to improve detection sensitivity of targets in deep tissue. Here we characterize the bioluminescent properties of the newly synthesized luciferin analogue, AkaLumine-HCl. The bioluminescence produced by AkaLumine-HCl in reactions with native firefly luciferase is in the near-infrared wavelength ranges (λmax=677 nm), and yields significantly increased target-detection sensitivity from deep tissues with maximal signals attained at very low concentrations, as compared with D-luciferin and emerging synthetic luciferin CycLuc1. These characteristics offer a more sensitive and accurate method for non-invasive bioluminescence imaging with native firefly luciferase in various animal models. PMID:27297211

  14. The design of an animal PET: flexible geometry for achieving optimal spatial resolution or high sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Weber, S; Terstegge, A; Herzog, H; Reinartz, R; Reinhart, P; Rongen, F; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Halling, H

    1997-10-01

    We present the design of a positron emission tomograph (PET) with flexible geometry dedicated to in vivo studies of small animals (TierPET). The scanner uses two pairs of detectors. Each detector consists of 400 small individual yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP) scintillator crystals of dimensions 2 x 2 x 15 mm3, optically isolated and glued together, which are coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMT's). The detector modules can be moved in a radial direction so that the detector-to-detector spacing can be varied. Special hardware has been built for coincidence detection, position detection, and real-time data acquisition, which is performed by a PC. The single-event data are transferred to workstations where the radioactivity distribution is reconstructed. The dimensions of the crystals and the detector layout are the result of extensive simulations which are described in this report, taking into account sensitivity, spatial resolution and additional parameters like parallax error or scatter effects. For the three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction a genuine 3-D expectation-maximization (EM)-algorithm which can include the characteristics of the detector system has been implemented. The reconstruction software is flexible and matches the different detector configurations. The main advantage of the proposed animal PET scanner is its high flexibility, allowing the realization of various detector-system configurations. By changing the detector-to-detector spacing, the system is capable of either providing good spatial resolution or high sensitivity for dynamic studies of pharmacokinetics. PMID:9368124

  15. Sensitivity and noise in GC-MS: Achieving low limits of detection for difficult analytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fialkov, Alexander B.; Steiner, Urs; Lehotay, Steven J.; Amirav, Aviv

    2007-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument limit of detection (LOD) is typically listed by major vendors as that of octafluoronaphthalene (OFN). Most current GC-MS instruments can achieve LODs in the low femtogram range. However, GC-MS LODs for realistic analytes in actual samples are often a few orders of magnitude higher than OFN's. Users seldom encounter 1 pg LOD in the single ion monitoring mode in their applications. We define this detectability difference as the "OFN gap." In this paper, we demonstrate and discuss how the OFN gap can be significantly reduced by the use of GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (SMB). Experimental results were obtained with a recently developed GC-MS with SMB named 1200-SMB, that is based on the conversion of the Varian 1200 system into a GC-MS-MS with SMB. With this 1200-SMB system, the LOD of all types of analytes, including OFN, in real samples is significantly improved through the combination of: (a) enhanced molecular ion; (b) elimination of vacuum background noise; (c) elimination of mass independent noise; (d) elimination of ion source peak tailing and degradation; (e) significantly increased range of thermally labile and low volatility compounds that are amenable for analysis through lower sample elution temperatures; (f) reduced column bleed and ghost peaks through sample elution at lower temperatures; (g) improved compatibility with large volume injections; and (h) reduced matrix interferences through the combination of enhanced molecular ion and MS-MS. As a result, the 1200-SMB LODs of common and/or difficult compounds are much closer to its OFN LOD, even in complex matrices. We crossed the <1 fg OFN LOD milestone to achieve the lowest LOD to date using GC-MS, but more importantly, we attained LOD of 2 fg for diazinon, a common pesticide analyte. In another example, we achieved an LOD of 10 fg for underivatized testosterone, which is not amenable in traditional GC-MS analysis, and conducted many analyses

  16. Achieving effective terminal exciton delivery in quantum dot antenna-sensitized multistep DNA photonic wires.

    PubMed

    Spillmann, Christopher M; Ancona, Mario G; Buckhout-White, Susan; Algar, W Russ; Stewart, Michael H; Susumu, Kimihiro; Huston, Alan L; Goldman, Ellen R; Medintz, Igor L

    2013-08-27

    Assembling DNA-based photonic wires around semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) creates optically active hybrid architectures that exploit the unique properties of both components. DNA hybridization allows positioning of multiple, carefully arranged fluorophores that can engage in sequential energy transfer steps while the QDs provide a superior energy harvesting antenna capacity that drives a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) cascade through the structures. Although the first generation of these composites demonstrated four-sequential energy transfer steps across a distance >150 Å, the exciton transfer efficiency reaching the final, terminal dye was estimated to be only ~0.7% with no concomitant sensitized emission observed. Had the terminal Cy7 dye utilized in that construct provided a sensitized emission, we estimate that this would have equated to an overall end-to-end ET efficiency of ≤ 0.1%. In this report, we demonstrate that overall energy flow through a second generation hybrid architecture can be significantly improved by reengineering four key aspects of the composite structure: (1) making the initial DNA modification chemistry smaller and more facile to implement, (2) optimizing donor-acceptor dye pairings, (3) varying donor-acceptor dye spacing as a function of the Förster distance R0, and (4) increasing the number of DNA wires displayed around each central QD donor. These cumulative changes lead to a 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the exciton transfer efficiency to the final terminal dye in comparison to the first-generation construct. The overall end-to-end efficiency through the optimized, five-fluorophore/four-step cascaded energy transfer system now approaches 10%. The results are analyzed using Förster theory with various sources of randomness accounted for by averaging over ensembles of modeled constructs. Fits to the spectra suggest near-ideal behavior when the photonic wires have two sequential acceptor dyes (Cy3 and Cy3.5) and

  17. Pre-Type 1 Diabetes Dysmetabolism: Maximal sensitivity achieved with Both Oral and Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jennifer M.; McFann, Kim; Harrison, Leonard C.; Fourlanos, Spiros; Krischer, Jeffrey; Cuthbertson, David; Chase, H. Peter; Eisenbarth, George S.; Group, the DPT-1 Study

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of intravenous (IVGTT) and oral (OGTT) glucose tolerance tests abnormalities to diabetes development in a high-risk pre-diabetic cohort and identify an optimal testing strategy for detecting pre-clinical diabetes. Study design Diabetes Prevention Trial Type 1 randomized subjects to oral (n=372) and parenteral (n=339) insulin prevention trials. Subjects were followed with IVGTTs and OGTTs. Factors associated with progression to diabetes were evaluated. Results Survival analysis revealed that higher quartiles of 2-hour glucose and lower quartiles of FPIR at baseline were associated with decreased diabetes-free survival. Cox proportional hazards modeling showed that baseline BMI, FPIR and 2-hour glucose levels were significantly associated with an increased hazard for diabetes. On testing performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis, 3% (1/32) had normal first phase insulin response (FPIR) and normal 2-hour glucose on OGTT. The sensitivities for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and low FPIR performed within 6 months of diabetes diagnosis were equivalent (76% vs. 73%). Conclusions Most (97%) subjects had abnormal IVGTTs and/or OGTTs prior to the development of diabetes. The highest sensitivity is achieved using both tests. PMID:17188609

  18. A Genetically Sensitive Investigation of the Effects of the School Environment and Socio-Economic Status on Academic Achievement in Seven-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sheila O.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Although it is well established that school characteristics (SCH) and socio-economic status (SES) are associated with academic achievement (ACH), these correlations are not necessarily causal. Because academic achievement shows substantial genetic influence, it is useful to embed such investigations in genetically sensitive designs in order to…

  19. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  20. Repulsive Casimir force: Sufficient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, Luigi; Lambrecht, Astrid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper the Casimir energy of two parallel plates made by materials of different penetration depth and no medium in between is derived. We study the Casimir force density and derive analytical constraints on the two penetration depths which are sufficient conditions to ensure repulsion. Compared to other methods our approach needs no specific model for dielectric or magnetic material properties and constitutes a complementary analysis.

  1. Predictive models of lameness in dairy cows achieve high sensitivity and specificity with force measurements in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Dunthorn, Jason; Dyer, Robert M; Neerchal, Nagaraj K; McHenry, Jonathan S; Rajkondawar, Parimal G; Steingraber, Gary; Tasch, Uri

    2015-11-01

    Lameness remains a significant cause of production losses, a growing welfare concern and may be a greater economic burden than clinical mastitis . A growing need for accurate, continuous automated detection systems continues because US prevalence of lameness is 12.5% while individual herds may experience prevalence's of 27.8-50.8%. To that end the first force-plate system restricted to the vertical dimension identified lame cows with 85% specificity and 52% sensitivity. These results lead to the hypothesis that addition of transverse and longitudinal dimensions could improve sensitivity of lameness detection. To address the hypothesis we upgraded the original force plate system to measure ground reaction forces (GRFs) across three directions. GRFs and locomotion scores were generated from randomly selected cows and logistic regression was used to develop a model that characterised relationships of locomotion scores to the GRFs. This preliminary study showed 76 variables across 3 dimensions produced a model with greater than 90% sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). The result was a marked improvement on the 52% sensitivity, and 85% specificity previously observed with the 1 dimensional model or the 45% sensitivities reported with visual observations. Validation of model accuracy continues with the goal to finalise accurate automated methods of lameness detection. PMID:26278403

  2. Inhibition of multiple vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) blocks lymph node metastases but inhibition of VEGFR-2 is sufficient to sensitize tumor cells to platinum-based chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sini, Patrizia; Samarzija, Ivana; Baffert, Fabienne; Littlewood-Evans, Amanda; Schnell, Christian; Theuer, Andreas; Christian, Sven; Boos, Anja; Hess-Stumpp, Holger; Foekens, John A; Setyono-Han, Buddy; Wood, Jeanette; Hynes, Nancy E

    2008-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) have important roles in cancer, affecting blood and lymphatic vessel functionality as well as tumor cells themselves. We compared the efficacy of a VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PTK787/ZK222584 (PTK/ZK), which targets the three VEGFRs, with blocking antibodies directed against VEGFR-2 (DC101) or VEGF-A (Pab85618) in a metastatic melanoma model. Although all inhibitors exerted comparable effects on primary tumor growth, only PTK/ZK significantly reduced lymph node metastasis formation. A comparable decrease in lymphatic vessel density following blockade of VEGFR-2 (DC101) or the three VEGFRs (PTK/ZK) was observed in the metastases. However, the functionality of lymphatics surrounding the primary tumor was more significantly disrupted by PTK/ZK, indicating the importance of multiple VEGFRs in the metastatic process. The antimetastatic properties of PTK/ZK were confirmed in a breast carcinoma model. B16/BL6 tumor cells express VEGF ligands and their receptors. Blockade of a VEGFR-1 autocrine loop with PTK/ZK inhibited tumor cell migration. Furthermore, the tumor cells also showed enhanced sensitivity to platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with PTK/ZK, indicating that autocrine VEGFRs are promoting tumor cell migration and survival. In summary, our results suggest that, in addition to blocking angiogenesis, combined inhibition of the three VEGFRs may more efficiently target other aspects of tumor pathophysiology, including lymphatic vessel functionality, tumor cell dissemination, survival pathways, and response to chemotherapeutic compounds. PMID:18316624

  3. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages

    PubMed Central

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs. PMID:27404912

  4. Sensitivity improvement of an electrical sensor achieved by control of biomolecules based on the negative dielectrophoretic force.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jung Ho; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-11-15

    Effective control of nano-scale biomolecules can enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection of an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor. Manipulation of the biomolecules by dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially the negative DEP (nDEP) force, so that they are trapped between electrodes (sensing regions) was predicted to increase the binding efficiency of the antibody and target molecules, leading to a more effective reaction. To prove this concept, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein were respectively trapped between the sensing region owing to the nDEP force under 5V and 0.05V, which was verified with COMSOL simulation. Using the simulation value, the resistance change (ΔR/Rb) of the IME sensor from the specific antibody-antigen reaction of the two biomolecules and the change in fluorescence intensity were compared in the reference (pDEP) and nDEP conditions. The ΔR/Rb value improved by about 2-fold and 1.66-fold with nDEP compared to the reference condition with various protein concentrations, and these increases were confirmed with fluorescence imaging. Overall, nDEP enhanced the detection sensitivity for Aβ42 and PSA by 128% and 258%, respectively, and the limit of detection improved by up to 2-orders of magnitude. These results prove that DEP can improve the biosensor's performance. PMID:27449966

  5. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J.

    2016-07-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs.

  6. Enhanced Conversion Efficiencies in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Achieved through Self-Assembled Platinum(II) Metallacages.

    PubMed

    He, Zuoli; Hou, Zhiqiang; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin; Yin, Xingtian; Que, Meidan; Shao, Jinyou; Que, Wenxiu; Stang, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes with particular photo-physical property, wherein unique donors are combined with a single metal acceptor, can be utilized for many applications including in photo-devices. In this communication, we described the synthesis and characterization of two-component self-assembly supramolecular coordination complexes (SCCs) bearing triazine and porphyrin faces with promising light-harvesting properties. These complexes were obtained from the self-assembly of a 90° Pt(II) acceptor with 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPyT) or 5,10,15,20-Tetra(4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine (TPyP). The greatly improved conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells were 6.79 and 6.08 respectively, while these SCCs were introduced into the TiO2 nanoparticle film photoanodes. In addition, the open circuit voltage (Voc) of dye-sensitized solar cells was also increased to 0.769 and 0.768 V, which could be ascribed to the inhibited interfacial charge recombination due to the addition of SCCs. PMID:27404912

  7. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  8. Simultaneous stability and sensitivity in model cortical networks is achieved through anti-correlations between the in- and out-degree of connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Juan C.; Houweling, Arthur R.; Tiesinga, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal networks in rodent barrel cortex are characterized by stable low baseline firing rates. However, they are sensitive to the action potentials of single neurons as suggested by recent single-cell stimulation experiments that reported quantifiable behavioral responses in response to short spike trains elicited in single neurons. Hence, these networks are stable against internally generated fluctuations in firing rate but at the same time remain sensitive to similarly-sized externally induced perturbations. We investigated stability and sensitivity in a simple recurrent network of stochastic binary neurons and determined numerically the effects of correlation between the number of afferent (“in-degree”) and efferent (“out-degree”) connections in neurons. The key advance reported in this work is that anti-correlation between in-/out-degree distributions increased the stability of the network in comparison to networks with no correlation or positive correlations, while being able to achieve the same level of sensitivity. The experimental characterization of degree distributions is difficult because all pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons have to be identified and counted. We explored whether the statistics of network motifs, which requires the characterization of connections between small subsets of neurons, could be used to detect evidence for degree anti-correlations. We find that the sample frequency of the 3-neuron “ring” motif (1→2→3→1), can be used to detect degree anti-correlation for sub-networks of size 30 using about 50 samples, which is of significance because the necessary measurements are achievable experimentally in the near future. Taken together, we hypothesize that barrel cortex networks exhibit degree anti-correlations and specific network motif statistics. PMID:24223550

  9. Sufficient dimension reduction with additional information.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung; Liu, Chih-Yen; Horng-Shing Lu, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Sufficient dimension reduction is widely applied to help model building between the response [Formula: see text] and covariate [Formula: see text] In some situations, we also collect additional covariate [Formula: see text] that has better performance in predicting [Formula: see text], but has a higher obtaining cost, than [Formula: see text] While constructing a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] is straightforward, this strategy is not applicable since [Formula: see text] is not available for future observations in which the constructed model is to be applied. As a result, the aim of the study is to build a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] only, where the available data is [Formula: see text] A naive method is to conduct analysis using [Formula: see text] directly, but ignoring [Formula: see text] can cause the problem of inefficiency. On the other hand, it is not trivial to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] to infer [Formula: see text], either. In this article, we propose a two-stage dimension reduction method for [Formula: see text] that is able to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] In the breast cancer data, the risk score constructed from the two-stage method can well separate patients with different survival experiences. In the Pima data, the two-stage method requires fewer components to infer the diabetes status, while achieving higher classification accuracy than the conventional method. PMID:26704765

  10. Hawaii's energy self-sufficiency program from renewable energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The need for public support for incentives to accelerate commercialization of renewable energy sources is discussed from the viewpoint of the Hawaiian program to use the state's wind, solar, geothermal, and OTEC resources to achieve energy self-sufficiency. The objectives and major events in the research, development and demonstration and implementation programs and related activities are described. (LEW)

  11. Direct Coupling of Solid-Phase Microextraction with Mass Spectrometry: Sub-pg/g Sensitivity Achieved Using a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization Source.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli, Mario F; Wolf, Jan-Christoph; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-07-19

    We report a new strategy for the direct coupling of Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) with mass spectrometry, based on thermal desorption of analytes extracted on the fibers, followed by ionization by a dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) source. Limits of detection as low as 0.3 pg/mL and a linear dynamic range of ≥3 orders of magnitude were achieved, with a very simple and reproducible approach. Different from direct analysis in real time (DART), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), or low-temperature plasma (LTP), the desorption of the analytes from the SPME devices in our setup is completely separated from the ionization event. This enhances the reproducibility of the method and minimizes ion suppression phenomena. The analytes were quantitatively transferred from the SPME to the DBDI source, and the use of an active capillary ionization embodiment of the DBDI source greatly enhanced the ion transmission to the MS. This, together with the extraordinary sensitivity of DBDI, allowed subpg/mL sensitivities to be reached and to skip conventional and time-consuming chromatographic separation. PMID:27332082

  12. Evaluating Whole Chemical Mixtures and Sufficient Similarity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This powerpoint presentation supports apresentation describing dose-response assessment for complex chemical mixtures including deriving reference doses for mixtures evaluating sufficient similarity among chemical mixtures.

  13. Some existence and sufficient conditions of optimality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assefi, T.

    1976-01-01

    The role of the existence and sufficiency conditions in the field of optimal control was briefly described. The existence theorems are discussed for general nonlinear systems. However, the sufficiency conditions pertain to "nearly" linear systems with integral convex costs. Moreover, a brief discussion of linear systems with multiple-cost functions is presented.

  14. Efficient dye regeneration at low driving force achieved in triphenylamine dye LEG4 and TEMPO redox mediator based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxing; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hao, Yan; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit

    2015-06-28

    Minimizing the driving force required for the regeneration of oxidized dyes using redox mediators in an electrolyte is essential to further improve the open-circuit voltage and efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Appropriate combinations of redox mediators and dye molecules should be explored to achieve this goal. Herein, we present a triphenylamine dye, LEG4, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte in acetonitrile (E(0) = 0.89 V vs. NHE), reaching an efficiency of up to 5.4% under one sun illumination and 40% performance improvement compared to the previously and widely used indoline dye D149. The origin of this improvement was found to be the increased dye regeneration efficiency of LEG4 using the TEMPO redox mediator, which regenerated more than 80% of the oxidized dye with a driving force of only ∼0.2 eV. Detailed mechanistic studies further revealed that in addition to electron recombination to oxidized dyes, recombination of electrons from the conducting substrate and the mesoporous TiO2 film to the TEMPO(+) redox species in the electrolyte accounts for the reduced short circuit current, compared to the state-of-the-art cobalt tris(bipyridine) electrolyte system. The diffusion length of the TEMPO-electrolyte based DSSCs was determined to be ∼0.5 μm, which is smaller than the ∼2.8 μm found for cobalt-electrolyte based DSSCs. These results show the advantages of using LEG4 as a sensitizer, compared to previously record indoline dyes, in combination with a TEMPO-based electrolyte. The low driving force for efficient dye regeneration presented by these results shows the potential to further improve the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSCs by utilizing redox couples and dyes with a minimal need of driving force for high regeneration yields. PMID:26016854

  15. Semiparametric tests for sufficient cause interaction

    PubMed Central

    Vansteelandt, Stijn; VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Robins, James M.

    2014-01-01

    A sufficient cause interaction between two exposures signals the presence of individuals for whom the outcome would occur only under certain values of the two exposures. When the outcome is dichotomous and all exposures are categorical, then under certain no confounding assumptions, empirical conditions for sufficient cause interactions can be constructed based on the sign of linear contrasts of conditional outcome probabilities between differently exposed subgroups, given confounders. It is argued that logistic regression models are unsatisfactory for evaluating such contrasts, and that Bernoulli regression models with linear link are prone to misspecification. We therefore develop semiparametric tests for sufficient cause interactions under models which postulate probability contrasts in terms of a finite-dimensional parameter, but which are otherwise unspecified. Estimation is often not feasible in these models because it would require nonparametric estimation of auxiliary conditional expectations given high-dimensional variables. We therefore develop ‘multiply robust tests’ under a union model that assumes at least one of several working submodels holds. In the special case of a randomized experiment or a family-based genetic study in which the joint exposure distribution is known by design or Mendelian inheritance, the procedure leads to asymptotically distribution-free tests of the null hypothesis of no sufficient cause interaction. PMID:25558182

  16. Sufficiency, Intimacy and the Good Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Donald L.

    Our capacity to provide food and shelter is freeing us from the constant burden of keeping the wolf away from the door. We are increasingly able to give our attention to other values. This type of sufficiency provides time and circumstances for developing intimate relationships. Intimate relationships are characterized by revelation of one's…

  17. Sufficient separability criteria and linear maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewenstein, Maciej; Augusiak, Remigiusz; Chruściński, Dariusz; Rana, Swapan; Samsonowicz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    We study families of positive and completely positive maps acting on a bipartite system CM⊗CN (with M ≤N ). The maps have a property that, when applied to any state (of a given entanglement class), result in a separable state or, more generally, a state of another certain entanglement class (e.g., Schmidt number ≤k ). This allows us to derive useful families of sufficient separability criteria. Explicit examples of such criteria have been constructed for arbitrary M ,N , with a special emphasis on M =2 . Our results can be viewed as generalizations of the known facts that in the sufficiently close vicinity of the completely depolarized state (the normalized identity matrix), all states are separable (belong to "weakly" entangled classes). Alternatively, some of our results can be viewed as an entanglement classification for a certain family of states, corresponding to mixtures of the completely polarized state with pure states, partial transposes, and/or local transformations thereof.

  18. Reading Management Systems: Not Sufficient, Not Necessary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Paul R.; Fortuna, Stan, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Using a nested two-way analysis of variances, in four Michigan elementary schools, no significant differences were found between the achievement of students taught with reading management techniques and those who were not. (Author/CM)

  19. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliate communities using an artificial substratum in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yong; Zhu, Mingzhuang; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.

    2012-08-01

    Taxonomic relatedness measures of ciliated protozoan communities have successively been used as useful indicators for assessing water quality in marine ecosystems with a number of desirable properties. Sampling sufficiency for analyzing taxonomic relatedness indices of periphytic ciliate communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June, 2010. Samples were collected at two depths of 1 m and 3 m using an artificial substratum (glass slides), and were analyzed based on different sampling strategies (slide replicates). For achieving a dissimilarity of < 10%, more slide replicates were required with shortening community ages: 3-10 slide replicates were sufficient for the young (1-7 days) communities while 2-4 slide replicates were for the mature (10-28 days). The standard errors of four taxonomic relatedness indices due to the sample sizes were increased only in the young communities with shortening colonization times. For achieving a standard error of < 10%, 1 slide replicate was generally sufficient for the mature communities, whereas 4-10 were required for the young. These findings suggested that low slide replicates were required for measuring taxonomic relatedness indices compared to analyzing the community patterns, and that these indices were more sensitive to the sample sizes of a young community than a mature one of periphytic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

  20. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient

    PubMed Central

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  1. The Effects of Head Start on Children's Kindergarten Retention, Reading and Math Achievement in Fall Kindergarten--An Application of Propensity Score Method and Sensitivity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Nianbo

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), this paper applied optimal propensity score matching method to evaluate the effects of Head Start on children's kindergarten retention, reading and math achievement in fall kindergarten comparing with center-based care. Both parametric and nonparametric…

  2. Scotopic sensitivity/Irlen syndrome and the use of coloured filters: a long-term placebo controlled and masked study of reading achievement and perception of ability.

    PubMed

    Robinson, G L; Foreman, P J

    1999-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of using coloured filters on reading speed, accuracy, and comprehension as well as on perception of academic ability. A double-masked, placebo-controlled crossover design was used, with subjects being assessed over a period of 20 mo. There were three treatment groups (Placebo filters, Blue filters, and Optimal filters) involving 113 subjects with "reading difficulties", ranging in age from 9.2 yr. to 13.1 yr. and with an average discrepancy between chronological age and reading age of 1.8 yr. The 35 controls (who did not use coloured filters) ranged in age from 9.4 yr. to 12.9 yr., with an average discrepancy between chronological age and reading age of 2.1 yr. The treatment groups increased at a significantly greater rate than the control group in reading accuracy and reading comprehension but not for speed of reading. For self-reported perception of academic ability, two of the three treatment groups showed significantly greater increases than the control group. The larger improvements for treatment groups in reading comprehension may be related to a reduction in print and background distortions allowing attention to be directed to the processing of continuous text rather than to the identification of individual words. A reduction in print distortion, however, may not be sufficient to generate improved word-identification skills without additional remedial support, and this may be indicated by the nonsignificant increase in rate of reading. PMID:10544403

  3. Neurodegenerative Diseases: Neurotoxins as Sufficient Etiologic Agents?

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Christopher A.; Höglinger, Günter U.

    2008-01-01

    A dominant paradigm in neurological disease research is that the primary etiological factors for diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD), Parkinson’s (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are genetic. Opposed to this perspective are the clear observations from epidemiology that purely genetic casual factors account for a relatively small fraction of all cases. Many who support a genetic etiology for neurological disease take the view that while the percentages may be relatively small, these numbers will rise in the future with the inevitable discoveries of additional genetic mutations. The follow up argument is that even if the last is not true, the events triggered by the aberrant genes identified so far will be shown to impact the same neuronal cell death pathways as those activated by environmental factors that trigger most sporadic disease cases. In this article we present a countervailing view that environmental neurotoxins may be the sole sufficient factor in at least three neurological disease clusters. For each, neurotoxins have been isolated and characterized that, at least in animal models, faithfully reproduce each disorder without the need for genetic co-factors. Based on these data, we will propose a set of principles that would enable any potential toxin to be evaluated as an etiological factor in a given neurodegenerative disease. Finally, we will attempt to put environmental toxins into the context of possible genetically-determined susceptibility. PMID:17985252

  4. Energy Strategic Planning & Self-Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Retzlaff

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follow: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  5. Necessary, but Not Sufficient: The McKinney-Vento Act and Academic Achievement in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, George; Barkley, William

    2012-01-01

    The McKinney-Vento Homeless Education Assistance Improvements Act of 2001 (MCKV), which provides funds to local educational agencies (LEAs), is almost a decade old, yet no evaluations of its academic effectiveness have been reported. Using a systems theory framework, the authors answer the question of whether homeless students in grade 6 from LEAs…

  6. On achieving sufficient dual station range accuracy for deep space navigation at zero declination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, H. L.; Christensen, C. S.; Green, D. W.; Winn, F. B.

    1977-01-01

    Since the Voyager Mission will encounter Saturn at a time when the planet will be nearly in the earth's equatorial plane, earth-based orbit determination will be more difficult than usual because of the so-called zero-declination singularity associated with conventional radiometric observations. Simulation studies show that in order to meet the required delivery accuracy at Saturn, a relative range measurement between the Goldstone and Canberra Deep Space Stations must be accurate to 4.5 times the square root of two meters. Topics discussed include the nature of error sources, the methodology and technology required for calibration, the verification process concerning the nearly simultaneous range capability, a description of the ranging system, and tracking strategy.

  7. Synthesis of grafted phosphorylcholine polymer layers as specific recognition ligands for C-reactive protein focused on grafting density and thickness to achieve highly sensitive detection.

    PubMed

    Kamon, Yuri; Kitayama, Yukiya; Itakura, Akiko N; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2015-04-21

    We studied the effects of layer thickness and grafting density of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) thin layers as specific ligands for the highly sensitive binding of C-reactive protein (CRP). PMPC layer thickness was controlled by surface-initiated activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP). PMPC grafting density was controlled by utilizing mixed self-assembled monolayers with different incorporation ratios of the bis[2-(2-bromoisobutyryloxy)undecyl] disulfide ATRP initiator, as modulated by altering the feed molar ratio with (11-mercaptoundecyl)tetra(ethylene glycol). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize the modified surfaces. PMPC grafting densities were estimated from polymer thickness and the molecular weight obtained from sacrificial initiator during surface-initiated AGET ATRP. The effects of thickness and grafting density of the obtained PMPC layers on CRP binding performance were investigated using surface plasmon resonance employing a 10 mM Tris-HCl running buffer containing 140 mM NaCl and 2 mM CaCl2 (pH 7.4). Furthermore, the non-specific binding properties of the obtained layers were investigated using human serum albumin (HSA) as a reference protein. The PMPC layer which has 4.6 nm of thickness and 1.27 chains per nm(2) of grafting density showed highly sensitive CRP detection (limit of detection: 4.4 ng mL(-1)) with low non-specific HSA adsorption, which was improved 10 times than our previous report of 50 ng mL(-1). PMID:25783194

  8. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells achieved through using Pt-free Nb2O5/C composite counter electrode and iodide-free redox couples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Lu, Qi; Li, Wenyan; Li, Xiaowei; Hagfeldt, Anders; Zhang, Wenming; Wu, Mingxing

    2016-03-01

    To improve the catalytic activity of Nb2O5, a composite Nb2O5/C (Nb2O5 imbedded in carbon support) is synthesized with a simple in situ method and then introduced the composite into dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as a counter electrode (CE) catalyst. Based on the analysis of the cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Tafel-polarization curve measurements, the catalytic activity of the Nb2O5/C composite for the regeneration of iodide-free redox couples of polysulfide (T2/T-) and cobalt complex (Co3+/2+) is indeed enhanced significantly as compared with pure Nb2O5, because the composite electrode eliminates the particle aggregation and forms a mesoporous network structure with large pore size. The T2/T- electrolyte based DSCs with Nb2O5/C CE yields a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.11%, generating a great improvement of 63.8% as compared to the Pt CE based DSCs. In addition, the Nb2O5/C exhibits higher catalytic activity than Pt for regenerating the Co3+/2+ redox couple and the DSCs using Nb2O5/C CE shows a high PCE of 9.86%.

  9. These Shoes Are Made for Walking: Sensitivity Performance Evaluation of Commercial Activity Monitors under the Expected Conditions and Circumstances Required to Achieve the International Daily Step Goal of 10,000 Steps

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sandra; ÓLaighin, Gearóid; Kelly, Lisa; Murphy, Elaine; Beirne, Sorcha; Burke, Niall; Kilgannon, Orlaith; Quinlan, Leo R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a vitally important part of a healthy lifestyle, and is of major benefit to both physical and mental health. A daily step count of 10,000 steps is recommended globally to achieve an appropriate level of physical activity. Accurate quantification of physical activity during conditions reflecting those needed to achieve the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps is essential. As such, we aimed to assess four commercial activity monitors for their sensitivity/accuracy in a prescribed walking route that reflects a range of surfaces that would typically be used to achieve the recommended daily step count, in two types of footwear expected to be used throughout the day when aiming to achieve the recommended daily step count, and in a timeframe required to do so. Methods Four commercial activity monitors were worn simultaneously by participants (n = 15) during a prescribed walking route reflective of surfaces typically encountered while achieving the daily recommended 10,000 steps. Activity monitors tested were the Garmin Vivofit ™, New Lifestyles’ NL-2000 ™ pedometer, Withings Smart Activity Monitor Tracker (Pulse O2) ™, and Fitbit One ™. Results All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection over the variety of different surfaces tested (natural lawn grass, gravel, ceramic tile, tarmacadam/asphalt, linoleum), when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes. Conclusion All activity monitors tested were accurate in their step detection sensitivity and are valid monitors for physical activity quantification over the variety of different surfaces tested, when wearing both running shoes and hard-soled dress shoes, and over a timeframe necessary for accumulating the recommended daily step count of 10,000 steps. However, it is important to consider the accuracy of activity monitors, particularly when physical activity in the form of stepping activities is prescribed as an intervention in the

  10. The Akt switch model: Is location sufficient?

    PubMed

    Gray, Catheryn W; Coster, Adelle C F

    2016-06-01

    Akt/PKB is a biochemical regulator that functions as an important cross-talk node between several signalling pathways in the mammalian cell. In particular, Akt is a key mediator of glucose transport in response to insulin. The phosphorylation (activation) of only a small percentage of the Akt pool of insulin-sensitive cells results in maximal translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane (PM). This enables the diffusion of glucose into the cell. The dysregulation of Akt signalling is associated with the development of diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Akt is synthesised in the cytoplasm in the inactive state. Under the influence of insulin, it moves to the PM, where it is phosphorylated to form pAkt. Although phosphorylation occurs only at the PM, pAkt is found in many cellular locations, including the PM, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus. Indeed, the spatial distribution of pAkt within the cell appears to be an important determinant of downstream regulation. Here we present a simple, linear, four-compartment ordinary differential equation (ODE) model of Akt activation that tracks both the biochemical state and the physical location of Akt. This model embodies the main features of the activation of this important cross-talk node and is consistent with the experimental data. In particular, it allows different downstream signalling motifs without invoking separate feedback pathways. Moreover, the model is computationally tractable, readily analysed, and elucidates some of the apparent anomalies in insulin signalling via Akt. PMID:26992575

  11. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection stacking for verteporfin drug to achieve highly sensitive enantioseparation and detection in artificial urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongqi; Li, Aimei; Wang, Yongle; Chen, Zhilong; Hirokawa, Takeshi

    2014-08-15

    Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI) was applied for negatively charged verteporfin (VER) overloading and inline stacking, which targeted highly sensitive enantioseparation by CE. The essential step of PAEKI is a constant pressure used to counterbalance the electroosmotic flow (EOF), consequently, the large amount of analyte could be permitted into capillary and concentrated at the motionless boundary of the sample zone and background electrolyte (BGE). Aiming to know the balance, the velocity of the whole BGE in capillary by the impetus of pressure (0.2-2.0psi), and the velocity of EOF depending on the length of sample plug and voltage (5.0-20kV) was investigated, respectively. The velocity of bulk flow in capillary has good linearity with the pressure or applied voltage. Through the pattern of EOF marked peak and analyte peaks (dissolved in pure water), the constant pressure (0.8psi) vs. the added voltage (-10.3kV) during PAEKI was confirmed to immobilize the bulk flow of BGE, thus the sample injection time could sustain 2.0min without compromising separation efficiency. The obtained LOD (S/N=3) of each isomer at UV detection (428nm) was around 10.3μg/L, which was improved to 116 and 39-fold in comparison with normal hydrodynamic injection (HDI) and electrokinetic injection (EKI). The LOD is far below the reported value with LIF detection of VER. The RSD (n=5) of migration time and peak area was, respectively, around 3.5% and 5.7% for the proposed PAEKI method. Finally, PAEKI was used for the detection of VER in artificial urine to investigate the matrix interference. PMID:24951290

  12. The pH-tunable Oxidase-like Activity of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Achieves Sensitive Fluorigenic Detection of Cancer Biomarkers at Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Asati, Atul; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Santra, Santimukul; Perez, J Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The reliable and sensitive detection of cancer-specific biomarkers is important for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Hence, detection of these biomarkers has to be reliably and rapidly performed in diverse settings. A limitation of the conventional biomarker-screening method of ELISA is the employment of labile components, such as hydrogen peroxide and horseradish peroxidase. Previously, we reported that nanoceria is able to oxidize various colorimertic dyes at acidic pH, such as TMB and AzBTS, and an assay was designed for screening the folate receptor. Herein, we show that the ability of nanoceria to oxidize a substrate can be tuned by modulating the pH. Results showed that nanoceria can oxidize the non-fluorescent substrate ampliflu, either to the very stable fluorescent product resorufin at pH 7.0 or to the non-fluorescent resazurin at pH 4.0. Based on these findings, we conjugated Protein G to immobilize antibodies on the surface of nanoceria, in order to detect the expression of prototypic cancer biomarkers at pH 7.0, such as the folate receptor and EpCAM. We found that within 3 h, nanoceria identified the expression of the folate receptor and EpCAM on lung carcinoma and breast adenocarcinoma cells respectively. Traditional ELISA had a readout time of 15 h and a higher detection threshold, while requiring multiple washing steps. Considering these results and nanoceria’s ability to oxidize ampliflu to its stable fluorescent product at neutral pH, the use of antibody-carrying nanoceria in the lab and point-of-care molecular diagnostics is anticipated. PMID:21370817

  13. 75 FR 39035 - Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of... Voucher Program) with public and private resources to enable eligible families to achieve economic...; enter into a Contract of Participation with each eligible family that opts to participate in the...

  14. Struggle for Self-Sufficiency: Impact of Welfare Reform on Families with Children in Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    Since Congress passed the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, Kansas has dramatically reduced its welfare roles. Noting that achieving self-sufficiency is the real measure of success in combating poverty, this study examines welfare reform efforts in Kansas. To gather information, United Way member agencies and…

  15. Research on Necessary and Sufficient Condition for Hamilton Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yan; Cui, Chao-Dong

    An important concept, "closed domain" is proposed in this paper. In the same time, necessary and sufficient lemma for closed domain, R, is proved on which necessary and sufficient theorem for judging whether a general graph G is a Hamilton graph is proposed and proved. All instances in this paper are judged by comparatively using the theorem proposed herein and the original necessary condition theorem and sufficient condition theorem to prove the correctness of the method proposed in this paper.

  16. 24 CFR 242.2 - Program financial self-sufficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program financial self-sufficiency... self-sufficiency and actuarial soundness; i.e., to avoid mortgage defaults and claims for insurance... AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS General Eligibility Requirements § 242.2 Program financial...

  17. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... or an authorized official pursuant to an order of such a court or pursuant to federal, state or...

  18. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... or an authorized official pursuant to an order of such a court or pursuant to federal, state or...

  19. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... or an authorized official pursuant to an order of such a court or pursuant to federal, state or...

  20. Southeast Asian Refugee Self-Sufficiency Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Nathan; And Others

    This study on the economic self-sufficiency of the Southeast Asian refugee household was conducted in order to gather information on the economic status of these refugees, the factors that contribute to self-sufficiency, and refugees' needs for services. A survey of 1,384 households of Vietnamese, Sino-Vietnamese, and Lao refugees who arrived in…

  1. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  2. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  3. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  4. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  5. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  6. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... is legal process in the nature of garnishment; that it is issued by a court of competent...

  7. 39 CFR 491.3 - Sufficient legal form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sufficient legal form. 491.3 Section 491.3 Postal... AND THE POSTAL RATE COMMISSION § 491.3 Sufficient legal form. No document purporting to garnish... is legal process in the nature of garnishment; that it is issued by a court of competent...

  8. Second-order advantage achieved by modeling excitation-emission fluorescence matrices affected by inner filter effects using a strategy which combines standardization and calibration: reducing experimental and increasing analytical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Schenone, Agustina V; Culzoni, María J; Galera, María Martínez; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2013-05-15

    A methodology based on second-order data (excitation emission matrices) modeling with one of most popular algorithms presenting the second-order advantage, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), combined with transference of calibration is proposed to predict the analyte concentration when significant inner filter effects occur, even in the presence of unexpected sample components. The quantitation of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE) in water samples (concentrations ranged between 250 and 750 ng mL(-1)) in the presence of ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid and paracetamol (which produce inner filter effect across the useful wavelength range) was achieved. The strategy allows reducing the experimental work and increasing the analytical sensitivity in the determination of the analyte of interest in the presence of unexpected compounds and matrix effect caused by inner filter, avoiding the preparation of a large number of solutions and maintaining acceptable figures of merit. Recoveries between 97 and 102% for validation and real spiked water samples, respectively, and a relative prediction error of 5% were achieved. Results were compared with those obtained after the application of the classical standard addition method combined with PARAFAC, carrying out five additions to each sample, in triplicate. The presented methodology constitutes a simple and low-cost method for the determination of PHE in water samples with a considerable reduction in standard handling and time. This methodology can be extended to other systems presenting matrix effect and, consequently, can become in a useful tool to know the amount of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment and to evaluate the effect of conventional wastewater treatment plants in the elimination of pharmaceutical compounds. PMID:23618146

  9. 75 FR 35712 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES): Use of Sufficiently Sensitive Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    .../methylmercury/mercury.2010.pdf ). On March 12, 2007, EPA published the Methods Update Rule, or MUR (72 FR 11200..., footnotes to table 2 of EPA Method 1624 and table 3 of EPA Method 1625 (49 FR 43234, October 26, 1984); (B) 40 CFR 136, section 17.12 of EPA Method 1631E (67 FR 65876-65888, October 29, 2002); (C) 61 FR...

  10. Self-sufficient electronic control for nonlinear, frequency tunable, piezoelectric vibration harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, S.; Neiss, S.; Kroener, M.; Woias, P.

    2015-12-01

    Research in vibration energy harvesting focuses increasingly on nonlinear harvesters. In comparison to linear harvesters they show an inherent larger bandwidth through hardening or softening effects and higher conversion efficiency. A further increase of the bandwidth and thus a higher energy yield can be achieved by controlled tuning of such a nonlinear system. In this paper a self-sufficient tuning control electronic, which is directly powered by the harvester, is presented.

  11. Quantification is Neither Necessary Nor Sufficient for Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Maul, Andrew; Torres Irribarra, David; Wilson, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Being an infrastructural, widespread activity, measurement is laden with stereotypes. Some of these concern the role of measurement in the relation between quality and quantity. In particular, it is sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is necessary for measurement; it is also sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is sufficient for or synonymous with measurement. To assess the validity of these positions the concepts of measurement and quantitative evaluation should be independently defined and their relationship analyzed. We contend that the defining characteristic of measurement should be the structure of the process, not a feature of its results. Under this perspective, quantitative evaluation is neither sufficient nor necessary for measurement.

  12. Is the Supply of Mathematics and Science Teachers Sufficient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; Perda, David

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to empirically ground the debate over mathematics and science teacher shortages and evaluate the extent to which there is, or is not, sufficient supply of teachers in these fields. The authors' analyses of nationally representative data from multiple sources show that math and science are the fields most difficult to staff, but…

  13. Online Learning in Higher Education: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cher Ping

    2005-01-01

    The spectacular development of information and communication technologies through the Internet has provided opportunities for students to explore the virtual world of information. In this article, the author discusses the necessary and sufficient conditions for successful online learning in educational institutions. The necessary conditions…

  14. Sufficient observables for large-scale structure in galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carron, J.; Szapudi, I.

    2014-03-01

    Beyond the linear regime, the power spectrum and higher order moments of the matter field no longer capture all cosmological information encoded in density fluctuations. While non-linear transforms have been proposed to extract this information lost to traditional methods, up to now, the way to generalize these techniques to discrete processes was unclear; ad hoc extensions had some success. We pointed out in Carron and Szapudi's paper that the logarithmic transform approximates extremely well the optimal `sufficient statistics', observables that extract all information from the (continuous) matter field. Building on these results, we generalize optimal transforms to discrete galaxy fields. We focus our calculations on the Poisson sampling of an underlying lognormal density field. We solve and test the one-point case in detail, and sketch out the sufficient observables for the multipoint case. Moreover, we present an accurate approximation to the sufficient observables in terms of the mean and spectrum of a non-linearly transformed field. We find that the corresponding optimal non-linear transformation is directly related to the maximum a posteriori Bayesian reconstruction of the underlying continuous field with a lognormal prior as put forward in the paper of Kitaura et al.. Thus, simple recipes for realizing the sufficient observables can be built on previously proposed algorithms that have been successfully implemented and tested in simulations.

  15. Housing Policy and Family Self-Sufficiency. Background Briefing Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, Rachel

    The relationship between housing and family well-being and self-sufficiency are explored in this paper's three major sections. The first section provides background information on the relationship between housing and the physical and social well-being of individuals and families and describes the major federal housing initiatives that have been…

  16. Leadership, the Logic of Sufficiency and the Sustainability of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottery, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The notion of sufficiency has not yet entered mainstream educational thinking, and it still has to make its mark upon educational leadership. However, a number of related concepts--particularly those of sustainability and complexity theory--are beginning to be noticed. This article examines these two concepts and uses them to critique the…

  17. Intellectual Freedom and Economic Sufficiency as Educational Entitlements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Jane Fowler

    2001-01-01

    Using the theories of John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, this article supports the educational entitlements of intellectual freedom and economic sufficiency. Explores these issues in reference to their implications for teaching, the teaching profession and its training. Concludes that ideas cannot be controlled by the interests of the dominant class.…

  18. The Indochinese in America: Progress Towards Self Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finck, John

    Despite suspicion in some quarters that refugee resettlement has been unduly expensive, evidence indicates that the Indochinese have made steady progress toward self-sufficiency. The majority of Hmong refugees in Providence, Rhode Island, for example, which has been "heavily impacted" by the large number of Indochinese who have become its newest…

  19. Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Dynamic Geometry Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Allen; Chan, Yip-Cheung

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a possible dragging experiment in a dynamic geometry environment (DGE) that explores a necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic quadrilateral. The dragging modalities identified by Arzarello, Olivero, Paola, and Robutti (2002) and the functions of variation realized in DGE discussed by Leung (2003) will be used as tools…

  20. Recent Widows' Kin Support and Orientations to Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryant, Shirley L.; Morgan, Leslie A.

    1990-01-01

    Data on recently widowed women suggest that many are quite self-sufficient; however, in areas where support is needed, they largely rely on children. Widows' past experiences and attitudes toward independence influenced amount of overall help they received, whereas income, number of children, and perceived willingness of children to help affected…

  1. Food self-sufficiency across scales: how local can we go?

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K B; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Juergen P

    2014-08-19

    This study explores the potential for regions to shift to a local food supply using food self-sufficiency (FSS) as an indicator. We considered a region food self-sufficient when its total calorie production is enough to meet its demand. For future scenarios, we considered population growth, dietary changes, improved feed conversion efficiency, climate change, and crop yield increments. Starting at the 5' resolution, we investigated FSS from the lowest administrative levels to continents. Globally, about 1.9 billion people are self-sufficient within their 5' grid, while about 1 billion people from Asia and Africa require cross-continental agricultural trade in 2000. By closing yield gaps, these regions can achieve FSS, which also reduces international trade and increases a self-sufficient population in a 5' grid to 2.9 billion. The number of people depending on international trade will vary between 1.5 and 6 billion by 2050. Climate change may increase the need for international agricultural trade by 4% to 16%. PMID:25062356

  2. Resource Utilization and Site Selection for a Self-Sufficient Martian Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Donald; Chamitoff, Gregory; James, George

    1998-01-01

    As a planet with striking similarities to Earth, Mars is an important focus for scientific research aimed at understanding the processes of planetary evolution and the formation of our solar system. Fortunately, Mars is also a planet with abundant natural resources, including assessible materials that can be used to support human life and to sustain a self-sufficient martian outpost. Resources required include water, breathable air, food, shelter, energy, and fuel. Through a mission design based on in situ resource development, we can establish a permanent outpost on Mars beginning with the first manned mission. This paper examines the potential for supporting the first manned mission with the objective of achieving self-sufficiency through well-understood resource development and a program of rigorous scientific research aimed at extending that capability. We examine the potential for initially extracting critical resources from the martian environment, and discuss the scientific investigations required to identify additional resources in the atmosphere, on the surface, and within the subsurface. We also discuss our current state of knowledge of Mars, technical considerations of resource utilization, and using unmanned missions' data for selecting an optimal site. The primary goal of achieving self-sufficiency on Mars would accelerate the development of human colonization beyond Earth, while providing a robust and permanent martian base from which humans can explore and conduct long-term research on planetary evolution, the solar system, and life itself.

  3. Entrepreneurship by any other name: self-sufficiency versus innovation.

    PubMed

    Parker Harris, Sarah; Caldwell, Kate; Renko, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been promoted as an innovative strategy to address the employment of people with disabilities. Research has predominantly focused on the self-sufficiency aspect without fully integrating entrepreneurship literature in the areas of theory, systems change, and demonstration projects. Subsequently there are gaps in services, policies, and research in this field that, in turn, have limited our understanding of the support needs and barriers or facilitators of entrepreneurs with disabilities. A thorough analysis of the literature in these areas led to the development of two core concepts that need to be addressed in integrating entrepreneurship into disability employment research and policy: clarity in operational definitions and better disability statistics and outcome measures. This article interrogates existing research and policy efforts in this regard to argue for a necessary shift in the field from focusing on entrepreneurship as self-sufficiency to understanding entrepreneurship as innovation. PMID:25225770

  4. Retinal flow is sufficient for steering during observer rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li; Warren, William H Jr

    2002-01-01

    How do people control locomotion while their eyes are simultaneously rotating? A previous study found that during simulated rotation, they can perceive a straight path of self-motion from the retinal flow pattern, despite conflicting extraretinal information, on the basis of dense motion parallax and reference objects. Here we report that the same information is sufficient for active control ofjoystick steering. Participants steered toward a target in displays that simulated a pursuit eye movement. Steering was highly inaccurate with a textured ground plane (motion parallax alone), but quite accurate when an array of posts was added (motion parallax plus reference objects). This result is consistent with the theory that instantaneous heading is determined from motion parallax, and the path of self-motion is determined by updating heading relative to environmental objects. Retinal flow is thus sufficient for both perceiving self-motion and controlling self-motion with a joystick; extraretinal and positional information can also contribute, but are not necessary.

  5. Efficiency, sufficiency, and recent change in Newfoundland subsistence horticulture

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, J.T.

    1986-09-01

    Traditional Newfoundland horticulture has been a subordinate and compensatory element of the subsistence sphere in a plural economy centered on fishing. Criticized as inefficient and ruinous to the land, this tuber-rootbrassica gardening has in fact been a valuable contribution to diet, is relatively efficient, and compensates for the inadequacies of land and weather. Field data from the Great Northern Peninsula, where some traditional practices persist, demonstrate that the practices conserve time and labor, and substitute massive applications of materials to assure a yield sufficient for household needs. The inefficiency in the tradition may be understood as a response to the constraints upon household labor and follows a kind of Leibig's law of the minimum. Recent changes in gardening practices reveal the dynamics of horticulture in the household's mixed economic strategy. As cash and land have become more common, they have been used to further reduce time while maintaining sufficiency.

  6. Predictive sufficiency and the use of stored internal state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musliner, David J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Shin, Kang G.

    1994-01-01

    In all embedded computing systems, some delay exists between sensing and acting. By choosing an action based on sensed data, a system is essentially predicting that there will be no significant changes in the world during this delay. However, the dynamic and uncertain nature of the real world can make these predictions incorrect, and thus, a system may execute inappropriate actions. Making systems more reactive by decreasing the gap between sensing and action leaves less time for predictions to err, but still provides no principled assurance that they will be correct. Using the concept of predictive sufficiency described in this paper, a system can prove that its predictions are valid, and that it will never execute inappropriate actions. In the context of our CIRCA system, we also show how predictive sufficiency allows a system to guarantee worst-case response times to changes in its environment. Using predictive sufficiency, CIRCA is able to build real-time reactive control plans which provide a sound basis for performance guarantees that are unavailable with other reactive systems.

  7. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2013-02-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3-56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles. PMID:22651897

  8. Helping Families Achieve Self-Sufficiency: A Guide on Funding Services for Children and Families through the TANF Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Office of Family Assistance.

    This guide suggests ways that states may expend their federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) and State Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) funds. The guide is organized into these seven sections: (1) "Introduction" provides background information, explaining the progress that has been made on welfare reform, what the funding situation is,…

  9. To Achieve an Earlier IFN-γ Response Is Not Sufficient to Control Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marzo, Elena; Barril, Carles; Vegué, Marina; Diaz, Jorge; Valls, Joaquim; López, Daniel; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2014-01-01

    The temporo-spatial relationship between the three organs (lung, spleen and lymph node) involved during the initial stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has been poorly studied. As such, we performed an experimental study to evaluate the bacillary load in each organ after aerosol or intravenous infection and developed a mathematical approach using the data obtained in order to extract conclusions. The results showed that higher bacillary doses result in an earlier IFN-γ response, that a certain bacillary load (BL) needs to be reached to trigger the IFN-γ response, and that control of the BL is not immediate after onset of the IFN-γ response, which might be a consequence of the spatial dimension. This study may have an important impact when it comes to designing new vaccine candidates as it suggests that triggering an earlier IFN-γ response might not guarantee good infection control, and therefore that additional properties should be considered for these candidates. PMID:24959669

  10. Technology for human self-sufficiency in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed Pathfinder program would determine the critical human and technology requirements for human self-sufficiency and productivity on manned and long-duration missions to the moon and Mars. Human health would require countermeasures against weightlessness, protection from space radiation and habitats conducive to psychological well-being. Life support systems would need regeneration of expendable resources, power systems for plant life support and processing; and microbial contaminant control. Operational performance requirements include extravehicular activities suit, interactive systems for shared control between humans and computers, and human-centered semi-autonomous systems.

  11. Is recurrent processing necessary and/or sufficient for consciousness?

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A

    2010-09-01

    Abstract Abstract While we agree with Lamme's general framework, we are not so convinced by his mapping between psychological concepts with their underlying neuronal mechanisms. Specifically, we doubt if recurrent processing is either necessary or sufficient for consciousness. A gist of a scene may be consciously perceived by purely feedforward, without recurrent, processing. Neurophysiological studies of perceptual suppression show recurrent processing in visual cortex for consciously invisible objects. While the neuronal correlates of attention and consciousness remain to be clarified, we agree with Lamme that these two processes are independent, evinced by our recent demonstration of opposing effects of attention and consciousness. PMID:24168345

  12. Vitamin D sufficiency and Staphylococcus aureus infection in children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jeffrey W; Hogan, Patrick G; Hunstad, David A; Fritz, Stephanie A

    2015-05-01

    Vitamin D promotes epithelial immunity by upregulating antimicrobial peptides, including LL-37, which have bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus. We found that children with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency [25-hydroxyvitamin D <30 ng/mL] were more likely to present with recurrent, rather than primary, S. aureus skin or soft tissue infection. Vitamin D sufficiency may be one of a myriad of host and environmental factors that can be directly impacted to reduce the frequency of S. aureus skin and soft tissue infection. PMID:25860535

  13. The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an “autonomous house” emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses’ two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment. PMID:19440531

  14. The autonomous house: a bio-hydrogen based energy self-sufficient approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-04-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment. PMID:19440531

  15. Photon underproduction crisis: Are QSOs sufficient to resolve it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaire, Vikram; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the recent claim of `photon underproduction crisis' by Kollmeier et al. which suggests that the known sources of ultraviolet (UV) radiation may not be sufficient to generate the inferred H I photoionization rate (Γ _{H I}) in the low-redshift intergalactic medium. Using the updated QSO emissivities from the recent studies and our cosmological radiative transfer code developed to estimate the UV background, we show that the QSO contributions to Γ _{H I} is higher by a factor ˜2 as compared to the previous estimates. Using self-consistently computed combinations of star formation rate density and dust attenuation, we show that a typical UV escape fraction of 4 per cent from star-forming galaxies should be sufficient to explain the inferred Γ _{H I} by Kollmeier et al. Interestingly, we find that the contribution from QSOs alone can explain the recently inferred Γ _{H I} by Shull et al. which used the same observational data but different simulation. Therefore, we conclude that the crisis is not as severe as it was perceived before and there seems no need to look for alternate explanations such as low luminosity hidden QSOs or decaying dark matter particles.

  16. From Support to Self-Sufficiency: How Successful Are Programs in Advancing the Financial Independence and Well-Being of Welfare Recipients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews recent evaluation research findings about welfare recipients from a perspective of support-to-self-sufficiency rather than the welfare-to-work viewpoint that denominates the evaluation literature. Recent research suggests that many families have moved from welfare to work, but few of these families have achieved financial self-sufficiency.…

  17. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  18. MSEBAG: a dynamic classifier ensemble generation based on `minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Kamel, Mohamed S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a dynamic classifier system, MSEBAG, which is characterised by searching for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging at the ensemble level. It adopts an 'over-generation and selection' strategy and aims to achieve a good bias-variance trade-off. In the training phase, MSEBAG first searches for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', which maximises the in-sample fitness with the minimal number of base classifiers. Then, starting from the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', a backward stepwise algorithm is employed to generate a collection of ensembles. The objective is to create a collection of ensembles with a descending fitness on the data, as well as a descending complexity in the structure. MSEBAG dynamically selects the ensembles from the collection for the decision aggregation. The extended adaptive aggregation (EAA) approach, a bagging-style algorithm performed at the ensemble level, is employed for this task. EAA searches for the competent ensembles using a score function, which takes into consideration both the in-sample fitness and the confidence of the statistical inference, and averages the decisions of the selected ensembles to label the test pattern. The experimental results show that the proposed MSEBAG outperforms the benchmarks on average.

  19. Socio-Cognitive Correlates to School Achievement Using the TEMAS (Tell-Me-A-Story) Culturally Sensitive Test with Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grades At Risk Puerto Rican Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardalda, Elsa B.; Costantino, Giuseppe

    The Tell-Me-A-Story (TEMAS) Culturally Sensitive Test was administered to 74 Puerto Rican students in a New York City school in order to measure such personality resources as conflict resolution skills and cognitive structuring of narratives. The resulting data was used to examine the degree to which these early adolescents' personality resources…

  20. Variational necessary and sufficient stability conditions for inviscid shear flow

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, M.; Morrison, P. J.; Hattori, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for linear stability of inviscid parallel shear flow is formulated by developing a novel variational principle, where the velocity profile is assumed to be monotonic and analytic. It is shown that unstable eigenvalues of Rayleigh's equation (which is a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem) can be associated with positive eigenvalues of a certain self-adjoint operator. The stability is therefore determined by maximizing a quadratic form, which is theoretically and numerically more tractable than directly solving Rayleigh's equation. This variational stability criterion is based on the understanding of Kreĭn signature for continuous spectra and is applicable to other stability problems of infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. PMID:25484600

  1. Geothermal resource requirements for an energy self-sufficient spaceport

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Fioravanti, M.; Duchane, D.; Vaughan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal resources in the southwestern United States provide an opportunity for development of isolated spaceports with local energy self-sufficiency. Geothermal resources can provide both thermal energy and electrical energy for the spaceport facility infrastructure and production of hydrogen fuel for the space vehicles. In contrast to hydrothermal resources by which electric power is generated for sale to utilities, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources are more wide-spread and can be more readily developed at desired spaceport locations. This paper reviews a dynamic model used to quantify the HDR resources requirements for a generic spaceport and estimate the necessary reservoir size and heat extraction rate. The paper reviews the distribution of HDR resources in southern California and southern New Mexico, two regions where a first developmental spaceport is likely to be located. Finally, the paper discusses the design of a HDR facility for the generic spaceport and estimates the cost of the locally produced power.

  2. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p < 0.05), than this parameter in adult athletes. Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2-3 fold rare (p < 0.10) than among men. Blood serum concentration of vitamin C (1.20 +/- 0.05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32.0 +/- 3.9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p < 0.05) than in men. In general, the biathletes were better provided with vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and

  3. Nonpetroleum mobility fuels and military-energy self-sufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, D.A.; Barattino, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Nonpetroleum hydrocarbon fuels will likely serve as transition fuels for a few decades after petroleum sources become scarce. But nonpetroleum hydrocarbon fuels are ultimately either nonrenewable (e.g., coal and oil shale synfuels) or are inefficient to produce. Nuclear sources (supplemented by solar, geothermal, etc., as available) for electric power generation and hydrogen production provide a combination that can be used for military energy needs including mobility fuels, namely liquid hydrogen. This approach can give the military energy self-sufficiency for stationary needs as well as ground vehicles, ships, and aircraft. System integration concepts are discussed, and concepts for a methodology to evaluate source-to-use pathways for different classes of military bases are outlined.

  4. Sufficient and necessary condition of separability for generalized Werner states

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Dongling; Chen Jingling

    2009-02-15

    In a celebrated paper [Optics Communications 179, 447, 2000], A.O. Pittenger and M.H. Rubin presented for the first time a sufficient and necessary condition of separability for the generalized Werner states. Inspired by their ideas, we generalized their method to a more general case. We obtain a sufficient and necessary condition for the separability of a specific class of N d-dimensional system (qudits) states, namely special generalized Werner state (SGWS): W{sup [d{sup N}]}(v)=(1-v)(I{sup (N)})/(d{sup N}) +v|{psi}{sub d}{sup N}><{psi}{sub d}{sup N}|, where |{psi}{sub d}{sup N}>={sigma}{sub i=0}{sup d-1}{alpha}{sub i}|i...i> is an entangled pure state of N qudits system and {alpha}{sub i} satisfies two restrictions: (i) {sigma}{sub i=0}{sup d-1}{alpha}{sub i}{alpha}{sub i}*=1; (ii) Matrix 1/d (I{sup (1)}+T{sigma}{sub i{ne}}{sub j}{alpha}{sub i}|i>

  5. Using scientifically and statistically sufficient statistics in comparing image segmentations.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E

    2010-01-01

    Automatic computer segmentation in three dimensions creates opportunity to reduce the cost of three-dimensional treatment planning of radiotherapy for cancer treatment. Comparisons between human and computer accuracy in segmenting kidneys in CT scans generate distance values far larger in number than the number of CT scans. Such high dimension, low sample size (HDLSS) data present a grand challenge to statisticians: how do we find good estimates and make credible inference? We recommend discovering and using scientifically and statistically sufficient statistics as an additional strategy for overcoming the curse of dimensionality. First, we reduced the three-dimensional array of distances for each image comparison to a histogram to be modeled individually. Second, we used non-parametric kernel density estimation to explore distributional patterns and assess multi-modality. Third, a systematic exploratory search for parametric distributions and truncated variations led to choosing a Gaussian form as approximating the distribution of a cube root transformation of distance. Fourth, representing each histogram by an individually estimated distribution eliminated the HDLSS problem by reducing on average 26,000 distances per histogram to just 2 parameter estimates. In the fifth and final step we used classical statistical methods to demonstrate that the two human observers disagreed significantly less with each other than with the computer segmentation. Nevertheless, the size of all disagreements was clinically unimportant relative to the size of a kidney. The hierarchal modeling approach to object-oriented data created response variables deemed sufficient by both the scientists and statisticians. We believe the same strategy provides a useful addition to the imaging toolkit and will succeed with many other high throughput technologies in genetics, metabolomics and chemical analysis. PMID:24967000

  6. Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

    Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

  7. Tuned cavity magnetometer sensitivity.

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (achieve similar sensitivity levels.

  8. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second

  9. On necessity and sufficiency in counseling and psychotherapy (revisited).

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Arnold A

    2007-09-01

    It seems to me that Carl Rogers (see record 2007-14639-002) was far too ambitious in trying to specify general conditions of necessity and sufficiency that would be relevant to the entire spectrum of problems and the diverse expectancies and personalities of the people who seek our help. Rogers' position and orientation almost totally overlook the array of problems under the rubric of "response deficits" that stem from misinformation and missing information and call for active correction, training, and retraining. Rogers also paid scant attention to problems with significant biological determinants. Nevertheless, as exemplified by his seminal 1957 article and many other articles and books, Rogers made major contributions within the domain of the therapeutic alliance. Today, the scientific emphasis looks at accountability, the need to establish various treatments of choice, and the need to understand their presumed mechanisms. Treatment efficacy and generalizability across different methodologies are now considered key issues. The efficacy narrowing and clinically self-limiting consequences of adhering to one particular school of thought are now self-evident to most. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122247

  10. The Generalized Asymptotic Equipartition Property: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Matthew T.

    2011-01-01

    Suppose a string X1n=(X1,X2,…,Xn) generated by a memoryless source (Xn)n≥1 with distribution P is to be compressed with distortion no greater than D ≥ 0, using a memoryless random codebook with distribution Q. The compression performance is determined by the “generalized asymptotic equipartition property” (AEP), which states that the probability of finding a D-close match between X1n and any given codeword Y1n, is approximately 2−nR(P, Q, D), where the rate function R(P, Q, D) can be expressed as an infimum of relative entropies. The main purpose here is to remove various restrictive assumptions on the validity of this result that have appeared in the recent literature. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the generalized AEP are provided in the general setting of abstract alphabets and unbounded distortion measures. All possible distortion levels D ≥ 0 are considered; the source (Xn)n≥1 can be stationary and ergodic; and the codebook distribution can have memory. Moreover, the behavior of the matching probability is precisely characterized, even when the generalized AEP is not valid. Natural characterizations of the rate function R(P, Q, D) are established under equally general conditions. PMID:21614133

  11. Manual curation is not sufficient for annotation of genomic databases

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, William A.; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Fox, Lynne M.; Acquaah-Mensah, George; Hunter, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Motivation Knowledge base construction has been an area of intense activity and great importance in the growth of computational biology. However, there is little or no history of work on the subject of evaluation of knowledge bases, either with respect to their contents or with respect to the processes by which they are constructed. This article proposes the application of a metric from software engineering known as the found/fixed graph to the problem of evaluating the processes by which genomic knowledge bases are built, as well as the completeness of their contents. Results Well-understood patterns of change in the found/fixed graph are found to occur in two large publicly available knowledge bases. These patterns suggest that the current manual curation processes will take far too long to complete the annotations of even just the most important model organisms, and that at their current rate of production, they will never be sufficient for completing the annotation of all currently available proteomes. Contact larry.hunter@uchsc.edu PMID:17646325

  12. A Theory of School Achievement: A Quantum View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2012-01-01

    In most school achievement research, the relationships between achievement and explanatory variables follow the Newton and Einstein concept/principle and the viewpoint of the macro-observer: Deterministic measures based on the mean value of a sufficiently large number of schools. What if the relationships between achievement and explanatory…

  13. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress. PMID:25816622

  14. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  15. Digital Mammography in Young Women: Is a Single View Sufficient?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Single view mammography may be a less time consuming, more comfortable and radiation reduced alternative for young women, but there are no studies examining this approach after the implementation of digital mammography into clinical practice. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of all mammographies performed in women younger than 40 years during a 24 month period. The sample consisted of 109 women with 212 examined breasts. All patients initially received standard two- view mammography. In the study setting the MLO- views were read by a single viewer and compared to a composite reference standard. Results In this sample 7 malignant findings were present and the review of the MLO-view detected 6 of them (85%). In patients with dense breasts 4 out of 5 malignant findings were found on the single-view (sensitivity 80%) and all 2 malignant findings were detected in patients with low breast density (sensitivity 100%). There were 7 false positive findings (3.3%). i.e. in total 8 out of 212 examined breasts were therefore misinterpreted (3.8%). Conclusion Single view digital mammography detects the vast majority of malignant findings, especially in low density breast tissue and the rate of false-positive findings is within acceptable limits. Therefore this approach may be used in different scenarios (for example in increasing patient throughput, in resource poor settings, reducing radiation burden in the young or in combination with ultrasound to use the strengths of both methods). More research on this topic is needed to establish its potential role in breast imaging. PMID:27134963

  16. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Costa, M. Mafalda; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Su, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Eon [1,600–1,000 million years ago (Ma)] is emerging as a key interval in Earth history, with a unique geochemical history that might have influenced the course of biological evolution on Earth. Indeed, although this time interval is rather poorly understood, recent chromium isotope results suggest that atmospheric oxygen levels were <0.1% of present levels, sufficiently low to have inhibited the evolution of animal life. In contrast, using a different approach, we explore the distribution and enrichments of redox-sensitive trace metals in the 1,400 Ma sediments of Unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation, North China Block. Patterns of trace metal enrichments reveal oxygenated bottom waters during deposition of the sediments, and biomarker results demonstrate the presence of green sulfur bacteria in the water column. Thus, we document an ancient oxygen minimum zone. We develop a simple, yet comprehensive, model of marine carbon−oxygen cycle dynamics to show that our geochemical results are consistent with atmospheric oxygen levels >4% of present-day levels. Therefore, in contrast to previous suggestions, we show that there was sufficient oxygen to fuel animal respiration long before the evolution of animals themselves. PMID:26729865

  17. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian; Bjerrum, Christian J; Hammarlund, Emma U; Costa, M Mafalda; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Su, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2016-02-16

    The Mesoproterozoic Eon [1,600-1,000 million years ago (Ma)] is emerging as a key interval in Earth history, with a unique geochemical history that might have influenced the course of biological evolution on Earth. Indeed, although this time interval is rather poorly understood, recent chromium isotope results suggest that atmospheric oxygen levels were <0.1% of present levels, sufficiently low to have inhibited the evolution of animal life. In contrast, using a different approach, we explore the distribution and enrichments of redox-sensitive trace metals in the 1,400 Ma sediments of Unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation, North China Block. Patterns of trace metal enrichments reveal oxygenated bottom waters during deposition of the sediments, and biomarker results demonstrate the presence of green sulfur bacteria in the water column. Thus, we document an ancient oxygen minimum zone. We develop a simple, yet comprehensive, model of marine carbon-oxygen cycle dynamics to show that our geochemical results are consistent with atmospheric oxygen levels >4% of present-day levels. Therefore, in contrast to previous suggestions, we show that there was sufficient oxygen to fuel animal respiration long before the evolution of animals themselves. PMID:26729865

  18. MIMO OFDM radar IRCI free range reconstruction with sufficient cyclic prefix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiang-gen; Zhang, Tianxian; Kong, Lingjiang

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose MIMO OFDM radar with sufficient cyclic prefix (CP), where all OFDM pulses transmitted from different transmitters share the same frequency band and are orthogonal to each other for every subcarrier in the discrete frequency domain. The orthogonality is not affected by time delays from transmitters. Thus, our proposed MIMO OFDM radar has the same range resolution as single transmitter radar and achieves full spatial diversity. Orthogonal designs are used to achieve this orthogonality across the transmitters, with which it is only needed to design OFDM pulses for the first transmitter. We also propose a joint pulse compression and pulse coherent integration for range reconstruction. In order to achieve the optimal SNR for the range reconstruction, we apply the paraunitary filterbank theory to design the OFDM pulses. We then propose a modified iterative clipping and filtering (MICF) algorithm for the designs of OFDM pulses jointly, when other important factors, such as peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) in time domain, are also considered. With our proposed MIMO OFDM radar, there is no interference for the range reconstruction not only across the transmitters but also across the range cells in a swath called inter-range-cell interference (IRCI) free that is similar to our previously proposed CP based OFDM radar for single transmitter. Simulations are presented to illustrate our proposed theory and show that the CP based MIMO OFDM radar outperforms the existing frequency-band shared MIMO radar with polyphase codes and also frequency division MIMO radar.

  19. Application of nitrogen sufficiency conversion strategy for microalgae-based ammonium-rich wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghan; Zhou, Wenguang; Yang, Haizhen; Ruan, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Ammonium ([Formula: see text]-N)-rich wastewater, a main cause for eutrophication, can serve as a promising medium for fast microalgae cultivation with efficient [Formula: see text]-N removal. To achieve this goal, a well-controlled three-stage treatment process was developed. Two trophic modes (mixotrophy and heterotrophy) in Stage 1 and Stage 2, with two nitrogen availability conditions (N sufficient and N deprived) in Stage 2, and different [Formula: see text]-N concentrations in Stage 3 were compared to investigate the effects of nitrogen sufficiency conversion on indigenous strain UMN266 for [Formula: see text]-N removal. Results showed that mixotrophic cultures in the first two stages with N deprivation in Stage 2 was the optimum treatment strategy, and higher [Formula: see text]-N concentration in Stage 3 facilitated both microalgal growth and [Formula: see text]-N removal, with average and maximum biomass productivity of 55.3 and 161.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), and corresponding removal rates of 4.2 and 15.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively, superior to previously published results. Observations of intracellular compositions confirmed the optimum treatment strategy, discovering excellent starch accumulating property of strain UMN266 as well. Combination of bioethanol production with the proposed three-stage process using various real wastewater streams at corresponding stages was suggested for future application. PMID:26979571

  20. Measuring what latent fingerprint examiners consider sufficient information for individualization determinations.

    PubMed

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination--not an objective metric--that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying "the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked" is not the same as "the prints had N corresponding minutiae." More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework. PMID:25372036

  1. Observation and manipulation of glial cell function by virtue of sufficient probe expression

    PubMed Central

    Natsubori, Akiyo; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F.

    2015-01-01

    The development of gene-encoded indicators and actuators to observe and manipulate cellular functions is being advanced and investigated. Expressing these probe molecules in glial cells is expected to enable observation and manipulation of glial cell activity, leading to elucidate the behaviors and causal roles of glial cells. The first step toward understanding glial cell functions is to express the probes in sufficient amounts, and the Knockin-mediated ENhanced Gene Expression (KENGE)-tet system provides a strategy for achieving this. In the present article, three examples of KENGE-tet system application are reviewed: depolarization of oligodendrocytes, intracellular acidification of astrocytes, and observation of intracellular calcium levels in the fine processes of astrocytes. PMID:26005405

  2. High-sensitivity three-mode optomechanical transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; Fang, Q.; Susmithan, S.; Miao, H.; Ju, L.; Fan, Y.; Blair, D.; Hosken, D. J.; Munch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.

    2011-12-15

    Three-mode optomechanical interactions have been predicted to allow the creation of very high sensitivity transducers in which very strong optical self-cooling and strong optomechanical quantum entanglement are predicted. Strong coupling is achieved by engineering a transducer in which both the pump laser and a single signal sideband frequency are resonantly enhanced. Here we demonstrate that very high sensitivity can be achieved in a very simple system consisting of a Fabry-Perot cavity with CO{sub 2} laser thermal tuning. We demonstrate a displacement sensitivity of {approx}1x10{sup -17} m/{radical}(Hz), which is sufficient to observe a thermally excited acoustic mode in a 5.6 kg sapphire mirror with a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 20 dB. It is shown that a measurement sensitivity of {approx}2x10{sup -20} m/{radical}(Hz) limited by the quantum shot noise is achievable with optimization of the cavity parameters.

  3. Raman-Enhanced Phase-Sensitive Fibre Optical Parametric Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuelei; Guo, Xiaojie; Shu, Chester

    2016-02-01

    Phase-sensitive amplification is of great research interest owing to its potential in noiseless amplification. One key feature in a phase-sensitive amplifier is the gain extinction ratio defined as the ratio of the maximum to the minimum gains. It quantifies the capability of the amplifier in performing low-noise amplification for high phase-sensitive gain. Considering a phase-sensitive fibre optical parametric amplifier for linear amplification, the gain extinction ratio increases with the phase-insensitive parametric gain achieved from the same pump. In this work, we use backward Raman amplification to increase the phase-insensitive parametric gain, which in turn improves the phase-sensitive operation. Using a 955 mW Raman pump, the gain extinction ratio is increased by 9.2 dB. The improvement in the maximum phase-sensitive gain is 18.7 dB. This scheme can significantly boost the performance of phase-sensitive amplification in a spectral range where the parametric pump is not sufficiently strong but broadband Raman amplification is available.

  4. Raman-Enhanced Phase-Sensitive Fibre Optical Parametric Amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xuelei; Guo, Xiaojie; Shu, Chester

    2016-01-01

    Phase-sensitive amplification is of great research interest owing to its potential in noiseless amplification. One key feature in a phase-sensitive amplifier is the gain extinction ratio defined as the ratio of the maximum to the minimum gains. It quantifies the capability of the amplifier in performing low-noise amplification for high phase-sensitive gain. Considering a phase-sensitive fibre optical parametric amplifier for linear amplification, the gain extinction ratio increases with the phase-insensitive parametric gain achieved from the same pump. In this work, we use backward Raman amplification to increase the phase-insensitive parametric gain, which in turn improves the phase-sensitive operation. Using a 955 mW Raman pump, the gain extinction ratio is increased by 9.2 dB. The improvement in the maximum phase-sensitive gain is 18.7 dB. This scheme can significantly boost the performance of phase-sensitive amplification in a spectral range where the parametric pump is not sufficiently strong but broadband Raman amplification is available. PMID:26830136

  5. Food Self-Sufficiency across scales: How local can we go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K. B.; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    "Think global, act local" is a phrase often used in sustainability debates. Here, we explore the potential of regions to go for local supply in context of sustainable food consumption considering both the present state and the plausible future scenarios. We analyze data on the gridded crop calories production, the gridded livestock calories production, the gridded feed calories use and the gridded food calories consumption in 5' resolution. We derived these gridded data from various sources: Global Agro-ecological Zone (GAEZ v3.0), Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW), FAOSTAT, and Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP). For scenarios analysis, we considered changes in population, dietary patterns and possibility of obtaining the maximum potential yield. We investigate the food self-sufficiency multiple spatial scales. We start from the 5' resolution (i.e. around 10 km x 10 km in the equator) and look at 8 levels of aggregation ranging from the plausible lowest administrative level to the continental level. Results for the different spatial scales show that about 1.9 billion people live in the area of 5' resolution where enough calories can be produced to sustain their food consumption and the feed used. On the country level, about 4.4 billion population can be sustained without international food trade. For about 1 billion population from Asia and Africa, there is a need for cross-continental food trade. However, if we were able to achieve the maximum potential crop yield, about 2.6 billion population can be sustained within their living area of 5' resolution. Furthermore, Africa and Asia could be food self-sufficient by achieving their maximum potential crop yield and only round 630 million populations would be dependent on the international food trade. However, the food self-sufficiency status might differ under consideration of the future change in population, dietary patterns and climatic conditions. We provide an initial approach for investigating the

  6. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  7. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  8. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  9. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  10. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  11. Urinary micafungin levels are sufficient to treat urinary tract infections caused by Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Grau, S; Luque, S; Echeverría-Esnal, D; Sorlí, L; Campillo, N; Montero, M; Álvarez Lerma, F; Plasencia, V; Horcajada, J P

    2016-08-01

    Six cases of patients diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI) successfully treated with micafungin are reported. Four were infected with fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. and two (with hepatic injury) were infected with fluconazole-sensitive Candida spp. Traditionally, echinocandins have not been considered for the treatment of UTIs. However, despite its low urinary excretion rate, therapeutic drug monitoring of micafungin urinary levels could be helpful in order to achieve optimal pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices for treating UTIs caused by Candida spp. resistant to fluconazole. PMID:27424599

  12. A flexible tactile sensitive sheet using a hetero-core fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Hosoki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2014-05-01

    In this report, we have designed a tactile sensitive sheet based on a hetero-core fiber-optic sensor, which realize an areal sensing by using single sensor potion in one optical fiber line. Recently, flexible and wide-area tactile sensing technology is expected to applied to acquired biological information in living space and robot achieve long-term care services such as welfare and nursing-care and humanoid technology. A hetero-core fiber-optic sensor has several advantages such as thin and flexible transmission line, immunity to EMI. Additionally this sensor is sensitive to moderate bending actions with optical loss changes and is independent of temperature fluctuation. Thus, the hetero-core fiber-optic sensor can be suitable for areal tactile sensing. We measure pressure characteristic of the proposed sensitive sheet by changing the pressure position and pinching characteristic on the surface. The proposed tactile sensitive sheet shows monotonic responses on the whole sensitive sheet surface although different sensitivity by the position is observed at the sensitive sheet surface. Moreover, the tactile sensitive sheet could sufficiently detect the pinching motion. In addition, in order to realize the discrimination between pressure and pinch, we fabricated a doubled-over sensor using a set of tactile sensitive sheets, which has different kinds of silicon robbers as a sensitive sheet surface. In conclusion, the flexible material could be given to the tactile sensation which is attached under proposed sensitive sheet.

  13. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

    PubMed Central

    López Sastre, José B; Pérez Solís, David; Roqués Serradilla, Vicente; Fernández Colomer, Belén; Coto Cotallo, Gil D; Krauel Vidal, Xavier; Narbona López, Eduardo; García del Río, Manuel; Sánchez Luna, Manuel; Belaustegui Cueto, Antonio; Moro Serrano, Manuel; Urbón Artero, Alfonso; Álvaro Iglesias, Emilio; Cotero Lavín, Ángel; Martínez Vilalta, Eduardo; Jiménez Cobos, Bartolomé

    2006-01-01

    Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT) is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%); 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%), and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%). Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of sepsis, but would be

  14. Dexamethasone and rosiglitazone are sufficient and necessary for producing functional adipocytes from mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Contador, David; Ezquer, Fernando; Espinosa, Maximiliano; Arango-Rodriguez, Martha; Puebla, Carlos; Sobrevia, Luis; Conget, Paulette

    2015-09-01

    The final product of adipogenesis is a functional adipocyte. This mature cell acquires the necessary machinery for lipid metabolism, loses its proliferation potential, increases its insulin sensitivity, and secretes adipokines. Multipotent mesechymal stromal cells have been recognized as a source of adipocytes both in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro adipogenic differentiation of human MSC (hMSC) has been induced up to now by using a complex stimulus which includes dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, indomethacin, and insulin (a classical cocktail) and evaluated according to morphological changes. The present work was aimed at demonstrating that the simultaneous activation of dexamethasone's canonical signaling pathways, through the glucocorticoid receptor and CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) and rosiglitazone through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) is sufficient yet necessary for inducing hMSC adipogenic differentiation. It was also ascertained that hMSC exposed just to dexamethasone and rosiglitazone (D&R) differentiated into cells which accumulated neutral lipid droplets, expressed C/EBP-alpha, PPAR-gamma, aP2, lipoprotein lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, adiponectin, and leptin genes but did not proliferate. Glucose uptake was dose dependent on insulin stimulus and high levels of adipokines were secreted (i.e. displaying not only the morphology but also expressing mature adipocytes' specific genes and functional characteristics). This work has demonstrated that (i) the activating C/EBPs and PPAR-gamma signaling pathways were sufficient to induce adipogenic differentiation from hMSC, (ii) D&R producing functional adipocytes from hMSC, (iii) D&R induce adipogenic differentiation from mammalian MSC (including those which are refractory to classical adipogenic differentiation stimuli). D&R would thus seem to be a useful tool for MSC characterization, studying adipogenesis pathways and

  15. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ward, Patricia J; Jones, Laura N; Mulligan, Amanda; Goolsby, William; Wilhelm, Jennifer C; English, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation) that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2), we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555) was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour), one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-). We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons. PMID:27152611

  16. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patricia J.; Jones, Laura N.; Mulligan, Amanda; Goolsby, William; Wilhelm, Jennifer C.; English, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation) that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2), we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555) was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour), one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-). We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons. PMID:27152611

  17. Atomic magnetometer-based ultra-sensitive magnetic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Jin; Savukov, Igor

    2016-03-01

    An atomic magnetometer (AM) based on lasers and alkali-metal vapor cells is currently the most sensitive non-cryogenic magnetic-field sensor. Many applications in neuroscience and other fields require high resolution, high sensitivity magnetic microscopic measurements. In order to meet this need we combined a cm-size spin-exchange relaxation-free AM with a flux guide (FG) to produce an ultra-sensitive FG-AM magnetic microscope. The FG serves to transmit the target magnetic flux to the AM thus enhancing both the sensitivity and resolution for tiny magnetic objects. In this talk, we will describe a prototype FG-AM device and present experimental and numerical tests of its sensitivity and resolution. We also demonstrate that an optimized FG-AM achieves high resolution and high sensitivity sufficient to detect a magnetic field of a single neuron in a few seconds, which would be an important milestone in neuroscience. We anticipate that this unique device can be applied to the detection of a single neuron, the detection of magnetic nano-particles, which in turn are very important for detection of target molecules in national security and medical diagnostics, and non-destructive testing.

  18. Repeatability of kinematic and electromyographical measures during standing and trunk motion: how many trials are sufficient?

    PubMed

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; DiMonte, Stephen; Drake, Janessa D M

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have recommended a minimum of five trials to produce repeatable kinematic and electromyography (EMG) measures during target postures or contraction levels. This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of kinematic and EMG measures that are of primary interest in the investigation of trunk movement, and to determine the number of trials required to achieve repeatability and reliability for these measures. Thirty participants performed ten trials of upright standing and maximum trunk ranges-of-motion. Mean (upright standing) and maximum (movement tasks) kinematic and EMG measures were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients and standard error of measurement, which were used to identify the minimum number of trials for each measure. The repeatability and reliability of the measures were generally high, with 64%, 77%, 85%, and 92% of measures producing repeatable and reliable values with two, three, four, and five trials, respectively. Ten trials were not sufficient for several upright standing angle measures and maximum twist lumbar angles. Further, several abdominal muscles during maximum flexion, as well as the left lower-thoracic erector spinae during maximum twist, required as many as five trials. These measures were typically those with very small amounts of motion, or muscles that did not act in the role of prime mover. These results suggest that as few as two trials may be sufficient for many of the kinematic and EMG measures of primary interest in the investigation of trunk movement, while the collection of four trials should produce repeatable and reliable values for over 80% of measures. These recommendations are intended to provide an acceptable trade-off between repeatable and reliable values and feasibility of the collection protocol. PMID:25661241

  19. Measuring What Latent Fingerprint Examiners Consider Sufficient Information for Individualization Determinations

    PubMed Central

    Ulery, Bradford T.; Hicklin, R. Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination—not an objective metric—that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying “the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked” is not the same as “the prints had N corresponding minutiae.” More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework. PMID:25372036

  20. 76 FR 39115 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Family Self-Sufficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... Family Self-Sufficiency Demonstration Small Grants. Description of the need for information and proposed... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Family Self-Sufficiency Demonstration Small Grants AGENCY: Office of Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION:...

  1. 24 CFR 960.255 - Self-sufficiency incentives-Disallowance of increase in annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-sufficiency incentives... and Reexamination § 960.255 Self-sufficiency incentives—Disallowance of increase in annual income. (a... participation in any economic self-sufficiency or other job training program; or (iii) Whose annual...

  2. Sufficiency of Longitudinal Moment of Inertia for Haptic Cylinder Length Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabe, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies invoke moment of inertia (I[subscript ii]) as necessary and sufficient information to perceive cylinder length via wielding, yet some assert that I[subscript ii] is neither necessary (weight, "m", or static moment, M, are sufficient) nor sufficient for length judgments ("m" or M is necessary). Mathematical expressions for I[subscript…

  3. Colonoscopy aided by magnetic 3D imaging: is the technique sufficiently sensitive to detect differences between men and women?

    PubMed

    Rowland, R S; Bell, G D; Dogramadzi, S; Allen, C

    1999-11-01

    Colonoscopy tends to be more difficult to perform in women. Women also experience more pain during flexible sigmoidoscopy, and the mean insertion distance of the instrument is less than in men. The 'Bladen system', first described in 1993, is a non-radiological method of continuously visualising the path of the endoscope using magnetic drive coils under the patient and a chain of sensors up the biopsy channel of the instrument. In 1998, results were published that used a novel computer graphics system (the 'RMR system'), in which a much more realistic endoscope could be produced using the stored positional data from the Bladen system. The RMR computer graphics system has been further refined to enable measurement of the anatomical lengths of different parts of the large intestine to an accuracy of greater than 5 mm. The system is used to analyse the results obtained in 232 patients undergoing a total colonoscopy. In women, the colonoscope tends to form loops in the sigmoid colon more readily than in men (p < 0.05). When the first 50 cm of the endoscope are inserted for the first time, the tip passes either up to or beyond the splenic flexure in 40/116, or 34.5%, of males, compared with 24/117, or 20.5%, of females (p = 0.0137). It is demonstrated that women have longer transverse colons than men, and the differences are especially apparent when a stiffening tube is used to splint the left side of the colon (p < 0.0001). The possible relevance of these observations to biomedical engineers and those manufacturing and assessing prototype endoscopes is discussed. PMID:10723871

  4. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  5. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  6. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  7. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  8. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  9. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  3. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  4. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  5. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  8. Sensitivity of Achievement Estimation to Conditioning Model Misclassification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) use a sophisticated assessment administration design called matrix sampling that minimizes the testing burden on individual…

  9. Minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure on a separable Hilbert space

    SciTech Connect

    Kuramochi, Yui

    2015-10-15

    We introduce a concept of a minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure (POVM), which is the least redundant POVM among the POVMs that have the equivalent information about the measured quantum system. Assuming the system Hilbert space to be separable, we show that for a given POVM, a sufficient statistic called a Lehmann-Scheffé-Bahadur statistic induces a minimal sufficient POVM. We also show that every POVM has an equivalent minimal sufficient POVM and that such a minimal sufficient POVM is unique up to relabeling neglecting null sets. We apply these results to discrete POVMs and information conservation conditions proposed by the author.

  10. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  11. Sufficient conditions for the avoidance of spectral dispersion in optical prisms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Psang Dain

    2016-07-01

    Prisms are common optical elements consisting of only flat boundary surfaces. Two conditions need to be fulfilled to avoid chromatic aberration for a prism, namely, no mutual image tilt and no mutual image shift for different wavelengths. Mutual image tilt occurs when the unit directional vector of the exit ray varies as a function of the prism's refractive index, resulting in spectral dispersion. In a previous study by the present group [Appl. Opt.45, 3951 (2006)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.45.003951], it was shown that when the rays enter and exit a prism perpendicularly, image reorientation is achieved without spectral dispersion. The present study derives a further sufficient condition to avoid spectral dispersion caused by refraction. The condition explains the ability of Dove prisms and solid glass corner cubes to produce the required image orientation even when the entrance and exit rays are not normal to the respective boundary surfaces. In general, the proposed condition provides a useful analytical guideline for avoiding spectral dispersion in a wide variety of optical systems. PMID:27409681

  12. Strategies for regeneration of nicotinamide coenzymes emphasizing self-sufficient closed-loop recycling systems.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Werner; Gröger, Harald

    2014-12-10

    Biocatalytic reduction reactions depending on nicotinamide coenzymes require an additional reaction to regenerate the consumed cofactor. For preparative application the preferred method is the simultaneous coupling of an in situ regeneration reaction. There are different strategically advantageous routes to achieve this goal. The standard method uses a second enzyme and a second co-substrate, for example formate and formate dehydrogenase or glucose and glucose dehydrogenase. Alternatively, a second substrate is employed which is converted by the same enzyme used for the primary reaction. For example, alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzed reactions are often coupled with excess 2-propanol which is oxidized to acetone during the regeneration of NAD(P)H. A third method utilizes a reaction-internal sequence by the direct coupling of an oxidizing and a reducing enzyme reaction. Neither an additional substrate nor a further regenerating enzyme are required for the recycling reaction. This kind of "closed-loop" or "self-sufficient" redox process for cofactor regeneration has been used rarely so far. Its most intriguing advantage is that even redox reactions with unstable precursors can be realized provided that this compound is produced in situ by an opposite redox reaction. This elegant method is applicable in special cases only but increasing numbers of examples have been published during the last years. PMID:25102236

  13. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  14. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  15. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  16. Time required to achieve homogeneity in swine feed mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, G J; Miller, E; King, M T; Perfetti, G A; Warner, C R; Adamo, N C; Sporn, E M

    1982-03-01

    FD&C Red No. 3 was mixed with 20 kg pig feed to give a concentration of 0.1%. A mixing time of 30 min was sufficient to achieve homogeneity for this mixture. For larger amounts or more flocculent types of additives, a longer time may be required. Ammoniated glycyrrhizin was mixed with 8 separate batches of pig feed at a concentration of 1%; 1 h was sufficient mixing time. PMID:7200977

  17. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  18. Achieving Global Ocean Color Climate Data Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Ocean color, or the spectral distribution of visible light upwelling from beneath the ocean surface, carries information on the composition and concentration of biological constituents within the water column. The CZCS mission in 1978 demonstrated that quantitative ocean color measurements could be. made from spaceborne sensors, given sufficient corrections for atmospheric effects and a rigorous calibration and validation program. The launch of SeaWiFS in 1997 represents the beginning of NASA's ongoing efforts to develop a continuous ocean color data record with sufficient coverage and fidelity for global change research. Achievements in establishing and maintaining the consistency of the time-series through multiple missions and varying instrument designs will be highlighted in this talk, including measurements from NASA'S MODIS instruments currently flying on the Terra and Aqua platforms, as well as the MERIS sensor flown by ESA and the OCM-2 sensor recently launched by ISRO.

  19. Proven Strategies for Improving Learning & Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Duane

    The purpose of this book is to give student support personnel tools that: (1) will be recognized by educators as directly related to enhancing academic performance; (2) can be used with confidence that they will have the desired impact on achievement; and (3) are culturally sensitive. Chapters contain detailed presentation of the technology as…

  20. Climate Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Lindzen, Richard

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  1. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  2. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  3. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  4. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  5. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  6. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  7. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  8. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  9. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  10. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  11. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  12. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  13. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  14. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  15. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  16. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  17. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  18. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  19. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  20. Gluten Sensitivity

    MedlinePlus

    Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. It is found mainly in foods but ... products like medicines, vitamins, and supplements. People with gluten sensitivity have problems with gluten. It is different ...

  1. Gluten Sensitivity

    MedlinePlus

    ... have problems with gluten. It is different from celiac disease, an immune disease in which people can't ... the symptoms of gluten sensitivity are similar to celiac disease. They include tiredness and stomachaches. It can cause ...

  2. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  3. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  4. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  5. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  6. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  7. Dorsal Hippocampal CREB Is Both Necessary and Sufficient for Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Melanie J.; Neve, Rachael L.; Frankland, Paul W.; Josselyn, Sheena A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the transcription factor CREB has been widely implicated in memory, whether it is sufficient to produce spatial memory under conditions that do not normally support memory formation in mammals is unknown. We found that locally and acutely increasing CREB levels in the dorsal hippocampus using viral vectors is sufficient to induce robust…

  8. Sufficiency and Conditional Estimation of Person Parameters in the Polytomous Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David

    2010-01-01

    Rasch models are characterised by sufficient statistics for all parameters. In the Rasch unidimensional model for two ordered categories, the parameterisation of the person and item is symmetrical and it is readily established that the total scores of a person and item are sufficient statistics for their respective parameters. In contrast, in the…

  9. Is Compton Cooling Sufficient to Explain Evolution of Observed Quasi-periodic Oscillations in Outburst Sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Santanu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Debnath, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    In outburst sources, quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency is known to evolve in a certain way: in the rising phase, it monotonically goes up until a soft intermediate state is achieved. In the propagating oscillatory shock model, oscillation of the Compton cloud is thought to cause QPOs. Thus, in order to increase QPO frequency, the Compton cloud must collapse steadily in the rising phase. In decline phases, the exact opposite should be true. We investigate cause of this evolution of the Compton cloud. The same viscosity parameter that increases the Keplerian disk rate also moves the inner edge of the Keplerian component, thereby reducing the size of the Compton cloud and reducing the cooling timescale. We show that cooling of the Compton cloud by inverse Comptonization is enough for it to collapse sufficiently so as to explain the QPO evolution. In the two-component advective flow configuration of Chakrabarti-Titarchuk, centrifugal force-induced shock represents the boundary of the Compton cloud. We take the rising phase of 2010 outburst of Galactic black hole candidate H 1743-322 and find an estimation of variation of the α parameter of the sub-Keplerian flow to be monotonically rising from 0.0001 to 0.02, well within the range suggested by magnetorotational instability. We also estimate the inward velocity of the Compton cloud to be a few meters per second, which is comparable to what is found in several earlier studies of our group by empirically fitting the shock locations with the time of observations.

  10. IS COMPTON COOLING SUFFICIENT TO EXPLAIN EVOLUTION OF OBSERVED QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN OUTBURST SOURCES?

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Santanu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Debnath, Dipak E-mail: chakraba@bose.res.in

    2015-01-01

    In outburst sources, quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency is known to evolve in a certain way: in the rising phase, it monotonically goes up until a soft intermediate state is achieved. In the propagating oscillatory shock model, oscillation of the Compton cloud is thought to cause QPOs. Thus, in order to increase QPO frequency, the Compton cloud must collapse steadily in the rising phase. In decline phases, the exact opposite should be true. We investigate cause of this evolution of the Compton cloud. The same viscosity parameter that increases the Keplerian disk rate also moves the inner edge of the Keplerian component, thereby reducing the size of the Compton cloud and reducing the cooling timescale. We show that cooling of the Compton cloud by inverse Comptonization is enough for it to collapse sufficiently so as to explain the QPO evolution. In the two-component advective flow configuration of Chakrabarti-Titarchuk, centrifugal force-induced shock represents the boundary of the Compton cloud. We take the rising phase of 2010 outburst of Galactic black hole candidate H 1743-322 and find an estimation of variation of the α parameter of the sub-Keplerian flow to be monotonically rising from 0.0001 to 0.02, well within the range suggested by magnetorotational instability. We also estimate the inward velocity of the Compton cloud to be a few meters per second, which is comparable to what is found in several earlier studies of our group by empirically fitting the shock locations with the time of observations.

  11. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  12. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  13. Role of sufficient phosphorus in biodiesel production from diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi-Jin; Shen, Xiao-Fei; Ge, Huo-Qing; Zheng, Hang; Chu, Fei-Fei; Hu, Hao; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-08-01

    In order to study the role of sufficient phosphorus (P) in biodiesel production by microalgae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum were cultivated in six different media treatments with combination of nitrogen (N) sufficiency/deprivation and phosphorus sufficiency/limitation/deprivation. Profiles of N and P, biomass, and fatty acids (FAs) content and compositions were measured during a 7-day cultivation period. The results showed that the FA content in microalgae biomass was promoted by P deprivation. However, statistical analysis showed that FA productivity had no significant difference (p = 0.63, >0.05) under the treatments of N deprivation with P sufficiency (N-P) and N deprivation with P deprivation (N-P-), indicating P sufficiency in N deprivation medium has little effect on increasing biodiesel productivity from P. triornutum. It was also found that the P absorption in N-P medium was 1.41 times higher than that in N sufficiency and P sufficiency (NP) medium. N deprivation with P limitation (N-P-l) was the optimal treatment for producing biodiesel from P. triornutum because of both the highest FA productivity and good biodiesel quality. PMID:27260287

  14. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  15. Gender-Specific Barriers to Self-Sufficiency among Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries: Implications for Welfare-To-Work Programs and Services

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J.; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines barriers to economic self-sufficiency among a panel of 219 former Supplemental Security Income (SSI) drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) recipients following elimination of DA&A as an eligibility category for SSI disability benefits. Study participants were comprehensively surveyed at six measurement points following the policy change. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine full-sample and gender-specific barriers to economic self-sufficiency. Results indicate that access to transportation, age, and time are the strongest predictors of achieving self-sufficiency for both men and women leaving the welfare system. Gender-specific barriers are also identified. Future research needs to assess the generalizability of these results to other public assistance recipients. PMID:21625301

  16. Assessing sufficiency of thermal riverscapes for resilient salmon and steelhead populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resilient salmon populations require river networks that provide water temperature regimes sufficient to support a diversity of salmonid life histories across space and time. Efforts to protect, enhance and restore watershed thermal regimes for salmon may target specific location...

  17. Necessary and sufficient conditions for self-focusing of short ultraintense laser pulse in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.L.; Sudan, R.N. )

    1993-04-05

    We analyze the propagation of a short intense laser pulse in underdense cold plasma. When no electron cavitation is present, a global invariant [ital H] is obtained, and its relation with self-focusing is studied. For relativistic self-focusing, [ital H][lt]0 is a sufficient and necessary condition. For relativistic and ponderomotive self-focusing, [ital H][lt]0 is sufficient but not necessary. Numerical simulations are performed to confirm the above points.

  18. Supplementary Education: The Hidden Curriculum of High Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.; Bridglall, Beatrice L., Ed.; Meroe, Aundra Saa, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    In this book, the editors argue that while access to schools that enable and expect academic achievement is a necessary ingredient for the education of students, schools alone may not be sufficient to ensure universally high levels of academic development. Supplemental educational experiences may also be needed. The idea of supplementary education…

  19. Circulating C3 is necessary and sufficient for induction of autoantibody-mediated arthritis in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Monach, Paul A; Verschoor, Admar; Jacobs, Jonathan P; Carroll, Michael C; Wagers, Amy J; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Objective For the inflammation characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis, the relative contribution of mediators produced locally in the synovium versus those circulating systemically is unknown. Complement factor C3 is made in rheumatoid synovium and has been proposed to be a crucial driver of inflammation. The aim of this study was to test, in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, whether C3 synthesized within the synovium is important in promoting inflammation. Methods Radiation bone marrow chimeras between normal and C3−/− mice were constructed in order to generate animals that expressed or lacked expression of C3 only in hematopoietic cells. Parabiotic mice were made by surgically linking C3−/− mice to irradiated wild-type mice to obtain animals having C3 only in the circulation. Arthritis was induced by injection of serum from arthritic K/BxN mice. Results In bone marrow chimeras, synthesis of C3 by radioresistant cells was necessary and sufficient to confer susceptibility to serum-transferred arthritis. Parabionts having C3 only in the circulation remained sensitive to arthritis induction, and the cartilage of these arthritic mice contained deposits of C3. Conclusion In a mouse model in which the alternative pathway of complement activation is critical to the induction of arthritis by autoantibodies, circulating C3 was necessary and sufficient for arthritis induction. PMID:17763447

  20. Life cycle assessment of energy self-sufficiency systems based on agricultural residues for organic arable farms.

    PubMed

    Kimming, M; Sundberg, C; Nordberg, A; Baky, A; Bernesson, S; Norén, O; Hansson, P-A

    2011-01-01

    The agricultural industry today consumes large amounts of fossil fuels. This study used consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) to analyse two potential energy self-sufficient systems for organic arable farms, based on agricultural residues. The analysis focused on energy balance, resource use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A scenario based on straw was found to require straw harvest from 25% of the farm area; 45% of the total energy produced from the straw was required for energy carrier production and GHG emissions were reduced by 9% compared with a fossil fuel-based reference scenario. In a scenario based on anaerobic digestion of ley, the corresponding figures were 13%, 24% and 35%. The final result was sensitive to assumptions regarding, e.g., soil carbon content and handling of by-products. PMID:20970998

  1. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  2. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  3. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  4. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  5. Do Typical RCTs of Education Interventions Have Sufficient Statistical Power for Linking Impacts on Teacher Practice and Student Achievement Outcomes? NCEE 2009-4065

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.

    2009-01-01

    For RCTs of education interventions, it is often of interest to estimate associations between student and mediating teacher practice outcomes, to examine the extent to which the study's conceptual model is supported by the data, and to identify specific mediators that are most associated with student learning. This paper develops statistical power…

  6. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  7. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  8. Correlation, necessity, and sufficiency: Common errors in the scientific reasoning of undergraduate students for interpreting experiments.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Aaron B; Lam, Diane P; Soowal, Lara N

    2015-01-01

    Gaining an understanding of how science works is central to an undergraduate education in biology and biochemistry. The reasoning required to design or interpret experiments that ask specific questions does not come naturally, and is an essential part of the science process skills that must be learned for an understanding of how scientists conduct research. Gaps in these reasoning skills make it difficult for students to become proficient in reading primary scientific literature. In this study, we assessed the ability of students in an upper-division biochemistry laboratory class to use the concepts of correlation, necessity, and sufficiency in interpreting experiments presented in a format and context that is similar to what they would encounter when reading a journal article. The students were assessed before and after completion of a laboratory module where necessary vs. sufficient reasoning was used to design and interpret experiments. The assessment identified two types of errors that were commonly committed by students when interpreting experimental data. When presented with an experiment that only establishes a correlation between a potential intermediate and a known effect, students frequently interpreted the intermediate as being sufficient (causative) for the effect. Also, when presented with an experiment that tests only necessity for an intermediate, they frequently made unsupported conclusions about sufficiency, and vice versa. Completion of the laboratory module and instruction in necessary vs. sufficient reasoning showed some promise for addressing these common errors. PMID:26146931

  9. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  10. A necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive routing in wormhole networks

    SciTech Connect

    Duato, J.

    1994-12-31

    Deadlock avoidance is a key issue in wormhole networks. A first approach consists of removing the cyclic dependencies between channels. Although this is a necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free deterministic routing, it is only a sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive routing. A more powerful approach only requires the absence of cyclic dependencies on a connected channel subset. The remaining channels can be used in almost any way. In this paper, we propose a necessary and sufficient condition for deadlock-free adaptive routing. This condition is the key for the design of maximally adaptive routing algorithms with minimum restrictions. Some examples are given, showing the application of the new theory. In particular, we propose a partially adaptive routing algorithm for k-ary n-cubes which doubles the throughput without increasing the hardware complexity significantly.

  11. Gluten Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Catassi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in subjects who are not affected by either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). The prevalence of NCGS is not clearly defined yet. Indirect evidence suggests that NCGS is slightly more common than CD, the latter affecting around 1% of the general population. NCGS has been mostly described in adults, particularly in females in the age group of 30-50 years; however, pediatric case series have also been reported. Since NCGS may be transient, gluten tolerance needs to be reassessed over time in patients with NCGS. NCGS is characterized by symptoms that usually occur soon after gluten ingestion, disappear with gluten withdrawal, and relapse following gluten challenge within hours/days. The 'classical' presentation of NCGS is a combination of irritable bowel syndrome-like symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit abnormalities (either diarrhea or constipation), and systemic manifestations such as 'foggy mind', headache, fatigue, joint and muscle pain, leg or arm numbness, dermatitis (eczema or skin rash), depression, and anemia. In recent years, several studies explored the relationship between the ingestion of gluten-containing food and the appearance of neurological and psychiatric disorders/symptoms like ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, schizophrenia, autism, depression, anxiety, and hallucinations (so-called gluten psychosis). The diagnosis of NCGS should be considered in patients with persistent intestinal and/or extraintestinal complaints showing a normal result of the CD and WA serological markers on a gluten-containing diet, usually reporting worsening of symptoms after eating gluten-rich food. NCGS should not be an exclusion diagnosis only. Unfortunately, no biomarker is sensitive and specific enough for diagnostic purposes; therefore, the diagnosis of NCGS is currently based on

  12. Correlation between International Normalized Ratio values and sufficiency of two different local hemostatic measures in anticoagulated patients

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Mohamed Zaghlool; Mourad, Samah I.; Salem, Ahmed S.; Abdelfadil, Ehab

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The management of patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) undergoing minor oral surgeries is controversial. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between International Normalized Ratio (INR) values and the sufficiency of two different local hemostatic measures in controlling postextraction bleeding in anticoagulated patients. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty patients receiving Warfarin OAT were included in this study. Patients were selected so that 80 patients have INR values of ≤2, whereas the remaining patients have the INR values ranging from 2 to 3. Forty patients were then randomly selected from each category to form two equal groups. Forty-five patients who had never been on OAT were selected as a negative control group (group 1). Failure to achieve hemostasis using a pressure pack was managed using either tranexamic acid (group 2) or Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) (group 3). Results: The INR values of patients included in group 2 and 3 ranged from 1.5 to 3, with a mean of 2.2. No significant difference was recorded between the use of either tranexamic acid or ABS in achieving hemostasis in anticoagulated patients with INR values ranging between 2 and 3 (P = 0.93). Conclusion: Based on our findings, ABS is a hemostatic agent of good efficacy. The effect of ABS in controlling post-extraction bleeding in anticoagulated patients with INR values ≤3 is comparable to tranexamic acid with no evidence to support the superiority of tranexamic acid over ABS. PMID:25512727

  13. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  14. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  15. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  16. Understanding Self-Sufficiency of Welfare Leavers in Illinois: Elaborating Models with Psychosocial Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julnes, George; Fan, Xitao; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2001-01-01

    Used survey (for 1,001 adults) and administrative data (for 137,330 first-exit cases) in structural equation modeling to examine psychological and social factors as determinants of welfare dependency and self-sufficiency. Findings show well-being to be a predictor of low recidivism and high employment. (SLD)

  17. Sufficient conditions of optimality for control of hydro-electric power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. M. A.; Ribeiro, A. F.; Smirnov, G. V.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we consider a control problem for a cascade of hydro-electric power stations where some of the stations have reversible turbines. The objective of our work is to optimize the profit of power production satisfying restrictions on the water level in the reservoirs. We obtain sufficient conditions of optimality and illustrate them with a simple example.

  18. Validation of the Employment Hope Scale: Measuring Psychological Self-Sufficiency among Low-Income Jobseekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Philip Young P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS and…

  19. Investigation of Professional Self Sufficiency Levels of Physical Education and Sports Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracaoglu, Asuman Seda; Ozsaker, Murat; Varol, Rana

    2012-01-01

    The present research aimed at detecting professional self sufficiency levels of physical education and sports teachers who worked in Izmir Province and at investigating them in terms of some variables. For data collection, Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale-developed by Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy (2001) and Turkish validity and reliability studies…

  20. Designing and Managing Public Housing Self-Sufficiency Programs: The Youngs Lake Commons Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleit, Rachel Garshick

    2004-01-01

    This article evaluates an experimental public housing self-sufficiency program that encourages home ownership among low-income families. A quasi-experimental design, in combination with focus groups, records review, and key informant interviews, provides data to focus on four questions: (a) Do these programs simply accelerate move-outs for those…

  1. A class of group covariant signal sets and its necessary and sufficient condition

    SciTech Connect

    Usuda, Tsuyoshi Sasaki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Shiromoto, Keisuke

    2014-12-04

    (G,χ-hat)-covariant quantum state signals, which is a generalization of the narrow sense group covariant signals, are defined. Then a necessary and sufficient condition for (G,χ-hat)-covariant signals is given and examples of the signals are shown.

  2. Book, Film, Television: An International Comparison of National Self-Sufficiency in Three Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokela, Mikko

    This study was conducted to compare national self-sufficiency in two media--book and film--to determine to what extent books and films in 39 countries are of domestic and foreign origin, and to find the direction of flow. Statistical findings are compared with findings from a 1973 study on the structure and origin of television programmes in 51…

  3. Sufficient Condition on the Fractional Integral for the Convergence of a Function

    PubMed Central

    Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A.; Aguila-Camacho, Norelys; Gallegos, Javier A.

    2013-01-01

    A sufficient condition on the fractional integral of the absolute value of a function is given in this paper, which allows to assure the convergence of the function to zero. This result can be useful to assure the convergence of a function when it is hard to know its exact evolution, but conditions on its fractional integral can be stated. PMID:24453850

  4. A Classroom Note on a Sufficient, but Unsatisfied, Condition for Goldbach's Conjecture to Be True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    This classroom note is presented as a suggested exercise--not to have the class prove or disprove Goldbach's Conjecture, but to stimulate student discussions in the classroom regarding proof, as well as necessary, sufficient, satisfied, and unsatisfied conditions. Goldbach's Conjecture is one of the oldest unsolved problems in the field of number…

  5. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  6. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  7. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  8. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  9. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  10. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  11. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  12. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  13. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  14. Response to Teriparatide in Patients with Baseline 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Insufficiency or Sufficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations >30 ng/ml have been recommended for lowering fracture risk. The objective of this study was to determine if 25OHD sufficiency is a prerequisite for effective response to teriparatide (TPTD). Study data came from 1620 osteoporotic postmenopausal wome...

  15. TAXONOMIC LEVEL AND SAMPLE SIZE SUFFICIENT FOR ASSESSING POLLUTION IMPACTS ON THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA BIGHT MACROBENTHOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic data from samples taken in 1980, 1983 and 1985 along a pollution gradient in the Southern California Bight (USA) were analyzed at 5 taxonomic levels (species, genus, family, order, phylum) to determIne the taxon and sample size sufficient for assessing pollution impa...

  16. Pathway to Self-Sufficiency: Social and Economic Development Strategies of Native American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In fiscal year (FY) 1984 the Administration for Native Americans awarded 227 grants for social and economic development strategies (SEDS) which would help Native American communities move toward self-sufficiency. More than half the grants were primarily for economic development; approximately one-third were for improving tribal governments, and…

  17. The Family Self-Sufficiency Program: HUD's Best Kept Secret for Promoting Employment and Asset Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sard, Barbara

    This paper describes the Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) program, an employment and savings incentive program for low-income families that have Section 8 vouchers or live in public housing. It consists of both case management services to help participants pursue employment and other goals and escrow accounts into which the public housing agency…

  18. Sufficient Stochastic Maximum Principle in a Regime-Switching Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Catherine

    2011-10-15

    We prove a sufficient stochastic maximum principle for the optimal control of a regime-switching diffusion model. We show the connection to dynamic programming and we apply the result to a quadratic loss minimization problem, which can be used to solve a mean-variance portfolio selection problem.

  19. Public and Private Incentives for Investment in Higher Education: Are They Sufficient, Especially for Black Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appiah, Elizabeth N.

    2013-01-01

    The institutional costs of higher education have been rising. With diminishing public support per student, tuition and fees private costs have also been rising. But so have the real earnings of college graduates. Are there still sufficient incentives on efficiency grounds for additional public investment in higher education? And in particular,…

  20. 25 CFR 26.23 - What is an Individual Self-Sufficiency Plan (ISP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 26.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.23 What is an Individual Self-Sufficiency Plan (ISP...; (3) Identifies all financial resources and defines the employment or training objective...

  1. Rhetorically self-sufficient arguments in Western Australian parliamentary debates on Lesbian and Gay Law Reform.

    PubMed

    Summers, Mark

    2007-12-01

    Western Australia's Acts Amendment (Lesbian and Gay Law Reform) Bill 2001 delivered a measure of legal equality in such areas as property transfer, superannuation, inheritance and discrimination, and more controversially, adoption, lesbian access to IVF, lowering the age of consent for sex between men from 21 to 16, and incorporating information on homosexuality into high school sex education classes. This paper examines the use of various moral principles within parliamentary speeches supporting or opposing the legislation, and the extent to which they were treated by members as beyond question, or 'rhetorically self-sufficient'. The resources of 'equality', 'human rights', 'democracy', 'the interests of the majority' and 'the interests of children' were given a kind of beyond-question, self-sufficient status, but their use was able to be undermined in a number of ways, relating to members' management of what the Bill was 'about', and the flexibility of these social constructs. It is argued that rather than pitting one set of resources against another, members on both sides of the debate faced a rhetorical pressure to adopt and mobilize all of the same self-sufficient moral resources, due to the flexible, constructed and non-hierarchical, yet often rhetorically self-sufficient nature of common-sense moral principles. PMID:17535460

  2. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the entanglement sudden death under amplitude damping and phase damping

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiehui; Zhu Shiyao

    2007-12-15

    By using principal minor method, which is developed from the Peres-Horodecki criterion for the separability of a quantum state, we derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the entanglement sudden death of a two-qubit state under amplitude damping and phase damping.

  3. Investigating the Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of Phonological Abilities in a Sufficiently Transparent Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Spanoudis, George

    2012-01-01

    Theory-driven conceptualizations of phonological abilities in a sufficiently transparent language (Greek) were examined in children ages 5 years 8 months to 7 years 7 months, by comparing a set of a priori models. Specifically, the fit of 9 different models was evaluated, as defined by the Number of Factors (1 to 3; represented by rhymes,…

  4. Community Service and University Roles: An Action Research Based on the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    This study employs action research to develop community service through university roles by applying the philosophy of sufficiency economy of His Majesty the King Bhumibol Adulyadej to fulfill villagers' way of life. Participatory learning, seminar, field trip and supervision were employed for strategic plan. Data were collected by participatory…

  5. Faculty Sufficiency and AACSB Accreditation Compliance within a Global University: A Mathematical Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boronico, Jess; Murdy, Jim; Kong, Xinlu

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a mathematical model to address faculty sufficiency requirements towards assuring overall high quality management education at a global university. Constraining elements include full-time faculty coverage by discipline, location, and program, across multiple campus locations subject to stated service quality standards of…

  6. Role of input self-sufficiency in the economic and environmental sustainability of specialised dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Lebacq, T; Baret, P V; Stilmant, D

    2015-03-01

    Increasing input self-sufficiency is often viewed as a target to improve sustainability of dairy farms. However, few studies have specifically analysed input self-sufficiency, by including several technical inputs and without only focussing on animal feeding, in order to explore its impact on farm sustainability. To address this gap, our work has three objectives as follows: (1) identifying the structural characteristics required by specialised dairy farms located in the grassland area to be self-sufficient; (2) analysing the relationships between input self-sufficiency, environmental and economic sustainability; and (3) studying how the farms react to a decrease in milk price according to their self-sufficiency degree. Based on farm accounting databases, we categorised 335 Walloon specialised conventional dairy farms into four classes according to their level of input self-sufficiency. To this end, we used as proxy the indicator of economic autonomy - that is, the ratio between costs of inputs related to animal production, crop production and energy use and the total gross product. Classes were then compared using multiple comparison tests and canonical discriminant analysis. A total of 30 organic farms - among which 63% had a high level of economic autonomy - were considered separately and compared with the most autonomous class. We showed that a high degree of economic autonomy is associated, in conventional farms, with a high proportion of permanent grassland in the agricultural area. The most autonomous farms used less input - especially animal feeding - for a same output level, and therefore combined good environmental and economic performances. Our results also underlined that, in a situation of decrease in milk price, the least autonomous farms had more latitude to decrease their input-related costs without decreasing milk production. Their incomes per work unit were, therefore, less impacted by falling prices, but remained lower than those of more

  7. High-sensitivity detection of hazardous SO(2) using 266 nm UV laser.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Dastageer, Mohamed A

    2008-08-01

    Pulsed laser resonant photoacoustic spectroscopy was applied for detection of highly toxic SO(2) with 266 nm as the excitation source. An extra-cavity longitudinal resonant cell, was designed and fabricated to enhance the sensitivity of the system, which is capable of detecting the trace amount of SO(2). As a process of signal-to-noise ratio optimization, the parametric dependence of the PA signal was carried out and the sensitivity achieved with our system was as low as 4 ppb, which is considered to be a sufficient level for the detection of ambient SO(2) in the atmosphere. This study could be an antecedent for the design of a portable SO(2) sensor. PMID:18584428

  8. Forebrain-specific CRF overproduction during development is sufficient to induce enduring anxiety and startle abnormalities in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Toth, Mate; Gresack, Jodi E; Bangasser, Debra A; Plona, Zach; Valentino, Rita J; Flandreau, Elizabeth I; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Geyer, Mark A; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2014-05-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) regulates physiological and behavioral responses to stress. Trauma in early life or adulthood is associated with increased CRF in the cerebrospinal fluid and heightened anxiety. Genetic variance in CRF receptors is linked to altered risk for stress disorders. Thus, both heritable differences and environmentally induced changes in CRF neurotransmission across the lifespan may modulate anxiety traits. To test the hypothesis that CRF hypersignaling is sufficient to modify anxiety-related phenotypes (avoidance, startle, and conditioned fear), we induced transient forebrain-specific overexpression of CRF (CRFOE) in mice (1) during development to model early-life stress, (2) in adulthood to model adult-onset stress, or (3) across the entire postnatal lifespan to model heritable increases in CRF signaling. The consequences of these manipulations on CRF peptide levels and behavioral responses were examined in adulthood. We found that transient CRFOE during development decreased startle habituation and prepulse inhibition, and increased avoidance (particularly in females) recapitulating the behavioral effects of lifetime CRFOE despite lower CRF peptide levels at testing. In contrast, CRFOE limited to adulthood reduced contextual fear learning in females and increased startle reactivity in males but did not change avoidance or startle plasticity. These findings suggest that forebrain CRFOE limited to development is sufficient to induce enduring alterations in startle plasticity and anxiety, while forebrain CRFOE during adulthood results in a different phenotype profile. These findings suggest that startle circuits are particularly sensitive to forebrain CRFOE, and that the impact of CRFOE may be dependent on the time of exposure. PMID:24326400

  9. Forebrain-Specific CRF Overproduction During Development is Sufficient to Induce Enduring Anxiety and Startle Abnormalities in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Mate; Gresack, Jodi E; Bangasser, Debra A; Plona, Zach; Valentino, Rita J; Flandreau, Elizabeth I; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Merlo-Pich, Emilio; Geyer, Mark A; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2014-01-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) regulates physiological and behavioral responses to stress. Trauma in early life or adulthood is associated with increased CRF in the cerebrospinal fluid and heightened anxiety. Genetic variance in CRF receptors is linked to altered risk for stress disorders. Thus, both heritable differences and environmentally induced changes in CRF neurotransmission across the lifespan may modulate anxiety traits. To test the hypothesis that CRF hypersignaling is sufficient to modify anxiety-related phenotypes (avoidance, startle, and conditioned fear), we induced transient forebrain-specific overexpression of CRF (CRFOE) in mice (1) during development to model early-life stress, (2) in adulthood to model adult-onset stress, or (3) across the entire postnatal lifespan to model heritable increases in CRF signaling. The consequences of these manipulations on CRF peptide levels and behavioral responses were examined in adulthood. We found that transient CRFOE during development decreased startle habituation and prepulse inhibition, and increased avoidance (particularly in females) recapitulating the behavioral effects of lifetime CRFOE despite lower CRF peptide levels at testing. In contrast, CRFOE limited to adulthood reduced contextual fear learning in females and increased startle reactivity in males but did not change avoidance or startle plasticity. These findings suggest that forebrain CRFOE limited to development is sufficient to induce enduring alterations in startle plasticity and anxiety, while forebrain CRFOE during adulthood results in a different phenotype profile. These findings suggest that startle circuits are particularly sensitive to forebrain CRFOE, and that the impact of CRFOE may be dependent on the time of exposure. PMID:24326400

  10. Tuberculin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Eason, R J

    1987-06-01

    A prospective study of tuberculin sensitivity has been conducted among 3610 subjects under 20 years old in the Solomon Islands, Western Province. Mantoux positivity (greater than or equal to mm induration after 5 TU) fell from 81% during the 6 months following birth BCG vaccination to 13% for children aged 1-8 years of age among whom it was not significantly higher than the rate of 9% noted for unvaccinated subjects. Birth BCG does not, therefore, hinder the diagnostic usefulness of tuberculin testing for such children. For the study population as a whole, BCG-induced Mantoux positivity was restricted to induration under 15 mm diameter. Stronger responses were considered specific for tuberculin infection and indicated a prevalence rate that rose from 2% to 16% with age. Accelerated BCG reactions recorded among 45% of 162 tuberculin non-reactors under 8 years old indicated that the waning of tuberculin responsiveness at this time could not be equated with loss of clinical protection against tuberculosis. PMID:2441657

  11. High-Sensitivity Microwave Optics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, W. M., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a 3.33-cm wavelength (9 GHz) microwave system that achieves a high overall signal sensitivity and a well-collimated beam with moderate-size equipment. The system has been used to develop microwave versions of the Michelson interferometer, Bragg reflector, Brewster's law and total internal reflection, and Young's interference experiment.…

  12. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  13. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  14. Classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie

    2011-12-01

    Classroom context and school engagement are significant predictors of academic achievement. These factors are especially important for academically at-risk students. Grounded in an ecological systems perspective, this study examined links between classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement among early adolescents. We took a multidimensional approach to the measurement of classroom context and school engagement, incorporating both observational and self-reported assessments of various dimensions of classroom context (instruction quality, social/emotional climate, and student-teacher relationship) and school engagement (psychological and behavioral engagement). Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we tested whether school engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement among 5th grade students, and whether these pathways were the same for students with previous achievement difficulties identified in 3rd grade. Participants included 1,014 children (50% female) in 5th grade (mean age = 11). The majority of the participants were white (77%) and 23% were children of color. Results indicated that psychological and behavioral engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement for students without previous achievement difficulties. However, for students with previous achievement difficulties psychological and behavioral engagement did not mediate the link between classroom context and academic achievement. These results suggest that improving classroom quality may not be sufficient to improve student engagement and achievement for students with previous achievement difficulties. Additional strategies may be needed for these students. PMID:21400208

  15. A model for determining when an analysis contains sufficient detail to provide adequate NEPA coverage for a proposed action

    SciTech Connect

    Eccleston, C.H.

    1994-11-01

    Neither the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) nor its subsequent regulations provide substantive guidance for determining the Level of detail, discussion, and analysis that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. Yet, decisionmakers are routinely confronted with the problem of making such determinations. Experience has shown that no two decisionmakers are Likely to completely agree on the amount of discussion that is sufficient to adequately cover a proposed action. one decisionmaker may determine that a certain Level of analysis is adequate, while another may conclude the exact opposite. Achieving a consensus within the agency and among the public can be problematic. Lacking definitive guidance, decisionmakers and critics alike may point to a universe of potential factors as the basis for defending their claim that an action is or is not adequately covered. Experience indicates that assertions are often based on ambiguous opinions that can be neither proved nor disproved. Lack of definitive guidance slows the decisionmaking process and can result in project delays. Furthermore, it can also Lead to inconsistencies in decisionmaking, inappropriate Levels of NEPA documentation, and increased risk of a project being challenged for inadequate coverage. A more systematic and less subjective approach for making such determinations is obviously needed. A paradigm for reducing the degree of subjectivity inherent in such decisions is presented in the following paper. The model is specifically designed to expedite the decisionmaking process by providing a systematic approach for making these determination. In many cases, agencies may find that using this model can reduce the analysis and size of NEPA documents.

  16. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  17. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  18. CDF's Higgs sensitivity status

    SciTech Connect

    Junk, Tom; /Illinois U., Urbana

    2005-10-01

    The combined sensitivity of CDF's current Standard Model Higgs boson searches is presented. The expected 95% CL limits on the production cross section times the relevant Higgs boson branching ratios are computed for the W{sup {+-}}H {yields} {ell}{sup {+-}}{nu}b{bar b}, ZH {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}}b{bar b}, gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} W{sup {+-}}H {yields} W{sup {+-}}W{sup +}W{sup -} channels as they stand as of the October 2005, using results which were prepared for Summer 2005 conferences and a newer result form the gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} channel. Correlated and uncorrelated systematic uncertainties are taken into account, and the luminosity requirements for 95% CL exclusion, 3{sigma} evidence, and 5{sigma} discovery are computed for median experimental outcomes. A list of improvements required to achieve the sensitivity to a SM Higgs boson as quantified in the Higgs Sensitivity Working Group's report is provided.

  19. Portfolio of Research in Welfare and Family Self-Sufficiency: FY 2014. OPRE Report 2015-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Economic Independence within the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) has primary responsibility for welfare and family self-sufficiency research. OPRE's research in the area of welfare and family self-sufficiency is designed to expand knowledge about effective programs to promote employment, self-sufficiency, and…

  20. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  1. Stable dynamics in forced systems with sufficiently high/low forcing frequency.

    PubMed

    Bartuccelli, M; Gentile, G; Wright, J A

    2016-08-01

    We consider parametrically forced Hamiltonian systems with one-and-a-half degrees of freedom and study the stability of the dynamics when the frequency of the forcing is relatively high or low. We show that, provided the frequency is sufficiently high, Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem may be applied even when the forcing amplitude is far away from the perturbation regime. A similar result is obtained for sufficiently low frequency, but in that case we need the amplitude of the forcing to be not too large; however, we are still able to consider amplitudes which are outside of the perturbation regime. In addition, we find numerically that the dynamics may be stable even when the forcing amplitude is very large, well beyond the range of validity of the analytical results, provided the frequency of the forcing is taken correspondingly low. PMID:27586604

  2. Colocalization of Sensors Is Sufficient to Activate the DNA Damage Checkpoint in the Absence of Damage

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Carla Yaneth; Melo, Justine Amy

    2010-01-01

    Summary Previous work on the DNA damage checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown that two complexes independently sense DNA lesions: the kinase Mec1-Ddc2 and the PCNA-like 9-1-1 complex. To test whether colocalization of these components is sufficient for checkpoint activation, we fused these checkpoint proteins to the LacI repressor and artificially colocalized these fusions by expressing them in cells harboring Lac operator arrays. We observed Rad53 and Rad9 phosphorylation, Sml1 degradation, and metaphase delay, demonstrating that colocalization of these sensors is sufficient to activate the checkpoint in the absence of DNA damage. Our tethering system allowed us to establish that CDK functions in the checkpoint pathway downstream of damage processing and checkpoint protein recruitment. This CDK dependence is likely, at least in part, through Rad9, since mutation of CDK consensus sites compromised its checkpoint function. PMID:18471973

  3. Children's Sleep Needs: Is There Sufficient Evidence to Recommend Optimal Sleep for Children?

    PubMed Central

    Matricciani, Lisa; Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim S.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely recognized that sleep is important for children's health and well-being and that short sleep duration is associated with a wide range of negative health outcomes. Recently, there has been much interest in whether or not there are sufficient data to support the specific recommendations made for how much sleep children need. In this article we explore concepts related to children's sleep need, discuss the theory, rationale, and empirical evidence for contemporary sleep recommendations, and outline future research directions for sleep recommendations. If sleep is to be treated as a therapeutic intervention, then consensus guidelines, statements, and evidence-based best-practice documents are needed to underpin sleep recommendations for children. Citation: Matricciani L; Blunden S; Rigney G; Williams MT; Olds TS. Children's sleep needs: is there sufficient evidence to recommend optimal sleep for children? SLEEP 2013;36(4):527-534. PMID:23564999

  4. Featural information is sufficient to produce a left cheek bias for happiness perception.

    PubMed

    Low, Jia Y; Lindell, Annukka K

    2016-08-01

    People perceive the left cheek as more emotionally expressive than the right. Both configural and featural information enable the evaluation of emotional expressions; whether they make equivalent contributions to the left cheek bias is undetermined. As scrambling faces disrupts configural processing whilst leaving featural information intact, we investigated whether configural information is necessary, or featural information is sufficient, to induce a left cheek bias for emotion perception. Eighty-one participants (65 F, 16 M) viewed two types of left and right cheek image pairs - normal, scrambled - and indicated which image appeared happier (half mirror-reversed to control for perceptual biases). Results indicated a left cheek bias for both normal and scrambled faces, irrespective of mirror reversal. As scrambling faces disrupts configural processing, the fact that the left cheek was perceived as more expressive even when scrambled confirms that differences between the cheeks' featural information are sufficient to induce the left cheek bias. PMID:27363004

  5. Linear stable unity-feedback system - Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability under nonlinear plant perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Kabuli, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors consider a linear (not necessarily time-invariant) stable unity-feedback system, where the plant and the compensator have normalized right-coprime factorizations. They study two cases of nonlinear plant perturbations (additive and feedback), with four subcases resulting from: (1) allowing exogenous input to Delta P or not; 2) allowing the observation of the output of Delta P or not. The plant perturbation Delta P is not required to be stable. Using the factorization approach, the authors obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for all cases in terms of two pairs of nonlinear pseudostate maps. Simple physical considerations explain the form of these necessary and sufficient conditions. Finally, the authors obtain the characterization of all perturbations Delta P for which the perturbed system remains stable.

  6. Sufficiency of Mesolimbic Dopamine Neuron Stimulation for the Progression to Addiction.

    PubMed

    Pascoli, Vincent; Terrier, Jean; Hiver, Agnès; Lüscher, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The factors causing the transition from recreational drug consumption to addiction remain largely unknown. It has not been tested whether dopamine (DA) is sufficient to trigger this process. Here we use optogenetic self-stimulation of DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to selectively mimic the defining commonality of addictive drugs. All mice readily acquired self-stimulation. After weeks of abstinence, cue-induced relapse was observed in parallel with a potentiation of excitatory afferents onto D1 receptor-expressing neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc). When the mice had to endure a mild electric foot shock to obtain a stimulation, some stopped while others persevered. The resistance to punishment was associated with enhanced neural activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) while chemogenetic inhibition of the OFC reduced compulsivity. Together, these results show that stimulating VTA DA neurons induces behavioral and cellular hallmarks of addiction, indicating sufficiency for the induction and progression of the disease. PMID:26586182

  7. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  8. 75 FR 21022 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Housing Choice Voucher Family Self-Sufficiency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...In accordance with Section 102(a)(4)(C) of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Reform Act of 1989, this announcement notifies the public of funding decisions made by the Department for funding under Notice PIH 2009-40 (HA) for the Housing Choice Voucher Family Self-Sufficiency (HCV/FSS) Administrative Fee funding. This announcement contains the consolidated names and addresses of......

  9. Usefulness of High Suction Pressure for Sufficient Tissue Collection During Endobronchial Ultrasound Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Shiroyama, Takayuki; Okamoto, Norio; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tamiya, Motohiro; Yamadori, Tadahiro; Morishita, Naoko; Otsuka, Tomoyuki; Morita, Satomu; Kurata, Kanako; Okimura, Akira; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Sasada, Shinji; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kawase, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The optimal suction pressure during endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to compare suction pressures for performance in collecting sufficient tissue specimens from mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes during EBUS-TBNA. Methods Retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy who underwent EBUS-TBNA over a 3-year period. Results from patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA using a dedicated 20-mL VacLoc (Merit Medical Systems, Inc, South Jordan, UT) syringe (conventional method, group C) were compared with results from patients in whom a disposable 30-mL syringe (high pressure group, group H) was used. The yield for sufficient histologic specimen retrieval and amount of tissue obtained were compared between the 2 groups. Results Of 178 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA, 131 had lung cancer confirmed by EBUS-TBNA: 35 in group C and 96 in group H. There were 7 patients in group C and 6 in group H who received final diagnoses by cytology alone. There were 28 in group C and 90 in group H who were diagnosed by both cytology and histology. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of the rate of sufficient sampling for histological specimens (p = 0.04). The H group revealed a tissue area approximately twice that of the C group (p = 0.003). There were no major procedure-related complications in either group. Conclusion Higher suction pressures with larger syringe volumes during EBUS-TBNA may be useful for safely collecting sufficient tissue specimens. PMID:24340058

  10. Necessary and sufficient conditions for discrete and differential inclusions of elliptic type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmudov, E. N.

    2006-11-01

    This paper deals for the first time with the Dirichlet problem for discrete (PD), discrete approximation problem on a uniform grid and differential (PC) inclusions of elliptic type. In the form of Euler-Lagrange inclusion necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality are derived for the problems under consideration on the basis of new concepts of locally adjoint mappings. The results obtained are generalized to the multidimensional case with a second order elliptic operator.

  11. How Community College African American Students with or without a Father or Male Surrogate Presence at Home Develop Their Personal Identity, Academic Self-Concept, Race Theory, Social Sensitivity, Resiliency, and Vision of Their Own Success and the Influence on Their Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, A'lon Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on African American students' academic achievement and the role mothers play in their child's academic development, few studies (Carter, 2008; Fordham, 1988) examined the role fathers play in the development of their child's academic achievement. The primary aim of this study was to examine how…

  12. Chinmo is sufficient to induce male fate in somatic cells of the adult Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; de Cuevas, Margaret; Matunis, Erika L

    2016-03-01

    Sexual identity is continuously maintained in specific differentiated cell types long after sex determination occurs during development. In the adult Drosophila testis, the putative transcription factor Chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (Chinmo) acts with the canonical male sex determinant DoublesexM (Dsx(M)) to maintain the male identity of somatic cyst stem cells and their progeny. Here we find that ectopic expression of chinmo is sufficient to induce a male identity in adult ovarian somatic cells, but it acts through a Dsx(M)-independent mechanism. Conversely, the feminization of the testis somatic stem cell lineage caused by loss of chinmo is enhanced by expression of the canonical female sex determinant Dsx(F), indicating that chinmo acts in parallel with the canonical sex determination pathway to maintain the male identity of testis somatic cells. Consistent with this finding, ectopic expression of female sex determinants in the adult testis disrupts tissue morphology. The miRNA let-7 downregulates chinmo in many contexts, and ectopic expression of let-7 in the adult testis is sufficient to recapitulate the chinmo loss-of-function phenotype, but we find no apparent phenotypes upon removal of let-7 in the adult ovary or testis. Our finding that chinmo is necessary and sufficient to promote a male identity in adult gonadal somatic cells suggests that the sexual identity of somatic cells can be reprogrammed in the adult Drosophila ovary as well as in the testis. PMID:26811385

  13. Quantum Markov chains, sufficiency of quantum channels, and Rényi information measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Nilanjana; Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-12-01

    A short quantum Markov chain is a tripartite state {ρ }{ABC} such that system A can be recovered perfectly by acting on system C of the reduced state {ρ }{BC}. Such states have conditional mutual information I(A;B| C) equal to zero and are the only states with this property. A quantum channel {N} is sufficient for two states ρ and σ if there exists a recovery channel using which one can perfectly recover ρ from {N}(ρ ) and σ from {N}(σ ). The relative entropy difference D(ρ \\parallel σ )-D({N}(ρ )\\parallel {N}(σ )) is equal to zero if and only if {N} is sufficient for ρ and σ. In this paper, we show that these properties extend to Rényi generalizations of these information measures which were proposed in (Berta et al 2015 J. Math. Phys. 56 022205; Seshadreesan et al 2015 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 395303), thus providing an alternate characterization of short quantum Markov chains and sufficient quantum channels. These results give further support to these quantities as being legitimate Rényi generalizations of the conditional mutual information and the relative entropy difference. Along the way, we solve some open questions of Ruskai and Zhang, regarding the trace of particular matrices that arise in the study of monotonicity of relative entropy under quantum operations and strong subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy.

  14. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  15. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  16. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  17. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  18. A comparison of three guinea-pig sensitization procedures for the detection of 19 reported human contact sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, B F; Crevel, R W; Johnson, A W

    1981-09-01

    A maximization test (after Magnusson & Kligman 1970), a single injection adjuvant test (SIAT) and a modified Draize test procedure for assessing contact sensitization potential in guinea-pigs have been compared for their ability to detect 19 known human contact sensitizers. The results show that the modified Draize procedure is a good screening test particularly for strong sensitizers. The maximization procedure is a very stringent test of sensitization potential, able to detect some marginal sensitizers. The sensitivity of the SIAT procedure is sufficiently similar to that of the maximization test to act as an alternative for routine testing, particularly in view of its practical advantages over the maximization procedure. PMID:7307480

  19. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  20. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  1. Limiting glutamate transmission in a Vglut2-expressing subpopulation of the subthalamic nucleus is sufficient to cause hyperlocomotion

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Nadine; Pupe, Stéfano; Arvidsson, Emma; Nordenankar, Karin; Smith-Anttila, Casey J. A.; Mahmoudi, Souha; Andrén, Anna; Dumas, Sylvie; Rajagopalan, Aparna; Lévesque, Daniel; Leão, Richardson N.; Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key area of the basal ganglia circuitry regulating movement. We identified a subpopulation of neurons within this structure that coexpresses Vglut2 and Pitx2, and by conditional targeting of this subpopulation we reduced Vglut2 expression levels in the STN by 40%, leaving Pitx2 expression intact. This reduction diminished, yet did not eliminate, glutamatergic transmission in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and entopeduncular nucleus, two major targets of the STN. The knockout mice displayed hyperlocomotion and decreased latency in the initiation of movement while preserving normal gait and balance. Spatial cognition, social function, and level of impulsive choice also remained undisturbed. Furthermore, these mice showed reduced dopamine transporter binding and slower dopamine clearance in vivo, suggesting that Vglut2-expressing cells in the STN regulate dopaminergic transmission. Our results demonstrate that altering the contribution of a limited population within the STN is sufficient to achieve results similar to STN lesions and high-frequency stimulation, but with fewer side effects. PMID:24821804

  2. Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging.

    PubMed

    Gariepy, Genevieve; Krstajić, Nikola; Henderson, Robert; Li, Chunyong; Thomson, Robert R; Buller, Gerald S; Heshmat, Barmak; Raskar, Ramesh; Leach, Jonathan; Faccio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The ability to record images with extreme temporal resolution enables a diverse range of applications, such as fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight depth imaging and characterization of ultrafast processes. Recently, ultrafast imaging schemes have emerged, which require either long acquisition times or raster scanning and have a requirement for sufficient signal that can only be achieved when light is reflected off an object or diffused by a strongly scattering medium. Here we present a demonstration of the potential of single-photon detector arrays for visualization and rapid characterization of events evolving on picosecond time scales. The single-photon sensitivity, temporal resolution and full-field imaging capability enables the observation of light-in-flight in air, as well as the measurement of laser-induced plasma formation and dynamics in its natural environment. The extreme sensitivity and short acquisition times pave the way for real-time imaging of ultrafast processes or visualization and tracking of objects hidden from view. PMID:25626147

  3. Planning, developing and implementing community-sensitive transit, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The FTA Livable Communities intiative is demonstrating ways to improve the link between transit and communities. It promotes customer-friendly, community-oriented, and well-designed facilities and services. Some of the characteristics of community-sensitive transit facilities and services include those in which customer information is readily available; customers feel safe and secure; transit, pedestrian, and bicycle access is sufficient; parking is carefully managed; nearby or onsite customer services are available; and the values of the community are reflected in the architecture. The Initiative recommends that transportation agencies and local governments introduce proposed transportation improvements to communities in the early stages of the planning process. When communities are afforded an opportunity for greater involvement in the decisionmaking process, the true objectives of a livable community are more likely to be accurately addressed and achieved. Both the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and FTA strategic plans place emphasis on putting people first in the U.S. transportation systems. The FTA`s Strategic Plan specifically envisions a stronger link in the relationship between transit and communities. Under the Livable Communities Initiative, FTA has awarded funding to 16 projects that demonstrate the characteristics of community-sensitive transit. The Appendix provides summary descriptions of each of the selected demonstration projects.

  4. Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariepy, Genevieve; Krstajić, Nikola; Henderson, Robert; Li, Chunyong; Thomson, Robert R.; Buller, Gerald S.; Heshmat, Barmak; Raskar, Ramesh; Leach, Jonathan; Faccio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The ability to record images with extreme temporal resolution enables a diverse range of applications, such as fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight depth imaging and characterization of ultrafast processes. Recently, ultrafast imaging schemes have emerged, which require either long acquisition times or raster scanning and have a requirement for sufficient signal that can only be achieved when light is reflected off an object or diffused by a strongly scattering medium. Here we present a demonstration of the potential of single-photon detector arrays for visualization and rapid characterization of events evolving on picosecond time scales. The single-photon sensitivity, temporal resolution and full-field imaging capability enables the observation of light-in-flight in air, as well as the measurement of laser-induced plasma formation and dynamics in its natural environment. The extreme sensitivity and short acquisition times pave the way for real-time imaging of ultrafast processes or visualization and tracking of objects hidden from view.

  5. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  7. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  8. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  9. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  10. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  11. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  14. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  15. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  16. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  17. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  18. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  19. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…

  20. On the role of budget sufficiency, cost efficiency, and uncertainty in species management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Burg, Max Post; Bly, Bartholomew B.; Vercauteren, Tammy; Grand, James B.; Tyre, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Many conservation planning frameworks rely on the assumption that one should prioritize locations for management actions based on the highest predicted conservation value (i.e., abundance, occupancy). This strategy may underperform relative to the expected outcome if one is working with a limited budget or the predicted responses are uncertain. Yet, cost and tolerance to uncertainty rarely become part of species management plans. We used field data and predictive models to simulate a decision problem involving western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) using prairie dog colonies (Cynomys ludovicianus) in western Nebraska. We considered 2 species management strategies: one maximized abundance and the other maximized abundance in a cost-efficient way. We then used heuristic decision algorithms to compare the 2 strategies in terms of how well they met a hypothetical conservation objective. Finally, we performed an info-gap decision analysis to determine how these strategies performed under different budget constraints and uncertainty about owl response. Our results suggested that when budgets were sufficient to manage all sites, the maximizing strategy was optimal and suggested investing more in expensive actions. This pattern persisted for restricted budgets up to approximately 50% of the sufficient budget. Below this budget, the cost-efficient strategy was optimal and suggested investing in cheaper actions. When uncertainty in the expected responses was introduced, the strategy that maximized abundance remained robust under a sufficient budget. Reducing the budget induced a slight trade-off between expected performance and robustness, which suggested that the most robust strategy depended both on one's budget and tolerance to uncertainty. Our results suggest that wildlife managers should explicitly account for budget limitations and be realistic about their expected levels of performance.

  1. Stability boundaries and sufficient stability conditions for stably stratified, monotonic shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Makoto; Morrison, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    Linear stability of inviscid, parallel, and stably stratified shear flow is studied under the assumption of smooth strictly monotonic profiles of shear flow and density, so that the local Richardson number is positive everywhere. The marginally unstable modes are systematically found by solving a one-parameter family of regular Sturm-Liouville problems, which can determine the stability boundaries more efficiently than solving the Taylor-Goldstein equation directly. By arguing for the non-existence of a marginally unstable mode, we derive new sufficient conditions for stability, which generalize the Rayleigh-Fjørtoft criterion for unstratified shear flows.

  2. Sufficient conditions for rate-independent hysteresis in autoregressive identified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Samir Angelo Milani; Aguirre, Luis Antonio

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows how hysteresis can be described using polynomial models and what are the sufficient conditions to be met by the model in order to have hysteresis. Such conditions are related to the model equilibria, to the forcing function and to certain term clusters in the polynomial models. The main results of the paper are used in the identification and analysis of nonlinear models estimated from data produced by a magneto-rheological damper (MRD) model with Bouc-Wen rate-independent hysteresis. A striking feature of the identified model is its simplicity and this could turn out to be a key factor in controller design.

  3. Designing and managing public housing self-sufficiency programs: the Youngs Lake Commons Program.

    PubMed

    Kleit, Rachel Garshick

    2004-10-01

    This article evaluates an experimental public housing self-sufficiency program that encourages home ownership among low-income families. A quasi-experimental design, in combination with focus groups, records review, and key informant interviews, provides data to focus on four questions: (a) Do these programs simply accelerate move-outs for those who would have left without intervention? (b) Are program elements replicable given the importance of the local context in public housing move-outs? (c) How do housing authorities resolve tensions that arise between housing management and social service delivery? (d) What should housing authority response be to those who fail? PMID:15358903

  4. Self sufficient wireless transmitter powered by foot-pumped urine operating wearable MFC.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, M; Stinchcombe, A; Greenman, J; Mattoli, V; Beccai, L; Mazzolai, B; Melhuish, C; Ieropoulos, I A

    2016-02-01

    The first self-sufficient system, powered by a wearable energy generator based on microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is introduced. MFCs made from compliant material were developed in the frame of a pair of socks, which was fed by urine via a manual gaiting pump. The simple and single loop cardiovascular fish circulatory system was used as the inspiration for the design of the manual pump. A wireless programmable communication module, engineered to operate within the range of the generated electricity, was employed, which opens a new avenue for research in the utilisation of waste products for powering portable as well as wearable electronics. PMID:26657063

  5. A computation using mutually exclusive processing is sufficient to identify specific Hedgehog signaling components

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Spencer J.

    2013-01-01

    A system of more than one part can be deciphered by observing differences between the parts. A simple way to do this is by recording something absolute displaying a trait in one part and not in another: in other words, mutually exclusive computation. Conditional directed expression in vivo offers processing in more than one part of the system giving increased computation power for biological systems analysis. Here, I report the consideration of these aspects in the development of an in vivo screening assay that appears sufficient to identify components specific to a system. PMID:24391661

  6. Self-Sufficient Formaldehyde-to-Methanol Conversion by Organometallic Formaldehyde Dismutase Mimic.

    PubMed

    van der Waals, Dominic; Heim, Leo E; Vallazza, Simona; Gedig, Christian; Deska, Jan; Prechtl, Martin H G

    2016-08-01

    The catalytic networks of methylotrophic organisms, featuring redox enzymes for the activation of one-carbon moieties, can serve as great inspiration in the development of novel homogeneously catalyzed pathways for the interconversion of C1 molecules at ambient conditions. An imidazolium-tagged arene-ruthenium complex was identified as an effective functional mimic of the bacterial formaldehyde dismutase, which provides a new and highly selective route for the conversion of formaldehyde to methanol in absence of any external reducing agents. Moreover, secondary amines are reductively methylated by the organometallic dismutase mimic in a redox self-sufficient manner with formaldehyde acting both as carbon source and reducing agent. PMID:27380865

  7. Necessary and sufficient condition for quantum adiabatic evolution by unitary control fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen-Yu; Plenio, Martin B.

    2016-05-01

    We decompose the quantum adiabatic evolution as the products of gauge invariant unitary operators and obtain the exact nonadiabatic correction in the adiabatic approximation. A necessary and sufficient condition that leads to adiabatic evolution with geometric phases is provided, and we determine that in the adiabatic evolution, while the eigenstates are slowly varying, the eigenenergies and degeneracy of the Hamiltonian can change rapidly. We exemplify this result by the example of the adiabatic evolution driven by parametrized pulse sequences. For driving fields that are rotating slowly with the same average energy and evolution path, fast modulation fields can have smaller nonadiabatic errors than obtained under the traditional approach with a constant amplitude.

  8. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab`s set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions.

  9. Domain 3 of Hepatitis C Core Protein is Sufficient for Intracellular Lipid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Jhaveri, Ravi; Qiang, Guan; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide with steatosis, or “fatty liver”, being a frequent histologic finding. In previous work, we identified sequence polymorphisms within domain 3 (d3) of genotype 3 HCV Core protein that correlated with steatosis and in vitro lipid accumulation. In this study, we investigated the sufficiency of d3 to promote lipid accumulation, the role of HCV genotype in d3 lipid accumulation and the subcellular distribution of d3. Methods Stable cell lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions with HCV Core d3 from genotype 3 steatosis (d3S), non-steatosis (d3NS) and genotype 1 (d3G1) isolates were analyzed by immunofluorescence (IF), Oil Red O (ORO) staining and triglyceride (TG) quantitation Results Cells expressing d3S had significantly more ORO than d3NS or d3G1 cells (p values: 0.02 and <0.0001 respectively) as well as TG (p=0.03 and 0.003 respectively). IF analysis showed domain 3 does not co-localize to lipid droplets but partially co-localizes to the Golgi. Conclusions Our results suggest that HCV Core d3 is sufficient to mediate the accumulation of lipid by a mechanism that is independent of domains 1 and 2. Our results also suggest that altered lipid trafficking may be involved. PMID:19852667

  10. Spindle assembly checkpoint is sufficient for complete Cdc20 sequestering in mitotic control.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Bashar

    2015-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint assembly (SAC) ensures genome fidelity by temporarily delaying anaphase onset, until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle. The SAC delays mitotic progression by preventing activation of the ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) or cyclosome; whose activation by Cdc20 is required for sister-chromatid separation marking the transition into anaphase. The mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which contains Cdc20 as a subunit, binds stably to the APC/C. Compelling evidence by Izawa and Pines (Nature 2014; 10.1038/nature13911) indicates that the MCC can inhibit a second Cdc20 that has already bound and activated the APC/C. Whether or not MCC per se is sufficient to fully sequester Cdc20 and inhibit APC/C remains unclear. Here, a dynamic model for SAC regulation in which the MCC binds a second Cdc20 was constructed. This model is compared to the MCC, and the MCC-and-BubR1 (dual inhibition of APC) core model variants and subsequently validated with experimental data from the literature. By using ordinary nonlinear differential equations and spatial simulations, it is shown that the SAC works sufficiently to fully sequester Cdc20 and completely inhibit APC/C activity. This study highlights the principle that a systems biology approach is vital for molecular biology and could also be used for creating hypotheses to design future experiments. PMID:25977749

  11. Non-self-sufficiency as a primary outcome measure in ALS trials.

    PubMed

    Marin, Benoît; Bianchi, Elisa; Pupillo, Elisabetta; Lunetta, Christian; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Chiò, Adriano; Preux, Pierre Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to assess non-self-sufficiency (NSS) in ALS as an outcome measure in therapeutic trials. Using data from the control arm of two randomized trials and an observational study, associations between NSS (score ≤2 in the ALSFRS-R items for swallowing, cutting food and handling utensils, or walking) and the total ALSFRS-R score, forced vital capacity (FVC), and survival at selected time-points until death or 48 weeks, were assessed. These measures were used as surrogates of relevant functional impairment. Of 82 self-sufficient (SS) patients at baseline, 32 (39.0%) became NSS at four weeks and increased to 72 (87.8%) at the end of follow-up. A significant association was found between NSS, ALSFRS-R score and FVC at 24, 36 and 48 weeks. Thirty-four subjects died (41.5%). Compared to SS patients (median survival, 27.9 months), individuals becoming NSS at four weeks were at increased risk to die (median survival, 23.6 months, p = 0.02). NSS status at four weeks predicted survival even after adjustment for ALSFRS-R total score, age, gender, site of onset, disease duration, BMI, and FVC. 'Walking' was the only predictor of survival when adjusting for all covariates. In conclusion, NSS status is a possible endpoint to investigate short-term efficacy of treatments of ALS. PMID:26470831

  12. Plasma membrane restricted RhoGEF activity is sufficient for RhoA-mediated actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    van Unen, Jakobus; Reinhard, Nathalie R.; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I.; Postma, Marten; Gadella, Theodorus W.J.; Goedhart, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA is involved in cell morphology and migration. RhoA activity is tightly regulated in time and space and depends on guanine exchange factors (GEFs). However, the kinetics and subcellular localization of GEF activity towards RhoA are poorly defined. To study the mechanism underlying the spatiotemporal control of RhoA activity by GEFs, we performed single cell imaging with an improved FRET sensor reporting on the nucleotide loading state of RhoA. By employing the FRET sensor we show that a plasma membrane located RhoGEF, p63RhoGEF, can rapidly activate RhoA through endogenous GPCRs and that localized RhoA activity at the cell periphery correlates with actin polymerization. Moreover, synthetic recruitment of the catalytic domain derived from p63RhoGEF to the plasma membrane, but not to the Golgi apparatus, is sufficient to activate RhoA. The synthetic system enables local activation of endogenous RhoA and effectively induces actin polymerization and changes in cellular morphology. Together, our data demonstrate that GEF activity at the plasma membrane is sufficient for actin polymerization via local RhoA signaling. PMID:26435194

  13. Attended but unseen: visual attention is not sufficient for visual awareness.

    PubMed

    Kentridge, R W; Nijboer, T C W; Heywood, C A

    2008-02-12

    Does any one psychological process give rise to visual awareness? One candidate is selective attention-when we attend to something it seems we always see it. But if attention can selectively enhance our response to an unseen stimulus then attention cannot be a sufficient precondition for awareness. Kentridge, Heywood & Weiskrantz [Kentridge, R. W., Heywood, C. A., & Weiskrantz, L. (1999). Attention without awareness in blindsight. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 266, 1805-1811; Kentridge, R. W., Heywood, C. A., & Weiskrantz, L. (2004). Spatial attention speeds discrimination without awareness in blindsight. Neuropsychologia, 42, 831-835.] demonstrated just such a dissociation in the blindsight subject GY. Here, we test whether the dissociation generalizes to the normal population. We presented observers with pairs of coloured discs, each masked by the subsequent presentation of a coloured annulus. The discs acted as primes, speeding discrimination of the colour of the annulus when they matched in colour and slowing it when they differed. We show that the location of attention modulated the size of this priming effect. However, the primes were rendered invisible by metacontrast-masking and remained unseen despite being attended. Visual attention could therefore facilitate processing of an invisible target and cannot, therefore, be a sufficient precondition for visual awareness. PMID:18237752

  14. The Promoter of the Cereal VERNALIZATION1 Gene Is Sufficient for Transcriptional Induction by Prolonged Cold

    PubMed Central

    Casao, M. Cristina; Greenup, Aaron A.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) gene of temperate cereals is transcriptionally activated by prolonged cold during winter (vernalization) to promote flowering. To investigate the mechanisms controlling induction of VRN1 by prolonged cold, different regions of the VRN1 gene were fused to the GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) reporter and expression of the resulting gene constructs was assayed in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare). A 2 kb segment of the promoter of VRN1 was sufficient for GFP expression in the leaves and shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. Fluorescence increased at the shoot apex prior to inflorescence initiation and was subsequently maintained in the developing inflorescence. The promoter was also sufficient for low-temperature induction of GFP expression. A naturally occurring insertion in the proximal promoter, which is associated with elevated VRN1 expression and early flowering in some spring wheats, did not abolish induction of VRN1 transcription by prolonged cold, however. A translational fusion of the promoter and transcribed regions of VRN1 to GFP, VRN1::GFP, was localised to nuclei of cells at the shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. The distribution of VRN1::GFP at the shoot apex was similar to the expression pattern of the VRN1 promoter-GFP reporter gene. Fluorescence from the VRN1::GFP fusion protein increased in the developing leaves after prolonged cold treatment. These observations suggest that the promoter of VRN1 is targeted by mechanisms that trigger vernalization-induced flowering in economically important temperate cereal crops. PMID:22242122

  15. Knowledge of response location alone is not sufficient to generate social inhibition of return.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Timothy N; Manzone, Joseph; McDougall, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has revealed that the inhibition of return (IOR) effect emerges when individuals respond to a target at the same location as their own previous response or the previous response of a co-actor. The latter social IOR effect is thought to occur because the observation of co-actor's response evokes a representation of that action in the observer and that the observation-evoked response code subsequently activates the inhibitory mechanisms underlying IOR. The present study was conducted to determine if knowledge of the co-actor's response alone is sufficient to evoke social IOR. Pairs of participants completed responses to targets that appeared at different button locations. Button contact generated location-contingent auditory stimuli (high and low tones in Experiment 1 and colour words in Experiment 2). In the Full condition, the observer saw the response and heard the auditory stimuli. In the Auditory Only condition, the observer did not see the co-actor's response, but heard the auditory stimuli generated via button contact to indicate response endpoint. It was found that, although significant individual and social IOR effects emerged in the Full conditions, there were no social IOR effects in the Auditory Only conditions. These findings suggest that knowledge of the co-actor's response alone via auditory information is not sufficient to activate the inhibitory processes leading to IOR. The activation of the mechanisms that lead to social IOR seems to be dependent on processing channels that code the spatial characteristics of action. PMID:25463556

  16. Epidermal jasmonate perception is sufficient for all aspects of jasmonate-mediated male fertility in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Jeremy B; Browse, John

    2016-03-01

    Jasmonate (JA) signaling is essential for several environmental responses and reproductive development in many plant species. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the most obvious phenotype of JA biosynthetic and perception mutants is profound sporophytic male sterility characterized by failure of stamen filament elongation, severe delay of anther dehiscence and pollen inviability. The site of action of JA in the context of reproductive development has been discussed, but the ideas have not been tested experimentally. To this end we used targeted expression of a COI1-YFP transgene in the coi1-1 mutant background. As COI1 is an essential component of the JA co-receptor complex, the null coi1-1 mutant is male sterile due to lack of JA perception. We show that expression of COI1-YFP in the epidermis of the stamen filament and anther in coi1 mutant plants is sufficient to rescue filament elongation, anther dehiscence and pollen viability. In contrast, filament expression alone or expression in the tapetum do not restore dehiscence and pollen viability. These results demonstrate that epidermal JA perception is sufficient for anther function and pollen viability, and suggest the presence of a JA-dependent non-autonomous signal produced in the anther epidermis to synchronize both anther dehiscence and pollen maturation. PMID:26833563

  17. Efficient AID targeting of switch regions is not sufficient for optimal class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Bonaud, Amélie; Lechouane, Fabien; Le Noir, Sandrine; Monestier, Olivier; Cogné, Michel; Sirac, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Antibody affinity maturation relies on activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) loci. Class switch recombination (CSR) can in parallel occur between AID-targeted, transcribed, spliced and repetitive switch (S) regions. AID thus initiates not only mutations but also double-strand breaks (DSBs). What governs the choice between those two outcomes remains uncertain. Here we explore whether insertion of transcribed intronic S regions in a locus (Igκ) strongly recruiting AID is sufficient for efficient CSR. Although strongly targeted by AID and carrying internal deletions, the knocked-in S regions only undergo rare CSR-like events. This model confirms S regions as exquisite SHM targets, extending AID activity far from transcription initiation sites, and shows that such spliced and repetitive AID targets are not sufficient by themselves for CSR. Beyond transcription and AID recruitment, additional IgH elements are thus needed for CSR, restricting this hazardous gene remodelling to IgH loci. PMID:26146363

  18. Entropy of Quantum Dynamical Systems and Sufficient Families in Orthomodular Lattices with Bayessian State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mona, Khare; Shraddha, Roy

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to study the entropy hs(Φ) of a quantum dynamical systems Φ = (L,s,phi), where s is a bayessian state on an orthomodular lattice L. Having introduced the notion of entropy hs(phi,Script A) of partition Script A of a Boolean algebra B with respect to a state s and a state preserving homomorphism phi, we prove a few results on that, define the entropy of a dynamical system hs(Φ), and show its invariance. The concept of sufficient families is also given and we establish that hs(Φ) comes out to be equal to the supremum of hs(phi,Script A), where Script A varies over any sufficient family. The present theory has then been extended to the quantum dynamical system (L,s,phi), which as an effect of the theory of commutators and Bell inequalities can equivalently be replaced by the dynamical system (B,s0,phi), where B is a Boolean algebra and s0 is a state on B.

  19. The promoter of the cereal VERNALIZATION1 gene is sufficient for transcriptional induction by prolonged cold.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peral, Maria M; Oliver, Sandra N; Casao, M Cristina; Greenup, Aaron A; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) gene of temperate cereals is transcriptionally activated by prolonged cold during winter (vernalization) to promote flowering. To investigate the mechanisms controlling induction of VRN1 by prolonged cold, different regions of the VRN1 gene were fused to the GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) reporter and expression of the resulting gene constructs was assayed in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare). A 2 kb segment of the promoter of VRN1 was sufficient for GFP expression in the leaves and shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. Fluorescence increased at the shoot apex prior to inflorescence initiation and was subsequently maintained in the developing inflorescence. The promoter was also sufficient for low-temperature induction of GFP expression. A naturally occurring insertion in the proximal promoter, which is associated with elevated VRN1 expression and early flowering in some spring wheats, did not abolish induction of VRN1 transcription by prolonged cold, however. A translational fusion of the promoter and transcribed regions of VRN1 to GFP, VRN1::GFP, was localised to nuclei of cells at the shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. The distribution of VRN1::GFP at the shoot apex was similar to the expression pattern of the VRN1 promoter-GFP reporter gene. Fluorescence from the VRN1::GFP fusion protein increased in the developing leaves after prolonged cold treatment. These observations suggest that the promoter of VRN1 is targeted by mechanisms that trigger vernalization-induced flowering in economically important temperate cereal crops. PMID:22242122

  20. Increasing Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis is Sufficient to Reduce Anxiety and Depression-Like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alexis S; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René

    2015-09-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by antidepressants, and is required for some of their behavioral effects. However, it remains unclear whether expanding the population of adult-born neurons is sufficient to affect anxiety and depression-related behavior. Here, we use an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax is deleted from neural stem cells and their progeny in the adult brain, and thereby increases adult neurogenesis. We find no effects on baseline anxiety and depression-related behavior; however, we find that increasing adult neurogenesis is sufficient to reduce anxiety and depression-related behaviors in mice treated chronically with corticosterone (CORT), a mouse model of stress. Thus, neurogenesis differentially affects behavior under baseline conditions and in a model of chronic stress. Moreover, we find no effect of increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, either at baseline or following chronic CORT administration, suggesting that increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis can affect anxiety and depression-related behavior through a mechanism independent of the HPA axis. The use of future techniques to specifically inhibit BAX in the hippocampus could be used to augment adult neurogenesis, and may therefore represent a novel strategy to promote antidepressant-like behavioral effects. PMID:25833129

  1. Spindle assembly checkpoint is sufficient for complete Cdc20 sequestering in mitotic control

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Bashar

    2015-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint assembly (SAC) ensures genome fidelity by temporarily delaying anaphase onset, until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle. The SAC delays mitotic progression by preventing activation of the ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) or cyclosome; whose activation by Cdc20 is required for sister-chromatid separation marking the transition into anaphase. The mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which contains Cdc20 as a subunit, binds stably to the APC/C. Compelling evidence by Izawa and Pines (Nature 2014; 10.1038/nature13911) indicates that the MCC can inhibit a second Cdc20 that has already bound and activated the APC/C. Whether or not MCC per se is sufficient to fully sequester Cdc20 and inhibit APC/C remains unclear. Here, a dynamic model for SAC regulation in which the MCC binds a second Cdc20 was constructed. This model is compared to the MCC, and the MCC-and-BubR1 (dual inhibition of APC) core model variants and subsequently validated with experimental data from the literature. By using ordinary nonlinear differential equations and spatial simulations, it is shown that the SAC works sufficiently to fully sequester Cdc20 and completely inhibit APC/C activity. This study highlights the principle that a systems biology approach is vital for molecular biology and could also be used for creating hypotheses to design future experiments. PMID:25977749

  2. High-rate nitrogen removal by the Anammox process with a sufficient inorganic carbon source.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachun; Zhang, Li; Fukuzaki, Yasuhiro; Hira, Daisuke; Furukawa, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    This study focused on high-rate nitrogen removal by the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process with a sufficient inorganic carbon (IC) source. Experiments were carried out in an up-flow column Anammox reactor fed with synthetic inorganic wastewater for 110 days. The IC source was added into the influent tank in the form of bicarbonate. The results confirmed the positive impact of inorganic matter on stimulating Anammox activity. After the addition of sufficient IC, the nitrogen removal rate sharply increased from 5.2 to 11.8 kg-Nm(-3)day(-1) within only 32 days. NO(2)-N inhibition was not observed even at NO(2)-N concentrations greater than 460 mgN/L, indicating the enriched Anammox consortium adapted to high NO(2)-N concentrations. The ratio of NO(2)-N removal, NO(3)-N production and NH(4)-N removal for the reactor was correspondingly changed from 1.21:0.21:1 to 1.24:0.18:1. Simultaneously, the sludge volume index of the Anammox granules decreased markedly from 36.8 to 21.5 mL/g, which was attributed to the implementation of proper operational strategy. In addition, DNA analysis revealed that a shift from the KSU-1 strain to the KU2 strain occurred in the Anammox community. PMID:20709538

  3. Human papillomavirus causes an angiogenic switch in keratinocytes which is sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Li, F.; Mead, L.; White, H.; Walker, J.; Ingram, D.A.; Roman, A.

    2007-10-10

    One of the requirements for tumor growth is the ability to recruit a blood supply, a process known as angiogenesis. Angiogenesis begins early in the progression of cervical disease from mild to severe dysplasia and on to invasive cancer. We have previously reported that expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 (HPV16 E6E7) proteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) decreases expression of two inhibitors and increases expression of two angiogenic inducers [Toussaint-Smith, E., Donner, D.B., Roman, A., 2004. Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes is sufficient to alter the expression of angiogenic factors. Oncogene 23, 2988-2995]. Here we report that HPV-induced early changes in the keratinocyte phenotype are sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior both in vitro and in vivo. Conditioned media from HPV16 E6E7 expressing HFKs as well as from human cervical keratinocytes containing the intact HPV16 were able to stimulate proliferation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, introduction of the conditioned media into immunocompetent mice using a Matrigel plug model resulted in a clear angiogenic response. These novel data support the hypothesis that HPV proteins contribute not only to the uncontrolled keratinocyte growth seen following HPV infection but also to the angiogenic response needed for tumor formation.

  4. Necessary and sufficient liveness condition of GS3PR Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, GaiYun; Barkaoui, Kamel

    2015-05-01

    Structural analysis is one of the most important and efficient methods to investigate the behaviour of Petri nets. Liveness is a significant behavioural property of Petri nets. Siphons, as structural objects of a Petri net, are closely related to its liveness. Many deadlock control policies for flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) modelled by Petri nets are implemented via siphon control. Most of the existing methods design liveness-enforcing supervisors by adding control places for siphons based on their controllability conditions. To compute a liveness-enforcing supervisor with as much as permissive behaviour, it is both theoretically and practically significant to find an exact controllability condition for siphons. However, the existing conditions, max, max‧, and max″-controllability of siphons are all overly restrictive and generally sufficient only. This paper develops a new condition called max*-controllability of the siphons in generalised systems of simple sequential processes with resources (GS3PR), which are a net subclass that can model many real-world automated manufacturing systems. We show that a GS3PR is live if all its strict minimal siphons (SMS) are max*-controlled. Compared with the existing conditions, i.e., max-, max‧-, and max″-controllability of siphons, max*-controllability of the SMS is not only sufficient but also necessary. An example is used to illustrate the proposed method.

  5. Eyes only? Perceiving eye contact is neither sufficient nor necessary for attentional capture by face direction.

    PubMed

    Böckler, Anne; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    Direct eye contact and motion onset both constitute powerful cues that capture attention. Recent research suggests that (social) gaze and (non-social) motion onset influence information processing in parallel, even when combined as sudden onset direct gaze cues (i.e., faces suddenly establishing eye contact). The present study investigated the role of eye visibility for attention capture by these sudden onset face cues. To this end, face direction was manipulated (away or towards onlooker) while faces had closed eyes (eliminating visibility of eyes, Experiment 1), wore sunglasses (eliminating visible eyes, but allowing for the expectation of eyes to be open, Experiment 2), and were inverted with visible eyes (disrupting the integration of eyes and faces, Experiment 3). Participants classified targets appearing on one of four faces. Initially, two faces were oriented towards participants and two faces were oriented away from participants. Simultaneous to target presentation, one averted face became directed and one directed face became averted. Attention capture by face direction (i.e., facilitation for faces directed towards participants) was absent when eyes were closed, but present when faces wore sunglasses. Sudden onset direct faces can, hence, induce attentional capture, even when lacking eye cues. Inverted faces, by contrast, did not elicit attentional capture. Thus, when eyes cannot be integrated into a holistic face representation they are not sufficient to capture attention. Overall, the results suggest that visibility of eyes is neither necessary nor sufficient for the sudden direct face effect. PMID:26245915

  6. Mechanism-Based QSAR Modeling of Skin Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Dearden, J C; Hewitt, M; Roberts, D W; Enoch, S J; Rowe, P H; Przybylak, K R; Vaughan-Williams, G D; Smith, M L; Pillai, G G; Katritzky, A R

    2015-10-19

    Many chemicals can induce skin sensitization, and there is a pressing need for non-animal methods to give a quantitative indication of potency. Using two large published data sets of skin sensitizers, we have allocated each sensitizing chemical to one of 10 mechanistic categories and then developed good QSAR models for the seven categories that have a sufficient number of chemicals to allow modeling. Both internal and external validation checks showed that each model had good predictivity. PMID:26382665

  7. Sensitivity Analysis in Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M. (Compiler); Haftka, Raphael T. (Compiler)

    1987-01-01

    The symposium proceedings presented focused primarily on sensitivity analysis of structural response. However, the first session, entitled, General and Multidisciplinary Sensitivity, focused on areas such as physics, chemistry, controls, and aerodynamics. The other four sessions were concerned with the sensitivity of structural systems modeled by finite elements. Session 2 dealt with Static Sensitivity Analysis and Applications; Session 3 with Eigenproblem Sensitivity Methods; Session 4 with Transient Sensitivity Analysis; and Session 5 with Shape Sensitivity Analysis.

  8. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  9. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  10. 2D-Omnidirectional Hard-X-Ray Scattering Sensitivity in a Single Shot.

    PubMed

    Kagias, Matias; Wang, Zhentian; Villanueva-Perez, Pablo; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Stampanoni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    X-ray scattering imaging can provide complementary information to conventional absorption based radiographic imaging about the unresolved microstructures of a sample. The scattering signal can be accessed with various methods based on coherent illumination, which span from self-imaging to speckle scanning. The directional sensitivity of the existing real space imaging methods is limited to a few directions on the imaging plane and requires scanning of the optical components, or the rotation of either the sample or the imaging setup, in order to cover the full range of possible scattering directions. In this Letter the authors propose a new method that allows the simultaneous acquisition of scattering images in all possible directions in a single shot. This is achieved by a specialized phase grating and a detector with sufficient spatial resolution to record the generated interference fringe. The structural length scale sensitivity of the system can be tuned by varying its geometry for a fixed grating design. Taking into account ongoing developments in the field of compact x-ray sources that allow high brightness and sufficient spatial coherence, the applicability of omnidirectional scattering imaging in industrial and medical settings is boosted significantly. PMID:26991177

  11. 2D-Omnidirectional Hard-X-Ray Scattering Sensitivity in a Single Shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagias, Matias; Wang, Zhentian; Villanueva-Perez, Pablo; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Stampanoni, Marco

    2016-03-01

    X-ray scattering imaging can provide complementary information to conventional absorption based radiographic imaging about the unresolved microstructures of a sample. The scattering signal can be accessed with various methods based on coherent illumination, which span from self-imaging to speckle scanning. The directional sensitivity of the existing real space imaging methods is limited to a few directions on the imaging plane and requires scanning of the optical components, or the rotation of either the sample or the imaging setup, in order to cover the full range of possible scattering directions. In this Letter the authors propose a new method that allows the simultaneous acquisition of scattering images in all possible directions in a single shot. This is achieved by a specialized phase grating and a detector with sufficient spatial resolution to record the generated interference fringe. The structural length scale sensitivity of the system can be tuned by varying its geometry for a fixed grating design. Taking into account ongoing developments in the field of compact x-ray sources that allow high brightness and sufficient spatial coherence, the applicability of omnidirectional scattering imaging in industrial and medical settings is boosted significantly.

  12. A Hybrid Digital-Signature and Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Electronic Documents

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Muhammad N.; Alginahi, Yasser M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints. PMID:25254247

  13. A hybrid digital-signature and zero-watermarking approach for authentication and protection of sensitive electronic documents.

    PubMed

    Tayan, Omar; Kabir, Muhammad N; Alginahi, Yasser M

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints. PMID:25254247

  14. Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-09-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West and East Antarctica results in a threshold increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources. PMID:26601273

  15. An Arntl2-Driven Secretome Enables Lung Adenocarcinoma Metastatic Self-Sufficiency.

    PubMed

    Brady, Jennifer J; Chuang, Chen-Hua; Greenside, Peyton G; Rogers, Zoë N; Murray, Christopher W; Caswell, Deborah R; Hartmann, Ursula; Connolly, Andrew J; Sweet-Cordero, E Alejandro; Kundaje, Anshul; Winslow, Monte M

    2016-05-01

    The ability of cancer cells to establish lethal metastatic lesions requires the survival and expansion of single cancer cells at distant sites. The factors controlling the clonal growth ability of individual cancer cells remain poorly understood. Here, we show that high expression of the transcription factor ARNTL2 predicts poor lung adenocarcinoma patient outcome. Arntl2 is required for metastatic ability in vivo and clonal growth in cell culture. Arntl2 drives metastatic self-sufficiency by orchestrating the expression of a complex pro-metastatic secretome. We identify Clock as an Arntl2 partner and functionally validate the matricellular protein Smoc2 as a pro-metastatic secreted factor. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms that enable single cancer cells to form allochthonous tumors in foreign tissue environments. PMID:27150038

  16. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform.

  17. Senseless, a Zn finger transcription factor, is necessary and sufficient for sensory organ development in Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolo, R.; Abbott, L. A.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The senseless (sens) gene is required for proper development of most cell types of the embryonic and adult peripheral nervous system (PNS) of Drosophila. Sens is a nuclear protein with four Zn fingers that is expressed and required in the sensory organ precursors (SOP) for proper proneural gene expression. Ectopic expression of Sens in many ectodermal cells causes induction of PNS external sensory organ formation and is able to recreate an ectopic proneural field. Hence, sens is both necessary and sufficient for PNS development. Our data indicate that proneural genes activate sens expression. Sens is then in turn required to further activate and maintain proneural gene expression. This feedback mechanism is essential for selective enhancement and maintenance of proneural gene expression in the SOPs.

  18. The bag-of-frames approach: A not so sufficient model for urban soundscapes.

    PubMed

    Lagrange, Mathieu; Lafay, Grégoire; Défréville, Boris; Aucouturier, Jean-Julien

    2015-11-01

    The "bag-of-frames" (BOF) approach, which encodes audio signals as the long-term statistical distribution of short-term spectral features, is commonly regarded as an effective and sufficient way to represent environmental sound recordings (soundscapes). The present paper describes a conceptual replication of a use of the BOF approach in a seminal article using several other soundscape datasets, with results strongly questioning the adequacy of the BOF approach for the task. As demonstrated in this paper, the good accuracy originally reported with BOF likely resulted from a particularly permissive dataset with low within-class variability. Soundscape modeling, therefore, may not be the closed case it was once thought to be. PMID:26627819

  19. Combustion of available fossil-fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, R.; Levermann, A.; Ridgwell, A.; Caldeira, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 meters in global sea-level rise. Here we show in simulations with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil-fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil-fuel emissions of 10 000 GtC, Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 meters per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West- and East Antarctica results in a threshold-increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources.

  20. AGRP neurons are sufficient to orchestrate feeding behavior rapidly and without training

    PubMed Central

    Aponte, Yexica; Atasoy, Deniz; Sternson, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    Two intermingled hypothalamic neuron populations, specified by expression of agouti-related peptide (AGRP) or pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), positively and negatively influence feeding behavior respectively, possibly by reciprocally regulating downstream melanocortin receptors. However, the sufficiency of these neurons to control behavior, and the relationship of their activity to the magnitude and dynamics of feeding are unknown. To measure this, we used channelrhodopsin-2 for cell type-specific photostimulation. Activation of only 800 AGRP neurons in mice evoked voracious feeding within minutes. The behavioral response increased with photoexcitable neuron number, photostimulation frequency, and stimulus duration. Conversely, POMC neuron stimulation reduced food intake and body weight, which required melanocortin receptor signaling. However, AGRP neuron-mediated feeding was not dependent on suppressing this melanocortin pathway, indicating that AGRP neurons directly engage feeding circuits. Furthermore, feeding was evoked selectively over drinking without training or prior photostimulus exposure, which suggests that AGRP neurons serve a dedicated role coordinating this complex behavior. PMID:21209617

  1. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmore, Lars; Hadaegh, Fred Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of attitude estimation in fractionated spacecraft clusters. Each module in the cluster may have either a star-tracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. Using results in nonlinear ob- servability theory, we provide graph-theoretic sufficient conditions for the attitude of every module to be observable. In particular we show that the attitude of every module in the cluster can be observed if every module has either a star tracker with non-collinear stars, or there is a path through the sensing network from a module with a star tracker to the module without a star tracker, and each of the relative measurements along the path has either multiple non-collinear beacons or a single beacon that is not parallel to the rotation vector of the target module.

  2. Policy Capacity Is Necessary but Not Sufficient Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Gen, Sheldon; Wright, Amy Conley

    2015-01-01

    Policy capacity focuses on the managerial and organizational abilities to inform policy decisions with sound research and analysis, and facilitate policy implementation with operational efficiency. It stems from a view of the policy process that is rational and positivistic, in which optimal policy choices can be identified, selected, and implemented with objectivity. By itself, however, policy capacity neglects the political aspects of policy-making that can dominate the process, even in health policies. These technical capabilities are certainly needed to advance reforms in health policies, but they are not sufficient. Instead, they must be complemented with public engagement and policy advocacy to ensure support from the public that policies are meant to serve. PMID:26673469

  3. Sufficiency of care in disasters: ventilation, ventilator triage, and the misconception of guideline-driven treatment.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Griffin

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the management of ventilatory failure in disaster settings where clinical needs overwhelm available resources. An ethically defensible approach in such settings will adopt a "sufficiency of care" perspective that is: (1) adaptive, (2) resource-driven, and (3) responsive to the values of populations being served. Detailed, generic, antecedently written guidelines for "ventilator triage" or other management issues typically are of limited value, and may even impede ethical disaster response if they result in rescuers' clumsily interpreting events through the lens of the guideline, rather than customizing tactics to the actual context. Especially concerning is the tendency of some expert planners to mistakenly assume that medical treatment of respiratory failure: (1) always requires full-feature mechanical ventilators, (2) will always occur in hospitals, and (3) can be planned in advance without sophisticated public consultation about likely ethical dilemmas. PMID:21313863

  4. A signal sequence is sufficient for green fluorescent protein to be routed to regulated secretory granules.

    PubMed

    El Meskini, R; Jin, L; Marx, R; Bruzzaniti, A; Lee, J; Emeson, R; Mains, R

    2001-02-01

    To investigate trafficking in neuroendocrine cells, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tags were fused to various portions of the preproneuropeptide Y (NPY) precursor. Two neuroendocrine cell lines, AtT-20 corticotrope tumor cells and PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells, along with primary anterior pituitary cells, were examined. Expression of chimeric constructs did not disrupt trafficking or regulated secretion of endogenous ACTH and prohormone convertase 1 in AtT-20 cells. Western blot and immunocytochemical analyses demonstrated that the chimeric constructs remained intact, as long as the Lys-Arg cleavage site within preproNPY was deleted. GFP was stored in, and released from, regulated granules in cells expressing half of the NPY precursor fused to GFP, and also in cells in which only the signal sequence of preproNPY was fused to GFP. Thus, in neuroendocrine cells, entering the lumen of the secretory pathway is sufficient to target GFP to regulated secretory granules. PMID:11159860

  5. Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West and East Antarctica results in a threshold increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources. PMID:26601273

  6. The medial prefrontal cortex is both necessary and sufficient for the acquisition of conditioned defeat.

    PubMed

    Markham, Chris M; Luckett, Cloe A; Huhman, Kim L

    2012-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key component of a neural circuit mediating memory formation for emotionally relevant stimuli in an ethologically-based model of conditioned fear, termed conditioned defeat (CD). In this model, subjects are socially defeated by a larger, more aggressive hamster. Upon subsequent exposure to a smaller, non-aggressive intruder, the defeated animal will show high levels of submissive behaviors and fail to defend its territory. Here we examined whether the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an area with extensive connections with the amygdala, is also a component of this circuit. Temporary inactivation of the mPFC using muscimol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, significantly enhanced the acquisition but not expression of CD, while blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the mPFC using bicuculline, a GABA(A) antagonist, impaired acquisition of CD. Given these findings, we next sought to test whether plasticity related to the defeat experience occurs in the mPFC. We infused anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, in the mPFC but this treatment did not alter the acquisition of CD. In our final experiment, we demonstrated that bicuculline failed to alter the acquisition of CD. Together, these results demonstrate for the first time that while the mPFC is both necessary and sufficient for the acquisition of CD, it does not appear to mediate plasticity related to the defeat experience. In contrast, while plasticity underlying CD does appear to occur in the BLA, GABAergic receptor inhibition in the BLA is not sufficient to enhance CD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:22001285

  7. Pancreatic GLP-1 receptor activation is sufficient for incretin control of glucose metabolism in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Benjamin J.; Li, Yazhou; Kwan, Edwin; Brown, Theodore J.; Gaisano, Herbert; Drucker, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) circulates at low levels and acts as an incretin hormone, potentiating glucose-dependent insulin secretion from islet β cells. GLP-1 also modulates gastric emptying and engages neural circuits in the portal region and CNS that contribute to GLP-1 receptor–dependent (GLP-1R–dependent) regulation of glucose homeostasis. To elucidate the importance of pancreatic GLP-1R signaling for glucose homeostasis, we generated transgenic mice that expressed the human GLP-1R in islets and pancreatic ductal cells (Pdx1-hGLP1R:Glp1r–/– mice). Transgene expression restored GLP-1R–dependent stimulation of cAMP and Akt phosphorylation in isolated islets, conferred GLP-1R–dependent stimulation of β cell proliferation, and was sufficient for restoration of GLP-1–stimulated insulin secretion in perifused islets. Systemic GLP-1R activation with the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 had no effect on food intake, hindbrain c-fos expression, or gastric emptying but improved glucose tolerance and stimulated insulin secretion in Pdx1-hGLP1R:Glp1r–/– mice. i.c.v. GLP-1R blockade with the antagonist exendin(9–39) impaired glucose tolerance in WT mice but had no effect in Pdx1-hGLP1R:Glp1r–/– mice. Nevertheless, transgenic expression of the pancreatic GLP-1R was sufficient to normalize both oral and i.p. glucose tolerance in Glp1r–/– mice. These findings illustrate that low levels of endogenous GLP-1 secreted from gut endocrine cells are capable of augmenting glucoregulatory activity via pancreatic GLP-1Rs independent of communication with neural pathways. PMID:22182839

  8. Heterologously Expressed Staphylococcus aureus Fibronectin-Binding Proteins Are Sufficient for Invasion of Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Bhanu; Francois, Patrice; Que, Yok-Ai; Hussain, Muzaffar; Heilmann, Christine; Moreillon, Philippe; Lew, Daniel; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Peters, Georg; Herrmann, Mathias

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invasion of mammalian cells, including epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cells, critically depends on fibronectin bridging between S. aureus fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and the host fibronectin receptor integrin α5β1 (B. Sinha et al., Cell. Microbiol. 1:101–117, 1999). However, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient for S. aureus invasion. To address this question, various S. aureus adhesins (FnBPA, FnBPB, and clumping factor [ClfA]) were expressed in Staphylococcus carnosus and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. Both noninvasive gram-positive microorganisms are genetically distinct from S. aureus, lack any known S. aureus surface protein, and do not bind fibronectin. Transformants of S. carnosus and L. lactis harboring plasmids coding for various S. aureus surface proteins (FnBPA, FnBPB, and ClfA) functionally expressed adhesins (as determined by bacterial clumping in plasma, specific latex agglutination, Western ligand blotting, and binding to immobilized and soluble fibronectin). FnBPA or FnBPB but not of ClfA conferred invasiveness to S. carnosus and L. lactis. Invasion of 293 cells by transformants was comparable to that of strongly invasive S. aureus strain Cowan 1. Binding of soluble and immobilized fibronectin paralleled invasiveness, demonstrating that the amount of accessible surface FnBPs is rate limiting. Thus, S. aureus FnBPs confer invasiveness to noninvasive, apathogenic gram-positive cocci. Furthermore, FnBP-coated polystyrene beads were internalized by 293 cells, demonstrating that FnBPs are sufficient for invasion of host cells without the need for (S. aureus-specific) coreceptors. PMID:11083807

  9. RSL genes are sufficient for rhizoid system development in early diverging land plants.

    PubMed

    Jang, Geupil; Yi, Keke; Pires, Nuno D; Menand, Benoît; Dolan, Liam

    2011-06-01

    Land plants are anchored to their substratum from which essential inorganic nutrients are taken up. These functions are carried out by a system of rhizoids in early diverging groups of land plants, such as mosses, liverworts and hornworts. Physcomitrella patens RHD SIX-LIKE1 (PpRSL1) and PpRSL2 transcription factors are necessary for rhizoid development in mosses. Similar proteins, AtRHD6 and AtRSL1, control the development of root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Auxin positively regulates root hair development independently of AtRHD6 and AtRSL1 in A. thaliana but the regulatory interactions between auxin and PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 are unknown. We show here that co-expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 is sufficient for the development of the rhizoid system in the moss P. patens; constitutive expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 converts developing leafy shoot axes (gametophores) into rhizoids. During wild-type development, PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 are expressed in the specialized cells that develop rhizoids, indicating that cell-specific expression of PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 is sufficient to promote rhizoid differentiation during wild-type P. patens development. In contrast to A. thaliana, auxin promotes rhizoid development by positively regulating PpRSL1 and PpRSL2 activity in P. patens. This indicates that even though the same genes control the development of root hairs and rhizoids, the regulation of this transcriptional network by auxin is different in these two species. This suggests that auxin might have controlled the development of the first land plant soil anchoring systems that evolved 465 million years ago by regulating the expression of RSL genes and that this regulatory network has changed since mosses and angiosperms last shared a common ancestor. PMID:21558375

  10. Overexpression of ERβ is sufficient to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Choa; Lee, YoungJoo

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We examined the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition. • DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels in PC3 cells. • DPN did not show additional effect in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. • Our study shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor (ER) β is predicted to play an important role in the prevention of breast cancer development and progression. We have previously shown that ERβ suppresses hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1-mediated transcription through aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) degradation via ubiquitination processes. In this study, we attempted to examine the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition in ERβ positive PC3 cells and ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. ERβ specific agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase activity in a similar fashion to estradiol in PC3 cells. We observed that DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels leading to an attenuation of hypoxia-induced hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter gene activation in PC3 cells. Treatment of DPN reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and co-treatment with ERβ specific antagonist PHTPP abrogated the effect in PC3 cells. We then examined the effect of DPN in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. HIF-1 transcriptional activity repression by ERβ was not further reduced by DPN, as examined by HRE-driven luciferase assays. Expression of ERβ significantly decreased VEGF secretion and ARNT expression under hypoxic conditions. However, DPN did not additionally affect this suppression in MCF-7 cells transfected with ERβ. This result shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression.

  11. Interaction of pneumolysin-sufficient and -deficient isogenic variants of Streptococcus pneumoniae with human respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Rayner, C F; Jackson, A D; Rutman, A; Dewar, A; Mitchell, T J; Andrew, P W; Cole, P J; Wilson, R

    1995-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, and pneumolysin, a hemolytic toxin, is thought to be an important virulence factor. We have studied the interaction of a pneumolysin-sufficient type II S. pneumoniae strain (PL+) and an otherwise identical pneumolysin-deficient derivative (PL-) with human respiratory mucosa in an organ culture with an air interface for up to 48 h. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) was measured by a photometric technique, and adherence to and invasion of the epithelium were assessed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. PL+ and PL- caused a progressive fall in CBF compared with the control which became significant (P < 0.01) at 24 h for PL+ and at 48 h for PL-. At 24 h, there was a significant increase in the percentage of the mucosa of the organ culture that was damaged for PL+ compared with the control (P < 0.01) and PL- (P < 0.02). At 48 h, there was a significant increase in mucosal damage for both PL+ (P < 0.005) and PL- (P < 0.05) compared with the control. At 24 and 48 h, PL+ and PL- adhered predominantly to mucus and damaged cells. PL+ infection alone caused separation of tight junctions between epithelial cells, and at 48 h PL+ cells were adherent to the separated edges of otherwise healthy unciliated cells. PL+ and PL- both caused damage to the epithelial cell ultrastructure. S. pneumoniae infection caused patchy damage to the respiratory mucosa and a lowered CBF. These changes were more severe and occurred earlier with the pneumolysin-sufficient variant. PMID:7822008

  12. Outflows and Bubbles in Taurus: Star-formation Feedback Sufficient to Maintain Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huixian; Li, Di; Qian, Lei; Xu, Duo; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Wu, Yuefang; Song, Yuzhe; Nan, Rendong

    2015-08-01

    We have identified outflows and bubbles in the Taurus molecular cloud based on the ˜100 deg2 Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) maps and the Spitzer young stellar object catalogs. In the main 44 deg2 area of Taurus, we found 55 outflows, of which 31 were previously unknown. We also found 37 bubbles in the entire 100 deg2 area of Taurus, none of which had been found previously. The total kinetic energy of the identified outflows is estimated to be ˜ 3.9× {10}45 erg, which is 1% of the cloud turbulent energy. The total kinetic energy of the detected bubbles is estimated to be ˜ 9.2× {10}46 erg, which is 29% of the turbulent energy of Taurus. The energy injection rate from the outflows is ˜ 1.3× {10}33 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, which is 0.4-2 times the dissipation rate of the cloud turbulence. The energy injection rate from bubbles is ˜ 6.4× {10}33 erg s-1, which is 2-10 times the turbulent dissipation rate of the cloud. The gravitational binding energy of the cloud is ˜ 1.5× {10}48 erg, that is, 385 and 16 times the energy of outflows and bubbles, respectively. We conclude that neither outflows nor bubbles can provide sufficient energy to balance the overall gravitational binding energy and the turbulent energy of Taurus. However, in the current epoch, stellar feedback is sufficient to maintain the observed turbulence in Taurus.

  13. Immune T lymphocyte to tumor cell adhesion. Magnesium sufficient, calcium insufficient

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The prelytic adhesion of immune cytolytic thymus-derived lymphocytes to specific antigen-bearing ascites tumor target cells has been studied. A new assay was used in which adhesions are permitted to form for 2.5 min; the cells are then dispersed to prevent further adhesion, and the predispersion adhesions are quantitated by subsequent 51Cr release from the tumor cells as a result of cytolytic activity of the adhering lymphocytes. There were the following new findings: (a) magnesium is sufficient to support optimal adhesion formation even when EGTA is added to remove contaminating traces of calcium; (b) calcium supports no adhesion formation when traces of contaminating magnesium are removed by pretreating the medium with a chelating ion exchange resin; (c) calcium synergizes with suboptimal magnesium, increasing the apparent adhesion-supporting potency of magnesium 20-fold in the presence of 50 microM calcium; (d) in the presence of optimal magnesium (2--4 mM), calcium has not effect on the properties of the adhesion by any of six criteria; and (e) manganese supports adhesion better than magnesium, and strontium is ineffective. A survey of previous literature indicates that these results are remarkably similar to the predominant pattern for nonimmunologic cell adhesion (e.g., fibroblasts) involving cells from a variety of tissues in late embryonic and adult avians and mammals. This suggests that a "magnesium sufficient, calcium insufficient" mechanism may be found among the latter types of cell adhesions when appropriately examined. Moreover, it seems that the present lymphocyte-tumor cell adhesion, although evoked by specific receptor-antigen recognition, relies predominantly on mechanisms common to nonimmunologic intercellular adhesion processes. PMID:6766945

  14. Darwin's passionate environmentalism or the dangerous fallacy of the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection' theory.

    PubMed

    Marsh, David

    2012-01-01

    Following his last edition of the Origin of Species in 1872, Darwin spent much of the rest of his life searching for possible mechanisms, such as the pangenes in the blood, which would communicate information from the environment to the genome. In each of his six editions of the 'Origin', he stated that there were two forces in evolution - natural selection and conditions of existence. Of the two, he claims that the latter is the more powerful. In so doing, he recognized that natural selection could only operate within the bounds of possibility, that is the environment. August Weismann claimed that conditions of existence had no place in evolution. His publication, the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection', was based on mutilation (cutting tails of rodents and watching the next generation grow tails), which has nothing to do with Darwin's concept of conditions of existence. Nonetheless, evolutionary biologists in general followed the line of the 'all sufficiency' theory and ignored Darwin's conditions of existence, which in other words means the environment. Natural selection has a weak predictive power as it is based on random events. However, the conditions of existence have, by contrast, strong predictive powers that can be tested. The environmental views of two of the greatest evolutionists, Lamarck and Darwin, have been consistently ignored by most evolution theorists who came after them, continuing for over 200 years. Looking at the fossil record through the eyes of Darwin's conditions of existence, not to mention the recent changes in height and shape over the last century, it is possible to draw important conclusions about the past and predictions of the future. With new knowledge of epigenetics, it is perhaps time that Darwin's conditions of existence were given a second hearing. PMID:22544777

  15. Connecting RESEARCH to PRACTICE: Knowing Who Is Proficient Isn't Always Sufficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gossin-Wilson, Will

    2009-01-01

    During the past decade, the percentage of proficient students (PPS) has become the primary indicator of school performance. Educators use the PPS to monitor changes in performance over time, compare performance across groups, and assess trends in achievement gaps. The PPS is relatively new, first used with the National Assessment of Educational…

  16. Evidence that cytosolic calcium increases are not sufficient to stimulate phospholipid scrambling in human T-lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Wurth, Georjeana A; Zweifach, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Phospholipid scrambling, the disruption of normal plasma-membrane asymmetry, occurs during apoptotic and necrotic cell death and during the activation of platelets and neutrophils. It is currently believed that phospholipid scrambling is triggered simply by increases in bulk cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. We have presented evidence previously that the styryl dye FM1-43 is sensitive to phospholipid scrambling in Jurkat human leukaemic T-lymphocytes. Here we have used FM1-43, in combination with fura 2 and the Ca(2+)-elevating agents ionomycin and thapsigargin, in imaging experiments to test the idea that increases in bulk cytosolic [Ca(2+)] stimulate scrambling. Intracellular Ca(2+) increases of approximately 2 microM accompanied ionomycin-stimulated scrambling in approximately 50% of cells, and scrambling occurred in >99% of cells in which intracellular Ca(2+) rose to 4 microM. Chelating intracellular Ca(2+) with bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid or EGTA suppressed both ionomycin-stimulated intra cellular Ca(2+) increases and scrambling, demonstrating that intracellular Ca(2+) increases are necessary for ionomycin-stimulated scrambling. However, elevating intracellular Ca(2+) to 2-4 microM with thapsigargin, a drug that depletes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and triggers Ca(2+) entry via Ca(2+)-release-activated Ca(2+) channels, did not trigger scrambling, as assessed with either FM1-43 or FITC-labelled annexin V. These results suggest that increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] are necessary but not sufficient to stimulate scrambling in lymphoyctes, and indicate that ionomycin has an additional effect that is required to stimulate scrambling. PMID:11879198

  17. Buying Years to Extinction: Is Compensatory Mitigation for Marine Bycatch a Sufficient Conservation Measure for Long-Lived Seabirds?

    PubMed Central

    Forero, Manuela G.; Oro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Along the lines of the ‘polluter pays principle’, it has recently been proposed that the local long-line fishing industry should fund eradication of terrestrial predators at seabird breeding colonies, as a compensatory measure for the bycatch caused by the fishing activity. The measure is economically sound, but a quantitative and reliable test of its biological efficacy has never been conducted. Here, we investigated the demographic consequences of predator eradication for Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, breeding in the Mediterranean, using a population model that integrates demographic rates estimated from individual life-history information with experimental measures of predation and habitat structure. We found that similar values of population growth rate can be obtained by different combinations of habitat characteristics, predator abundance and adult mortality, which explains the persistence of shearwater colonies in islands with introduced predators. Even so, given the empirically obtained values of survival, all combinations of predator abundance and habitat characteristics projected a decline in shearwater numbers. Perturbation analyses indicated that the value and the sensitivity of shearwater population growth rates were affected by all covariates considered and their interactions. A decrease in rat abundance delivered only a small increase in the population growth rate, whereas a change in adult survival (a parameter independent of rat abundance) had the strongest impact on population dynamics. When adult survival is low, rat eradication would allow us to “buy” years before extinction but does not reverse the process. Rat eradication can therefore be seen as an emergency measure if threats on adult survival are eliminated in the medium-term period. For species with low fecundity and long life expectancy, our results suggest that rat control campaigns are not a sufficient, self-standing measure to compensate the biological toll of long

  18. Buying years to extinction: is compensatory mitigation for marine bycatch a sufficient conservation measure for long-lived seabirds?

    PubMed

    Igual, José Manuel; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Jenouvrier, Stephanie; Forero, Manuela G; Oro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Along the lines of the 'polluter pays principle', it has recently been proposed that the local long-line fishing industry should fund eradication of terrestrial predators at seabird breeding colonies, as a compensatory measure for the bycatch caused by the fishing activity. The measure is economically sound, but a quantitative and reliable test of its biological efficacy has never been conducted. Here, we investigated the demographic consequences of predator eradication for Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea, breeding in the Mediterranean, using a population model that integrates demographic rates estimated from individual life-history information with experimental measures of predation and habitat structure. We found that similar values of population growth rate can be obtained by different combinations of habitat characteristics, predator abundance and adult mortality, which explains the persistence of shearwater colonies in islands with introduced predators. Even so, given the empirically obtained values of survival, all combinations of predator abundance and habitat characteristics projected a decline in shearwater numbers. Perturbation analyses indicated that the value and the sensitivity of shearwater population growth rates were affected by all covariates considered and their interactions. A decrease in rat abundance delivered only a small increase in the population growth rate, whereas a change in adult survival (a parameter independent of rat abundance) had the strongest impact on population dynamics. When adult survival is low, rat eradication would allow us to "buy" years before extinction but does not reverse the process. Rat eradication can therefore be seen as an emergency measure if threats on adult survival are eliminated in the medium-term period. For species with low fecundity and long life expectancy, our results suggest that rat control campaigns are not a sufficient, self-standing measure to compensate the biological toll of long

  19. Limited physical contact through a mesh barrier is sufficient for social reward-conditioned place preference in adolescent male rats

    PubMed Central

    Peartree, Natalie A.; Hood, Lauren E.; Thiel, Kenneth J.; Sanabria, Federico; Pentkowski, Nathan S.; Chandler, Kayla N.; Neisewander, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of enhanced sensitivity to social influences and vulnerability to drug abuse. Social reward in adolescent rats has been demonstrated with the conditioned place preference (CPP) model, but it is not clear whether limited contact with another rat without play is sufficient to produce reward. We investigated this issue using an apparatus containing two main compartments each with a wire mesh barrier that allowed rats placed on either side of the barrier to have limited physical contact. Adolescent male rats were given two conditioning sessions/day for 2 or 8 days following baseline preference tests. Rats were placed into their preferred side alone for one daily 10-min session and into their initially non-preferred side (i.e., CS) for the other session during which they either had restricted or unrestricted physical access to another rat (Rat/Mesh or Rat/Phys, respectively) or to a tennis ball (Ball/Mesh or Ball/Phys, respectively) unconditioned stimulus (US). Only the Rat/Phys group exhibited CPP after 2 CS-US pairings; however, after 8 CS-US pairings, the Rat/Mesh and Ball/Phys groups also exhibited CPP. During conditioning, the rat US elicited more robust approach and contact behavior compared to the ball, regardless of physical or restricted access. The incidence of contact and/or approach increased as the number of exposures increased. The results suggest that the rank order of US reward efficacy was physical contact with a rat > limited contact with a rat > physical contact with a ball, and that rough-and-tumble play is not necessary to establish social reward-CPP. The findings have important implications for emerging drug self-administration models in which two rats self-administering drug intravenously have limited physical contact via a mesh barrier shared between their respective operant conditioning chambers. PMID:22008744

  20. Limited physical contact through a mesh barrier is sufficient for social reward-conditioned place preference in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Peartree, Natalie A; Hood, Lauren E; Thiel, Kenneth J; Sanabria, Federico; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Chandler, Kayla N; Neisewander, Janet L

    2012-02-01

    Adolescence is a period of enhanced sensitivity to social influences and vulnerability to drug abuse. Social reward in adolescent rats has been demonstrated with the conditioned place preference (CPP) model, but it is not clear whether limited contact with another rat without play is sufficient to produce reward. We investigated this issue using an apparatus containing two main compartment, each with a wire mesh barrier that allowed rats placed on either side of the barrier to have limited physical contact. Adolescent male rats were given two conditioning sessions/day for 2 or 8 days following baseline preference tests. Rats were placed into their preferred side alone for one daily 10-min session and into their initially non-preferred side (i.e., CS) for the other session during which they either had restricted or unrestricted physical access to another rat (Rat/Mesh or Rat/Phys, respectively) or to a tennis ball (Ball/Mesh or Ball/Phys, respectively) unconditioned stimulus (US). Only the Rat/Phys group exhibited CPP after 2 CS-US pairings; however, after 8 CS-US pairings, the Rat/Mesh and Ball/Phys groups also exhibited CPP. During conditioning, the rat US elicited more robust approach and contact behavior compared to the ball, regardless of physical or restricted access. The incidence of contact and/or approach increased as the number of exposures increased. The results suggest that the rank order of US reward efficacy was physical contact with a rat>limited contact with a rat>physical contact with a ball, and that rough-and-tumble play is not necessary to establish social reward-CPP. The findings have important implications for emerging drug self-administration models in which two rats self-administering drug intravenously have limited physical contact via a mesh barrier shared between their respective operant conditioning chambers. PMID:22008744

  1. Advanced multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging.

    PubMed

    Ju, Myeong Jin; Hong, Young-Joo; Makita, Shuichi; Lim, Yiheng; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Duan, Lian; Miura, Masahiro; Tang, Shuo; Yasuno, Yoshiaki

    2013-08-12

    An advanced version of Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JMT) is demonstrated for Doppler and polarization sensitive imaging of the posterior eye. JMT is capable of providing localized flow tomography by Doppler detection and investigating the birefringence property of tissue through a three-dimensional (3-D) Jones matrix measurement. Owing to an incident polarization multiplexing scheme based on passive optical components, this system is stable, safe in a clinical environment, and cost effective. Since the properties of this version of JMT provide intrinsic compensation for system imperfection, the system is easy to calibrate. Compared with the previous version of JMT, this advanced JMT achieves a sufficiently long depth measurement range for clinical cases of posterior eye disease. Furthermore, a fine spectral shift compensation method based on the cross-correlation of calibration signals was devised for stabilizing the phase of OCT, which enables a high sensitivity Doppler OCT measurement. In addition, a new theory of JMT which integrates the Jones matrix measurement, Doppler measurement, and scattering measurement is presented. This theory enables a sensitivity-enhanced scattering OCT and high-sensitivity Doppler OCT. These new features enable the application of this system to clinical cases. A healthy subject and a geographic atrophy patient were measured in vivo, and simultaneous imaging of choroidal vasculature and birefringence structures are demonstrated. PMID:23938857

  2. Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Lin; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Nature has chosen chlorophylls in plants as antennae to harvest light for the conversion of solar energy in complicated photosynthetic processes. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, scientists utilized artificial chlorophylls - the porphyrins - as efficient centres to harvest light for solar cells sensitized with a porphyrin (PSSC). After the first example appeared in 1993 of a porphyrin of type copper chlorophyll as a photosensitizer for PSSC that achieved a power conversion efficiency of 2.6%, no significant advance of PSSC was reported until 2005; beta-linked zinc porphyrins were then reported to show promising device performances with a benchmark efficiency of 7.1% reported in 2007. Meso-linked zinc porphyrin sensitizers in the first series with a push-pull framework appeared in 2009; the best cell performed comparably to that of a N3-based device, and a benchmark 11% was reported for a porphyrin sensitizer of this type in 2010. With a structural design involving long alkoxyl chains to envelop the porphyrin core to suppress the dye aggregation for a push-pull zinc porphyrin, the PSSC achieved a record 12.3% in 2011 with co-sensitization of an organic dye and a cobalt-based electrolyte. The best PSSC system exhibited a panchromatic feature for light harvesting covering the visible spectral region to 700 nm, giving opportunities to many other porphyrins, such as fused and dimeric porphyrins, with near-infrared absorption spectral features, together with the approach of molecular co-sensitization, to enhance the device performance of PSSC. According to this historical trend for the development of prospective porphyrin sensitizers used in PSSC, we review systematically the progress of porphyrins of varied kinds, and their derivatives, applied in PSSC with a focus on reports during 2007-2012 from the point of view of molecular design correlated with photovoltaic performance. PMID:23023240

  3. Lags in Minority Achievement Defy Traditional Explanations. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This second in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist notes that standard explanations for why minority students trail behind non-Hispanic whites are not good enough, suggesting that no single explanation for the gap exists, but instead a multitude of factors are influential. Poverty, though not the single most important cause,…

  4. Central Iowa Low Achiever Mathematics Project - Low Achiever Motivational Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Joseph T.

    The materials in this booklet are designed especially for the low achieving student in mathematics. Containing some materials from a course in general mathematics, the booklet is intended to be used in conjunction with conventional textbook materials and is designed to serve as a source of new ideas for teachers and to relieve the teacher of much…

  5. 76 FR 55407 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Public and Indian Housing Family Self-Sufficiency Program Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ...-Sufficiency Program Under the Resident Opportunity and Self-Sufficiency (ROSS) Program (PH-FSS). This announcement contains the consolidated names and addresses of the award recipients for this year under the PH... Relay Service at (800) 877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The PH-FSS program provides grants to...

  6. The Development of University Students' Self-Sufficiency Based on Interactive Technologies by Their Immersion in the Professional Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubimova, Elena Mikhaelovna; Galimullina, Elvira Zufarovna; Ibatullin, Rinat Rivkatovich

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the problems of using web technologies in the development of self-sufficiency of University students. We hypothesize that real professional situations in which he/she is obliged to work independently on the basis of web technologies contribute to the development of students' self-sufficiency. It is shown that the activity…

  7. 24 CFR 5.617 - Self-sufficiency incentives for persons with disabilities-Disallowance of increase in annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-sufficiency incentives for... Family Income § 5.617 Self-sufficiency incentives for persons with disabilities—Disallowance of increase... this section is applicable only to the following programs: HOME Investment Partnerships Program (24...

  8. Assisting Young, Unmarried Mothers to Become Self-Sufficient: The Effects of Different Types of Early Economic Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandfort, Jodi R.; Hill, Martha S.

    1996-01-01

    Considers how different types of economic support, received soon after the birth of a first child, contribute to the later self-sufficiency of young, unmarried mothers. Findings suggest that certain economic supports assist these mothers and that life choices they make after their child's birth are important to self-sufficiency. (RJM)

  9. High-sensitivity nanosensors for biomarker detection†

    PubMed Central

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    High sensitivity nanosensors utilize optical, mechanical, electrical, and magnetic relaxation properties to push detection limits of biomarkers below previously possible concentrations. The unique properties of nanomaterials and nanotechnology are exploited to design biomarker diagnostics. High-sensitivity recognition is achieved by signal and target amplification along with thorough pre-processing of samples. In this tutorial review, we introduce the type of detection signals read by nanosensors to detect extremely small concentrations of biomarkers and provide distinctive examples of high-sensitivity sensors. The use of such high-sensitivity nanosensors can offer earlier detection of disease than currently available to patients and create significant improvements in clinical outcomes. PMID:22187721

  10. Infected dendritic cells are sufficient to mediate the adjuvant activity generated by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Daniel R; Whitmore, Alan; Johnston, Robert E; Barro, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Replicon particles derived from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) are infectious non-propagating particles which act as a safe and potent systemic, mucosal, and cellular adjuvant when delivered with antigen. VEE and VEE replicon particles (VRP) can target multiple cell types including dendritic cells (DCs). The role of these cell types in VRP adjuvant activity has not been previously evaluated, and for these studies we focused on the contribution of DCs to the response to VRP. By analysis of VRP targeting in the draining lymph node, we found that VRP induced rapid recruitment of TNF-secreting monocyte-derived inflammatory dendritic cells. VRP preferentially infected these inflammatory DCs as well as classical DCs and macrophages, with less efficient infection of other cell types. DC depletion suggested that the interaction of VRP with classical DCs was required for recruitment of inflammatory DCs, induction of high levels of many cytokines, and for stable transport of VRP to the draining lymph node. Additionally, in vitro-infected DCs enhanced antigen-specific responses by CD4 and CD8 T cells. By transfer of VRP-infected DCs into mice we showed that these DCs generated an inflammatory state in the draining lymph node similar to that achieved by VRP injection. Most importantly, VRP-infected DCs were sufficient to establish robust adjuvant activity in mice comparable to that produced by VRP injection. These findings indicate that VRP infect, recruit and activate both classical and inflammatory DCs, and those DCs become mediators of the VRP adjuvant activity. PMID:22531556

  11. Residual Endotoxin Contaminations in Recombinant Proteins Are Sufficient to Activate Human CD1c+ Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Harald; Schmittner, Maria; Duschl, Albert; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Many commercially available recombinant proteins are produced in Escherichia coli, and most suppliers guarantee contamination levels of less than 1 endotoxin unit (EU). When we analysed commercially available proteins for their endotoxin content, we found contamination levels in the same range as generally stated in the data sheets, but also some that were higher. To analyse whether these low levels of contamination have an effect on immune cells, we stimulated the monocytic cell line THP-1, primary human monocytes, in vitro differentiated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and primary human CD1c+ dendritic cells (DCs) with very low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; ranging from 0.002–2 ng/ml). We show that CD1c+ DCs especially can be activated by minimal amounts of LPS, equivalent to the levels of endotoxin contamination we detected in some commercially available proteins. Notably, the enhanced endotoxin sensitivity of CD1c+ DCs was closely correlated with high CD14 expression levels observed in CD1c+ DCs that had been maintained in cell culture medium for 24 hours. When working with cells that are particularly sensitive to LPS, even low endotoxin contamination may generate erroneous data. We therefore recommend that recombinant proteins be thoroughly screened for endotoxin contamination using the limulus amebocyte lysate test, fluorescence-based assays, or a luciferase based NF-κB reporter assay involving highly LPS-sensitive cells overexpressing TLR4, MD-2 and CD14. PMID:25478795

  12. Metal-Free Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Sumit; Lin, Jiann T

    2016-06-01

    This review focuses on our work on metal-free sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Sensitizers based on D-A'-π-A architecture (D is a donor, A is an acceptor, A' is an electron-deficient entity) exhibit better light harvesting than D-π-A-type sensitizers. However, appropriate molecular design is needed to avoid excessive aggregation of negative charge at the electron-deficient entity upon photoexcitation. Rigidified aromatics, including aromatic segments comprising fused electron-excessive and -deficient units in the spacer, allow effective electronic communication, and good photoinduced charge transfer leads to excellent cell performance. Sensitizers with two anchors/acceptors, D(-π-A)2 , can more efficiently harvest light, inject electrons, and suppress dark current compared with congeners with a single anchor. Appropriate incorporation of heteroaromatic units in the spacer is beneficial to DSSC performance. High-performance, aqueous-based DSSCs can be achieved with a dual redox couple comprising imidazolium iodide and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl, and/or using dyes of improved wettability through the incorporation of a triethylene oxide methyl ether chain. PMID:27114164

  13. [Sufficiency with water-soluble vitamins and state of bone in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaya, O A; Pereverzeva, O G; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Kodentsova, V M; Safronova, A I; Korosteleva, M M; Aleshina, I V; Fandeeva, T A

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin status and bone strength have been estimated in 91 pregnant women (29.3 ± 4.6 years old) from Moscow by non-invasive methods. Sufficiency with vitamins C, B2, B6 has been evaluated by morning urinary excretion of ascorbic acid, riboflavin and 4-piridoxic acid determined by visual titration and fluorimetric methods. The rate of bone resorption has been measured by the ratio of urinary calcium and creatinine, determined by complexometric titration and spectrophotometrically. The study of the bone strength has been conducted using an ultrasonic densitometer (the speed of the ultrasonic waves along the cortical layer). The lack of vitamin C was found in 20.4% .of the women surveyed, vitamin B2--in 27.4%. Vitamin B6 deficiency was detected most frequently (90%). Excretion of vitamins B2 and B6 in women in the third trimester of pregnancy was lower as compared with the women in the first and second trimester. In 53.3% of the women surveyed an increase in urinary excretion of calcium per creatinine has been observed. Excretion of group B vitamins (especially vitamin B6, 1.75 fold, p < 0.05) in women taking vitamin supplements was higher compared to non-taking vitamins that indicates the better sufficiency of the organism with these vitamins. Among women who took vitamin complexes, inadequate supply with water-soluble vitamins C, B2 and B6 was detected less frequently (the difference was significant for vitamin B2) than among women who did not intake vitamin complexes (in 11.9, 27.7 and 42.4% vs 16.1, 54.8 and 48.8 %). The rate of bone resorption (Ca/creatinine) in women taking vitamins was smaller (0.19 ± 0.09 vs 0.24 ± 0.14, p > 0.05). Ca/creatinine ratio was within normal range in 40% of women who intake vitamins, while in women not taking vitamins--only in 22.2%; this value exceeded the upper limit of norm in the rest. The strength of bone was broken in women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, having worse supply of vitamins. The percentage of

  14. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  15. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  16. The Achievement-Assessment Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    The recent recession, school budget cuts, and predictions of school libraries' demise because of technology advances put pressure on school librarians to prove the utility, relevance, and value of school libraries to student learning. While national studies document that school libraries increase student achievement, school librarians must…

  17. Cooperative Learning and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Research evidence shows that cooperative learning strategies are not equally effective, though most positively affect self-esteem, intergroup relations, and the ability to work with others. To produce achievement gains, these methods must include both a group goal and individual accountability. Includes 19 references. (MLH)

  18. Curricular Diversity and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Reginald

    1991-01-01

    Educational achievement should be intellectually and philosophically divorced from cultural affirmation, which is merely a byproduct of the inclusion of diverse voices in the search for truth. A model based on the relationship between the valuation of oneself by others and by oneself is presented to explain differential effects of schooling on…

  19. School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Dowsett, Chantelle J.; Claessens, Amy; Magnuson, Katherine; Huston, Aletha C.; Klebanov, Pamela; Pagani, Linda S.; Feinstein, Leon; Engel, Mimi; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Sexton, Holly; Duckworth, Kathryn; Japel, Crista

    2007-01-01

    Using 6 longitudinal data sets, the authors estimate links between three key elements of school readiness--school-entry academic, attention, and socioemotional skills--and later school reading and math achievement. In an effort to isolate the effects of these school-entry skills, the authors ensured that most of their regression models control for…

  20. Teacher Certification and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Patricia Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to determine if there is a significant difference between the achievement of students who are taught by traditionally prepared teachers and that of students who are taught by alternatively prepared teachers. The study further addressed the perspectives of both groups of teachers regarding selected…

  1. Achieving Safety through Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, John

    Whilst the achievement of safety objectives may not be possible purely through the administration of an effective Information Security Management System (ISMS), your job as safety manager will be significantly eased if such a system is in place. This paper seeks to illustrate the point by drawing a comparison between two of the prominent standards within the two disciplines of security and safety management.

  2. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  3. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  4. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  5. Measuring and Recording Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Measuring and Recording Student Achievement Scoping Group was established by Universities UK and the Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP), with the support of the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) in October 2003 to review the recommendations from the UK Government White Paper "The Future of Higher Education" relating…

  6. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  7. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  8. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy. PMID:10123422

  9. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  10. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  11. Believing and Achieving. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerald, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    This research brief takes a look at the role of teacher efficacy-how teachers' beliefs in their own abilities affect student achievement. The brief examines the influence of perceived efficacy and building teacher confidence (social persuasion, collegiality, and shared decision making). It concludes by asserting that more positive steps must be…

  12. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  13. Achieving Ideological Change within Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Dennis R.

    Psychologists who are interested in the nature of ideology and the achievement of social change generally focus their primary theoretical and empirical attention on those people outside academia who are trying to change or to prevent change in one political sphere or another. There may be some value in looking at psychology and psychologists as…

  14. Five Standards and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, R. William; Hilberg, R. Soleste; Pinal, America; Tharp, Roland G.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies examine the influence of the Standards for Effective Pedagogy on student achievement gains. Participants were 15 teachers and 266 students (grades 3 to 5) in a public elementary school serving predominantly low-income Latino English Language Learners (ELLs). Implications for teaching practice and research are discussed. (Author/VWL)

  15. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  16. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  17. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  18. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  19. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  20. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  1. Neuronal function is necessary but not sufficient for consciousness: consciousness is necessary for will.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, David; Ibrahim, Khadija

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral neuroscience has presented philosophers with the task of clarifying the relationship between neural determinism and free will. If neural functions encode information and govern decision-making, are the constructs of will, agency and indeed morality illusions of pre-scientific ignorance? This article will argue that neuronal function is necessary for representing distinct sensory-perceptual, cognitive, motivational, emotional states, and motor functions. However, neural transmission and action potentials are simply chemical-physical representations of these informational states but are not the embodiment of consciousness itself. By some yet undiscovered mechanism, consciousness "reads" the neuronal events into conscious experience. Absent a particular specialized brain region or sufficient relevant transmitters and receptors, relevant information cannot be processed and the individual cannot be conscious of that informational state. In natural and many artificial communication systems, communications proceed bi-directionally. By an argument of symmetry, if neuronal activity can communicate with consciousness, there is no reason to preclude consciousness from communicating back and influencing neuronal function. In the intervening conscious moment, information from diverse perceptual, motivational, cognitive, and emotional sources is weighted and will results. This process then biases resultant neural processes to actualize the willed target. This approach is limited in terms of operationalization into an experimental study because at present, there is no method to measure consciousness-independent of neuronal function and subjective report. PMID:23181011

  2. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform. PMID:26987618

  3. Stable kinetochore–microtubule attachment is sufficient to silence the spindle assembly checkpoint in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Tauchman, Eric C.; Boehm, Frederick J.; DeLuca, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    During mitosis, duplicated sister chromatids attach to microtubules emanating from opposing sides of the bipolar spindle through large protein complexes called kinetochores. In the absence of stable kinetochore–microtubule attachments, a cell surveillance mechanism known as the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) produces an inhibitory signal that prevents anaphase onset. Precisely how the inhibitory SAC signal is extinguished in response to microtubule attachment remains unresolved. To address this, we induced formation of hyper-stable kinetochore–microtubule attachments in human cells using a non-phosphorylatable version of the protein Hec1, a core component of the attachment machinery. We find that stable attachments are sufficient to silence the SAC in the absence of sister kinetochore bi-orientation and strikingly in the absence of detectable microtubule pulling forces or tension. Furthermore, we find that SAC satisfaction occurs despite the absence of large changes in intra-kinetochore distance, suggesting that substantial kinetochore stretching is not required for quenching the SAC signal. PMID:26620470

  4. Spirituality, hope, and self-sufficiency among low-income job seekers.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Self-sufficiency (SS) is an important social welfare policy goal in the United States, yet little is known about the process that leads to SS. To address this gap in the literature, this study examined the relationship between spirituality, hope, and SS among a sample of low-income job seekers (N = 116). It was hypothesized that spirituality would be related to hope, and that hope, in turn, would be related to SS. Using survey data from two workforce development agencies, this hypothesis was confirmed-hope fully mediated the relationship between spirituality and SS. Of the two factors through which hope is commonly operationalized-agency and pathways-supplemental analysis suggested that spirituality only affects SS through the agency channel. To help foster hope in direct practice settings, it is suggested that social workers might employ spiritually modified cognitive-behavioral therapy protocols. Macrostructural interventions that block the pathway component of hope are also suggested to help reverse exclusion from labor market entry. As such, hope needs to be addressed comprehensively-intrapsychically and macrostructurally-to effect bottom-up change for SS. Engendering hope may assist clients overcome some of the many challenges they encounter on the journey to SS. PMID:25929013

  5. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  6. BDNF is necessary and sufficient for spinal respiratory plasticity following intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Baker-Herman, Tracy L; Fuller, David D; Bavis, Ryan W; Zabka, Andrea G; Golder, Francis J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Johnson, Rebecca A; Watters, Jyoti J; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2004-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia causes a form of serotonin-dependent synaptic plasticity in the spinal cord known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Here we show that increased synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the spinal cord is necessary and sufficient for pLTF in adult rats. We found that intermittent hypoxia elicited serotonin-dependent increases in BDNF synthesis in ventral spinal segments containing the phrenic nucleus, and the magnitude of these BDNF increases correlated with pLTF magnitude. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to interfere with BDNF expression, and tyrosine kinase receptor inhibition to block BDNF signaling. These disruptions blocked pLTF, whereas intrathecal injection of BDNF elicited an effect similar to pLTF. Our findings demonstrate new roles and regulatory mechanisms for BDNF in the spinal cord and suggest new therapeutic strategies for treating breathing disorders such as respiratory insufficiency after spinal injury. These experiments also illustrate the potential use of RNAi to investigate functional consequences of gene expression in the mammalian nervous system in vivo. PMID:14699417

  7. Maternal and Pediatric Health Outcomes in relation to Gestational Vitamin D Sufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Juxtaposed with monumental improvement in maternal-fetal outcomes over the last century, there has been the recent emergence of rising rates of gestational complications including preterm birth, operative delivery, and gestational diabetes. At the same time, there has been a burgeoning problem with widespread vitamin D deficiency among populations of many developed nations. This paper provides a brief review of potential health outcomes recently linked to gestational vitamin D deficiency, including preterm birth, cesarean delivery, and gestational diabetes. Although immediate costs for obstetric complications related to gestational vitamin D insufficiency may be modest, the short- and long-term costs for pediatric healthcare resulting from such gestational complications may be enormous and present an enduring burden on healthcare systems. With increasing evidence pointing to fetal origins of some later life disease, securing vitamin D sufficiency in pregnancy appears to be a simple, safe, and cost-effective measure that can be incorporated into routine preconception and prenatal care in the offices of primary care clinicians. Education on gestational nutritional requirements should be a fundamental part of medical education and residency training, instruction that has been sorely lacking to date. PMID:26770200

  8. Construction and engineering of a thermostable self-sufficient cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Mandai, Takao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Imaoka, Susumu

    2009-06-19

    CYP175A1 is a thermophilic cytochrome P450 and hydroxylates {beta}-carotene. We previously identified a native electron transport system for CYP175A1. In this report, we constructed two fusion proteins consisting of CYP175A1, ferredoxin (Fdx), and ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase (FNR): H{sub 2}N-CYP175A1-Fdx-FNR-COOH (175FR) and H{sub 2}N-CYP175A1-FNR-Fdx-COOH (175RF). Both 175FR and 175RF were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The V{sub max} value for {beta}-carotene hydroxylation was 25 times higher with 175RF than 175FR and 9 times higher with 175RF than CYP175A1 (non-fused protein), although the k{sub m} values of these enzymes were similar. 175RF retained 50% residual activity even at 80 {sup o}C. Furthermore, several mutants of the CYP175A1 domain of 175RF were prepared and one mutant (Q67G/Y68I) catalyzed the hydroxylation of an unnatural substrate, testosterone. Thus, this is the first report of a thermostable self-sufficient cytochrome P450 and the engineering of a thermophilic cytochrome P450 for the oxidation of an unnatural substrate.

  9. Bearings-only tracking in a distributed sensor network using reduced sufficient statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kraig L.; Iltis, Ronald A.

    1994-07-01

    A distributed parameter estimation algorithm is presented for a general nonlinear measurement model with additive Gaussian noise. We show that the Bayes-closed estimation algorithm developed by Kulhavy, when extended to the multisensor case leads to a linear fusion rule, regardless of the form of a local a posteriori densities. Specifically, the Kulhavy algorithm generates a set of reduced sufficient statistics representing the local sensor densities, which are simply added and subtracted at the global processor to obtain optimum fusion. We discuss various approximations to the Bayes-closed algorithm which leads to a practical parameter estimator for the nonlinear measurement model, and apply such an approximate technique to the bearings-only tracking problem. The performance of the distributed tracker is compared to an alternative algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) implemented in modified polar coordinates. It is shown that the Bayes-closed estimator does not diverge in the sense of an ordinary EKF, and hence the Bayes-closed technique can be employed in both a unidirectional and bidirectional transmission mode.

  10. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, Tika B; Sah, Shrawan K; Thapa, Resam B; McDonald, Andrew J; Davis, Adam S

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods. PMID:26047508

  11. Increased H+ efflux is sufficient to induce dysplasia and necessary for viability with oncogene expression

    PubMed Central

    Grillo-Hill, Bree K; Choi, Changhoon; Jimenez-Vidal, Maite; Barber, Diane L

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pHi) dynamics is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of a range of normal and pathological cell behaviors. Notably, increased pHi is now acknowledged as a conserved characteristic of cancers and in cell models is confirmed to increase proliferation and migration as well as limit apoptosis. However, the significance of increased pHi for cancer in vivo remains unresolved. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we show that increased pHi is sufficient to induce dysplasia in the absence of other transforming cues and potentiates growth and invasion with oncogenic Ras. Using a genetically encoded biosensor we also confirm increased pHi in situ. Moreover, in Drosophila models and clonal human mammary cells we show that limiting H+ efflux with oncogenic Raf or Ras induces acidosis and synthetic lethality. Further, we show lethality in invasive primary tumor cell lines with inhibiting H+ efflux. Synthetic lethality with reduced H+ efflux and activated oncogene expression could be exploited therapeutically to restrain cancer progression while limiting off-target effects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03270.001 PMID:25793441

  12. Loss of Desmoglein Binding Is Not Sufficient for Keratinocyte Dissociation in Pemphigus.

    PubMed

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Waschke, Jens; Spindler, Volker

    2015-12-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a severe autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies against the desmosomal cell adhesion molecules desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and Dsg3 cause intraepidermal blister formation. Mechanistically, the fundamental question is still unresolved whether loss of cell cohesion is a result of (1) direct inhibition of Dsg interaction by autoantibodies or (2) intracellular signaling events, which are altered in response to antibody binding and finally cause desmosome destabilization. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to perform Dsg3 adhesion measurements on living keratinocytes to investigate the contributions of direct inhibition and signaling to loss of cell cohesion after autoantibody treatment. Dsg3 binding was rapidly blocked following antibody exposure under conditions where no depletion of surface Dsg3 was detectable, demonstrating direct inhibition of Dsg3 interaction. Inhibition of p38MAPK, a central signaling molecule in PV pathogenesis, abrogated loss of cell cohesion, but had a minor effect on loss of Dsg3 binding. Similarly, the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-MCD) fully blocked cell dissociation, but did not restore Dsg3 interactions or prevent the activation of p38MAPK. These results demonstrate that inhibition of Dsg3 binding is not sufficient to cause loss of cell cohesion, but rather alters signaling events which, in lipid raft-dependent manner, induce cell dissociation. PMID:26288352

  13. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform. PMID:26987618

  14. Osteocalcin Signaling in Myofibers Is Necessary and Sufficient for Optimum Adaptation to Exercise.

    PubMed

    Mera, Paula; Laue, Kathrin; Ferron, Mathieu; Confavreux, Cyril; Wei, Jianwen; Galán-Díez, Marta; Lacampagne, Alain; Mitchell, Sarah J; Mattison, Julie A; Chen, Yun; Bacchetta, Justine; Szulc, Pawel; Kitsis, Richard N; de Cabo, Rafael; Friedman, Richard A; Torsitano, Christopher; McGraw, Timothy E; Puchowicz, Michelle; Kurland, Irwin; Karsenty, Gerard

    2016-06-14

    Circulating levels of undercarboxylated and bioactive osteocalcin double during aerobic exercise at the time levels of insulin decrease. In contrast, circulating levels of osteocalcin plummet early during adulthood in mice, monkeys, and humans of both genders. Exploring these observations revealed that osteocalcin signaling in myofibers is necessary for adaptation to exercise by favoring uptake and catabolism of glucose and fatty acids, the main nutrients of myofibers. Osteocalcin signaling in myofibers also accounts for most of the exercise-induced release of interleukin-6, a myokine that promotes adaptation to exercise in part by driving the generation of bioactive osteocalcin. We further show that exogenous osteocalcin is sufficient to enhance the exercise capacity of young mice and to restore to 15-month-old mice the exercise capacity of 3-month-old mice. This study uncovers a bone-to-muscle feedforward endocrine axis that favors adaptation to exercise and can reverse the age-induced decline in exercise capacity. PMID:27304508

  15. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Tika B.; Sah, Shrawan K.; Thapa, Resam B.; McDonald, Andrew J.; Davis, Adam S.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods. PMID:26047508

  16. Constitutive IKK2 activation in acinar cells is sufficient to induce pancreatitis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Bernd; Wagner, Martin; Aleksic, Tamara; von Wichert, Götz; Weber, Christoph K; Adler, Guido; Wirth, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    Activation of the inhibitor of NF-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB (IKK/NF-kappaB) system and expression of proinflammatory mediators are major events in acute pancreatitis. However, the in vivo consequences of IKK activation on the onset and progression of acute pancreatitis remain unclear. Therefore, we modulated IKK activity conditionally in pancreatic acinar cells. Transgenic mice expressing the reverse tetracycline-responsive transactivator (rtTA) gene under the control of the rat elastase promoter were generated to mediate acinar cell-specific expression of IKK2 alleles. Expression of dominant-negative IKK2 ameliorated cerulein-induced pancreatitis but did not affect activation of trypsin, an initial event in experimental pancreatitis. Notably, expression of constitutively active IKK2 was sufficient to induce acute pancreatitis. This acinar cell-specific phenotype included edema, cellular infiltrates, necrosis, and elevation of serum lipase levels as well as pancreatic fibrosis. IKK2 activation caused increased expression of known NF-kappaB target genes, including mediators of the inflammatory response such as TNF-alpha and ICAM-1. Indeed, inhibition of TNF-alpha activity identified this cytokine as an important effector of IKK2-induced pancreatitis. Our data identify the IKK/NF-kappaB pathway in acinar cells as being key to the development of experimental pancreatitis and the major factor in the inflammatory response typical of this disease. PMID:17525799

  17. Sufficient Condition for Finite-Time Singularity in a High-Symmetry Euler Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Ng, C. S.

    1997-11-01

    The possibility of a finite-time singularity (FTS) with a smooth initial condition is considered in a high-symmetry Euler flow (the Kida flow). It has been shown recently [C. S. Ng and A. Bhattacharjee, Phys. Rev. E 54 1530, 1996] that there must be a FTS if the fourth order pressure derivative (p_xxxx) is always positive within a finite range X on the x-axis around the origin. This sufficient condition is now extended to the case when the range X is itself time-dependent. It is shown that a FTS must still exist even when X arrow 0 if the p_xxxx value at the origin is growing faster than X-2. It is tested statistically that p_xxxx at the origin is most probably positive for a Kida flow with random Fourier amplitudes and that it is generally growing as energy cascades to Fourier modes with higher wavenumbers k. The condition that p_xxxx grows faster than X-2 is found to be satisfied when the spectral index ν of the energy spectrum E(k) ∝ k^-ν of the random flow is less than 3.

  18. Pathological tendons maintain sufficient aligned fibrillar structure on ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC).

    PubMed

    Docking, S I; Cook, J

    2016-06-01

    Structural disorganization in the tendon is associated with tendinopathy, with little research investigating whether disorganization overwhelms the overall structural integrity of the tendon. This study investigated the mean cross-sectional area (CSA) of aligned fibrillar structure as detected by ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) in the pathological and normal Achilles and patellar tendons. Ninety-one participants had their Achilles and/or patellar tendons scanned using UTC to capture a three-dimensional image of the tendon and allow a semi-quantification of the echopattern. The mean CSA of aligned fibrillar structure (echo type I + II) and disorganized structure (echo type III + IV) was calculated based on UTC algorithms. Each tendon was classified as either pathological or normal based solely on gray-scale ultrasound. The mean CSA of aligned fibrillar structure was significantly greater (P ≤ 0.001) in the pathological tendon compared with the normal tendon, despite the pathological tendon containing greater amounts of disorganized structure (P ≤ 0.001). A significant relationship was observed between the mean CSA of disorganized structure and anteroposterior diameter of the Achilles (R(2)  = 0.587) and patellar (R(2)  = 0.559) tendons. This study is the first to show that pathological tendons have sufficient levels of aligned fibrillar structure. Pathological tendons may compensate for areas of disorganization by increasing in tendon thickness. PMID:26059532

  19. Lgr5-expressing cells are sufficient and necessary for postnatal mammary gland organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Vicki; Brenot, Audrey; Lawson, Devon A; Linnemann, Jelena R; Van Kappel, Eline C; Wong, Karren C; de Sauvage, Frederic; Klein, Ophir D; Werb, Zena

    2013-01-31

    Mammary epithelial stem cells are vital to tissue expansion and remodeling during various phases of postnatal mammary development. Basal mammary epithelial cells are enriched in Wnt-responsive cells and can reconstitute cleared mammary fat pads upon transplantation into mice. Lgr5 is a Wnt-regulated target gene and was identified as a major stem cell marker in the small intestine, colon, stomach, and hair follicle, as well as in kidney nephrons. Here, we demonstrate the outstanding regenerative potential of a rare population of Lgr5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) mammary epithelial cells (MECs). We found that Lgr5(+) cells reside within the basal population, are superior to other basal cells in regenerating functional mammary glands (MGs), are exceptionally efficient in reconstituting MGs from single cells, and exhibit regenerative capacity in serial transplantations. Loss-of-function and depletion experiments of Lgr5(+) cells from transplanted MECs or from pubertal MGs revealed that these cells are not only sufficient but also necessary for postnatal mammary organogenesis. PMID:23352663

  20. Necessary and sufficient conditions for big bangs, bounces, crunches, rips, sudden singularities and extremality events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattoën, Céline; Visser, Matt

    2005-12-01

    Until recently, the physically relevant singularities occurring in FRW cosmologies had traditionally been thought to be limited to the 'big bang', and possibly a 'big crunch'. However, over the last few years, the zoo of cosmological singularities considered in the literature has become considerably more extensive, with 'big rips' and 'sudden singularities' added to the mix, as well as renewed interest in nonsingular cosmological events such as 'bounces' and 'turnarounds'. In this paper we present an extensive catalogue of such cosmological milestones, both at the kinematical and dynamical level. First, using generalized power series, purely kinematical definitions of these cosmological events are provided in terms of the behaviour of the scale factor a(t). The notion of a 'scale-factor singularity' is defined, and its relation to curvature singularities (polynomial and differential) is explored. Second, dynamical information is extracted by using the Friedmann equations (without assuming even the existence of any equation of state) to place constraints on whether or not the classical energy conditions are satisfied at the cosmological milestones. We use these considerations to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of cosmological milestones such as bangs, bounces, crunches, rips, sudden singularities and extremality events. Since the classification is extremely general and, modulo certain technical assumptions, is complete, the corresponding results are to a high degree model independent: in particular, we provide a characterization of the class of bangs, crunches and sudden singularities for which the dominant energy condition is satisfied.

  1. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Forman, Mark S.; Harrell, Charles M.; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J.; Fox, Steven V.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Garson, Susan L.; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J.; Herring, W. Joseph; Renger, John J.; Winrow, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  2. Retinoic Acid Is Sufficient for the In Vitro Induction of Mouse Spermatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Si; Wang, Xiuxia; Ma, Longfei; Lin, Xiwen; Zhang, Daoqin; Li, Zhen; Wu, Yujian; Zheng, Chunwei; Feng, Xue; Liao, Shangying; Feng, Yanmin; Chen, Jian; Hu, Xiangjing; Wang, Min; Han, Chunsheng

    2016-07-12

    Meiosis is the key step in gametogenesis. However, the mechanism of mammalian meiosis remains poorly understood due to the lack of an in vitro model. Here, we report that retinoic acid (RA) is sufficient for inducing leptotene/zygotene spermatocytes from cultured mouse spermatogonial stem cells. Multiple genes regulated by RA were identified by RNA sequencing. RA in combination with pup Sertoli cell co-culture resulted in a higher induction efficiency of 28%. Comparisons in the transcriptomic profiles of the induced spermatogenic cells and the isolated ones revealed the progressive induction of the germ cells. Using this model, we showed that Stra8, Agpat3, Fam57a, Wdr91, and Sox30 contributed to the proliferation and meiosis initiation differentially. In conclusion, we have efficiently generated spermatocytes using an RA/pup Sertoli cell-based in vitro model and provided proof-of-concept evidence for its application in identifying genes involved in mammalian meiosis. PMID:27346680

  3. Necessary and Sufficient Standards Closure Process pilot: F- and H-Area groundwater remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Bullington, M.

    1995-09-25

    The DOE Standards Committee`s Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) Standards Closure Process was piloted at SRS on the F- and H- Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Remediation Project. For this existing Environmental Restoration project, the set of N and S standards for design and safety documentation were identified, independently confirmed and approved. Implementation of these standards on the project can lead to a $2.8 Million cost savings on the design, construction/installation, and safety documentation scope of $18 Million. These savings were primarily from site design of power distribution and piping for the water treatment units. Also contributing to the savings were a more appropriate level of safety documentation and the alternate ``commercial`` bids made by vendors in response to a request for proposals for water treatment units. The use of the N and S Process on an ER activity, details on the cost savings, lessons learned and recommendations for broader implementation of the N and S Process are described herein.

  4. Specificity and Sufficiency of EphB1 in Driving the Ipsilateral Retinal Projection

    PubMed Central

    Petros, Timothy J.; Shrestha, Brikha R.; Mason, Carol

    2009-01-01

    At the optic chiasm, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons make the decision to either avoid or traverse the midline, a maneuver that establishes the binocular pathways. In mice, the ipsilateral retinal projection arises from RGCs in the peripheral ventrotemporal (VT) crescent of the retina. These RGCs express the guidance receptor EphB1, which interacts with ephrin-B2 on radial glia cells at the optic chiasm to repulse VT axons away from the midline and into the ipsilateral optic tract. However, since VT RGCs express more than one EphB receptor, the sufficiency and specificity of the EphB1 receptor in directing the ipsilateral projection is unclear. In this study, we utilize in utero retinal electroporation to demonstrate that ectopic EphB1 expression can redirect RGCs with a normally crossed projection to an ipsilateral trajectory. Moreover, EphB1 is specifically required for rerouting RGC projections ipsilaterally, as introduction of the highly similar EphB2 receptor is much less efficient in redirecting RGC fibers, even when expressed at higher surface levels. Introduction of EphB1-EphB2 chimeric receptors into RGCs reveals that both extracellular and juxtamembrane domains of EphB1 are required to efficiently convert RGC projections ipsilaterally. Taken together, these data describe for the first time functional differences between two highly similar Eph receptors at a decision point in vivo, with EphB1 displaying unique properties that efficiently drives the uncrossed retinal projection. PMID:19295152

  5. Does the current fungicide risk assessment provide sufficient protection for key drivers in aquatic ecosystem functioning?

    PubMed

    Zubrod, Jochen P; Englert, Dominic; Feckler, Alexander; Koksharova, Natalia; Konschak, Marco; Bundschuh, Rebecca; Schnetzer, Nadja; Englert, Katja; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2015-01-20

    The level of protection provided by the present environmental risk assessment (ERA) of fungicides in the European Union for fungi is unknown. Therefore, we assessed the structural and functional implications of five fungicides with different modes of action (azoxystrobin, carbendazim, cyprodinil, quinoxyfen, and tebuconazole) individually and in mixture on communities of aquatic hyphomycetes. This is a polyphyletic group of fungi containing key drivers in the breakdown of leaf litter, governing both microbial leaf decomposition and the palatability of leaves for leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates. All fungicides impaired leaf palatability to the leaf-shredder Gammarus fossarum and caused structural changes in fungal communities. In addition, all compounds except for quinoxyfen altered microbial leaf decomposition. Our results suggest that the European Union’s first-tier ERA provides sufficient protection for the tested fungicides, with the exception of tebuconazole and the mixture, while higher-tier ERA does not provide an adequate level of protection for fungicides in general. Therefore, our results show the need to incorporate aquatic fungi as well as their functions into ERA testing schemes to safeguard the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25517729

  6. c-Src function is necessary and sufficient for triggering microglial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Socodato, Renato; Portugal, Camila C; Domith, Ivan; Oliveira, Nádia A; Coreixas, Vivian S M; Loiola, Erick C; Martins, Tânia; Santiago, Ana Raquel; Paes-de-Carvalho, Roberto; Ambrósio, António F; Relvas, João B

    2015-03-01

    Microglial cells are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system. Their function is essential for neuronal tissue homeostasis. After inflammatory stimuli, microglial cells become activated changing from a resting and highly ramified cell shape to an amoeboid-like morphology. These morphological changes are associated with the release of proinflammatory cytokines and glutamate, as well as with high phagocytic activity. The acquisition of such phenotype has been associated with activation of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, including those of the Src family (SFKs). In this study, using both in vivo and in vitro inflammation models coupled to FRET-based time-lapse microscopy, lentiviruses-mediated shRNA delivery and genetic gain-of-function experiments, we demonstrate that among SFKs c-Src function is necessary and sufficient for triggering microglia proinflammatory signature, glutamate release, microglia-induced neuronal loss, and phagocytosis. c-Src inhibition in retinal neuroinflammation experimental paradigms consisting of intravitreal injection of LPS or ischemia-reperfusion injury significantly reduced microglia activation changing their morphology to a more resting phenotype and prevented neuronal apoptosis. Our data demonstrate an essential role for c-Src in microglial cell activation. PMID:25421817

  7. Self-sufficient redox biotransformation of lignin-related benzoic acids with Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, Martín A; Mascotti, María L; Lewkowicz, Elizabeth S; Kurina-Sanz, Marcela

    2015-12-01

    Aromatic carboxylic acids are readily obtained from lignin in biomass processing facilities. However, efficient technologies for lignin valorization are missing. In this work, a microbial screening was conducted to find versatile biocatalysts capable of transforming several benzoic acids structurally related to lignin, employing vanillic acid as model substrate. The wild-type Aspergillus flavus growing cells exhibited exquisite selectivity towards the oxidative decarboxylation product, 2-methoxybenzene-1,4-diol. Interestingly, when assaying a set of structurally related substrates, the biocatalyst displayed the oxidative removal of the carboxyl moiety or its reduction to the primary alcohol whether electron withdrawing or donating groups were present in the aromatic ring, respectively. Additionally, A. flavus proved to be highly tolerant to vanillic acid increasing concentrations (up to 8 g/L), demonstrating its potential application in chemical synthesis. A. flavus growing cells were found to be efficient biotechnological tools to perform self-sufficient, structure-dependent redox reactions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a biocatalyst exhibiting opposite redox transformations of the carboxylic acid moiety in benzoic acid derivatives, namely oxidative decarboxylation and carboxyl reduction, in a structure-dependent fashion. PMID:26445878

  8. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  9. The case for neuropsychoanalysis: Why a dialogue with neuroscience is necessary but not sufficient for psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Yovell, Yoram; Solms, Mark; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in the cognitive, affective and social neurosciences have enabled these fields to study aspects of the mind that are central to psychoanalysis. These developments raise a number of possibilities for psychoanalysis. Can it engage the neurosciences in a productive and mutually enriching dialogue without compromising its own integrity and unique perspective? While many analysts welcome interdisciplinary exchanges with the neurosciences, termed neuropsychoanalysis, some have voiced concerns about their potentially deleterious effects on psychoanalytic theory and practice. In this paper we outline the development and aims of neuropsychoanalysis, and consider its reception in psychoanalysis and in the neurosciences. We then discuss some of the concerns raised within psychoanalysis, with particular emphasis on the epistemological foundations of neuropsychoanalysis. While this paper does not attempt to fully address the clinical applications of neuropsychoanalysis, we offer and discuss a brief case illustration in order to demonstrate that neuroscientific research findings can be used to enrich our models of the mind in ways that, in turn, may influence how analysts work with their patients. We will conclude that neuropsychoanalysis is grounded in the history of psychoanalysis, that it is part of the psychoanalytic worldview, and that it is necessary, albeit not sufficient, for the future viability of psychoanalysis. PMID:26227821

  10. Improving the Rate of Sufficient Sweat Collected in Infants Referred for Sweat Testing in Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Kleyn, Mary; Langbo, Carrie; Gregoire-Bottex, Myrtha; Schuen, John; Shanmugasundaram, Krithika; Nasr, Samya Z

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Sweat collected for testing should have quantity not sufficient (QNS) rate of ≤10% in babies ≤3 months of age. Michigan (MI) cystic fibrosis (CF) centers’ QNS rates were 12% to 25% in 2009. This project was initiated to reduce sweat QNS rates in MI. Methods/Steps. (a) Each center’s sweat testing procedures were reviewed by a consultant. (b) Each center received a report with recommendations to improve QNS rates. (c) Technicians visited other participating centers to observe their procedures. Results. A total of 778 infants were identified as positive via CF newborn screening over a 2-year period. The mean age at time of sweat test was 23.2 days (SD ± 13.0 days). The overall QNS percent decreased from 14.4% to 9.5% (P = .04) during the study. Conclusion. This project and teamwork approach led to a decrease of sweat test QNS rates, opportunities to solve a common problem, and improved quality of care. PMID:27335913

  11. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man.

    PubMed

    Gotter, Anthony L; Forman, Mark S; Harrell, Charles M; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J; Fox, Steven V; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Garson, Susan L; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J; Herring, W Joseph; Renger, John J; Winrow, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  12. Restriction of dopamine signaling to the dorsolateral striatum is sufficient for many cognitive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Darvas, Martin; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The striatum is a vital substrate for performance, procedural memory, and learning. The ventral and medial striatum are thought to be critical for acquisition of tasks while the dorsolateral striatum is important for performance and habitual enactment of skills. Evidence based on cortical, thalamic, and amygdaloid inputs to the striatum suggests a medio-lateral zonation imposed on the classical dorso-ventral distinction. We therefore investigated the functional significance of dopaminergic signaling in cognitive tasks by studying dopamine-deficient (DD) mice and mice with dopamine signaling restored to only the dorsolateral (DL) striatum by viral rescue (vrDD-DL mice). Whereas DD mice failed in all of the tasks examined here, vrDD-DL mice displayed intact discriminatory learning, object recognition, visuospatial learning and spatial memory. Acquisition of operant behavior for food rewards was delayed in vrDD-DL mice and their motivation in a progressive ratio experiments was reduced. Therefore, dopaminergic signaling in the dorsolateral striatum is sufficient for mice to learn several different cognitive tasks although the rate of learning some of them was reduced. These results indicate that dopaminergic signaling in the ventromedial striatum is not absolutely necessary for mastery of these behaviors, but may facilitate them. PMID:19667174

  13. Morphospecies and taxonomic sufficiency of benthic megafauna in scientific bottom trawl surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brind'Amour, Anik; Laffargue, Pascal; Morin, Jocelyne; Vaz, Sandrine; Foveau, Aurélie; Le Bris, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Scientific fisheries surveys routinely identify a large diversity of commercial and non-commercial benthic megainvertebrates that could provide useful information for Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) descriptors. Species is obviously the basic taxonomic level to which most ecological studies and theories refer. Identification at this level of organization is indeed always preferred over any other taxonomic level. Nevertheless, aggregation of species to higher taxonomic levels may be unavoidable sometimes, since errors of identification are known or suspected to occur in many surveys. Using analyses of taxonomic sufficiency (identification of organisms at various taxonomic resolutions) and groups of morphospecies (taxa identified easily by non-experts on the basis of evident morphological traits), this study aims to quantify the loss of ecological information incurred by partial identification of benthic megafauna in bottom trawl surveys in order to put such data to good use. The analyses were conducted on five scientific surveys representing a large range of geographical areas (from 150 km2 to 150 000 km2) and environmental conditions. Results show that genus, family and, particularly, morphospecies are good surrogates for species identification in community analyses. We suggest that bottom trawl surveys can provide reliable megafauna data that may usefully complete those obtained by grab surveys. The use of morphospecies could lead to new strategies, combining different datasets to provide indicators for MSFD descriptors (e.g. D6).

  14. Neuronal ensembles sufficient for recovery sleep and the sedative actions of α2 adrenergic agonists

    PubMed Central

    Güntan, İlke; Moro, Alessandro; Steinberg, Eleonora A.; Ye, Zhiwen; Zecharia, Anna Y.; Yu, Xiao; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Brickley, Stephen G.; Yustos, Raquel; Pillidge, Zoe E.; Harding, Edward C.; Wisden, William; Franks, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    Do sedatives engage natural sleep pathways? It is usually assumed that anesthetic-induced sedation and loss-of-righting-reflex (LORR) arise by influencing the same circuitry to lesser or greater extents. For the α2 adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine, we find that sedation and LORR are in fact distinct states, requiring different brain areas, the preoptic hypothalamic area and locus coeruleus (LC) respectively. Selective knockdown of α2A adrenergic receptors from the LC abolished dexmedetomidine-induced LORR, but not sedation. Instead, we found that dexmedetomidine-induced sedation resembles the deep recovery sleep that follows sleep deprivation. We used TetTag-pharmacogenetics in mice to functionally mark neurons activated in the preoptic hypothalamus during dexmedetomidine-induced sedation or recovery sleep. The neuronal ensembles could then be selectively reactivated. In both cases NREM sleep, with the accompanying drop in body temperature, was recapitulated. Thus α2 adrenergic receptor-induced sedation and recovery sleep share hypothalamic circuitry sufficient for producing these behavioral states. PMID:25706476

  15. Fragile X premutation RNA is sufficient to cause primary ovarian insufficiency in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cuiling; Lin, Li; Tan, Huiping; Wu, Hao; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Gao, Fei; Jin, Peng; Chen, Dahua

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous 46,XX primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), also known as ‘premature menopause’ or ‘premature ovarian failure’, refers to ovarian dysfunction that results in a range of abnormalities, from infertility to early menopause as the end stage. The most common known genetic cause of POI is the expansion of a CGG repeat to 55–199 copies (premutation) in the 5′ untranslated region in the X-linked fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. POI associated with the FMR1 premutation is referred to as fragile X-associated POI (FXPOI). Here, we characterize a mouse model carrying the human FMR1 premutation allele and show that FMR1 premutation RNA can cause a reduction in the number of growing follicles in ovaries and is sufficient to impair female fertility. Alterations in selective serum hormone levels, including FSH, LH and 17β-estradiol, are seen in this mouse model, which mimics findings in humans. In addition, we also find that LH-induced ovulation-related gene expression is specifically altered. Finally, we show that the FMR1 premutation allele can lead to reduced phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR proteins. These results together suggest that FMR1 premutation RNA could cause the POI associated with FMR1 premutation carriers, and the Akt/mTOR pathway may serve as a therapeutic target for FXPOI. PMID:22914733

  16. Mislocated FUS is sufficient for gain-of-toxic-function amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Shiihashi, Gen; Ito, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuya; Nihei, Yoshihiro; Ebine, Taeko; Suzuki, Norihiro

    2016-09-01

    Mutations in RNA-binding proteins, including fused in sarcoma (FUS) and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP), are associated with sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A major question is whether neuronal loss is caused by toxic gain-of-function cytoplasmic aggregates or loss of nuclear RNA-binding protein function. We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing exogenous FUS without a nuclear localization signal (ΔNLS-FUS), which developed progressive spastic motor deficits and neuronal loss in the motor cortex. The ΔNLS-FUS protein was restricted to the cytoplasm and formed ubiquitin/p62-positive aggregates. Endogenous FUS expression, nuclear localization, and splicing activity were not altered, indicating that mislocated FUS is sufficient for proteinopathy. Crossing ΔNLS-FUS with wild-type human TDP-43 transgenic mice exacerbated pathological and behavioural phenotypes, suggesting that both proteins are involved in a common cascade. RNA-sequence analysis revealed specific transcriptome alterations, including genes regulating dynein-associated molecules and endoplasmic reticulum stress. ΔNLS-FUS mice are promising tools for understanding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis and testing new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27368346

  17. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kourouniotis, George; Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to EGF receptor (EGFR) stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ) and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP) at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. PMID:27463710

  18. A Simple Threshold Rule Is Sufficient to Explain Sophisticated Collective Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elva J. H.; Franks, Nigel R.; Ellis, Samuel; Okuda, Saki; Marshall, James A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Decision-making animals can use slow-but-accurate strategies, such as making multiple comparisons, or opt for simpler, faster strategies to find a ‘good enough’ option. Social animals make collective decisions about many group behaviours including foraging and migration. The key to the collective choice lies with individual behaviour. We present a case study of a collective decision-making process (house-hunting ants, Temnothorax albipennis), in which a previously proposed decision strategy involved both quality-dependent hesitancy and direct comparisons of nests by scouts. An alternative possible decision strategy is that scouting ants use a very simple quality-dependent threshold rule to decide whether to recruit nest-mates to a new site or search for alternatives. We use analytical and simulation modelling to demonstrate that this simple rule is sufficient to explain empirical patterns from three studies of collective decision-making in ants, and can account parsimoniously for apparent comparison by individuals and apparent hesitancy (recruitment latency) effects, when available nests differ strongly in quality. This highlights the need to carefully design experiments to detect individual comparison. We present empirical data strongly suggesting that best-of-n comparison is not used by individual ants, although individual sequential comparisons are not ruled out. However, by using a simple threshold rule, decision-making groups are able to effectively compare options, without relying on any form of direct comparison of alternatives by individuals. This parsimonious mechanism could promote collective rationality in group decision-making. PMID:21629645

  19. [Hospitalizations performed in patients enrolled in assistance programs for not-self-sufficient individuals].

    PubMed

    Biselli, Giuliano; Dell'amico, Maria Chiara; Vivani, Paola

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to verify if the enrollement of patients aged over sixty-five (over 65), in the territorial assistance programs of a mountain area, has reduced and optimized the volume of hospitalizations. During 2009, 422 patients over 65 who were non self-sufficient, with iso-severity level (IL) from 5 to 0 (Regione Toscana, Decreto n. 1354 del 25 Marzo 2010), were enrolled in home care programs. These data were processed despite the following analytical limitations: 1) inability to provide all tax codes (entered manually in database), the corrisponding personal data; 2) necessity to make cross-comparisons among numerous archives of data from different sources; and 3) lack to identify the outcome indicators for each patient. The assisted patients are characterized by a very high hospitalization rate. Among the main diseases, the following needed at least one hospitalization: dementia, stroke, cancer, osteoarticular diseases, cerebrovascular disease and Parkinson's disease. Therefore it is necessary to re-evaluate the current procedures adopted for the management of chronic diseases in the elderly in their own homes. PMID:23748636

  20. Characterization of Terahertz Single-Photon-Sensitive Bolometric Detectors Using a Pulsed Microwave Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Santavicca, D. F.; Frunzio, L.; Prober, D. E.; Reulet, B.; Karasik, B. S.; Pereverzev, S. V.; Olaya, D.; Gershenson, M. E.

    2009-12-16

    We describe a technique for characterizing bolometric detectors that have sufficient sensitivity to count single terahertz photons. The device is isolated from infrared blackbody radiation and a single terahertz photon is simulated by a fast microwave pulse, where the absorbed energy of the pulse is equal to the photon energy. We have employed this technique to characterize bolometric detectors consisting of a superconducting titanium nanobridge with niobium contacts. Present devices have T{sub c} = 0.3 K and a measured intrinsic energy resolution of approximately 6 terahertz full-width at half-maximum, near the predicted value due to intrinsic thermal fluctuation noise, with a time constant of 2 {mu}s. An intrinsic energy resolution of 1 terahertz should be achievable by reducing the volume of the titanium nanobridge. Such a detector has important applications in future space-based terahertz astronomy missions.

  1. Close sequence comparisons are sufficient to identify human cis-regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Shyam; Poulin, Francis; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M; Couronne, Olivier; Pennacchio, Len A

    2006-07-01

    Cross-species DNA sequence comparison is the primary method used to identify functional noncoding elements in human and other large genomes. However, little is known about the relative merits of evolutionarily close and distant sequence comparisons. To address this problem, we identified evolutionarily conserved noncoding regions in primate, mammalian, and more distant comparisons using a uniform approach (Gumby) that facilitates unbiased assessment of the impact of evolutionary distance on predictive power. We benchmarked computational predictions against previously identified cis-regulatory elements at diverse genomic loci and also tested numerous extremely conserved human-rodent sequences for transcriptional enhancer activity using an in vivo enhancer assay in transgenic mice. Human regulatory elements were identified with acceptable sensitivity (53%-80%) and true-positive rate (27%-67%) by comparison with one to five other eutherian mammals or six other simian primates. More distant comparisons (marsupial, avian, amphibian, and fish) failed to identify many of the empirically defined functional noncoding elements. Our results highlight the practical utility of close sequence comparisons, and the loss of sensitivity entailed by more distant comparisons. We derived an intuitive relationship between ancient and recent noncoding sequence conservation from whole-genome comparative analysis that explains most of the observations from empirical benchmarking. Lastly, we determined that, in addition to strength of conservation, genomic location and/or density of surrounding conserved elements must also be considered in selecting candidate enhancers for in vivo testing at embryonic time points. PMID:16769978

  2. How Sensitively Timed Are Sensitive Periods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Rita Schaefer

    2003-01-01

    Reviews Maria Montessori's view of sensitive periods and examines the kinds of help needed from adults: an open mind, specific help from a prepared learning environment, and challenges presented at the right time. Stresses the universality of sensitive periods and their connection to brain development. Focuses on the unconscious nature and…

  3. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  4. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I; Gearhart, Jeffery M; McLanahan, Eva D

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150-180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  5. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W.; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I.; Gearhart, Jeffery M.; McLanahan, Eva D.

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150–180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  6. The transcension hypothesis: Sufficiently advanced civilizations invariably leave our universe, and implications for METI and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, John M.

    2012-09-01

    The emerging science of evolutionary developmental ("evo devo") biology can aid us in thinking about our universe as both an evolutionary system, where most processes are unpredictable and creative, and a developmental system, where a special few processes are predictable and constrained to produce far-future-specific emergent order, just as we see in the common developmental processes in two stars of an identical population type, or in two genetically identical twins in biology. The transcension hypothesis proposes that a universal process of evolutionary development guides all sufficiently advanced civilizations into what may be called "inner space," a computationally optimal domain of increasingly dense, productive, miniaturized, and efficient scales of space, time, energy, and matter, and eventually, to a black-hole-like destination. Transcension as a developmental destiny might also contribute to the solution to the Fermi paradox, the question of why we have not seen evidence of or received beacons from intelligent civilizations. A few potential evolutionary, developmental, and information theoretic reasons, mechanisms, and models for constrained transcension of advanced intelligence are briefly considered. In particular, we introduce arguments that black holes may be a developmental destiny and standard attractor for all higher intelligence, as they appear to some to be ideal computing, learning, forward time travel, energy harvesting, civilization merger, natural selection, and universe replication devices. In the transcension hypothesis, simpler civilizations that succeed in resisting transcension by staying in outer (normal) space would be developmental failures, which are statistically very rare late in the life cycle of any biological developing system. If transcension is a developmental process, we may expect brief broadcasts or subtle forms of galactic engineering to occur in small portions of a few galaxies, the handiwork of young and immature

  7. Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient.

    PubMed

    Dewar, Michaela; Alber, Jessica; Cowan, Nelson; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition. PMID:25333957

  8. Smoking Lung Cancer Patients and Tobacco Cessation - Is the Current Treatment in Germany Sufficient?

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, K; Thielke, L; Deter, A; Riemer, T; Eggeling, S; Pankow, W; Mache, S

    2015-11-01

    Lung cancer is the most preventable neoplastic disease for men and women. The incidence rate per year is 14.000 in Germany. Smoking is the main risk factor for the onset of lung cancer and for a share of 90% of cases, lung cancer is associated with smoking. Recent studies have shown that the time slot of diagnosing lung cancer is a teachable moment for tobacco cessation interventions. The therapy that was rated most effective was a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy (e. g. NRT, Bupropion, Varenicline). We examined the smoking status of all patients undergoing lung cancer surgery in 2011, 2012 and 2013 in this study. A retrospective semi structured interview via telephone was conducted regarding smoking habits and current quality of life. 131 patients (36.6% female, average age of 68.7 years) of an urban German hospital were included.Results showed a relapse rate of 22.3%, while 86.2% used to be highly addicted smokers; A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) indicated a significant overall impact of smoking status on quality of life with a medium effect size, controlled for age, gender, living conditions, tumor stage, duration of smoking abstinence, type of cancer therapy, type of resection method, and the time period between the date of surgery and of the survey. Two thirds of all smokers did not see an association between their habit and their disease.So far motivation to quit and long term abstinence rates are not sufficiently established even among seriously sick patients in Germany; further initiatives should focus on new and more intense interventions and educational strategies. PMID:26398407

  9. Activating Transcription Factor 6 Is Necessary and Sufficient for Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Howarth, Deanna L.; Lindtner, Claudia; Vacaru, Ana M.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Tsedensodnom, Orkhontuya; Vasilkova, Taisa; Buettner, Christoph; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver disease (FLD) is characterized by lipid accumulation in hepatocytes and is accompanied by secretory pathway dysfunction, resulting in induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), one of three main UPR sensors, functions to both promote FLD during acute stress and reduce FLD during chronic stress. There is little mechanistic understanding of how ATF6, or any other UPR factor, regulates hepatic lipid metabolism to cause disease. We addressed this using zebrafish genetics and biochemical analyses and demonstrate that Atf6 is necessary and sufficient for FLD. atf6 transcription is significantly upregulated in the liver of zebrafish with alcoholic FLD and morpholino-mediated atf6 depletion significantly reduced steatosis incidence caused by alcohol. Moreover, overexpression of active, nuclear Atf6 (nAtf6) in hepatocytes caused FLD in the absence of stress. mRNA-Seq and qPCR analyses of livers from five day old nAtf6 transgenic larvae revealed upregulation of genes promoting glyceroneogenesis and fatty acid elongation, including fatty acid synthase (fasn), and nAtf6 overexpression in both zebrafish larvae and human hepatoma cells increased the incorporation of 14C-acetate into lipids. Srebp transcription factors are key regulators of lipogenic enzymes, but reducing Srebp activation by scap morpholino injection neither prevented FLD in nAtf6 transgenics nor synergized with atf6 knockdown to reduce alcohol-induced FLD. In contrast, fasn morpholino injection reduced FLD in nAtf6 transgenic larvae and synergistically interacted with atf6 to reduce alcoholic FLD. Thus, our data demonstrate that Atf6 is required for alcoholic FLD and epistatically interacts with fasn to cause this disease, suggesting triglyceride biogenesis as the mechanism of UPR induced FLD. PMID:24874946

  10. Rspo1-activated signalling molecules are sufficient to induce ovarian differentiation in XY medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Linyan; Charkraborty, Tapas; Zhou, Qian; Mohapatra, Sipra; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Zhang, Yueguang

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to our understanding of testicular differentiation, ovarian differentiation is less well understood in vertebrates. In mammals, R-spondin1 (Rspo1), an activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, is located upstream of the female sex determination pathway. However, the functions of Rspo1 in ovarian differentiation remain unclear in non-mammalian species. In order to elucidate the detailed functions of Rspo/Wnt signaling pathway in fish sex determination/differentiation, the ectopic expression of the Rspo1 gene was performed in XY medaka (Oryzias latipes). The results obtained demonstrated that the gain of Rspo1 function induced femininity in XY fish. The overexpression of Rspo1 enhanced Wnt4b and β-catenin transcription, and completely suppressed the expression of male-biased genes (Dmy, Gsdf, Sox9a2 and Dmrt1) as well as testicular differentiation. Gonadal reprograming of Rspo1-over-expressed-XY (Rspo1-OV-XY) fish, induced the production of female-biased genes (Cyp19a1a and Foxl2), estradiol-17β production and further female type secondary sexuality. Moreover, Rspo1-OV-XY females were fertile and produced successive generations. Promoter analyses showed that Rspo1 transcription was directly regulated by DM domain genes (Dmy, the sex-determining gene, and Dmrt1) and remained unresponsive to Foxl2. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that Rspo1 is sufficient to activate ovarian development and plays a decisive role in the ovarian differentiation in medaka. PMID:26782368

  11. Mouse Sperm Membrane Potential Hyperpolarization Is Necessary and Sufficient to Prepare Sperm for the Acrosome Reaction*

    PubMed Central

    De La Vega-Beltran, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Krapf, Darío; Hernandez-González, Enrique O.; Wertheimer, Eva; Treviño, Claudia L.; Visconti, Pablo E.; Darszon, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian sperm are unable to fertilize the egg immediately after ejaculation; they acquire this capacity during migration in the female reproductive tract. This maturational process is called capacitation and in mouse sperm it involves a plasma membrane reorganization, extensive changes in the state of protein phosphorylation, increases in intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), and the appearance of hyperactivated motility. In addition, mouse sperm capacitation is associated with the hyperpolarization of the cell membrane potential. However, the functional role of this process is not known. In this work, to dissect the role of this membrane potential change, hyperpolarization was induced in noncapacitated sperm using either the ENaC inhibitor amiloride, the CFTR agonist genistein or the K+ ionophore valinomycin. In this experimental setting, other capacitation-associated processes such as activation of a cAMP-dependent pathway and the consequent increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation were not observed. However, hyperpolarization was sufficient to prepare sperm for the acrosome reaction induced either by depolarization with high K+ or by addition of solubilized zona pellucida (sZP). Moreover, K+ and sZP were also able to increase [Ca2+]i in non-capacitated sperm treated with these hyperpolarizing agents but not in untreated cells. On the other hand, in conditions that support capacitation-associated processes blocking hyperpolarization by adding valinomycin and increasing K+ concentrations inhibited the agonist-induced acrosome reaction as well as the increase in [Ca2+]i. Altogether, these results suggest that sperm hyperpolarization by itself is key to enabling mice sperm to undergo the acrosome reaction. PMID:23095755

  12. Necessary, but not sufficient: Raman identification of disordered carbon as a signature of ancient life.

    PubMed

    Pasteris, Jill Dill; Wopenka, Brigitte

    2003-01-01

    To identify microscopic particles as actual fossil material, it would be useful to have a means of unambiguously recognizing which carbonaceous deposits found in rocks are residues from once-living organisms (i.e., biogenic material). Those residues consist of many different, mostly aromatic (i.e., benzene ring-containing), C-O-H-dominated molecules, and typically are called kerogens. Raman microprobe spectroscopy can be applied to minute samples of ancient kerogens either isolated from their host rocks or in situ in thin section. The Raman spectra generated by monochromatic blue or green laser excitation (e.g., at 488, 514, 532 nm) typically show only generic spectral features indicative of discontinuous arrays of condensed benzene rings (i.e., structures referred to as "disordered carbonaceous material"). Thus, despite the complex chemistry of kerogens and the expected presence of H, O, and N, the Raman spectra typically do not show any evidence of functional groups, such as CH, CH(2), CH(3), CO, and CN. Moreover, the same kind of Raman spectral signature as is obtained from kerogens also is obtained from many other poorly ordered carbonaceous materials that arise through nonbiological processes, such as in situ heating of organic or inorganic compounds (whether or not they are of biological origin), metamorphic mobilization of preexisting carbon compounds, and high-temperature precipitation from hydrothermal solutions. Thus, neither a Raman spectrum, nor a Raman image derived from such spectra, definitively can identify a sample as "kerogen," but only as "disordered carbonaceous material." Clearly, the fact that small, opaque grains consist of disordered carbonaceous material is necessary, but not sufficient, to prove them to be residues of cellular material and, thus, biogenic. PMID:14987478

  13. Social Experience Is Sufficient to Modulate Sleep Need of Drosophila without Increasing Wakefulness.

    PubMed

    Lone, Shahnaz Rahman; Potdar, Sheetal; Srivastava, Manishi; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Organisms quickly learn about their surroundings and display synaptic plasticity which is thought to be critical for their survival. For example, fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster exposed to highly enriched social environment are found to show increased synaptic connections and a corresponding increase in sleep. Here we asked if social environment comprising a pair of same-sex individuals could enhance sleep in the participating individuals. To study this, we maintained individuals of D. melanogaster in same-sex pairs for a period of 1 to 4 days, and after separation, monitored sleep of the previously socialized and solitary individuals under similar conditions. Males maintained in pairs for 3 or more days were found to sleep significantly more during daytime and showed a tendency to fall asleep sooner as compared to solitary controls (both measures together are henceforth referred to as "sleep-enhancement"). This sleep phenotype is not strain-specific as it is observed in males from three different "wild type" strains of D. melanogaster. Previous studies on social interaction mediated sleep-enhancement presumed 'waking experience' during the interaction to be the primary underlying cause; however, we found sleep-enhancement to occur without any significant increase in wakefulness. Furthermore, while sleep-enhancement due to group-wise social interaction requires Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF) positive neurons; PDF positive and CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) positive circadian clock neurons and the core circadian clock genes are not required for sleep-enhancement to occur when males interact in pairs. Pair-wise social interaction mediated sleep-enhancement requires dopamine and olfactory signaling, while visual and gustatory signaling systems seem to be dispensable. These results suggest that socialization alone (without any change in wakefulness) is sufficient to cause sleep-enhancement in fruit fly D. melanogaster males, and that its neuronal control is context

  14. Peroral Estradiol Is Sufficient to Induce Carcinogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Ovariectomized Rats without Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Stires, Hillary; Saboya, Mariana; Globerman, Samantha P; Cohick, Wendie S

    2016-01-01

    A role for estrogens in breast cancer is widely accepted, however, recent evidence highlights that timing and exposure levels are important in determining whether they elicit harmful versus beneficial effects. The rat chemical carcinogen model has been widely used to study the effects of estrogens but conclusions on the levels that lead to tumor development and an absolute requirement for progesterone (P4) are lacking. A newer method of hormone administration mixes hormones with nut butter for peroral consumption allowing for a less stressful method of long-term administration with lower spikes in serum estradiol (E2) levels. The present study was designed to determine if estrogens alone at a physiological dose can drive carcinogen-induced tumors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats or if P4 is also required using this method of hormone administration. Short-term studies were conducted to determine the dose of estrogen (E) that would lead to increased uterine weight following OVX. Subsequently, rats were OVX on postnatal day (PND) 40 then treated daily with E (600 μg/kg/day), P4 (15 mg/kg/day), or the combination. On PND 50, all rats were injected with nitrosomethylurea to induce mammary tumors. Uterine weights, body weights, and serum E2 levels were measured to demonstrate the efficacy of the method for increasing E2 levels during long-term treatment. After 26 weeks, tumor incidence was similar in Sham, E, and E + P4 animals indicating that E was sufficient to induce tumorigenesis when hormone levels were normalized by this method. This study demonstrates peroral administration can be used in long-term studies to elucidate relationships between different types and levels of steroid hormones. PMID:27611094

  15. Sufficient Numbers of Early Germ Cells Are Essential for Female Sex Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiangyan; Jin, Xia; Chen, Xiaowen; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2015-01-01

    The sex determination for zebrafish is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The determination of sex in zebrafish has been suggested to rely on a mechanism that is affected by germ cell-derived signals. To begin our current study, a simplified and efficient germ cell-specific promoter of the dead end (dnd) gene was identified. Utilizing the metrodinazole (MTZ)/ bacterial nitroreductase (NTR) system for inducible germ cell ablation, several stable Tg (dnd:NTR-EGFP-3'UTR) and Tg (dnd:NTR-EGFP+3'UTR) zebrafish lines were then generated with the identified promoter. A thorough comparison of the expression patterns and tissue distributions of endogenous dnd and ntr-egfp transcripts in vivo revealed that the identified 2032-bp zebrafish dnd promoter can recapitulate dnd expression faithfully in stable transgenic zebrafish. The correlation between the levels of the germ cell-derived signals and requirement for maintaining the female fate has been also explored with different durations of the MTZ treatments. Our results revealed the decreasing ratios of female presented in the treated transgenic group are fairly associated with the reducing levels of the early germ cell-derived signals. After the juvenile transgenic fish treated with 5 mM MTZ for 20 days, all MTZ-treated transgenic fish exclusively developed into males with subfertilities. Taken together, our results identified here a simplified and efficient dnd promoter, and provide clear evidence indicating that it was not the presence but the sufficiency of signals derived from germ cells that is essential for female sex development in zebrafish. Our model also provides a unique system for sex control in zebrafish studies. PMID:25679390

  16. Partial base flipping is sufficient for strand slippage near DNA duplex termini.

    PubMed

    Banavali, Nilesh K

    2013-06-01

    Strand slippage is a structural mechanism by which insertion-deletion (indel) mutations are introduced during replication by polymerases. Three-dimensional atomic-resolution structural pathways are still not known for the decades-old template slippage description. The dynamic nature of the process and the higher energy intermediates involved increase the difficulty of studying these processes experimentally. In the present study, restrained and unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations, carried out using multiple nucleic acid force fields, are used to demonstrate that partial base-flipping can be sufficient for strand slippage at DNA duplex termini. Such strand slippage can occur in either strand, i.e. near either the 3' or the 5' terminus of a DNA strand, which suggests that similar structural flipping mechanisms can cause both primer and template slippage. In the repetitive mutation hot-spot sequence studied, non-canonical base-pairing with exposed DNA groove atoms of a neighboring G:C base-pair stabilizes a partially flipped state of the cytosine. For its base-pair partner guanine, a similar partially flipped metastable intermediate was not detected, and the propensity for sustained slippage was also found to be lower. This illustrates that a relatively small metastable DNA structural distortion in polymerase active sites could allow single base insertion or deletion mutations to occur, and stringent DNA groove molecular recognition may be required to maintain intrinsic DNA polymerase fidelity. The implications of a close relationship between base-pair dissociation, base unstacking, and strand slippage are discussed in the context of sequence dependence of indel mutations. PMID:23692220

  17. School children sufficiently apply life supporting first aid: a prospective investigation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The usefulness of CPR training in schools has been questioned because young students may not have the physical and cognitive skills needed to correctly perform such complex tasks correctly. Methods In pupils, who received six hours of CPR training from their teachers during a standard school semester at four months post training the following outcome parameters were assessed: CPR effectiveness, AED deployment, accuracy in checking vital signs, correctness of recovery position, and whether the ambulance service was effectively notified. Possible correlations of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and outcome parameters were calculated. Results Of 147 students (mean age 13 ± 2 years), 86% performed CPR correctly. Median depth of chest compressions was 35 mm (inter quartile range (IQR) 31 to 41), and the median number of compressions per minute was 129 bpm (IQR 108 to 143). Sixty nine percent of the students tilted the mannequin head sufficiently for mouth to mouth resuscitation, and the median air volume delivered was 540 ml (IQR 0 to 750). Scores on other life supporting techniques were at least 80% or higher. Depth of chest compressions showed a correlation with BMI (r = 0.35; P < 0.0001), body weight (r = 0.38; P < 0.0001), and body height (r = 0.31; P = 0.0002) but not with age. All other outcomes were found to be unrelated to gender, age, or BMI. Conclusions Students as young as 9 years are able to successfully and effectively learn basic life support skills including AED deployment, correct recovery position and emergency calling. As in adults, physical strength may limit depth of chest compressions and ventilation volumes but skill retention is good. PMID:19646229

  18. Rspo1-activated signalling molecules are sufficient to induce ovarian differentiation in XY medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Linyan; Charkraborty, Tapas; Zhou, Qian; Mohapatra, Sipra; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Zhang, Yueguang

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to our understanding of testicular differentiation, ovarian differentiation is less well understood in vertebrates. In mammals, R-spondin1 (Rspo1), an activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, is located upstream of the female sex determination pathway. However, the functions of Rspo1 in ovarian differentiation remain unclear in non-mammalian species. In order to elucidate the detailed functions of Rspo/Wnt signaling pathway in fish sex determination/differentiation, the ectopic expression of the Rspo1 gene was performed in XY medaka (Oryzias latipes). The results obtained demonstrated that the gain of Rspo1 function induced femininity in XY fish. The overexpression of Rspo1 enhanced Wnt4b and β-catenin transcription, and completely suppressed the expression of male-biased genes (Dmy, Gsdf, Sox9a2 and Dmrt1) as well as testicular differentiation. Gonadal reprograming of Rspo1-over-expressed-XY (Rspo1-OV-XY) fish, induced the production of female-biased genes (Cyp19a1a and Foxl2), estradiol-17β production and further female type secondary sexuality. Moreover, Rspo1-OV-XY females were fertile and produced successive generations. Promoter analyses showed that Rspo1 transcription was directly regulated by DM domain genes (Dmy, the sex-determining gene, and Dmrt1) and remained unresponsive to Foxl2. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that Rspo1 is sufficient to activate ovarian development and plays a decisive role in the ovarian differentiation in medaka. PMID:26782368

  19. Disparate British Breast Reconstruction Utilization: Is Universal Coverage Sufficient to Ensure Expanded Care?

    PubMed Central

    Offodile, Anaeze C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Our intent is to improve the understanding of the ability of healthcare providers to deliver high-quality care as we approach an era of universal coverage. We adopted 2 unique vantage points in this article: (1) the mandated coverage for immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) surgery as a microcosmic surrogate for universal coverage overall and (2) we then scrutinized the respective IBR utilization rates in a contemporaneous system of 2 healthcare delivery models in the United Kingdom, that is, the public National Health Service trust versus private-sector hospitals. A literature review was performed for IBR rates across public trust and private-sector hospitals in the United Kingdom. The IBR rate among public trust hospitals was 17% compared with 43% in the private sector. In the trust hospital setting, the enactment of 2 government mandates, intended to increase the access to cancer care, seemed to fall short in maximizing the ability of surgical practitioners to deliver quality care to patients. Among women who did not receive IBR, 65% felt that they had received the sufficient amount of information to appropriately inform their decision. In addition, only 46% of this same cohort reported a consultation with a reconstructive surgeon preoperatively. Private-sector hospitals delivered better IBR care because of the likely presence of infrastructure and financial incentives for physicians. These results serve as a call for a better alignment between policy initiatives designed to expand care access and the perogatives of physicians to ensure an optimized delivery of the expanded care such policy mandates. PMID:27482486

  20. Conditions sufficient for nonsynaptic epileptogenesis in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Bikson, Marom; Baraban, Scott C; Durand, Dominique M

    2002-01-01

    Nonsynaptic mechanisms exert a powerful influence on seizure threshold. It is well-established that nonsynaptic epileptiform activity can be induced in hippocampal slices by reducing extracellular Ca(2+) concentration. We show here that nonsynaptic epileptiform activity can be readily induced in vitro in normal (2 mM) Ca(2+) levels. Those conditions sufficient for nonsynaptic epileptogenesis in the CA1 region were determined by pharmacologically mimicking the effects of Ca(2+) reduction in normal Ca(2+) levels. Increasing neuronal excitability, by removing extracellular Mg(2+) and increasing extracellular K(+) (6-15 mM), induced epileptiform activity that was suppressed by postsynaptic receptor antagonists [D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, picrotoxin, and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione] and was therefore synaptic in nature. Similarly, epileptiform activity induced when neuronal excitability was increased in the presence of K(Ca) antagonists (verruculogen, charybdotoxin, norepinephrine, tetraethylammonium salt, and Ba(2+)) was found to be synaptic in nature. Decreases in osmolarity also failed to induce nonsynaptic epileptiform activity in the CA1 region. However, increasing neuronal excitability (by removing extracellular Mg(2+) and increasing extracellular K(+)) in the presence of Cd(2+), a nonselective Ca(2+) channel antagonist, or veratridine, a persistent sodium conductance enhancer, induced spontaneous nonsynaptic epileptiform activity in vitro. Both novel models were characterized using intracellular and ion-selective electrodes. The results of this study suggest that reducing extracellular Ca(2+) facilitates bursting by increasing neuronal excitability and inhibiting Ca(2+) influx, which might, in turn, enhance a persistent sodium conductance. Furthermore, these data show that nonsynaptic mechanisms can contribute to epileptiform activity in normal Ca(2+) levels. PMID:11784730