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Sample records for achieve therapeutic benefits

  1. Therapeutic benefits of cannabis: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Webb, Charles W; Webb, Sandra M

    2014-04-01

    Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis ("marijuana") has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai'i. The response rate was 94%. Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain. Average pain improvement on a 0-10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain. Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai'i. No serious adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription.

  2. Extolling the benefits of molecular therapeutic lipidation.

    PubMed

    Avadisian, Miriam; Gunning, Patrick T

    2013-09-01

    The conjugation of drug or molecular recognition motif to a hydrophobic fatty entity, for purpose of drug-membrane localization, has been a molecular strategy utilized for targeted inhibition of pathways involved in diseased cells. In general, membrane-anchored inhibitor structures have been composed of either a lipid or sterol group coupled via a broad range of inert linkers to either a peptide or small molecule protein recognition agent. Whilst not adhering to the molecular paradigms of modern medicinal chemistry, this approach has afforded peptidic-based therapeutics with improved cellular and in vivo efficacy, leading to more selective targeting of membrane associated protein targets and the effective immobilization of cytosolic signaling proteins through membrane anchorage. The evidence suggests that membrane-anchored peptidic inhibitors are more selective, potent, structurally rigid, and possess enhanced cell permeability profiles as compared to their non-lipidated precursors. This perspectives article will review the application of lipid or sterol conjugation to peptide inhibitors (lipo-molecules) to circumvent the poor cell permeability and metabolic labilities associated with peptidic therapeutics. In addition, the concept of protein-membrane anchorage as a novel drug modality for inhibiting cytosolic signaling protein motility in cells will be reviewed and its merits as an approach to inhibiting protein complexation, protein nuclear translocation and their potential for more effective targeting of membrane associated targets.

  3. Therapeutic benefits of nanoparticles in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotou, Stavros; Saha, Sikha

    2015-01-01

    Stroke represents one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide, for which no effective treatments are available. The thrombolytic drug alteplase (tissue plasminogen activator or tPA) is the only treatment for acute ischemic stroke but its use is limited by several factors including short therapeutic window, selective efficacy, and subsequent haemorrhagic complications. Numerous preclinical studies have reported very promising results using neuroprotective agents but they have failed at clinical trials because of either safety issues or lack of efficacy. The delivery of many potentially therapeutic neuroprotectants and diagnostic compounds to the brain is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanoparticles (NPs), which can readily cross the BBB without compromising its integrity, have immense applications in the treatment of ischemic stroke. In this review, potential uses of NPs will be summarized for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Additionally, an overview of targeted NPs will be provided, which could be used in the diagnosis of stroke. Finally, the potential limitations of using NPs in medical applications will be mentioned. Since the use of NPs in stroke therapy is now emerging and is still in development, this review is far from comprehensive or conclusive. Instead, examples of NPs and their current use will be provided, as well as the potentials of NPs in an effort to meet the high demand of new therapies in stroke. PMID:26041986

  4. Therapeutic benefits of regulating inflammation in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Nikoopour, Enayat; Schwartz, Jordan Ari; Singh, Bhagirath

    2008-09-01

    Autoimmunity results from the dysregulation of the immune system leading to tissue damage. Th1 and Th17 cells are known to be cellular mediators of inflammation in autoimmune diseases. The specific cytokine milieu within the site of inflammation or within secondary lymphatic tissues is important during the priming and effector phases of T cell response. In this review, we will address the nature of the inflammatory response in the context of autoimmune disease, specifically we will discuss the role of dendritic cells following stimulation of their innate pathogen recognition receptors in directing the development of T cell responses. We will focus on how dendritic cell subsets change the balance between major players in autoimmunity, namely Th1, Th17 and regulatory T cells. Th17 cells, once thought to only act as pathogenic effectors through production of IL-17, have been shown to have regulatory properties as well with co-production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by a subset now referred to as regulatory Th17 cells. IL-17 is important in the induction of autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Study of the inflammatory process following encounter with agents that stimulate the innate immune responses such as adjuvants opens a new horizon for the discovery of therapeutic agents including those derived from microorganisms. Microbial products such as adjuvants that function as TLR ligands may stimulate the immune system by interacting with Toll-like receptors (TLR) on antigen-presenting cells. Microbial agents such as Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or Freund's adjuvant (CFA) that induce a Th17 response are protective in models of autoimmune diseases particularly EAE and type 1 diabetes (T1D). The induction of innate immunity by these microbial products alters the balance in the cytokine microenvironment and may be responsible for modulation of the inflammation and protection from

  5. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in TWI programs outperformed their peers…

  6. Potential therapeutic benefits of strategies directed to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Camara, Amadou K S; Lesnefsky, Edward J; Stowe, David F

    2010-08-01

    The mitochondrion is the most important organelle in determining continued cell survival and cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to many human maladies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. These mitochondria-related pathologies range from early infancy to senescence. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the pathological state, alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction would contribute to attenuating the severity or progression of the disease. Therefore, this review will examine the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of several diseases and explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting mitochondria in mitigating the disease processes. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate and manipulate mitochondrial function and genomics for therapeutic benefit. These approaches to treat mitochondrial dysfunction rationally could lead to selective protection of cells in different tissues and various disease states. However, most of these approaches are in their infancy.

  7. The endocrine system and sarcopenia: potential therapeutic benefits.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.

  8. Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Strategies Directed to Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Stowe, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrion is the most important organelle in determining continued cell survival and cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to many human maladies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. These mitochondria-related pathologies range from early infancy to senescence. The central premise of this review is that if mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to the pathological state, alleviating the mitochondrial dysfunction would contribute to attenuating the severity or progression of the disease. Therefore, this review will examine the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of several diseases and explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting mitochondria in mitigating the disease processes. Indeed, recent advances in mitochondrial biology have led to selective targeting of drugs designed to modulate and manipulate mitochondrial function and genomics for therapeutic benefit. These approaches to treat mitochondrial dysfunction rationally could lead to selective protection of cells in different tissues and various disease states. However, most of these approaches are in their infancy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 13, 279–347. PMID:20001744

  9. Therapeutic potential and health benefits of Sargassum species

    PubMed Central

    Yende, Subhash R.; Harle, Uday N.; Chaugule, Bhupal B.

    2014-01-01

    Sargassum species are tropical and sub-tropical brown macroalgae (seaweed) of shallow marine meadow. These are nutritious and rich source of bioactive compounds such as vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fibers, proteins, and minerals. Also, many biologically active compounds like terpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, sulfated polysaccharides, polyphenols, sargaquinoic acids, sargachromenol, pheophytine were isolated from different Sargassum species. These isolated compounds exhibit diverse biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, fibrinolytic, immune-modulatory, anti-coagulant, hepatoprotective, anti-viral activity etc., Hence, Sargassum species have great potential to be used in pharmaceutical and neutralceutical areas. This review paper explores the current knowledge of phytochemical, therapeutic potential, and health benefits of different species of genus Sargassum. PMID:24600190

  10. Stem cell transplantation therapy for multifaceted therapeutic benefits after stroke.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ling; Wei, Zheng Z; Jiang, Michael Qize; Mohamad, Osama; Yu, Shan Ping

    2017-03-18

    One of the exciting advances in modern medicine and life science is cell-based neurovascular regeneration of damaged brain tissues and repair of neuronal structures. The progress in stem cell biology and creation of adult induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has significantly improved basic and pre-clinical research in disease mechanisms and generated enthusiasm for potential applications in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including stroke. Endogenous neural stem cells and cultured stem cells are capable of self-renewal and give rise to virtually all types of cells essential for the makeup of neuronal structures. Meanwhile, stem cells and neural progenitor cells are well-known for their potential for trophic support after transplantation into the ischemic brain. Thus, stem cell-based therapies provide an attractive future for protecting and repairing damaged brain tissues after injury and in various disease states. Moreover, basic research on naïve and differentiated stem cells including iPS cells has markedly improved our understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurological disorders, and provides a platform for the discovery of novel drug targets. The latest advances indicate that combinatorial approaches using cell based therapy with additional treatments such as protective reagents, preconditioning strategies and rehabilitation therapy can significantly improve therapeutic benefits. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of cell therapy in different ischemic models and the application of stem cells and progenitor cells as regenerative medicine for the treatment of stroke.

  11. The therapeutic benefits of gravity in space and on earth.

    PubMed

    Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Papadelis, C L; Vernikos, J; Bamidis, P D; Hitoglou-Antoniadou, M; Perantoni, E; Vlachogiannis, E

    2008-08-01

    The traditional scientific approach of investigating the role of a variable on a living organism is to remove it or the ability of the organism to sense it. Gravity is no exception. Access to space has made it possible for us to begin the exploration of how gravity has influenced our evolution, our genetic make-up and our physiology. Identifying the thresholds at which each body system perceives, how much, how often, how long the gravity stimulus is needed and in which direction should it be presented for maximum effectiveness, is fundamental knowledge required for using artificial gravity as a therapeutic or maintenance countermeasure treatment in exploration missions. Here on earth, although surrounded by gravity we are negligent in using gravity as it was intended, to maintain the level of health that is appropriate to living in 1G. These, changes in lifestyle or pathologies caused by various types of injury can benefit as well from artificial gravity in much the same way as we are now considering for astronauts in space.

  12. Lymphadenectomy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Is There a Therapeutic Benefit?

    PubMed Central

    Gerry, Jon M.; Tran, Thuy B.; Postlewait, Lauren M.; Maithel, Shishir K.; Prescott, Jason D.; Wang, Tracy S.; Glenn, Jason A.; Phay, John E.; Keplinger, Kara; Fields, Ryan C.; Jin, Linda X.; Weber, Sharon M.; Salem, Ahmed; Sicklick, Jason K.; Gad, Shady; Yopp, Adam C.; Mansour, John C.; Duh, Quan-Yang; Seiser, Natalie; Solorzano, Carmen C.; Kiernan, Colleen M.; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Levine, Edward A.; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Pawlik, Timothy M.; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Poultsides, George A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lymph node metastasis is an established predictor of poor outcome for adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC); however, routine lymphadenectomy during surgical resection of ACC is not widely performed and its therapeutic role remains unclear. Methods Patients undergoing margin-negative resection for localized ACC were identified from a multi-institutional database. Patients were stratified into 2 groups based on the surgeon’s effort or not to perform a lymphadenectomy as documented in the operative note. Clinical, pathologic, and outcome data were compared between the 2 groups. Results Of 120 patients who met inclusion criteria from 1993 to 2014, 32 (27 %) underwent lymphadenectomy. Factors associated with lymphadenectomy were tumor size (12 vs. 9.5 cm; p = .007), palpable mass at presentation (26 vs. 12 %; p = .07), suspicious lymph nodes on preoperative imaging (44 vs. 7 %; p < .001), and need for multivisceral resection (78 vs. 36 %; p <.001). Median number of lymph nodes harvested was higher in the lymphadenectomy group (5.5 vs. 0; p < .001). In-hospital mortality (0 vs. 1.3 %; p =.72) and grade 3/4 complication rates (0 vs. 12 %; p = .061) were not significantly different. Patients who underwent lymphadenectomy had improved overall survival (5-year 76 vs. 59 %; p = .041). The benefit of lymphadenectomy on overall survival persisted on multivariate analysis (HR = 0.17; p = .006) controlling for adverse preoperative and intraoperative factors associated with lymphadenectomy, such as tumor size, palpable mass, irregular tumor edges, suspicious nodes on imaging, and multivisceral resection. Conclusions In this multicenter study of adrenocortical carcinoma patients undergoing R0 resection, the surgeon’s effort to dissect peritumoral lymph nodes was independently associated with improved overall survival. PMID:27590329

  13. The Benefits of Following Your Pride: Authentic Pride Promotes Achievement.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Aaron C; Tracy, Jessica L; Elliot, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Although the emotion authentic pride has been posited to promote achievement, it remains unclear precisely how this works. Here, we tested whether authentic pride promotes adaptive downstream achievement outcomes by motivating individuals to engage in appropriate behavioral responses to success and failure. In two longitudinal studies (N = 1,132), we measured pride emotional responses to a prior performance and subsequent changes in achievement-oriented behavior and performance outcomes among (a) adults training for long-distance running races and (b) undergraduates completing class exams. Authentic pride shifted in direct response to achievement outcomes, such that those who performed well felt greater pride. Furthermore, individuals who felt low authentic pride responded to these feelings by changing their achievement behavior in a functional manner. In Studies 2a, 2b, and 2c, we found that pride-driven behavioral changes led to improved future performance among low performers. In these studies we also demonstrated that the effect of authentic pride on achievement is independent of that of self-efficacy, which in fact works in an opposite manner. Taken together, these results suggest that authentic pride functions as a barometer of achievement, promoting behavioral responses that lead to improved performance.

  14. Government Efficiency and Effectiveness: Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-14

    Other Financial Benefits Statement of Gene L. Dodaro Comptroller General of the United States Testimony Before the Committee on Oversight and...Efficiency and Effectiveness: Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...GOVERNMENT EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS Opportunities to Reduce Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication and Achieve Other Financial Benefits Why

  15. Potential Therapeutic Benefits of Maintaining Mitochondrial Health in Peripheral Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Areti, Aparna; Yerra, Veera Ganesh; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Peripheral neuropathies are a group of diseases characterized by malfunctioning of peripheral nervous system. Neuropathic pain, one of the core manifestations of peripheral neuropathy remains as the most severe disabling condition affecting the social and daily routine life of patients suffering from peripheral neuropathy. Method: The current review is aimed at unfolding the possible role of mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerve damage and to discuss on the probable therapeutic strategies against neuronal mitotoxicity. The article also highlights the therapeutic significance of maintaining a healthy mitochondrial environment in neuronal cells via pharmacological management in context of peripheral neuropathies. Results: Aberrant cellular signaling coupled with changes in neurotransmission, peripheral and central sensitization are found to be responsible for the pathogenesis of variant toxic neuropathies. Current research reports have indicated the possible involvement of mitochondria mediated redox imbalance as one of the principal causes of neuropathy aetiologies. In addition to imbalance in redox homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction is also responsible for alterations in physiological bioenergetic metabolism, apoptosis and autophagy pathways. Conclusions: In spite of various etiological factors, mitochondrial dysfunction has been found to be a major pathomechanism underlying the neuronal dysfunction associated with peripheral neuropathies. Pharmacological modulation of mitochondria either directly or indirectly is expected to yield therapeutic relief from various primary and secondary mitochondrial diseases. PMID:26818748

  16. Individualizing amikacin regimens: accurate method to achieve therapeutic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zaske, D E; Cipolle, R J; Rotschafer, J C; Kohls, P R; Strate, R G

    1991-11-01

    Amikacin's pharmacokinetics and dosage requirements were studied in 98 patients receiving treatment for gram-negative infections. A wide interpatient variation in the kinetic parameters of the drug occurred in all patients and in patients who had normal serum creatinine levels or normal creatinine clearance. The half-life ranged from 0.7 to 14.4 h in 74 patients who had normal serum creatinine levels and from 0.7 to 7.2 h in 37 patients who had normal creatinine clearance. The necessary daily dose to obtain therapeutic serum concentrations ranged from 1.25 to 57 mg/kg in patients with normal serum creatinine levels and from 10 to 57 mg/kg in patients with normal creatinine clearance. In four patients (4%), a significant change in baseline serum creatinine level (greater than 0.5 mg/dl) occurred during or after treatment, which may have been amikacin-associated toxicity. Overt ototoxicity occurred in one patient. The method of individualizing dosage regimens provided a clinically useful means of rapidly attaining therapeutic peak and trough serum concentrations.

  17. Targeting the “Cytokine Storm” for Therapeutic Benefit

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Kate; Oyston, Petra C.; Lukaszewski, Roman A.; Clark, Graeme C.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation is the body's first line of defense against infection or injury, responding to challenges by activating innate and adaptive responses. Microbes have evolved a diverse range of strategies to avoid triggering inflammatory responses. However, some pathogens, such as the influenza virus and the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, do trigger life-threatening “cytokine storms” in the host which can result in significant pathology and ultimately death. For these diseases, it has been proposed that downregulating inflammatory immune responses may improve outcome. We review some of the current candidates for treatment of cytokine storms which may prove useful in the clinic in the future and compare them to more traditional therapeutic candidates that target the pathogen rather than the host response. PMID:23283640

  18. Sesamol: an efficient antioxidant with potential therapeutic benefits.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Thiraviam; Rohit, Bhandari; Pal, Kaur Indu

    2009-07-01

    Sesamol has been shown earlier to exhibit antimutagenic (reactive oxygen mediated) and antiageing activity in our lab and it has also been found to exert chemopreventive effect. Here we report the in vitro antioxidant activity of sesamol. As most of the antioxidants act due to their property to auto-oxidise and the pro- or antioxidant activity would depend on the concentration of the agent used and the free radical source, at least 6 dilutions in concentration range of 5-1000 nmoles of sesamol were selected for each test system. Further the antioxidant activity was compared with a water soluble antioxidant (ascorbic acid). Eventhough some preliminary studies on the antioxidant activity of sesamol have been reported in DPPH assay & inhibition of lipid peroxidation, it is not complete. We, here in report comprehensively (both in terms of the no. of doses and also a variety of test systems being employed) on the antioxidant activity of sesamol. Furthermore, since all the data has been generated by the same workers and under same laboratory conditions, hence is scientifically significant. Also the process of dose selection as discussed earlier is more scientific; and the data treatment, i.e. calculation of IC(50) values and comparisons with ascorbic acid has been statistically validated. In conclusion, sesamol was found to be an efficient scavenger of the entire range of ROS in several test systems pointing towards the potential of sesamol to be developed as a possible therapeutic.

  19. Shifting the Bell Curve: The Benefits and Costs of Raising Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2009-01-01

    Benefit-cost analysis was conducted to estimate the increase in earnings, increased tax revenues, value of less crime, and reductions in welfare costs attributable to nationwide implementation of rapid assessment, a promising intervention for raising student achievement in math and reading. Results suggest that social benefits would exceed total…

  20. Shifting the bell curve: the benefits and costs of raising student achievement.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Stuart S

    2009-02-01

    Benefit-cost analysis was conducted to estimate the increase in earnings, increased tax revenues, value of less crime, and reductions in welfare costs attributable to nationwide implementation of rapid assessment, a promising intervention for raising student achievement in math and reading. Results suggest that social benefits would exceed total social costs by a ratio of 28. Fiscal benefits to the federal government would exceed costs to the federal treasury by a ratio of 93. Social benefits would exceed costs to each state treasury by a ratio no lower than 286, and fiscal benefits would exceed costs to each state treasury by a ratio no lower than 5, for all but two state treasuries. Sensitivity analyses suggest that the findings are robust to a 5-fold change in the underlying parameters.

  1. A systems approach to achieving the benefits of open and modular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Gavin; Smith, Richard; Tripp, Howard; Worthington, Olwen

    2015-05-01

    The ability to evolve Military Communication and Information Systems (CIS) effectively and affordably is enhanced by the adoption of open and modular system architectures. However, there are a number of issues with actually achieving these benefits in practice. This paper presents the results of an initial system study into blockers to the achievement of the benefits of open and modular systems. In particular, the study and this paper, focuses on the issues associated with: the rapidly evolving Information and Communications Technology landscape; the commercial approach to the procurement of CIS systems; the evolution of such systems in a safe and secure manner.

  2. Disruption, Achievement and the Heterogeneous Benefits of Smaller Classes. NBER Working Paper No. 15812

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Graham J.; Rivkin, Steven G.; Sims, Katharine R. E.

    2010-01-01

    With few exceptions, empirical research investigating the possibility of heterogeneous benefits of class size reduction lacks a conceptual framework about specific dimensions of potential heterogeneity. In this paper we develop a model of education production that incorporates disruption and student achievement and illustrates how these underlying…

  3. Potential benefits of therapeutic splenectomy for patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, D.P.; Jacobs, C.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Cox, R.S.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-four patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma underwent therapeutic splenectomies to improve hematologic tolerance for chemotherapy. The mean age was 40 years; there were 16 males and 18 females. Fourteen had Hodgkin's disease, 19 had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 1 had malignant histocytosis. Nineteen had palpable splenomegaly, 19 had marrow involvement and 20 had splenic involvement by lymphoma. The following data were analyzed before and after splenectomy: mean white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet count on planned first day of cycle, delay ratio of chemotherapy delivery and percent maximal dose rate. Thirteen patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, splenomegaly and positive bone marrow and showed significant benefit in all of the aforementioned parameters. Of the patients with prior irradiation, only those who completed their radiation greater than six months prior to splenectomy showed benefit. Ten patients had Hodgkin's disease, negative bone marrow and no splenomegaly. This group showed significant improvement in mean platelet count but more limited benefit in delay ratio and percent maximal dose rate. Thus, selected patients with lymphoma who are experiencing delays in chemotherapy because of poor count tolerance may benefit from splenectomy.

  4. The World Already Avoided: Quantifying the Ozone Benefits Achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, Martyn; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; McKenzie, Richard; Velders, Guus; Pyle, John

    2015-04-01

    Chlorine and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic Ozone Hole expected to disappear by ~2050. However, we show that by 2014 the Montreal Protocol has already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using an off-line 3-D atmospheric chemistry model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with benefits for surface UV and climate. A deep Arctic Ozone Hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given the meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic Ozone Hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The ozone decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ~15% by 2013.

  5. A Qualitative Study of the Perceived Health Benefits of a Therapeutic Riding Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Margaret Ann

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic horseback riding can be recommended as a useful health promotion intervention for individuals with disabilities who face challenges to optimal health and wellness. This qualitative study examined the perceived benefits of a therapeutic riding program for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with particular focus on aspects…

  6. Achieving high mass-throughput of therapeutic proteins through parvovirus retentive filters.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Glen R; Basha, Jonida; Lacasse, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Parvovirus retentive filters that assure removal of viruses and virus-like particles during the production of therapeutic proteins significantly contribute to total manufacturing costs. Operational approaches that can increase throughput and reduce filtration area would result in a significant cost savings. A combination of methods was used to achieve high throughputs of an antibody or therapeutic protein solution through three parvovirus retentive filters. These methods included evaluation of diatomaceous earth or size-based prefilters, the addition of additives, and the optimization of protein concentration, temperature, buffer composition, and solution pH. An optimum temperature of 35°C was found for maximizing throughput through the Virosart CPV and Viresolve Pro filters. Mass-throughput values of 7.3, 26.4, and 76.2 kg/m(2) were achieved through the Asahi Planova 20N, Virosart CPV, and Viresolve Pro filters, respectively, in 4 h of processing. Mass-throughput values of 73, 137, and 192 kg/m(2) were achieved through a Millipore Viresolve Pro filter in 4.0, 8.8, and 22.1 h of processing, respectively, during a single experiment. However, large-scale parvovirus filtration operations are typically controlled to limit volumetric throughput to below the level achieved during small-scale virus spiking experiments. The virus spike may cause significant filter plugging, limiting throughput. Therefore newer parvovirus filter spiking strategies should be adopted that may lead to more representative viral clearance data and higher utilization of large-scale filter capacity.

  7. Therapeutic benefits in thalassemic mice transplanted with long term cultured bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatada, Seigo; Walton, William; Hatada, Tomoko; Wofford, Anne; Fox, Raymond; Liu, Naiyou; Lill, Michael C.; Fair, Jeffery H.; Kirby, Suzanne L.; Smithies, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Objective Autologous bone marrow (BM) cells with a faulty gene corrected by gene targeting could provide a powerful therapeutic option for patients with genetic blood diseases. Achieving this goal is hindered by the low abundance of therapeutically useful BM cells and the difficulty of maintaining them in tissue culture long enough for completing gene targeting without them differentiating. Our objective was to devise a simple long-term culture system, using unfractioned BM cells, that maintains and expands therapeutically useful cells for ≥4 weeks. Materials and Methods From 2 to 60 million BM cells from wild-type (WT) mice, or from mice carrying a truncated erythropoietin receptor transgene (tEpoR-tg), were plated with or without irradiated fetal-liver derived AFT024 stromal cells in 25 cm2 culture flasks. Four-week cultured cells were analyzed and transplanted into sublethally irradiated thalassemic mice (1 million cells / mouse). Results After 4 weeks, the cultures with AFT024 cells had extensive “cobblestone” areas. Optimum expansion of Sca-1 positive cells was 5.5-fold with 20 × 106 WT cells/flask and 27-fold with 2 × 106 tEpoR-tg cells. More than 85% of thalassemic mice transplanted with either type of cells had almost complete reversal of their thalassemic phenotype for at least 6 months, including blood smear dysmorphology, reticulocytosis, high ferritin plasma levels and hepatic/renal hemosiderosis. Conclusion When plated at high cell densities on irradiated fetal-liver derived stromal cells, BM cells from WT mice maintain their therapeutic potential for 4 weeks in culture, which is sufficient time for correction of a faulty gene by targeting. PMID:21184801

  8. [Complementary therapies in cystic fibrosis: evidence of therapeutic benefits and treatment recommendations].

    PubMed

    Salcedo Posadas, A; Girón Moreno, R; Beltrán Bengoechea, B

    2003-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal-recessive disorder that predominantly affects the respiratory system. When this disease was described in 1938 the mortality rate was approximately 70 % in the first year of life. Survival has dramatically increased from a median of approximately 4 years in the 1960s to 19 years in the 1970s and 33 years in 2001 according to figures from the American Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. This impressive increase in the life expectancy of individuals with CF is undoubtedly related to recent advances in the organization of specialized CF units and to the use of new therapies against respiratory involvement.The traditional basis of treatment for CF lung disease includes nutritional support, antibiotic therapy, chest physical therapy and aerobic exercise. Preventive measures such as influenza vaccination and avoidance of tobacco smoke are also useful. Several new approaches such as ion transport therapy, protein therapy and gene therapy are currently being developed. Many studies have provided clear evidence of the therapeutic benefits of antibiotics, respiratory physiotherapy, exercise, and nutrition. In this article we review the scientific evidence on the advantages of the use of several therapeutic interventions against inflammation, increased sputum viscoelasticity and adhesiveness, and bronchial obstruction in CF patients.

  9. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S. S.; Feng, W.; McKenzie, R. L.; Velders, G. J. M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ~2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ~15% by 2013.

  10. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, M P; Dhomse, S S; Feng, W; McKenzie, R L; Velders, G J M; Pyle, J A

    2015-05-26

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013.

  11. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S. S.; Feng, W.; McKenzie, R. L.; Velders, G.J.M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013. PMID:26011106

  12. Realising the Real Benefits of Outsourcing: Measurement Excellence and Its Importance in Achieving Long Term Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshri, Ilan; Kotlarsky, Julia

    These days firms are, more than ever, pressed to demonstrate returns on their investment in outsourcing. While the initial returns can always be associated with one-off cost cutting, outsourcing arrangements are complex, often involving inter-related high-value activities, which makes the realisation of long-term benefits from outsourcing ever more challenging. Executives in client firms are no longer satisfied with the same level of service delivery through the outsourcing lifecycle. They seek to achieve business transformation and innovation in their present and future services, beyond satisfying service level agreements (SLAs). Clearly the business world is facing a new challenge: an outsourcing delivery system of high-value activities that demonstrates value over time and across business functions. However, despite such expectations, many client firms are in the dark when trying to measure and quantify the return on outsourcing investments: results of this research show that less than half of all CIOs and CFOs (43%) have attempted to calculate the financial impact of outsourcing to their bottom line, indicating that the financial benefits are difficult to quantify (51%).

  13. Occult peripheral artery disease is common and limits the benefit achieved in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tam, Marty C; Longenecker, Chris T; Chow, Chen; Vest, Marianne; Sukeena, Richard; Madan Mohan, Sri K; Carman, Teresa; Parikh, Sahil A; Josephson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has proven morbidity and mortality benefits in cardiovascular disease, which directly correlates with exercise performance achieved. Many patients in CR exercise at sub-optimal levels, without obvious limitations. Occult lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) may be a determinant of diminished exercise capacity and reduced benefit obtained from traditional CR. In this prospective study of 150 consecutive patients enrolled in Phase II CR, we describe the prevalence of PAD, the utility of externally validated screening questionnaires, and the observed impact on CR outcomes. Abnormal ankle-brachial indices (ABI) (< 0.9 and >1.4) were observed in 19% of those studied. The Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire was insensitive for detecting PAD by low ABI in this population, and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire and a modified Gardner protocol demonstrated a lack of typical symptoms with low levels of activity. Importantly, at completion of traditional CR, exercise improvement measured in metabolic equivalents (METs) was worse in those with a low ABI compared to those with a normal ABI (+1.39 vs +2.41 METs, p = 0.002). In conclusion, PAD is common in patients in Phase II CR and often clinically occult. Screening based on standard questionnaires appears insensitive in this population, suggesting a need for a broad-based screening strategy with ABI measurements. In this study, undiagnosed PAD significantly attenuated improvements in exercise performance, which potentially has bearings on future clinical events.

  14. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence

    PubMed Central

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-01-01

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  15. HDAC4 as a potential therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases: a summary of recent achievements

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Michal; Zielonka, Daniel; Carnemolla, Alisia; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T.; Guidez, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    For the past decade protein acetylation has been shown to be a crucial post-transcriptional modification involved in the regulation of protein functions. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) mediate acetylation of histones which results in the nucleosomal relaxation associated with gene expression. The reverse reaction, histone deacetylation, is mediated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) leading to chromatin condensation followed by transcriptional repression. HDACs are divided into distinct classes: I, IIa, IIb, III, and IV, on the basis of size and sequence homology, as well as formation of distinct repressor complexes. Implications of HDACs in many diseases, such as cancer, heart failure, and neurodegeneration, have identified these molecules as unique and attractive therapeutic targets. The emergence of HDAC4 among the members of class IIa family as a major player in synaptic plasticity raises important questions about its functions in the brain. The characterization of HDAC4 specific substrates and molecular partners in the brain will not only provide a better understanding of HDAC4 biological functions but also might help to develop new therapeutic strategies to target numerous malignancies. In this review we highlight and summarize recent achievements in understanding the biological role of HDAC4 in neurodegenerative processes. PMID:25759639

  16. Benefits and Challenges of Achieving a Mainstream Market for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ungar, Edward; Mueller, Howard; Smith, Brett

    2010-08-01

    The Plug-in Hybrid electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Final Report identified a range of policies, incentives and regulations designed to enhance the probability of success in commercializing PHEVs as they enter the automotive marketplace starting in 2010. The objective of the comprehensive PHEV Value Proposition study, which encompasses the PHEV Market Introduction Study, is to better understand the value proposition that PHEVs (as well as other plug-in electric vehicle platforms - PEVs) provide to the auto companies themselves, to the consumer and to the public at large as represented by the government and its public policies. In this report we use the more inclusive term PEVs, to include PHEVs, BEVs (battery electric vehicles that operate only on battery) and EREVs (extended range electric vehicles that combine battery electric vehicles with an internal combustion engine that charges the battery as needed). The objective of Taratec's contribution to Phase 2 of the PHEV Value Proposition Study is to develop a clear understanding of the benefits of PEVs to three stakeholders - auto original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), utilities, and the government - and of the technical and commercial challenges and risks to be overcome in order to achieve commercial success for these vehicles. The goal is to understand the technical and commercial challenges in moving from the 'early adopters' at the point of market introduction of these vehicles to a 'sustainable' mainstream market in which PEVs and other PEVs represent a normal, commercially available and attractive vehicle to the mainstream consumer. For the purpose of this study, that sustainable market is assumed to be in place in the 2030 timeframe. The principal focus of the study is to better understand the technical and commercial challenges in the transition from early adopters to a sustainable mainstream consumer market. Effectively, that translates to understanding the challenges to be overcome

  17. Addressing the stimulant treatment gap: A call to investigate the therapeutic benefits potential of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Kuganesan, Sharan; Gallassi, Andrea; Malcher-Lopes, Renato; van den Brink, Wim; Wood, Evan

    2015-12-01

    Crack-cocaine use is prevalent in numerous countries, yet concentrated primarily - largely within urban contexts - in the Northern and Southern regions of the Americas. It is associated with a variety of behavioral, physical and mental health and social problems which gravely affect users and their environments. Few evidence-based treatments for crack-cocaine use exist and are available to users in the reality of street drug use. Numerous pharmacological treatments have been investigated but with largely disappointing results. An important therapeutic potential for crack-cocaine use may rest in cannabinoids, which have recently seen a general resurgence for varied possible therapeutic usages for different neurological diseases. Distinct potential therapeutic benefits for crack-cocaine use and common related adverse symptoms may come specifically from cannabidiol (CBD) - one of the numerous cannabinoid components found in cannabis - with its demonstrated anxiolytic, anti-psychotic, anti-convulsant effects and potential benefits for sleep and appetite problems. The possible therapeutic prospects of cannabinoids are corroborated by observational studies from different contexts documenting crack-cocaine users' 'self-medication' efforts towards coping with crack-cocaine-related problems, including withdrawal and craving, impulsivity and paranoia. Cannabinoid therapeutics offer further benefits of being available in multiple formulations, are low in adverse risk potential, and may easily be offered in community-based settings which may add to their feasibility as interventions for - predominantly marginalized - crack-cocaine user populations. Supported by the dearth of current therapeutic options for crack-cocaine use, we are advocating for the implementation of a rigorous research program investigating the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabinoids for crack-cocaine use. Given the high prevalence of this grave substance use problem in the Americas, opportunities for

  18. Gaps Between Aims and Achievements in Therapeutic Modification of Neuronal Damage ("Neuroprotection").

    PubMed

    Wiendl, Heinz; Elger, Christian; Förstl, Hans; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Oertel, Wolfgang; Reichmann, Heinz; Schwab, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The term "neuroprotection" is often misused, overused, or misunderstood. A reasonable definition of neuroprotection refers to the preservation of "neuronal structure and/or function." Although our knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration has expanded, experimental systems and animal models that mimic the process or allow translation into clinical success remain limited. This editorial discusses reasons for this gap and strategies to close it. Experimental models can only mirror certain aspects of disease mechanisms in humans. Therefore, findings in these models need to be linked with patient data to improve real-life relevance. Successful neuroprotection depends on finding the right "window of opportunity" which varies from very short (stroke) to very long (Alzheimer's disease), necessitating the need to focus on strategies for very early disease recognition. This need challenges the strategies to be chosen, trial approaches and methodologies, and the allocation of resources. Additionally, outcome measures are often not well suited to assess neuroprotection. To this end, surrogate measures, including biomarkers, are useful endpoints to demonstrate evidence of target directed therapeutic utility. Finally, studies have shown that neuroprotection is not likely to succeed when targeting only one pathway. These obstacles have reduced the level of enthusiasm for neuroprotection in certain disease areas (e.g., stroke). Academia, industry, regulatory authorities, funding agencies and patient organizations have to cooperate to a greater extent in order to overcome these impediments and to encourage nonclassical concepts. These concepts will be interdisciplinary in order to achieve meaningful disease modification.

  19. Intermittent Hypoxia in Childhood: The Harmful Consequences Versus Potential Benefits of Therapeutic Uses

    PubMed Central

    Serebrovskaya, Tatiana V.; Xi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) often occurs in early infancy in both preterm and term infants and especially at 36–44 weeks postmenstrual age. These episodes of IH could result from sleep-disordered breathing or may be temporally unrelated to apnea or bradycardia events. There are numerous reports indicating adverse effects of IH on development, behavior, academic achievement, and cognition in children with sleep apnea syndrome. It remains uncertain about the exact causative relationship between the neurocognitive and behavioral morbidities and IH and/or its associated sleep fragmentation. On the other hand, well-controlled and moderate IH conditioning/training has been used in sick children for treating their various forms of bronchial asthma, allergic dermatoses, autoimmune thyroiditis, cerebral palsy, and obesity. This review article provides an updated and impartial analysis on the currently available evidence in supporting either side of the seemingly contradictory scenarios. We wish to stimulate a comprehensive understanding of such a complex physiological phenomenon as intermittent hypoxia, which may be accompanied by other confounding factors (e.g., hypercapnia, polycythemia), in order to prevent or reduce its harmful consequences, while maximizing its potential utility as an effective therapeutic tool in pediatric patients. PMID:26042211

  20. Defining immunological impact and therapeutic benefit of mild heating in a murine model of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Ting; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Leigh, Nicholas D; Capitano, Maegan; Hylander, Bonnie L; Repasky, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Traditional treatments, including a variety of thermal therapies have been known since ancient times to provide relief from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) symptoms. However, a general absence of information on how heating affects molecular or immunological targets relevant to RA has limited heat treatment (HT) to the category of treatments known as "alternative therapies". In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of mild HT in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model which has been used in many previous studies to evaluate newer pharmacological approaches for the treatment of RA, and tested whether inflammatory immune activity was altered. We also compared the effect of HT to methotrexate, a well characterized pharmacological treatment for RA. CIA mice were treated with either a single HT for several hours or daily 30 minute HT. Disease progression and macrophage infiltration were evaluated. We found that both HT regimens significantly reduced arthritis disease severity and macrophage infiltration into inflamed joints. Surprisingly, HT was as efficient as methotrexate in controlling disease progression. At the molecular level, HT suppressed TNF-α while increasing production of IL-10. We also observed an induction of HSP70 and a reduction in both NF-κB and HIF-1α in inflamed tissues. Additionally, using activated macrophages in vitro, we found that HT reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, an effect which is correlated to induction of HSF-1 and HSP70 and inhibition of NF-κB and STAT activation. Our findings demonstrate a significant therapeutic benefit of HT in controlling arthritis progression in a clinically relevant mouse model, with an efficacy similar to methotrexate. Mechanistically, HT targets highly relevant anti-inflammatory pathways which strongly support its increased study for use in clinical trials for RA.

  1. Therapeutic Recreation in the Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC): Benefitting "Aging in Place."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunstler, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Describes how therapeutic recreation in naturally occurring retirement communities (neighborhoods where most residents are older) can promote healthy lifestyles, presenting a case report of an in-home therapeutic recreation program offered in conjunction with nursing and social services in a such a community and discussing implications for…

  2. The potential health benefit of polyisoprenylated benzophenones from Garcinia and related genera: ethnobotanical and therapeutic importance.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Sharma, Shelly; Chattopadhyay, Sunil Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The diversity present in biological activities and the medicinal significance of natural products provide a renewed interest in the use of natural compounds and, more importantly, their role as a basis for drug development. Advancements in the field of natural product chemistry provide valuable information on Garcinia fruits which revealed the presence of biologically important secondary metabolites named as polyisoprenylated benzophenones (PIBs). They are mainly present in the genus Garcinia (Guttiferae) which occupies a prominent position in the history of natural products. Compared to the long history of medicinal uses and widespread research on Garcinia, the study of polyisoprenylated benzophenones was relatively limited. During recent years, these PIBs have been recognized as interesting and valuable biologically active secondary metabolites as many of the isolated polyisoprenylated benzophenones exhibited significant cytotoxic activity in in vitro and in vivo assay. During past decades, some promising advances had been achieved in understanding the chemistry and pharmacology of polyisoprenylated benzophenones. However, there has been not any systematic review on the ethnobotanical importance, chemistry, isolation techniques, structure activity relationships and the biological activities of polyisoprenylated benzophenones. In this review, the biological activity of different structures of polyisoprenylated benzophenones isolated from genus Clusia, Garcinia, Vismia, Allanblackia, Moronobea, Symphonia, Hypericum, Tovomita, Tovomiptosis and Ochrocarpus have been described. Therefore, the goal of this review article would be a valuable reference for the natural product chemists and biologists working on these PIBs. Furthermore, the review article on polyisoprenylated benzophenones would also be useful from the drug discovery point of view as cytotoxic agents in near future. This review focuses our understanding about the specific biological effects of Garcinia

  3. A Cost-Benefit Analysis for Per-Student Expenditures and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.; Roberts, Kerry; Bell, C. David; Womack, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Cost-benefit correlations have been subject to "selective sampling" in the media. Usually extremes of data from a very few high-funding and low-funding states are cited in the media to construct the case that there is no relationship between economic inputs and academic outputs. This study, using average per-pupil expenditures and ACT…

  4. Delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes using nanoparticle platforms: potential benefit in systemic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longjiang; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Liya; Liu, Tian; Yeh, Julie; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment option in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery. Emerging individualized internal and systemic radiation treatment promises significant improvement in efficacy and reduction of normal tissue damage; however, it requires cancer cell targeting platforms for efficient delivery of radiation sources. With recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is great interest in developing nanomaterials as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery and tumor response to the treatment. This paper provides an overview on developing nanoparticles for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment. Topics discussed in the review include: selecting nanoparticles and radiotherapy isotopes, strategies for targeting nanoparticles to cancers, together with challenges and potential solutions for the in vivo delivery of nanoparticles. Some examples of using nanoparticle platforms for the delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes in preclinical studies of cancer treatment are also presented. PMID:24198480

  5. The Socioeconomic Benefit to Individuals of Achieving the 2020 Targets for Five Preventive Chemotherapy Neglected Tropical Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luyendijk, Marianne; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Niessen, Louis; Stolk, Wilma A.; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Rijnsburger, Adriana J.; Bakker, Roel; Hontelez, Jan A. C.; Richardus, Jan H.; Jacobson, Julie; de Vlas, Sake J.; Severens, Johan L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF), onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and trachoma represent the five most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). They can be controlled or eliminated by means of safe and cost-effective interventions delivered through programs of Mass Drug Administration (MDA)—also named Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT). The WHO defined targets for NTD control/elimination by 2020, reinforced by the 2012 London Declaration, which, if achieved, would result in dramatic health gains. We estimated the potential economic benefit of achieving these targets, focusing specifically on productivity and out-of-pocket payments. Methods Productivity loss was calculated by combining disease frequency with productivity loss from the disease, from the perspective of affected individuals. Productivity gain was calculated by deducting the total loss expected in the target achievement scenario from the loss in a counterfactual scenario where it was assumed the pre-intervention situation in 1990 regarding NTDs would continue unabated until 2030. Economic benefits from out-of-pocket payments (OPPs) were calculated similarly. Benefits are reported in 2005 US$ (purchasing power parity-adjusted and discounted at 3% per annum from 2010). Sensitivity analyses were used to assess the influence of changes in input parameters. Results The economic benefit from productivity gain was estimated to be I$251 billion in 2011–2020 and I$313 billion in 2021–2030, considerably greater than the total OPPs averted of I$0.72 billion and I$0.96 billion in the same periods. The net benefit is expected to be US$ 27.4 and US$ 42.8 for every dollar invested during the same periods. Impact varies between NTDs and regions, since it is determined by disease prevalence and extent of disease-related productivity loss. Conclusion Achieving the PCT-NTD targets for 2020 will yield significant economic benefits to affected individuals. Despite large

  6. College and Community Partnerships: Extending the Benefits of Therapeutic Recreation to Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Steven J.; Cannella, Lee grace; Pisano, Susan

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2010, St. Joseph's College initiated a partnership between the college, Northport VA Medical Center, and Long Island State Veterans Home that provides a therapeutic platform for the integration of the three communities through sustainable and mutually beneficial curricular and co-curricular service and experiential learning programs. In…

  7. [Therapeutic mediation tools for the benefit of the child and teenager].

    PubMed

    Rocaboy, Claudette

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic mediation is a tool adapted to teenagers with a chronic disease such as diabetes. Psychodrama, dramatherapy and photolanguage in particular, enable them to express themselves more freely through both speech and body, thanks to the enjoyment they get from the game, the reassurance provided by the group, the structured setting and the spontaneity they allow.

  8. The Therapeutic Benefits of Free or Informal Writing among Selected Eighth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Alice Glarden

    Sixteen eighth grade students participated in a five-month experiment to determine whether informal writing has therapeutic effects on students' perceptions of how they view themselves and their personal problems. The students were selected on the basis of teacher opinion, learning ability, and student cooperation. Eight students were used as a…

  9. Does Homogeneous Ability Grouping for High School Honors English Instruction Benefit the High Achiever?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetter, Douglas Paul

    2013-01-01

    Public schools are examining their policies and instructional practices to address the achievement gap exposed by the reporting requirements of NCLB (Wenglinski, 2004). As accountability measures and stakes rise, there is a call for an improved use of scientific evidence to inform educational policymaking (Wiseman, 2010). In terms of the…

  10. Delivery methods for site-specific nucleases: Achieving the full potential of therapeutic gene editing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Shui, Sai-Lan

    2016-12-28

    The advent of site-specific nucleases, particularly CRISPR/Cas9, provides researchers with the unprecedented ability to manipulate genomic sequences. These nucleases are used to create model cell lines, engineer metabolic pathways, produce transgenic animals and plants, perform genome-wide functional screen and, most importantly, treat human diseases that are difficult to tackle by traditional medications. Considerable efforts have been devoted to improving the efficiency and specificity of nucleases for clinical applications. However, safe and efficient delivery methods remain the major obstacle for therapeutic gene editing. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on nuclease delivery methods, highlight their impact on the outcomes of gene editing and discuss the potential of different delivery approaches for therapeutic gene editing.

  11. The Role of Endorphins in the Pathophysiology of Shock and the Therapeutic Benefit of Opiate Antagonists,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    in rats, cats , and dogs demonstrate these therapeutic effects of naloxone across a variety of species. Additionally, naloxone treatment significantly...in rats (14,15,16) and dogs (17), and following spinal shock in rats (9,10) and cats (11,12). Since naloxone has been described as a pure opiate...rats, cats , and dogs . In addition, naloxone was shown to signifi- cantly decrease the paralysis resulting from spinal-cord injury in the cat

  12. Redox chemistry of green tea polyphenols: therapeutic benefits in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Hügel, H M; Jackson, N

    2012-05-01

    Evidence for the medicinal and health benefits of polyphenols in green tea for the prevention of chronic diseases such as heart disease, various types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases is advancing. Their in vivo effectiveness and molecular mechanisms are difficult to elucidate and remain a challenging task. We review the redox responsiveness and amyloid protein perturbation biophysical properties of the major green tea polyphenol constituent (-)- epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG].

  13. Achieving the Benefits of a High-Potassium, Paleolithic Diet, Without the Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-04-01

    The average US dietary intake of K(+) is well below the current recommended nutritional requirements. This deficiency is even more striking when comparing our current intake with that of our ancestors, who consumed large amounts of dietary K(+). K(+) deficiency has been implicated in many diseases including cardiovascular disease, kidney stones, and osteoporosis. Importantly, dietary supplementation of K(+) has favorable effects on reducing blood pressure, decreasing the risk of stroke, improving bone health, and reducing the risk of nephrolithiasis. For this comprehensive review, we scanned the literature using PubMed and MEDLINE using the following search terms: potassium intake, renal potassium excretion, and prevention of hyperkalemia. Articles were selected for inclusion if they represented primary data or review articles published between 1980 and 2015 in high-impact journals. The normal kidney has the capacity to tightly regulate K(+) homoeostasis. We discuss new findings with respect to sensing mechanisms by which the kidney maintains K(+) homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract and distal tubule. There are widely prescribed hypertensive medications that cause hyperkalemia and thus require dietary K(+) restriction. We conclude by discussing newly approved drugs capable of binding K(+) in the gastrointestinal tract and speculate that this new pharmacology might allow diet liberalization in patients at risk for hyperkalemia, affording them the numerous benefits of a K(+)-rich diet.

  14. [Update of planning tables of cholesterol-lowering therapy orientated to achieve LDL therapeutic targets].

    PubMed

    Masana, Luis; Plana, Núria

    2015-01-01

    This is the third update of a planning-table for use in cholesterol-lowering therapy, so as to obtain LDLc objectives. This is an easy to use laptop tool to help choose the best statin or combination therapy (statin plus ezetimibe) depending on the current LDL concentration of the patient, and the LDLc objective to achieve. It is based on a colour code that indicates the drugs that are efficient enough to help patients to achieve their LDL goal. Along with the table, recommendations are given for the best strategy in order to implement the optimal therapy in a maximum of two clinical encounters.

  15. Policies to reduce heat islands: Magnitudes of benefits and incentives to achieve them

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Romm, J.J.; Akbari, H.; Pomerantz, M.; Taha, H.G.

    1996-05-01

    A ``Cool Communities`` strategy of lighter-colored reroofs and resurfaced pavements, and shade trees, can directly lower annual air conditioning bills in Los Angeles (LA) by about $100 million (M), cool the air in the LA Basin (thereby saving indirectly $70M more in air conditioning), and reduce smog exceedance by about 10%, worth another $360M, for a total savings of about $0.5 billion per year. Trees are most effective if they shade buildings; but they are still very cost effective if they merely cool the air by evapotranspiration. Avoided peak power for air conditioning can be about 1.5GW (more than 15% of LA air conditioning). Extrapolated to the entire US, the authors estimate 20GW avoided and potential annual electricity savings of about $5--10B in 2015. To achieve these savings, they call for ratings and labels for cool materials, buildings` performance standards, utility incentive programs, and an extension of the existing smog-offset trading market (RECLAIM) to include credit for cool surfaces and trees. EPA can include cool materials and trees in its proposed regional ``open market smog-offset trading credits``.

  16. [Sensory integration: benefits and effectiveness of therapeutic management in sensory processing disorders].

    PubMed

    Tudela-Torras, M; Abad-Mas, L; Tudela-Torras, E

    2017-02-24

    Today, the fact that sensory integration difficulties with a neurological basis exist and that they seriously condition the development of those individuals who suffer from them is widely accepted and acknowledged as being obvious by the vast majority of professionals working in the field of community healthcare. However, less is known and there is more controversy about effective treatments that can be applied to them. This is because many professionals criticise the fact that there is not enough scientific evidence to prove, both quantitatively and empirically, the outcomes of the interventions implemented as alternatives to pharmacological therapy. Consequently, when the symptoms and repercussions on the quality of life deriving from a distorted sensory integration are really disabling for the person, pharmacological treatment is used as the only possible approach, with the side effects that this entails. The reason for this is largely the fact that little is known about other effective therapeutic approaches, such as occupational therapy based on sensory integration.

  17. The possible therapeutic benefits of utilizing motion gaming systems on pediatric patients presenting autism.

    PubMed

    Crowder, Stephen A; Merritte, Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that affects a growing number of children in the United States each year. It is characterized by substantive differences in brain structure and function that lead to long-term cognitive and social deficits. These differences, combined with the increasing prevalence of autism in children, warrant the need for development of innovative, cost-effective and widely available alternative and complementary therapies. Motion gaming has the potential to be highly efficacious as a therapeutic technique to aid in developing memory, facial recognition, motor skills and social integration in the pediatric autistic population. This paper outlines the major deficits in the brains of individuals with autism and describes how the use of motion gaming could capitalize on the individual strengths of each patient, leading to improvements in a variety of deficits.

  18. Benefits and challenges of starting a new therapeutic apheresis service in a resource-constrained setting.

    PubMed

    Arogundade, Fatiu A; Sanusi, Abubakr A; Oguntola, Stephen O; Omotoso, Bolanle A; Abdel-Rahman, Emaad M; Akinsola, Adewale; Balogun, Rasheed A

    2014-08-01

    Therapeutic apheresis (TA) refers to a group of extracorporeal blood treatment modalities with clinical indications for which the clinicians' knowledge, availability and applicability vary widely worldwide. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), the most common TA technique, is neither readily available nor affordable in many parts of Africa. This article focuses on the challenges of starting a TPE program in a resource-constrained economy and the result of a survey of Nigerian nephrology professionals on TPE. A critical appraisal of published manuscripts from Nigeria on TA was undertaken to assess uses, methods, and challenges encountered followed by a survey of the perceptions of Nigerian nephrology professionals on TPE. Survey results: 56.7% of respondents had very little or no knowledge of TPE; 40.5% moderate and only 2.7% admitting to having a good knowledge. Only 18.9% of respondents have ever participated or observed a TPE procedure with the remaining 81.1% not having any exposure to the procedure. A vast majority of the respondents 97.3% felt they needed better exposure and training in TPE and its applications. Among consultants, 56% had little knowledge, 88% had never participated or observed the TPE procedure, and 94% felt they needed better exposure and training. There is significant limitation in accessibility, availability, and use of TPE in Nigeria; knowledge of TPE and its applications is minimal among nephrology professionals. Efforts should be concentrated on improving the knowledge and availability of TPE in resource-constrained economy like Nigeria. Centers that would be able to manage cases requiring TA should be developed.

  19. Therapeutic benefits of a component of coffee in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Blanchard, Julie; Tung, Yunn Chyn; Fernandez, Jose R; Voronkov, Michael; Stock, Maxwell; Zhang, Sherry; Stock, Jeffry B; Iqbal, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    A minor component of coffee unrelated to caffeine, eicosanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamide (EHT), provides protection in a rat model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this model, viral expression of the phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) endogenous inhibitor, the I2(PP2A), or SET protein in the brains of rats leads to several characteristic features of AD including cognitive impairment, tau hyperphosphorylation, and elevated levels of cytoplasmic amyloid-β protein. Dietary supplementation with EHT for 6-12 months resulted in substantial amelioration of all these defects. The beneficial effects of EHT could be associated with its ability to increase PP2A activity by inhibiting the demethylation of its catalytic subunit PP2Ac. These findings raise the possibility that EHT may make a substantial contribution to the apparent neuroprotective benefits associated with coffee consumption as evidenced by numerous epidemiologic studies indicating that coffee drinkers have substantially lowered risk of developing AD.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids: Mechanisms of benefit and therapeutic effects in pediatric and adult NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Alisi, Anna; Musso, Giovanni; Scorletti, Eleonora; Calder, Philip C; Byrne, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered the most common liver disease in industrialized countries, and it is estimated that it will become the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in the next decade. NAFLD may be associated with moderate (i.e. steatosis) to severe (i.e. steatohepatitis and fibrosis) liver damage and affects all age groups. Furthermore, subjects with NAFLD may be at a greater risk of other obesity-related complications later in life, and people with obesity and obesity-related complications (e.g. metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease) are at increased risk of developing NAFLD. To date, there is no licensed treatment for NAFLD and therapy has been mainly centered on weight loss and increased physical activity. Unfortunately, it is often difficult for patients to adhere to the advised lifestyle changes. Therefore, based on the known pathogenesis of NAFLD, several clinical trials with different nutritional supplementation and prescribed drugs have been undertaken or are currently underway. Experimental evidence has emerged about the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are important for a number of health-related functions. Omega-3 fatty acids are present in some foods (oils, nuts and seeds) that also contain omega-6 fatty acids, and the best sources of exclusively omega-3 fatty acids are oily fish, krill oil and algae. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD, and we also discuss the molecular and clinical evidence for the benefits of different omega-3 fatty acid preparations in NAFLD.

  1. No benefit of therapeutic vaccination in clinically healthy cats persistently infected with feline leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A Katrin; Spiri, Andrea M; Riond, Barbara; Grest, Paula; Boretti, Felicitas S; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-03-24

    Therapeutic vaccinations have a potential application in infections where no curative treatment is available. In contrast to HIV, efficacious vaccines for a cat retrovirus, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), are commercially available. However, the infection is still prevalent, and no effective treatment of the infection is known. By vaccinating persistently FeLV-infected cats and presenting FeLV antigens to the immune system of the host, e.g., in the form of recombinant and/or adjuvanted antigens, we intended to shift the balance toward an advantage of the host so that persistent infection could be overcome by the infected cat. Two commercially available FeLV vaccines efficacious in protecting naïve cats from FeLV infection were tested in six experimentally and persistently FeLV-infected cats: first, a canarypox-vectored vaccine, and second, an adjuvanted, recombinant envelope vaccine was repeatedly administered with the aim to stimulate the immune system. No beneficial effects on p27 antigen and plasma viral RNA loads, anti-FeLV antibodies, or life expectancy of the cats were detected. The cats were unable to overcome or decrease viremia. Some cats developed antibodies to FeLV antigens although not protective. Thus, we cannot recommend vaccinating persistently FeLV-infected cats as a means of improving their FeLV status, quality of life or life expectancy. We suggest testing of all cats for FeLV infection prior to FeLV vaccination.

  2. Magnetic Heating of Nanoparticles: The Importance of Particle Clustering to Achieve Therapeutic Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Pearce, John; Giustini, Andrew; Stigliano, Robert; Jack Hoopes, P

    2013-02-01

    Hyperthermia therapy for cancer treatment seeks to destroy tumors through heating alone or combined with other therapies at elevated temperatures between 41.8 and 48 °C. Various forms of cell death including apoptosis and necrosis occur depending on temperature and heating time. Effective tumoricidal effects can also be produced by inducing damage to the tissue vasculature and stroma; however, surrounding normal tissue must be spared to a large extent. Magnetic nanoparticles have been under experimental investigation in recent years as a means to provide a favorable therapeutic ratio for local hyperthermia; however, practical numerical models that can be used to study the underlying mechanisms in realistic geometries have not previously appeared to our knowledge. Useful numerical modeling of these experiments is made extremely difficult by the many orders of magnitude in the geometries: from nanometers to centimeters. What has been missing is a practical numerical modeling approach that can be used to more deeply understand the experiments. We develop and present numerical models that reveal the extent and dominance of the local heat transfer boundary conditions, and provide a new approach that may simplify the numerical problem sufficiently to make ordinary computing machinery capable of generating useful predictions. The objectives of this paper are to place the discussion in a convenient interchangeable classical electromagnetic formulation, and to develop useful engineering approximations to the larger multiscale numerical modeling problem that can potentially be used in experiment evaluation; and eventually, may prove useful in treatment planning. We cast the basic heating mechanisms in the framework of classical electromagnetic field theory and provide calibrating analytical calculations and preliminary experimental results on BNF-Starch(®) nanoparticles in a mouse tumor model for perspective.

  3. Therapeutic benefit of preventive telehealth counseling in the Community Outreach Heart Health and Risk Reduction Trial.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Robert P; Upshur, Ross E G; Lynn, Hazel; Crichton, Thomas; Rukholm, Ellen; Stewart, Donna E; Alter, David A; Chessex, Caroline; Harvey, Paula J; Grace, Sherry L; Picard, Louise; Michel, Isabelle; Angus, Jan; Corace, Kim; Barry-Bianchi, Susan M; Chen, Maggie H

    2011-03-01

    We evaluated whether telehealth counseling augments lifestyle change and risk factor decrease in subjects at high risk for primary or secondary cardiovascular events compared to a recommended guideline for brief preventive counseling. Subjects at high risk or with coronary heart disease (35 to 74 years of age, n = 680) were randomized to active control (risk factor feedback, brief advice, handouts) or telehealth lifestyle counseling (active control plus 6 weekly 1-hour teleconferenced sessions to groups of 4 to 8 subjects). Primary outcome was questionnaire assessment of adherence to daily exercise/physical activity and diet (daily vegetable and fruit intake and restriction of fat and salt) after treatment and at 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressures, ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 10-year absolute risk for coronary disease. After treatment and at 6-month follow-up, adherence increased for telehealth versus control in exercise (29.3% and 18.4% vs 2.5% and 9.3%, respectively, odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.1) and diet (37.1% and 38.1% vs 16.7% and 33.3%, respectively, odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.9). Telehealth versus control had greater 6-month decreases in blood pressure (mean ± SE, systolic -4.8 ± 0.8 vs -2.8 ± 0.9 mm Hg, p = 0.04; diastolic -2.7 ± 0.5 vs -1.5 ± 0.6 mm Hg, p = 0.04). Decreases in cholesterol ratio and 10-year absolute risk were significant for the 2 groups. In conclusion, telehealth counseling augments therapeutic lifestyle change in subjects at high risk for cardiovascular events compared to a recommended guideline for brief preventive counseling.

  4. Do Glioma Patients Derive Any Therapeutic Benefit From Taking a Higher Cumulative Dose of Temozolomide Regimens?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Du, Shasha; Liao, Guixiang; Xie, Xiao; Ren, Chen; Yuan, Ya Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent with established effects on the central nervous system of glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Clinical trials have demonstrated a significant impact on overall survival (OS) with TMZ. Ever since, several TMZ regimens have been designed to improve treatment efficacy by increasing the cumulative dose per cycle. We report a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate different treatment schedules of TMZ in GBM patients. All searches that were conducted in the Cochrane library, Science Direct, and PubMed Databases, and 3 randomized controlled trials (1141 patients) were included. OS and progression-free survival (PFS) were the primary outcomes to be pooled. Unexpectedly, this analysis did not reveal any OS or PFS advantage for the high cumulative dose (HCD) regimen compared with the normal cumulative dose regimen (1141 total patients; hazard ratio [HR] 1.07, 95% CI 0.94–1.22, P = 0.31). Then after analyzing the characteristics of the results from each trial, we found that the regimen with a higher peak concentration during a short-term period (daily doses ≥150 mg/m2/d within ≤7 days/cycle) always had a more superior clinical benefit. So we generated a new pooled HR of 1.10 with a 95% CI of 0.96–1.25 (P = 0.17), which prefers the high peak concentration schedule even without a significant difference. The adverse outcome also indicates a significant increased risk of leukopenia (risk ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.03–2.46, P = 0.04) among the HCD group. Our study suggests that increasing the cumulative dose per cycle is not an ideal way to improve the efficacy of TMZ, and it will lead to increased risk for leukopenia. Future trials should be designed to examine schedules of higher peak concentration rather than the cumulative dose per cycle. PMID:25997057

  5. Benefits of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Vancomycin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhi-Kang; Tang, Hui-Lin; Zhai, Suo-Di

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective The necessity of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for vancomycin is controversial. The objective of the current review was to evaluate the available evidence for the necessity of TDM in patients given vancomycin to treat Gram-positive infections. Methods Medline, Embase, Web of Sciences, the Cochrane Library and two Chinese literature databases (CNKI, CBM) were searched. Randomized controlled studies and observational studies that compared the clinical outcomes of TDM groups vs. non-TDM groups were included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. The primary outcome was clinical efficacy of therapy. Secondary outcomes included vancomycin associated nephrotoxicity, duration of vancomycin therapy, length of hospital stay, and mortality. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed effect method (FEM). Odds ratios (ORs) or weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated for categorical and continuous outcomes, respectively. Results One randomized controlled trial (RCT) and five cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with non-TDM groups, TDM groups had significantly higher rates of clinical efficacy (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.34–5.11 P = 0.005) and decreased rates of nephrotoxicity (OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.13–0.48 P<0.0001). Subgroup analyses showed that TDM group had significantly higher rates of clinical efficacy in both cohort studies subgroup (OR = 3.04, 95%CI 1.34–6.90) and in Asian population subgroup (OR = 3.04, 95%CI 1.34–6.90). TDM group had significantly decreased rates of nephrotoxicity in all subgroup. There was no significant difference in duration of vancomycin therapy (WMD = −0.40, 95%CI −2.83–2.02 P = 0.74) or length of stay (WMD = −1.01, 95%CI −7.51-5.49 P = 0.76) between TDM and non-TDM groups. Subgroup analyses showed there were no differences in duration of vancomycin therapy. Only one study reported

  6. Therapeutic benefits of the group B3 vitamin nicotinamide in mice with lethal endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hongmei; Wan, Jingyuan; Li, Longjiang; Ge, Pu; Li, Hongzhong; Zhang, Li

    2012-03-01

    Nicotinamide (NAM) is a group B3 vitamin involved in a wide range of biological processes. Recently, the anti-inflammatory properties of NAM have been revealed. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of NAM in murine models of endotoxemia and sepsis. Endotoxemic liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into D-galactosamine (D-Gal)-sensitized mice. Lethal endotoxemia was induced by intraperitoneal administration of LPS at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In mice challenged with LPS/D-Gal, treatment with NAM significantly deceased serum aminotransferases level and alleviated hepatic lesions. NAM also reduced serum tumor necrosis factor-α level and attenuated apoptosis in liver, as assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nucleotide nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and measurements of caspases activities. Survival analysis indicated that NAM reduced the mortality rate of LPS/D-Gal-challenged mice. In mice with lethal endotoxemia, NAM reduced serum level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and multiple organ damage as evidence by improved morphological lesion, reduced lung wet to dry ratio as well as decreased serum level of aminotransferase and blood urea nitrogen. In survival analysis, treatment with NAM increased the survival rate of mice with lethal endotoxemia or CLP-induced polymicrobial sepsis. Taken together, treatment with NAM might provide therapeutic benefits in sepsis, which attenuated inflammatory injury and improved the survival rate.

  7. The Use of Group Activities in Introductory Biology Supports Learning Gains and Uniquely Benefits High-Achieving Students.

    PubMed

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly H; Saluja, Neeti; Carleton, Karen L; Haag, Eric S

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of small-group active engagement (GAE) exercises in an introductory biology course (BSCI207) taught in a large auditorium setting. BSCI207 (Principles of Biology III-Organismal Biology) is the third introductory core course for Biological Sciences majors. In fall 2014, the instructors redesigned one section to include GAE activities to supplement lecture content. One section (n = 198) employed three lectures per week. The other section (n = 136) replaced one lecture per week with a GAE class. We explored the benefits and challenges associated with implementing GAE exercises and their relative effectiveness for unique student groups (e.g., minority students, high- and low-grade point average [GPA] students). Our findings show that undergraduates in the GAE class exhibited greater improvement in learning outcomes than undergraduates in the traditional class. Findings also indicate that high-achieving students experienced the greatest benefit from GAE activities. Some at-risk student groups (e.g., two-year transfer students) showed comparably low learning gains in the course, despite the additional support that may have been afforded by active learning. Collectively, these findings provide valuable feedback that may assist other instructors who wish to revise their courses and recommendations for institutions regarding prerequisite coursework approval policies.

  8. The Use of Group Activities in Introductory Biology Supports Learning Gains and Uniquely Benefits High-Achieving Students†

    PubMed Central

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Rietschel, Carly H.; Saluja, Neeti; Carleton, Karen L.; Haag, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the implementation and effectiveness of small-group active engagement (GAE) exercises in an introductory biology course (BSCI207) taught in a large auditorium setting. BSCI207 (Principles of Biology III—Organismal Biology) is the third introductory core course for Biological Sciences majors. In fall 2014, the instructors redesigned one section to include GAE activities to supplement lecture content. One section (n = 198) employed three lectures per week. The other section (n = 136) replaced one lecture per week with a GAE class. We explored the benefits and challenges associated with implementing GAE exercises and their relative effectiveness for unique student groups (e.g., minority students, high- and low-grade point average [GPA] students). Our findings show that undergraduates in the GAE class exhibited greater improvement in learning outcomes than undergraduates in the traditional class. Findings also indicate that high-achieving students experienced the greatest benefit from GAE activities. Some at-risk student groups (e.g., two-year transfer students) showed comparably low learning gains in the course, despite the additional support that may have been afforded by active learning. Collectively, these findings provide valuable feedback that may assist other instructors who wish to revise their courses and recommendations for institutions regarding prerequisite coursework approval policies. PMID:28101262

  9. Interleaving subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation to avoid side effects while achieving satisfactory motor benefits in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, achieving ideal outcomes by conventional programming can be difficult in some patients, resulting in suboptimal control of PD symptoms and stimulation-induced adverse effects. Interleaving stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that can individually optimize the stimulation area, thereby improving control of PD symptoms while alleviating stimulation-induced side effects after conventional programming fails to achieve the desired results. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed PD patients who received DBS programming during the previous 4 years in our hospital. We collected clinical and demographic data from 12 patients who received ILS because of incomplete alleviation of PD symptoms or stimulation-induced adverse effects after conventional programming had proven ineffective or intolerable. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative reconstruction images. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. Results: We divided our patients into 4 groups based on the following symptoms: stimulation-induced dysarthria and choreoathetoid dyskinesias, gait disturbance, and incomplete control of parkinsonism. After treatment with ILS, patients showed satisfactory improvement in PD symptoms and alleviation of stimulation-induced side effects, with a mean improvement in Unified PD Rating Scale motor scores of 26.9%. Conclusions: ILS is a newer choice and effective programming strategy to maximize symptom control in PD while decreasing stimulation-induced adverse effects when conventional programming fails to achieve satisfactory outcome. However, we should keep in mind that most DBS patients are routinely treated with conventional stimulation and that not all patients benefit from ILS. ILS is not recommended as the first choice of programming, and it is recommended only when patients have

  10. Integrating the biological characteristics of oncolytic viruses and immune cells can optimize therapeutic benefits of cell-based delivery.

    PubMed

    Thorne, S H; Contag, C H

    2008-05-01

    Despite significant advances in the development of tumor-selective agents, strategies for effective delivery of these agents across biological barriers to cells within the tumor microenvironment has been limiting. One tactical approach to overcoming biological barriers is to use cells as delivery vehicles, and a variety of different cell types have been investigated with a range of agents. In addition to transporting agents with targeted delivery, cells can also produce their own tumoricidal effect, conceal a payload from an immune response, amplify a selective agent at the target site and facilitate an antitumor immune response. We have reported a therapeutic combination consisting of cytokine induced killer cells and an oncolytic vaccinia virus with many of these features that led to therapeutic synergy in animal models of human cancer. The synergy was due to the interaction of the two agents to enhance the antitumor benefits of each individual component. As both of these agents display broad tumor-targeting potential and possess unique tumor killing mechanisms, together they were able to recognize and destroy a far greater number of malignant cells within the heterogeneous tumor than either agent alone. Effective cancer therapy will require recognition and elimination of the root of the disease, the cancer stem cell, and the combination of CIK cells and oncolytic vaccinia viruses has this potential. To create effective tumor-selective agents the viruses are modified to take advantage of the unique biology of the cancer cell. Similarly, if we are to develop targeted therapies that are sufficiently multifaceted to eliminate cancer cells at all stages of disease, we should integrate the virus into the unique biology of the cell delivery vehicle.

  11. Teacher Research Programs: An Effective Form of Professional Development to Increase Student Achievement and Benefit the Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, J.

    2008-12-01

    development. Columbia University's teacher research program is a very effective form of professional development for pre- college science teachers and has a direct correlation to increased student motivation and achievement in science. The Program is premised on the beliefs that hands-on experience in the practice of science improves the quality and authenticity of science teaching, and that improved science teaching is correlated with increased student interest and achievement in science. The author will present the methodology of the program's evaluation citing statistically significant findings. The author will also show the economic benefits of teacher participation in a well-designed research program.

  12. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  13. Meditation as a therapeutic intervention for adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease - potential benefits and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive, brain disorder that affects at least 5.3 million Americans at an estimated cost of $148 billion, figures that are expected to rise steeply in coming years. Despite decades of research, there is still no cure for AD, and effective therapies for preventing or slowing progression of cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive. Although the etiology of AD remains uncertain, chronic stress, sleep deficits, and mood disturbance, conditions common in those with cognitive impairment, have been prospectively linked to the development and progression of both chronic illness and memory loss and are significant predictors of AD. Therapies such as meditation that specifically target these risk factors may thus hold promise for slowing and possibly preventing cognitive decline in those at risk. In this study, we briefly review the existing evidence regarding the potential utility of meditation as a therapeutic intervention for those with and at risk for AD, discuss possible mechanisms underlying the observed benefits of meditation, and outline directions for future research.

  14. Meditation as a Therapeutic Intervention for Adults at Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease – Potential Benefits and Underlying Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive, brain disorder that affects at least 5.3 million Americans at an estimated cost of $148 billion, figures that are expected to rise steeply in coming years. Despite decades of research, there is still no cure for AD, and effective therapies for preventing or slowing progression of cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive. Although the etiology of AD remains uncertain, chronic stress, sleep deficits, and mood disturbance, conditions common in those with cognitive impairment, have been prospectively linked to the development and progression of both chronic illness and memory loss and are significant predictors of AD. Therapies such as meditation that specifically target these risk factors may thus hold promise for slowing and possibly preventing cognitive decline in those at risk. In this study, we briefly review the existing evidence regarding the potential utility of meditation as a therapeutic intervention for those with and at risk for AD, discuss possible mechanisms underlying the observed benefits of meditation, and outline directions for future research. PMID:24795656

  15. Angolan Cymbopogon citratus used for therapeutic benefits: nutritional composition and influence of solvents in phytochemicals content and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Soares, Marta O; Alves, Rita C; Pires, Pedro C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Vinha, Ana F

    2013-10-01

    Folk medicine is a relevant and effective part of indigenous healthcare systems which are, in practice, totally dependent on traditional healers. An outstanding coincidence between indigenous medicinal plant uses and scientifically proved pharmacological properties of several phytochemicals has been observed along the years. This work focused on the leaves of a medicinal plant traditionally used for therapeutic benefits (Angolan Cymbopogon citratus), in order to evaluate their nutritional value. The bioactive phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts prepared with different solvents (water, methanol and ethanol) were also evaluated. The plant leaves contained ∼60% of carbohydrates, protein (∼20%), fat (∼5%), ash (∼4%) and moisture (∼9%). The phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids in all extracts. Methanolic extracts also contained alkaloids and steroids. Several methods were used to evaluate total antioxidant capacity of the different extracts (DPPH·, NO·, and H₂O₂ scavenging assays, reducing power, and FRAP). Ethanolic extracts presented a significantly higher antioxidant activity (p<0.05) except for FRAP, in which the best results were achieved by the aqueous extracts. Methanolic extracts showed the lowest radical scavenging activities for both DPPH· and NO· radicals.

  16. Analysis of the first therapeutic-target-achieving time of warfarin therapy and associated factors in patients with pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiaowei; Wang, Haiyan; Yuan, Yadong

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the first therapeutic-target-achieving (TTA) time of warfarin therapy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PTE). Between January 2008 and June 2013, patients with PTE confirmed by transpulmonary arterial enhanced computed tomographic pulmonary angiography or pulmonary ventilation perfusion scanning were included in the present study. Data collected included demographic information, history of tobacco and alcohol intake, basic diseases (stable and unstable hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, cancer/cerebral infarction, old myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation), liver and kidney function, the haemoglobin and platelet count of the blood, international normalized ratio monitoring, warfarin dosage adjustment and medication combinations. Dynamic changes in international normalized ratio, anticoagulant efficacy, and adverse events within 90 days were monitored and analyzed. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the following factors affect the first TTA time: Initial dose, body mass index (BMI), liver function, heart failure, and the administration of levofloxacin, cephalosporins, and blood circulation-activating drugs. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the following were independent factors of the first TTA time: Initial dose, BMI, liver function, heart failure and levofloxacin. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrated that various factors may affect the first TTA time of warfarin therapy, including the initial dose, BMI, liver function, heart function and concomitant medication. PMID:27698722

  17. Improving depiction of benefits and harms: analyses of studies of well-known therapeutics and review of high-impact medical journals.

    PubMed

    Sedrakyan, Artyom; Shih, Chuck

    2007-10-01

    The issues of weighing benefits and harms and of shared decision-making have become increasingly important in recent years. There is limited knowledge and lack of adequate data on the most transparent method of communicating the information. In this article we discuss examples of communicating benefits and harms for well-known therapeutics, illustrating that relative risk estimates are not helpful for communicating the chance of experiencing adverse events. In addition, we show that asymmetric presentation of the data for benefits and harms is likely to bias toward showing greater benefits and diminishing the importance of the harms (or vice versa). We also present preliminary results of a brief review of high-impact medical journals that show limitations of current systematic reviews. In the review we found that every second published study does not discuss frequency data and 1 in 3 studies that report information on both benefits and harms does not report information in the same metric. We conclude that consistently depicting benefit and harm information in frequencies can substantially improve the communication of benefits and harms. Investigators should be requested to provide frequency data along with relative risk information in the publication of their scientific findings. Currently, even in the highest impact medical journals, evidence of benefits and harms is not consistently presented in ways that facilitate accurate interpretation.

  18. Do Low-Achieving Students Benefit More from Small Classes? Evidence from the Tennessee Class Size Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Barbara; Hedges, Larry V.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2002-01-01

    Studied possible effects of small classes on achievement using data from Project STAR, a 4-year, large-scale randomized experiment on the effects of class size. There were unambiguous positive effects of small classes on achievement, but no evidence for differentially larger effects of small classes for lower achieving students. (SLD)

  19. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  20. The Impacts of Success for All on Reading Achievement in Grades 3-5: Does Intervening during the Later Elementary Grades Produce the Same Benefits as Intervening Early?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, Paul; Borman, Geoffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of Success for All literacy instruction in grades 3 through 5 using data from the same cluster randomized trial used to evaluate effects in the earlier grades (K-2). In contrast to the early benefits, there is no effect on reading achievement in the later grades, either overall or for students and schools with high or low…

  1. The environmental and public health benefits of achieving high penetrations of solar energy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Millstein, Dev; Mai, Trieu; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-10-01

    We estimate the environmental and public health benefits that may be realized if solar energy cost reductions continue until solar power is competitive across the U.S. without subsidies. Specifically, we model, from 2015 to 2050, solar power-induced reductions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water usage. To find the incremental benefits of new solar deployment, we compare the difference between two scenarios, one where solar costs have fallen such that solar supplies 14% of the nation's electricity by 2030 and 27% by 2050, and a baseline scenario in which no solar is added after 2014. We monetize benefits, where credible methods exist to do so. We find that under these scenarios, solar power reduces GHG and air pollutants by ~10%, from 2015 to 2050, providing a discounted present value of $56-$789 billion (central value of ~$250 billion, equivalent to ~2 cents/kWh-solar) in climate benefits and $77-$298 billion (central value of $167 billion, or ~1.4 cents/kWh-solar) in air quality and public health benefits. The ranges reflect uncertainty within the literature about the marginal impact of emissions of GHG and air pollutants. Solar power is also found to reduce water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%, respectively, including in many drought-prone states.

  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis of SCILS for Early Childhood Training in Academic Achievement. Report 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steg, D. R.; And Others

    This report documents the long term cost benefits to society of the Self Controlled Interactive Learning Systems (SCILS), a program based on cybernetics and designed to teach early reading skills to children ages 3 to 6. SCILS required children to spend not more than 20 minutes daily using a "talking typewriter," a "talking…

  3. Benefits of Career and Technical Student Organizations' on Female and Racial Minority Students' Psychosocial and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Steven R.; Alfeld, Corinne; Hansen, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent do CTSOs affect student psychosocial and achievement outcomes (above and beyond stand-alone CTE programs) when controlling for gender and race. Using a cross-sectional descriptive research design, a total of 5,677 students from 10 states were surveyed regarding their high school…

  4. Treatment-naïve Gaucher disease patients achieve therapeutic goals and normalization with velaglucerase alfa by 4years in phase 3 trials.

    PubMed

    Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah; Gonzalez, Derlis E; Lukina, Elena A; Qin, Yulin; Dinh, Quinn; Turkia, Hadhami Ben

    2016-10-21

    Gaucher disease is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by β-glucocerebrosidase deficiency and commonly treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). The efficacy of ERT with velaglucerase alfa was assessed based on the achievement of published therapeutic goals and the normalization of disease parameters in 39 treatment-naïve patients with type 1 Gaucher disease, 6 to 62years of age, enrolled in phase 3 clinical trials. After 4years of ERT, therapeutic goals for thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly had been achieved in 100% of patients; goals for anemia and hepatomegaly had been achieved in 95% and 94% of patients, respectively. Consistent with the goal for bone mineral density, lumbar spine bone density improved in 87% of patients ≥18years of age. At year 4, compared with clinical ranges for healthy individuals, 86% of patients with a low baseline hemoglobin concentration had normalized, 60% with a low baseline platelet count had normalized, 67% with baseline splenomegaly had normalized, 58% with hepatomegaly had normalized, and lumbar spine bone density had normalized in 53% of adults. The decade-old therapeutic goals do not reflect the potential for normalization of clinical parameters in ERT-treated patients. Goals consistent with normalization or near-normalization should be considered. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00430625, NCT00553631, NCT00635427.

  5. Benefits of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion to Achieve 4x Increase in Cruise Efficiency for a VTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredericks, William J.; Moore, Mark D.; Busan, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Electric propulsion enables radical new vehicle concepts, particularly for Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft because of their significant mismatch between takeoff and cruise power conditions. However, electric propulsion does not merely provide the ability to normalize the power required across the phases of flight, in the way that automobiles also use hybrid electric technologies. The ability to distribute the thrust across the airframe, without mechanical complexity and with a scale-free propulsion system, is a new degree of freedom for aircraft designers. Electric propulsion is scale-free in terms of being able to achieve highly similar levels of motor power to weight and efficiency across a dramatic scaling range. Applying these combined principles of electric propulsion across a VTOL aircraft permits an improvement in aerodynamic efficiency that is approximately four times the state of the art of conventional helicopter configurations. Helicopters typically achieve a lift to drag ratio (L/D) of between 4 and 5, while the VTOL aircraft designed and developed in this research were designed to achieve an L/D of approximately 20. Fundamentally, the ability to eliminate the problem of advancing and retreating rotor blades is shown, without resorting to unacceptable prior solutions such as tail-sitters. This combination of concept and technology also enables a four times increase in range and endurance while maintaining the full VTOL and hover capability provided by a helicopter. Also important is the ability to achieve low disc-loading for low ground impingement velocities, low noise and hover power minimization (thus reducing energy consumption in VTOL phases). This combination of low noise and electric propulsion (i.e. zero emissions) will produce a much more community-friendly class of vehicles. This research provides a review of the concept brainstorming, configuration aerodynamic and mission analysis, as well as subscale prototype construction and

  6. Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: the need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, Gordon F; Megson, Ian L

    2014-02-01

    N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) has long been used therapeutically for the treatment of acetaminophen (paracetamol) overdose, acting as a precursor for the substrate (l-cysteine) in synthesis of hepatic glutathione (GSH) depleted through drug conjugation. Other therapeutic uses of NAC have also emerged, including the alleviation of clinical symptoms of cystic fibrosis through cysteine-mediated disruption of disulfide cross-bridges in the glycoprotein matrix in mucus. More recently, however, a wide range of clinical studies have reported on the use of NAC as an antioxidant, most notably in the protection against contrast-induced nephropathy and thrombosis. The results from these studies are conflicting and a consensus is yet to be reached regarding the merits or otherwise of NAC in the antioxidant setting. This review seeks to re-evaluate the mechanism of action of NAC as a precursor for GSH synthesis in the context of its activity as an "antioxidant". Results from recent studies are examined to establish whether the pre-requisites for effective NAC-induced antioxidant activity (i.e. GSH depletion and the presence of functional metabolic pathways for conversion of NAC to GSH) have received adequate consideration in the interpretation of the data. A key conclusion is a reinforcement of the concept that NAC should not be considered to be a powerful antioxidant in its own right: its strength is the targeted replenishment of GSH in deficient cells and it is likely to be ineffective in cells replete in GSH.

  7. Pharmacogenomics in the assessment of therapeutic risks versus benefits: inside the United States Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Zineh, Issam; Pacanowski, Michael A

    2011-08-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genetic variations influence responses to drugs, diagnostics, or biologic agents. The field of pharmacogenomics has significant potential to enhance drug development and aid in making regulatory decisions. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has supported pharmacogenomics for nearly a decade by providing regulatory advice and reviewing applications, with the intent of discovering and applying genetic determinants of treatment effects. The FDA will continue to develop policies and processes centered on genomics and individualized therapeutics to guide rational drug development. It will also continue to inform the public of clinically relevant pharmacogenomic issues through various mechanisms of communication, such as drug labeling. In this review, we provide a perspective on several pharmacogenomic activities at the FDA. In addition, we attempt to clarify what we believe are several misperceptions regarding the FDA's pharmacogenomic initiatives. We hope this perspective provides a window into some ways in which the FDA is enabling individualized therapeutics through its mission-critical activities.

  8. [Impact of early benefit assessment on patients with epilepsy in Germany: Current healthcare provision and therapeutic needs].

    PubMed

    Strzelczyk, A; Hamer, H M

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases and represents a significant burden for patients, their families and society. In more than 75 % of patients anticonvulsant therapy consists of valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine or levetiracetam. There is a need for polytherapy in drug-refractory patients and they suffer from negative effects on quality of life and employment that is associated with high indirect costs. To allow a comprehensive treatment in this patient group, access to new anticonvulsants with novel modes of action is needed; however, all applications for new antiepileptic drugs failed to prove added benefits during the Pharmaceutical Market Restructuring Act (AMNOG) in Germany. One of the main reasons is the mandatory definition of a standard comparative therapy. It remains unclear whether there will be studies in the future which will fulfill the requirements of the current version of AMNOG. Observational studies after approval and marketing of new antiepileptic drugs could be better alternatives to prove added benefits for individual patients in the current German healthcare system.

  9. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  10. Worms as therapeutic agents for allergy and asthma: understanding why benefits in animal studies have not translated into clinical success.

    PubMed

    Evans, Holly; Mitre, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Helminth infections are associated with decreased rates of autoimmunity and allergy, and several clinical studies have demonstrated that intentional infection with helminths can reduce symptoms of autoimmune diseases. In contrast, though numerous animal studies have demonstrated that helminth infections ameliorate allergic diseases, clinical trials in humans have not shown benefit. In this article, we review in detail the 2 human studies that have prospectively tested whether helminth infections protect against allergy. We next review the research designs and results obtained from animal studies, and compare these to the human trials. We then postulate possible reasons for the lack of efficacy observed in clinical trials to date and discuss potential future areas of research in this field.

  11. Biomarkers to improve the benefit/risk balance for approved therapeutics: a US FDA perspective on personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Sapsford, Kim E; Tezak, Zivana; Kondratovich, Marina; Pacanowski, Michael A; Zineh, Issam; Mansfield, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    This article highlights a current US FDA perspective concerning the use of biomarker-based diagnostics for personalized medicine. Specifically, current biomarkers that have application for improving the benefit/risk profile of already approved drugs are discussed. The success of biomarkers for use in personalized medicine depends on many factors, including proper evaluation of the usefulness of the biomarker for assessing the event of interest, and the safety and effectiveness of the diagnostic device used to measure the biomarker, which includes appropriate analytical and clinical validation. These points along with the many regulatory concerns regarding co-labeling of drugs and devices and future aspects, such as co-development, will be discussed in this regulatory science focus.

  12. Currently used dosage regimens of vancomycin fail to achieve therapeutic levels in approximately 40% of intensive care unit patients

    PubMed Central

    Obara, Vitor Yuzo; Zacas, Carolina Petrus; Carrilho, Claudia Maria Dantas de Maio; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess whether currently used dosages of vancomycin for treatment of serious gram-positive bacterial infections in intensive care unit patients provided initial therapeutic vancomycin trough levels and to examine possible factors associated with the presence of adequate initial vancomycin trough levels in these patients. Methods A prospective descriptive study with convenience sampling was performed. Nursing note and medical record data were collected from September 2013 to July 2014 for patients who met inclusion criteria. Eighty-three patients were included. Initial vancomycin trough levels were obtained immediately before vancomycin fourth dose. Acute kidney injury was defined as an increase of at least 0.3mg/dL in serum creatinine within 48 hours. Results Considering vancomycin trough levels recommended for serious gram-positive infection treatment (15 - 20µg/mL), patients were categorized as presenting with low, adequate, and high vancomycin trough levels (35 [42.2%], 18 [21.7%], and 30 [36.1%] patients, respectively). Acute kidney injury patients had significantly greater vancomycin trough levels (p = 0.0055, with significance for a trend, p = 0.0023). Conclusion Surprisingly, more than 40% of the patients did not reach an effective initial vancomycin trough level. Studies on pharmacokinetic and dosage regimens of vancomycin in intensive care unit patients are necessary to circumvent this high proportion of failures to obtain adequate initial vancomycin trough levels. Vancomycin use without trough serum level monitoring in critically ill patients should be discouraged. PMID:28099635

  13. Vitamin D, Cognition and Alzheimer’s Disease: The Therapeutic Benefit is in the D-Tails

    PubMed Central

    Landel, Véréna; Annweiler, Cédric; Millet, Pascal; Morello, Maria; Féron, François

    2016-01-01

    Since its discovery during the epidemic of rickets in the early 1920s, the physiological effects of vitamin D on calcium/phosphorus homeostasis have been thoroughly studied. Along with the understanding of its actions on skeletal diseases and advances in cellular and molecular biology, this misnamed vitamin has gained attention as a potential player in a growing number of physiological processes and a variety of diseases. During the last 25 years, vitamin D has emerged as a serious candidate in nervous system development and function and a therapeutic tool in a number of neurological pathologies. More recently, experimental and pre-clinical data suggest a link between vitamin D status and cognitive function. Human studies strongly support a correlation between low levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cognitive impairment or dementia in aging populations. In parallel, animal studies show that supplementation with vitamin D is protective against biological processes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and enhances learning and memory performance in various animal models of aging and AD. These experimental observations support multiple mechanisms by which vitamin D can act against neurodegenerative processes. However, clinical interventional studies are disappointing and fail to associate increased 25(OH)D levels with improved cognitive outcomes. This review collects the current available data from both animal and human studies and discusses the considerations that future studies examining the effects of vitamin D status on neurocognitive function might consider. PMID:27176073

  14. Variability in protein binding of teicoplanin and achievement of therapeutic drug monitoring targets in critically ill patients: lessons from the DALI Study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J A; Stove, V; De Waele, J J; Sipinkoski, B; McWhinney, B; Ungerer, J P J; Akova, M; Bassetti, M; Dimopoulos, G; Kaukonen, K-M; Koulenti, D; Martin, C; Montravers, P; Rello, J; Rhodes, A; Starr, T; Wallis, S C; Lipman, J

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the variability in protein binding of teicoplanin in critically ill patients as well as the number of patients achieving therapeutic target concentrations. This report is part of the multinational pharmacokinetic DALI Study. Patients were sampled on a single day, with blood samples taken both at the midpoint and the end of the dosing interval. Total and unbound teicoplanin concentrations were assayed using validated chromatographic methods. The lower therapeutic range of teicoplanin was defined as total trough concentrations from 10 to 20 mg/L and the higher range as 10-30 mg/L. Thirteen critically ill patients were available for analysis. The following are the median (interquartile range) total and free concentrations (mg/L): midpoint, total 13.6 (11.2-26.0) and free 1.5 (0.7-2.5); trough, total 11.9 (10.2-22.7) and free 1.8 (0.6-2.6). The percentage free teicoplanin for the mid-dose and trough time points was 6.9% (4.5-15.6%) and 8.2% (5.5-16.4%), respectively. The correlation between total and free antibiotic concentrations was moderate for both the midpoint (ρ = 0.79, P = 0.0021) and trough (ρ = 0.63, P = 0.027). Only 42% and 58% of patients were in the lower and higher therapeutic ranges, respectively. In conclusion, use of standard dosing for teicoplanin leads to inappropriate concentrations in a high proportion of critically ill patients. Variability in teicoplanin protein binding is very high, placing significant doubt on the validity of total concentrations for therapeutic drug monitoring in critically ill patients.

  15. Risk-Benefit Profile of Direct-Acting Oral Anticoagulants in Established Therapeutic Indications: An Overview of Systematic Reviews and Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Raschi, Emanuel; Bianchin, Matteo; Ageno, Walter; De Ponti, Roberto; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    Since 2008, the direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have expanded the therapeutic options of cardiovascular diseases with recognized clinical and epidemiological impact, such as non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE), and also in the preventive setting of orthopedic surgical patients. The large body of evidence, not only from pivotal clinical trials but also from 'real-world' postmarketing observational findings (e.g. analytical epidemiological studies and registry data) gathered to date allow for a first attempt at verifying a posteriori whether or not the pharmacological advantages of the DOACs actually translate into therapeutic innovation, with relevant implications for clinicians, regulators and patients. This review aims to synthesize the risk-benefit profile of DOACs in the aforementioned consolidated indications through an 'evidence summary' approach gathering the existent evidence-based data, particularly systematic reviews with meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials, as well as observational studies, comparing DOACs with vitamin K antagonists. Clinical evidence will be discussed and compared with major international guidelines to identify whether an update is needed. Controversial clinically relevant safety issues will be also examined in order to highlight current challenges and unsettled questions (e.g. actual bleeding risk in susceptible populations). It is anticipated that the large number of publications on NVAF or VTE (44 systematic reviews with meta-analyses and 12 observational studies retained in our analysis) suggests the potential existence of overlapping studies and calls for common criteria to qualitatively and quantitatively assess discordances, thus guiding future research.

  16. Systemic Administration of Glibenclamide Fails to Achieve Therapeutic Levels in the Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lahmann, Carolina; Kramer, Holger B.; Ashcroft, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations in the Kir6.2 (KCNJ11) subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel cause neonatal diabetes (ND). Patients with severe mutations also suffer from neurological complications. Glibenclamide blocks the open KATP channels and is the treatment of choice for ND. However, although glibenclamide successfully restores normoglycaemia, it has a far more limited effect on the neurological problems. To assess the extent to which glibenclamide crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo, we quantified glibenclamide concentrations in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain tissue of rats, control mice, and mice expressing a human neonatal diabetes mutation (Kir6.2-V59M) selectively in neurones (nV59M mice). As only small sample volumes can be obtained from rodents, we developed a highly sensitive method of analysis, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry acquisition with pseudo-selected reaction monitoring, achieving a quantification limit of 10ng/ml (20nM) glibenclamide in a 30μl sample. Glibenclamide was not detectable in the CSF or brain of rats after implantation with subcutaneous glibenclamide pellets, despite high plasma concentrations. Further, one hour after a suprapharmacological glibenclamide dose was administered directly into the lateral ventricle of the brain, the plasma concentration was twice that of the CSF. This suggests the drug is rapidly exported from the CSF. Elacridar, an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (major multidrug resistance transporters at the BBB), did not affect glibenclamide levels in CSF and brain tissue. We also identified a reduced sensitivity to volatile anaesthetics in nV59M mice and showed this was not reversed by systemic delivery of glibenclamide. Our results therefore suggest that little glibenclamide reaches the central nervous system when given systemically, that glibenclamide is rapidly removed across the BBB when given intracranioventricularly, and that any

  17. On the Path to SunShot - The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Mai, Trieu; Millstein, Dev; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-05-01

    Monetizing the environmental health benefits of solar could add ~3.5¢/kWh to the value of solar energy (see Wiser et al. 2016). The monetary impacts due to environmental degradation and public health impacts seem far removed from the apparent “sticker price” of electricity. Yet quantifying these impacts is essential to understanding the true costs and benefits of solar and conventional generating technologies. Compared with fossil fuel generators, PV and CSP produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Achieving the SunShot-level solar deployment targets—14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050—could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238–$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0–2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (¢/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4¢/kWh-solar—while also preventing 25,000–59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, the estimated 3.5¢/kWh-solar in benefits due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional LCOE reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, water savings from achieving the SunShot goals, could result in the 2015–2050 cumulative savings of 4% of total power-sector withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector consumption—a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. Improving public health and the environment is but one aspect of solar’s many costs and benefits. Clearly, however

  18. On the Path to SunShot. The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Solar Penetrations in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Mai, Trieu; Millstein, Dev; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-05-01

    Compared with fossil fuel generators, photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In this report, we monetize the emission reductions from achieving the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot deployment goals: 14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050. We estimate that achieving these goals could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238-$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0-2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (cents/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4 cents/kWh-solar--while also preventing 25,000-59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, this estimated combined benefit of 3.5 cents/kWh-solar due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional levelized cost of electricity reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, the analysis shows that achieving the SunShot goals could save 4% of total power-sector water withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector water consumption over the 2015-2050 period--a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. These results have potential implications for policy innovation and the economic competitiveness of solar and other generation technologies.

  19. Therapeutic benefit observed with the CFTR potentiator, ivacaftor, in a CF patient homozygous for the W1282X CFTR nonsense mutation.

    PubMed

    Mutyam, Venkateshwar; Libby, Emily Falk; Peng, Ning; Hadjiliadis, Denis; Bonk, Michael; Solomon, George M; Rowe, Steven M

    2017-01-01

    Premature termination codons (PTCs) in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene result in nonfunctional CFTR protein and are the proximate cause of ~11% of CF causing alleles. Aminoglycosides and other novel agents are known to induce translational readthrough of PTCs, a potential therapeutic approach. Among PTCs, W1282X CFTR is unique, as it is a C-terminal CFTR mutation that can exhibit partial activity, even in the truncated state. The potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770) is approved for treating CF patients with G551D and other gating mutations. Based on previous studies demonstrating the beneficial effect of ivacaftor for PTC mutations following readthrough in vitro, we hypothesized that ivacaftor may enhance CFTR activity in CF patients expressing W1282X CFTR, and could be further enhanced by readthrough. Ivacaftor significantly increased CFTR activity in W1282X-expressing cells compared to R1162X CFTR cells, and was further enhanced by readthrough with the aminoglycoside G418. Primary nasal epithelial cells from a W1282X homozygous patient showed improved CFTR function in the presence of ivacaftor. Upon ivacaftor administration to the same patient, there was significant improvement in pulmonary exacerbation frequency, BMI, and insulin requirement, whereas FEV1 remained stable over 3years. These studies suggest that ivacaftor may have moderate clinical benefit in patients with preserved expression of the W1282X CFTR mutation by stimulating residual activity of the truncated protein, suggesting the need for further studies including the addition of efficacious readthrough agents.

  20. Targeting caspase-3 as dual therapeutic benefits by RNAi facilitating brain-targeted nanoparticles in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Guo, Yubo; An, Sai; Kuang, Yuyang; He, Xi; Ma, Haojun; Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Jing; Lv, Jing; Zhang, Ning; Jiang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    The activation of caspase-3 is an important hallmark in Parkinson's disease. It could induce neuron death by apoptosis and microglia activation by inflammation. As a result, inhibition the activation of caspase-3 would exert synergistic dual effect in brain in order to prevent the progress of Parkinson's disease. Silencing caspase-3 genes by RNA interference could inhibit the activation of caspase-3. We developed a brain-targeted gene delivery system based on non-viral gene vector, dendrigraft poly-L-lysines. A rabies virus glycoprotein peptide with 29 amino-acid linked to dendrigraft poly-L-lysines could render gene vectors the ability to get across the blood brain barrier by specific receptor mediated transcytosis. The resultant brain-targeted vector was complexed with caspase-3 short hairpin RNA coding plasmid DNA, yielding nanoparticles. In vivo imaging analysis indicated the targeted nanoparticles could accumulate in brain more efficiently than non-targeted ones. A multiple dosing regimen by weekly intravenous administration of the nanoparticles could reduce activated casapse-3 levels, significantly improve locomotor activity and rescue dopaminergic neuronal loss and in Parkinson's disease rats' brain. These results indicated the rabies virus glycoprotein peptide modified brain-targeted nanoparticles were promising gene delivery system for RNA interference to achieve anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammation synergistic therapeutic effects by down-regulation the expression and activation of caspase-3.

  1. TU-EF-304-11: Therapeutic Benefits of Collimation in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy in the Treatment of Brain Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Moignier, A; Gelover, E; Wang, D; Flynn, R; Hyer, D; Kirk, M; Lin, L; Solberg, T; Lin, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A dynamic collimation system (DCS) based on two orthogonal pairs of mobile trimmer blades has recently been proposed to reduce the lateral penumbra in spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT). The purpose of this work is to quantify the therapeutic benefit of using the DCS for SSPT of brain cancer by comparing un-collimated and collimated treatment plans. Methods: Un-collimated and collimated brain treatment plans were created for five patients, previously treated with SSPT, using an in-house treatment planning system capable of modeling collimated and un-collimated beamlets. Un-collimated plans reproduced the clinically delivered plans in terms of target coverage and organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing, whereas collimated plans were re-optimized to improve the organ-at-risk sparing while maintaining target coverage. Physical and biological comparison metrics such as dose distribution conformity, mean and maximum doses, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and risk of secondary brain cancer were used to evaluate the plans. Results: The DCS systematically improved the dose distribution conformity while preserving the target coverage. The average reduction of the mean dose to the 10-mm ring surrounding the target and the healthy brain were 7.1% (95% CI: 4.2%–9.9%; p<0.01) and 14.3% (95% CI: 7.8%–20.8%; p<0.01), respectively. This yielded an average reduction of 12.0% (95% CI: 8.2%–15.7%; p<0.01) for the brain necrosis NTCP using the Flickinger model, and 14.2% (95% CI: 7.7%–20.8%; p<0.01) for the risk of secondary brain cancer. The average maximum dose reductions for the brainstem, chiasm, optic nerves, cochleae and pituitary gland when comparing un-collimated and collimated plans were 14.3%, 10.4%, 11.2%, 13.0%, 12.9% and 3.4%, respectively. Evaluating individual plans using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman NTCP model also yielded improvements. Conclusion: The lateral penumbra reduction performed by the DCS increases the normal tissue sparing capabilities of

  2. Designer Self-Assemble Peptides Maximize the Therapeutic Benefits of Neural Stem Cell Transplantation for Alzheimer's Disease via Enhancing Neuron Differentiation and Paracrine Action.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guo-hong; Shao, Shui-jin; Yang, Jia-jun; Liu, Jian-ren; Guo, Hai-dong

    2016-03-01

    maximize the therapeutic benefits of NSC transplantation for AD through improving the survival and differentiation of transplanted stem cells and promoting the effects of neuroprotection, anti-neuroinflammatory and paracrine action. Our results may have important clinical implications for the design of future NSC-based strategies using the biomaterials for various neurodegenerative diseases including AD.

  3. Patients’ empowerment, physicians’ perceptions, and achievement of therapeutic goals in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Chiquete, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Background Physicians’ perception may not parallel objective measures of therapeutic targets in patients with diabetes. This is an issue rarely addressed in the medical literature. We aimed to analyze physicians’ perception and characteristics of adequate control of patients with diabetes. Patients and methods We studied information on physicians and their patients who participated in the third wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study registry in Mexico. This analysis was performed on 2,642 patients, 203 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 2,439 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), treated by 200 physicians. Results The patients perceived at target had lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose than those considered not at target. However, overestimation of the frequency of patients with HbA1c <7% was 41.5% in patients with T1DM and 31.7% in patients with T2DM (underestimation: 2.8% and 8.0%, respectively). The agreement between the physicians’ perception and the class of HbA1c was suboptimal (κ: 0.612). Diabetologists and endocrinologists tested HbA1c more frequently than primary care practitioners, internists, or cardiologists; however, no differences were observed in mean HbA1c, for both T1DM (8.4% vs 7.2%, P=0.42) and T2DM (8.03% vs 8.01%, P=0.87) patients. Nevertheless, insulin users perceived at target, who practiced self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, had a lower mean HbA1c than patients without these characteristics (mean HbA1c in T1DM: 6.8% vs 9.6%, respectively; mean HbA1c in T2DM: 7.0% vs 10.1%, respectively). Conclusion Although there is a significant physicians’ overestimation about the optimal glycemic control, this global impression and characteristics of patients’ empowerment, such as self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, are associated with the achievement of targets. PMID:27555751

  4. Can Explicit Instruction in Social and Emotional Learning Skills Benefit the Social-Emotional Development, Well-Being, and Academic Achievement of Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashdown, Daniela Maree; Bernard, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a social and emotional learning skills curriculum, the "You Can Do It! Early Childhood Education Program" (YCDI), on the social-emotional development, well-being, and academic achievement of 99 preparatory and grade 1 students attending a Catholic school in Melbourne, Australia. One preparatory and one grade 1…

  5. Expression of the fusogenic p14 FAST protein from a replication-defective adenovirus vector does not provide a therapeutic benefit in an immunocompetent mouse model of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, C M; Nash, L A; Del Papa, J; Poulin, K L; Falls, T; Bell, J C; Parks, R J

    2016-01-01

    When injected directly into a tumor mass, adenovirus (Ad) vectors only transduce cells immediately along the injection tract. Expression of fusogenic proteins from the Ad vector can lead to syncytium formation, which efficiently spreads the therapeutic effect. Fusogenic proteins can also cause cancer cell death directly, and enhance the release of exosome-like particles containing tumor-associated antigens, which boosts the anti-tumor immune response. In this study, we have examined whether delivery of an early region 1 (E1)-deleted, replication-defective Ad vector encoding the reptilian reovirus p14 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein can provide therapeutic efficacy in an immunocompetent mouse tumor model. A high multiplicity of infection of AdFAST is required to induce cell fusion in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells in vitro, and FAST protein expression caused a modest reduction in cell membrane integrity and metabolic activity compared with cells infected with a control vector. Cells expressing FAST protein released significantly higher quantities of exosomes. In immunocompetent Balb/C mice harboring subcutaneous 4T1 tumors, AdFAST did not induce detectable cancer cell fusion, promote tumor regression or prolong mouse survival compared with untreated mice. This study suggests that in the context of the 4T1 model, Ad-mediated FAST protein expression did not elicit a therapeutic effect. PMID:27740615

  6. The benefit of combinations of oximes for the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment of sarin poisoning in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Sepsova, Vendula; Caisberger, Filip

    2011-07-01

    The influence of the combinations of oximes on the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treament of acute sarin poisoning was evaluated in this study. The ability of two combinations of oximes (HI-6 + trimedoxime and HI-6 + K203) to reactivate sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reduce acute toxicity of sarin was compared with the reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of antidotal treatment involving single oxime (HI-6, trimedoxime, K203) using in vivo methods. Studies determining percentage of reactivation of sarin-inhibited blood and tissue acetylcholinesterase in poisoned rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of the combination of oximes involving HI-6 and K203 is slightly higher than the reactivating efficacy of the most effective individual oxime in diaphragm and brain but the difference between them is not significant. The ability of combination of oximes involving HI-6 and trimedoxime to reactivate sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase roughly corresponds to the reactivating effects of the most effective individual oxime in blood as well as tissues. Moreover, both combinations of oximes were found to be as efficacious in the reduction of acute lethal toxic effects in sarin-poisoned mice as the most effective individual oxime. A comparison of reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of individual oximes showed that the oxime HI-6 is markedly more effective than the oxime K203 and trimedoxime. Based on the obtained data, we conclude that the antidotal treatment involving chosen combinations of oximes does not significantly influence the ability of the most effective individual oxime (HI-6) to reactivate sarin-inhibited rat acetylcholinesterase and to reduce acute toxicity of sarin in mice.

  7. Development of a Novel Orthotopic Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Model and Therapeutic Benefit of 2′-(2-bromohexadecanoyl)-Docetaxel Conjugate Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lei; Feng, Lan; Yuan, Hong; Benhabbour, Soumya R.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of these studies were to establish an orthotopic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) mouse model, and to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of lipid-based nanoparticles (NPs) containing 2′-(2-bromohexadecanoyl)-docetaxel (Br-C16-DX) in this new model. A novel orthotopic NSCLC model was established in nude mice through dorsal side injection of luciferase-expressing A549 cells. The model was characterized by survival study, histological staining, bioluminescence imaging and PET/CT imaging. The therapeutic efficacy of the Br-C16-DX NPs versus Taxotere® was investigated in this model. The results demonstrated that mouse survival time was significantly prolonged by weekly intravenous administration of the NPs or Taxotere. Furthermore, the NPs group had 35 days longer progression-free survival and 27 days longer median survival compared to the Taxotere group. It was concluded that the developed orthotopic NSCLC model represents a feasible, reproducible, and clinically-relevant experimental mouse model to test current and potential therapies including nanomedicines. PMID:24709328

  8. Online Self-Report Data for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Confirms Natural History and Can Be Used to Assess for Therapeutic Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Richard T.; Silverstein Fadlon, Cheri A.; Ulm, J. Wes; Jankovic, Ivana; Eskin, Ascia; Lu, Ake; Rangel Miller, Vanessa; Cantor, Rita M.; Li, Ning; Elashoff, Robert; Martin, Anne S.; Peay, Holly L.; Halnon, Nancy; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the utility of online patient self-report outcomes in a rare disease, we attempted to observe the effects of corticosteroids in delaying age at fulltime wheelchair use in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using data from 1,057 males from DuchenneConnect, an online registry. Data collected were compared to prior natural history data in regard to age at diagnosis, mutation spectrum, and age at loss of ambulation. Because registrants reported differences in steroid and other medication usage, as well as age and ambulation status, we could explore these data for correlations with age at loss of ambulation. Using multivariate analysis, current steroid usage was the most significant and largest independent predictor of improved wheelchair-free survival. Thus, these online self-report data were sufficient to retrospectively observe that current steroid use by patients with DMD is associated with a delay in loss of ambulation. Comparing commonly used steroid drugs, deflazacort prolonged ambulation longer than prednisone (median 14 years and 13 years, respectively). Further, use of Vitamin D and Coenzyme Q10, insurance status, and age at diagnosis after 4 years were also significant, but smaller, independent predictors of longer wheelchair-free survival. Nine other common supplements were also individually tested but had lower study power. This study demonstrates the utility of DuchenneConnect data to observe therapeutic differences, and highlights needs for improvement in quality and quantity of patient-report data, which may allow exploration of drug/therapeutic practice combinations impractical to study in clinical trial settings. Further, with the low barrier to participation, we anticipate substantial growth in the dataset in the coming years. PMID:25635234

  9. Use of boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles with ROS scavenging ability in boron neutron capture therapy to achieve high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenyu; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nakai, Kei; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-10-01

    A boron delivery system with high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects is crucial for a successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this study, we developed boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles (BNPs) via polyion complex (PIC) formation, using a newly synthesized poly(ethylene glycol)-polyanion (PEG-polyanion, possessing a (10)B-enriched boron cluster as a side chain of one of its segments) and PEG-polycation (possessing a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger as a side chain of one of its segments). The BNPs exhibited high colloidal stability, selective uptake in tumor cells, specific accumulation, and long retention in tumor tissue and ROS scavenging ability. After thermal neutron irradiation, significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in the BNP-treated group, with only 5-ppm (10)B in tumor tissues, whereas at least 20-ppm (10)B is generally required for low molecular weight (LMW) (10)B agents. In addition, increased leukocyte levels were observed in the LMW (10)B agent-treated group after thermal neutron irradiation, and not in BNP-treated group, which might be attributed to its ROS scavenging ability. No visual metastasis of tumor cells to other organs was observed 1 month after irradiation in the BNP-treated group. These results suggest that BNPs are promising for enhancing the BNCT performance.

  10. Cinnamon may have therapeutic benefits on lipid profile, liver enzymes, insulin resistance, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Askari, Faezeh; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2014-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of hepatic injury in the world. One of the most important therapeutic strategies for this disease is modulating insulin resistance and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that supplementation with cinnamon exerts an insulin sensitizer effect in patients with NAFLD. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with two parallel groups, fifty patients with NAFLD were randomized to receive daily supplementation with either two capsules of cinnamon (each capsule contain 750 mg cinnamon) or 2 placebo capsules, daily for 12 weeks. During the intervention, all patients were given advice on how to implement a balanced diet and physical activity into their daily lives. In the treatment group (P < .05), significant decreases in HOMA (Homeostatic Model Assessment) index, FBS (fasting blood glucose), total cholesterol, triglyceride, ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), GGT (gamma glutamine transpeptidase), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were seen, but there was no significant change in serum high-density lipoproteins levels (P = .122). In both groups, low-density lipoproteins decreased significantly (P < .05). In conclusion, the study suggests that taking 1500 mg cinnamon daily may be effective in improving NAFLD characteristics.

  11. Benefit of therapeutic drug monitoring of protease inhibitors in HIV-infected patients depends on PI used in HAART regimen--ANRS 111 trial

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Xavier; Mentré, France; Rey, Elisabeth; Auleley, Solange; Peytavin, Gilles; Biour, Michel; Métro, Annie; Goujard, Cecile; Taburet, Anne-Marie; Lascoux, Cecile; Panhard, Xaviere; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Salmon-Céron, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Due to high inter-patient variability, and efficacy-concentration and toxicity-concentration relationships, optimization of HIV-protease inhibitor doses based on plasma concentrations could be beneficial. During a 48-week open prospective non-randomized interventional study of 115 protease inhibitor-naïve patients initiating an indinavir/ritonavir or lopinavir/ritonavir or nelfinavir containing therapy, protease inhibitor dose was modified when plasma trough concentrations (Ctrough) at week 2, 8, 16 and 24 were outside predefined optimal concentration ranges. Failure of the strategy was defined as the proportions of patients with HIV-RNA above 200 copies/ml from week 24 to 48 and/or experiencing grade 2, 3 or 4 PI-related adverse events during the study; proportion of patients with last Ctrough measurement outside the concentration range was determined at each visit. Virological failure and/or occurrence of adverse event were observed in 37/94 assessable patients (39% CI95%: 29.4–50.0). In the on-treatment analysis, failure of the strategy was noted in 16% of indinavir/r or lopinavir/r treated patients (8/51; CI95% 7.0–28.6; virological failure: 2; adverse event: 6) but in 44% of nelfinavir-treated patients (11/25; CI95%: 24.4–65.1; virological failure: 10; adverse event: 1); Ctrough concentrations outside the range were less frequent at the last measurement than at W2 (41% versus 66%; p < 0.05) with proportions of 35% for indinavir/r or lopinavir/r treated patients, but 57% for nelfinavir treated patients. The proposed strategy of therapeutic drug monitoring may be beneficial to indinavir/r and lopinavir/r-treated patients, but for nelfinavir failed to move concentrations into the predefined range and to produce the expected virological success. PMID:19709326

  12. Boron Neutron Capture Therapty (BNCT) in an Oral Precancer Model: Therapeutic Benefits and Potential Toxicity of a Double Application of BNCT with a Six-Week Interval

    SciTech Connect

    Andrea Monti Hughes; Emiliano C.C. Pozzi; Elisa M. Heber; Silvia Thorp; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; Ana J. Molinari; Marcela A. Garabalino; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2011-11-01

    Given the clinical relevance of locoregional recurrences in head and neck cancer, we developed a novel experimental model of premalignant tissue in the hamster cheek pouch for long-term studies and demonstrated the partial inhibitory effect of a single application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) on tumor development from premalignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a double application of BNCT with a 6 week interval in terms of inhibitory effect on tumor development, toxicity and DNA synthesis. We performed a double application, 6 weeks apart, of (1) BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT); (2) BNCT mediated by the combined application of decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) and BPA [(GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT] or (3) beam-only, at RA-3 nuclear reactor and followed the animals for 8 months. The control group was cancerized and sham-irradiated. BPA-BNCT, (GB- 10 + BPA)-BNCT and beam-only induced a reduction in tumor development from premalignant tissue that persisted until 8, 3, and 2 months respectively. An early maximum inhibition of 100% was observed for all 3 protocols. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was detected. Reversible mucositis was observed in premalignant tissue, peaking at 1 week and resolving by the third week after each irradiation. Mucositis after the second application was not exacerbated by the first application. DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in premalignant tissue 8 months post-BNCT. A double application of BPA-BNCT and (GB-10 + BPA)-BNCT, 6 weeks apart, could be used therapeutically at no additional cost in terms of radiotoxicity in normal and dose-limiting tissues.

  13. A Therapeutic Approach to Teaching Poetry: Individual Development, Psychology, and Social Reparation. Psychoanalysis, Education and Social Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Todd O.

    2012-01-01

    A Therapeutic Approach to Teaching Poetry develops a poetry pedagogy that offers significant benefits to students by helping them to achieve a sense of renewal (a deeper awareness of self and potentials) and reparation (a realistic, but positive and proactive worldview). Todd O. Williams offers a thorough examination of the therapeutic potential…

  14. Achieving joint benefits from joint implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Moomaw, W.R.

    1995-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) appears to have been born with Applied Energy Services Guatemala project in 1988. That project, to plant 52 million trees, protect existing forests from cutting and fire, and enhance rural development, is being implemented by CARE Guatemala to offset 120 per cent of the emissions of a small coal burning power plant that has been built in Connecticut. Since that time, several utilities and governments have initiated additional projects. Not all of these necessarily consist of tree planting in other countries, but may consist of energy efficiency or energy conservation programs designed to reduce carbon emissions by at least as much as the additional releases from a new facility. All JI projects share the characteristic of linking the release of greenhouse gases in an industrial country with an offset that reduces or absorbs a comparable amount in another country. The emitter in the industrial country is willing to pay for the reduction elsewhere because costs are less than they would be at home.

  15. ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION: PRIORITIZATION TO ACHIEVE EMERGENT BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The declining ability of ecosystems to support themselves and the demands placed on them is not new. Initial efforts to counteract these effects and trends focused on individual species (e.g., Endangered Species Act) or environmental media (e.g., Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act)....

  16. Prevalence of Obesity and Its Influence on Achievement of Cardiometabolic Therapeutic Goals in Chinese Type 2 Diabetes Patients: An Analysis of the Nationwide, Cross-Sectional 3B Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianghai; Ji, Linong; Ran, Xingwu; Su, Benli; Ji, Qiuhe; Pan, Changyu; Weng, Jianping; Ma, Changsheng; Hao, Chuanming; Zhang, Danyi; Hu, Dayi

    2016-01-01

    Background There are few data on the prevalence of obesity and its influence on achieving blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipid (3B) goals in Chinese type 2 diabetes outpatients. Methods Patient demographic data, anthropometric measurements, medications, and blood glucose and lipid profiles of 24,512 type 2 diabetes patients from a large, geographically diverse study (CCMR-3B) were analyzed. Using cut-points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) recommended by the Working Group on Obesity in China, overweight and obesity were defined as BMIs of 24–27.9kg/m2 and ≥28.0kg/m2. Central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥80cm in women and ≥85cm in men. The 3B therapeutic goals were HbA1c<7.0%, BP<140/90mmHg and LDL-C<2.6mmol/L. Results Overall, 43.0% of type 2 diabetes patients were overweight and 16.7% were obese; 13.3% of overweight and and10.1% of obese patients achieved all the 3B target goals. Overweight or obese patients were less likely to achieve 3B goals than those with normal BMIs. More than a half the overweight or obese patients (69.6%) were centrally obese. Patients with abdominal obesity were less likely to achieve cardiometabolic targets than those without abdominal obesity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, female, higher BMI and waist circumference, smoking, drinking, sedentary lifestyle, and longer diabetes duration were significantly correlated with failure to achieve 3B control goals. Conclusions Obesity is highly prevalent and associated with poor 3B control in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. In clinical practice, more attention and resources should focus on weight loss for such patients. PMID:26726883

  17. Therapeutic targets in malignant glioblastoma microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Newcomb, Elizabeth W; Zagzag, David; Narayana, Ashwatha

    2009-07-01

    There is considerable evidence that the tissue microenvironment can suppress cancer and that microenvironment disruption is required for cancer growth and progression. Distortion of the microenvironment by tumor cells can promote growth, recruit nonmalignant cells that provide physiological resources, and facilitate invasion. Compared with the variable routes taken by cells to become cancers, the response of normal tissue to cancer is relatively consistent such that controlling cancer may be more readily achieved indirectly via the microenvironment. Here, we discuss 3 ideas about how the microenvironment, consisting of a vasculature, inflammatory cells, immune cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix, might provide therapeutic targets in glioblastoma (GBM) in the context of radiotherapy (RT): (1) viable therapeutic targets exist in the GBM microenvironment, (2) RT alters the microenvironment of tissues and tumors; and (3) a potential benefit may be achieved by targeting the microenvironments induced by RT.

  18. Biomimetic Particles as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jordan J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of novel nanoparticle and microparticle-based therapeutics. An emerging paradigm is the incorporation of biomimetic features into these synthetic therapeutic constructs to enable them to better interface with biological systems. Through the control of size, shape, and material consistency, particle cores have been generated that better mimic natural cells and viruses. In addition, there have been significant advances in biomimetic surface functionalization of particles through the integration of bio-inspired artificial cell membranes and naturally derived cell membranes. Biomimetic technologies enable therapeutic particles to have increased potency to benefit human health. PMID:26277289

  19. Biomimetic particles as therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Randall A; Sunshine, Joel C; Green, Jordan J

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, there have been major advances in the development of novel nanoparticle- and microparticle-based therapeutics. An emerging paradigm is the incorporation of biomimetic features into these synthetic therapeutic constructs to enable them to better interface with biological systems. Through the control of size, shape, and material consistency, particle cores have been generated that better mimic natural cells and viruses. In addition, there have been significant advances in biomimetic surface functionalization of particles through the integration of bio-inspired artificial cell membranes and naturally derived cell membranes. Biomimetic technologies enable therapeutic particles to have increased potency to benefit human health.

  20. Biofeedback Training and Therapeutic Gains: Clinical Impressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses several indirect benefits of clinical biofeedback training and their role in the therapeutic process. Suggests these secondary benefits may give biofeedback a distinctive advantage over other therapeutic interventions. Argues that these benefits are as important to the client's long-term emotional and physical health as is symptom…

  1. Achievements in Stratospheric Ozone Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes achievements in protecting the ozone layer, the benefits of these achievements, and strategies involved (e.g., using alternatives to ozone-depleting substances, phasing out harmful substances, and creating partnerships).

  2. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  3. Combination therapeutics in complex diseases.

    PubMed

    He, Bing; Lu, Cheng; Zheng, Guang; He, Xiaojuan; Wang, Maolin; Chen, Gao; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Aiping

    2016-12-01

    The biological redundancies in molecular networks of complex diseases limit the efficacy of many single drug therapies. Combination therapeutics, as a common therapeutic method, involve pharmacological intervention using several drugs that interact with multiple targets in the molecular networks of diseases and may achieve better efficacy and/or less toxicity than monotherapy in practice. The development of combination therapeutics is complicated by several critical issues, including identifying multiple targets, targeting strategies and the drug combination. This review summarizes the current achievements in combination therapeutics, with a particular emphasis on the efforts to develop combination therapeutics for complex diseases.

  4. The Holy Grail of Polymer Therapeutics for Cancer Therapy: An Overview on the Pharmacokinetics and Bio Distribution.

    PubMed

    Dyawanapelly, Sathish; Junnuthula, Vijayabhaskar Reddy; Singh, AkhileshVikram

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, multifaceted clinical benefits of polymeric therapeutics have been reported. Over the past decades, cancer has been one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. Many clinically approved chemotherapeutics encounter potential challenges against deadly cancer. Moreover, safety and efficacy of anticancer agents have been limited by undesirable pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. To address these limitations, various polymer drug conjugates are being studied and developed to improve the antitumor efficacy. Among other therapeutics, polymer therapeutics are well established platforms that circumvent anticancer therapeutics from enzymatic metabolism via direct conjugation to therapeutic molecules. Interestingly, polymer therapeutics meets an unmet need of small molecules. Further clinical study showed that polymer-drug conjugation can achieve desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution properties of several anticancer drugs. The present retrospective review mainly enlightens the most recent preclinical and clinical studies include safety, stability, pharmacokinetic behavior and distribution of polymer therapeutics.

  5. The Process of Teaching Therapeutic Horseback Riding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renker, Lorraine

    Therapeutic horseback riding for persons with disabilities provides physical, mental, social, and emotional benefits. Most research in this area has focused on the product or benefits of therapeutic riding, while the process of teaching horseback riding has received little attention. Research from the fields of regular education, special…

  6. Therapeutic cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Melief, Cornelis J.M.; van Hall, Thorbald; Arens, Ramon; Ossendorp, Ferry; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical benefit of therapeutic cancer vaccines has been established. Whereas regression of lesions was shown for premalignant lesions caused by HPV, clinical benefit in cancer patients was mostly noted as prolonged survival. Suboptimal vaccine design and an immunosuppressive cancer microenvironment are the root causes of the lack of cancer eradication. Effective cancer vaccines deliver concentrated antigen to both HLA class I and II molecules of DCs, promoting both CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. Optimal vaccine platforms include DNA and RNA vaccines and synthetic long peptides. Antigens of choice include mutant sequences, selected cancer testis antigens, and viral antigens. Drugs or physical treatments can mitigate the immunosuppressive cancer microenvironment and include chemotherapeutics, radiation, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitors, inhibitors of T cell checkpoints, agonists of selected TNF receptor family members, and inhibitors of undesirable cytokines. The specificity of therapeutic vaccination combined with such immunomodulation offers an attractive avenue for the development of future cancer therapies. PMID:26214521

  7. A panic attack in therapeutic recreation over being considered therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Lee, L L

    1987-01-01

    Ancillary professions have been called upon to account for therapeutic benefits from their services or be eliminated from the health care system. A singular focus on therapy, however, would negate the unique contribution of therapeutic recreation within, while simultaneously restricting services to health care settings. It is proposed that panic over therapeutic recreation services meeting health care goals has hindered evaluation and solidification of the leisure-based philosophy presented in the NTRS Philosophical Position Statement (NTRS, 1982). It is argued that emphasizing the leisure orientation of the philosophical position statement can secure therapeutic recreation's position within, yet, not deny services to those outside of the health care system. An overview is presented on the adequacy of the position statement philosophy for therapeutic recreation. A potential danger of attempting to explain therapeutic recreation in terms of non-leisure based philosophies is also discussed.

  8. Therapeutic Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks and Recreation, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Graphic profiles of (1) the professional membership of the National Therapeutic Recreation Society, (2) state-level employment opportunities in the field, and (3) educational opportunities at U.S. colleges and universities. (MB)

  9. [Objectives and therapeutic strategy in type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Calvo Romero, J M; Lima Rodríguez, E M

    2001-07-01

    United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) has demonstrated definitively that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) benefit from intensive blood glucose control, because it diminishes the risk to develop microvascular complications. The therapeutic targets in the type 2 DM have been modified in order to reduce the risk of these complications. However, aggressive treatment may be disastrous for patients with microvascular complications and/or an increased risk of hypoglycemic unawareness, and neither it would be advised in older patients or with short life expectancy. The available drugs for treatment of type 2 DM offer many options for achieving these therapeutic targets, based on the need of the individual patient. In this job we review the targets in the metabolic control of type 2 DM and their backgrounds, and we describe briefly the therapeutic strategy recommended for reaching these targets, with special attention to the new oral antidiabetic agents (repaglinide and thiazolidinediones).

  10. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  11. Engineering human cells for in vivo secretion of antibody and non-antibody therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, David; Sanz, Laura; Álvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2011-12-01

    Purified proteins such as antibodies are widely used as therapeutic agents in clinical medicine. However, clinical-grade proteins for therapeutic use require sophisticated technologies and are extremely expensive to produce. In vivo secretion of therapeutic proteins by genetically engineered human cells may advantageously replace injection of highly purified proteins. The use of gene transfer methods circumvents problems related to large-scale production and purification and offers additional benefits by achieving sustained concentrations of therapeutic protein with a syngenic glycosylation pattern that make the protein potentially less immunogenic. The feasibility of the in vivo production of therapeutic proteins by diverse cells/tissues has now been demonstrated using different techniques, such as ex vivo genetically modified cells and in vivo gene transfer mediated by viral vectors.

  12. MACROMOLECULAR THERAPEUTICS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2014-01-01

    This review covers water-soluble polymer-drug conjugates and macromolecules that possess biological activity without attached low molecular weight drugs. The main design principles of traditional and backbone degradable polymer-drug conjugates as well as the development of a new paradigm in nanomedicines – (low molecular weight) drug-free macromolecular therapeutics are discussed. To address the biological features of cancer, macromolecular therapeutics directed to stem/progenitor cells and the tumor microenvironment are deliberated. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly debated. PMID:24747162

  13. Macromolecular therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2014-09-28

    This review covers water-soluble polymer-drug conjugates and macromolecules that possess biological activity without attached low molecular weight drugs. The main design principles of traditional and backbone degradable polymer-drug conjugates as well as the development of a new paradigm in nanomedicines - (low molecular weight) drug-free macromolecular therapeutics are discussed. To address the biological features of cancer, macromolecular therapeutics directed to stem/progenitor cells and the tumor microenvironment are deliberated. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly debated.

  14. Technology Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, William

    2001-01-01

    An assessment was recently performed by NASA s Inter-Center Systems Analysis Team to quantify the potential emission reduction benefits from technologies being developed under UEET. The CO2 and LTO NO, reductions were estimated for 4 vehicles: a 50-passenger regional jet, a twin-engine, long-range subsonic transport, a high-speed (Mach 2.4) civil transport and a supersonic (Mach 2) business jet. The results of the assessment confirm that the current portfolio of technologies within the UEET program provides an opportunity for substantial reductions in CO2 and NO, emissions.

  15. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen C.; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip D.; Smith, Bryan R.; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'etre of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multi-step work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  16. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  17. Therapeutic uses of contraceptive steroids.

    PubMed

    Starks, G C

    1984-09-01

    During the past 20 years, contraceptive steroids have undergone significant changes as the result of an increased understanding of their metabolic, pharmacologic, and hormonal activities. During this time, prospective and retrospective epidemiologic studies have elucidated several noncontraceptive health benefits of oral contraceptive steroids, including their therapeutic effects for endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, polycystic ovarian disease, and benign breast disease. From this review it appears that the benefits of oral contraceptive steroids in young, healthy, nonsmoking women far outweigh their more publicized, infrequent risks.

  18. Therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2012-01-01

    Protein-based therapeutics are highly successful in clinic and currently enjoy unprecedented recognition of their potential. More than 100 genuine and similar number of modified therapeutic proteins are approved for clinical use in the European Union and the USA with 2010 sales of US$108 bln; monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) accounted for almost half (48%) of the sales. Based on their pharmacological activity, they can be divided into five groups: (a) replacing a protein that is deficient or abnormal; (b) augmenting an existing pathway; (c) providing a novel function or activity; (d) interfering with a molecule or organism; and (e) delivering other compounds or proteins, such as a radionuclide, cytotoxic drug, or effector proteins. Therapeutic proteins can also be grouped based on their molecular types that include antibody-based drugs, Fc fusion proteins, anticoagulants, blood factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, engineered protein scaffolds, enzymes, growth factors, hormones, interferons, interleukins, and thrombolytics. They can also be classified based on their molecular mechanism of activity as (a) binding non-covalently to target, e.g., mAbs; (b) affecting covalent bonds, e.g., enzymes; and (c) exerting activity without specific interactions, e.g., serum albumin. Most protein therapeutics currently on the market are recombinant and hundreds of them are in clinical trials for therapy of cancers, immune disorders, infections, and other diseases. New engineered proteins, including bispecific mAbs and multispecific fusion proteins, mAbs conjugated with small molecule drugs, and proteins with optimized pharmacokinetics, are currently under development. However, in the last several decades, there are no conceptually new methodological developments comparable, e.g., to genetic engineering leading to the development of recombinant therapeutic proteins. It appears that a paradigm change in methodologies and understanding of mechanisms is needed to overcome major

  19. Therapeutic drug monitoring for antidepressant drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Ostad Haji, Elnaz; Hiemke, Christoph; Pfuhlmann, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The aim of antidepressant drug treatment is to produce remission without causing adverse effects during the acute phase of the illness and to prevent relapses or recurrences during continuation or maintenance therapy. To achieve these goals, drug choice and dosage must be optimized for each patient individually. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), which is based on the assumption that clinical effects correlate better with blood levels than doses, can be helpful. When using tricyclic antidepressant drugs TDM enhances safety and efficacy. For newer antidepressant drugs, however, it is a matter of debate to which extend TDM can have beneficial effects. For many antidepressants there exist carefully designed studies concerning the relationship between plasma concentration and clinical effects that allow the definition of recommended therapeutic ranges of the plasma concentration. In some drugs however, concentration-effect studies are lacking so far, but target ranges resulting from clinically relevant plasma concentrations or from pharmacokinetic studies could be provided. During the last years, knowledge on therapeutic references ranges in blood towards TDM guided treatment has markedly improved for new antidepressant drugs, and many specific indications have been defined for useful TDM. Recently published guidelines describe the best practice of TDM for neuropsychiatric drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the current status of TDM for antidepressant drugs and discuss the literature with regard to response optimization, pharmacovigilance and economic benefits and with regard to needs for further research.

  20. Therapeutic Recreation Majors' Work Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Elizabeth H.; Magafas, Anita

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the client age/disability work preference of 76 therapeutic recreation undergraduate students at 3 universities. Results indicate a preference to work with younger clients, disability groups, and physically impaired clients. Chronically ill clients were last in work preference. Students need exposure to the benefits of working with…

  1. Two concepts of therapeutic optimism

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Lynn A

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and ethicists have long been concerned about the expectations for direct medical benefit expressed by participants in early phase clinical trials. Early work on the issue considered the possibility that participants misunderstand the purpose of clinical research or that they are misinformed about the prospects for medical benefit from these trials. Recently, however, attention has turned to the possibility that research participants are simply expressing optimism or hope about their participation in these trials. The ethical significance of this therapeutic optimism remains unclear. This paper argues that there are two distinct phenomena that can be associated with the term ‘therapeutic optimism’—one is ethically benign and the other is potentially worrisome. Distinguishing these two phenomena is crucial for understanding the nature and ethical significance of therapeutic optimism. The failure to draw a distinction between these phenomena also helps to explain why different writers on the topic often speak past one another. PMID:21551464

  2. Lymphopenia is detrimental to therapeutic approaches to type 1 diabetes using regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Ash, Shifra; Yarkoni, Shai; Askenasy, Nadir

    2014-01-01

    One of the therapeutic approaches to type 1 diabetes (T1D) focuses on enhancement of regulatory T cell (Treg) activity, either by adoptive transfer or supplementation of supporting cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2). In principle, this therapeutic design would greatly benefit of concomitant reduction in pathogenic cell burden. Experimental evidence indicates that physiological recovery from lymphopenia is dominated by evolution of effector and cytotoxic cells, which abolishes the therapeutic efficacy of Treg cells. Targeted and selective depletion of effector T cells has been achieved with killer Treg using Fas ligand protein and a fusion protein composed of IL-2 and caspase-3, which showed remarkable efficacy in modulating the course of inflammatory insulitis in NOD mice. We emphasize a critical consideration in design of therapeutic approaches to T1D, immunomodulation without lymphoreduction to avoid the detrimental consequences of rebound recovery from lymphopenia.

  3. The Therapeutic Recreation Professional: Microcomputer Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation professionals can work with computer specialists to develop uses for microcomputers with special populations. Computers can help sensory-impaired individuals, physically disabled, the aged, and special education students. Computer professionals benefit from receiving feedback from therapeutic recreation professionals on…

  4. RNAi therapeutics for CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Ryan L; Davidson, Beverly L

    2010-06-18

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a process of sequence-specific gene silencing and serves as a powerful molecular tool to manipulate gene expression in vitro and in vivo. RNAi technologies have been applied to study gene function and validate drug targets. Researchers are investigating RNAi-based compounds as novel therapeutics to treat a variety of human diseases that are currently lacking sufficient treatment. To date, numerous studies support that RNAi therapeutics can improve disease phenotypes in various rodent models of human disease. Here, we focus on the development of RNAi-based therapies aimed at treating neurological disorders for which reduction of mutant or toxic gene expression may provide clinical benefit. We review RNAi-based gene-silencing strategies, proof-of-concept studies testing therapeutic RNAi for CNS disorders, and highlight the most recent research aimed at transitioning RNAi-based therapeutics toward clinical trials.

  5. Antioxidant therapeutics for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ravinder; Reddy, Rajiv

    2011-10-01

    Pharmaceutical treatment for millions worldwide who have schizophrenia is limited to a handful of antipsychotics. Despite the proven efficacy of these drugs, the overall outcome for schizophrenia remains suboptimal. Thus, alternative treatment options are urgently needed. One possible approach may be antioxidant therapy. The extant evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia offers a hypothesis-derived therapeutic approach in the form of antioxidants. Vitamins C and E, for example, are suitable for human clinical trials because they are readily available, inexpensive, and relatively safe. Research into the therapeutic use of antioxidants in schizophrenia can be grouped into two main clusters: for psychopathology and for side effects. Of these studies, some have been carefully conducted, but majority are open label. Use of antioxidants for treatment-related side effects has been more extensively investigated. The totality of the evidence to date suggests that specific antioxidants, such as N-acetyl cysteine, may offer tangible benefits for the clinical syndrome of schizophrenia, and vitamin E may offer salutary effects on glycemic effects of antipsychotics. However, a great deal of fundamental clinical research remains to be done before antioxidants can be routinely used therapeutically for schizophrenia and treatment-related complications.

  6. Therapeutic use of cannabis: clarifying the debate.

    PubMed

    Gowing, L R; Ali, R L; Christie, P; White, J M

    1998-12-01

    The debate regarding therapeutic use of cannabis is being confused by a lack of distinction between therapeutic and social use of cannabis. Separate consideration of therapeutic and social use would enable strategies to minimise any negative social impact of therapeutic use. For therapeutic use of cannabis to be considered on its own merits, greater emphasis needs to be placed on scientific evidence of therapeutic efficacy. At present the evidence is limited, it mostly relates to the use of synthetic cannabinoids, and much of it fails to compare cannabis with the best therapies available for the conditions of interest. Claims of therapeutic efficacy tend to be based on opinion and anecdote rather than the results of controlled studies. Further research is needed to clarify the potential therapeutic benefits, to enable claims of therapeutic use to be objectively assessed and to enable informed decisions to be made about the relative risks and benefits for any individual using cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Further research is required to clarify the efficacy of pure, synthetic cannabinoids compared to cannabis, the most effective route of administration, and the importance of delivering a known dose. The most likely value of cannabis is as an adjunct, rather than a replacement for, current medical approaches. The potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis will be greatest for those conditions where long-term cannabis use, with its attendant health risks, is not an issue and where the patient has the capacity to titrate dose against symptoms. There is sufficient evidence of potential therapeutic benefit to justify the facilitation of further research.

  7. Platelet-delivered therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lyde, R; Sabatino, D; Sullivan, S K; Poncz, M

    2015-06-01

    We have proposed that modified platelets could potentially be used to correct intrinsic platelet defects as well as for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules to sights of vascular injury. Ectopic expression of proteins within α-granules prior to platelet activation has been achieved for several proteins, including urokinase, factor (F) VIII, and partially for FIX. Potential uses of platelet-directed therapeutics will be discussed, focusing on targeted delivery of urokinase as a thromboprophylactic agent and FVIII for the treatment of hemophilia A patients with intractable inhibitors. This presentation will discuss new strategies that may be useful in the care of patients with vascular injury as well as remaining challenges and limitations of these approaches.

  8. Synthetic biology and therapeutic strategies for the degenerating brain

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Isalan, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging engineering discipline that attempts to design and rewire biological components, so as to achieve new functions in a robust and predictable manner. The new tools and strategies provided by synthetic biology have the potential to improve therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, synthetic biology will help design small molecules, proteins, gene networks, and vectors to target disease-related genes. Ultimately, new intelligent delivery systems will provide targeted and sustained therapeutic benefits. New treatments will arise from combining ‘protect and repair’ strategies: the use of drug treatments, the promotion of neurotrophic factor synthesis, and gene targeting. Going beyond RNAi and artificial transcription factors, site-specific genome modification is likely to play an increasing role, especially with newly available gene editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 systems. Taken together, these advances will help develop safe and long-term therapies for many brain diseases in human patients. PMID:25100403

  9. Benefit of Blood Pressure Control in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Kintscher, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The coexistence of arterial hypertension and diabetes represents a devastating partnership for cardiovascular health. Thus, blood pressure and blood glucose control are essential therapeutic goals to reduce cardiovascular risk and other diabetes-related endpoints in these patients. The major benefit of blood pressure lowering in diabetes comes from a marked reduction of cardiovascular and renal endpoints. New target blood pressure values to achieve maximum cardiovascular and renal protection will be discussed. In addition to the reduction of macrovascular endpoints, blood pressure lowering therapy in diabetic patients has also been discussed to improve microvascular diseases during diabetes, in particular microalbuminuria or diabetic retinopathy. However, current clinical trial evidence is less robust than for macrovascular disease. Clinical studies showed controversial results, and will be discussed. Finally, new data from the ADVANCE-ON study about the long-term, sustained benefit of blood pressure lowering in hypertensive, diabetic patients has been recently published, and will be evaluated in the context of previous evidence. In summary, the present article will discuss selected new topics in the field of hypertension and diabetes focusing on the benefits achieved by blood pressure lowering in these patients.

  10. A review on therapeutic contact lenses for ocular drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Soni, Tejal G; Shah, Dinesh O

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses for ophthalmic drug delivery have become very popular, due to their unique advantages like extended wear and more than 50% bioavailability. To achieve controlled and sustained drug delivery from contact lenses, researchers are working on various systems like polymeric nanoparticles, microemulsion, micelle, liposomes, use of vitamin E, etc. Numerous scientists are working on different areas of therapeutic contact lenses to treat ocular diseases by implementing techniques like soaking method, molecular imprinting, entrapment of drug-laden colloidal nanoparticles, drug plate/film, ion ligand polymeric systems, supercritical fluid technology, etc. Though sustained drug delivery was achieved using contact lens, the critical properties such as water content, tensile strength (mechanical properties), ion permeability, transparency and oxygen permeability were altered, which limit the commercialization of therapeutic contact lenses. Also issues like drug stability during processing/fabrication (drug integrity test), zero order release kinetics (prevent burst release), drug release during monomer extraction step after fabrication (to remove un-reacted monomers), protein adherence, drug release during storage in packaging solution, shelf life study, cost-benefit analysis, etc. are still to be addressed. This review provides an expert opinion on different methodology to develop therapeutic contact lenses with special remark of their advantages and limitations.

  11. The Benefits of Good Teaching Extend beyond Course Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loes, Chad N.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper synthesizes research from the Wabash National Study on Liberal Arts Education, the National Study on Student Learning, and the Research on Iowa Student Experiences study that estimates the influence of certain effective instructional practices on a range of student outcomes. Student perceptions of two specific teacher…

  12. Achieving biodiversity benefits with offsets: Research gaps, challenges, and needs.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Vargas, Camila; Carreras, Maria Jose; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Donlan, C Josh

    2017-03-01

    Biodiversity offsets are becoming increasingly common across a portfolio of settings: national policy, voluntary programs, international lending, and corporate business structures. Given the diversity of ecological, political, and socio-economic systems where offsets may be applied, place-based information is likely to be most useful in designing and implementing offset programs, along with guiding principles that assure best practice. We reviewed the research on biodiversity offsets to explore gaps and needs. While the peer-reviewed literature on offsets is growing rapidly, it is heavily dominated by ecological theory, wetland ecosystems, and U.S.-based research. Given that majority of offset policies and programs are occurring in middle- and low-income countries, the research gaps we identified present a number of risks. They also present an opportunity to create regionally based learning platforms focused on pilot projects and institutional capacity building. Scientific research should diversify, both topically and geographically, in order to support the successful design, implementation, and monitoring of biodiversity offset programs.

  13. Benefits of Multilingualism in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okal, Benard Odoyo

    2014-01-01

    The article gives a brief analytical survey of multilingualism practices, its consequences, its benefits in education and discussions on the appropriate ways towards its achievement in education. Multilingualism refers to speaking more than one language competently. Generally there are both the official and unofficial multilingualism practices. A…

  14. Performance appraisal system for therapeutic recreation.

    PubMed

    Conway, M

    1985-01-01

    Therapeutic Recreation professionals continually strive for effective performance standards for their clients. In addition to standards for clients, Therapeutic Recreation Specialists must also develop performance standards for themselves to meet the continual challenge of accountability in the 80's. This paper identifies the need to develop a performance appraisal system as well as the benefits. The elements of the standards include: specificity, observability, measurability, attainment and mutual determination. The paper also reviews the process of assignment of relative weights, categories of review and detailed standards for the Director of Therapeutic Recreation and Therapeutic Recreation Specialist at the Rehabilitation Institute of Detroit.

  15. Therapeutic Engagement as a Predictor of Retention in Adolescent Therapeutic Community Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel-Salam, Sami; Gunter, Whitney D.

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent drug problem places a huge toll on society and a heavy burden on the criminal justice system. Research regarding the benefits of therapeutic community (TC) treatment for adolescents has shown it to be effective. Despite the ability of therapeutic communities to lower drug relapse and reduce criminality, a great deal remains unknown…

  16. Accolades or Achievement? Addressing the Unforeseen Consequences of Therapeutic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Erica

    2015-01-01

    In June this year, Wellesley High School became a focus of attention worldwide, following a graduation speech made by a teacher at the school. Departing from the traditional rhetoric of such ceremonies, English teacher David McCullough told the assembled graduates that they were neither special nor exceptional, but may well believe they were…

  17. Ethics Audit of a Therapeutic Recreation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Nancy; Hinton, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance awareness of the presence of ethics education within the allied health discipline of therapeutic recreation. To achieve this end, a curriculum audit was conducted in a therapeutic recreation course to determine the existence of ethics education within the course. Included topics, methods of delivery, and…

  18. Ethyl Pyruvate Provides Therapeutic Benefits to Resuscitation Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    hours after resuscitation. Characteristic pathological markers of hemorrhage were assessed by blood chemistry at three hours after hemorrhage, as...Cardiopulmonary Bypass. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth, 2008. 11 Figure Legends. Figure 1 Blood chemistry analyses during resuscitation. Blood from

  19. Therapeutic Benefits of Laughter in Mental Health: A Theoretical Review.

    PubMed

    Yim, JongEun

    2016-01-01

    In modern society, fierce competition and socioeconomic interaction stress the quality of life, causing a negative influence on a person's mental health. Laughter is a positive sensation, and seems to be a useful and healthy way to overcome stress. Laughter therapy is a kind of cognitive-behavioral therapies that could make physical, psychological, and social relationships healthy, ultimately improving the quality of life. Laughter therapy, as a non-pharmacological, alternative treatment, has a positive effect on the mental health and the immune system. In addition, laughter therapy does not require specialized preparations, such as suitable facilities and equipment, and it is easily accessible and acceptable. For these reasons, the medical community has taken notice and attempted to include laughter therapy to more traditional therapies. Decreasing stress-making hormones found in the blood, laughter can mitigate the effects of stress. Laughter decreases serum levels of cortisol, epinephrine, growth hormone, and 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (a major dopamine catabolite), indicating a reversal of the stress response. Depression is a disease, where neurotransmitters in the brain, such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin, are reduced, and there is something wrong in the mood control circuit of the brain. Laughter can alter dopamine and serotonin activity. Furthermore, endorphins secreted by laughter can help when people are uncomfortable or in a depressed mood. Laughter therapy is a noninvasive and non-pharmacological alternative treatment for stress and depression, representative cases that have a negative influence on mental health. In conclusion, laughter therapy is effective and scientifically supported as a single or adjuvant therapy.

  20. Therapeutic benefit of melatonin in refractory central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gramajo, A L; Marquez, G E; Torres, V E; Juárez, C P; Rosenstein, R E; Luna, J D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of melatonin for the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods Prospective comparative case series. A total of 13 patients with chronic CSCR were treated for 1 month: 8 patients were treated orally with 3 mg melatonin t.i.d., and 5 with placebo. All patients had 20/40 or worse Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the affected eye or presented an incapacitating scotoma. Most of the patients had previous failed treatments for their condition. Observational procedures included ETDRS BCVA, and complete ophthalmic examination. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed at day 1 and week 4. Fluorescein angiography was performed at baseline only for diagnostic purposes. Data were subjected to two-sample t-test statistical analysis. P-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results At 1-month follow-up, BCVA significantly improved in 87.5% of patients treated with melatonin (7 of 8 patients, P<0.05). All patients showed a mean significant reduction (P<0.01) of central macular thickness (CMT) when compared with the baseline, with 3 patients (37.5%) exhibiting complete resolution of subretinal fluid at 1-month follow-up. No significant side effects were observed. No changes in BCVA or CMT were noted in the control group. Conclusions These results suggest that melatonin is safe, well tolerated, and effective in the treatment of chronic CSCR, as it significantly improved BCVA and CMT in patients with this pathology. Further evaluations with longer follow-up and a larger patient population are desirable. PMID:26160525

  1. Benefits and risks of circumcision.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, E.; Strashin, E.

    1981-01-01

    Circumcisions are performed either prophylactically in the neonatal period or therapeutically at a later age. About 10% of males not circumcised at birth will eventually require circumcision. The present neonatal circumcision rate is about 80% in the United States and 40% in Canada. The single most important determinant of whether a newborn male will be circumcised is the attitude of the attending physician. The literature was reviewed to determine the proven benefits of circumcision and to compare these with the known risks. Circumcising the newborn facilitates penile hygiene, prevents cancer of the penis and decreases the incidence of genital herpes in later life. Whether it decreases the incidence of cancer of the cervix is still uncertain. More important, neonatal circumcision is associated with much lower morbidity and mortality and with lower costs than therapeutic circumcision. Thus, prophylactic circumcision is recommended for the male population as a whole. PMID:7037142

  2. FACT SHEET: Clean Power Plan Benefits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about how the proposed Clean Power Plan will help us achieve a cleaner, more efficient power sector - providing health and climate benefits, affordable and reliable energy, and driving innovation while being flexible.

  3. Home Media and Children's Achievement and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White…

  4. Quantify information system benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Koppel, L.B.

    1995-06-01

    What are information systems and how do they relate to control systems? How do information systems produce benefits in hydrocarbon processing? What are some examples of benefit-generating information system applications? Information System Benefits (ISBEN) is a structured methodology for estimating information system benefits in hydrocarbon processing. The paper discusses information and control systems, information system benefits and applications, objectives, strategies and measures of ISBEN, ISBEN business drivers, ISBEN database, ISBEN methodology, and implementation.

  5. Lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy benefits metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Alessandra; Montini, Eugenio; Lorioli, Laura; Cesani, Martina; Fumagalli, Francesca; Plati, Tiziana; Baldoli, Cristina; Martino, Sabata; Calabria, Andrea; Canale, Sabrina; Benedicenti, Fabrizio; Vallanti, Giuliana; Biasco, Luca; Leo, Simone; Kabbara, Nabil; Zanetti, Gianluigi; Rizzo, William B; Mehta, Nalini A L; Cicalese, Maria Pia; Casiraghi, Miriam; Boelens, Jaap J; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Dow, David J; Schmidt, Manfred; Assanelli, Andrea; Neduva, Victor; Di Serio, Clelia; Stupka, Elia; Gardner, Jason; von Kalle, Christof; Bordignon, Claudio; Ciceri, Fabio; Rovelli, Attilio; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Aiuti, Alessandro; Sessa, Maria; Naldini, Luigi

    2013-08-23

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by arylsulfatase A (ARSA) deficiency. Patients with MLD exhibit progressive motor and cognitive impairment and die within a few years of symptom onset. We used a lentiviral vector to transfer a functional ARSA gene into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from three presymptomatic patients who showed genetic, biochemical, and neurophysiological evidence of late infantile MLD. After reinfusion of the gene-corrected HSCs, the patients showed extensive and stable ARSA gene replacement, which led to high enzyme expression throughout hematopoietic lineages and in cerebrospinal fluid. Analyses of vector integrations revealed no evidence of aberrant clonal behavior. The disease did not manifest or progress in the three patients 7 to 21 months beyond the predicted age of symptom onset. These findings indicate that extensive genetic engineering of human hematopoiesis can be achieved with lentiviral vectors and that this approach may offer therapeutic benefit for MLD patients.

  6. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  7. Faster, better, stronger: towards new antidepressant therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Olivia F; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-04-15

    Major depression is a highly prevalent disorder and is predicted to be the second leading cause of disease burden by 2020. Although many antidepressant drugs are currently available, they are far from optimal. Approximately 50% of patients do not respond to initial first line antidepressant treatment, while approximately one third fail to achieve remission following several pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, several weeks or months of treatment are often required before clinical improvement, if any, is reported. Moreover, most of the commonly used antidepressants have been primarily designed to increase synaptic availability of serotonin and/or noradrenaline and although they are of therapeutic benefit to many patients, it is clear that other therapeutic targets are required if we are going to improve the response and remission rates. It is clear that more effective, rapid-acting antidepressants with novel mechanisms of action are required. The purpose of this review is to outline the current strategies that are being taken in both preclinical and clinical settings for identifying superior antidepressant drugs. The realisation that ketamine has rapid antidepressant-like effects in treatment resistant patients has reenergised the field. Further, developing an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients by drugs such as ketamine may uncover novel therapeutic targets that can be exploited to meet the Olympian challenge of developing faster, better and stronger antidepressant drugs.

  8. Commercially available interactive video games in burn rehabilitation: therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Parry, Ingrid S; Bagley, Anita; Kawada, Jason; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2012-06-01

    Commercially available interactive video games (IVG) like the Nintendo Wii™ (NW) and PlayStation™II Eye Toy (PE) are increasingly used in the rehabilitation of patients with burn. Such games have gained popularity in burn rehabilitation because they encourage range of motion (ROM) while distracting from pain. However, IVGs were not originally designed for rehabilitation purposes but rather for entertainment and may lack specificity for achieving rehabilitative goals. Objectively evaluating the specific demands of IVGs in relation to common burn therapy goals will determine their true therapeutic benefit and guide their use in burn rehabilitation. Upper extremity (UE) motion of 24 normal children was measured using 3D motion analysis during play with the two types of IVGs most commonly described for use after burn: NW and PE. Data was analyzed using t-tests and One-way Analysis of Variance. Active range of motion for shoulder flexion and abduction during play with both PE and NW was within functional range, thus supporting the idea that IVGs offer activities with therapeutic potential to improve ROM. PE resulted in higher demands and longer duration of UE motion than NW, and therefore may be the preferred tool when UE ROM or muscular endurance are the goals of rehabilitation. When choosing a suitable IVG for application in rehabilitation, the user's impairment together with the therapeutic attributes of the IVG should be considered to optimize outcome.

  9. Engineering liver tissues under the kidney capsule site provides therapeutic effects to hemophilia B mice.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Kazuo; Tatsumi, Kohei; Utoh, Rie; Takagi, Soichi; Shima, Midori; Okano, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in liver tissue engineering have encouraged further investigation into the evaluation of therapeutic benefits based on animal disease models. In the present study, liver tissues were engineered in coagulation factor IX knockout (FIX-KO) mice, a mouse model of hemophilia B, to determine if the tissue engineering approach would provide therapeutic benefits. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from the liver of wild-type mice and suspended in a mixture of culture medium and extracellular matrix components. The hepatocyte suspension was injected into the space under the bilateral kidney capsules of the FIX-KO mice to engineer liver tissues. The plasma FIX activities (FIX:C) of the untreated FIX-KO mice were undetectable at any time point. In contrast, the liver tissue engineered FIX-KO mice achieved 1.5-2.5% of plasma FIX activities (FIX:C) and this elevated FIX:C level persisted throughout the 90 day experimental period. Significant FIX mRNA expression levels were found in the engineered liver tissues at levels similar to the wild-type livers. The present study demonstrates that liver tissue engineering could provide therapeutic benefits in the treatment of hemophilia B.

  10. [Health security--GMOs in therapeutics].

    PubMed

    Trouvin, J-H

    2003-03-01

    The recent progress in human therapeutics has been made possible thanks to molecular biology and its use in producing proteins having the same sequence and structure as that of human proteins. The use of GMOs allows production of proteins with high added value in therapeutics, which are of satisfactory quality. GMOs may also be directly administered to patients as gene therapy vectors. However, the use of GMOs in therapeutics must take into consideration some risks, particularly those of microbiological contamination, of neo-antigenicity as well as environmental risks with regard to the way of use of the GMO. Nevertheless, those risks are taken in due consideration in the development of these new medicinal products; solutions have been found to allow their use in therapeutics with a very positive benefit/risk ratio. Medicinal products from biotechnology have enabled considerable therapeutic progress without compromising health security.

  11. [Sanitary safety of GMOs used in therapeutics].

    PubMed

    Trouvin, Jean-Hugues

    2002-01-01

    The recent progress in human therapeutics has been made possible thanks to molecular biology and its use in producing proteins having the same sequence and structure as that of human proteins. The use of GMOs allows production of proteins with high added value in therapeutics, which are of satisfactory quality. GMOs may also be directly administered to patients as gene therapy vectors. However, the use of GMOs in therapeutics must take into consideration some risks, particularly those of microbiological contamination, of neo-antigenicity as well as environmental risks with regard to the way of use of the GMO. Nevertheless, those risks are taken in due consideration in the development of those new medicinal products; solutions have been found to allow their use in therapeutics with a very positive benefit/risk ratio. Medicinal products from biotechnology have permitted considerable therapeutic progress without compromising health security.

  12. Phytonutrients as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan

    2014-09-01

    Nutrients present in various foods plays an important role in maintaining the normal functions of the human body. The major nutrients present in foods include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Besides these, there are some bioactive food components known as "phytonutrients" that play an important role in human health. They have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of disease and various physiological disorders. Phytonutrients play a positive role by maintaining and modulating immune function to prevent specific diseases. Being natural products, they hold a great promise in clinical therapy as they possess no side effects that are usually associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. They are also comparatively cheap and thus significantly reduce health care cost. Phytonutrients are the plant nutrients with specific biological activities that support human health. Some of the important bioactive phytonutrients include polyphenols, terpenoids, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, glucosinolates, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, anthocyanins, ω-3 fatty acids, and probiotics. They play specific pharmacological effects in human health such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, hypotensive, diabetes, osteoporosis, CNS stimulant, analgesic, protection from UVB-induced carcinogenesis, immuno-modulator, and carminative. This mini-review attempts to summarize the major important types of phytonutrients and their role in promoting human health and as therapeutic agents along with the current market trend and commercialization.

  13. Axonal Pathways Linked to Therapeutic and Nontherapeutic Outcomes During Psychiatric Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lujan, J. Luis; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Malone, Donald A.; Rezai, Ali R.; Machado, Andre G.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The underlying hypothesis of our work is that specific clinical neuropsychiatric benefits can be achieved by selective activation of specific axonal pathways during deep brain stimulation (DBS). As such, the goal of this study was to develop a method for identifying axonal pathways whose activation is most likely necessary for achieving therapeutic benefits during DBS. Experimental design Our approach combined clinical data, diffusion tensor tractography, and computer models of patient-specific neurostimulation to identify particular axonal pathways activated by DBS and determine their correlations with individual clinical outcome measures. We used this method to evaluate a cohort of seven treatment-resistant depression patients treated with DBS of the ventral anterior internal capsule and ventral striatum (VC/VS). Principal observations Clinical responders exhibited five axonal pathways that were consistently activated by DBS. All five pathways coursed lateral and medial to the VS or dorsal and lateral to the nucleus accumbens; however, details of their specific trajectories differed. Similarly, one common pathway was identified across nonresponders. Conclusions Our method and preliminary results provide important background for studies aiming to expand scientific characterization of neural circuitry associated with specific psychiatric outcomes from DBS. Furthermore, identification of pathways linked to therapeutic benefit provides opportunities to improve clinical selection of surgical targets and stimulation settings for DBS devices. PMID:21520343

  14. Health Benefits of Fiber Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Agro, Nicole C; Eliasson, Åsa M; Mialki, Kaley L; Olivera, Joseph D; Rusch, Carley T; Young, Carly N

    2017-02-01

    Although fiber is well recognized for its effect on laxation, increasing evidence supports the role of fiber in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the health benefits of fiber and its fermentation, and describe how the products of fermentation may influence disease risk and treatment. Higher fiber intakes are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Fiber may also have a role in lowering blood pressure and in preventing obesity by limiting weight gain. Fiber is effective in managing blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, useful for weight loss, and may provide therapeutic adjunctive roles in kidney and liver disease. In addition, higher fiber diets are not contraindicated in inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome and may provide some benefit. Common to the associations with disease reduction is fermentation of fiber and its potential to modulate microbiota and its activities and inflammation, specifically the production of anti-inflammatory short chain fatty acids, primarily from saccharolytic fermentation, versus the deleterious products of proteolytic activity. Because fiber intake is inversely associated with all-cause mortality, mechanisms by which fiber may reduce chronic disease risk and provide therapeutic benefit to those with chronic disease need further elucidation and large, randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm causality.Teaching Points• Strong evidence supports the association between higher fiber diets and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer.• Higher fiber intakes are associated with lower body weight and body mass index, and some types of fiber may facilitate weight loss.• Fiber is recommended as an adjunctive medical nutritional therapy for type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and certain liver diseases.• Fermentation and the resulting shifts in

  15. Nitroxyl (HNO) Releasing Therapeutics | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute''s Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize agents that generate HNO in physiological media for therapeutic benefit.

  16. Student Team Achievement Divisions (STAD) Technique through the Moodle to Enhance Learning Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiantong, Monchai; Teemuangsai, Sanit

    2013-01-01

    One of the benefits of using collaborative learning is enhancing learning achievement and increasing social skills, and the second benefits is as the more students work together in collaborative groups, the more they understand, retain, and feel better about themselves and their peers, moreover working together in a collaborative environment…

  17. How Exercise Can Benefit Older Patients. A Practical Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Henry C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Physical activity has preventive and therapeutic benefits for the frail elderly. Physicians must educate patients about exercise benefits. Walking, flexibility, and strength training can prevent muscle weakness and impaired gait and balance. Changes in functional capacity can create greater independence in daily living. Physical activity also…

  18. Therapeutic use of nicergoline.

    PubMed

    Winblad, Bengt; Fioravanti, Mario; Dolezal, Tomas; Logina, Inara; Milanov, Ivan Gospodinov; Popescu, Dinu Cristian; Solomon, Alina

    2008-01-01

    The ergot alkaloid derivative nicergoline became clinically available about 35 years ago in the 1970s. Nicergoline has a broad spectrum of action: (i) as an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, it induces vasodilation and increases arterial blood flow; (ii) it enhances cholinergic and catecholaminergic neurotransmitter function; (iii) it inhibits platelet aggregation; (iv) it promotes metabolic activity, resulting in increased utilization of oxygen and glucose; and (v) it has neurotrophic and antioxidant properties. Acting on several basic pathophysiological mechanisms, nicergoline has therapeutic potential in a number of disorders. This article provides an overview of the published clinical evidence relating to the efficacy and safety of nicergoline (30 mg twice daily) in the treatment of dementia (including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia) and vascular and balance disorders. For dementia of different aetiologies, the therapeutic benefit of nicergoline has been established, with up to 89% of patients showing improvements in cognition and behaviour. After as little as 2 months of treatment, symptom improvement is apparent compared with placebo, and most patients are still improved or stable after 12 months. Concomitant neurophysiological changes in the brain indicate (after only 4-8 weeks' treatment) improved vigilance and information processing. In patients with balance disorders, mean improvements of 44-78% in symptom severity and quality of life have been observed with nicergoline. Although clinical experience with nicergoline in vascular disorders is limited to relatively short-term, small-scale studies, it has been successfully used in rehabilitation therapy of patients with chronic ischaemic stroke. Open-label evaluations suggest that nicergoline may also be valuable in glaucoma, depression and peripheral arterio-pathy. Adverse events of nicergoline, if any, are related to the central nervous system, the metabolic system and the overall body. Most are

  19. Development of new RNAi therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Wong-Staal, F; Li, Q-X

    2007-02-01

    RNAi-mediated gene inactivation has become a cornerstone of the present day gene function studies that are the foundation of mechanism and target based drug discovery and development, which could potentially shorten the otherwise long process of drug development. In particular, the coming of age of "RNAi drug" could provide new promising therapeutics bypassing traditional approaches. However, there are technological hurdles need to overcome and the biological limitations need to consider for achieving effective therapeutics. Major hurdles include the intrinsic poor pharmacokinetic property of siRNA and major biological restrictions include off-target effects, interferon response and the interference with endogenous miRNA. Recent innovations in nucleic acid chemistry, formulations and delivery methods have gradually rendered it possible to develop effective RNAi-based therapeutics. Careful design based on the newest RNAi/miRNA biology can also help to minimize the potential tissue toxicity. If successful with systemic application, RNAi drug will no doubt revolutionize the whole drug development process. This review attempts to describe the progress in this area, including applications in preclinical models and recent favorable experience in a number of human trials of local diseases, along with the discussion on the potential limitations of RNAi therapeutics.

  20. A benefit-cost framework of motivation for a specific activity.

    PubMed

    Studer, B; Knecht, S

    2016-01-01

    How can an individual be motivated to perform a target exercise or activity? This question arises in training, therapeutic, and education settings alike, yet despite-or even because of-the large range of extant motivation theories, finding a clear answer to this question can be challenging. Here we propose an application-friendly framework of motivation for a specific activity or exercise that incorporates core concepts from several well-regarded psychological and economic theories of motivation. The key assumption of this framework is that motivation for performing a given activity is determined by the expected benefits and the expected costs of (performance of) the activity. Benefits comprise positive feelings, gains, and rewards experienced during performance of the activity (intrinsic benefits) or achieved through the activity (extrinsic benefits). Costs entail effort requirements, time demands, and other expenditure (intrinsic costs) as well as unwanted associated outcomes and missing out on alternative activities (extrinsic costs). The expected benefits and costs of a given exercise are subjective and state dependent. We discuss convergence of the proposed framework with a selection of extant motivation theories and briefly outline neurobiological correlates of its main components and assumptions. One particular strength of our framework is that it allows to specify five pathways to increasing motivation for a target exercise, which we illustrate and discuss with reference to previous empirical data.

  1. Designing phage therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Goodridge, Lawrence D

    2010-01-01

    Phage therapy is the application of phages to bodies, substances, or environments to effect the biocontrol of pathogenic or nuisance bacteria. To be effective, phages, minimally, must be capable of attaching to bacteria (adsorption), killing those bacteria (usually associated with phage infection), and otherwise surviving (resisting decay) until they achieve attachment and subsequent killing. While a strength of phage therapy is that phages that possess appropriate properties can be chosen from a large diversity of naturally occurring phages, a more rational approach to phage therapy also can include post-isolation manipulation of phages genetically, phenotypically, or in terms of combining different products into a single formulation. Genetic manipulation, especially in these modern times, can involve genetic engineering, though a more traditional approach involves the selection of spontaneously occurring phage mutants during serial transfer protocols. While genetic modification typically is done to give rise to phenotypic changes in phages, phage phenotype alone can also be modified in vitro, prior to phage application for therapeutic purposes, as for the sake of improving phage lethality (such as by linking phage virions to antibacterial chemicals such as chloramphenicol) or survival capabilities (e.g., via virion PEGylation). Finally, phages, both naturally occurring isolates or otherwise modified constructs, can be combined into cocktails which provide collectively enhanced capabilities such as expanded overall host range. Generally these strategies represent different routes towards improving phage therapy formulations and thereby efficacy through informed design.

  2. Nutritional benefits of exercise.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1989-03-01

    Specific nutritional benefits of regular exercise include the control of obesity and its complications, the improvement of blood lipid profile, the optimization of micro-nutrient intake and the assurance of a maximum quality-adjusted life-expectancy. While epidemiologists interpret various weight for height ratios in terms of obesity, such data can be misleading, particularly in older people (where an accumulation of fat is masked by lean tissue loss). Skinfold calipers provide a more unequivocal index of the amount and distribution of subcutaneous fat. Arguments against the treatment of obesity by exercise include the large energy yield of fat, the potential for compensating changes of resting metabolism, and an inherently high "set-point" of fat stores in the obese. Exercise cannot achieve rapid fat loss, but it has several advantages over other types of treatment, including the positive nature of the prescription, the associated elevation of mood and suppression of appetite, the conservation of lean tissue, and the establishment of an improved lifestyle. Moreover, blood pressure is reduced, insulin needs are decreased in the diabetic, and favourable changes of lipid profile are observed. Total cholesterol levels are not affected by exercise if body mass is held constant, but (provided a weekly threshold of exercise is exceeded) there is an increase of HDL cholesterol, particularly HDL-2 cholesterol. The intake of vitamins and most other micronutrients is increased by a high daily energy expenditure. Frank anaemia is not common in athletes, but a low iron saturation may be an indication for dietary supplements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Should academic therapeutic patents go to the highest bidder?

    PubMed

    Collinsworth, Bryan; Crager, Sara E

    2014-05-01

    Universities conduct biomedical research with the self-stated goal of disseminating the benefits to the global public. Licensing therapeutic patents to the highest bidder is counterproductive to this aim, as it prioritizes income maximization over dissemination. We believe that licensing strategies focused on promoting broad access to university-discovered therapeutics better serve both the mission of universities and the public good.

  4. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  5. Characterisation and therapeutic manipulation of the gut microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Schulberg, J; De Cruz, P

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are thought to develop as a result of dysregulation of the relationship that exists between the gut microbiota, host genetics and the immune system. The advent of culture-independent techniques has revolutionised the ability to characterise the role of the gut microbiota in health and disease based on the microbiota's genetic make-up. Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterised by dysbiosis which is an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory bacteria and a reduction in bacterial diversity. Emerging data suggest that it is not only the presence of the gut microbiota but the functional activity of the microbiota that appears to play an important role in health and disease. Current strategies to manipulate therapeutically the gut microbiota using dietary modification, prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation aim to restore the balance to a state of normobiosis. However, the ability of such strategies to correct dysbiosis and thereby achieve therapeutic benefit is yet to be fully characterised.

  6. Preclinical and Clinical Advances of GalNAc-Decorated Nucleic Acid Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanyu

    2017-03-17

    A main challenge in realizing the full potential of nucleic acid therapeutics is efficient delivery of them into targeted tissues and cells. N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is a well-defined liver-targeted moiety benefiting from its high affinity with asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). By conjugating it directly to the oligonucleotides or decorating it to a certain delivery system as a targeting moiety, GalNAc has achieved compelling successes in the development of nucleic acid therapeutics in recent years. Several oligonucleotide modalities are undergoing pivotal clinical studies, followed by a blooming pipeline in the preclinical stage. This review covers the progress of GalNAc-decorated oligonucleotide drugs, including siRNAs, anti-miRs, and ASOs, which provides a panorama for this field.

  7. Gene- and stem cell-based therapeutics for cartilage regeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying; Wang, Bing

    2015-04-15

    Cell-based regeneration of damaged or diseased articular cartilage still faces significant clinical challenge due to inadequate environmental regulation of stem cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. The role of insulin-like growth factor in critical steps of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis has potential in optimizing the therapeutic use of mesenchymal stem cells in cartilage disorders. In addition to the previously described benefits of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector for in vivo gene therapy, demonstrated by Frisch and colleagues, such vector is also a safe and efficient delivery system for the genetic modification of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells via ex vivo insulin-like growth factor 1 gene transfer, so that implanted mesenchymal stem cells continuously release a therapeutic level of insulin-like growth factor 1 to achieve sustained mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis for cartilage regeneration.

  8. Telemedicine and diabetes: achievements and prospects.

    PubMed

    Franc, S; Daoudi, A; Mounier, S; Boucherie, B; Dardari, D; Laroye, H; Neraud, B; Requeda, E; Canipel, L; Charpentier, G

    2011-12-01

    Health authorities currently have high expectations for telemedicine (TM), as it addresses several major challenges: to improve access to healthcare (especially for patients in underserved or remote areas); to overcome the scarcity of specialists faced with epidemic disease; and to reduce the costs of healthcare while improving quality. The aims of TM in the field of diabetes differ according to the type of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes (T1DM) associated with complex insulin regimens, the goal of TM is to help patients achieve better control of their blood glucose levels through accurate adjustment of insulin doses. In type 2 diabetes (T2DM), while therapeutic adjustments may be necessary, improvement in blood glucose control is based primarily on behavioural changes (reduced calorie and carbohydrate intakes, increased physical activity). Many TM studies focusing on management of blood glucose levels have been published, but most failed to demonstrate any superiority of TM vs traditional care. While previously published meta-analyses have shown a slight advantage at best for TM, these meta-analyses included a mix of studies of varying durations and different populations (both T1DM and T2DM patients, adults and children), and tested systems of inconsistent quality. Studies published to date on TM suggest two currently promising approaches. First, handheld communicating devices, such as smartphones, loaded with software to apply physicians' prescriptions, have been shown to improve glycaemic control. These systems provide immediate assistance to the patient (such as insulin-dose calculation and food choice optimization at meals), and all data stored in the smartphone can be transmitted to authorized caregivers, enabling remote monitoring and even teleconsultation. These systems, initially developed for T1DM, appear to offer many possibilities for T2DM, too. Second, systems combining an interactive Internet system (or a mobile phone coupled to a remote server) with a

  9. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…

  10. Gardening as a therapeutic intervention in mental health.

    PubMed

    Page, Mathew

    This article describes why one low-secure unit chose to initiate a horticultural therapy project and organise it as a 'workers' cooperative'. The therapeutic benefits of gardening are explored, particularly focusing on the social benefits. The article also discusses the issue of hope, which is an intrinsic requirement in gardening.

  11. National Water Quality Benefits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will provide the basis for advancing the goal of producing tools in support of quantifying and valuing changes in water quality for EPA regulations. It will also identify specific data and modeling gaps and Improve benefits estimation for more complete benefit-cost a...

  12. Educational Reform: Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E.

    1994-01-01

    Uses Blau and Scott concept of "cui bono" to describe who has benefited from 1990 Kentucky Education Reform Act. In eyes of legislators, everyone would benefit, and the economically depressed state would prosper. As implementation of KERA progresses, it is becoming increasingly clear that mandated changes may be structural and may…

  13. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  14. Ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access for therapeutic apheresis procedures reduces need for central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Eric; Garcia, Salvador; Miguel, Robin; Segura, Francisco J; Ipe, Tina S; Leveque, Christopher

    2016-08-10

    Therapeutic and donor apheresis requires adequate vascular access to achieve inlet flow rates of ∼50-100 mL/min. While central dialysis-type venous catheters can usually provide such access, their use includes several associated risks. Some of these risks can be avoided or diminished if adequate peripheral venous access can be established. Some patients have adequate peripheral veins for apheresis that cannot be readily identified visually or by palpation. We hypothesized that ultrasound-guided peripheral venous access would benefit such patients and would lead to placement of fewer central venous catheters. The technique of ultrasound-guided peripheral access for apheresis has been in use at Houston Methodist Hospital since 2012. We performed a prospective review of patients undergoing inpatient and outpatient apheresis at Houston Methodist Hospital from July 1, 2015 to September 30, 2015, to assess its benefit. During this time, we performed 831 procedures on 186 patients, including 787 therapeutic plasma exchanges, three red blood cell exchanges, 41 peripheral stem cell collections. Ultrasound-guided vascular access was used for 68 procedures (8% of all procedures), including 62 therapeutic plasma exchanges, 4 peripheral stem cell collections, and 2 red blood cell changes. Use of ultrasound-guided peripheral access prevented the placement of central venous catheters in 37 (20%) patients, demonstrating its utility in a busy transfusion service.

  15. Ultrasound: A Revenant Therapeutic Modality in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Trisha; Beeraka, Kartheeki; Penumatcha, Mohan Raju; Olepu, Sanjeeva Rao

    2016-01-01

    An ultrasound (US) gives a visible image of the organs that are present inside the body. In medicine it serves for diagnosing and also its therapeutic benefits are well established for bone healing, osteointegration and soft tissue healing. In dentistry it is widely used for diagnostic purposes. When it was discovered it was introduced for therapeutic purposes, but due to lack of clinical studies its use as therapy was remittent in dentistry. The aim of the present paper was to establish the efficiency of therapeutic US in maxillofacial region for alleviating the pain and to see the other applications. Our search included the English terms like ultrasonography, applications, dentistry in Google search engine, PubMed and Medline from 1980 to 2015. We found very few articles showing the effects of therapeutic Ultrasound (US) in treatment of pain and healing in dentistry. We concluded that clinical benefits of in vivo studies were very little and demands further rigorous research to strive for the therapeutic success of US. PMID:27630969

  16. What Happens to the Fish's Achievement in a Little Pond? A Simultaneous Analysis of Class-Average Achievement Effects on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stäbler, Franziska; Dumont, Hanna; Becker, Michael; Baumert, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have demonstrated that students who are taught in a group of students with higher average achievement benefit in terms of their achievement. However, there is also evidence showing that being surrounded by high-achieving students has a negative effect on students' academic self-concept, also known as the big-fish--little-pond…

  17. Therapeutic angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Al Sabti, Hilal

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerotic disease of the arteries is a major cause of coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease and stroke. Some patients are however not candidate for the standard treatment of angioplasty or bypass surgery. Hence there is tremendous enthusiasm for the utilization of angiogenesis as a therapeutic modality for atherosclerotic arterial disease. This augmentation of physiological neo-vascularization in cardiovascular disease can be achieved through different pathways. In this article we are reviewing the Use of Gene therapy, Protein therapy and cellular therapy. PMID:18021404

  18. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  19. Which Achievement Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sharon; Medrich, Elliott; Fowler, Donna

    2007-01-01

    From the halls of Congress to the local elementary school, conversations on education reform have tossed around the term "achievement gap" as though people all know precisely what that means. As it's commonly used, "achievement gap" refers to the differences in scores on state or national achievement tests between various…

  20. Trends in Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the rapid, dramatic changes taking place in therapeutic recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The article notes the impact of changes in managed care, examines programming trends in therapeutic recreation (adventure/outdoor education, competitive sports, handcycling, health enhancement activities, and…

  1. Therapeutic Recreation Practicum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneegas, Kay

    This manual provides information on the practicum program offered by Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC) for students in its therapeutic recreation program. Sections I and II outline the rationale and goals for providing practical, on-the-job work experiences for therapeutic recreation students. Section III specifies MVCC's responsibilities…

  2. Chicanoizing the Therapeutic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, William S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Focusing on the drug addiction problem and its antecedent conditions in a Chicano population, the article examines several therapeutic interventions suggested by these conditions and indicates how they might be incorporated into a drug addiction Therapeutic Community treatment program designed to meet the needs of Chicano drug addicts. (Author/NQ)

  3. Impact of Therapeutic Camping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shniderman, Craig M.

    1974-01-01

    There has been little interest in, and only slight illumination of, the impact of therapeutic camping for emotionally disturbed children. This study seeks to validate the belief that camping is therapeutic. Subjects were 52 boys, 5 to 11 1/2 years of age. Results support the hypothesis. (Author/HMV)

  4. Tremor retrainment as therapeutic strategy in psychogenic (functional) tremor

    PubMed Central

    Espay, AJ; Edwards, MJ; Oggioni, GD; Phielipp, N; Cox, B; Gonzalez-Usigli, H; Pecina, C; Heldman, DA; Mishra, J; Lang, AE

    2014-01-01

    Background Entrainment, the change or elimination of tremor as patients perform a voluntary rhythmical movement by the unaffected limb, is a key diagnostic hallmark of psychogenic tremor. Objective To evaluate the feasibility of using entrainment as a bedside therapeutic strategy (‘retrainment’) in patients with psychogenic tremor. Methods Ten patients with psychogenic tremor (5 women, mean age, 53.6 ± 12.8 years; mean disease duration 4.3 ± 2.7 years) were asked to participate in a pilot proof-of-concept study aimed at “retraining” their tremor frequency. Retrainment was facilitated by tactile and auditory external cueing and real-time visual feedback on a computer screen. The primary outcome measure was the Tremor subscale of the Rating Scale for Psychogenic Movement Disorders. Results Tremor improved from 22.2 ± 13.39 to 4.3 ± 5.51 (p = 0.0019) at the end of retrainment. The benefits were maintained for at least 1 week and up to 6 months in 6 patients, with relapses occurring in 4 patients between 2 weeks and 6 months. Three subjects achieved tremor freedom. Conclusions Tremor retrainment may be an effective short-term treatment strategy in psychogenic tremor. Although blinded evaluations are not feasible, future studies should examine the long-term benefits of tremor retrainment as adjunctive to psychotherapy or specialized physical therapy. PMID:24679736

  5. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-04

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit.

  6. Enzyme therapeutics for systemic detoxification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Lu, Yunfeng

    2015-08-01

    Life relies on numerous biochemical processes working synergistically and correctly. Certain substances disrupt these processes, inducing living organism into an abnormal state termed intoxication. Managing intoxication usually requires interventions, which is referred as detoxification. Decades of development on detoxification reveals the potential of enzymes as ideal therapeutics and antidotes, because their high substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency are essential for clearing intoxicating substances without adverse effects. However, intrinsic shortcomings of enzymes including low stability and high immunogenicity are major hurdles, which could be overcome by delivering enzymes with specially designed nanocarriers. Extensive investigations on protein delivery indicate three types of enzyme-nanocarrier architectures that show more promise than others for systemic detoxification, including liposome-wrapped enzymes, polymer-enzyme conjugates, and polymer-encapsulated enzymes. This review highlights recent advances in these nano-architectures and discusses their applications in systemic detoxifications. Therapeutic potential of various enzymes as well as associated challenges in achieving effective delivery of therapeutic enzymes will also be discussed.

  7. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... 4 Care for a condition other than your terminal illness ......................................... 4 How your Medicare hospice benefit works ..................................................... ... care, counseling, drugs, equipment, and supplies for the terminal illness and related conditions. ■■ Care is generally provided ...

  8. Benefits of CHP Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the benefits of being a EPA CHP Partner, which include expert advice and answers to questions, CHP news, marketing resources, publicity and recognition, and being associated with EPA through a demonstrated commitment to CHP.

  9. Benefits of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Experts say that breastfeeding your baby is good for you and your baby. If you breastfeed for any length of time, no matter ... is, you and your baby will benefit from breastfeeding. Learn about breastfeeding your baby and decide if ...

  10. Military Retirement Benefits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-17

    55, before they qualify for retirement benefits. 5 2. Approximately 94% of companies allow early retirement with reduced pensions. The Hay-Huggins...data indicate that the most common basis for eligibility for reduced early retirement is a combination of age and service (72% of plans). The most common...combination is age 55 and ten years of service. 13 • . . . . . . . . " " - .. . . . " . . . ’ For those companies providing early retirement benefits

  11. [Therapeutic and toxic theophylline levels in asthma attacks--is there a need for additional theophylline?].

    PubMed

    Zeidman, A; Gardyn, J; Fradin, Z; Fink, G; Mittelman, M

    1997-07-01

    Although first-line therapy for bronchial asthma has changed over the past decade to anti-inflammatory medication such as inhaled corticosteroids and cromolyn with possible addition of beta-agonists, theophylline is still useful and therefore widely used. However, several studies have raised serious questions regarding its efficacy in acute asthmatic exacerbations. These studies, the narrow therapeutic range of the drug, the frequency of side effects and interactions with common drugs, and individual variation in clearance and metabolism, have prompted its reevaluation in the management of asthma. Therapeutic serum levels of theophylline are between 10 to 20 mcg/ml. Most adults achieve these concentrations with daily slow-release oral theophylline preparations, 200-400 mg (approximately 10 mg/Kg) twice a day. However, when such a patient presents to the emergency room (ER) in an asthmatic attack, immediate intravenous theophylline is often given, regardless of maintenance treatment. Since the rationale for this common therapeutic approach has been challenged, the current study was undertaken. Serum theophylline levels were measured in 23 consecutive asthmatics presenting to the ER in an acute attack. 15 (68%) had therapeutic levels (above 10 mcg/ml) and 2 had toxic levels (above 20 mcg/ml), prior to receiving the standard intravenous theophylline dose given for an attack. These data indicate that most patients with bronchial asthma on oral maintenance theophylline do not require additional intravenous theophylline when in an attack. It probably will not benefit them and may even induce serious theophylline toxicity.

  12. Therapeutic clowning in paediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Fiona; Baverstock, Anna; Lenton, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Over the past 30 years, there has been much research into the health benefits of humour and laughter. Although often viewed very positively, rigorous evaluation of the therapeutic effect of clowning is complex. Clowning is a multi-modal intervention, which may have an impact on medical conditions, procedures, family functioning and health care teams. Clowns help children to adapt to their hospital surroundings and can distract from, and demystify, painful or frightening procedures through 'doses of fun' to complement traditional clinical interventions. This paper provides a review of the paediatric literature and reveals studies looking at the effect of clown interventions on various practical procedures and individual medical conditions, and the effects of clowning within clinical teams.

  13. Current therapeutic paradigms in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Quick, Allison; Patel, Disha; Hadziahmetovic, Mersiha; Chakravarti, Arnab; Mehta, Minesh

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), a WHO grade IV malignant glioma, is the most common and lethal adult primary brain tumor. Median survival rates range from 12-15 months. The current standard of care for GBM has evolved from resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy to resection, concurrent adjuvant chemotherapy (temozolomide) and radiation, and additional adjuvant chemotherapy. The expression of specific molecular biomarkers, especially O-6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) status, may determine the response of the tumor to treatment, and helps in identifying the magnitude of benefit from this regimen. By identifying further biological subtypes of GBM at the molecular level, specific targeted therapies could be developed and used in the future for more individualized therapeutic regimens. This article will review the current therapies for GBM and the investigation of new molecular and targeted therapies, such as EGFR inhibitors, mTOR/PI3Kinase inhibitors, and anti-angiogenesis agents.

  14. The Relationship between Resources and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.

    This paper evaluates whether or not there is a direct academic-achievement benefit from additional expenditures on education in the United States. Numerous critics have said that education is already overfunded and that it can never be funded enough to make any appreciable difference. Berliner's study of 900 school districts in Texas in the 1993…

  15. Engineered microRNA therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gibson, N W

    2014-01-01

    Targeting of microRNAs that are overexpressed or replacement of microRNAs whose expression is lost are two distinct and novel approaches to treat disease(s) driven by microRNA dysregulation. This can be achieved by chemical modification of either a single stranded oligonucleotide called an antimiR or a double stranded nucleic acid molecule termed a microRNA mimic.With hundreds of microRNAs identified and knowledge of their role in disease becoming clearer there is the prospect, over the coming years, to harness engineered microRNA therapeutics to revolutionise the way diseases are treated.Both types of engineered microRNA therapeutics have advanced into clinical development with human proof of concept achieved with an anti-miR targeting miR-122 (one of the most abundant microRNAs in human hepatocytes that is utilised by the hepatitis C virus to enable its function and replication). Rather than targeting individual proteins or enzymes involved in human disease, an opportunity now exists to modulate multiple different proteins/enzymes which act in concert in the progression of disease.

  16. [Therapeutic indications for managing symptoms: fatigue].

    PubMed

    Waubant, E

    2001-09-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint in patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Its mechanisms are poorly understood and are likely diverse. The term "fatigue" has been used for asthenia at rest but also for fatigability during exercise. Amantadine is the only drug that has a proven therapeutic benefit in randomized, double blind, controlled trials. Inhibitors of serotonin re-uptake are used pragmatically because of the relationship between fatigue and depression. Aminopyridins may improve fatigability, mainly at the level of lower limbs.

  17. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    PubMed

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  18. New piezoelectric transducers for therapeutic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Chapelon, J Y; Cathignol, D; Cain, C; Ebbini, E; Kluiwstra, J U; Sapozhnikov, O A; Fleury, G; Berriet, R; Chupin, L; Guey, J L

    2000-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound (US) has been of increasing interest during the past few years. However, the development of this technique depends on the availability of high-performance transducers. These transducers have to be optimised for focusing and steering high-power ultrasonic energy within the target volume. Recently developed high-power 1-3 piezocomposite materials bring to therapeutic US the exceptional electroacoustical properties of piezocomposite technology: these are high efficiency, large bandwidth, predictable beam pattern, more flexibility in terms of shaping and definition of sampling in annular arrays, linear arrays or matrix arrays. The construction and evaluation of several prototypes illustrates the benefit of this new approach that opens the way to further progress in therapeutic US.

  19. Home media and children's achievement and behavior.

    PubMed

    Hofferth, Sandra L

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6- to 12-year-olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching TV at home in 1997 and 2003, and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computer use more than boys, and Black children benefited more than White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls, and for Black but not White boys. Increased video game play was associated with an improved ability to solve applied problems for Black girls but lower verbal achievement for all girls. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems.

  20. Systems approaches to design of targeted therapeutic delivery.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Jacob W; Brenner, Jacob S; Greineder, Colin F; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery aims to improve therapeutic effects and enable mechanisms that are not feasible for untargeted agents (e.g., due to impermeable biological barriers). To achieve targeting, a drug or its carrier should possess properties providing specific accumulation from circulation at the desired site. There are several examples of systems-inspired approaches that have been applied to achieve this goal. First, proteomics analysis of plasma membrane fraction of the vascular endothelium has identified a series of target molecules and their ligands (e.g., antibodies) that deliver conjugated cargoes to well-defined vascular cells and subcellular compartments. Second, selection of ligands binding to cells of interest using phage display libraries in vitro and in vivo has provided peptides and polypeptides that bind to normal and pathologically altered cells. Finally, large-scale high-throughput combinatorial synthesis and selection of lipid- and polymer-based nanocarriers varying their chemical components has yielded a series of carriers accumulating in diverse organs and delivering RNA interference agents to diverse cells. Together, these approaches offer a basis for systems-based design and selection of targets, targeting molecules, and targeting vehicles. Current studies focus on expanding the arsenal of these and alternative targeting strategies, devising drug delivery systems capitalizing on these strategies and evaluation of their benefit/risk ratio in adequate animal models of human diseases. These efforts, combined with better understanding of mechanisms and unintended consequences of these targeted interventions, need to be ultimately translated into industrial development and the clinical domain.

  1. 'No delays achiever'.

    PubMed

    2007-05-01

    The latest version of the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement's 'no delays achiever', a web based tool created to help NHS organisations achieve the 18-week target for GP referrals to first treatment, is available at www.nodelaysachiever.nhs.uk.

  2. Vicarious Achievement Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.; And Others

    This study tests hypotheses about achievement orientation, particularly vicarious achievement. Undergraduate students (N=437) completed multiple-choice questionnaires, indicating likely responses of one person to the success of another. The sex of succeeder and observer, closeness of relationship, and setting (medical school or graduate school of…

  3. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  4. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  5. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  6. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  7. [Changing the therapeutic goal in critically ill patients. Ethical analysis of a surgical case].

    PubMed

    Jox, R J; Ney, L

    2014-05-01

    We report on a 32-year-old patient, who developed septic shock, toxic shock-like syndrome, and multiple organ failure following nectrotizing fasciitis. Amputations had to be performed on all extremities. Subsequently, she developed secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Treatment goals had to be reassessed, since long-term survival seemed doubtful and, in the best case, burdened with severe handicap. We discuss the evaluation of the treatment goals, utilizing a structured model of goal-setting. In the first step the treatment goal is identified based on the patient's wishes. This goal's realistic achievability is verified considering scientific evidence and medical experience. The benefit of the aspired goal is set in relation to risks and burden of the necessary treatment measures in a third step. The resulting benefit-risk ratio must be evaluated by the patient or her representative. Treatment goals have to be reevaluated if the assessment of achievability or the benefit-risk ratio are disadvantageous. In this case, the initial therapeutic goal was retained. After an extraordinarily prolonged and complex therapy including reconstructive surgery the patient is now living independently at home.

  8. Yoga: a therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Nirmala N; Shankar, Kamala

    2004-11-01

    Yoga, practiced widely in the East, is now popular in the West as part of a healthy lifestyle. This article brings a medical perspective to the practice of yoga. Selected yoga postures that are believed to benefit certain medical conditions are highlighted. In addition, the philosophy, general guidelines, and medical benefits of yoga practice are described.

  9. Women in developing countries and benefit sharing.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Castillo, Fatima; Feinholz, Dafna

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that any process of benefit sharing that does not guarantee the representation and participation of women in the decision-making process, as well as in the distribution of benefits, contravenes a central demand of social justice. It is argued that women, particularly in developing countries, can be excluded from benefits derived from genetic research because of existing social structures that promote and maintain discrimination. The paper describes how the structural problem of gender-based inequity can impact on benefit sharing processes. At the same time, examples are given of poor women's ability to organise themselves and to achieve social benefits for entire communities. Relevant international guidelines (e.g. the Convention on Biodiversity) recognise the importance of women's contributions to the protection of biodiversity and thereby, implicitly, their right to a share of the benefits, but no mechanism is outlined on how to bring this about. The authors make a clear recommendation to ensure women's participation in benefit sharing negotiations by demanding seats at the negotiation table.

  10. Benefits of infant massage.

    PubMed

    Day, Jane

    2014-05-01

    After spending three months as a clinical midwifery tutor at a remote hospital in Zambia, where I helped to train student midwives and other students, my interest in infant massage was ignited, having witnessed the benefits of massage to both mother and baby. Once back in the UK, I trained and qualified as a massage instructor with an international infant massage training organisation, which has led me to work extensively with parents and babies, offering one-to-one and group courses. It has been a privilege to be able to teach parents the valuable skill of infant massage, and consequently pass on the benefits both physiological and psychosocial.

  11. Noncaloric Benefits of Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    Noncaloric benefits of carbohydrates are due to the presence of dietary fibers, which are a heterogeneous group of natural food sources and form an important component of a healthy diet. They differ in physiochemical properties such as solubility, fermentability and viscosity. They have a wide range of physiological effects resulting in gastrointestinal and systemic benefits. These include appetite, satiety, bowel transit time and function, production of short-chain fatty acids and certain vitamins, and effects on gut microbiota, immunity and inflammation, as well as mineral absorption. They also help to control the glycemic status and serum lipid levels, resulting in reduced incidence rates of atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Achievability for telerobotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Reid L.; Draper, John V.; Hamel, William R.

    2001-02-01

    Methods are needed to improve the capabilities of autonomous robots to perform tasks that are difficult for contemporary robots, and to identify those tasks that robots cannot perform. Additionally, in the realm of remote handling, methods are needed to assess which tasks and/or subtasks are candidates for automation. We are developing a new approach to understanding the capability of autonomous robotic systems. This approach uses formalized methods for determining the achievability of tasks for robots, that is, the likelihood that an autonomous robot or telerobot can successfully complete a particular task. Any autonomous system may be represented in achievability space by the volume describing that system's capabilities within the 3-axis space delineated by perception, cognition, and action. This volume may be thought of as a probability density with achievability decreasing as the distance from the centroid of the volume increases. Similarly, any task may be represented within achievability space. However, as tasks have more finite requirements for perception, cognition, and action, each may be represented as a point (or, more accurately, as a small sphere) within achievability space. Analysis of achievability can serve to identify, a priori, the survivability of robotic systems and the likelihood of mission success; it can be used to plan a mission or portions of a mission; it can be used to modify a mission plan to accommodate unpredicted occurrences; it can also serve to identify needs for modifications to robotic systems or tasks to improve achievability. .

  13. Developing Therapeutic Vaccines Against Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Thomas; Drummond, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. It is characterized by an imbalance between the production and clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins. In AD these normal proteins accumulate, leading to aggregation and a conformational change forming oligomeric and fibrillary species with a high β-sheet content. Active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches result in dramatic reduction of Aβ pathology in AD animal models. However, there is much more limited evidence in human studies of significant clinical benefits from these strategies and it is becoming apparent that they may only be effective very early in AD. Vaccination targeting only tau pathology has shown benefits in some mouse studies but human studies are limited. Greater therapeutic efficacy for the next generation of vaccine approaches will likely benefit from specifically targeting the most toxic species of Aβ and tau, ideally simultaneously. PMID:26577574

  14. Developing therapeutic vaccines against Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Thomas; Drummond, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide. It is characterized by an imbalance between the production and clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau proteins. In AD these normal proteins accumulate, leading to aggregation and a conformational change forming oligomeric and fibrillary species with a high β-sheet content. Active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches result in dramatic reduction of Aβ pathology in AD animal models. However, there is much more limited evidence in human studies of significant clinical benefits from these strategies and it is becoming apparent that they may only be effective very early in AD. Vaccination targeting only tau pathology has shown benefits in some mouse studies but human studies are limited. Greater therapeutic efficacy for the next generation of vaccine approaches will likely benefit from specifically targeting the most toxic species of Aβ and tau, ideally simultaneously.

  15. Benefits of Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    One of the principal benefits of geothermal power plants is that they provide baseload power. Baseload power plants provide power all or most of the time and contrast with peaker plants which turn on or off as demand rises, or peaks, throughout the day. Geothermal plants contrast with other renewable energy resources like wind and solar energy that generate power intermittently.

  16. The Benefits of Latin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  17. GIO benefits the USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDermott, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Geographic Information Office (GIO) benefits the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) by providing access to and delivery of USGS information and services, safety and security of USGS data and information, support for USGS science, and coordination of partnerships through Federal interagency data committees.

  18. Benefits of Java

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man running - Protein and the Athlete - How Much Do You Need? Protein and the Athlete — How Much Do You Need? stop watch - Timing Your Pre- and Post-Workout ... of Java Published September 29, 2014 Print Email ...

  19. Costs and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two models of cost benefit analysis are illustrated and the application of these models to assessing the economic scope of space applications programs was discussed. Four major areas cited as improvable through space derived information - food supply and distribution, energy sources, mineral reserves, and communication and navigation were - discussed. Specific illustrations are given for agriculture and maritime traffic.

  20. Benefits of Conducting Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Frances E.

    2001-01-01

    Metaphors for researchers, such as a crusader; a traveler; an explorer; a miner; an astronaut; a biblical Daniel; a Samurai; and an archaeologist are discussed. Benefits of conducting research are enumerated, including building the knowledge base for art therapy; increasing professional opportunities; improving client care; and advancing the…

  1. The Benefits of Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelasko, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the academic benefits of bilingual education gained by language-minority students, highlighting school districts that have had great success with bilingual education and discussing the negative consequences of the proposed English for Children initiative, which would end bilingual education and instead provide intensive…

  2. Space for Mankind's Benefit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Puttkamer, Jesco, Ed.; McCullough, Thomas J., Ed.

    Presented are the proceedings of the first international Congress on "Space for Mankind's Benefit" organized by the Huntsville Association of Technical Societies and held November 15-19, 1971, at Huntsville, Alabama. Following introductory statements, a total of 45 articles read in 10 sessions are incorporated. The session headings are: Man in…

  3. Are Therapeutic Motivation and Having One’s Own Doctor as Researcher Sources of Therapeutic Misconception?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Scott Y H; De Vries, Raymond; Parnami, Sonali; Wilson, Renee; Kim, H Myra; Frank, Samuel; Holloway, Robert G; Kieburtz, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Background Desire for improvement in one’s illness and having one’s own doctor functioning as a researcher are thought to promote therapeutic misconception (TM), a phenomenon in which research subjects are said to conflate research with treatment. Purpose To examine whether subjects’ therapeutic motivation and own doctor functioning as researcher are associated with TM. Methods We interviewed 90 persons with advanced Parkinson Disease (PD) enrolled or intending to enroll in sham surgery controlled neurosurgical trials, using qualitative interviews. Subjects were compared by motivation (primarily therapeutic versus primarily altruistic or dually motivated by altruistic and therapeutic motivation) and by doctor status (own doctor as site investigator versus not) on the following: understanding of purpose of study; understanding of research procedures; perception of chance of direct benefit; and recollection and perceptions concerning the risks. Results 60% had primarily therapeutic motivation and 44% had their own doctor as the site investigator, but neither were generally associated with increased TM responses. Overall level of understanding of purpose and procedures of research were high. Subjects responded with generally high estimates of probability of direct benefit but their rationales were personal and complex. The therapeutic-motivation group was more sensitive to risks. Five (5.6%) subjects provided incorrect answers to the question about purpose of research and yet showed excellent understanding of research procedures. Conclusions In persons with PD involved in sham surgery clinical trials, being primarily motivated by desire for direct benefit to one’s illness or having one’s own doctor as the site investigator were not associated with greater TM responses. PMID:24855070

  4. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  5. Achieving Salary Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy D.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques are outlined for use by higher education institutions to achieve salary equity: salary prediction (using various statistical procedures), counterparting (comparing salaries of persons of similar rank), and grievance procedures. (JT)

  6. Process validation: achieving the Operational Qualification phase.

    PubMed

    Buffaloe, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The OQ phase of process validation is very important and is where the complete understanding of the process is determined by experimentation. This understanding is useful to: * establish optimal process parameters * understand variation that affect the process * aid in investigating process deviations. OQ is an important part of the entire process validation activity and essential to understanding a manufacturing process. The benefits of completing the OQ and overall process validation are the reasons that it makes business sense and receive the long-term benefits of producing high quality product and achieving customer satisfaction.

  7. Achieving TASAR Operational Readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept for aircraft operations featuring a NASA-developed cockpit automation tool, the Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), which computes traffic/hazard-compatible route changes to improve flight efficiency. The TAP technology is anticipated to save fuel and flight time and thereby provide immediate and pervasive benefits to the aircraft operator, as well as improving flight schedule compliance, passenger comfort, and pilot and controller workload. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for TASAR-equipped aircraft, and a flight trial of the TAP software application in the National Airspace System has demonstrated its technical viability. This paper reviews previous and ongoing activities to prepare TASAR for operational use.

  8. University Benefits Survey: Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Information on all benefits, excluding pensions, provided by 16 Ontario universities is presented. The following general questions concerning benefits are covered: administration and insurance plans, communication of benefit programs to employees, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave…

  9. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1984 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: questions on general benefits, such as insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, and maternity leave policy;…

  10. CEBAF Accelerator Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Y. C.; Drury, M.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G. A.; Poelker, M.; Reece, C.; Tiefenback, M.

    2011-05-01

    In the past decade, nuclear physics users of Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) have benefited from accelerator physics advances and machine improvements. As of early 2011, CEBAF operates routinely at 6 GeV, with a 12 GeV upgrade underway. This article reports highlights of CEBAF's scientific and technological evolution in the areas of cryomodule refurbishment, RF control, polarized source development, beam transport for parity experiments, magnets and hysteresis handling, beam breakup, and helium refrigerator operational optimization.

  11. Maintenance therapy in ovarian cancer: Molecular basis and therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    BINASCHI, MONICA; SIMONELLI, CECILIA; GOSO, CRISTINA; BIGIONI, MARIO; MAGGI, CARLO ALBERTO

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate among gynaecological tumours despite the fact that the majority of patients with advanced disease achieve complete remission after first-line surgery and chemotherapy. Unfortunately, disease recurrence occurs in the majority of patients and second-line treatments are not curative. Clearly, the persistence of dormant and drug-resistant cells after front-line treatments results in the inability to cure the disease. The identification of cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells as key players in the development of recurrence has opened up a novel field of research aimed at identifying additional innovative therapeutic approaches. Strategies of maintenance therapy to extend the survival of patients have been studied, but to date no overall survival benefit has been detected. Currently, numerous clinical trials have just been completed or are ongoing involving patients achieving a complete clinical response after first-line chemotherapy in order to evaluate the efficacy of different therapeutic approaches in terms of disease-free survival and overall survival. At the 2010 ASCO meeting, the first positive results of a phase III clinical trial in this setting were presented: bevacizumab (15 mg/kg i.v. every 21 days) added to first-line chemotherapy and continued for an additional 15 cycles was found to prolong progression-free survival of 3.8 months in comparison to 6 cycles of chemotherapy alone or only 6 cycles of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab. In addition, positive results were announced for a second phase III trial testing bevacizumab in the same setting, but at half dose. The final assessment of the overall clinical benefit and the approval of bevacizumab in maintenance therapy by regulatory agencies is expected to be positive, as are the final results of abagovomab phase III trial MIMOSA, another antibody-based therapy tested as a maintenance treatment for advanced ovarian cancer patients. Encouraging preliminary

  12. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of zonisamide].

    PubMed

    Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Tribut, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Zonisamide is a second generation antiepileptic drug available in France since 2005. It provides a mechanism of action similar to those of phenytoin or carbamazepine. It is indicated in association in the treatment of partial epilepsy with or without secondary generalization. Zonisamide is well absorbed with maximum concentration achieved in 2 to 5 h. It is partly metabolized by the CYP3A4. Its elimination half-life is very long, around 60 h. Studies in adults and children show low concentration-efficacy and concentration-toxicity correlations, but a therapeutic range has been determined between 10 and 40 mg/L. Zonisamide is sensitive to the inductive molecules of CYP which will increase its clearance and decrease its half-life. A specific monitoring of patient is recommended in renal impairment. For this molecule, the interest of TDM has been evaluated: possibly useful.

  13. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Elavarasu, Sugumari; Sekar, Santhosh; Murugan, Thamaraiselvan

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11), omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb) inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α) are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties. PMID:23066265

  14. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    PubMed

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F

    2007-11-01

    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  15. Benefits of Art and Music Education. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Annotates 13 recent documents and journals from the ERIC database that discuss the benefits of art and music education to children's development and academic achievement. Includes art and music education Internet sites. (LBT)

  16. Recent advances in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chessum, Nicola; Jones, Keith; Pasqua, Elisa; Tucker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the past 20 years, cancer therapeutics has undergone a paradigm shift away from the traditional cytotoxic drugs towards the targeting of proteins intimately involved in driving the cancer phenotype. The poster child for this alternative approach to the treatment of cancer is imatinib, a small-molecule kinase inhibitor designed to target chronic myeloid leukaemia driven by the BCR-ABL translocation in a defined patient population. The improvement in survival achieved by treatment of this patient cohort with imatinib is impressive. Thus, the aim is to provide efficacy but with low toxicity. The role of the medicinal chemist in oncology drug discovery is now closely aligned with the role in most other therapeutic areas with high-throughput and/or fragment-based screening, structure-based design, selectivity, pharmacokinetic optimisation and pharmacodynamic biomarker modulation, all playing a familiar part in the process. In this chapter, we selected four areas in which compounds are either approved drugs or in clinical trials. These are chaperone inhibitors, kinase inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors and inhibitors of protein-protein interactions. Even within these areas, we have been selective, particularly for kinase inhibitors, and our aim has been to exemplify newer approaches and novel aspects of medicinal chemistry.

  17. Video Captions Benefit Everyone

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2016-01-01

    Video captions, also known as same-language subtitles, benefit everyone who watches videos (children, adolescents, college students, and adults). More than 100 empirical studies document that captioning a video improves comprehension of, attention to, and memory for the video. Captions are particularly beneficial for persons watching videos in their non-native language, for children and adults learning to read, and for persons who are D/deaf or hard of hearing. However, despite U.S. laws, which require captioning in most workplace and educational contexts, many video audiences and video creators are naïve about the legal mandate to caption, much less the empirical benefit of captions. PMID:28066803

  18. Carbon nanotubes as vectors for gene therapy: past achievements, present challenges and future goals.

    PubMed

    Bates, Katie; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2013-12-01

    Promising therapeutic and prophylactic effects have been achieved following advances in the gene therapy research arena, giving birth to the new generation of disease-modifying therapeutics. The greatest challenge that gene therapy vectors still face is the ability to deliver sufficient genetic payloads in order to enable efficient gene transfer into target cells. A wide variety of viral and non-viral gene therapy vectors have been developed and explored over the past 10years, including carbon nanotubes. In this review we will address the application of carbon nanotubes as non-viral vectors in gene therapy with the aim to give a perspective on the past achievements, present challenges and future goals. A series of important topics concerning carbon nanotubes as gene therapy vectors will be addressed, including the benefits that carbon nanotubes offer over other non-viral delivery systems. Furthermore, a perspective is given on what the ideal genetic cargo to deliver using carbon nanotubes is and finally the geno-pharmacological impact of carbon nanotube-mediated gene therapy is discussed.

  19. Peptide Therapeutics and the Pharmaceutical Industry: Barriers Encountered Translating from the Laboratory to Patients.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, John; Nagaraj, Hema; McCloskey, Alice P; Huwaitat, Rawan; Porter, Simon; Albadr, Alyaa; Laverty, Garry

    2016-01-01

    Peptides are receiving increasing interest as clinical therapeutics. These highly tunable molecules can be tailored to achieve desirable biocompatibility and biodegradability with simultaneously selective and potent therapeutic effects. Despite challenges regarding up-scaling and licensing of peptide products, their vast clinical potential is reflected in the 60 plus peptide-based therapeutics already on the market, and the further 500 derivatives currently in developmental stages. Peptides are proving effective for a multitude of disease states including: type 2 diabetes (controlled using the licensed glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor liraglutide); irritable bowel syndrome managed with linaclotide (currently at approval stages); acromegaly (treated with octapeptide somatostatin analogues lanreotide and octreotide); selective or broad spectrum microbicidal agents such as the Gram-positive selective PTP-7 and antifungal heliomicin; anticancer agents including goserelin used as either adjuvant or monotherapy for prostate and breast cancer, and the first marketed peptide derived vaccine against prostate cancer, sipuleucel-T. Research is also focusing on improving the biostability of peptides. This is achieved through a number of mechanisms ranging from replacement of naturally occurring L-amino acid enantiomers with D-amino acid forms, lipidation, peptidomimetics, N-methylation, cyclization and exploitation of carrier systems. The development of self-assembling peptides are paving the way for sustained release peptide formulations and already two such licensed examples exist, lanreotide and octreotide. The versatility and tunability of peptide-based products is resulting in increased translation of peptide therapies, however significant challenges remain with regard to their wider implementation. This review highlights some of the notable peptide therapeutics discovered to date and the difficulties encountered by the pharmaceutical industry in translating these

  20. Pluristem Therapeutics, Inc.

    PubMed

    Prather, William

    2008-01-01

    Pluristem Therapeutics, Inc., based in Haifa, Israel, is a regenerative, biotherapeutics Company dedicated to the commercialization of nonpersonalized (allogeneic) cell therapy products. The Company is expanding noncontroversial placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells via a proprietary 3D process, named PluriX, into therapeutics for a variety of degenerative, malignant and autoimmune disorders. Pluristem will be conducting Phase I trials in the USA with its first product, PLX-I, which addresses the global shortfall of matched tissue for bone marrow transplantation by improving the engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells contained in umbilical cord blood.

  1. Therapeutics for cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Shineman, Diana W; Salthouse, Timothy A; Launer, Lenore J; Hof, Patrick R; Bartzokis, George; Kleiman, Robin; Luine, Victoria; Buccafusco, Jerry J; Small, Gary W; Aisen, Paul S; Lowe, David A; Fillit, Howard M

    2010-04-01

    This review summarizes the scientific talks presented at the conference "Therapeutics for Cognitive Aging," hosted by the New York Academy of Sciences and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation on May 15, 2009. Attended by scientists from industry and academia, as well as by a number of lay people-approximately 200 in all-the conference specifically tackled the many aspects of developing therapeutic interventions for cognitive impairment. Discussion also focused on how to define cognitive aging and whether it should be considered a treatable, tractable disease.

  2. DELIVERY OF THERAPEUTIC PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Pisal, Dipak S.; Kosloski, Matthew P.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2009-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of protein therapeutics are limited by three interrelated pharmaceutical issues, in vitro and in vivo instability, immunogenicity and shorter half-lives. Novel drug modifications for overcoming these issues are under investigation and include covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), polysialic acid, or glycolic acid, as well as developing new formulations containing nanoparticulate or colloidal systems (e.g. liposomes, polymeric microspheres, polymeric nanoparticles). Such strategies have the potential to develop as next generation protein therapeutics. This review includes a general discussion on these delivery approaches. PMID:20049941

  3. Therapeutic Antioxidant Medical Gas

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Atsunori; Sugimoto, Ryujiro; Billiar, Timothy R; McCurry, Kenneth R

    2009-01-01

    Medical gases are pharmaceutical gaseous molecules which offer solutions to medical needs and include traditional gases, such as oxygen and nitrous oxide, as well as gases with recently discovered roles as biological messenger molecules, such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulphide. Medical gas therapy is a relatively unexplored field of medicine; however, a recent increasing in the number of publications on medical gas therapies clearly indicate that there are significant opportunities for use of gases as therapeutic tools for a variety of disease conditions. In this article, we review the recent advances in research on medical gases with antioxidant properties and discuss their clinical applications and therapeutic properties. PMID:19177183

  4. Benefits of NSF work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, Ted

    This fall I will leave my rotatorship as Associate Director for Chemical Oceanography at the National Science Foundation. I have very much enjoyed my duty and want to outline for those who may become “rotators” some of the job's benefits, since NSF is now seeking applicants to replace me. Batiza, Rea and Rumble [Eos, 69, 801, 1988] have discussed the rotator's experience; my comments supplement their points.The most important benefit in working at NSF is the breadth of vision you acquire. This is important for researchers, because it pulls you away from your narrowly focused subfield and forces you to review again, as you did as a graduate student, your entire field. For teachers, this benefit is equally important, because you will keep up with current research even while away from teaching your up-to-date balanced courses. During my stay here I have reviewed proposals to study trace metals scavenging, gas exchange, sediment traps, biochemical cycling, stable and unstable isotopes, lipid biomarkers, sediment diagenesis, anoxic redox processes, and many other exciting topics. Some research areas, such as the vent and seep studies, had not been conceived when I was a graduate student in the sixties, so my experience here has been, in fact, a real sabbatical.

  5. Family Literacy Programs: Who Benefits? Occasional Paper #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Tim

    Family literacy programs have been demonstrated to have significant and widespread benefits for children, parents, families, and society. Documented benefits of family literacy programs to children appear in the following areas: children's achievement in school, school attendance, oral language development, reading comprehension and vocabulary,…

  6. Expected benefits of federally-funded thermal energy storage research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanner, G. E.; Daellenbach, K. K.; Hughes, K. R.; Brown, D. R.; Drost, M. K.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Advanced Utility Concepts of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to develop a series of graphs that depict the long-term benefits of continuing DOE's thermal energy storage (TES) research program in four sectors: building heating, building cooling, utility power production, and transportation. The study was conducted in three steps. The first step was to assess the maximum possible benefits technically achievable in each sector. In some sectors, the maximum benefit was determined by a 'supply side' limitation, and in other sectors, the maximum benefit is determined by a 'demand side' limitation. The second step was to apply economic cost and diffusion models to estimate the benefits that are likely to be achieved by TES under two scenarios: (1) with continuing DOE funding of TES research; and (2) without continued funding. The models all cover the 20-year period from 1990 to 2010. The third step was to prepare graphs that show the maximum technical benefits achievable, the estimated benefits with TES research funding, and the estimated benefits in the absence of TES research funding. The benefits of federally-funded TES research are largely in four areas: displacement of primary energy, displacement of oil and natural gas, reduction in peak electric loads, and emissions reductions.

  7. Expected benefits of federally-funded thermal energy storage research

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G E; Daellenbach, K K; Hughes, K R; Brown, D R; Drost, M K

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Advanced Utility Concepts of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to develop a series of graphs that depict the long-term benefits of continuing DOE's thermal energy storage (TES) research program in four sectors: building heating, building cooling, utility power production, and transportation. The study was conducted in three steps- The first step was to assess the maximum possible benefits technically achievable in each sector. In some sectors, the maximum benefit was determined by a supply side'' limitation, and in other sectors, the maximum benefit is determined by a demand side'' limitation. The second step was to apply economic cost and diffusion models to estimate the benefits that are likely to be achieved by TES under two scenarios: (1) with continuing DOE funding of TES research, and (2) without continued funding. The models all cover the 20-year period from 1990 to 2010. The third step was to prepare graphs that show the maximum technical benefits achievable, the estimated benefits with TES research funding, and the estimated benefits in the absence of TES research funding. The benefits of federally-funded TES research are largely in four areas: displacement of primary energy, displacement of oil and natural gas, reduction in peak electric loads, and emissions reductions.

  8. Expected benefits of federally-funded thermal energy storage research

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, G.E.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

    1992-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Office of Advanced Utility Concepts of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this study was to develop a series of graphs that depict the long-term benefits of continuing DOE`s thermal energy storage (TES) research program in four sectors: building heating, building cooling, utility power production, and transportation. The study was conducted in three steps- The first step was to assess the maximum possible benefits technically achievable in each sector. In some sectors, the maximum benefit was determined by a ``supply side`` limitation, and in other sectors, the maximum benefit is determined by a ``demand side`` limitation. The second step was to apply economic cost and diffusion models to estimate the benefits that are likely to be achieved by TES under two scenarios: (1) with continuing DOE funding of TES research, and (2) without continued funding. The models all cover the 20-year period from 1990 to 2010. The third step was to prepare graphs that show the maximum technical benefits achievable, the estimated benefits with TES research funding, and the estimated benefits in the absence of TES research funding. The benefits of federally-funded TES research are largely in four areas: displacement of primary energy, displacement of oil and natural gas, reduction in peak electric loads, and emissions reductions.

  9. Therapeutic Angiogenesis in Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ouma, Geoffrey O.; Zafrir, Barak; Mohler, Emile R.; Flugelman, Moshe Y.

    2013-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe form of peripheral artery disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. The primary therapeutic goals in treating CLI are to reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events, relieve ischemic pain, heal ulcers, prevent major amputation, and improve quality of life (QoL) and survival. These goals may be achieved by medical therapy, endovascular intervention, open surgery, or amputation and require a multidisciplinary approach including pain management, wound care, risk factors reduction, and treatment of comorbidities. No-option patients are potential candidates for the novel angiogenic therapies. The application of genetic, molecular, and cellular-based modalities, the so-called therapeutic angiogenesis, in the treatment of arterial obstructive diseases has not shown consistent efficacy. This article summarizes the current status related to the management of patients with CLI and discusses the current findings of the emerging modalities for therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:23129733

  10. Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception.

    PubMed

    Caserta, D; Ralli, E; Matteucci, E; Bordi, G; Mallozzi, M; Moscarini, M

    2014-09-01

    It has been recognized for over 50 years that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are also capable of offering health benefits beyond contraception through the treatment and prevention of several gynaecological and medical disorders. During the last years a constant attention was given to the adverse effects of COCs, whereas their non-contraceptive benefits were underestimated. To date, most women are still unaware of the therapeutic uses of hormonal contraceptives, while on the contrary there is an extensive and constantly increasing of these non-contraceptive health benefits. This review summarizes the conditions of special interest for physicians, including dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome), functional ovarian cysts, endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome, myomas, pelvic inflammatory disease, bone mineral density, benign breast disease and endometrial/ovarian and colorectal cancer. The benefits of COCs in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, menstrual migraine and in perimenopause have also been treated for more comprehensive information. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is still outside the product licence in the majority of cases. We strongly believe that these aspects are not of minor relevance and they deserve a special consideration by health providers and by the mass media, which have the main responsibility in the diffusion of scientific information. Thus, counseling and education are necessary to help women make well-informed health-care decisions and it is also crucial to increase awareness among general practitioners and gynaecologists.

  11. Developing Therapeutic Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy; Prior, Seamus

    2013-01-01

    We present an experience-near account of the development of therapeutic listening in first year counselling students. A phenomenological approach was employed to articulate the trainees' lived experiences of their learning. Six students who had just completed a one-year postgraduate certificate in counselling skills were interviewed and the…

  12. Measuring Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callister, Sheldon L.

    In the recent past, there has been a great deal of effort directed toward developing techniques for documenting therapeutic outcome. Funding sources and the general public seem to be demanding more meaningful data which indicate, in a clear manner, whether or not the services they are paying for are of value. Mental health centers, like other…

  13. Antibody Therapeutics in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Wold, Erik D; Smider, Vaughn V; Felding, Brunhilde H

    2016-01-01

    One of the newer classes of targeted cancer therapeutics is monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics are a successful and rapidly expanding drug class due to their high specificity, activity, favourable pharmacokinetics, and standardized manufacturing processes. Antibodies are capable of recruiting the immune system to attack cancer cells through complement-dependent cytotoxicity or antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In an ideal scenario the initial tumor cell destruction induced by administration of a therapeutic antibody can result in uptake of tumor associated antigens by antigen-presenting cells, establishing a prolonged memory effect. Mechanisms of direct tumor cell killing by antibodies include antibody recognition of cell surface bound enzymes to neutralize enzyme activity and signaling, or induction of receptor agonist or antagonist activity. Both approaches result in cellular apoptosis. In another and very direct approach, antibodies are used to deliver drugs to target cells and cause cell death. Such antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) direct cytotoxic compounds to tumor cells, after selective binding to cell surface antigens, internalization, and intracellular drug release. Efficacy and safety of ADCs for cancer therapy has recently been greatly advanced based on innovative approaches for site-specific drug conjugation to the antibody structure. This technology enabled rational optimization of function and pharmacokinetics of the resulting conjugates, and is now beginning to yield therapeutics with defined, uniform molecular characteristics, and unprecedented promise to advance cancer treatment. PMID:27081677

  14. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  15. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  16. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  17. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  18. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  19. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  20. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  1. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  2. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  3. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  4. Improving Educational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York University Education Quarterly, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This is a slightly abridged version of the report of the National Academy of Education panel, convened at the request of HEW Secretary Joseph Califano and Assistant Secretary for Education Mary F. Berry, to study recent declines in student achievement and methods of educational improvement. (SJL)

  5. The Achievement Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ibram

    2009-01-01

    When Gabrielle Carpenter became a guidance counselor in Northern Virginia nine years ago, she focused on the academic achievement gap and furiously tried to close it. At first, she was compelled by tremendous professional interest. However, after seeing her son lose his zeal for school, Carpenter joined forces with other parents to form an…

  6. Achievement in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friebele, David

    2010-01-01

    This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…

  7. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  8. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  9. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the…

  10. Overcoming barriers to glycemic control in African Americans with type-2 diabetes: benefits of insulin therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Merville C.

    2007-01-01

    A disproportionate number of African-American men and women are affected by obesity and diabetes. The documented rate of poor glycemic control in the African-American population may contribute to the high rate of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes observed in these patients. Since the benefits of strict glycemic control have been demonstrated in multiple large trials, the aim of treatment should be to achieve the goals set forth by the American Diabetes Association. Insulin remains an essential therapeutic agent for helping patients achieve glycemic control and preventing long-term comorbidities. However, barriers to insulin therapy exist for both the physician and patient. Strategies to counter this resistance include identifying barriers to treatment, restoring the patient's sense of control, utilizing simple regimens, and reviewing the benefits of insulin and the risk of hypoglycemia. In treating African-American patients with diabetes, providers of various racial and ethnic backgrounds may maximize treatment efficacy by attempting to understand and practice culturally competent care. PMID:17722663

  11. Level 1 Therapeutic Model site.

    PubMed

    Hall, Philip S; DeJong, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    This site is an intertribal residential grant school annually enrolling over 250 students in grades 1-8 from tribes located in three states on the Northern Great Plains. From its inception in 1890, the boarding school's mission has been to provide services for young children in need of a safe and supportive living and learning environment. For over a decade, this site has used strategies centered on respecting children, structuring students' time, and providing the therapeutic benefits of a well-maintained campus. This site also has a long history of believing in each child's inherent value and potential. When Therapeutic Residential Model funding commenced at the midpoint of the 2002-2003 school year, L1 focused these new resources on strengthening and refining its program. The number of personnel positions increased from 98 to 135, with new positions principally going to dormitory staff and four Masters-level counselor positions. This increase in staff allowed L1 to proactively address the children's developmental needs. The site also adopted and implemented the Applied Humanism caregiving model. In accordance with Applied Humanism, an interview was utilized that allowed the site to identify and hire applicants possessing the attitudes and skills necessary to be good caregivers, existing staff were trained so that they understood the kind of caregiving that would be expected of them, supervision procedures and practices were implemented that supported and encouraged good caregivers and provided time-limited assistance to those who were not, and relevant agency policies and procedures were revised as needed to align with the Applied Humanism philosophy. In addition, the Morningside program was brought in to systematically address the students' academic lags in reading. The results of implementing the Therapeutic Residential Model were a reduction in behavioral incidents, a decrease in the amount of money spent on external mental health services, an increase in the

  12. EVITA: a tool for the early EValuation of pharmaceutical Innovations with regard to Therapeutic Advantage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background New drugs are generally claimed to represent a therapeutic innovation. However, scientific evidence of a substantial clinical advantage is often lacking. This may be the result of using inadequate control groups or surrogate outcomes only in the clinical trials. In view of this, EVITA was developed as a user-friendly transparent tool for the early evaluation of the additional therapeutic value of a new drug. Methods EVITA does not evaluate a new compound per se but in an approved indication in comparison with existing therapeutic strategies. Placebo as a comparator is accepted only in the absence of an established therapy or if employed in an add-on strategy on top. The evaluation attributes rating points to the drug in question, taking into consideration both therapeutic benefit and risk profile. The compound scores positive points for superiority in efficiency and/or adverse effects as demonstrated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), whilst negative points are awarded for inferiority and/or an unfavorable risk profile. The evaluation follows an algorithm considering the clinical relevance of the outcomes, the strength of the therapeutic effect and the number of RCTs performed. Categories for therapeutic aim and disease severity, although essential parts of the EVITA assessment, are attributed but do not influence the EVITA score which is presented as a color-coded bar graph. In case the available data were unsuitable for an EVITA calculation, a traffic-type yield sign is assigned instead to criticize such practice. The results are presented online http://www.evita-report.de together with all RCTs considered as well as the reasons for excluding a given RCT from the evaluation. This allows for immediate revision in response to justified criticism and simplifies the inclusion of new data. Results As examples, four compounds which received approval within the last years were evaluated for one of their clinical indications: lenalidomide, pioglitazone

  13. What are the risks and the benefits of current and emerging weight-loss medications?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jamie R; Niswender, Kevin D

    2009-10-01

    Obesity is epidemic; new medications and therapeutic options are urgently needed to reduce the associated health care burden. The initial clinical strategy for weight loss is lifestyle modification involving a combination of diet, exercise, and behavior change. However, it is difficult for many to achieve and maintain weight loss solely through this approach. Only two drugs, orlistat and sibutramine, have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat obesity long term, and both medications have undesirable side effects, leaving an enormous unmet need for efficacious and safe therapy for obesity. Other medications with weight-loss effects have been approved by the FDA for short-term treatment of obesity or for disorders other than obesity, but these also have potential adverse effects. This article discusses the perceived benefits and risks of these approved medications along with emerging drugs that have shown weight-loss effects.

  14. Therapeutic polymers for dental adhesives: Loading resins with bio-active components

    PubMed Central

    Imazato, Satoshi; Ma, Sai; Chen, Ji-hua; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Many recent adhesives on the market exhibit reasonable clinical performance. Future innovations in adhesive materials should therefore seek out novel properties rather than simply modifying existing technologies. It is proposed that adhesive materials that are “bio-active” could contribute to better prognosis of restorative treatments. Methods This review examines the recent approaches used to achieve therapeutic polymers for dental adhesives by incorporating bio-active components. A strategy to maintain adhesive restorations is the focus of this paper. Results Major trials on therapeutic dental adhesives have looked at adding antibacterial activities or remineralization effects. Applications of antibacterial resin monomers based on quaternary ammonium compounds have received much research attention, and the loading of nano-sized bioactive particles or multiple ion-releasing glass fillers have been perceived as advantageous since they are not expected to influence the mechanical properties of the carrier polymer. Significance The therapeutic polymer approaches described here have the potential to provide clinical benefits. However, not many technological applications in this category have been successfully commercialized. Clinical evidence as well as further advancement of these technologies can be a driving force to make these new types of materials clinically available. PMID:23899387

  15. Therapeutic experiences of community gardens: putting flow in its place.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Hannah

    2014-05-01

    This paper develops the concept of therapeutic place experiences by considering the role of activity. Research of community gardening finds that particular tasks are therapeutic and exhibit the characteristics of flow, but those who lack influence over their community gardening are less likely to benefit from flow as their sense of control is reduced. The notion of emplaced flow is proposed to locate individual experiences amongst socio-spatial factors which limit self-determinacy and therefore affect wellbeing. Emplacing flow prompts critical reflection on who is excluded from therapeutic place experiences, and whether sites offering momentary escape have an enduring impact on wellbeing.

  16. Nonhematological benefits of iron.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is common in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its importance in supporting erythropoiesis is unquestioned especially in those patients treated with erythropoietin. Clinical symptomatology such as fatigability, cold intolerance, failure to concentrate and poor effort intolerance is often attributed to anemia or uremia. That iron deficiency, per se, can cause these symptoms is poorly recognized. Clinical and animal studies that support the benefits of iron supplementation, independent of increasing hemoglobin, such as those on immune function, physical performance, thermoregulation, cognition, and restless leg syndrome and aluminum absorption is the subject of this narrative review.

  17. Inhibition of AMP deaminase as therapeutic target in cardiovascular pathology.

    PubMed

    Zabielska, Magdalena A; Borkowski, Tomasz; Slominska, Ewa M; Smolenski, Ryszard T

    2015-08-01

    AMP deaminase (AMPD; EC 3.5.4.6) catalyzes hydrolysis of the amino group from the adenine ring of AMP resulting in production of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and ammonia. This reaction helps to maintain healthy cellular energetics by removing excess AMP that accumulates in energy depleted cells. Furthermore, AMPD permits the synthesis of guanine nucleotides from the larger adenylate pool. This enzyme competes with cytosolic 5'-nucleotidases (c5NT) for AMP. Adenosine, a product of c5NT is a vasodilator, antagonizes inotropic effects of catecholamines and exerts anti-platelet, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities. The ratio of AMPD/c5NT defines the amount of adenosine produced in adenine nucleotide catabolic pathway. Inhibition of AMPD could alter this ratio resulting in increased adenosine production. Besides the potential effect on adenosine production, elevation of AMP due to inhibition of AMPD could also lead to activation of AMP regulated protein kinase (AMPK) with myriad of downstream events including enhanced energetic metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis and cytoprotection. While the benefits of these processes are well appreciated in cells such as skeletal or cardiac myocytes its role in protection of endothelium could be even more important. Therapeutic use of AMPD inhibition has been limited due to difficulties with obtaining compounds with adequate characteristics. However, endothelium seems to be the easiest target as effective inhibition of AMPD could be achieved at much lower concentration than in the other types of cells. New generation of AMPD inhibitors has recently been established and its testing in context of endothelial and organ protection could provide important basic knowledge and potential therapeutic tools.

  18. The Benefit of Forgetting

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melonie; Hong, Sang W.; Kang, Min-Suk; Carlisle, Nancy B.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research using change-detection tasks has shown that a directed-forgetting cue, indicating that a subset of the information stored in memory can be forgotten, significantly benefits the other information stored in visual working memory. How do these directed-forgetting cues aid the memory representations that are retained? We addressed this question in the present study by using a recall paradigm to measure the nature of the retained memory representations. Our results demonstrate that a directed-forgetting cue leads to higher fidelity representations of the remaining items and a lower probability of dropping these representations from memory. Next, we show that this is possible because the to-be-forgotten item is expelled from visual working memory following the cue allowing maintenance mechanisms to be focused on only the items that remain in visual working memory. Thus, the present findings show that cues to forget benefit the remaining information in visual working memory by fundamentally improving their quality relative to conditions in which just as many items are encoded but no cue is provided. PMID:23208769

  19. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  20. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  1. Microbial synthetic biology for human therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aastha; Bhatia, Pooja; Chugh, Archana

    2012-06-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology holds tremendous potential for developing novel drugs to treat various human conditions. The current study discusses the scope of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach. In this context, synthetic biology aims at designing, engineering and building new microbial synthetic cells that do not pre-exist in nature as well as re-engineer existing microbes for synthesis of therapeutic products. It is expected that the construction of novel microbial genetic circuitry for human therapeutics will greatly benefit from the data generated by 'omics' approaches and multidisciplinary nature of synthetic biology. Development of novel antimicrobial drugs and vaccines by engineering microbial systems are a promising area of research in the field of synthetic biology for human theragnostics. Expression of plant based medicinal compounds in the microbial system using synthetic biology tools is another avenue dealt in the present study. Additionally, the study suggest that the traditional medicinal knowledge can do value addition for developing novel drugs in the microbial systems using synthetic biology tools. The presented work envisions the success of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach in a holistic manner. Keeping this in view, various legal and socio-ethical concerns emerging from the use of synthetic biology via microbial approach such as patenting, biosafety and biosecurity issues have been touched upon in the later sections.

  2. Imaging enabled platforms for development of therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Spring, Bryan Q.; Muzikansky, Alona; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-03-01

    Advances in imaging and spectroscopic technologies have enabled the optimization of many therapeutic modalities in cancer and noncancer pathologies either by earlier disease detection or by allowing therapy monitoring. Amongst the therapeutic options benefiting from developments in imaging technologies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is exceptional. PDT is a photochemistry-based therapeutic approach where a light-sensitive molecule (photosensitizer) is activated with light of appropriate energy (wavelength) to produce reactive molecular species such as free radicals and singlet oxygen. These molecular entities then react with biological targets such as DNA, membranes and other cellular components to impair their function and lead to eventual cell and tissue death. Development of PDT-based imaging also provides a platform for rapid screening of new therapeutics in novel in vitro models prior to expensive and labor-intensive animal studies. In this study we demonstrate how an imaging platform can be used for strategizing a novel combination treatment strategy for multifocal ovarian cancer. Using an in vitro 3D model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer in conjunction with quantitative imaging we examine dose and scheduling strategies for PDT in combination with carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent presently in clinical use for management of this deadly form of cancer.

  3. Optimizing mesenchymal stem cell-based therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Joseph; Kean, Thomas; Young, Randell; Dennis, James E; Caplan, Arnold I

    2009-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapeutics are showing significant benefit in multiple clinical trials conducted by both academic and commercial organizations, but obstacles remain for their large-scale commercial implementation. Recent studies have attempted to optimize MSC-based therapeutics by either enhancing their potency or increasing their delivery to target tissues. Overexpression of trophic factors or in vitro exposure to potency-enhancing factors are two approaches that are demonstrating success in preclinical animal models. Delivery enhancement strategies involving tissue-specific cytokine pathways or binding sites are also showing promise. Each of these strategies has its own set of distinct advantages and disadvantages when viewed with a mindset of ultimate commercialization and clinical utility.

  4. Placebo analgesia: cognitive influences on therapeutic outcome.

    PubMed

    Watson, Alison; Power, Andrea; Brown, Christopher; El-Deredy, Wael; Jones, Anthony

    2012-03-30

    The therapeutic response to a drug treatment is a mixture of direct pharmacological action and placebo effect. Therefore, harnessing the positive aspects of the placebo effect and reducing the negative ones could potentially benefit the patient. This article is aimed at providing an overview for clinicians of the importance of contextual psychosocial variables in determining treatment response, and the specific focus is on determinants of the placebo response. A better understanding of the physiological, psychological, and social mechanisms of placebo may aid in predicting which contexts have the greatest potential for inducing positive treatment responses. We examine the evidence for the role of psychological traits, including optimism, pessimism, and the effect of patient expectations on therapeutic outcome. We discuss the importance of the patient-practitioner relationship and how this can be used to enhance the placebo effect, and we consider the ethical challenges of using placebos in clinical practice.

  5. Therapeutic targets in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    The precise aetiology of systemic sclerosis (SSc) remains elusive, but significant advances over the past few years have improved our understanding of the underlying pathogenic processes and identified key pathways and mediators that are potential therapeutic targets. The situation is complicated by the clinical heterogeneity of SSc and the differential pathogenesis that underlies the two commonest subsets, namely diffuse and limited cutaneous disease. However, there are common mediators that could be targeted to provide clinical benefit in both types of disease. To date, clinical success with therapies directed against logical profibrotic mediators, such as connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor-β, is yet to be reported, although studies are ongoing. More promising clinical results have been obtained with the dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan, which has been shown to manage two vascular complications of SSc effectively: pulmonary arterial hypertension and digital ulceration. It remains to be determined whether the identification of additional mediators merely furthers our knowledge of the natural history of SSc or presents targets that can be manipulated to manage SSc patients effectively. PMID:17767744

  6. Juvenile onset spondyloarthropathies: therapeutic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Burgos-Vargas, R

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile onset spondyloarthropathy (SpA) is a term that refers to a group of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 associated inflammatory disorders affecting children under the age of 16 years, producing a continuum of clinical symptoms through adulthood. This disease is characterised by enthesopathy and arthropathy affecting the joints of the lower extremities and seronegativity for IgM rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies. Children usually present with undifferentiated SpA and progress to differentiated forms over time. Except for the prevalence of some clinical features at onset, the pathogenic and clinical aspects of juvenile onset SpAs resemble those of the adult disease. Thus application of the same or similar therapeutic measures for both juvenile and adult onset SpAs seems logical. Current treatments for juvenile onset SpA provide symptomatic improvement, but do not alter disease progression. The increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in synovial tissue of patients with adult and juvenile onset SpA and its correlation with infiltration of inflammatory mediators into the synovia suggest a significant pathogenic role of this cytokine. Clinical trials of anti-TNFα antibody (infliximab) therapy in patients with adult onset SpA have demonstrated significant clinical improvement in inflammatory pain, function, disease activity, and quality of life in correlation with histological and immunohistochemical evidence of modulation of synovial inflammatory processes. These promising findings suggest that anti-TNFα therapy may confer similar benefits in patients with juvenile onset SpA. PMID:12381509

  7. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-12-10

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers.

  8. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836

  9. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V.; Wartenberg, Katja E.

    2014-01-01

    The earliest recorded application of therapeutic hypothermia in medicine spans about 5000 years; however, its use has become widespread since 2002, following the demonstration of both safety and efficacy of regimens requiring only a mild (32°C-35°C) degree of cooling after cardiac arrest. We review the mechanisms by which hypothermia confers neuroprotection as well as its physiological effects by body system and its associated risks. With regard to clinical applications, we present evidence on the role of hypothermia in traumatic brain injury, intracranial pressure elevation, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, spinal cord injury, hepatic encephalopathy, and neonatal peripartum encephalopathy. Based on the current knowledge and areas undergoing or in need of further exploration, we feel that therapeutic hypothermia holds promise in the treatment of patients with various forms of neurologic injury; however, additional quality studies are needed before its true role is fully known. PMID:24982721

  10. Therapeutic targeting of ERBB2 in breast cancer: understanding resistance in the laboratory and combating it in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Fabi, Alessandra; Mottolese, Marcella; Segatto, Oreste

    2014-07-01

    ERBB2 gene amplification occurs in about one quarter of breast carcinomas (BCs) and identifies a distinct clinical subset of BC. The introduction in the clinic of Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed to the ERBB2 extracellular domain, has had a great impact on the therapeutic management of ERBB2+ BC. Yet, not all patients respond to Trastuzumab and resistance develops also among patients that initially benefit from Trastuzumab-based regimens. Pre-clinical studies have discovered several mechanisms through which tumor cells may escape from Trastuzumab-mediated ERBB2 inhibition. These include rewiring of the ErbB signaling network, loss of ERBB2 expression, expression of ERBB2 isoforms refractory to Trastuzumab inhibition, vicarious signaling by non-ErbB tyrosine kinases and constitutive activation of downstream signaling routes, such as the PI3K pathway. While the relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to establishing Trastuzumab resistance in the clinical setting is not fully understood, much attention has been focused on abating resistance by achieving complete blockade of ERBB2-containing dimers. This approach, propelled by the development of novel anti-ERBB2 therapeutics, has led to the recent approval of Lapatinib, Pertuzumab and T-DM1 as additional anti-ERBB2 therapeutics in BC. However, full success is far from being achieved and resistance to ERBB2 targeting remains a relevant problem in the clinical management of BC. Herein, we provide an overview of biological and molecular bases underpinning resistance to ERBB2 therapeutics in BC, discuss outstanding issues in the field of ERBB2 therapeutic targeting and elaborate on future directions of translational research on ERBB2+ breast cancer.

  11. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1986 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self- administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave…

  12. University Benefits Survey, Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    The results of a survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy, Ontario…

  13. University Benefits Survey. Part I (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1985 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of information on benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of accidental death and dismemberment insurance,…

  14. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  15. The Department of Defense pharmacy benefit management program.

    PubMed

    Ridderhoff, Kevin; Remund, Daniel

    2005-04-01

    Prescription drug prices are frequently both politically and personally salient issues. The Department of Defense (DoD) offers a robust prescription benefit to 8.8 million beneficiaries. This benefit has evolved to meet changes in technology and patient requirements. The PharmacoEconomic Center (PEC) was established as the first pharmacy benefit manager entity in 1992, primarily in response to rapidly rising DoD pharmacy program expenditures. In its short history, the PEC has dramatically improved patient safety and decreased costs. To accelerate the efficiency and effectiveness the enterprise-wide pharmacy benefit manager has already achieved, DoD should increase the funding, staff, and authority of the PEC.

  16. Polycyclic peptide therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Baeriswyl, Vanessa; Heinis, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Owing to their excellent binding properties, high stability, and low off-target toxicity, polycyclic peptides are an attractive molecule format for the development of therapeutics. Currently, only a handful of polycyclic peptides are used in the clinic; examples include the antibiotic vancomycin, the anticancer drugs actinomycin D and romidepsin, and the analgesic agent ziconotide. All clinically used polycyclic peptide drugs are derived from natural sources, such as soil bacteria in the case of vancomycin, actinomycin D and romidepsin, or the venom of a fish-hunting coil snail in the case of ziconotide. Unfortunately, nature provides peptide macrocyclic ligands for only a small fraction of therapeutic targets. For the generation of ligands of targets of choice, researchers have inserted artificial binding sites into natural polycyclic peptide scaffolds, such as cystine knot proteins, using rational design or directed evolution approaches. More recently, large combinatorial libraries of genetically encoded bicyclic peptides have been generated de novo and screened by phage display. In this Minireview, the properties of existing polycyclic peptide drugs are discussed and related to their interesting molecular architectures. Furthermore, technologies that allow the development of unnatural polycyclic peptide ligands are discussed. Recent application of these technologies has generated promising results, suggesting that polycyclic peptide therapeutics could potentially be developed for a broad range of diseases.

  17. Proteases as therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Craik, Charles S.; Page, Michael J.; Madison, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are an expanding class of drugs that hold great promise. The U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has approved 12 protease therapies, and a number of next generation or completely new proteases are in clinical development. Although they are a well-recognized class of targets for inhibitors, proteases themselves have not typically been considered as a drug class despite their application in the clinic over the last several decades; initially as plasma fractions and later as purified products. Although the predominant use of proteases has been in treating cardiovascular disease, they are also emerging as useful agents in the treatment of sepsis, digestive disorders, inflammation, cystic fibrosis, retinal disorders, psoriasis and other diseases. In the present review, we outline the history of proteases as therapeutics, provide an overview of their current clinical application, and describe several approaches to improve and expand their clinical application. Undoubtedly, our ability to harness proteolysis for disease treatment will increase with our understanding of protease biology and the molecular mechanisms responsible. New technologies for rationally engineering proteases, as well as improved delivery options, will expand greatly the potential applications of these enzymes. The recognition that proteases are, in fact, an established class of safe and efficacious drugs will stimulate investigation of additional therapeutic applications for these enzymes. Proteases therefore have a bright future as a distinct therapeutic class with diverse clinical applications. PMID:21406063

  18. Therapeutic antibody engineering

    PubMed Central

    Parren, Paul W.H.I.; Lugovskoy, Alexey A.

    2013-01-01

    It is an important event in any knowledge area when an authority in the field decides that it is time to share all accumulated knowledge and learnings by writing a text book. This does not occur often in the biopharmaceutical industry, likely due to both the highly dynamic environment with tight timelines and policies and procedures at many pharmaceutical companies that hamper knowledge sharing. To take on a task like this successfully, a strong drive combined with a desire and talent to teach, but also an accommodating and stimulating environment is required. Luckily for those interested in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, Dr. William R. Strohl decided about two years ago that the time was right to write a book about the past, present and future of these fascinating molecules. Dr. Strohl’s great expertise and passion for biotechnology is evident from his life story and his strong academic and industry track record. Dr. Strohl pioneered natural product biotechnology, first in academia as a full professor of microbiology and biochemistry at Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio and later in industry while at Merck. Despite his notable advances in recombinant natural products, industry interest in this area waned and in 2001 Dr. Strohl sought new opportunities by entering the field of antibody therapeutics. He initiated antibody discovery through phage display at Merck, and then moved to Centocor Research and Development Inc. (now Janssen Biotech, Inc.) in 2008 to head Biologics Research, where he now directs the discovery of innovative therapeutic antibody candidates.

  19. Sleep Physiology, Abnormal States, and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wickboldt, Alvah T.; Bowen, Alex F.; Kaye, Aaron J.; Kaye, Adam M.; Rivera Bueno, Franklin; Kaye, Alan D.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential. Unfortunately, a significant portion of the population experiences altered sleep states that often result in a multitude of health-related issues. The regulation of sleep and sleep-wake cycles is an area of intense research, and many options for treatment are available. The following review summarizes the current understanding of normal and abnormal sleep-related conditions and the available treatment options. All clinicians managing patients must recommend appropriate therapeutic interventions for abnormal sleep states. Clinicians' solid understanding of sleep physiology, abnormal sleep states, and treatments will greatly benefit patients regardless of their disease process. PMID:22778676

  20. Therapeutic modulation of tissue kallikrein expression.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Duncan J

    2016-12-01

    The kallikrein kinin system has cardioprotective actions and mediates in part the cardioprotection produced by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers. Additional approaches to exploit the cardioprotective effects of the kallikrein kinin system include the administration of tissue kallikrein and kinin receptor agonists. The renin inhibitor aliskiren was recently shown to increase cardiac tissue kallikrein expression and bradykinin levels, and to reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by bradykinin B2 receptor- and angiotensin AT2 receptor-mediated mechanisms. Thus, aliskiren represents a prototype drug for the modulation of tissue kallikrein expression for therapeutic benefit.

  1. Selection of chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is facilitated by new therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhehai

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, advanced non-small cell lung cancer is still an incurable disease. Recent researches have led to considerable progress in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. This article reviews the main studies on chemotherapy on non-small cell lung cancer and discusses the new therapeutic strategies available to date. Stable disease (SD) is necessary in chemotherapy for tumor. The proportion of population with responders or SD basically maintained similar regardless of regimens. The overall survival after chemotherapy for patients with SD was lower than patients with responders, and higher than patients with progressive disease. Greater benefits could be achieved in patients with effective induction chemotherapy using chemotherapeutic agents for maintenance therapy, whereas the benefits were relatively small for patients with SD. It has been found that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status had certain correlation with the efficacy of chemotherapy. First-line chemotherapy has shown advantages in effective rate and progression free survival on EGFR mutant. EGFR mutation produced significant effects on the efficacy of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with EGFR mutation had a higher effective rate than wild-type EGFR patients, and patients with responders had a greater benefit in progression free survival from maintenance therapy. However, it is still necessary to carry out more careful and deeper studies and analyses on traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, to further optimize cytotoxic chemotherapy and to use molecular targeted agents with different mechanisms. PMID:25550891

  2. NASA Benefits Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  3. Atomic Bomb Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Luckey, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment. PMID:19088902

  4. Atomic bomb health benefits.

    PubMed

    Luckey, T D

    2008-01-01

    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation, leukemia and solid tissue cancer mortality rates, and increased average lifespan. Each study exhibits a threshold that repudiates the LNT dogma. The average threshold for acute exposures to atomic bombs is about 100 cSv. Conclusions from these studies of atomic bomb survivors are: One burst of low dose irradiation elicits a lifetime of improved health.Improved health from low dose irradiation negates the LNT paradigm.Effective triage should include radiation hormesis for survivor treatment.

  5. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals.

    PubMed

    Manzello, Derek P; Brandt, Marilyn; Smith, Tyler B; Lirman, Diego; Hendee, James C; Nemeth, Richard S

    2007-07-17

    Recent, global mass-mortalities of reef corals due to record warm sea temperatures have led researchers to consider global warming as one of the most significant threats to the persistence of coral reef ecosystems. The passage of a hurricane can alleviate thermal stress on coral reefs, highlighting the potential for hurricane-associated cooling to mitigate climate change impacts. We provide evidence that hurricane-induced cooling was responsible for the documented differences in the extent and recovery time of coral bleaching between the Florida Reef Tract and the U.S. Virgin Islands during the Caribbean-wide 2005 bleaching event. These results are the only known scenario where the effects of a hurricane can benefit a stressed marine community.

  6. NASA Technology Benefits Orthotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Neill; Shadoan, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama have designed a knee brace to aid in the rehabilitation of medical patients. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, was designed for knee injury and stroke patients but may potentially serve in many more patient applications. Individuals with sports related injuries, spinal cord injuries and birth defects, such as spina bifida, may also benefit from the device. The Selectively Lockable Knee Brace is designed to provide secure support to the patient when weight is applied to the leg; however; when the leg is not supporting weight, the device allows free motion of the knee joint. Braces currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight or bent position, or by manually pulling a pin, allow continuous free joint motion.

  7. Refactoring and Its Benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Veerraju, R. P. S. P.; Rao, A. Srinivasa; Murali, G.

    2010-10-26

    Refactoring is a disciplined technique for restructuring an existing body of code, altering its internal structure without changing its external behavior. It improves internal code structure without altering its external functionality by transforming functions and rethinking algorithms. It is an iterative process. Refactoring include reducing scope, replacing complex instructions with simpler or built-in instructions, and combining multiple statements into one statement. By transforming the code with refactoring techniques it will be faster to change, execute, and download. It is an excellent best practice to adopt for programmers wanting to improve their productivity. Refactoring is similar to things like performance optimizations, which are also behavior- preserving transformations. It also helps us find bugs when we are trying to fix a bug in difficult-to-understand code. By cleaning things up, we make it easier to expose the bug. Refactoring improves the quality of application design and implementation. In general, three cases concerning refactoring. Iterative refactoring, Refactoring when is necessary, Not refactor.Mr. Martin Fowler identifies four key reasons to refractor. Refactoring improves the design of software, makes software easier to understand, helps us find bugs and also helps in executing the program faster. There is an additional benefit of refactoring. It changes the way a developer thinks about the implementation when not refactoring. There are the three types of refactorings. 1) Code refactoring: It often referred to simply as refactoring. This is the refactoring of programming source code. 2) Database refactoring: It is a simple change to a database schema that improves its design while retaining both its behavioral and informational semantics. 3) User interface (UI) refactoring: It is a simple change to the UI which retains its semantics. Finally, we conclude the benefits of Refactoring are: Improves the design of software, Makes software

  8. Deep brain stimulation activation volumes and their association with neurophysiological mapping and therapeutic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maks, Christopher B.; Butson, Christopher R.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite the clinical success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), little is known about the electrical spread of the stimulation. The primary goal of this study was to integrate neuroimaging, neurophysiology, and neurostimulation data sets from 10 PD patients, unilaterally implanted with subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS electrodes, to identify the theoretical volume of tissue activated (VTA) by clinically defined therapeutic stimulation parameters. Methods Each patient-specific model was created with a series of five steps: 1) definition of the neurosurgical stereotactic coordinate system within the context of pre-operative imaging data; 2) entry of intra-operative microelectrode recording locations from neurophysiologically defined thalamic, subthalamic, and substantia nigra neurons into the context of the imaging data; 3) fitting a 3D brain atlas to the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the patient; 4) positioning the DBS electrode in the documented stereotactic location, verified by post-operative imaging data; and 5) calculation of the VTA using a diffusion tensor based finite element neurostimulation model. Results The patient-specific models show that therapeutic benefit was achieved with direct stimulation of a wide range of anatomical structures in the subthalamic region. Interestingly, of the 5 patients exhibiting a greater than 40% improvement in their unified PD rating scale (UPDRS), all but one had the majority of their VTA outside the atlas defined borders of the STN. Further, of the 5 patients with less than 40% UPDRS improvement all but one had the majority of their VTA inside the STN. Conclusions Our results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that therapeutic benefit is associated with electrode contacts near the dorsal border of the STN, and provide quantitative estimates of the electrical spread of the stimulation in a clinically relevant context. PMID:18403440

  9. Benefits for People with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... you worked long enough and paid Social Security taxes. Supplemental Security Income pays benefits based on financial ... Education Benefits For Children With Disabilities Professional Relations Green Book - Consultative Examinations: Guide For Health Professionals Blue ...

  10. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  11. Novel therapeutics in metastatic colorectal cancer: molecular insights and pharmacogenomic implications.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Diana L; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2016-08-01

    Although the survival of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients has improved five-fold over the last century, CRC remains a significant global health burden. Impressive strides have been made in identifying new regimens, employing maintenance strategies to limit treatment toxicities, and combining multidisciplinary approaches to achieve cure in oligometastatic disease. Attempts at personalized integration of targeted agents have been limited by the ability to identify molecularly enriched patient populations most likely to benefit. In this review, we discuss novel therapeutics and regimens recently approved and in development for mCRC. In addition, we discuss using older agents in novel combination and maintenance strategies, and highlight evidence for implementing pharmacogenomic data and non-invasive monitoring into the personalized management of mCRC patients.

  12. Hormone Use for Therapeutic Amenorrhea and Contraception During Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Katherine; Merideth, Melissa A.; Stratton, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing population of women who have or will undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant for a variety of malignant and benign conditions. Gynecologists play an important role in addressing the gynecologic and reproductive health concerns for these women throughout the transplant process. As women undergo cell transplantation, they should avoid becoming pregnant and are at risk of uterine bleeding. Thus, counseling about and implementing hormonal treatments such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, combined hormonal contraceptives, and progestin-only methods help to achieve therapeutic amenorrhea and can serve as contraception during the peritransplant period. In this commentary, we summarize the timing, risks and benefits of the hormonal options just prior, during and for the year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:26348182

  13. On the TRAIL to successful cancer therapy? Predicting and counteracting resistance against TRAIL-based therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Dimberg, Lina Y.; Anderson, Charles K.; Camidge, Ross; Behbakht, Kian; Thorburn, Andrew; Ford, Heide L.

    2015-01-01

    TRAIL and agonistic antibodies against TRAIL death receptors kill tumor cells while causing virtually no damage to normal cells. Several novel drugs targeting TRAIL receptors are currently in clinical trials. However, TRAIL resistance is a common obstacle in TRAIL based therapy and limits the efficiency of these drugs. In this review article we discuss different mechanisms of TRAIL resistance and how they can be predicted and therapeutically circumvented. In addition, we provide a brief overview of all TRAIL based clinical trials conducted so far. It is apparent that although the effects of TRAIL therapy are disappointingly modest overall, a small subset of patients responds very well to TRAIL. We argue that the true potential of targeting TRAIL death receptors in cancer can only be reached when we find efficient ways to select for those patients that are most likely to benefit from the treatment. To achieve this, it is crucial to identify biomarkers that can help us predict TRAIL sensitivity. PMID:22580613

  14. Dual-Action Cephalosporin Utilizing a Novel Therapeutic Principle

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, D.; O'Grady, F.

    1976-01-01

    A new cephalosporin is described that overcomes, in a novel way, the general susceptibility of this group of agents to enterobacterial β-lactamases. The new compound carries a substituent that is released on cleavage of the β-lactam ring and then exhibits antibacterial activity in its own right. The possible therapeutic benefits of such an antibiotic are discussed. PMID:791095

  15. [Therapeutic strategies in the first psychotic episode].

    PubMed

    Douki, S; Taktak, M J; Ben Zineb, S; Cheour, M

    1999-11-01

    A first psychotic episode includes a wide range of disorders with different outcomes: schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, drug-induced psychosis, brief reactive psychosis, organic psychoses and delusional disorder. The course and outcome of a first psychotic episode is greatly dependent on its initial management. Major clinical, etiopathogenic and therapeutic advances have been achieved in this field and have allowed specific management strategies to be adopted. The primary task of therapists involved in the management of patients who have experienced a first episode of psychosis is promotion of recovery and prevention of secondary morbidity, relapse and persistent disability. The main guidelines of an early psychosis management are:--to keep in mind that early psychosis is not early schizophrenia. Thus, clinicians and therapists should avoid an early diagnosis of schizophrenia. Diagnosis in early psychosis can be highly unstable. A diagnosis of schizophrenia, with its implications of pessimism, relapse and disability, does not contribute anything positive in terms of guiding treatment. On the contrary, such a diagnosis may damage the patient and family by stigmatizing them and affecting the way they are viewed and managed by healthcare professionals.--To integrate biological, psychological and social interventions: effective medications is useful in reducing the risk of relapse, but is not a guarantee against it. Psychological and social interventions can greatly help promote recovery.--To tailor the various strategies to met the needs of an individual: as an example, it is important to formulate appropriate strategies for the different stages of the illness (prodromal phase, acute phase, early recovery phase and late recovery phase) because patients have different therapeutic needs at each stage.--In the acute treatment, not to concentrate on short-term goals in indicating antipsychotic treatment: prescribing

  16. College and University Fringe Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleditch, Leigh B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    As the number and level of fringe benefits increases, particularly in the retirement sphere, institutions must keep in mind that today's commitment will be felt in tomorrow's budget. The range of employee benefits available are analyzed with regard to cost: unfunded benefits (vacations, leave), government programs, insurance, retirement plans, and…

  17. Mentoring practices benefiting pediatric nurses.

    PubMed

    Weese, Meghan M; Jakubik, Louise D; Eliades, Aris B; Huth, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies examining predictors of pediatric nurse protégé mentoring benefits demonstrated that protégé perception of quality was the single best predictor of mentoring benefits. The ability to identify the mentoring practices that predict specific benefits for individual nurses provides a better understanding of how mentoring relationships can be leveraged within health care organizations promoting mutual mentoring benefits. This descriptive correlational, non-experimental study of nurses at a northeast Ohio, Magnet® recognized, free-standing pediatric hospital advances nursing science by demonstrating how mentoring practices benefit pediatric nurse protégés.

  18. The Therapeutic Roller Coaster

    PubMed Central

    CHU, JAMES A.

    1992-01-01

    Survivors of severe childhood abuse often encounter profound difficulties. In addition to posttraumatic and dissociative symptomatology, abuse survivors frequently have characterologic problems, particularly regarding self-care and maintaining relationships. Backgrounds of abuse, abandonment, and betrayal are often recapitulated and reenacted in therapy, making the therapeutic experience arduous and confusing for therapists and patients. Efforts must be directed at building an adequate psychotherapeutic foundation before undertaking exploration and abreaction of past traumatic experiences. This discussion sets out a model for treatment of childhood abuse survivors, describing stages of treatment and suggesting interventions. Common treatment dilemmas or "traps" are discussed, with recommendations for their resolution. PMID:22700116

  19. Systems approaches to design of targeted therapeutic delivery

    PubMed Central

    Myerson, Jacob W.; Brenner, Jacob S.; Greineder, Colin F.; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2016-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery aims to improve therapeutic effects and enable mechanisms that are not feasible for untargeted agents (e.g., due to impermeable biological barriers). To achieve targeting, a drug or its carrier should possess properties providing specific accumulation from circulation at the desired site. There are several examples of systems-inspired approaches that have been applied to achieve this goal. First, proteomics analysis of plasma membrane fraction of the vascular endothelium has identified a series of target molecules and their ligands (e.g., antibodies) that deliver conjugated cargoes to well-defined vascular cells and subcellular compartments. Second, selection of ligands binding to cells of interest using phage display libraries in vitro and in vivo has provided peptides and polypeptides that bind to normal and pathologically altered cells. Finally, large-scale high-throughput combinatorial synthesis and selection of lipid- and polymer-based nanocarriers varying their chemical components has yielded a series of carriers accumulating in diverse organs and delivering RNA interference agents to diverse cells. Together, these approaches offer a basis for systems-based design and selection of targets, targeting molecules, and targeting vehicles. Current studies focus on expanding the arsenal of these and alternative targeting strategies, devising drug delivery systems capitalizing on these strategies and evaluation of their benefit/risk ratio in adequate animal models of human diseases. These efforts, combined with better understanding of mechanisms and unintended consequences of these targeted interventions, need to be ultimately translated into industrial development and the clinical domain. PMID:25946066

  20. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  1. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... insurance. These benefits include the following: (1) Limited scope dental or vision benefits. These benefits are dental or vision benefits that are limited in scope to a narrow range or type of benefits that...

  2. Nanoparticle therapeutics: FDA approval, clinical trials, regulatory pathways, and case study.

    PubMed

    Eifler, Aaron C; Thaxton, C Shad

    2011-01-01

    The approval of drugs for human use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) through the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) is a time-consuming and expensive process, and approval rates are low (DiMasi et al., J Health Econ 22:151-185, 2003; Marchetti and Schellens, Br J Cancer 97:577-581, 2007). In general, the FDA drug approval process can be separated into preclinical, clinical, and postmarketing phases. At each step from the point of discovery through demonstration of safety and efficacy in humans, drug candidates are closely scrutinized. Advances in nanotechnology are being applied in the development of novel therapeutics that may address a number of shortcomings of conventional small molecule drugs and may facilitate the realization of personalized medicine (Ferrari, Curr Opin Chem Biol 9:343-346, 2005; Ferrari, Nat Rev Cancer 5:161-171, 2005; Ferrari and Downing, BioDrugs 19:203-210, 2005). Appealingly, nanoparticle drug candidates often represent multiplexed formulations (e.g., drug, targeting moiety, and nanoparticle scaffold material). By tailoring the chemistry and identity of variable nanoparticle constituents, it is possible to achieve targeted delivery, reduce side effects, and prepare formulations of unstable (e.g., siRNA) and/or highly toxic drugs (Ferrari, Curr Opin Chem Biol 9:343-346, 2005; Ferrari, Nat Rev Cancer 5:161-171, 2005; Ferrari and Downing, BioDrugs 19:203-210, 2005). With these benefits arise new challenges in all aspects of regulated drug development and testing.This chapter distils the drug development and approval process with an emphasis on special considerations for nanotherapeutics. The chapter concludes with a case study focused on a nanoparticle therapeutic, CALAA-01, currently in human clinical trials, that embodies many of the potential benefits of nanoparticle therapeutics (Davis, Mol Pharm 6:659-668, 2009). By choosing CALAA-01, reference is made to the infancy of the therapeutic nanoparticle field; in 2008

  3. Separate spheres and indirect benefits

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Dan W

    2003-01-01

    On any plausible account of the basis for health care resource prioritization, the benefits and costs of different alternative resource uses are relevant considerations in the prioritization process. Consequentialists hold that the maximization of benefits with available resources is the only relevant consideration. Non-consequentialists do not reject the relevance of consequences of benefits and costs, but insist that other considerations, and in particular the distribution of benefits and costs, are morally important as well. Whatever one's particular account of morally justified standards for the prioritization of different health interventions, we must be able to measure those interventions' benefits and costs. There are many theoretical and practical difficulties in that measurement, such as how to weigh extending life against improving health and quality of life as well as how different quality of life improvements should be valued, but they are not my concern here. This paper addresses two related issues in assessing benefits and costs for health resource prioritization. First, should benefits be restricted only to health benefits, or include as well other non health benefits such as economic benefits to employers from reducing the lost work time due to illness of their employees? I shall call this the Separate Spheres problem. Second, should only the direct benefits, such as extending life or reducing disability, and direct costs, such as costs of medical personnel and supplies, of health interventions be counted, or should other indirect benefits and costs be counted as well? I shall call this the Indirect Benefits problem. These two issues can have great importance for a ranking of different health interventions by either a cost/benefit or cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) standard. PMID:12773217

  4. Mechanisms of Plasma Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, David

    2015-09-01

    In this talk, I address research directed towards biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy. The field has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that plasmas readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. It is postulated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can trigger a therapeutic shielding response in tissue in part by creating a time- and space-localized, burst-like form of oxy-nitrosative stress on near-surface exposed cells through the flux of plasma-generated RONS. RONS-exposed surface layers of cells communicate to the deeper levels of tissue via a form of the ``bystander effect,'' similar to responses to other forms of cell stress. In this proposed model of CAP therapeutics, the plasma stimulates a cellular survival mechanism through which aerobic organisms shield themselves from infection and other challenges.

  5. Therapeutic endoscopy in gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Celiński, K; Cichoz-Lach, H

    2007-08-01

    The role of therapeutic endoscopy in current gastroenterology is very important. Therapuetic endoscopy is useful in treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic control of gastrointestinal bleeding includes the following procedures of haemostasis techniques: photocoagulation, electrocoagulation, thermocoagulation and injection method. Owing to these procedures mortality has significantly decreased. Endoscopic hemostasis eliminates the risk of surgery, is less expensive and better tolerated by patients. Colonoscopic polypectomy is a widely used technique. By removal of polyps the incidence of colon cancer can be decreased. The "hot biopsy" forceps can be used to excise polyps of up to 6 mm. Larger polyps can be removed safely by snare electrocautery and retrieved for histologic study. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has a therapeutic application designed to cut the sphincter of Oddi fibers of the distal common bile duct, what is indicated currently in choledocholithiasis and papillary stenosis with ascending cholangitis, acute gallstone pancreatitis. Endoscopic sphincterotomy in now an established procedure that is indicated in patients with common bile duct calculi. Endoscopic decompression of the biliary tree - dilatation benign structures of the biliary tree with baloon catheters and placement an internal endoprothesis allows the nonoperative decompression and significant palliation for patients with obstructing tumors.

  6. Person-centered Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    A clinician’s effectiveness in treatment depends substantially on his or her attitude toward -- and understanding of -- the patient as a person endowed with self-awareness and the will to direct his or her own future. The assessment of personality in the therapeutic encounter is a crucial foundation for forming an effective working alliance with shared goals. Helping a person to reflect on their personality provides a mirror image of their strengths and weaknesses in adapting to life’s many challenges. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) provides an effective way to describe personality thoroughly and to predict both the positive and negative aspects of health. Strengths and weaknesses in TCI personality traits allow strong predictions of individual differences of all aspects of well-being. Diverse therapeutic techniques, such as diet, exercise, mood self-regulation, meditation, or acts of kindness, influence health and personality development in ways that are largely indistinguishable from one another or from effective allopathic treatments. Hence the development of well-being appears to be the result of activating a synergistic set of mechanisms of well-being, which are expressed as fuller functioning, plasticity, and virtue in adapting to life’s challenges PMID:26052429

  7. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, James

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. PMID:27255695

  8. Nitrones as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Robert A.; Kopke, Richard D.; Choi, Chul-Hee; Foster, Steven B.; Doblas, Sabrina; Towner, Rheal A.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrones have the general chemical formula X-CH=NO-Y. They were first used to trap free radicals in chemical systems and then subsequently in biochemical systems. More recently several nitrones including PBN (α-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone) have been shown to have potent biological activity in many experimental animal models. Many diseases of aging including stroke, cancer development, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease are known to have enhanced levels of free radicals and oxidative stress. Some derivatives of PBN are significantly more potent than PBN and have undergone extensive commercial development in stroke. Recent research has shown that PBN-related nitrones also have anti-cancer activity in several experimental cancer models and have potential as therapeutics in some cancers. Also in recent observations nitrones have been shown to act synergistically in combination with antioxidants in the prevention of acute acoustic noise induced hearing loss. The mechanistic basis of the potent biological activity of PBN-related nitrones is not known. Even though PBN-related nitrones do decrease oxidative stress and oxidative damage, their potent biological anti-inflammatory activity and their ability to alter cellular signaling processes can not readily be explained by conventional notions of free radical trapping biochemistry. This review is focused on our observations and others where the use of selected nitrones as novel therapeutics have been evaluated in experimental models in the context of free radical biochemical and cellular processes considered important in pathologic conditions and age-related diseases. PMID:18793715

  9. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality.

    PubMed

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L; Keith, W Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan

    2015-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persistent cytostasis. This state, termed "senescence," can be triggered by intrinsic cellular processes such as telomere dysfunction and oncogene expression, and by exogenous factors such as DNA damaging agents or oxidative environments. Despite differences in upstream signaling, senescence often involves convergent interdependent activation of tumor suppressors p53 and p16/pRB, but can be induced, albeit with reduced sensitivity, when these suppressors are compromised. Doses of conventional genotoxic drugs required to achieve cancer cell senescence are often much lower than doses required to achieve outright cell death. Additional therapies, such as those targeting cyclin dependent kinases or components of the PI3K signaling pathway, may induce senescence specifically in cancer cells by circumventing defects in tumor suppressor pathways or exploiting cancer cells' heightened requirements for telomerase. Such treatments sufficient to induce cancer cell senescence could provide increased patient survival with fewer and less severe side effects than conventional cytotoxic regimens. This positive aspect is countered by important caveats regarding senescence reversibility, genomic instability, and paracrine effects that may increase heterogeneity and adaptive resistance of surviving cancer cells. Nevertheless, agents that effectively disrupt replicative immortality will likely be valuable components of new combinatorial approaches to cancer therapy.

  10. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality

    PubMed Central

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L.; Keith, W. Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L.; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S.; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I.; Azmi, Asfar S.; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S. Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan

    2015-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persistent cytostasis. This state, termed “senescence,” can be triggered by intrinsic cellular processes such as telomere dysfunction and oncogene expression, and by exogenous factors such as DNA damaging agents or oxidative environments. Despite differences in upstream signaling, senescence often involves convergent interdependent activation of tumor suppressors p53 and p16/pRB, but can be induced, albeit with reduced sensitivity, when these suppressors are compromised. Doses of conventional genotoxic drugs required to achieve cancer cell senescence are often much lower than doses required to achieve outright cell death. Additional therapies, such as those targeting cyclin dependent kinases or components of the PI3K signaling pathway, may induce senescence specifically in cancer cells by circumventing defects in tumor suppressor pathways or exploiting cancer cells’ heightened requirements for telomerase. Such treatments sufficient to induce cancer cell senescence could provide increased patient survival with fewer and less severe side effects than conventional cytotoxic regimens. This positive aspect is countered by important caveats regarding senescence reversibility, genomic instability, and paracrine effects that may increase heterogeneity and adaptive resistance of surviving cancer cells. Nevertheless, agents that effectively disrupt replicative immortality will likely be valuable components of new combinatorial approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:25869441

  11. Materials innovation for co-delivery of diverse therapeutic cargos

    PubMed Central

    Godsey, Megan E; Suryaprakash, Smruthi; Leong, Kam W

    2014-01-01

    Co-delivery is a rapidly growing sector of drug delivery that aspires to enhance therapeutic efficacy through controlled delivery of diverse therapeutic cargoes with synergistic activities. It requires the design of carriers capable of simultaneously transporting to and releasing multiple therapeutics at a disease site. Co-delivery has arisen from the emerging trend of combination therapy, where treatment with two or more therapeutics at the same time can succeed where single therapeutics fail. However, conventional combination therapy offers little control over achieving an optimized therapeutic ratio at the target site. Co-delivery via inclusion of multiple therapeutic cargos within the same carrier addresses this issue by not only ensuring delivery of both therapeutics to the same cell, but also offering a platform for control of the delivery process, from loading to release. Co-delivery systems have been formulated using a number of carriers previously developed for single-therapeutic delivery. Liposomes, polymeric micelles, PLGA nanoparticles, and dendrimers have all been adapted for co-delivery. Much of the effort focuses on dealing with drugs having dissimilar properties, increasing loading efficiencies, and controlling loading and release ratios. In this review, we highlight the innovations in carrier designs and formulations to deliver combination cargoes of drug/drug, drug/siRNA, and drug/pDNA toward disease therapy. With rapid advances in mechanistic understanding of interrelating molecular pathways and development of molecular medicine, the future of co-delivery will become increasingly promising and prominent. PMID:24818000

  12. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  13. The relationship between patients' educational level and therapeutic process in an acute patient therapeutic community.

    PubMed

    Isohanni, I; Nieminen, P; Isohanni, M

    1997-01-01

    Traditional custodial care in mental hospitals has given way to brief hospitalizations and a variety of active inpatient treatment milieus, eg, therapeutic communities. But can only well-educated patients utilize this kind of complex, even demanding form of psychosocial care? A total of 1,538 patients and their first admissions from 1977 to 1993 at a closed therapeutic community ward at the Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu (Finland) were assessed to analyze the association of the patient's educational level with some treatment and outcome characteristics. Educational levels were non-professional education (46% of all patients), lower professional (39%) and higher professional education (15%). There were no statistically significant differences in the treatment and outcome variables of patients in any educational level. The result indicates the achievement of one treatment goal on the therapeutic community model, ie, patient equality in spite of different educational status. This result may be especially important for less educated persons.

  14. Therapeutic interventions in acute stroke.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, K R

    1992-01-01

    1. Potential therapies for ischaemic stroke include agents to reduce oedema, to improve cerebral perfusion, to reduce excitotoxic damage, to minimise free-radical induced injury and to reduce complications such as deep venous thrombosis. 2. Of the anti-oedema drugs, steroids are ineffective and possibly dangerous; intravenous glycerol is unproven. 3. Haemodilution to reduce whole blood viscosity and improve perfusion is ineffective. Thrombolytic drugs have not been adequately tested but several randomised multicentre trials are now commencing. Early treatment and CT scanning are essential. 4. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs may have wide applicability but have not been tested in the acute phase of stroke. A multi-centre trial will address this issue. 5. Neuronal cytoprotection offers exciting prospects for acute stroke treatment. Antagonists of glutamate at the NMDA receptor, calcium and sodium channel blocking agents and free radical scavenging drugs have potent effects experimentally. Several agents are now reaching clinical trials. The calcium antagonist nimodipine has been disappointing in large scale trials but some studies were flawed by late treatment. 6. Successful treatment of acute stroke is likely to combine several approaches. 7. Therapeutic trials in stroke must include CT scanning, early treatment and a multicentre approach to achieve large numbers of patients. PMID:1493080

  15. Radiobiological speculations on therapeutic total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected total body irradiation (TBI) of human beings, involved in nuclear warfare or in accidents in nuclear reactors can be lethal. In the 1950s, bone marrow transplantation was discovered as a potentially life saving procedure after TBI in the dose range of 5.0 to 12.0 Gy. Since that time, deliberate or therapeutic TBI has been used to condition patients with a lethal bone marrow disorder for bone marrow replacement. The therapeutic ratio of TBI followed by bone marrow transplantation is small. Many potentially lethal complications can occur, such as acute TBI side effects, late TBI side effects or immunological complications of bone marrow transplantation such as graft versus host disease or graft rejection. The benefits of TBI and bone marrow transplantation are that they offer a chance for cure of previously lethal bone marrow disorders. The optimal parameters for TBI remain to be defined. The review discusses the current clinical and experimental animal data, as they relate to the future definition of less toxic TBI procedures with a better therapeutic ratio. Different TBI procedures are required for patients with malignant vs. non-malignant disorders or for patients with histoincompatible vs. histocompatible bone marrow donors.77 references.

  16. Polymer therapeutics in surgery: the next frontier

    PubMed Central

    Conlan, R. Steven; Whitaker, Iain S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Polymer therapeutics is a successful branch of nanomedicine, which is now established in several facets of everyday practice. However, to our knowledge, no literature regarding the application of the underpinning principles, general safety, and potential of this versatile class to the perioperative patient has been published. This study provides an overview of polymer therapeutics applied to clinical surgery, including the evolution of this demand‐oriented scientific field, cutting‐edge concepts, its implications, and limitations, illustrated by products already in clinical use and promising ones in development. In particular, the effect of design of polymer therapeutics on biophysical and biochemical properties, the potential for targeted delivery, smart release, and safety are addressed. Emphasis is made on principles, giving examples in salient areas of demand in current surgical practice. Exposure of the practising surgeon to this versatile class is crucial to evaluate and maximise the benefits that this established field presents and to attract a new generation of clinician–scientists with the necessary knowledge mix to drive highly successful innovation. PMID:27588210

  17. Use of informed consent with therapeutic paradox.

    PubMed

    Farkas, M M

    1992-01-01

    Debate persists in the literature and among clinicians about the ethical appropriateness of paradoxical interventions. It has been suggested that informed consent with therapeutic paradox would alleviate ethical concerns of deception, manipulation, harm to the client, and withholding of information from the client in therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore health care consumer reactions to the benefits and risks of therapeutic paradox as stated in a consent for treatment form. The study explored the responses of 32 medical patients to a hypothetical consent for treatment form for therapeutic paradox. Data were collected in a brief semistructured interview after subjects read the hypothetical consent form. Utilizing a case study, the investigator then offered an example of a successful paradoxical intervention and additional subject comments were solicited. Content analysis of the responses was made. Health care consumers had mixed responses to the consent form. While the consent form served as an obstacle for some consumers, many were willing to sign the consent form and accept treatment even though they had internal reservations and questions. Appropriateness of the consent form format is discussed.

  18. Therapeutic Potential of α-Crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Ram H.; Nahomi, Rooban B.; Mueller, Niklaus H.; Raghavan, Cibin T.; Ammar, David A.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background The findings that α-crystallins are multi-functional proteins with diverse biological functions have generated considerable interest in understanding their role in health and disease. Recent studies have shown that chaperone peptides of α-crystallin could be delivered into cultured cells and in experimental animals with beneficial effects against protein aggregation, oxidation, inflammation and apoptosis. Scope of Review In this review, we will summarize the latest developments on the therapeutic potential of α-crystallins and their functional peptides. Major conclusions α-Crystallins and their functional peptides have shown significant favorable effects against several diseases. Their targeted delivery to tissues would be of great therapeutic benefit. However, α-crystallins can also function as disease-causing proteins. These seemingly contradictory functions must be carefully considered prior to their therapeutic use. General significance αA and αB-Crystallin are members of the small heat shock protein family. These proteins exhibit molecular chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. The core crystallin domain within these proteins is largely responsible for these prosperities. Recent studies have identified peptides within the crystallin domain of both α- and αB-crystallins with remarkable chaperone and anti-apoptotic activities. Administration of α-crystallin or their functional peptides have shown substantial inhibition of pathologies in several diseases. However, α-crystallins have been shown to promote disease-causing pathways. These two sides of the proteins are discussed in this review. PMID:25840354

  19. Cystic fibrosis therapeutics: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lucas R; Ramsey, Bonnie W

    2013-01-01

    A great deal of excitement and hope has followed the successful trials and US Food and Drug Administration approval of the drug ivacaftor (Kalydeco), the first therapy available that targets the underlying defect that causes cystic fibrosis (CF). Although this drug has currently demonstrated a clinical benefit for a small minority of the CF population, the developmental pathway established by ivacaftor paves the way for other CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators that may benefit many more patients. In addition to investigating CFTR modulators, researchers are actively developing numerous other innovative CF therapies. In this review, we use the catalog of treatments currently under evaluation with the support of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, known as the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Pipeline, as a platform to discuss the variety of candidate treatments for CF lung disease that promise to improve CF care. Many of these approaches target the individual components of the relentless cycle of airway obstruction, inflammation, and infection characteristic of lung disease in CF, whereas others are aimed directly at the gene defect, or the resulting dysfunctional protein, that instigates this cycle. We discuss how new findings from the laboratory have informed not only the development of novel therapeutics, but also the rationales for their use and the outcomes used to measure their effects. By reviewing the breadth of candidate treatments currently in development, as well as the recent progress in CF therapies reflected by the evolution of the therapeutics pipeline over the past few years, we hope to build upon the optimism and anticipation generated by the recent success of Kalydeco.

  20. Therapeutic oligonucleotides and delivery technologies: Research topics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Oligonucleotides have been gaining considerable attention as promising and effective candidate therapeutics against various diseases. This special issue is aimed at providing a better understanding of the recent progress in the development of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics to encourage further research and innovation in this field to achieve these advancements. Several Japanese scientists have been invited to contribute to this issue by describing their recent findings, overviews, insights, or commentaries on rational designing of therapeutic oligonucleotide molecules and their novel delivery technologies, especially nanocarrier systems.

  1. Fairy tales as a trance experience: possible therapeutic uses.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Guille, M E; Boersma, F J

    1992-04-01

    The psychological literature contains little documentation of the therapeutic use of fairy tales. We suggest that fairy tales are uniquely suitable for hypnotherapy and for helping clients reframe existential issues. We propose that the structure of fairy tales allows the meaning of the story to be applied personally and that they also stimulate unconscious search. We examine the way in which hypnosis is achieved when fairy tales are read to children, as well as possible therapeutic uses of this learning set in therapy with both children and adults. We conclude by suggesting that fairy tales need to be given serious consideration as an alternative therapeutic trance procedure.

  2. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  3. Outpatient therapeutic nuclear oncology.

    PubMed

    Turner, J Harvey

    2012-05-01

    In the beginning, nuclear medicine was radionuclide therapy, which has evolved into molecular tumour-targeted control of metastatic cancer. Safe, efficacious, clinical practice of therapeutic nuclear oncology may now be based upon accurate personalised dosimetry by quantitative gamma SPECT/CT imaging to prescribe tumoricidal activities without critical organ toxicity. Preferred therapy radionuclides possess gamma emission of modest energy and abundance to enable quantitative SPECT/CT imaging for calculation of the beta therapy dosimetry, without radiation exposure risk to hospital personnel, carers, family or members of the public. The safety of outpatient radiopharmaceutical therapy of cancer with Iodine-131, Samarium-153, Holmium-166, Rhenium-186, Rhenium-188, Lutetium-177 and Indium-111 is reviewed. Measured activity release rates and radiation exposure to carers and the public are all within recommendations and guidelines of international regulatory agencies and, when permitted by local regulatory authorities allow cost-effective, safe, outpatient radionuclide therapy of cancer without isolation in hospital.

  4. Mitochondrial Energetics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas C.; Fan, Weiwei; Procaccio, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a wide range of degenerative and metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. All these clinical manifestations arise from the central role of bioenergetics in cell biology. Although genetic therapies are maturing as the rules of bioenergetic genetics are clarified, metabolic therapies have been ineffectual. This failure results from our limited appreciation of the role of bioenergetics as the interface between the environment and the cell. A systems approach, which, ironically, was first successfully applied over 80 years ago with the introduction of the ketogenic diet, is required. Analysis of the many ways that a shift from carbohydrate glycolytic metabolism to fatty acid and ketone oxidative metabolism may modulate metabolism, signal transduction pathways, and the epigenome gives us an appreciation of the ketogenic diet and the potential for bioenergetic therapeutics. PMID:20078222

  5. Antimicrobial peptides: therapeutic potentials.

    PubMed

    Kang, Su-Jin; Park, Sung Jean; Mishig-Ochir, Tsogbadrakh; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2014-12-01

    The increasing appearance of multidrug-resistant pathogens has created an urgent need for suitable alternatives to current antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which act as defensive weapons against microbes, have received great attention because of broad-spectrum activities, unique action mechanisms and rare antibiotic-resistant variants. Despite desirable characteristics, they have shown limitations in pharmaceutical development due to toxicity, stability and manufacturing costs. Because of these drawbacks, only a few AMPs have been tested in Phase III clinical trials and no AMPs have been approved by the US FDA yet. However, these obstacles could be overcome by well-known methods such as changing physicochemical characteristics and introducing nonnatural amino acids, acetylation or amidation, as well as modern techniques like molecular targeted AMPs, liposomal formulations and drug delivery systems. Thus, the current challenge in this field is to develop therapeutic AMPs at a reasonable cost as well as to overcome the limitations.

  6. Aptamers in Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single strand DNA or RNA molecules, selected by an iterative process known as Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX). Due to various advantages of aptamers such as high temperature stability, animal free, cost effective production and its high affinity and selectivity for its target make them attractive alternatives to monoclonal antibody for use in diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Aptamer has been generated against vesicular endothelial growth factor 165 involved in age related macular degeneracy. Macugen was the first FDA approved aptamer based drug that was commercialized. Later other aptamers were also developed against blood clotting proteins, cancer proteins, antibody E, agents involved in diabetes nephropathy, autoantibodies involved in autoimmune disorders, etc. Aptamers have also been developed against viruses and could work with other antiviral agents in treating infections. PMID:27504277

  7. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use.

  8. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators

    DOEpatents

    Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Ciarlo, D.R.; Krulevitch, P.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-06-15

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use. 8 figs.

  9. Race-based therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2008-08-01

    The issue of race in medicine is problematic. Race is not a physiologic grouping, and all persons of a given race do not necessarily share the same clinical phenotype or genetic substrate. Despite clear signals that certain risk factors and diseases vary as a function of race, translating those differences into race-based therapeutics has been awkward and has done little to change the natural history of cardiovascular disease as it affects special populations. Among the varied special populations, the African American population appears to have the most significant and adverse variances for cardiovascular disease as well as worrisome signals that drug responsiveness varies. Recent guideline statements have now acknowledged certain treatment options that are most appropriate for African Americans with cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension and heart failure. As more physiologic markers of disease and drug responsiveness become available, the need for racial designations in medicine may lessen, and therapies can be optimized for all patients without regard to race or ethnicity.

  10. Synthetic biology and therapeutic strategies for the degenerating brain: Synthetic biology approaches can transform classical cell and gene therapies, to provide new cures for neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Isalan, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging engineering discipline that attempts to design and rewire biological components, so as to achieve new functions in a robust and predictable manner. The new tools and strategies provided by synthetic biology have the potential to improve therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, synthetic biology will help design small molecules, proteins, gene networks, and vectors to target disease-related genes. Ultimately, new intelligent delivery systems will provide targeted and sustained therapeutic benefits. New treatments will arise from combining 'protect and repair' strategies: the use of drug treatments, the promotion of neurotrophic factor synthesis, and gene targeting. Going beyond RNAi and artificial transcription factors, site-specific genome modification is likely to play an increasing role, especially with newly available gene editing tools such as CRISPR/Cas9 systems. Taken together, these advances will help develop safe and long-term therapies for many brain diseases in human patients.

  11. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.D.

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  12. Who Benefits from Volunteering? Variations in Perceived Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Song-Iee; Tang, Fengyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the benefits of volunteering perceived by older adults and to explain variation in these self-perceived benefits. Design and Methods: This is a quantitative study of 13 volunteer programs and 401 older adults serving in those programs. Program directors completed telephone interviews, and older…

  13. Engineered therapeutic-releasing nanoporous anodic alumina-aluminum wires with extended release of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Law, Cheryl Suwen; Santos, Abel; Kumeria, Tushar; Losic, Dusan

    2015-02-18

    In this study, we present a nanoengineered therapeutic-releasing system based on aluminum wires featuring nanoporous anodic alumina layers and chitosan coatings. Nanoporous anodic alumina layers are produced on the surface of aluminum wires by electrochemical anodization. These nanoporous layers with precisely engineered nanopore geometry are used as nanocontainers for bovine serum albumin molecules labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA-FITC), which is selected as a model drug. The surface of these therapeutic-releasing implants is coated with a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, chitosan, in order to achieve a sustained release of protein over extended periods of time. The performance of this therapeutic-releasing device is systematically assessed through a series of experiments under static and dynamic flow conditions. In these experiments, the effect of such parameters as the number of layers of chitosan coating and the temperature and pH of the eluting medium is established. The obtained results reveal that the proposed therapeutic-releasing system based on nanoporous aluminum wires can be engineered with sustained release performance for up to 6.5 weeks, which is a critical factor for medical treatments using sensitive therapeutics such as proteins and genes when a localized delivery is desired.

  14. Relational mindfulness, spirituality, and the therapeutic bond.

    PubMed

    Falb, Melissa D; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2012-12-01

    Mindfulness training, which emphasizes deliberate non-judgmental attention to present moment experiences, has become increasingly mainstream over the past several decades. With accumulating evidence for the physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness, it has been integrated into medical and psychological treatments and is increasingly accepted in the fields of psychology and psychiatry. However, several elements of mindfulness practice which potentially contribute to its benefits have been largely neglected. These include the connections between mindfulness, interpersonal relationships, spirituality, and the psychotherapeutic alliance. The emerging concept of "relational mindfulness" focuses attention on the oft-neglected interpersonal aspects of mindfulness practices. Relational mindfulness is potentially relevant to the psychotherapeutic process, due to its cultivation of the types of qualities that enhance the therapeutic relationship, including warmth, empathy, curiosity, acceptance, self-attunement, and emotional intelligence. In addition, mindfulness practices, especially relational ones, can contribute to the development of spiritual qualities, such as transcendence, boundlessness, ultimacy, and interconnectedness. Several recent studies suggest that meditation/mindfulness interventions may be explained and or enhanced by an emphasis on spiritual components. In this paper, we suggest that focusing on the oft-neglected relational and spiritual aspects of mindfulness practice has the potential to deepen its benefits, especially within the context of the psychotherapeutic relationship.

  15. Social Work Practice in the Digital Age: Therapeutic E-Mail as a Direct Practice Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Marian

    2012-01-01

    The author addresses the risks and benefits of incorporating therapeutic e-mail communication into clinical social work practice. Consumer demand for online clinical services is growing faster than the professional response. E-mail, when used as an adjunct to traditional meetings with clients, offers distinct advantages and risks. Benefits include…

  16. Trends in Mitochondrial Therapeutics for Neurological Disease.

    PubMed

    Leitão-Rocha, Ana; Guedes-Dias, Pedro; Pinho, Brígida R; Oliveira, Jorge M A

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal homeostasis is critically dependent on healthy mitochondria. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial components, and age-dependent mitochondrial damage, have all been connected with neurological disorders. These include not only typical mitochondrial syndromes with neurological features such as encephalomyopathy, myoclonic epilepsy, neuropathy and ataxia; but also secondary mitochondrial involvement in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Unravelling the molecular aetiology of mitochondrial dysfunction opens new therapeutic prospects for diseases thus far lacking effective treatments. In this review we address recent advances on preventive strategies, such as pronuclear, spindle-chromosome complex, or polar body genome transfer to replace mtDNA and avoid disease transmission to newborns; we also address experimental mitochondrial therapeutics aiming to benefit symptomatic patients and prevent disease manifestation in those at risk. Specifically, we focus on: (1) gene therapy to reduce mutant mtDNA, such as anti-replicative therapies and mitochondriatargeted nucleases allowing favourable heteroplasmic shifts; (2) allotopic expression of recoded wild-type mitochondrial genes, including targeted tRNAs and xenotopic expression of cognate genes to compensate for pathogenic mutations; (3) mitochondria targeted-peptides and lipophilic cations for in vivo delivery of antioxidants or other putative therapeutics; and (4) modulation of mitochondrial dynamics at the level of biogenesis, fission, fusion, movement and mitophagy. Further advances in therapeutic development are hindered by scarce in vivo models for mitochondrial disease, with the bulk of available data coming from cellular models. Nevertheless, wherever available, we also address data from in vivo experiments and clinical trials, focusing on neurological disease models.

  17. The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and particularly for neurologic conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science, preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. Results The pharmacology of cannabis is complex with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or restless legs syndrome. Conclusions Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders. PMID:25649017

  18. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and, particularly, for neurological conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science as well as preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. The pharmacology of cannabis is complex, with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits, but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia, or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or RLS. Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological, and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders.

  19. Lifting Minority Achievement: Complex Answers. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Johnston, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    This fourth in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist describes the Minority Achievement Committee scholars program at Shaker Heights High School in Cleveland, Ohio, a powerful antidote to the achievement gap between minority and white and Asian American students. It explains the need to break down stereotypes about academic…

  20. Achievement Motivation of Women: Effects of Achievement and Affiliation Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth Maria Pinheiro

    1985-01-01

    Assigned 139 Brazilian women to neutral, affiliation arousal, and achievement arousal conditions based on their levels of achievement (Ach) and affiliative (Aff) needs. Results of story analyses revealed that achievement arousal increased scores of high Ach subjects and that high Aff subjects obtained higher scores than low Aff subjects. (BL)

  1. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  2. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  3. Gauging Technology Costs and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Rich

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the role technology plays in a school district, district personnel should know the costs associated with technology, understand the consequences of technology purchases, and be able to measure the benefits of technology, so they can make more informed decisions. However, determining costs and benefits of current technology or…

  4. Who Benefits from Pension Enhancements?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedel, Cory; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the late 1990s public pension funds across the United States accrued large actuarial surpluses. The seemingly flush conditions of the pension funds led legislators in most states to substantially improve retirement benefits for public workers, including teachers. In this study we examine the benefit enhancements to the teacher pension…

  5. Family Literacy Programs: Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Tim

    Designing and delivering literacy programs that benefit both parents (or other family members) and children makes sense. But do family literacy programs really work? And if so, who benefits? The concept of family literacy is firmly rooted in a substantial research base from several disciplines, including adult literacy, emergent literacy, child…

  6. Taxability of Educational Benefits Trusts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple Law Quarterly, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Corporations have found the promise of providing a college education to the children of employees--without the recognition of income to the parent-employee--to be a popular fringe benefit. The Internal Revenue Service has attacked educational benefit trusts in Revenue Ruling 75-448. Implications are discussed. (LBH)

  7. Increasing Enrollment through Benefit Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Betty

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of benefit segmentation, a market research technique which groups people according to benefits expected from a program offering, was tested at the College of DuPage. Preferences and demographic characteristics were analyzed and program improvements adopted, increasing enrollment by 20 percent. (Author/SK)

  8. 'Smartening' anticancer therapeutic nanosystems using biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Lozano, Rebeca; Cano, Manuel; Pimentel, Belén; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    To be effective, anticancer agents must induce cell killing in a selective manner, something that is proving difficult to achieve. Drug delivery systems could help to solve problems associated with the lack of selectivity of classical chemotherapeutic agents. However, to realize this, such systems must overcome multiple physiological barriers. For instance, they must evade surveillance by the immune system, attach selectively to target cells, and gain access to their interior. Furthermore, there they must escape endosomal entrapment, and release their cargoes in a controlled manner, without affecting their functionality. Here we review recent efforts aiming at using biomolecules to confer these abilities to bare nanoparticles, to transform them into smart anticancer therapeutic nanosystems.

  9. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Peter A. . E-mail: p.whittaker@lancaster.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated.

  10. Clinical applications of therapeutic phlebotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Oh, Ki Young

    2016-01-01

    Phlebotomy is the removal of blood from the body, and therapeutic phlebotomy is the preferred treatment for blood disorders in which the removal of red blood cells or serum iron is the most efficient method for managing the symptoms and complications. Therapeutic phlebotomy is currently indicated for the treatment of hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, porphyria cutanea tarda, sickle cell disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with hyperferritinemia. This review discusses therapeutic phlebotomy and the related disorders and also offers guidelines for establishing a therapeutic phlebotomy program. PMID:27486346

  11. [Costs and benefits of smoking].

    PubMed

    Polder, J J; van Gils, P F; Kok, L; Talhout, R; Feenstra, T L

    2017-01-01

    - Two recent societal cost-benefit analyses have documented the costs of smoking and the cost-effectiveness of preventing smoking.- Smoking costs the Netherlands society EUR 33 billion per year.- The majority of this is the monetary value of health loss; these are "soft" euros that cannot be re-spent.- There is not a great deal of difference between costs and benefits when expressed in "hard" euros, which means that there is no clear business case for anti-smoking policy.- The greatest benefit of discouraging smoking is improved health for the individual and increased productivity for the business sector; however, the benefits cannot be easily realised, because even in the most favourable scenario the number of smokers will decrease slowly.- Excise duties seem to offer the most promising avenue for combating smoking. The benefits of anti-smoking policy, therefore, consist mainly of tax revenues for the government.- Stringent policy is required to transform tax revenues into health gains.

  12. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  13. Therapeutic antibody technology 97.

    PubMed

    Larrick, J W; Gavilondo, J

    1998-01-01

    Almost 200 antibody aficionados attended the Therapeutic Antibody Technology 97 meeting, held September 21-24, 1997 at the Holiday Inn, Union Square in the heart of San Francisco, CA. The meeting was sponsored by the Palo Alto Institute of Molecular Medicine and organized by James W. Larrick (PAIMM) and Dennis R. Burton (Scripps Research Institute). The meeting featured excellent discussions on many interesting talks and a number of poster presentations. It is likely that another meeting will be organized in 2 years, however in the meantime, an effort is underway to organize a 'Virtual Antibody Society' to be set up on the web server at Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA (Questions and comments on this project can be sent to: Jwlarrick@aol.com or Burton@scripps.edu). Richard Lerner (Scripps) gave the keynote address on 'Catalytic Antibodies', describing recent work with Carlos Barbas on so-called reactive immunization to generate a high activity aldolase catalytic antibody. This antibody, soon to be described in an article in Science, is the first commercially available catalytic antibody.

  14. Leech Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Abdualkader, A. M.; Ghawi, A. M.; Alaama, M.; Awang, M.; Merzouk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hematophagous animals including leeches have been known to possess biologically active compounds in their secretions, especially in their saliva. The blood-sucking annelids, leeches have been used for therapeutic purposes since the beginning of civilization. Ancient Egyptian, Indian, Greek and Arab physicians used leeches for a wide range of diseases starting from the conventional use for bleeding to systemic ailments, such as skin diseases, nervous system abnormalities, urinary and reproductive system problems, inflammation, and dental problems. Recently, extensive researches on leech saliva unveiled the presence of a variety of bioactive peptides and proteins involving antithrombin (hirudin, bufrudin), antiplatelet (calin, saratin), factor Xa inhibitors (lefaxin), antibacterial (theromacin, theromyzin) and others. Consequently, leech has made a comeback as a new remedy for many chronic and life-threatening abnormalities, such as cardiovascular problems, cancer, metastasis, and infectious diseases. In the 20th century, leech therapy has established itself in plastic and microsurgery as a protective tool against venous congestion and served to salvage the replanted digits and flaps. Many clinics for plastic surgery all over the world started to use leeches for cosmetic purposes. Despite the efficacious properties of leech therapy, the safety, and complications of leeching are still controversial. PMID:24019559

  15. Neurological benefits of omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dyall, S C; Michael-Titus, A T

    2008-01-01

    The central nervous system is highly enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the omega-6 and omega-3 series. The presence of these fatty acids as structural components of neuronal membranes influences cellular function both directly, through effects on membrane properties, and also by acting as a precursor pool for lipid-derived messengers. An adequate intake of omega-3 PUFA is essential for optimal visual function and neural development. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that increased intake of the long-chain omega-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may confer benefits in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders, and in particular neurodegenerative conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects are still poorly understood. Recent evidence also indicates that in addition to the positive effects seen in chronic neurodegenerative conditions, omega-3 PUFA may also have significant neuroprotective potential in acute neurological injury. Thus, these compounds offer an intriguing prospect as potentially new therapeutic approaches in both chronic and acute conditions. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence of the neurological benefits of omega-3 PUFA, looking specifically at neurodegenerative conditions and acute neurological injury.

  16. Triggered Nanoparticles as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Soo; Duncan, Bradley; Creran, Brian; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Drug delivery systems (DDSs) face several challenges including site-specific delivery, stability, and the programmed release of drugs. Engineered nanoparticle (NP) surfaces with responsive moieties can enhance the efficacy of DDSs for in vitro and in vivo systems. This triggering process can be achieved through both endogenous (biologically controlled release) and exogenous (external stimuli controlled release) activation. In this review, we will highlight recent examples of the use of triggered release strategies of engineered nanomaterials for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:24159362

  17. Therapeutic Strategies for Neuropathic Pain: Potential Application of Pharmacosynthetics and Optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gum Hwa; Kim, Sang Seong

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pain originating from neuronal damage remains an incurable symptom debilitating patients. Proposed molecular modalities in neuropathic pain include ion channel expressions, immune reactions, and inflammatory substrate diffusions. Recent advances in RNA sequence analysis have discovered specific ion channel expressions in nociceptors such as transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, voltage-gated potassium, and sodium channels. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) also play an important role in triggering surrounding immune cells. The multiple protein expressions complicate therapeutic development for neuropathic pain. Recent progress in optogenetics and pharmacogenetics may herald the development of novel therapeutics for the incurable pain. Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) facilitate the artificial manipulation of intracellular signaling through excitatory or inhibitory G protein subunits activated by biologically inert synthetic ligands. Expression of excitatory channelrhodopsins and inhibitory halorhodopsins on injured neurons or surrounding cells can attenuate neuropathic pain precisely controlled by light stimulation. To achieve the discrete treatment of injured neurons, we can exploit the transcriptome database obtained by RNA sequence analysis in specific neuropathies. This can recommend the suitable promoter information to target the injury sites circumventing intact neurons. Therefore, novel strategies benefiting from pharmacogenetics, optogenetics, and RNA sequencing might be promising for neuropathic pain treatment in future. PMID:26884648

  18. [Visual cues as a therapeutic tool in Parkinson's disease. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Hellín, Elena; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Sensory stimuli or sensory cues are being used as a therapeutic tool for improving gait disorders in Parkinson's disease patients, but most studies seem to focus on auditory stimuli. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review regarding the use of visual cues over gait disorders, dual tasks during gait, freezing and the incidence of falls in patients with Parkinson to obtain therapeutic implications. We conducted a systematic review in main databases such as Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, TripDataBase, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE and Physiotherapy Evidence Database, during 2005 to 2012, according to the recommendations of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials, evaluating the quality of the papers included with the Downs & Black Quality Index. 21 articles were finally included in this systematic review (with a total of 892 participants) with variable methodological quality, achieving an average of 17.27 points in the Downs and Black Quality Index (range: 11-21). Visual cues produce improvements over temporal-spatial parameters in gait, turning execution, reducing the appearance of freezing and falls in Parkinson's disease patients. Visual cues appear to benefit dual tasks during gait, reducing the interference of the second task. Further studies are needed to determine the preferred type of stimuli for each stage of the disease.

  19. Cloning for therapeutic purposes: ethical and policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M J

    2001-01-01

    This essay reviews how cloning techniques may be used for therapeutic purposes, analyzes ethical implications, and makes recommendations for public policy discourse. Although cloning may bring many potential benefits, they remain uncertain. Furthermore, human embryo research is morally problematic. Therefore, alternatives to human cloning for therapeutic aims should be sought at present. In addition to central ethical issues, public discourse should maintain an emphasis on the value of the human embryo over scientific expediency, the relativity of health, and the principle of justice. Society should support the laudable mission of medical research, while also attending to the moral concerns often threatened by the promises of scientific progress.

  20. The public library as therapeutic landscape: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Liz

    2014-03-01

    The idea of the therapeutic landscape has been widely used to describe the relationship between place and improvements in mental health. This paper uses data from a qualitative study conducted with people with mental health problems to outline the role of the public library as a therapeutic landscape. It situates the public library as a space that is simultaneously familiar and welcoming, comforting and calming, and empowering. Further, the paper reflects on the impact of proposed library closures in light of these previously hidden benefits, thinking about the library's role as an environment and not as a service provider.

  1. [Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bekkering, G E; Kleijnen, J

    2008-12-01

    The Federal Joint Committee (FJC; Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) defines the health-care elements that are to be reimbursed by sickness funds. To define a directive, the FJC can commission benefit assessments, which provide an overview of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and benefits of an intervention. This paper describes the operational implementation of the legal requirements with regard to the benefit assessments of medicines. Such benefit assessments are sometimes referred to as "isolated benefit assessments," to distinguish them from benefit assessments as part of a full economic evaluation. The FJC has the freedom to commission these assessments from any agency; however, to date the majority have commissioned the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). Nevertheless, the content of this paper applies integrally to any institute commissioned for such assessments. In this report, "the institute"' is used when the text refers to any of these institutes. The legal framework for benefit assessments is laid out in the German Social Code Book version V (http://www. sozialgesetzbuch.de), Sects. 35b ( section sign 1), 139a ( section sign 4-6) and Sect. 139b ( section sign 3). It is specified that: The institute must guarantee high transparency. The institute must provide appropriate participation of relevant parties for the commission-related development of assessments, and opportunity for comment on all important segments of the assessment procedure. The institute has to report on the progress and results of the work at regular intervals. The institute is held to giving the commission to external experts. Based on the legal framework, the institute must guarantee a high procedural transparency. Transparency of the whole process should be achieved, which is evidenced by clear reporting of procedures and criteria in all phases undertaken in the benefit assessment. The most important means of enhancing transparency are: 1. To

  2. Magnetic Microspheres for Therapeutical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Ramachandran, N.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a well known cancer therapy and consists of heating a tumor region to the elevated temperatures in the range of 40-45 C for an extended period of time (2-8 hours). This leads to thermal inactivation of cell regulatory and growth processes with resulting widespread necrosis, carbonization and coagulation. Moreover, heat boosts the tumor response to other treatments such as radiation, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Of particular importance is careful control of generated heat in the treated region and keeping it localized. Higher heating, to about 56 C can lead to tissue thermo-ablation. With accurate temperature control, hyperthermia has the advantage of having minimal side effects. Several heating techniques are utilized for this purpose, such as whole body hyperthermia, radio-frequency (RF) hyperthermia, ultrasound technique, inductive microwave antenna hyperthermia, inductive needles (thermoseeds), and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH).MFH offers many advantages as targeting capability by applying magnets. However, this technology still suffers significant inefficiencies due to lack of thermal control. This paper will provide a review of the topic and outline the ongoing work in this area. The main emphasis is in devising ways to overcome the technical difficulty in hyperthermia therapy of achieving a uniform therapeutic temperature over the required region of the body and holding it steady. The basic obstacle of the present heating methods are non-uniform thermal properties of the tissue. Our approach is to develop a novel class of magnetic fluids which have inherent thermoregulating properties. We have identified a few magnetic alloys which can serve as a suitable nano-particle material. The objective is to synthesize, characterize and evaluate the efficacy of TRMF for hyperthermia therapy.

  3. Home Media and Children’s Achievement and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a national picture of the time American 6–12 year olds spent playing video games, using the computer, and watching television at home in 1997 and 2003 and the association of early use with their achievement and behavior as adolescents. Girls benefited from computers more than boys and Black children’s achievement benefited more from greater computer use than did that of White children. Greater computer use in middle childhood was associated with increased achievement for White and Black girls and Black boys, but not White boys. Greater computer play was also associated with a lower risk of becoming socially isolated among girls. Computer use does not crowd out positive learning-related activities, whereas video game playing does. Consequently, increased video game play had both positive and negative associations with the achievement of girls but not boys. For boys, increased video game play was linked to increased aggressive behavior problems. PMID:20840243

  4. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ken J

    2005-01-12

    The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) grew by 8% in 2003-04; a slower rate than the 12.0% pa average growth over the last decade. Nevertheless, the sustainability of the Scheme remained an ongoing concern given an aging population and the continued introduction of useful (but increasingly expensive) new medicines. There was also concern that the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement could place further pressure on the Scheme. In 2003, as in 2002, the government proposed a 27% increase in PBS patient co-payments and safety-net thresholds in order to transfer more of the cost of the PBS from the government to consumers. While this measure was initially blocked by the Senate, the forthcoming election resulted in the Labor Party eventually supporting this policy. Recommendations of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee to list, not list or defer a decision to list a medicine on the PBS were made publicly available for the first time and the full cost of PBS medicines appeared on medicine labels if the price was greater than the co-payment. Pharmaceutical reform in Victorian public hospitals designed to minimise PBS cost-shifting was evaluated and extended to other States and Territories. Programs promoting the quality use of medicines were further developed coordinated by the National Prescribing Service, Australian Divisions of General Practice and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. The extensive uptake of computerised prescribing software by GPs produced benefits but also problems. The latter included pharmaceutical promotion occurring at the time of prescribing, failure to incorporate key sources of objective therapeutic information in the software and gross variation in the ability of various programs to detect important drug-drug interactions. These issues remain to be tackled.

  5. Therapeutic Devices for Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic devices provide new options for treating drug-resistant epilepsy. These devices act by a variety of mechanisms to modulate neuronal activity. Only vagus nerve stimulation, which continues to develop new technology, is approved for use in the United States. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of anterior thalamus for partial epilepsy recently was approved in Europe and several other countries. Responsive neurostimulation, which delivers stimuli to one or two seizure foci in response to a detected seizure, recently completed a successful multicenter trial. Several other trials of brain stimulation are in planning or underway. Transcutaneous magnetic stimulation (TMS) may provide a noninvasive method to stimulate cortex. Controlled studies of TMS split on efficacy, and may depend on whether a seizure focus is near a possible region for stimulation. Seizure detection devices in the form of “shake” detectors via portable accelerometers can provide notification of an ongoing tonic-clonic seizure, or peace of mind in the absence of notification. Prediction of seizures from various aspects of EEG is in early stages. Prediction appears to be possible in a subpopulation of people with refractory seizures and a clinical trial of an implantable prediction device is underway. Cooling of neocortex or hippocampus reversibly can attenuate epileptiform EEG activity and seizures, but engineering problems remain in its implementation. Optogenetics is a new technique that can control excitability of specific populations of neurons with light. Inhibition of epileptiform activity has been demonstrated in hippocampal slices, but use in humans will require more work. In general, devices provide useful palliation for otherwise uncontrollable seizures, but with a different risk profile than with most drugs. Optimizing the place of devices in therapy for epilepsy will require further development and clinical experience. PMID:22367987

  6. Mitochondrial diseases: therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    DiMauro, Salvatore; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2007-06-01

    Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review, we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of noxious metabolites is centered on combating lactic acidosis, but extends to other metabolites. Attempts to bypass blocks in the respiratory chain by administration of electron acceptors have not been successful, but this may be amenable to genetic engineering. Administration of metabolites and cofactors is the mainstay of real-life therapy and is especially important in disorders due to primary deficiencies of specific compounds, such as carnitine or coenzyme Q10. There is increasing interest in the administration of reactive oxygen species scavengers both in primary mitochondrial diseases and in neurodegenerative diseases directly or indirectly related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Aerobic exercise and physical therapy prevent or correct deconditioning and improve exercise tolerance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Gene therapy is a challenge because of polyplasmy and heteroplasmy, but interesting experimental approaches are being pursued and include, for example, decreasing the ratio of mutant to wild-type mitochondrial genomes (gene shifting), converting mutated mtDNA genes into normal nuclear DNA genes (allotopic expression), importing cognate genes from other species, or correcting mtDNA mutations with specific restriction endonucleases. Germline therapy raises ethical problems but is being considered for prevention of maternal transmission of mtDNA mutations. Preventive therapy through genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is

  7. Benefits of Suffering: Communicator Suffering. Benefiting, and Influence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    political figures such as Ghandl or Mao have become almost legendary. Of particular interest is that this suffering has generally preceded the leader’s...Method Subjects One hundred and sixty introductory psychology students at Purdue Benefits of Suffering 6 University participated in the study in...observed Benefits of Suffering 13 effects. STUDY 2 Method Subjects One hundred and sixty eight introductory psychology students at Purdue University

  8. The Evolution of Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Bob; Skalko, Thomas K.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews elements that impact the delivery of therapeutic recreation services, emphasizing elements that are external to the discipline and influence practice and elements that are internal to the discipline and must be addressed if therapeutic recreation is to continue its evolution as a competitive health and human service discipline.…

  9. Toward Constructing the Therapeutic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andolfi, Maurizio; Angelo, Claudio

    1988-01-01

    Describes the therapist as an active participant in the construction of the therapeutic system, explaining how the therapist constructs complex relationships within the evolving therapeutic process. Reevaluates the importance of the individual in the family as an agent of change and as a mediator of triangular relational messages. (Author/NB)

  10. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  11. Novel therapeutic strategies using hypomethylating agents in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takayuki

    2014-02-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal hematopoietic neoplasm with high rates of leukemic transformation. MDS had been an intractable disease for which the mainstream of therapeutic approach was best supportive care. Recently, however, treatment of hematological malignancies has benefited from advances in molecular targeted drug discovery such as the revolutionary drug imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia, and from the reappraisal of forgotten drugs such as thalidomide for multiple myeloma. Two azanucleotide drugs, azacitidine (AZA) and decitabine, were created as anti-neoplastic drugs in the 1960s with little success. In the 1980s, they were reassessed as hypomethylating agents (HMAs), and the introduction of low-dose schedules of them has shown dramatic effects in the delay of leukemic evolution for high-risk MDS. AZA was approved in Japan in March 2011 and has become a standard drug of choice in the treatment of high-risk MDS. Its position as a treatment for low-risk MDS remains to be established. Only half of patients with high-risk MDS can gain benefit from AZA. For example, those with complex karyotypes experience only a limited extension in survival. In addition, AZA resistance develops sooner or later. To achieve a more sustained disease control of high-risk MDS, the combined use of HMAs with other therapeutic approaches will be inevitable. Clinical trials of histone deacetylase inhibitors, lenalidomide, thrombopoietin agonists, or anticancer drugs in combination with HMAs are ongoing. In addition, HMAs are being used as a bridging therapy prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) and the salvage therapy of relapsed disease after AHSCT. Thus, HMAs will continue to be key drugs for the management of MDS.

  12. Therapeutic applications of hydrogels in oral drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Lindsey A; Daily, Adam M; Horava, Sarena D; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral delivery of therapeutics, particularly protein-based pharmaceutics, is of great interest for safe and controlled drug delivery for patients. Hydrogels offer excellent potential as oral therapeutic systems due to inherent biocompatibility, diversity of both natural and synthetic material options and tunable properties. In particular, stimuli-responsive hydrogels exploit physiological changes along the intestinal tract to achieve site-specific, controlled release of protein, peptide and chemotherapeutic molecules for both local and systemic treatment applications. Areas covered This review provides a wide perspective on the therapeutic use of hydrogels in oral delivery systems. General features and advantages of hydrogels are addressed, with more considerable focus on stimuli-responsive systems that respond to pH or enzymatic changes in the gastrointestinal environment to achieve controlled drug release. Specific examples of therapeutics are given. Last, in vitro and in vivo methods to evaluate hydrogel performance are discussed. Expert opinion Hydrogels are excellent candidates for oral drug delivery, due to the number of adaptable parameters that enable controlled delivery of diverse therapeutic molecules. However, further work is required to more accurately simulate physiological conditions and enhance performance, which is important to achieve improved bioavailability and increase commercial interest. PMID:24848309

  13. The benefits of mobile communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-04-01

    The benefits offered by mobile communications facilities are compared to conventionally priced networks. Sweden, the UK and Eire were taken as examples of markets that are respectively leading, growing and restrictive. The three major benefits identified are higher profits for commercial organizations from cost savings and improved productivity, the prevention and minimization of damage to life and property, and better social contacts for people isolated from communities. Case studies provide examples of the benefits different occupational and social groups acquire from mobile communications in each country. The studies were also used to project future growth in the uptake and range of mobile communications facilities offered in each country.

  14. Improving Achievement Via Essay Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Ohmer

    1979-01-01

    The benefits of using essay tests rather than objective tests in professional education programs are discussed. Essay tests offer practice in writing, creativity and formal communications. Guidelines for using and scoring a sample essay test in biology are presented. (BH)

  15. Metrics for antibody therapeutics development.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Janice M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of full-size monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats can be produced through genetic and biological engineering techniques. These molecules are now filling the preclinical and clinical pipelines of every major pharmaceutical company and many biotechnology firms. Metrics for the development of antibody therapeutics, including averages for the number of candidates entering clinical study and development phase lengths for mAbs approved in the United States, were derived from analysis of a dataset of over 600 therapeutic mAbs that entered clinical study sponsored, at least in part, by commercial firms. The results presented provide an overview of the field and context for the evaluation of on-going and prospective mAb development programs. The expansion of therapeutic antibody use through supplemental marketing approvals and the increase in the study of therapeutics derived from alternative antibody formats are discussed.

  16. Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

  17. Bacteriophage Procurement for Therapeutic Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Żaczek, Maciej; Łobocka, Małgorzata; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages), discovered 100 years ago, are able to infect and destroy only bacterial cells. In the current crisis of antibiotic efficacy, phage therapy is considered as a supplementary or even alternative therapeutic approach. Evolution of multidrug-resistant and pandrug-resistant bacterial strains poses a real threat, so it is extremely important to have the possibility to isolate new phages for therapeutic purposes. Our phage laboratory and therapy center has extensive experience with phage isolation, characterization, and therapeutic application. In this article we present current progress in bacteriophages isolation and use for therapeutic purposes, our experience in this field and its practical implications for phage therapy. We attempt to summarize the state of the art: properties of phages, the methods for their isolation, criteria of phage selection for therapeutic purposes and limitations of their use. Perspectives for the use of genetically engineered phages to specifically target bacterial virulence-associated genes are also briefly presented. PMID:27570518

  18. Novel small molecule therapeutics in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Victoria; Genovese, Mark

    2013-07-01

    A new wave of emerging therapies for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases is under development. These therapies interrupt intracellular signalling through kinase inhibition. By interrupting one or more kinases it is possible to modulate the function of cellular structures such as surface receptors, signalling proteins and transcription of nuclear proteins and thus influence the behaviour of the cell types targeted. With these advances comes the significant potential to develop highly effective orally bioavailable therapeutics. The targets generating the greatest enthusiasm at this time for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases include Janus-associated kinase, spleen tyrosine kinase, phosphodiesterase-4, Bruton's tyrosine kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Ultimately human trials will help us understand the potential risks and benefits of these novel approaches across a number of diseases.

  19. Inflammation and therapeutic vaccination in CNS diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Howard L.; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    2002-12-01

    The spectrum of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system has been steadily expanding from classical autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis to far more diverse diseases. Evidence now suggests that syndromes such as Alzheimer's disease and stroke have important inflammatory and immune components and may be amenable to treatment by anti-inflammatory and immunotherapeutic approaches. The notion of 'vaccinating' individuals against a neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's disease is a marked departure from classical thinking about mechanism and treatment, and yet therapeutic vaccines for both Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis have been validated in animal models and are in the clinic. Such approaches, however, have the potential to induce unwanted inflammatory responses as well as to provide benefit.

  20. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  1. Enteric microbiota leads to new therapeutic strategies for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Xu; Ren, Li-Hua; Shi, Rui-Hua

    2014-11-14

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a leading form of inflammatory bowel disease that involves chronic relapsing or progressive inflammation. As a significant proportion of UC patients treated with conventional therapies do not achieve remission, there is a pressing need for the development of more effective therapies. The human gut contains a large, diverse, and dynamic population of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the enteric microbiota. There is a symbiotic relationship between the human host and the enteric microbiota, which provides nutrition, protection against pathogenic organisms, and promotes immune homeostasis. An imbalance of the normal enteric microbiota composition (termed dysbiosis) underlies the pathogenesis of UC. A reduction of enteric microbiota diversity has been observed in UC patients, mainly affecting the butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which can repress pro-inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that enteric microbiota plays an important role in anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities, which can benefit UC patients. Therefore, manipulation of the dysbiosis is an attractive approach for UC therapy. Various therapies targeting a restoration of the enteric microbiota have shown efficacy in treating patients with active and chronic forms of UC. Such therapies include fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, helminth therapy, and dietary polyphenols, all of which can alter the abundance and composition of the enteric microbiota. Although there have been many large, randomized controlled clinical trials assessing these treatments, the effectiveness and safety of these bacteria-driven therapies need further evaluation. This review focuses on the important role that the enteric microbiota plays in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and discusses new therapeutic strategies targeting the enteric microbiota for UC.

  2. Current therapeutic strategies for invasive and metastatic bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vishnu, Prakash; Mathew, Jacob; Tan, Winston W

    2011-01-01

    Background Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe, the United States, and Northern African countries. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is an aggressive epithelial tumor, with a high rate of early systemic dissemination. Superficial, noninvasive bladder cancer can most often be cured; a good proportion of invasive cases can also be cured by a combined modality approach of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Recurrences are common and mostly manifest as metastatic disease. Those with distant metastatic disease can sometime achieve partial or complete remission with combination chemotherapy. Recent developments Better understanding of the biology of the disease has led to the incorporation of molecular and genetic features along with factors such as tumor grade, lympho-vascular invasion, and aberrant histology, thereby allowing identification of ‘favorable’ and ‘unfavorable’ cancers which helps a more accurate informed and objective selection of patients who would benefit from neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Gene expression profiling has been used to find molecular signature patterns that can potentially be predictive of drug sensitivity and metastasis. Understanding the molecular pathways of invasive bladder cancer has led to clinical investigation of several targeted therapeutics such as anti-angiogenics, mTOR inhibitors, and anti-EGFR agents. Conclusion With improvements in the understanding of the biology of bladder cancer, clinical trials studying novel and targeted agents alone or in combination with chemotherapy have increased the armamentarium for the treatment of bladder cancer. Although the novel biomarkers and gene expression profiles have been shown to provide important predictive and prognostic information and are anticipated to be incorporated in clinical decision-making, their exact utility and relevance calls for a larger prospective validation. PMID:21792316

  3. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first

  4. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  5. Employee Benefit Reporting After ERISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Wesley W.

    1976-01-01

    The statutory reporting requirements of ERISA and some of the regulations recently promulgated are discussed. All type of employee benefit plans are covered. For journal availability see HE 508 741. (LBH)

  6. Benefits and harms of mammography screening.

    PubMed

    Løberg, Magnus; Lousdal, Mette Lise; Bretthauer, Michael; Kalager, Mette

    2015-05-01

    Mammography screening for breast cancer is widely available in many countries. Initially praised as a universal achievement to improve women's health and to reduce the burden of breast cancer, the benefits and harms of mammography screening have been debated heatedly in the past years. This review discusses the benefits and harms of mammography screening in light of findings from randomized trials and from more recent observational studies performed in the era of modern diagnostics and treatment. The main benefit of mammography screening is reduction of breast-cancer related death. Relative reductions vary from about 15 to 25% in randomized trials to more recent estimates of 13 to 17% in meta-analyses of observational studies. Using UK population data of 2007, for 1,000 women invited to biennial mammography screening for 20 years from age 50, 2 to 3 women are prevented from dying of breast cancer. All-cause mortality is unchanged. Overdiagnosis of breast cancer is the main harm of mammography screening. Based on recent estimates from the United States, the relative amount of overdiagnosis (including ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer) is 31%. This results in 15 women overdiagnosed for every 1,000 women invited to biennial mammography screening for 20 years from age 50. Women should be unpassionately informed about the benefits and harms of mammography screening using absolute effect sizes in a comprehensible fashion. In an era of limited health care resources, screening services need to be scrutinized and compared with each other with regard to effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and harms.

  7. Stem cells as promising therapeutic options for neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jongman; Kim, Han-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Youn

    2013-04-01

    Due to the limitations of pharmacological and other current therapeutic strategies, stem cell therapies have emerged as promising options for treating many incurable neurologic diseases. A variety of stem cells including pluripotent stem cells (i.e., embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells) and multipotent adult stem cells (i.e., fetal brain tissue, neural stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells from various sources) have been explored as therapeutic options for treating many neurologic diseases, and it is becoming obvious that each type of stem cell has pros and cons as a source for cell therapy. Wise selection of stem cells with regard to the nature and status of neurologic dysfunctions is required to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy. To this aim, the stem cell-mediated therapeutic efforts on four major neurological diseases, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and stroke, will be introduced, and current problems and future directions will be discussed.

  8. Nanoparticle-Based Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiehua; Shum, Ka-To; Burnett, John C.; Rossi, John J.

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved, endogenous process for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Although RNAi therapeutics have recently progressed through the pipeline toward clinical trials, the application of these as ideal, clinical therapeutics requires the development of safe and effective delivery systems. Inspired by the immense progress with nanotechnology in drug delivery, efforts have been dedicated to the development of nanoparticle-based RNAi delivery systems. For example, a precisely engineered, multifunctional nanocarrier with combined passive and active targeting capabilities may address the delivery challenges for the widespread use of RNAi as a therapy. Therefore, in this review, we introduce the major hurdles in achieving efficient RNAi delivery and discuss the current advances in applying nanotechnology-based delivery systems to overcome the delivery hurdles of RNAi therapeutics. In particular, some representative examples of nanoparticle-based delivery formulations for targeted RNAi therapeutics are highlighted. PMID:23667320

  9. Natural Products as Source of Therapeutics against Parasitic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hertweck, Christian

    2015-12-01

    An end to suffering: Parasitic infections with protozoa and worms cause unimaginable misery, in particular in the tropics. Fortunately, natural products, such as the antimalarial artemisinin (1) and the anthelmintic avermectin (2) were discovered and developed into therapeutics. These major achievements now culminated in the 2015 Nobel Prize for Medicine.

  10. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    PubMed

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  11. Macrophage differentiation and function in atherosclerosis; opportunities for therapeutic intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Howell J.; Fisher, Edward A.; Greaves, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The macrophage is exquisitely sensitive to its microenvironment, as demonstrated primarily through in vitro study. Changes in macrophage phenotype and function within the atherosclerotic plaque have profound consequences for plaque biology, including rupture and arterial thrombosis leading to clinical events such as myocardial infarction. We review the evidence for dynamic changes in macrophage numbers and macrophage differentiation within the atherosclerotic plaque microenvironment and discuss potential approaches to target macrophage differentiation for therapeutic benefit in cardiovascular disease. PMID:22572544

  12. Therapeutic Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Functional Bowel Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Jong Kyoung; Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kang, Eun Hee; Park, Kyung Sik; Min, Yang Won; Hong, Kyoung Sup

    2017-01-01

    Functional bowel disorders (FBDs) are functional gastrointestinal disorders with symptoms attributable to the middle or lower gastrointestinal tract. These include irritable bowel syndrome, functional bloating, functional constipation, functional diarrhea, and unspecified FBD. Increasing evidence has emerged of late that intestinal microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of FBDs. In this review, the therapeutic benefits and future perspectives of the currently available strategies for modifying the gut microbiota in FBDs are described, focusing primarily on irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation. PMID:28049862

  13. Medical decision support systems and therapeutics: The role of autopilots.

    PubMed

    Woosley, R L; Whyte, J; Mohamadi, A; Romero, K

    2016-02-01

    For decades, medical practice has increasingly relied on prescription medicines to treat, cure, or prevent illness but their net benefit is reduced by prescribing errors that result in adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and tens of thousands of deaths each year. Optimal prescribing requires effective management of massive amounts of data. Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) can help manage information and support optimal therapeutic decisions before errors are made by operating as the prescribers' "autopilot."

  14. Community Health Care: Therapeutic Opportunities in the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenburg, Justin L.; Fischbach, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We are never alone. Humans coexist with diverse microbial species that live within and upon us—our so-called microbiota. It is now clear that this microbial community is essentially another organ that plays a fundamental role in human physiology and disease. Basic and translational research efforts have begun to focus on deciphering mechanisms of microbiome function—and learning how to manipulate it to benefit human health. In this Perspective, we discuss therapeutic opportunities in the human microbiome. PMID:21490274

  15. Therapeutic Modulation of Gut Microbiota in Functional Bowel Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Jong Kyoung; Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kang, Eun Hee; Park, Kyung Sik; Min, Yang Won; Hong, Kyoung Sup

    2017-01-30

    Functional bowel disorders (FBDs) are functional gastrointestinal disorders with symptoms attributable to the middle or lower gastrointestinal tract. These include irritable bowel syndrome, functional bloating, functional constipation, functional diarrhea, and unspecified FBD. Increasing evidence has emerged of late that intestinal microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of FBDs. In this review, the therapeutic benefits and future perspectives of the currently available strategies for modifying the gut microbiota in FBDs are described, focusing primarily on irritable bowel syndrome and functional constipation.

  16. Overview of Therapeutic Ultrasound Applications and Safety Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglas; Smith, Nadine; Bailey, Michael; Czarnota, Gregory; Hynynen, Kullervo; Makin, Inder

    2013-01-01

    Summary Applications of ultrasound in medicine for therapeutic purposes have been an accepted and beneficial use of ultrasonic biological effects for many years. Low power ultrasound of about 1 MHz frequency has been widely applied since the 1950s for physical therapy in conditions such as tendinitis or bursitis. In the 1980s, high pressure-amplitude shockwaves came into use for mechanically resolving kidney stones, and “lithotripsy” rapidly replaced surgery as the most frequent treatment choice. The use of ultrasonic energy for therapy continues to expand, and approved applications now include uterine fibroid ablation, cataract removal (phacoemulsification), surgical tissue cutting and hemostasis, transdermal drug delivery, and bone fracture healing, among others. Undesirable bioeffects can occur including burns for thermal-based therapies and significant hemorrhage for mechanical-based therapies (e. g. lithotripsy). In all these therapeutic applications for bioeffects of ultrasound, standardization, ultrasound dosimetry, benefits assurance and side-effects risk minimization must be carefully considered in order to insure an optimal benefit to risk ratio for the patient. Therapeutic ultrasound typically has well-defined benefits and risks, and therefore presents a tractable safety problem to the clinician. However, safety information can be scattered, confusing or subject to commercial conflict of interest. Of paramount importance for managing this problem is the communication of practical safety information by authoritative groups, such as the AIUM, to the medical ultrasound community. In this overview, the Bioeffects Committee outlines the wide range of therapeutic ultrasound methods, which are in clinical use or under study, and provides general guidance for assuring therapeutic ultrasound safety. PMID:22441920

  17. Overview of therapeutic ultrasound applications and safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Douglas L; Smith, Nadine B; Bailey, Michael R; Czarnota, Gregory J; Hynynen, Kullervo; Makin, Inder Raj S

    2012-04-01

    Applications of ultrasound in medicine for therapeutic purposes have been accepted and beneficial uses of ultrasonic biological effects for many years. Low-power ultrasound of about 1 MHz has been widely applied since the 1950s for physical therapy in conditions such as tendinitis and bursitis. In the 1980s, high-pressure-amplitude shock waves came into use for mechanically resolving kidney stones, and "lithotripsy" rapidly replaced surgery as the most frequent treatment choice. The use of ultrasonic energy for therapy continues to expand, and approved applications now include uterine fibroid ablation, cataract removal (phacoemulsification), surgical tissue cutting and hemostasis, transdermal drug delivery, and bone fracture healing, among others. Undesirable bioeffects can occur, including burns from thermal-based therapies and severe hemorrhage from mechanical-based therapies (eg, lithotripsy). In all of these therapeutic applications of ultrasound bioeffects, standardization, ultrasound dosimetry, benefits assurance, and side-effect risk minimization must be carefully considered to ensure an optimal benefit to risk ratio for the patient. Therapeutic ultrasound typically has well-defined benefits and risks and therefore presents a manageable safety problem to the clinician. However, safety information can be scattered, confusing, or subject to commercial conflicts of interest. Of paramount importance for managing this problem is the communication of practical safety information by authoritative groups, such as the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, to the medical ultrasound community. In this overview, the Bioeffects Committee of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine outlines the wide range of therapeutic ultrasound methods, which are in clinical use or under study, and provides general guidance for ensuring therapeutic ultrasound safety.

  18. Historical review: Cytokines as therapeutics and targets of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Vilcek, Jan; Feldmann, Marc

    2004-04-01

    Cytokine research has spawned the introduction of new therapies that have revolutionized the treatment of many important diseases. These therapeutic advances have resulted from two very different strategies. The first therapeutic strategy embodies the administration of purified, recombinant cytokines. The second relies on the administration of therapeutics that inhibit the harmful effects of upregulated, endogenous cytokines. Examples of successful cytokine therapeutics include hematopoietic growth factors (colony stimulating factors) and interferons. Prime examples of cytokine antagonists that have profoundly altered the treatment of some inflammatory disorders are agents that inhibit the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In this article, we highlight some of the studies that have been responsible for the introduction of cytokine and anti-cytokine therapies, with emphasis on the development of interferons and anti-TNF agents.

  19. The social dimensions of therapeutic horticulture.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly

    2017-02-22

    Harnessing nature to promote mental health is increasingly seen as a sustainable solution to healthcare across the industrialised world. The benefits of these approaches to well-being include reduced symptoms of anxiety, depression and improved social functioning. Many studies assume that contact with nature is the main therapeutic component of these interventions yet 'green care' programmes typically include activities not based on 'nature' that may contribute to positive outcomes. This study explored the views of service users participating in a Therapeutic Horticultural programme on what factors promoted their engagement in the project, to identify variables other than 'nature' that may be responsible for successful engagement in these programmes. A secondary aim was to assess the significance 'nature' plays including, for example whether a prior interest in horticultural-related activities, such as gardening, is significant. Two focus groups were held with mental health service users (n = 15) attending a gardening project in south-east England. Findings revealed that the social element of the project was the key facilitator to engagement; the flexible structure of the gardening project was also significant and allowed service users to feel empowered. 'Nature' evoked a sense of calm and provided participants with a non-threatening space that was engaging.

  20. Carcinogenesis and therapeutics: the microbiota perspective.

    PubMed

    Tsilimigras, Matthew C B; Fodor, Anthony; Jobin, Christian

    2017-02-22

    Cancer arises from the acquisition of multiple genetic and epigenetic changes in host cells over the span of many years, promoting oncogenic traits and carcinogenesis. Most cancers develop following random somatic alterations of key oncogenic genes, which are favoured by a number of risk factors, including lifestyle, diet and inflammation. Importantly, the environment where tumours evolve provides a unique source of signalling cues that affects cancer cell growth, survival, movement and metastasis. Recently, there has been increased interest in how the microbiota, the collection of microorganisms inhabiting the host body surface and cavities, shapes a micro-environment for host cells that can either promote or prevent cancer formation. The microbiota, particularly the intestinal biota, plays a central role in host physiology, and the composition and activity of this consortium of microorganisms is directly influenced by known cancer risk factors such as lifestyle, diet and inflammation. In this REVIEW, we discuss the pro- and anticarcinogenic role of the microbiota, as well as highlighting the therapeutic potential of microorganisms in tumourigenesis. The broad impacts, and, at times, opposing roles of the microbiota in carcinogenesis serve to illustrate the complex and sometimes conflicted relationship between microorganisms and the host-a relationship that could potentially be harnessed for therapeutic benefits.

  1. Oxidative stress: Biomarkers and novel therapeutic pathways.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen

    2010-03-01

    Oxidative stress significantly impacts multiple cellular pathways that can lead to the initiation and progression of varied disorders throughout the body. It therefore becomes imperative to elucidate the components and function of novel therapeutic strategies against oxidative stress to further clinical diagnosis and care. In particular, both the growth factor and cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) and members of the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs) may offer the greatest promise for new treatment regimens since these agents and the cellular pathways they oversee cover a range of critical functions that directly influence progenitor cell development, cell survival and degeneration, metabolism, immune function, and cancer cell invasion. Furthermore, both EPO and FoxOs function not only as therapeutic targets, but also as biomarkers of disease onset and progression, since their cellular pathways are closely linked and overlap with several unique signal transduction pathways. However, biological outcome with EPO and FoxOs may sometimes be both unexpected and undesirable that can raise caution for these agents and warrant further investigations. Here we present the exciting as well as complicated role EPO and FoxOs possess to uncover the benefits as well as the risks of these agents for cell biology and clinical care in processes that range from stem cell development to uncontrolled cellular proliferation.

  2. OXIDATIVE STRESS: BIOMARKERS AND NOVEL THERAPEUTIC PATHWAYS

    PubMed Central

    Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress significantly impacts multiple cellular pathways that can lead to the initiation and progression of varied disorders throughout the body. It therefore becomes imperative to elucidate the components and function of novel therapeutic strategies against oxidative stress to further clinical diagnosis and care. In particular, both the growth factor and cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) and members of the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs) may offer the greatest promise for new treatment regimens since these agents and the cellular pathways they oversee cover a range of critical functions that directly influence progenitor cell development, cell survival and degeneration, metabolism, immune function, and cancer cell invasion. Furthermore, both EPO and FoxOs function not only as therapeutic targets, but also as biomarkers of disease onset and progression, since their cellular pathways are closely linked and overlap with several unique signal transduction pathways. However, biological outcome with EPO and FoxOs may sometimes be both unexpected and undesirable that can raise caution for these agents and warrant further investigations. Here we present the exciting as well as complicated role EPO and FoxOs possess to uncover the benefits as well as the risks of these agents for cell biology and clinical care in processes that range from stem cell development to uncontrolled cellular proliferation. PMID:20064603

  3. Chaperones as potential therapeutics for Krabbe disease.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Adriana Carol Eleonora; Pannuzzo, Giovanna; Avola, Rosanna; Cardile, Venera

    2016-11-01

    Krabbe's disease (KD) is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disorder. It is classified among the lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). It was first described in , but the genetic defect for the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene was not discovered until the beginning of the 1970s, 20 years before the GALC cloning. Recently, in 2011, the crystal structures of the GALC enzyme and the GALC-product complex were obtained. For this, compared with other LSDs, the research on possible therapeutic interventions is much more recent. Thus, it is not surprising that some treatment options are still under preclinical investigation, whereas their relevance for other pathologies of the same group has already been tested in clinical studies. This is specifically the case for pharmacological chaperone therapy (PCT), a promising strategy for selectively correcting defective protein folding and trafficking and for enhancing enzyme activity by small molecules. These compounds bind directly to a partially folded biosynthetic intermediate, stabilize the protein, and allow completion of the folding process to yield a functional protein. Here, we review the chaperones that have demonstrated potential therapeutics during preclinical studies for KD, underscoring the requirement to invigorate research for KD-addressed PCT that will benefit from recent insights into the molecular understanding of GALC structure, drug design, and development in cellular models. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Therapeutic Process During Exposure: Habituation Model

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Kristen G.; Walther, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current paper outlines the habituation model of exposure process, which is a behavioral model emphasizing use of individually tailored functional analysis during exposures. This is a model of therapeutic process rather than one meant to explain the mechanism of change underlying exposure-based treatments. Habitation, or a natural decrease in anxiety level in the absence of anxiety-reducing behavior, might be best understood as an intermediate treatment outcome that informs therapeutic process, rather than as a mechanism of change. The habituation model purports that three conditions are necessary for optimal benefit from exposures: 1) fear activation, 2) minimization of anxiety-reducing behaviors, and 3) habituation. We describe prescribed therapist and client behaviors as those that increase or maintain anxiety level during an exposure (and therefore, facilitate habituation), and proscribed therapist and client behaviors as those that decrease anxiety during an exposure (and therefore, impede habituation). We illustrate model-consistent behaviors in the case of Monica, as well as outline the existing research support and call for additional research to further test the tenets of the habituation model as described in this paper. PMID:26258012

  5. Nucleic acids as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Salas, Luis M

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic nucleic acids (TNAs) and its precursors are applied to treat several pathologies and infections. TNA-based therapy has different rationales and mechanisms and can be classified into three main groups: 1) Therapeutic nucleotides and nucleosides; 2) Therapeutic oligonucleotides; and 3) Therapeutic polynucleotides. This review will focus in those TNAs that have reached clinical trials with anticancer and antiviral protocols, the two most common applications of TNAs. Although therapeutic nucleotides and nucleosides that interfere with nucleic acid metabolism and DNA polymerization have been successfully used as anticancer and antiviral drugs, they often produce toxic secondary effects related to dosage and continuous use. The use of oligonucleotides such as ribozyme and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) showed promise as therapeutic moieties but faced several issues such as nuclease sensitivity, off-target effects and efficient delivery. Nevertheless, immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides and AS-ODNs represent the most successful group of therapeutic oligonucleotides in the clinic. A newer group of therapeutic oligonucleotides, the aptamers, is rapidly advancing towards early detection and treatment alternatives the have reached the commercial interest. Despite the very high in vitro efficiency of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) they present issues with intracellular target accessibility, specificity and delivery. DNA vaccines showed great promise, but they resulted in very poor responses in the clinic and further development is uncertain. Despite their many issues, the exquisite specificity and versatility of therapeutic oligonucleotides attracts a great deal of research and resources that will certainly convert them in the TNA of choice for treating cancer and viral diseases in the near future.

  6. Curcumin Nanomedicine: A Road to Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Yallapu, Murali M.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Conventional therapies cause widespread systemic toxicity and lead to serious side effects which prohibit their long term use. Additionally, in many circumstances tumor resistance and recurrence is commonly observed. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify suitable anticancer therapies that are highly precise with minimal side effects. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol molecule derived from the Curcuma longa plant which exhibits anticancer, chemo-preventive, chemo- and radio-sensitization properties. Curcumin’s widespread availability, safety, low cost and multiple cancer fighting functions justify its development as a drug for cancer treatment. However, various basic and clinical studies elucidate curcumin’s limited efficacy due to its low solubility, high rate of metabolism, poor bioavailability and pharmacokinetics. A growing list of nanomedicine(s) using first line therapeutic drugs have been approved or are under consideration by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to improve human health. These nanotechnology strategies may help to overcome challenges and ease the translation of curcumin from bench to clinical application. Prominent research is reviewed which shows that advanced drug delivery of curcumin (curcumin nanoformulations or curcumin nanomedicine) is able to leverage therapeutic benefits by improving bioavailability and pharmacokinetics which in turn improves binding, internalization and targeting of tumor(s). Outcomes using these novel drug delivery systems have been discussed in detail. This review also describes the tumor-specific drug delivery system(s) that can be highly effective in destroying tumors. Such new approaches are expected to lead to clinical trials and to improve cancer therapeutics. PMID:23116309

  7. Do drug advertisements provide therapeutic information?

    PubMed

    Stimson, G V

    1977-03-01

    In this study of advertisements appearing in medical periodicals and by direct mail advertising to general practitioners, Dr. Stimson, a sociologist, concludes that from what is intended to provide therapeutic information hardly any therapeutic information is provided. He reminds the reader of the safeguards which surround all drug advertising by law and by the code of practice of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry but these safeguards do not appear to control real or potential sins of omission. Frequently in these advertisements the literature relating to the drug is quoted but Dr. Stimson found that it was difficult to trace all the papers quoted in different types of medical library. (Some references quoted were to unpublished papers but surely the blame should be shared in this situation?) Dr. Stimson also gives a vivid and fascinating glimpse of what he calls the 'images and stereotypes' of the patients who, it is claimed, would benefit from the drug being advertised. Certainly most general practitioners must be aware that when they prescribe that image is displaced by an individual but the portrait gallery is indeed depressing. However, to balance these advertisements drug companies issue data sheets which must be more informative than advertisements and conform to regulations in their format. Unfortunately data sheets are only issued every 15 months whereas the 'average general practitioner is potentially exposed to 1,300 advertisements every month'. In other words, the data sheet and not the advertisement should be the guideline but it arrives too infrequently to offset the lack of therapeutic information contained in advertisements.

  8. The Mechanics of Human Achievement.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, Angela L; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Ungar, Lyle H

    2015-07-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers.

  9. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  10. Teacher Perceptions of Self-Determination: Benefits, Characteristics, Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Snow, Kimberly; Swaner, Jayne

    1999-01-01

    A survey completed by 69 special educators examined their perceptions of the benefits of self-determination for individuals with disabilities, the characteristics associated with self-determination, and the strategies used to achieve it. Results indicated strong support for self-determination instruction. However, few teachers included…

  11. Does Head Start Yield Long-Term Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aughinbaugh, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Using 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data (n=7,787), the relationship between Head Start and school suspensions, grade repetition, and math achievement was examined. Estimates indicate that Head Start does not have long-term benefits, a finding compatible with studies showing that compensatory preschool programs need to be long in…

  12. [Therapeutic management of neurodermatitis atopica].

    PubMed

    Kägi, M K

    1998-08-01

    The therapy of atopic dermatitis remains a challenge. The success of any therapeutic concept is based on a broad and early diagnostic approach which allows to rule out relevant provocation factors and allergens. During remission periods the regular use of a topical basic therapy consisting of drug-free emolients is recommended. Topical corticosteroids as well as systemic or local antimicrobial therapy and antihistamines are essential during periods of acute exacerbations. Although during the last years a great number of new therapeutic approaches have been published, data of most of these therapeutic modalities are not sufficient to allow an unrestricted use in all patients with atopic dermatitis.

  13. Molecular Targets in Alzheimer's Disease: From Pathogenesis to Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xuan; Zhang, Lu; Lian, Ya-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline usually beginning with impairment in the ability to form recent memories. Nonavailability of definitive therapeutic strategy urges developing pharmacological targets based on cell signaling pathways. A great revival of interest in nutraceuticals and adjuvant therapy has been put forward. Tea polyphenols for their multiple health benefits have also attracted the attention of researchers. Tea catechins showed enough potentiality to be used in future as therapeutic targets to provide neuroprotection against AD. This review attempts to present a concise map of different receptor signaling pathways associated with AD with an insight into drug designing based on the proposed signaling pathways, molecular mechanistic details of AD pathogenesis, and a scientific rationale for using tea polyphenols as proposed therapeutic agents in AD.

  14. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; Natasha, G; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. PMID:26422652

  15. Asparaginase pharmacokinetics and implications of therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Barbara; Rizzari, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Asparaginase is widely used in chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and has led to a substantial improvement in cure rates, especially in children. Optimal therapeutic effects depend on a complete and sustained depletion of serum asparagine. However, pronounced interpatient variability, differences in pharmacokinetic properties between asparaginases and the formation of asparaginase antibodies make it difficult to predict the degree of asparagine depletion that will result from a given dose of asparaginase. The pharmacological principles underlying asparaginase therapy in the treatment of ALL are summarized in this article. A better understanding of the many factors that influence asparaginase activity and subsequent asparagine depletion may allow physicians to tailor treatment to the individual, maximizing therapeutic effect and minimizing treatment-related toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring provides a means of assessing a patient's current depletion status and can be used to better evaluate the potential benefit of treatment adjustments.

  16. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier.

    PubMed

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; G, Natasha; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery.

  17. Repurposing antipsychotics as glioblastoma therapeutics: Potentials and challenges

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JIN-KU; NAM, DO-HYUN; LEE, JEONGWU

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most lethal primary brain tumor, with tragically little therapeutic progress over the last 30 years. Surgery provides a modest benefit, and GBM cells are resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. Despite significant development of the molecularly targeting strategies, the clinical outcome of GBM patients remains dismal. The challenges inherent in developing effective GBM treatments have become increasingly clear, and include resistance to standard treatments, the blood-brain barrier, resistance of GBM stem-like cells, and the genetic complexity and molecular adaptability of GBM. Recent studies have collectively suggested that certain antipsychotics harbor antitumor effects and have potential utilities as anti-GBM therapeutics. In the present review, the anti-tumorigenic effects and putative mechanisms of antipsychotics, and the challenges for the potential use of antipsychotic drugs as anti-GBM therapeutics are reviewed. PMID:26893731

  18. 33 CFR 385.35 - Achievement of the benefits of the Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District in determining if existing legal sources of water... Water Management District shall consult with the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force in the..., the Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall conduct other...

  19. The Benefits of Collective Pedagogical Teacher Culture for Diverse Students' Mathematics Achievement by Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Bottia, Martha; Banerjee, Neena

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of educational organizations have focused on structural features of schools, such as size, resources, and infrastructure. Research on schools' organizational culture is more sparse. Yet, these studies have suggested that the organizational culture of schools can have important implications for teaching practices and student outcomes.…

  20. 33 CFR 385.35 - Achievement of the benefits of the Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... memorandum shall generally be based on using a system-wide analysis of the water made available and may... water made available by a new project component while maintaining a system-wide perspective on the... Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water Availability Consistent With the Goals and Purpose...

  1. 33 CFR 385.35 - Achievement of the benefits of the Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... memorandum shall generally be based on using a system-wide analysis of the water made available and may... water made available by a new project component while maintaining a system-wide perspective on the... Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water Availability Consistent With the Goals and Purpose...

  2. 33 CFR 385.35 - Achievement of the benefits of the Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... memorandum shall generally be based on using a system-wide analysis of the water made available and may... water made available by a new project component while maintaining a system-wide perspective on the... Ensuring Protection of the Natural System and Water Availability Consistent With the Goals and Purpose...

  3. 33 CFR 385.35 - Achievement of the benefits of the Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District in determining if existing legal sources of water... Water Management District shall consult with the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force in the..., the Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall conduct other...

  4. Defense Commissaries: DOD Needs to Improve Business Processes to Ensure Patron Benefits and Achieve Operational Efficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    cost of business operations, competition in their market , and the need to generate a profit. In addition, different product distribution options... market conditions such as local labor costs as would be true for a commercial grocery store. Figure 1 shows how DeCA allocated $1.3 billion in...savings rate is calculated as a weighted average based on the market shares from sales in the previous fiscal year

  5. The Benefits of Preschool: Do Children Who Attend Preschool Prior to Kindergarten Achieve Higher Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine what, if any, impact that attending a four year old kindergarten program had on five year old kindergarteners reading ability as measured by Dominie testing, compared to those five year olds who did not attend a four year old program at Inman Elementary School. The significance of this study…

  6. [Biochemistry for the benefit of humanity (practical achievements of my scientific work)].

    PubMed

    Huliĭ, M F

    2005-01-01

    Science unites theory and practice, but theory is always in advance. Even our works (mentioned above) which are also important for practice and were awarded the State prizes could not be made without preliminary theoretical investigations. It should be said that our works with elaborated methods of therapy and drugs to treat chronic alcoholism, drug addiction, leucosis are rather of theoretical than of practical importance. Some our works which proved that carbon dioxide is the basis of life are also of especially great theoretical value. The paper deals with the investigations devoted to the problems of biochemistry in cattle breeding (the raising of fat content in milk; elaboration of the efficient method of fodder ensilage; raising of milk yield using the drug "Karboxilin"; development of the methods of isolation of crystalline glucose-oxidase and catalase used for clarifying blood) as well as to the problems of biochemistry in medicine (creation of the drug "Microcid", antileucosis drug "Corectin", drugs "Medichronal" and "Medicit" for treating alcoholism and drug addiction, drug "Namacit" for hindering the organism aging). Great attention is given to the problem of relations between the theoretical conception concerning the importance of CO2 in vital activity of human and animal organism and production of new drugs.

  7. Words matter: distinguishing "personalized medicine" and "biologically personalized therapeutics".

    PubMed

    Cherny, Nathan I; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Emanuel, Linda; Fallowfield, Lesley; Francis, Prudence A; Gabizon, Alberto; Piccart, Martine J; Sidransky, David; Soussan-Gutman, Lior; Tziraki, Chariklia

    2014-12-01

    "Personalized medicine" has become a generic term referring to techniques that evaluate either the host or the disease to enhance the likelihood of beneficial patient outcomes from treatment interventions. There is, however, much more to personalization of care than just identifying the biotherapeutic strategy with the highest likelihood of benefit. In its new meaning, "personalized medicine" could overshadow the individually tailored, whole-person care that is at the bedrock of what people need and want when they are ill. Since names and definitional terms set the scope of the discourse, they have the power to define what personalized medicine includes or does not include, thus influencing the scope of the professional purview regarding the delivery of personalized care. Taxonomic accuracy is important in understanding the differences between therapeutic interventions that are distinguishable in their aims, indications, scope, benefits, and risks. In order to restore the due emphasis to the patient and his or her needs, we assert that it is necessary, albeit belated, to deconflate the contemporary term "personalized medicine" by taxonomizing this therapeutic strategy more accurately as "biologically personalized therapeutics" (BPT). The scope of truly personalized medicine and its relationship to biologically personalized therapeutics is described, emphasizing that the best of care must give due recognition and emphasis to both BPT and truly personalized medicine.

  8. 26 CFR 1.436-1 - Limits on benefits and benefit accruals under single employer defined benefit plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limits on benefits and benefit accruals under... § 1.436-1 Limits on benefits and benefit accruals under single employer defined benefit plans. (a...) Limitations on prohibited payments. (1) AFTAP less than 60 percent. (2) Bankruptcy. (3) Limited payment...

  9. The Impact of Structured Note Taking Strategies on Math Achievement of Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gregory Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Student math achievement continues to be a national, state, and local concern. Research suggests that note taking can improve academic achievement, but current research has failed to report how low achievers might benefit from using note taking during math classes. The purpose of this study was to determine if teaching students structured note…

  10. Academic Outcomes from Between-Class Achievement Grouping: The Australian Primary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Grouping students by academic achievement level has been practised in a wide variety of forms and contexts for over a century. Despite a general consensus in the research that between-class achievement grouping provides no overall benefit for students, the practice has persisted in various guises. Between-class achievement grouping is common in…

  11. Effect of Therapeutic Modalities on Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lake, David A.; Wofford, Nancy H.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common orthopaedic condition for which operative and nonoperative treatments have been used. Therapeutic modalities have been recommended for the treatment of patients with PFPS—including cold, ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, electrical stimulation for pain control, electromyographic biofeedback, and laser. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of therapeutic modalities for the treatment of patients with PFPS. Data Sources: In May and August 2010, Medline was searched using the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science Citation Index, Science Direct, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health, and Your Journals@OVID. Study Selection: Selected studies were randomized controlled trials that used a therapeutic modality to treat patients with PFPS. The review included articles with all outcome measures relevant for the PFPS patient: knee extension and flexion strength (isokinetic and isometric), patellofemoral pain assessment during activities of daily life, functional tests (eg, squats), Kujala patellofemoral score, and electromyographic recording from knee flexors and extensors and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional areas. Data Extraction: Authors conducted independent quality appraisals of studies using the PEDro Scale and a system designed for analysis of studies on interventions for patellofemoral pain. Results: Twelve studies met criteria: 1 on the effects of cold and ultrasound together, ice alone, iontophoresis, and phonophoresis; 3, neuromuscular electrical stimulation; 4, electromyographic biofeedback; 3, electrical stimulation for control of pain; and 1, laser. Discussion: Most studies were of low to moderate quality. Some reported that therapeutic modalities, when combined with other treatments, may be of some benefit for pain management or other symptoms. There was no consistent evidence of any beneficial effect when a therapeutic modality was used alone

  12. How to Use Equipment Therapeutically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowne, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    Shares therapeutic and economic practices surrounding equipment used in New York's Higher Horizons adventure program of therapy for troubled youth. Encourages educators, therapists, and administrators to explore relationship between equipment selection, program goals, and clients. (NEC)

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Parekkadan, Biju; Milwid, Jack M.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are being clinically explored as a new therapeutic for treating a variety of immune-mediated diseases. First heralded as a regenerative therapy for skeletal tissue repair, MSCs have recently been shown to modulate endogenous tissue and immune cells. Preclinical studies of the mechanism of action suggest that the therapeutic effects afforded by MSC transplantation are short-lived and related to dynamic, paracrine interactions between MSCs and host cells. Therefore, representations of MSCs as drug-loaded particles may allow for pharmacokinetic models to predict the therapeutic activity of MSC transplants as a function of drug delivery mode. By integrating principles of MSC biology, therapy, and engineering, the field is armed to usher in the next generation of stem cell therapeutics. PMID:20415588

  14. Therapeutic Recreation and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    1993-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation is a means of empowering individuals with disabilities through arts or sports. The field has developed differently in the United States and the United Kingdom; the former emphasizes professionalization and the latter the right to adult education. (SK)

  15. Inhalation delivery of protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kane, Colleen; O'Neil, Karyn; Conk, Michelle; Picha, Kristen

    2013-04-01

    Inhaled therapeutics are used routinely to treat a variety of pulmonary diseases including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. In addition, biological therapies represent the fastest growing segment of approved pharmaceuticals. However, despite the increased availability of biological therapies, nearly all inhaled therapeutics are small molecule drugs with only a single inhaled protein therapeutic approved. There remains a significant unmet need for therapeutics in pulmonary diseases, and biological therapies with potential to alter disease progression represent a significant opportunity to treat these challenging diseases. This review provides a background into efforts to develop inhaled biological therapies and highlights some of the associated challenges. In addition, we speculate on the ideal properties of a biologic therapy for inhaled delivery.

  16. Targeted Strategies for Henipavirus Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Bossart, Katharine N; Bingham, John; Middleton, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Hendra and Nipah viruses are related emergent paramyxoviruses that infect and cause disease in animals and humans. Disease manifests as a generalized vasculitis affecting multiple organs, but is the most severe in the respiratory and central nervous systems. The high case fatality and person-to-person transmission associated with the most recent NiV outbreaks, and the recent re-emergence of HeV, emphasize the importance and necessity of effective therapeutics for these novel agents. In recent years henipavirus research has revealed a more complete understanding of pathogenesis and, as a consequence, viable approaches towards vaccines and therapeutics have emerged. All strategies target early steps in viral replication including receptor binding and membrane fusion. Animal models have been developed, some of which may prove more valuable than others for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic agents and regimes. Assessments of protective host immunity and drug pharmacokinetics will be crucial to the further advancement of therapeutic compounds. PMID:19440455

  17. State of the art in benefit-risk analysis: introduction.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, H; Tijhuis, M J; Gunnlaugsdóttir, H; Kalogeras, N; Leino, O; Luteijn, J M; Magnússon, S H; Odekerken, G; Pohjola, M V; Tuomisto, J T; Ueland, Ø; White, B C; Holm, F

    2012-01-01

    Risk-taking is normal in everyday life if there are associated (perceived) benefits. Benefit-Risk Analysis (BRA) compares the risk of a situation to its related benefits and addresses the acceptability of the risk. Over the past years BRA in relation to food and food ingredients has gained attention. Food, and even the same food ingredient, may confer both beneficial and adverse effects. Measures directed at food safety may lead to suboptimal or insufficient levels of ingredients from a benefit perspective. In BRA, benefits and risks of food (ingredients) are assessed in one go and may conditionally be expressed into one currency. This allows the comparison of adverse and beneficial effects to be qualitative and quantitative. A BRA should help policy-makers to make more informed and balanced benefit-risk management decisions. Not allowing food benefits to occur in order to guarantee food safety is a risk management decision much the same as accepting some risk in order to achieve more benefits. BRA in food and nutrition is making progress, but difficulties remain. The field may benefit from looking across its borders to learn from other research areas. The BEPRARIBEAN project (Best Practices for Risk-Benefit Analysis: experience from out of food into food; http://en.opasnet.org/w/Bepraribean) aims to do so, by working together with Medicines, Food Microbiology, Environmental Health, Economics & Marketing-Finance and Consumer Perception. All perspectives are reviewed and subsequently integrated to identify opportunities for further development of BRA for food and food ingredients. Interesting issues that emerge are the varying degrees of risk that are deemed acceptable within the areas and the trend towards more open and participatory BRA processes. A set of 6 'state of the art' papers covering the above areas and a paper integrating the separate (re)views are published in this volume.

  18. Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autran, Brigitte; Carcelain, Guislaine; Combadiere, Béhazine; Debre, Patrice

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to prevent severe complications of a chronic infection by reinforcing host defenses when some immune control, albeit insufficient, can already be demonstrated and when a conventional antimicrobial therapy either is not available or has limited efficacy. We focus on the rationale and challenges behind this still controversial strategy and provide examples from three major chronic infectious diseases-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and human papillomavirus-for which the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines is currently being evaluated.

  19. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT AND THE NAVAJO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAAS, JOHN; MELVILLE, ROBERT

    A STUDY WAS DEVISED TO APPRAISE THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF NAVAJO STUDENTS LIVING IN DORMITORIES AWAY FROM THE INDIAN RESERVATION. THE FOLLOWING SEVEN FACTORS WERE CHOSEN TO BE INVESTIGATED AS BEING DIRECTLY RELATED TO ACHIEVEMENT--(1) INTELLIGENCE, (2) READING ABILITY, (3) ANXIETY, (4) SELF-CONCEPT, (5) MOTIVATION, (6) VERBAL DEVELOPMENT, (7)…

  20. Sociocultural Origins of Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theoretical review of work on sociocultural influences on achievement, focusing on a critical evaluation of the work of David McClellan. Offers an alternative conception of achievement motivation which stresses the role of contextual and situational factors in addition to personality factors. Available from: Transaction Periodicals…

  1. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do…

  2. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  3. Early Intervention and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hormes, Mridula T.

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Education has been rigorous in holding all states accountable with regard to student achievement. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 clearly laid out federal mandates for all schools to follow. K-12 leaders of public schools are very aware of the fact that results in terms of student achievement need to improve…

  4. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  5. Asperger Syndrome and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Deborah E.; Barnhill, Gena P.; Myles, Brenda Smith; Hagiwara, Taku; Simpson, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    A study focused on identifying the academic characteristics of 21 children and youth who have Asperger syndrome. Students had an extraordinary range of academic achievement scores, extending from significantly above average to far below grade level. Lowest achievement scores were shown for numerical operations, listening comprehension, and written…

  6. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  7. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  8. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  9. Benefits of exercise during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Prather, Heidi; Spitznagle, Tracy; Hunt, Devyani

    2012-11-01

    There is a direct link between healthy mothers and healthy infants. Exercise and appropriate nutrition are important contributors to maternal physical and psychological health. The benefits and potential risks of exercise during pregnancy have gained even more attention, with a number of studies having been published after the 2002 American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists guidelines. A review of the literature was conducted by using PubMed, Scopus, and Embase to assess the literature regarding the benefits of exercise during pregnancy. The search revealed 219 publications, which the authors then narrowed to 125 publications. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the known benefits of exercise to the mother, fetus, and newborn.

  10. Health benefits of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha

    2014-01-01

    Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stem. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used as a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborate on details its health benefits.

  11. 31 CFR 29.343 - Disability benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disability benefits. 29.343 Section... Federal Benefit Payments § 29.343 Disability benefits. (a) The general rule that Federal Benefit Payments... retirement and separated on June 30, 1997, does not apply to disability benefits prior to optional...

  12. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a...) Reduction of benefits. If retirement benefits of a principal are reduced because of reemployment,...

  13. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a...) Reduction of benefits. If retirement benefits of a principal are reduced because of reemployment,...

  14. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a...) Reduction of benefits. If retirement benefits of a principal are reduced because of reemployment,...

  15. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a...) Reduction of benefits. If retirement benefits of a principal are reduced because of reemployment,...

  16. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a...) Reduction of benefits. If retirement benefits of a principal are reduced because of reemployment,...

  17. 31 CFR 29.343 - Disability benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disability benefits. 29.343 Section... Federal Benefit Payments § 29.343 Disability benefits. (a) The general rule that Federal Benefit Payments... retirement and separated on June 30, 1997, does not apply to disability benefits prior to optional...

  18. 31 CFR 29.343 - Disability benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disability benefits. 29.343 Section... Federal Benefit Payments § 29.343 Disability benefits. (a) The general rule that Federal Benefit Payments... retirement and separated on June 30, 1997, does not apply to disability benefits prior to optional...

  19. Potential Benefits of Commissioning California Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, Nance; Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-01-01

    Commissioning California's houses can result in better performing systems and houses. In turn, this will result in more efficient use of energy, carbon emission reductions, and improved occupant comfort. In particular, commissioning houses can save a significant amount of HVAC-related energy (15 to 30% in existing houses, 10 to 20% in new conventional houses, and up to 8% in advanced energy efficiency houses). The process that we considered includes corrective measures that could be implemented together during construction or during a single site visit (e.g., air tightening, duct sealing, and refrigerant and air handler airflow corrections in a new or existing house). Taking advantage of additional, more complex opportunities (e.g., installing new windows in an existing house, replacing the heating and air conditioning system in a new or existing house) can result in additional HVAC-related energy savings (60 to 75% in existing houses, and 50 to 60% in new conventional houses). The commissioning-related system and house performance improvements and energy savings translate to additional benefits throughout California and beyond. By applying commissioning principles to their work, the building community (builders and contractors) benefit from reduced callbacks and lower warranty costs. HERS raters and inspectors will have access to an expanded market sector. As the commissioning process rectifies construction defects and code problems, building code officials benefit from better compliance with codes. The utilities benefit from reduced peak demand, which can translate into lower energy acquisition costs. As houses perform closer to expectations, governmental bodies (e.g., the California Energy Commission and the Air Resources Board) benefit from greater assurance that actual energy consumption and carbon emissions are closer to the levels mandated in codes and standards, resulting in better achievement of state energy conservation and environmental goals. California

  20. [Assessment of benefit and efficiency of innovative medical devices].

    PubMed

    Perleth, M; Lühmann, D

    2010-08-01

    Medical devices cover a wide spectrum of products with very different diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, for market licensing, uniform rules apply. Uniform rules are also valid for coverage decisions in German health care. In this article, the criteria for the assessment of benefit and efficiency of innovative biomedical technologies are described from the perspective of the statutory health insurance system. The key concepts relevant in the mandatory health insurance' "innovation"' "benefit", and "economic efficiency" are characterized. Only measurable effects of an intervention which lead to a more than marginal improvement in prognosis, symptoms, or quality of life as compared to a standard treatment are considered as beneficial. An innovative device is, therefore, subject to a benefit assessment if it is not yet reimbursed (or not yet part of the benefit package), when it is relevant to the health care system and a high public interest exists. In addition, it is important to consider a positive benefit assessment as a part of the value added chain to avoid conflicts of interest. Within the scope of early technology assessment, some conclusions can already be drawn in the early developmental stage of a device.