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Sample records for achieve therapeutic effects

  1. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  2. Is the required therapeutic effect always achieved by racemic switch of proton-pump inhibitors?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Yan, Xiao-Feng; Pan, Wen-Sheng; Zeng, Su

    2008-01-01

    Many of the drugs currently used in medical practice are racemates. The enantiomers of a racemic drug differ in pharmacodynamics and/or pharmacokinetics, thus in some cases it is preferable to develop pure enantiomers by racemic switch. In a recent study by Pai et al, dexrabeprazole [R(+)-rabeprazole] (10 mg) was found to be more effective than rabeprazole (20 mg) in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. We read with great interest in this study and discussed whether such racemic switch would be applicable to other proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). A literature review indicates that stereoselective pharmacokinetics, rather than stereoselective pharmacological activity, is the main cause of differences in clinical efficacy between pure enantiomer and racemic PPI. Racemic switches of PPI provide the therapeutic advantages such as reducing metabolic load on the body, simplifying pharmacokinetics, providing benefit to the non-responders to standard dose of racemate, more homogenous response to treatment and better efficacy with equal safety. Further studies in quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are needed to address the fact that the preferred enantiomer of PPI is not always in the same absolute configuration, i.e., S-form is for omeprazole, pantoprazole and tenatoprazole whereas R-form is for lansoprazole and rabeprazole. PMID:18442220

  3. Use of boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles with ROS scavenging ability in boron neutron capture therapy to achieve high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenyu; Horiguchi, Yukichi; Nakai, Kei; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Minoru; Ono, Koji; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2016-10-01

    A boron delivery system with high therapeutic efficiency and low adverse effects is crucial for a successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). In this study, we developed boron cluster-containing redox nanoparticles (BNPs) via polyion complex (PIC) formation, using a newly synthesized poly(ethylene glycol)-polyanion (PEG-polyanion, possessing a (10)B-enriched boron cluster as a side chain of one of its segments) and PEG-polycation (possessing a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger as a side chain of one of its segments). The BNPs exhibited high colloidal stability, selective uptake in tumor cells, specific accumulation, and long retention in tumor tissue and ROS scavenging ability. After thermal neutron irradiation, significant suppression of tumor growth was observed in the BNP-treated group, with only 5-ppm (10)B in tumor tissues, whereas at least 20-ppm (10)B is generally required for low molecular weight (LMW) (10)B agents. In addition, increased leukocyte levels were observed in the LMW (10)B agent-treated group after thermal neutron irradiation, and not in BNP-treated group, which might be attributed to its ROS scavenging ability. No visual metastasis of tumor cells to other organs was observed 1 month after irradiation in the BNP-treated group. These results suggest that BNPs are promising for enhancing the BNCT performance. PMID:27467416

  4. Challenges and achievements in the therapeutic modulation of aquaporin functionality.

    PubMed

    Beitz, Eric; Golldack, André; Rothert, Monja; von Bülow, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water and solute channels have basic physiological functions throughout the human body. AQP-facilitated water permeability across cell membranes is required for rapid reabsorption of water from pre-urine in the kidneys and for sustained near isosmolar water fluxes e.g. in the brain, eyes, inner ear, and lungs. Cellular water permeability is further connected to cell motility. AQPs of the aquaglyceroporin subfamily are necessary for lipid degradation in adipocytes and glycerol uptake into the liver, as well as for skin moistening. Modulation of AQP function is desirable in several pathophysiological situations, such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Sjögren's syndrome, Menière's disease, heart failure, or tumors to name a few. Attempts to design or to find effective small molecule AQP inhibitors have yielded only a few hits. Challenges reside in the high copy number of AQP proteins in the cell membranes, and spatial restrictions in the protein structure. This review gives an overview on selected physiological and pathophysiological conditions in which modulation of AQP functions appears beneficial and discusses first achievements in the search of drug-like AQP inhibitors. PMID:26277280

  5. Latest developments in gene transfer technology: achievements, perspectives, and controversies over therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Romano, G; Michell, P; Pacilio, C; Giordano, A

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, more than 300 phase I and phase II gene-based clinical trials have been conducted worldwide for the treatment of cancer and monogenic disorders. Lately, these trials have been extended to the treatment of AIDS and, to a lesser extent, cardiovascular diseases. There are 27 currently active gene therapy protocols for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in the USA. Preclinical studies are currently in progress to evaluate the possibility of increasing the number of gene therapy clinical trials for cardiopathies, and of beginning new gene therapy programs for neurologic illnesses, autoimmuno diseases, allergies, regeneration of tissues, and to implement procedures of allogeneic tissues or cell transplantation. In addition, gene transfer technology has allowed for the development of innovative vaccine design, known as genetic immunization. This technique has already been applied in the AIDS vaccine programs in the USA. These programs aim to confer protective immunity against HIV-1 transmission to individuals who are at risk of infection. Research programs have also been considered to develop therapeutic vaccines for patients with AIDS and generate either preventive or therapeutic vaccines against malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis A, B and C viruses, influenza virus, La Crosse virus, and Ebola virus. The potential therapeutic applications of gene transfer technology are enormous. However, the effectiveness of gene therapy programs is still questioned. Furthermore, there is growing concern over the matter of safety of gene delivery and controversy has arisen over the proposal to begin in utero gene therapy clinical trials for the treatment of inherited genetic disorders. From this standpoint, despite the latest significant achievements reported in vector design, it is not possible to predict to what extent gene therapeutic interventions will be effective in patients, and in what time frame. PMID:10661569

  6. Mechanisms and therapeutic effectiveness of lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino; Aponte, Maria; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome is not a silent ecosystem but exerts several physiological and immunological functions. For many decades, lactobacilli have been used as an effective therapy for treatment of several pathological conditions displaying an overall positive safety profile. This review summarises the mechanisms and clinical evidence supporting therapeutic efficacy of lactobacilli. We searched Pubmed/Medline using the keyword ‘Lactobacillus’. Selected papers from 1950 to 2015 were chosen on the basis of their content. Relevant clinical and experimental articles using lactobacilli as therapeutic agents have been included. Applications of lactobacilli include kidney support for renal insufficiency, pancreas health, management of metabolic imbalance, and cancer treatment and prevention. In vitro and in vivo investigations have shown that prolonged lactobacilli administration induces qualitative and quantitative modifications in the human gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem with encouraging perspectives in counteracting pathology-associated physiological and immunological changes. Few studies have highlighted the risk of translocation with subsequent sepsis and bacteraemia following probiotic administration but there is still a lack of investigations on the dose effect of these compounds. Great care is thus required in the choice of the proper Lactobacillus species, their genetic stability and the translocation risk, mainly related to inflammatory disease-induced gut mucosa enhanced permeability. Finally, we need to determine the adequate amount of bacteria to be delivered in order to achieve the best clinical efficacy decreasing the risk of side effects. PMID:26578541

  7. Mechanisms and therapeutic effectiveness of lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino; Aponte, Maria; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2016-03-01

    The gut microbiome is not a silent ecosystem but exerts several physiological and immunological functions. For many decades, lactobacilli have been used as an effective therapy for treatment of several pathological conditions displaying an overall positive safety profile. This review summarises the mechanisms and clinical evidence supporting therapeutic efficacy of lactobacilli. We searched Pubmed/Medline using the keyword 'Lactobacillus'. Selected papers from 1950 to 2015 were chosen on the basis of their content. Relevant clinical and experimental articles using lactobacilli as therapeutic agents have been included. Applications of lactobacilli include kidney support for renal insufficiency, pancreas health, management of metabolic imbalance, and cancer treatment and prevention. In vitro and in vivo investigations have shown that prolonged lactobacilli administration induces qualitative and quantitative modifications in the human gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem with encouraging perspectives in counteracting pathology-associated physiological and immunological changes. Few studies have highlighted the risk of translocation with subsequent sepsis and bacteraemia following probiotic administration but there is still a lack of investigations on the dose effect of these compounds. Great care is thus required in the choice of the proper Lactobacillus species, their genetic stability and the translocation risk, mainly related to inflammatory disease-induced gut mucosa enhanced permeability. Finally, we need to determine the adequate amount of bacteria to be delivered in order to achieve the best clinical efficacy decreasing the risk of side effects. PMID:26578541

  8. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence

    PubMed Central

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-01-01

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  9. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence.

    PubMed

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-07-28

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  10. Controlling subcellular delivery to optimize therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    Mossalam, Mohanad; Dixon, Andrew S; Lim, Carol S

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on drug targeting to specific cellular organelles for therapeutic purposes. Drugs can be delivered to all major organelles of the cell (cytosol, endosome/lysosome, nucleus, nucleolus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes and proteasomes) where they exert specific effects in those particular subcellular compartments. Delivery can be achieved by chemical (e.g., polymeric) or biological (e.g., signal sequences) means. Unidirectional targeting to individual organelles has proven to be immensely successful for drug therapy. Newer technologies that accommodate multiple signals (e.g., protein switch and virus-like delivery systems) mimic nature and allow for a more sophisticated approach to drug delivery. Harnessing different methods of targeting multiple organelles in a cell will lead to better drug delivery and improvements in disease therapy. PMID:21113240

  11. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  12. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Setting and Monitoring Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Russell R.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluated therapeutic effectiveness of setting goals in behavioral terms while monitoring subject's progress in attaining these goals. Greater beneficial changes in patient attainment of goals were effected using a structured patient-therapist collaboration on weekly goals. Results indicate the goal attainment model with periodic monitoring is…

  13. [Clinical application and therapeutic effects of elementalin].

    PubMed

    Xu, Q S

    1990-12-01

    Elementalin, similar to Vivonex NH in composition. consisted of an amino acid mixture and many other essential nutrients. The amino acid mixture was extracted from swine blood and supplemented with some crystal L-amino acids. Animal experiment suggested that it have a better therapeutic effects than a domestic elemental diet. 86 malnourished patients with digestive tract diseases were selected to carry out its clinic evaluation. The results showed that it could maintain or increase body weight, improve nitrogen balance and elevate the level of plasma proteins postoperatively. The total effective rate was 94.2%. No obvious side effect was found. PMID:2128267

  14. HDAC4 as a potential therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases: a summary of recent achievements

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Michal; Zielonka, Daniel; Carnemolla, Alisia; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T.; Guidez, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    For the past decade protein acetylation has been shown to be a crucial post-transcriptional modification involved in the regulation of protein functions. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) mediate acetylation of histones which results in the nucleosomal relaxation associated with gene expression. The reverse reaction, histone deacetylation, is mediated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) leading to chromatin condensation followed by transcriptional repression. HDACs are divided into distinct classes: I, IIa, IIb, III, and IV, on the basis of size and sequence homology, as well as formation of distinct repressor complexes. Implications of HDACs in many diseases, such as cancer, heart failure, and neurodegeneration, have identified these molecules as unique and attractive therapeutic targets. The emergence of HDAC4 among the members of class IIa family as a major player in synaptic plasticity raises important questions about its functions in the brain. The characterization of HDAC4 specific substrates and molecular partners in the brain will not only provide a better understanding of HDAC4 biological functions but also might help to develop new therapeutic strategies to target numerous malignancies. In this review we highlight and summarize recent achievements in understanding the biological role of HDAC4 in neurodegenerative processes. PMID:25759639

  15. Therapeutic effectiveness of medications taken during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    1992-01-01

    The therapeutic effectiveness of medications during spaceflight is considered in light of extensive anecdotal and experimental evidence. Attention is given to a range of medications for space motion sickness, sleeplessness, and physical discomfort. About 70 individual cases are reviewed in which crewmembers used such medications as: (1) scopolamine hydrobromide, dextroamphetamine sulfate, and promethazine hydrochloride for motion sickness; (2) metoclopramide hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride for bowel motility; and (3) aspirin and acetaminophen for headache and back pain. The effectiveness of orally ingested medications for space motion sickness is shown to be very low, while promethazine hydrochloride is effective when administered intramuscularly. The medications for pain are shown to be generally effective, and the use of sleep-inducing medications is limited by potentially detrimental performance effects.

  16. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    PubMed Central

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  17. Programmed Student Achievement: A Hawthorne Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Nabil F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of college students were given instructions using different testing techniques to determine whether the superior performance obtained with Programed Student Achievement (PA) was due to a Hawthorne Effect. Results seem to preclude any attempt to interpret the effectiveness of PA on that basis. (Editor/JT)

  18. Potential and effective meaning in therapeutic ritual.

    PubMed

    McCreery, J L

    1979-03-01

    Anthropologists who accept the functionalist dogma that everything in a culture is related to everything else can easily demonstrate from their own point of view that any ritual is richly meaningful. If, then, the healing power of therapeutic ritual depends on making illness meaningful, any ritual, if seen from this perspective, should be efficacious. We must distinguish, however, between potential and effective meaning, i.e. what a ritual might mean and what it does mean to participants in it who generally lack an anthropologist's global view of their culture. Effective meaning can be assessed by examining a ritual's relevance to the situation in which it occurs and factors which facilitate or hinder communication of what it might mean to particular persons. This argument is illustrated by analyzing the meaning of a Chinese healing ritual in two different situations in which it occurs. PMID:498802

  19. Salacia reticulata has therapeutic effects on obesity.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Yuichiro; Harasawa, Yukiko; Matsui, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Tomatsu, Shunji; Aburada, Masaki

    2014-10-01

    Salacia reticulata Wight (S. reticulata) is a herbal medicine used for treatment of early diabetes in Ayurvedic medicine. In previous reports, the extract of S. reticulata showed preventive effects on obesity and various metabolic disorders and a suppressive effect on differentiation in premature adipocytes. The aim of this research was to elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of the extract of S. reticulata on obesity and various metabolic disorders in 12-week-old TSOD mice with obesity and metabolic disorders and in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In TSOD mice, S. reticulata therapy produced a reduction in body weight and mesenteric fat accumulation, an improvement in abnormal glucose metabolism, and an increase in adiponectin level in plasma. In addition, the mRNA expressions of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adiponectin were increased in mesenteric fat. In in vitro experiments, S. reticulata therapy produced suppression of intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation and enhancement of glycerol release into the medium in mature 3T3-L1 cells. The mRNA expressions of lipogenesis factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, and fatty acid binding protein 4) were down-regulated, while the expressions of lipolysis factor (adipose tissue triacylglycerol lipase and HSL) and adiponectin were up-regulated. Moreover, the extract of S. reticulata enhanced the expression of total AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and phosphorylated AMPKα in mature adipocytes. These findings demonstrate that the extract of S. reticulata has therapeutic effects on obesity and metabolic disorders by enhancing lipogenesis genes and suppressing lipolysis genes through the activation of AMPKα in adipocytes. PMID:24838513

  20. Therapeutic Effect of Cereal Grains: A Review.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Poonam; Kaushik, Geetanjali

    2016-04-01

    Over the last few decades, life style changes have resulted in drastic increase in the incidence of diabetes all over the world, especially in the developing countries. Oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin form the main stay in controlling diabetes but they have prominent side effects and fail to significantly alter the course of diabetic complications. Appropriate diet and exercise programs that form a part of lifestyle modifications have proven to be greatly effective in the management of this disease. Dietary therapy is showing a bright future in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Cereal grains which form the staple diet for humans in most of the countries are increasingly being used to treat diabetes and other associated disorders in view of their anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic potential. Given this background, this paper reviews the possible mechanisms of lowering blood sugar and cholesterol levels possessed by various commonly consumed cereal grains. It is concluded that cereal grains are not only the potential sources of energy but also possess the therapeutic role in preventing metabolic disorders and decreasing the risk factors for cardiovascular and renal diseases. PMID:25746052

  1. Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Huajun; Wang, Taisen; Tang, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice and the safety. Methods: Sixty-eight neonates with jaundice were divided into a control group and a treatment group (n=34) randomly, and treated by blue light phototherapy and that in combination with probiotics. The serum bilirubin levels were detected before and 1, 4, 7 days after treatment. The time when therapy showed effects and jaundice faded, clinical outcomes as well as adverse reactions were recorded. The categorical data were expressed as (±s) and compared by t test. The numerical data were expressed as (case, %) and compared by χ² test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Serum bilirubin levels of the two groups were similar before treatment (P>0.05). The levels significantly decreased 1, 4 and 7 days after treatment (P<0.05), but there was no significant inter-group difference on the post-treatment 1st day (P>0.05). The treatment group underwent more significant decreases on the 4th and 7th days than the control group did (P=0.002, 0.001). In the treatment group, the therapy exerted effects on (1.0±0.5) d and jaundice faded on (3.8±1.7) d, which were (2.6±0.6) d and (5.3±2.1) d respectively in the control group (P=0.001, 0.002). The effective rate of the treatment group significantly exceeded that of the control group (P=0.002). There were no obvious adverse reactions in either group. Conclusions: Probiotics lowered the serum bilirubin levels of neonates with jaundice rapidly, safely and significantly, and accelerated jaundice fading as well. This method is worthy of application in clinical practice. PMID:26649008

  2. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  3. Achievement of Vancomycin Therapeutic Goals in Critically Ill Patients: Early Individualization May Be Beneficial

    PubMed Central

    Shahrami, Bita; Najmeddin, Farhad; Mousavi, Sarah; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi, Kourosh; Mojtahedzadeh, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to assess and validate the effectiveness of early dose adjustment of vancomycin based on first dose monitoring in achieving target recommended goal in critically ill patients. Methods. Twenty critically ill patients with sepsis received loading dose of 25 mg/kg of vancomycin and then were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Group 1 received maximum empirical doses of vancomycin of 15 mg/kg every 8 hrs. In group 2, the doses were individualized based on serum concentrations of vancomycin. First dose nonsteady state sampling was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters of the patients within 24 hours. Results. Steady state trough serum concentrations were significantly higher in group 2 in comparison with group 1 (19.4 ± 4.4 mg/L versus 14.4 ± 4.3 mg/L) (P = 0.03). Steady state AUCs were significantly higher in group 2 compared with group 1 (665.9 ± 136.5 mg·hr/L versus 490.7 ± 101.1 mg·hr/L) (P = 0.008). Conclusions. With early individualized dosing regimen, significantly more patients achieved peak and trough steady state concentrations. In the context of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic goal of area under the time concentration curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) ≥400 and also to obtain trough serum concentration of vancomycin of ≥15 mg/L, it is necessary to individualize doses of vancomycin in critically ill patients. PMID:27073695

  4. Clinically achievable plasma deferoxamine concentrations are therapeutic in a rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Merali, S; Chin, K; Del Angel, L; Grady, R W; Armstrong, M; Clarkson, A B

    1995-01-01

    The iron-chelating drug deferoxamine (DFO) has been shown to be active in animal models of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), with effective daily intraperitoneal bolus dosages being 400 and 1,000 mg of DFO mesylate kg of body weight-1 in mouse and rat models, respectively. Continuous infusion produced a moderately improved response in a rat model. The data reported here demonstrate that the response achieved by continuous infusion of 195 and 335 mg of DFO mesylate kg-1 day-1 in the rat model is associated with mean concentrations in plasma of 1.3 and 2.5 micrograms of DFO ml-1 and mean concentrations in lung tissue of 4.9 and 6.0 micrograms of DFO g of lung tissue-1, respectively. Since current clinical use of DFO mesylate for the treatment of iron overload produces higher concentrations in the plasma of patients, DFO may prove to be a useful anti-PCP treatment. The 2.4- to 3.8-fold higher DFO concentration observed in lung tissue compared with that observed in plasma may be important in the response of PCP to DFO. PMID:8540710

  5. Spiral Enteroscopy Utilizing Capsule Location Index for Achieving High Diagnostic and Therapeutic Yield

    PubMed Central

    Korenblit, Jason; O'Hare, Brendan; Shnitser, Anastasia; Kedika, Ramalinga; Matro, Rebecca; Halegoua-De Marzio, Dina; Infantolino, Anthony; Conn, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Spiral enteroscopy (SE) is a new small bowel endoscopic technique. Our aim is to review the diagnostic and therapeutic yield, safety of SE, and the predictive role of prior capsule endoscopy (CE) at an academic center. Methods. A retrospective review of patients undergoing SE after prior CE between 2008 and 2013 was performed. Capsule location index (CLI) was defined as the fraction of total small bowel transit time when the lesion was seen on CE. Results. A total of 174 SEs were performed: antegrade (147) and retrograde (27). Abnormalities on SE were detected in 65% patients. The procedure was safe in patients with surgically altered bowel anatomy (n = 12). The diagnostic yield of antegrade SE decreased with increasing CLI range. The diagnostic yield of retrograde SE decreased on decreasing CLI range. A CLI cutoff of 0.6 was derived that determined the initial route of SE. Vascular ectasias seen on CE were detected in 83% cases on SE; p < 0.01. Conclusions. SE is safe with a high diagnostic and therapeutic yield. CLI is predictive of the success of SE and determines the best route of SE. The type of small bowel pathology targeted by SE may affect its utility and yield. PMID:26681910

  6. [Update of planning tables of cholesterol-lowering therapy orientated to achieve LDL therapeutic targets].

    PubMed

    Masana, Luis; Plana, Núria

    2015-01-01

    This is the third update of a planning-table for use in cholesterol-lowering therapy, so as to obtain LDLc objectives. This is an easy to use laptop tool to help choose the best statin or combination therapy (statin plus ezetimibe) depending on the current LDL concentration of the patient, and the LDLc objective to achieve. It is based on a colour code that indicates the drugs that are efficient enough to help patients to achieve their LDL goal. Along with the table, recommendations are given for the best strategy in order to implement the optimal therapy in a maximum of two clinical encounters. PMID:25865752

  7. [Therapeutic Effects of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells after Irradiation].

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, N V; Alexandrova, S A

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are now considered to be a perspective multifunctional treatment option for radiation side effects. At present.a great number of sufficient evidence has been collected in favor of therapeutic effects of MSCs in acute radiation reactions. It has been shown that MSC-based products injected locally or systemically have therapeutic effects on irradiated organs and tissues. This review presents summarized experimental and clinical data about protective and regenerative effects of MSCs on different radiation-injured organs and tissues; the main probable therapeutic mechanisms of their action are also discussed. PMID:27534063

  8. Effective Delivery of Therapeutic Interventions: Findings from Four Site Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Cathy; Squires, Garry; Bragg, Joanna; Wasilewski, David; Muscutt, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This project follows a survey into the role of UK educational psychologists (EPs) in delivering therapeutic interventions to children and young people. Four educational psychology services (EPSs) that identified themselves as providing effective therapeutic practice were selected on the basis of their qualitative responses to the survey. Site…

  9. Tissue barriers and novel approaches to achieve hepatoselectivity of subcutaneously-injected insulin therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shao, Juntang; Zaro, Jennica L; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Current subcutaneously (s.c.)-injected insulin (INS) products result in a hyperinsulin exposure to peripheral tissues (skeletal muscle and adipose) while INS hardly accesses to liver after injection. This unphysiological distribution raises risks of hypoglycemia episode and causes weight gain after long term treatment. An ideal INS replacement therapy requires the distribution or action of exogenous INS to more closely mimic physiological INS in terms of its preferential hepatic action. However, there are 2 factors that limit the ability of s.c. injected INS to restore the liver: peripheral gradient in INS deficient diabetes patients: (1) the transport of INS in capillary endothelium and peripheral tissues from the injection site; and (2) peripheral INS receptor (IR) mediated INS degradation. In this review, the tissue barriers against efficient liver targeting of s.c. injected INS are discussed and current advances in developing hepatoselective insulin therapeutics are introduced. PMID:27358753

  10. A new perspective on therapeutic inhibition of advanced glycation in diabetic microvascular complications: common downstream endpoints achieved through disparate therapeutic approaches?

    PubMed

    Sourris, Karly C; Harcourt, Brooke E; Forbes, Josephine M

    2009-01-01

    A commonality among the chemically disparate compounds that inhibit the formation and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) or their signalling pathways is their end organ protection in experimental models of diabetes complications. Although this group of therapeutics are structurally and functionally distinct with numerous mechanisms of action, the most important factor governing their therapeutic capability is clearly their ability to alleviate the tissue burden of advanced glycation, rather than the biochemical mechanism by which this is achieved. However, it remains to be determined if it is the reduction in tissue AGE levels per se or inhibition of downstream signal pathways which is ultimately required for end organ protection. For example, a number of these agents stimulate antioxidant defences, modify lipid profiles and inhibit low-grade inflammation. These novel actions emphasise the importance of further examination of the advanced glycation pathway and in particular the diverse action of these agents in ameliorating the development of diabetic complications such as nephropathy. PMID:19556753

  11. The Longitudinal Effects of Achievement Goals and Perceived Control on University Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lia M.; Perry, Raymond P.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Stewart, Tara L.; Newall, Nancy E. G.; Clifton, Rodney A.

    2014-01-01

    In the area of achievement motivation, students' beliefs pertaining to achievement goals and perceived control have separately guided a large amount theoretical and empirical research. However, limited research has considered the simultaneous effects of goals and control on achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine primary and…

  12. Causal Ordering of Academic Self-Concept and Achievement: Effects of Type of Achievement Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinxten, Maarten; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan; D'Haenens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Background: The relation between academic self-concept and achievement has been examined in a large number of studies. The majority of these studies have found evidence for a reciprocal effects model. However, there is an ongoing debate on how students' achievement should be measured and whether the type of achievement indicator (grades, tests,…

  13. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  14. Reciprocal Effects between Adolescent Externalizing Problems and Measures of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Schütte, Kerstin; Taskinen, Päivi; Köller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Student misbehavior is a pervasive problem and may seriously affect academic achievement. Previous research hints at different effects depending on whether achievement tests or achievement judgments are used as academic outcomes. Previous research also indicates that low achievement can conversely contribute to problem behavior and that low…

  15. The therapeutic effects of EGCG on vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yiping; Wang, Suiquan; Lin, Fuquan; Li, Qing; Xu, Aie

    2014-12-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the main chemical constituents of green tea, which has been used as an important traditional Chinese medicine. Green tea has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and immunomodulatory properties. However, the effects of EGCG on vitiligo are not known. We assessed the role of EGCG in vitiligo induced by monobenzone in mice. We demonstrated that EGCG: delayed the time of depigmentation; reduced the prevalence of depigmentation; and decreased the area of depigmentation. Examination of depigmented skin treated with EGCG by reflectance confocal microscopy suggested increased numbers of epidermal melanocytes and histologic examination showed decreased perilesional accumulation of CD8(+) T cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effects of EGCG, levels of inflammatory mediator tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-6 were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum cytokine levels were significantly decreased after administration of EGCG compared with the model group. These results suggested that EGCG may have protective effects against vitiligo, and that it could contribute to suppression of activation of CD8(+) T cells and inflammatory mediators. Based on these results, 5% EGCG was considered to be the most suitable concentration for treating vitiligo, and was used for further study. In addition, we investigated the gene-expression profile of this model in relation to EGCG. Using a 4×44K whole genome oligo microarray assay, 1264 down-regulated genes and 1332 up-regulated genes were recorded in the 5% EGCG group compared with the model group, and selected genes were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our study demonstrated that EGCG administration was significantly associated with a decreased risk of vitiligo. EGCG could be a new preventive agent against vitiligo in the clinical setting. PMID:25128425

  16. [Therapeutic effect of gastrozolum in stomach ulcers].

    PubMed

    Sukhareva, G V; Tsaregorodtseva, T M; Trubitsina, I E; Serova, T I; Goncharenko, L S; Dolgova, N Iu; Zarudnaia, S I; Kuz'mina, O S; Lopatina, I N; Manannikov, I V; Melik-Ogandzhanian, N B

    2003-01-01

    Gastrozolum is the proprietary name of a drug made in Saint Petersburg. Its international nonproprietary name is Omeprazole. The absorption rate is not related to food. Its pharmacotherapeutic action becomes apparent as an inhibitor of the proton pump leading to the inhibition of H+/K(+)-ATPase of the secretory membrane of parietal cells of the stomach mucous membrane and blocking of the concluding stage of hydrochloric acid secretion. The entire action leads to the decrease of the level of basal and induced secretion regardless of the nature of stimulus. As a result of this, symptoms of stomach ulcer decrease, and gastroduodenal ulcers heal faster. Penetrating into the stomach mucous membrane cells, the drug also has a cytoprotective action. The maximum blood concentration (0.6-1.5 mg/l) is found 2-3 hours after a single intake of 40 mg of the drug. It was determined that after the intake of 20 mg of Gastrozolum its action lasts for 24 hours and provides for the inhibition of both night and day secretion. The ricochet syndrome does not take place when the treatment is over. It was proved that Gastrozolum has a bactericidal action on Helicobacter pylori due to the sharp increase of stomach pH, which contributes to the realization of the effect of used components of the anti-helicobacter therapy. The experiment failed to establish any teratogenic or poisonous action on the embryos. The dosage form is a capsule containing 20 mg of Omeprazole in the form of pellets. PMID:14621606

  17. Effect of implant variables on temperatures achieved during ferromagnetic hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, D T; Partington, B P; Steeves, R A; Bartholow, S D; Paliwal, B R

    1992-01-01

    Effects of ferromagnetic implant variables on steady-state temperature were studied in both in vitro (phantom) and in vivo (rabbit hind limb musculature) models. Thermoseed implant variables included: (1) the presence and number of thermoseed sleeves; (2) variations in thermoseed alignment within the oscillating electromagnetic field; (3) generator power levels of 300 W, 600 W, and 1200 W; and (4) separation of thermoseed tracks by 0.8 cm versus 1 cm. When the thermoseeds were aligned parallel to the electromagnetic field, temperature distributions in the in vivo model using bare thermoseeds and thermoseeds encased in a single sleeve (0.1 mm wall thickness) of polyethylene tubing were statistically higher than in tests performed with thermoseeds encased in a double sleeve (0.25 mm over 0.1 mm wall thickness) of tubing (p = 0.006). Nonetheless, average steady-state temperatures above a therapeutic minimum (greater than or equal to 42 degrees C) were achieved at all generator power levels using thermoseeds encased in a double sleeve of tubing and aligned parallel to the electromagnetic field. Gross misalignment of thermoseeds with the electromagnetic field was partly compensated for by utilizing higher generator power levels. Thermoseed tracks separated by 0.8 cm and aligned parallel to the electromagnetic field yielded average steady-state temperatures that were 0.4-2.2 degrees C higher than those obtained with a thermoseed track separation of 1 cm. PMID:1573313

  18. Katrina Effect on Mathematics Achievement in Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, John; Lewis, Mark; Gross, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina caused severe physical damage to the Gulf Coast states of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. Homes and businesses were destroyed. Natural habitats were annihilated, and many Americans were displaced for days, weeks, and even years. This study investigated the within-subject effects and contrasts of poverty, rurality, and…

  19. Glycosylation of Therapeutic Proteins: An Effective Strategy to Optimize Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Solá, Ricardo J.; Griebenow, Kai

    2009-01-01

    During their development and administration, protein-based drugs routinely display suboptimum therapeutic efficacies due to their poor physicochemical and pharmacological properties. These innate liabilities have driven the development of molecular level strategies to improve the therapeutic behavior of protein drugs. Among, the currently developed approaches, glycoengineering is one of the most promising due fact that it has been shown to simultaneously afford improvements over most of the parameters necessary for optimization of protein drug in vivo efficacy (e.g., in vitro and in vivo molecular stability, pharmacodynamic responses, and pharmacokinetic profiles) while allowing for targeting to the desired site of action. The intent of this article is to provide an account of the effects that glycosylation has on the therapeutic efficacy of protein drugs and to describe the current understanding of the mechanisms by which glycosylation leads to such effects. PMID:20055529

  20. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  1. Effect of taxol on the therapeutic efficacy of radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, K.T.; Spicer, K.M.; Means, J.

    1994-05-01

    This investigation was conducted to evaluate the potential of using taxol to maximize the therapeutic effectiveness of radioimmunotherapy. Published studies have shown taxol to be an effective radiosensitizer of tumors to external irradiation by blocking tumor cells in the G{sub 2}/M phases of the cell cycle. In vitro and in vivo studies were carried out to study the effect of low-dose taxol on the therapeutic effectiveness of I-131 anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (OEM-094-20856 MoAb) of human colonic carcinoma (LS-174T cell line). The in vitro clonogenic assay studies indicated taxol effectively enhanced the cell killing effect of I-131 MoAb.

  2. Effect of Therapeutic Modalities on Patients With Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lake, David A.; Wofford, Nancy H.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a common orthopaedic condition for which operative and nonoperative treatments have been used. Therapeutic modalities have been recommended for the treatment of patients with PFPS—including cold, ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, electrical stimulation for pain control, electromyographic biofeedback, and laser. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of therapeutic modalities for the treatment of patients with PFPS. Data Sources: In May and August 2010, Medline was searched using the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science Citation Index, Science Direct, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health, and Your Journals@OVID. Study Selection: Selected studies were randomized controlled trials that used a therapeutic modality to treat patients with PFPS. The review included articles with all outcome measures relevant for the PFPS patient: knee extension and flexion strength (isokinetic and isometric), patellofemoral pain assessment during activities of daily life, functional tests (eg, squats), Kujala patellofemoral score, and electromyographic recording from knee flexors and extensors and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional areas. Data Extraction: Authors conducted independent quality appraisals of studies using the PEDro Scale and a system designed for analysis of studies on interventions for patellofemoral pain. Results: Twelve studies met criteria: 1 on the effects of cold and ultrasound together, ice alone, iontophoresis, and phonophoresis; 3, neuromuscular electrical stimulation; 4, electromyographic biofeedback; 3, electrical stimulation for control of pain; and 1, laser. Discussion: Most studies were of low to moderate quality. Some reported that therapeutic modalities, when combined with other treatments, may be of some benefit for pain management or other symptoms. There was no consistent evidence of any beneficial effect when a therapeutic modality was used alone

  3. Proteomics: in pursuit of effective traumatic brain injury therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lizhnyak, Pavel N.; Ottens, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Effective traumatic brain injury (TBI) therapeutics remain stubbornly elusive. Efforts in the field have been challenged by the heterogeneity of clinical TBI, with greater complexity among underlying molecular phenotypes than initially conceived. Future research must confront the multitude of factors comprising this heterogeneity, representing a big data challenge befitting the coming informatics age. Proteomics is poised to serve a central role in prescriptive therapeutic development, as it offers an efficient endpoint within which to assess post-TBI biochemistry. We examine rationale for multifactor TBI proteomic studies and the particular importance of temporal profiling in defining biochemical sequences and guiding therapeutic development. Lastly, we offer perspective on repurposing biofluid proteomics to develop theragnostic assays with which to prescribe, monitor and assess pharmaceutics for improved translation and outcome for TBI patients. PMID:25603864

  4. Pleiotropic effects of statins: new therapeutic targets in drug design.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Onkar; Dhawan, Veena; Sharma, P L; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-07-01

    The HMG Co-enzyme inhibitors and new lipid-modifying agents expand their new therapeutic target options in the field of medical profession. Statins have been described as the most effective class of drugs to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Since the discovery of the first statin nearly 30 years ago, these drugs have become the main therapeutic approach to lower cholesterol levels. The present scientific research demonstrates numerous non-lipid modifiable effects of statins termed as pleiotropic effects of statins, which could be beneficial for the treatment of various devastating disorders. The most important positive effects of statins are anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, anti-diabetes, and antithrombotic, improving endothelial dysfunction and attenuating vascular remodeling besides many others which are discussed under the scope of this review. In particular, inhibition of Rho and its downstream target, Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK), and their agonistic action on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) can be viewed as the principle mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic effects of statins. With gradually increasing knowledge of new therapeutic targets of statins, their use has also been advocated in chronic inflammatory disorders for example rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the scope of review, we highlight statins and their pleiotropic effects with reference to their harmful and beneficial effects as a novel approach for their use in the treatment of devastating disorders. Graphical abstract Pleiotropic effect of statins. PMID:27146293

  5. Effects of therapeutic hypothermia on the glial proteome and phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Heon; Seo, Minchul; Suk, Kyoungho

    2013-02-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is a useful intervention against brain injury in experimental models and patients, but its therapeutic applications are limited due to its ill-defined mode of action. Glia cells maintain homeostasis and protect the central nervous system from environmental change, but after brain injury, glia are activated and induce glial scar formation and secondary injury. On the other hand, therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to modulate glial hyperactivation under various brain injury conditions. We considered that knowledge of the effect of hypothermia on the molecular profiles of glia and on their phenotypes would improve our understanding of the neuroprotective mechanism of hypothermia. Here, we review the findings of recent studies that examined the effect of hypothermia on proteome changes in reactive glial cells in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic effects of hypothermia are associated with the inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation, the maintenance of ion homeostasis, and the protection of neurovascular units in cultured glial cells. In an animal model, a distinct pattern of protein alterations was detected in glia following hypothermia under ischemic/reperfusion conditions. In particular, hypothermia was found to exert a neuroprotective effect against ischemic brain injury by regulating specific glial signaling pathways, such as, glutamate signaling, cell death, and stress response, and by influencing neural dysfunction, neurogenesis, neural plasticity, cell differentiation, and neurotrophic activity. Furthermore, the proteins that were differentially expressed belonged to various pathways and could mediate diverse phenotypic changes of glia in vitro or in vivo. Therefore, hypothermia-modulated glial proteins and subsequent phenotypic changes may form the basis of the therapeutic effects of hypothermia. PMID:23441897

  6. Effects of General and Broad Cognitive Abilities on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; Keith, Timothy Z.; Floyd, Randy G.; Mcgrew, Kevin S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the direct and indirect effects of general intelligence and 7 broad cognitive abilities on mathematics achievement. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the simultaneous effects of both general and broad cognitive abilities on students' mathematics achievement. A hierarchical model of intelligence derived…

  7. Therapeutic control of plasma concentrations and long-term effect of nortriptyline in recurrent affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Kragh-Sørensen; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-07-01

    Based on the evidence that therapeutic plasma concentration range in fact exists for the tricyclic antidepressant drug, Nortriptyline (range 50-150 ng/ml), three different investigations were under taken in order to clarify some clinical pharmacological problems during long-term treatment with this drug. The possible prophlactic effect of the drug in recurrent affective disorders was specially examined in a group of patients with a high risk of episodes in their unipolar manic-depressive disease. The results highly demonstrate the value of monitoring plasma levels in achieving therapeutic control. Depressive relapses during treatment, for months and years, were only related to therapeutic insufficient plasma levels of the drug. PMID:981330

  8. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  9. Sex crime legislation: Proactive and anti-therapeutic effects.

    PubMed

    Diesen, Christian; Diesen, Eva F

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic jurisprudence may have its major role within law practice, but analysis of the law from a therapeutic perspective is a task that should not be neglected; how a piece of legislation is designed and formulated certainly influences the therapeutic outcome of a legal process. This article uses sex legislation as an example to demonstrate how the old rape law based on coercion has anti-therapeutic effects on rape victims. If the law requires resistance, it implies that a woman is sexually available until she resists physically, resulting in an attitude that a woman reporting rape without injuries should be mistrusted. This mistrust of the victim and the victim's attendant feelings of self-blame aggravate the victim's trauma. On the other hand, a modern rape law based on lack of consent gives the signal that a woman is not available until she has given her consent, resulting in a different starting position for the investigation. Since the will of the victim must be respected, the victim herself must be respected in the legal process. Furthermore, being able to tell one's story in a respectful atmosphere can be more important for the well-being of the victim than the outcome of the reported case. PMID:20932579

  10. Effective Teaching Results in Increased Science Achievement for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.; Kahle, Jane Butler; Fargo, Jamison D.

    2007-01-01

    This study of teacher effectiveness and student achievement in science demonstrated that effective teachers positively impact student learning. A general linear mixed model was used to assess change in student scores on the Discovery Inquiry Test as a function of time, race, teacher effectiveness, gender, and impact of teacher effectiveness in…

  11. Examining Charter Student Achievement Effects across Seven States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Ron; Gill, Brian; Booker, Kevin; Lavertu, Stephane; Witte, John

    2012-01-01

    Since their inception, charter schools have been a lighting rod for controversy, with much of the debate revolving around their effectiveness in improving student achievement. Previous research has shown mixed results for student achievement; this could be the consequence of different policy environments or varying methodological approaches with…

  12. Effects of an Intervention Program on Reading and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    This action research project examined the effects of an intervention program on student reading and math achievement. TCAP reading and math assessments and ThinkLink Learning reading and math assessments were used for the measures on student achievement. Student perceptions and attitudes were measured with a questionnaire and four open-ended…

  13. The Effect of a Summer Academy on Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, William

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a summer enrichment math program on mathematics achievement and academic achievement in a comprehensive suburban high school. The program was designed to remediate the mathematical shortcomings of at-risk 9th graders. The students who experienced success in the summer program were placed in…

  14. Improvements in Interval Time Tracking and Effects on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on students' reading achievement. 86 participants completed pre- and post-test measures of reading achievement (i.e., Woodcock-Johnson III, Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Test of Word Reading Efficiency, and Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency). Students in the…

  15. Automated Writing Evaluation Program's Effect on Student Writing Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lester Donnie

    2011-01-01

    In an ex post facto causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of Automated Writing Evaluation (AWE) programs on raising the student writing achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) writing achievement scores from the 2010 administration were utilized for this study. The independent variable…

  16. Longitudinal Effects of Perceived Control on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Hong, Sehee; Ho, Hsiu-Zu

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that perceived control plays an important role in student academic achievement, but little is known about its longitudinal stability, ethnic variation, and developmental effects on subsequent achievement during adolescence. Findings from this study indicated (a) perceived control remains stable during adolescence for each of…

  17. The Effects of Academic Optimism on Elementary Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevel, Raymona K.; Mitchell, Roxanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between academic optimism (AO) and elementary reading achievement (RA). Design/methodology/approach: Using correlation and hierarchical linear regression, the authors examined school-level effects of AO on fifth grade reading achievement in 29 elementary schools in Alabama.…

  18. The Effect of Class Heterogeneity on Scholastic Achievement in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavy, Victor

    This study examines the relationship between class heterogeneity and scholastic performance in Israel's primary schools. The effect of school integration on academic achievement is explained via two main effects: (1) the "peer" effect, namely externalities that are induced by the composition of the teaching and learning environments; and (2) the…

  19. Effective Parental Influence: Academic Home Climate Linked to Children's Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James Reed; Verna, Marilyn Ann

    2007-01-01

    What constitutes effective parenting? An international consensus has evolved that effective parenting makes important contributions to children's achievement. But the fundamental question is what constitutes effective parenting. Most of the research that has been done in answering this question has been done within existing school frameworks…

  20. Background, Schooling, and Achievement. Sustaining Effects Study Technical Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Won, Eugene Y. T.; And Others

    This report of a study on the influence of education on student achievement finds that while schooling does have some tangible effects, they are not enough to significantly counterbalance the effects of students' social backgrounds. The report is part of an extensive series of studies on compensatory education and its long-term effects. The study…

  1. Personality as a moderator of context effects on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A A Jolijn; Kuyper, Hans; Lubbers, Miranda J; Van der Werf, Margaretha P C

    2011-04-01

    We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a two-level (students within classes) analysis, separately for boys (n=1033, in 92 classes) and girls (n=1465, in 119 classes). For both sexes, we found a context effect on Dutch language achievement but not on mathematics achievement. Emotional Stability appeared a moderator of this context effect but for girls only. The results suggest further that peer pressure is not a likely mechanism of group influence of classmates on academic achievement. PMID:21530765

  2. [Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: side effect profile of important therapeutic drugs].

    PubMed

    Ochsendorf, F R; Runne, U

    1991-03-01

    Precise knowledge of the undesirable effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine allows better exploitation of their therapeutic effects. Retinopathy can be avoided by observing a maximum daily dosage of 3.5-4 mg/kg ideal body weight for chloroquine and 6-6.5 mg/kg for hydroxychloroquine. In this way, both can be used for long-term therapy. The pharmacokinetics of chloroquine (storage in deep compartments with long plasma half-life) means that it can cumulate, especially with higher dosages and in the presence of renal or hepatic insufficiency. A high plasma concentration reinforces the side-effects without reinforcing the therapeutic effects. Besides subjective symptoms (e.g. anorexia, diarrhoea, nausea), the following undesirable reactions are significant. On the skin exanthema, hyperpigmentation and photodynamic reactions can develop. The hair can become white in blonde and red-haired men. In the eye, chloroquine deposits in the cornea and disturbances of accommodation can occur, besides retinopathy. Neuromyopathy and central nervous system disturbances (e.g. psychosis) are rare, as is impairment of auditory function or blood cells. During pregnancy there is a risk of potential fetal damage (hearing loss, abortion). An acute overdose is extremely dangerous: the lethal dose is 1 g for children and 4 g for adults. As death occurs rapidly, chloroquine has to be stored where it is absolutely inaccessible to children. PMID:2055762

  3. Therapeutic effect against human xenograft tumors in nude mice by the third generation microtubule stabilizing epothilones.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Chao; Zhang, Xiuguo; Zhong, Zi-Yang; Li, Yong; Feng, Li; Eng, Sara; Myles, David R; Johnson, Robert; Wu, Nian; Yin, Ye Ingrid; Wilson, Rebecca M; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2008-09-01

    The epothilones represent a promising class of natural product-based antitumor drug candidates. Although these compounds operate through a microtubule stabilization mechanism similar to that of taxol, the epothilones offer a major potential therapeutic advantage in that they retain their activity against multidrug-resistant cell lines. We have been systematically synthesizing and evaluating synthetic epothilone congeners that are not accessible through modification of the natural product itself. We report herein the results of biological investigations directed at two epothilone congeners: iso-fludelone and iso-dehydelone. Iso-fludelone, in particular, exhibits a number of properties that render it an excellent candidate for preclinical development, including biological stability, excellent solubility in water, and remarkable potency relative to other epothilones. In nude mouse xenograft settings, iso-fludelone was able to achieve therapeutic cures against a number of human cancer cell lines, including mammarian-MX-1, ovarian-SK-OV-3, and the fast-growing, refractory, subcutaneous neuroblastoma-SK-NAS. Strong therapeutic effect was observed against drug-resistant lung-A549/taxol and mammary-MCF-7/Adr xenografts. In addition, iso-fludelone was shown to exhibit a significant therapeutic effect against an intracranially implanted SK-NAS tumor. PMID:18755900

  4. [The Warburg effect: from theory to therapeutic applications in cancer].

    PubMed

    Razungles, Julie; Cavaillès, Vincent; Jalaguier, Stéphan; Teyssier, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Cancer cell metabolism described by Otto Warburg in the thirties became a cancer specific hallmark, also called "Warburg effect". Cancer cells use essentially glucose as fuel, through glycolysis, in order to meet their energy and biomass needs to insure their cell proliferation. Recent advances describe Warburg effect regulation by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Moreover, mutations in some glycolysis enzymes are found in various cancers, highlighting the role of cell metabolism in cancer. In this review, we describe the mechanisms responsible for the Warburg effect at the molecular and cellular level, the role of cell signalling along with the implication of different transcription factors. As a cause or a consequence of tumorigenesis, the Warburg effect is now considered as a promising therapeutic target in the fight against cancer. PMID:24280507

  5. Advanced Therapeutic Dressings for Effective Wound Healing--A Review.

    PubMed

    Boateng, Joshua; Catanzano, Ovidio

    2015-11-01

    Advanced therapeutic dressings that take active part in wound healing to achieve rapid and complete healing of chronic wounds is of current research interest. There is a desire for novel strategies to achieve expeditious wound healing because of the enormous financial burden worldwide. This paper reviews the current state of wound healing and wound management products, with emphasis on the demand for more advanced forms of wound therapy and some of the current challenges and driving forces behind this demand. The paper reviews information mainly from peer-reviewed literature and other publicly available sources such as the US FDA. A major focus is the treatment of chronic wounds including amputations, diabetic and leg ulcers, pressure sores, and surgical and traumatic wounds (e.g., accidents and burns) where patient immunity is low and the risk of infections and complications are high. The main dressings include medicated moist dressings, tissue-engineered substitutes, biomaterials-based biological dressings, biological and naturally derived dressings, medicated sutures, and various combinations of the above classes. Finally, the review briefly discusses possible prospects of advanced wound healing including some of the emerging physical approaches such as hyperbaric oxygen, negative pressure wound therapy and laser wound healing, in routine clinical care. PMID:26308473

  6. Emerging Insights into Barriers to Effective Brain Tumor Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, Graeme F.; Dunn, Gavin P.; Nance, Elizabeth A.; Hanes, Justin; Brem, Henry

    2014-01-01

    There is great promise that ongoing advances in the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) combined with rapidly expanding knowledge of brain tumor patho-biology will provide new, more effective therapies. Brain tumors that form from brain cells, as opposed to those that come from other parts of the body, rarely metastasize outside of the CNS. Instead, the tumor cells invade deep into the brain itself, causing disruption in brain circuits, blood vessel and blood flow changes, and tissue swelling. Patients with the most common and deadly form, glioblastoma (GBM) rarely live more than 2 years even with the most aggressive treatments and often with devastating neurological consequences. Current treatments include maximal safe surgical removal or biopsy followed by radiation and chemotherapy to address the residual tumor mass and invading tumor cells. However, delivering effective and sustained treatments to these invading cells without damaging healthy brain tissue is a major challenge and focus of the emerging fields of nanomedicine and viral and cell-based therapies. New treatment strategies, particularly those directed against the invasive component of this devastating CNS disease, are sorely needed. In this review, we (1) discuss the history and evolution of treatments for GBM, (2) define and explore three critical barriers to improving therapeutic delivery to invasive brain tumors, specifically, the neuro-vascular unit as it relates to the blood brain barrier, the extra-cellular space in regard to the brain penetration barrier, and the tumor genetic heterogeneity and instability in association with the treatment efficacy barrier, and (3) identify promising new therapeutic delivery approaches that have the potential to address these barriers and create sustained, meaningful efficacy against GBM. PMID:25101239

  7. Teacher Perceptions on the Effect of Collaboration on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Lori Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    At the school site for this study, students have performed below acceptable district goals in math. Although research has indicated that effective collaboration can contribute to teacher learning, research on collaboration has often failed to address its effect on student achievement; therefore, the purpose of this project study was to examine…

  8. Family Effects on Student Achievement in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Ho, Esther Sui Chu

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of family structures and processes on student achievement in Hong Kong. Specifically, we show that the negative effects of single parenthood in past studies are not universal. In Hong Kong, 4,405 15-year-old students completed a questionnaire, and tests in reading, mathematics and science. We analysed the data using…

  9. Teaching Effectiveness and Student Achievement: Examining the Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Sherman, Helene

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between teacher effectiveness and students' achievement as measured by test scores. A strong belief among policymakers and public as well as private funding agencies is that test scores are directly related to the quality of teaching effectiveness. This relationship implies that there could be a direct…

  10. Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Thomas J.; Taylor, Eric S.; Tyler, John H.; Wooten, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Research continues to find large differences in student achievement gains across teachers' classrooms. The variability in teacher effectiveness raises the stakes on identifying effective teachers and teaching practices. This paper combines data from classroom observations of teaching practices and measures of teachers' ability to improve student…

  11. The Cost Effectiveness of 22 Approaches for Raising Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Stuart S.

    2010-01-01

    Review of cost-effectiveness studies suggests that rapid assessment is more cost effective with regard to student achievement than comprehensive school reform (CSR), cross-age tutoring, computer-assisted instruction, a longer school day, increases in teacher education, teacher experience or teacher salaries, summer school, more rigorous math…

  12. Effects of Running Records Assessment on Early Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent research on effective schools (e.g., Pressley et al., 2001) identified consistent associations between students' literacy achievement and teacher practice. In this study, the author extended those correlational findings by conducting a controlled experiment to test the claims about 1 practice recommended by recent effective schools…

  13. Effects of Notetaking Format on Achievement When Studying Electronic Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.; Nelson, Charles E.

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of notetaking on achievement while studying electronic text. In the first experiment, 83 students studied 1 of 3 sets of notes (partial, skeletal, and control) for the effects on posttest performance (on fact, structure, and transfer tests). No differences were found between groups on the…

  14. The Effect of Student Time Allocation on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grave, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a large literature on the influence of institutional characteristics on student academic achievement. In contrast, relatively little research focusses on student time allocation and its effects on student performance. This paper contributes to the literature by investigating the effect of student time allocation on the average grade of…

  15. [Effectiveness of therapeutic education and respiratory rehabilitation programs for the patient with asthma].

    PubMed

    Cano-De La Cuerda, Roberto; Useros-Olmo, Ana Isabel; Muñoz-Hellín, Elena

    2010-11-01

    Asthma is a chronic complex and heterogeneous disease, with great variability and has a huge impact, not only on patients who suffer the disease but also their families and society in general. The education of the asthmatic patient and their families is essential for therapeutic intervention. Through continuous, dynamic and adaptive education, changes in attitudes and behaviours of the patient and family can be achieved, and will undoubtedly lead to an improvement in their quality of life. Among other non-pharmacological interventions, respiratory rehabilitation is an alternative treatment, and is primarily aimed at patients with moderate to severe asthma. Although the latest clinical practice guidelines published in the scientific literature recommend two strategies for treatment, the results of relevant publications are diverse. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness of therapeutic and educational programs in respiratory rehabilitation of the asthmatic patient. PMID:20846775

  16. CNS pharmacology and clinical therapeutic effects of oxiracetam.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Menon, G N; Songar, A; Itil, K Z

    1986-01-01

    Oxiracetam, a new substance found to be a nootropic in experimental pharmacological studies, was tested in three clinical trials: a single rising dose tolerance and dose-finding study with quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalogram (pharmaco-EEG) and quantitative pharmacopsychology in healthy volunteers; a dose-finding study, at three dose levels for 3 months, with quantitative pharmaco-EEG in mild to moderate dementia patients; and a safety and efficacy study with increasing dosages for 12 weeks with subjective and objective tests in elderly patients with dementia. In single and repeated oral dosages up to 2,400 mg, oxiracetam is a safe compound. According to HZI Data Bank Classification Systems, oxiracetam is a vigilance-enhancing compound with some effects on spontaneous memory. The therapeutic effect of oxiracetam can be discriminated from placebo, and in comparison with piracetam, oxiracetam exhibits greater improvement in memory factor. PMID:3594458

  17. Therapeutic Effects of Bee Venom on Immunological and Neurological Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Deok-Sang; Kim, Sun Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2015-01-01

    Bee Venom (BV) has long been used in Korea to relieve pain symptoms and to treat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of BV have been proved to some extent. Additionally, recent clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BV and BV-derived active components are applicable to a wide range of immunological and neurodegenerative diseases, including autoimmune diseases and Parkinson’s disease. These effects of BV are known to be mediated by modulating immune cells in the periphery, and glial cells and neurons in the central nervous system. This review will introduce the scientific evidence of the therapeutic effects of BV and its components on several immunological and neurological diseases, and describe their detailed mechanisms involved in regulating various immune responses and pathological changes in glia and neurons. PMID:26131770

  18. The potential therapeutic effects of THC on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuanhai; Li, Yaqiong; Liu, Hui; Bai, Ge; Mayl, Jonathan; Lin, Xiaoyang; Sutherland, Kyle; Nabar, Neel; Cai, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential therapeutic qualities of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with respect to slowing or halting the hallmark characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. N2a-variant amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) cells were incubated with THC and assayed for amyloid-β (Aβ) levels at the 6-, 24-, and 48-hour time marks. THC was also tested for synergy with caffeine, in respect to the reduction of the Aβ level in N2a/AβPPswe cells. THC was also tested to determine if multiple treatments were beneficial. The MTT assay was performed to test the toxicity of THC. Thioflavin T assays and western blots were performed to test the direct anti-Aβ aggregation significance of THC. Lastly, THC was tested to determine its effects on glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and related signaling pathways. From the results, we have discovered THC to be effective at lowering Aβ levels in N2a/AβPPswe cells at extremely low concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. However, no additive effect was found by combining caffeine and THC together. We did discover that THC directly interacts with Aβ peptide, thereby inhibiting aggregation. Furthermore, THC was effective at lowering both total GSK-3β levels and phosphorylated GSK-3β in a dose-dependent manner at low concentrations. At the treatment concentrations, no toxicity was observed and the CB1 receptor was not significantly upregulated. Additionally, low doses of THC can enhance mitochondria function and does not inhibit melatonin's enhancement of mitochondria function. These sets of data strongly suggest that THC could be a potential therapeutic treatment option for Alzheimer's disease through multiple functions and pathways. PMID:25024327

  19. Therapeutic Effects of Tangshen Formula on Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, TingTing; Sun, SiFan; Zhang, HaoJun; Huang, XiaoRu; Yan, MeiHua; Dong, Xi; Wen, YuMin; Wang, Hua; Lan, Hui Yao; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective Inflammation and fibrosis are essential promoters in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetes. The present study examined the anti-inflammation and anti-fibrosis effect of Tangshen Formula (TSF), a traditional Chinese medicine, on DN. Research Design and Methods Protective role of TSF in DN was examined in a rat model of type 2 DN that was established by high-fat diet-fed and low-dose-streptozotocin injection. TSF was suspended in 0.5% CMC-Na solution and delivered by oral gavage at a dosage of 1.67g/Kg body weight/day. The therapeutic effects and mechanisms of TSF on diabetic kidney injury were examined. Results We found that TSF treatment for 20 weeks attenuated DN by significantly inhibiting urinary excretion of albumin and renal histological injuries. These beneficial effects were associated with an inactivation of NF-κB signaling, thereby blocking the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα), chemokine (MCP-1), and macrophage infiltration in the TSF-treated rats with type 2 DN. In addition, TSF treatment also inactivated TGF-β/Smad3 signaling and therefore suppressed renal fibrosis including expressions of fibronectin, collagen I, and collagen IV. Further studies revealed that the inhibitory effect of TSF on TGF-β/Smad3 and NF-κB signaling in DN was associated with inhibition of Smurf2-dependent ubiquitin degradation of Smad7. Conclusions The present study reveals that TSF has therapeutic potential for type 2 DN in rats. Blockade of NF-κB-driven renal inflammation and TGF-β/Smad3-mediated renal fibrosis by preventing the Smurf2-mediated Smad7 degradation pathway may be mechanisms through which TSF inhibits type 2 DN. PMID:26807792

  20. Therapeutic effects of progesterone in animal models of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Alejandro F; Coronel, Florencia; Garay, Laura I; Gargiulo-Monachelli, Gisella; Gonzalez Deniselle, Maria Claudia; Gonzalez, Susana L; Labombarda, Florencia; Meyer, Maria; Guennoun, Rachida; Schumacher, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Substantial evidence supports that progesterone exerts many functions in the central and peripheral nervous system unrelated to its classical role in reproduction. In this review we first discussed progesterone effects following binding to the classical intracellular progesterone receptors A and B and several forms of membrane progesterone receptors, the modulation of intracellular signalling cascades and the interaction of progesterone reduced metabolites with neurotransmitter receptors. We next described our results involving animal models of human neuropathologies to elucidate the protective roles of progesterone. We described: (a) the protective and promyelinating effects of progesterone in experimental spinal cord injury; (b) the progesterone protective effects exerted upon motoneurons in the degenerating spinal cord of Wobbler mouse model of amyotropic lateral sclerosis; (c) the protective and anti-inflammatory effects of progesterone in the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis and after lysolecithin demyelination; (d) the progesterone prevention of nociception and neuropathic pain which follow spinal cord injury; and (e) the protective effect of progesterone in experimental ischemic stroke. Whenever available, the molecular mechanisms involved in these progesterone effects were examined. The multiplicity of progesterone beneficial effects has opened new venues of research for neurological disorders. In this way, results obtained in animal models could provide the basis for novel therapeutic strategies and pre-clinical studies. PMID:24040821

  1. Pimecrolimus micelle exhibits excellent therapeutic effect for Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca.

    PubMed

    Yingfang, Fan; Zhuang, Bo; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Xuelian; Xu, Wei; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-04-01

    Poor corneal penetration and short residence time on the ocular surface are two major bottlenecks for conventional ophthalmic formulations. To overcome the foregoing dilemmas, we prepared two novel formulations of pimecrolimus nanomicelles (PNM) with particle size of 37.85 ± 1.21 nm and thermosensitive hydrogel (PTH) for treating Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS). PNM were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Malvern laser particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) system, and the content of drug in PNM was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency reached to 7.57% ± 0.10% and 97.9% ± 1.26%, respectively. PTH displayed special gel-sol transition behavior with temperature increasing from 4 °C to 37 °C. The in vitro release profile demonstrated that PNM and PTH exhibited sustained-release behavior compared with free pimecrolimus oil-based eye drop (FPO). In addition, we established a mouse model of KCS induced by benzalkonium chloride to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of different pimecrolimus formulations. The production of tear, fluorescein staining scores and histopathologic examinations of the cornea were assessed in detail. The results confirmed that PNM had the best therapeutic effect among all formulations based on its higher drug encapsulation capability, favourable permeability and sustained release. All these indicated that PNM could serve as a potent ophthalmologic agent for KCS. PMID:26731192

  2. Physical mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of ultrasound (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, M. R.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.; Kargl, S. G.; Crum, L. A.

    2003-07-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound is an emerging field with many medical applications. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) provides the ability to localize the deposition of acoustic energy within the body, which can cause tissue necrosis and hemostasis. Similarly, shock waves from a lithotripter penetrate the body to comminute kidney stones, and transcutaneous ultrasound enhances the transport of chemotherapy agents. New medical applications have required advances in transducer design and advances in numerical and experimental studies of the interaction of sound with biological tissues and fluids. The primary physical mechanism in HIFU is the conversion of acoustic energy into heat, which is often enhanced by nonlinear acoustic propagation and nonlinear scattering from bubbles. Other mechanical effects from ultrasound appear to stimulate an immune response, and bubble dynamics play an important role in lithotripsy and ultrasound-enhanced drug delivery. A dramatic shift to understand and exploit these nonlinear and mechanical mechanisms has occurred over the last few years. Specific challenges remain, such as treatment protocol planning and real-time treatment monitoring. An improved understanding of the physical mechanisms is essential to meet these challenges and to further advance therapeutic ultrasound.

  3. Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Therapeutic Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chervyakov, Alexander V.; Chernyavsky, Andrey Yu.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry O.; Piradov, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS) has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation and long-term depression. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells, and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals). It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols. PMID:26136672

  4. Therapeutic hypothermia achieves neuroprotection via a decrease in acetylcholine with a concurrent increase in carnitine in the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Takenouchi, Toshiki; Sugiura, Yuki; Morikawa, Takayuki; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Nagahata, Yoshiko; Sugioka, Tadao; Honda, Kurara; Kubo, Akiko; Hishiki, Takako; Matsuura, Tomomi; Hoshino, Takao; Takahashi, Takao; Suematsu, Makoto; Kajimura, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Although therapeutic hypothermia is known to improve neurologic outcomes after perinatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, etiology remains unknown. To decipher the mechanisms whereby hypothermia regulates metabolic dynamics in different brain regions, we used a two-step approach: a metabolomics to target metabolic pathways responding to cooling, and a quantitative imaging mass spectrometry to reveal spatial alterations in targeted metabolites in the brain. Seven-day postnatal rats underwent the permanent ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by exposure to 8% O2 for 2.5 hours. The pups were returned to normoxic conditions at either 38°C or 30°C for 3 hours. The brain metabolic states were rapidly fixed using in situ freezing. The profiling of 107 metabolites showed that hypothermia diminishes the carbon biomass related to acetyl moieties, such as pyruvate and acetyl-CoA; conversely, it increases deacetylated metabolites, such as carnitine and choline. Quantitative imaging mass spectrometry demarcated that hypothermia diminishes the acetylcholine contents specifically in hippocampus and amygdala. Such decreases were associated with an inverse increase in carnitine in the same anatomic regions. These findings imply that hypothermia achieves its neuroprotective effects by mediating the cellular acetylation status through a coordinated suppression of acetyl-CoA, which resides in metabolic junctions of glycolysis, amino-acid catabolism, and ketolysis. PMID:25586144

  5. The Effects of Looping on Perceived Values and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Carmen; Arenz, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of looping, a practice whereby teachers and students stay together for more than one year, on perceived values and academic achievement in language arts at a Fresno Unified School District elementary school in Fresno, CA. Looping has many perceived advantages, such as the development of long-term…

  6. Achievement Motivation Training's Effects on Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1983-01-01

    A study identified the psychosocial needs of low-literate adults by using an instrument based on Erikson's ego-stage development model. It also tested the effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training in counterbalancing the negative impact of school experiences on students' psychosocial development. (Author/SK)

  7. Leadership Effects on Student Achievement and Sustained School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of leadership on student achievement and sustained school success, especially in challenging, high-poverty schools. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines a review of the leadership literature with findings drawn from longitudinal studies of the International Successful School…

  8. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement of Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keramati, Mohammadreza

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation on the effect of cooperative learning on academic achievement of physics course. Cooperative learning was employed to experimental group and conventional teaching method was used for control group. Sampling of the study consists of 15-16 years old 220 students at high school in Iran. The progress…

  9. The Effects of Fiscal and Human Capital on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koligian, Sarah Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of per-pupil funding, the amount allocated to fund students in K-12 public education, and how this funding related to student achievement. This is one of the most contentious issues in education, especially in light of the current economy in California, where the state budget crisis has…

  10. School Board Member Professional Development and Effects on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kerry L.; Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on the issue of professional development education for school board members. The research question that guides this mixed study is: does school board member professional development have an effect on student achievement? Design/methodology/approach: The standardized protocol for this study was to send…

  11. The Effects of Grouping Practices and Curricular Adjustments on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieso, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of curricular (textbook, revised, and differentiated) and grouping (whole, between, and within-class) practices on intermediate students' achievement in mathematics. A pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design using a stratified random sample of 31 teachers and their students (N = 645) was…

  12. Personality as a Moderator of Context Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Kuyper, Hans; Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a two-level (students within classes) analysis,…

  13. The Effects of Read 180 on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plony, Doreen A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this ex post facto study was to analyze archive data to investigate the effects of Read 180, a computer-based supplemental reading intervention, on students' academic achievement for the academic school year 2011-2012. Further analyses examined if influences existed in variables such as grade level, gender, and ethnicity of the…

  14. Effective Board Leadership: Factors Associated with Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the content, construct, and predictive validity of the Effective Board Leadership Practices Survey (EBLPS). The EBLPS was designed to measure the leadership practices of boards of education that support student achievement. A literature review identified 12 board leadership practices supportive of student…

  15. Teacher Effectiveness: Making "The" Difference to Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines shifts in emphasis in Australian education from expectations and belief that teachers not only make a difference to student achievement, but they are the difference. In moving from social class relations accounts to self-managing school accounts, latest shifts (teacher effectiveness accounts) over-emphasize teacher…

  16. Effects of Teacher Professional Learning Activities on Student Achievement Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of six types of teacher professional learning activities on student achievement growth over 4 years using statewide longitudinal survey data collected from 467 middle school mathematics teachers in 91 schools merged with 11,192 middle school students' mathematics scores in a standardized assessment in Missouri. The…

  17. The Effects of Block Scheduling on High School Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Chance W.; Dugan, James J.; Winokur, Marc A.; Cobb, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of block scheduling on high school student achievement in mathematics and reading was investigated in this study through the use of an ex post-facto, longitudinal research design. Specifically, student scores from 9th and 11th-grade standardized tests were matched and sorted by junior high and high school attended. Outcome measures…

  18. The Effects of the Allain Reading System on Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allain, Althea Saizan

    Five hundred second-grade pupils participated in a study of the effect of the Allain Color Pack reading system on reading achievement. Subjects were divided into equal treatment and control groups; each group was stratified according to low, average, and high reading ability determined on the basis of pretests of vocabulary and comprehension. The…

  19. The Effect of Contiguity on Informational Achievement and Psychomotor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Donald W.

    Using a randomized block design and involving the participation of 73 fifth, sixth, and seventh grade pupils, this study sought to ascertain the relative effects of traditional, varied and integrated contiguity on the achievement of information content and the performance of a psychomotor task. The informational content selected for the study…

  20. The Effects of Write Score Formative Assessment on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    In an "ex post facto" causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of a formative writing assessment program, Write Score, on increasing student writing achievement. Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP) reading language arts and writing scores from 2012 were utilized for this study. The…

  1. Sociodemographic Moderators of Middle School Transition Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akos, Patrick; Rose, Roderick A.; Orthner, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The academic impact of the transition from elementary to middle school has significant consequences for many early adolescents. This study examines academic growth across the transition, as well as sociodemographic moderators. Rather than defining the transition effect as a decline in student achievement between fifth and sixth grade, these data…

  2. Students as Web Site Authors: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a Web site design project on students' motivation and achievement. Tenth-grade biology students worked together in teams on an ecology project that required them to locate relevant information on the Internet, decide which information should be included on their Web site, organize the information into Web pages,…

  3. The Effectiveness of CASAs in Achieving Positive Outcomes for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzelfelner, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of court-appointed special advocates (CASAs) in achieving positive outcomes for children in the child welfare system, using data from court and CASA program files on 200 children. Found that CASAs may have reduced the number of placements and court continuances children experienced. More services were provided to children…

  4. Feingold Diet Effect on Reading Achievement and Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernick, Eleanor

    The effect of the Feingold diet (elimination of artificial colors, flavors, or foods with natural salicylates to reduce hyperactivity) on the reading achievement scores, behavior, and impulsivity/reflectivity of 13 children (ages 6 to 12 years) was evaluated. Six months after the experimental group adopted the Feingold diet there were no…

  5. Growth mindset tempers the effects of poverty on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Claro, Susana; Paunesku, David; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-08-01

    Two largely separate bodies of empirical research have shown that academic achievement is influenced by structural factors, such as socioeconomic background, and psychological factors, such as students' beliefs about their abilities. In this research, we use a nationwide sample of high school students from Chile to investigate how these factors interact on a systemic level. Confirming prior research, we find that family income is a strong predictor of achievement. Extending prior research, we find that a growth mindset (the belief that intelligence is not fixed and can be developed) is a comparably strong predictor of achievement and that it exhibits a positive relationship with achievement across all of the socioeconomic strata in the country. Furthermore, we find that students from lower-income families were less likely to hold a growth mindset than their wealthier peers, but those who did hold a growth mindset were appreciably buffered against the deleterious effects of poverty on achievement: students in the lowest 10th percentile of family income who exhibited a growth mindset showed academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from the 80th income percentile. These results suggest that students' mindsets may temper or exacerbate the effects of economic disadvantage on a systemic level. PMID:27432947

  6. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  7. Biophysical Studies on the Effects of Therapeutic Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinno, M.; Tiburtius, T.; Jalickee, S.; Goodman, C.

    1998-03-01

    Acoustic waves and other mechanically induced vibrations have a variety of effects on biological systems. These effects are dependent on the acoustic parameters of the incident beam and the biological target. In this study, frog skin, a well-known biological model for ion transport was used to investigate the biophysical effects of (0.8, 1.1 and 3.3 MHz) ultrasound (US). It was found, as expected, that US induces both thermal and non-thermal effects. The non-thermal component caused an increase in total ion conductance across the skin at (0.8 and 1.1 MHz) and decrease at (3.3 MHz). In all cases, the emf responsible for driving the sodium ion current was inhibited. Furthermore, it was found that these effects are dependent on the pulse repetition rate and the duty cycle of the beam. Transmission electron microscopy examination of the samples before and after exposure revealed an increase in the intercellular spaces and changes in the volume of the stratum corneum cells. The significance of these results in relation to the uses of US in therapeutic and diagnostic medicine will be discussed

  8. New therapeutic effects of cilostazol in patients with ischemic disorders.

    PubMed

    Biscetti, Federico; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco; Flex, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Cilostazol (CIL) is effective for the treatment of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). CIL is an orally administered drug with multiple effects, including anti-platelets aggregation, favorable functions on plasmatic lipids and vasodilator ones, but how these effects might be related to improvement in patients walking affected by PAD is not fully understood. The latest data demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) is induced by CIL through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation via a cyclic-AMP (cAMP)/ protein kinase A (PKA)- and PI3K/Akt- dependent mechanism. This mechanism is also responsible for the vasodilatation dependent on endothelium which characterized patients receiving CIL. Other investigators have found that CIL notably reduces the exercise-induced host-inflammatory response in PAD patients, and consequently it improves lipid hydroperoxides and cell-adhesion molecule levels. We recently reported that CIL is able to cause neoangiogenesis in vivo by stimulating the production of proangiogenic proteins, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), that increase levels of Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the formation of new blood vessels. The mechanisms of action of this drug are several and are not clear and established. The objective of the present review is to analyze the existing data about the therapeutic effects of CIL, with the purpose of providing practical indications about this topic for the management of subjects affected by ischemic disorders. PMID:26156267

  9. Cytotoxicity and therapeutic effect of irinotecan combined with selenium nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fuping; Yuan, Qing; Gao, Liang; Cai, Pengju; Zhu, Huarui; Liu, Ru; Wang, Yaling; Wei, Yueteng; Huang, Guodong; Liang, Jian; Gao, Xueyun

    2014-10-01

    Although chemotherapeutic drugs are widely applied for clinic tumor treatment, severe toxicity restricts their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we reported a new form of selenium, selenium nanoparticles (Nano Se) which have significant lower toxicity and acceptable bioavailability. We investigated Nano Se as chemotherapy preventive agent to protect against toxicities of anticancer drug irinotecan and synergistically enhance the anti-tumor treatment effect in vitro and in vivo. The underlying mechanisms were also investigated. The combination of Nano Se and irinotecan showed increased cytotoxic effect with HCT-8 tumor cells likely by p53 mediated apoptosis. Nano Se inhibited growth of HCT-8 tumor cells partially through caspases mediated apoptosis. In vivo experiment showed Nano Se at a dose of 4 mg/kg/day significantly alleviated adverse effects induced by irinotecan (60 mg/kg) treatment. Nano Se alone treatment did not induce any toxic manifestations. The combination of Nano Se and irinotecan dramatically inhibited tumor growth and significantly induced apoptosis of tumor cells in HCT-8 cells xenografted tumor. Tumor inhibition rate was about 17.2%, 48.6% and 62.1% for Nano Se, irinotecan and the combination of Nano Se and irinotecan, respectively. The beneficial effects of Nano Se for tumor therapy were mainly ascribed to selectively regulating Nrf2-ARE (antioxidant responsive elements) pathway in tumor tissues and normal tissues. Our results suggest Nano Se is a promising selenium species with potential application in cancer treatment. PMID:25064805

  10. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect

    PubMed Central

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization. PMID:25999899

  11. Foreign language comprehension achievement: insights from the cognate facilitation effect.

    PubMed

    Casaponsa, Aina; Antón, Eneko; Pérez, Alejandro; Duñabeitia, Jon A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the native language influences foreign word recognition and that this influence is modulated by the proficiency in the non-native language. Here we explored how the degree of reliance on cross-language similarity (as measured by the cognate facilitation effect) together with other domain-general cognitive factors contribute to reading comprehension achievement in a non-native language at different stages of the learning process. We tested two groups of native speakers of Spanish learning English at elementary and intermediate levels in an academic context. A regression model approach showed that domain-general cognitive skills are good predictors of second language reading achievement independently of the level of proficiency. Critically, we found that individual differences in the degree of reliance on the native language predicted foreign language reading achievement, showing a markedly different pattern between proficiency groups. At lower levels of proficiency the cognate facilitation effect was positively related with reading achievement, while this relation became negative at intermediate levels of foreign language learning. We conclude that the link between native- and foreign-language lexical representations helps participants at initial stages of the learning process, whereas it is no longer the case at intermediate levels of proficiency, when reliance on cross-language similarity is inversely related to successful non-native reading achievement. Thus, at intermediate levels of proficiency strong and direct mappings from the non-native lexical forms to semantic concepts are needed to achieve good non-native reading comprehension, in line with the premises of current models of bilingual lexico-semantic organization. PMID:25999899

  12. Therapeutic effects of dihydroartemisinin and transferrin against glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suk Hee; Kang, Seong Hee

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Artemisinin, a natural product isolated from Gaeddongssuk (artemisia annua L.) and its main active derivative, dihydroartemisinin (DHA), have long been used as antimalarial drugs. Recent studies reported that artemisinin is efficacious for curing diseases, including cancers, and for improving the immune system. Many researchers have shown the therapeutic effects of artemisinin on tumors such as breast cancer, liver cancer and kidney cancer, but there is still insufficient data regarding glioblastoma (GBM). Glioblastoma accounts for 12-15% of brain cancer, and the median survival is less than a year, despite medical treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of DHA and transferrin against glioblastoma (glioblastoma multiforme, GBM). MATERIALS/METHODS This study was performed through in vitro experiments using C6 cells. The toxicity dependence of DHA and transferrin (TF) on time and concentration was analyzed by MTT assay and cell cycle assay. Observations of cellular morphology were recorded with an optical microscope and color digital camera. The anti-cancer mechanism of DHA and TF against GBM were studied by flow cytometry with Annexin V and caspase 3/7. RESULTS MTT assay revealed that TF enhanced the cytotoxicity of DHA against C6 cells. An Annexin V immune-precipitation assay showed that the percentages of apoptosis of cells treated with TF, DHA alone, DHA in combination with TF, and the control group were 7.15 ± 4.15%, 34.3 ± 5.15%, 66.42 ± 5.98%, and 1.2 ± 0.15%, respectively. The results of the Annexin V assay were consistent with those of the MTT assay. DHA induced apoptosis in C6 cells through DNA damage, and TF enhanced the effects of DHA. CONCLUSION The results of this study demonstrated that DHA, the derivative of the active ingredient in Gaeddongssuk, is effective against GBM, apparently via inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by a pharmacological

  13. Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of diosgenin, a food saponin.

    PubMed

    Raju, Jayadev; Mehta, Rekha

    2009-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is a strategy taken to retard, regress, or resist the multistep process of carcinogenesis, including the blockage of its vital morphogenetic milestones viz. normal-preneoplasia-neoplasia-metastasis. For several reasons, including safety, minimal (or no) toxicity and side-effects, and better availability, alternatives such as naturally occurring phytochemicals that are found in foods are becoming increasingly popular over synthetic drugs. Food saponins have been used in complimentary and traditional medicine against a variety of diseases including several cancers. Diosgenin, a naturally occurring steroid saponin found abundantly in legumes and yams, is a well-known precursor of various synthetic steroidal drugs that are extensively used in the pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decade, a series of preclinical and mechanistic studies have been conducted to understand the role of diosgenin as a chemopreventive/therapeutic agent against several cancers. This review highlights the biological activity of diosgenin that contributes to cancer chemoprevention and control. The anticancer mode of action of diosgenin has been demonstrated via modulation of multiple cell signaling events involving critical molecular candidates associated with growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and oncogenesis. Altogether, these preclinical and mechanistic findings strongly implicate the use of diosgenin as a novel, multitarget-based chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against several cancer types. Future research in this field will help to establish not only whether diosgenin is safe and efficacious as a chemopreventive agent against several human cancers, but also to develop and evaluate standards of evidence for health claims for diosgenin-containing foods as they become increasingly popular and enter the marketplace labeled as functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:19116873

  14. The effect of technology on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, June Kraft

    2003-10-01

    Prior research indicates that technology has had little effect on raising student achievement. Little empirical research exists, however, studying the effects of technology as a tool to improve student achievement through development of higher order thinking skills. Also, prior studies have not focused on the manner in which technology is being used in the classroom and at home to enhance teaching and learning. Empirical data from a secondary school representative of those in California were analyzed to determine the effects of technology on student science achievement. The quantitative analysis methods for the school data study included a multiple linear path analysis, using final course grade as the ultimate exogenous variable. In addition, empirical data from a nationwide survey on how Americans use the Internet were disaggregated by age and analyzed to determine the relationships between computer and Internet experience and (a) Internet use at home for school assignments and (b) more general computer use at home for school assignments for school age children. Analysis of data collected from the a "A Nation Online" Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau assessed these relationships via correlations and cross-tabulations. Finally, results from these data analyses were assessed in conjunction with systemic reform efforts from 12 states designed to address improvements in science and mathematics education in light of the Third International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS). Examination of the technology efforts in those states provided a more nuanced understanding of the impact technology has on student achievement. Key findings included evidence that technology training for teachers increased their use of the computer for instruction but students' final science course grade did not improve; school age children across the country did not use the computer at home for such higher-order cognitive activities as graphics and design or spreadsheets

  15. Physiological effects and therapeutic potential of proinsulin C-peptide

    PubMed Central

    Maric-Bilkan, Christine; Luppi, Patrizia; Wahren, John

    2014-01-01

    Connecting Peptide, or C-peptide, is a product of the insulin prohormone, and is released with and in amounts equimolar to those of insulin. While it was once thought that C-peptide was biologically inert and had little biological significance beyond its role in the proper folding of insulin, it is now known that C-peptide binds specifically to the cell membranes of a variety of tissues and initiates specific intracellular signaling cascades that are pertussis toxin sensitive. Although it is now clear that C-peptide is a biologically active molecule, controversy still remains as to the physiological significance of the peptide. Interestingly, C-peptide appears to reverse the deleterious effects of high glucose in some tissues, including the kidney, the peripheral nerves, and the vasculature. C-peptide is thus a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetes-associated long-term complications. This review addresses the possible physiologically relevant roles of C-peptide in both normal and disease states and discusses the effects of the peptide on sensory nerve, renal, and vascular function. Furthermore, we highlight the intracellular effects of the peptide and present novel strategies for the determination of the C-peptide receptor(s). Finally, a hypothesis is offered concerning the relationship between C-peptide and the development of microvascular complications of diabetes. PMID:25249503

  16. A novel therapeutic effect of statins on nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

    PubMed Central

    Bonfrate, Leonilde; Procino, Giuseppe; Wang, David Q-H; Svelto, Maria; Portincasa, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Statins competitively inhibit hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, resulting in reduced plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Recently, it has been shown that statins exert additional ‘pleiotropic’ effects by increasing expression levels of the membrane water channels aquaporin 2 (AQP2). AQP2 is localized mainly in the kidney and plays a critical role in determining cellular water content. This additional effect is independent of cholesterol homoeostasis, and depends on depletion of mevalonate-derived intermediates of sterol synthetic pathways, i.e. farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate. By up-regulating the expression levels of AQP2, statins increase water reabsorption by the kidney, thus opening up a new avenue in treating patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a hereditary disease that yet lacks high-powered and limited side effects therapy. Aspects related to water balance determined by AQP2 in the kidney, as well as standard and novel therapeutic strategies of NDI are discussed. PMID:25594563

  17. [Placebo effect: clinical, biological and therapeutical involvements in depression].

    PubMed

    Gourion, D; Mouchabac, S

    2016-02-01

    The placebo effect is an excellent model for understanding the mechanisms underlying the interaction between a subjective and complex mental activity (beliefs, expectations, hopes, learning, patient-physician relationship, socio-cultural context .) with different neural and biological systems. Initially, research on the placebo effect has focused on the mechanisms of pain and analgesia. The cognitive processes of conditioning and reward anticipation (hope of a relief) were highlighted. The involvement of different neurobiological pathways has been clearly shown: endogenous opioids, CCK, dopaminergic pathways, endocannabinoids, immunological factors… More recently, the field has open towards new perspectives: depression and anxiety, motor disorders, immune system, endocrine system. Intensive research in the field emerges because of its fundamental implications in neuroscience research but also because of the ethical, clinical and therapeutical issues. Moreover, the placebo effect is considered as a main methodological mean issue in clinical trials that allows the demonstration of the efficacy and tolerance of new drugs. In the field of psychiatry, depression is a placebo highly-sensitive disorder: placebo response rates in clinical trials are of the order of 30 % to 40 %. The identification of biological markers of placebo response, such as neuroimaging and quantitative electroencephalography may lead to develop more efficient models in clinical research. PMID:26879253

  18. The Effects of Learning Strategy Instruction on Achievement, Attitude, and Achievement Motivation in a Physics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin; Sahin, Mehmet; Acikgoz, Kamile Un

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of learning strategy instruction on student teachers' physics achievement, attitude towards physics, and achievement motivation. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design with matching control group was used in the study. Two groups of student teachers (n = 75) who were enrolled in an introductory physics…

  19. Beneficial cilostazol therapeutic effects in mdx dystrophic skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Túlio de Almeida; Macedo, Aline Barbosa; Fogaça, Aline Reis; Moraes, Luis Henrique Rapucci; de Faria, Felipe Meira; Kido, Larissa Akemi; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves; Minatel, Elaine

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the possible protective effects of cilostazol against myonecrosis in dystrophic diaphragm muscle in vivo, focusing on oxidative stress, the inflammatory response and angiogenesis. Young mdx mice, the experimental animal for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, received cilostazol for 14 days. A second group of mdx mice and a control group of C57BL/10 mice received a saline solution. In the mdx mice, cilostazol treatment was associated with reduced loss of muscle strength (-34.4%), decreased myonecrosis, reduced creatine kinase levels (-63.3%) and muscle fibres stained for immunoglobulin G in dystrophic diaphragm muscle (-81.1%), and a reduced inflammatory response, with a decreased inflammatory area (-22%), macrophage infiltration (-44.9%) and nuclear factor-κB (-24%) and tumour necrosis factor-α (-48%) content in dystrophic diaphragm muscle. Furthermore, cilostazol decreased oxidative stress and attenuated reactive oxygen species production (-74%) and lipid peroxidation (-17%) in dystrophic diaphragm muscle, and promoted the up-regulation of angiogenesis, increasing the number of microvessels (15%). In conclusion, the present results show that cilostazol has beneficial effects in dystrophic muscle. More research into the potential of cilostazol as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of dystrophinopathies is required. PMID:26639107

  20. Interferon Beta: From Molecular Level to Therapeutic Effects.

    PubMed

    Haji Abdolvahab, M; Mofrad, M R K; Schellekens, H

    2016-01-01

    Interferon beta (IFNβ) is a cytokine that is naturally produced by the immune system in response to biological and chemical stimuli. It signals by binding to the heterodimeric type I IFN receptor composed of the IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains, and regulates the expression of a plethora of genes by means of the classical JAK/STAT and other pathways. IFNβ is pleiotropic in that it elicits antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities on numerous cell types. The biological activities underpin the mechanisms by which the protein is used to treat various diseases such as hepatitis C infection and multiple sclerosis. Despite the success of IFNβ therapy, the drug may evoke the production of antidrug antibodies that may reduce treatment efficiency. Immunogenicity is related to many factors: among them, structural properties, particularly aggregation, and T-cell and B-cell epitopes in the structure of IFNβ, appear to be important. Knowledge of the structural properties of IFNβ and its relation to immunogenicity may help scientists to develop safer and more effective forms. Several methods have been used to predict and reduce the immunogenicity of certain IFNβ drug products. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge on IFNβ from its structure, dynamic conformation, signaling pathway, and mechanism of action to its therapeutic effects. Immunogenicity and its relation to structural properties of IFNβ are also discussed. PMID:27572132

  1. The therapeutic effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid in maintaining proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Kolb, P S; Ayaub, E A; Zhou, W; Yum, V; Dickhout, J G; Ask, K

    2015-04-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing amount of literature published on the effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) in various biological systems. 4-PBA is currently used clinically to treat urea cycle disorders under the trade name Buphenyl. Recent studies however have explored 4-PBA in the context of a low weight molecular weight chemical chaperone. Its properties as a chemical chaperone prevent misfolded protein aggregation and alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. As the ER is responsible for folding proteins targeted for use in membranes or secreted out of the cell, failure of maintaining adequate ER homeostasis may lead to protein misfolding and subsequent cell and organ pathology. Accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a molecular repair response. The activation of the UPR aims to restore ER and cellular proteostasis by regulating the rate of synthesis of newly formed proteins as well as initiating molecular programs aimed to help fold or degrade misfolded proteins. If proteostasis is not restored, the UPR may initiate pro-apoptotic pathways. It is suggested that 4-PBA may help fold proteins in the ER, attenuating the activation of the UPR, and thus potentially alleviating various pathologies. This review discusses the biomedical research exploring the potential therapeutic effects of 4-PBA in various in vitro and in vivo model systems and clinical trials, while also commenting on the possible mechanisms of action. PMID:25660369

  2. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fang; Chen, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran) after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis. PMID:24983672

  3. Dual and antagonic therapeutic effects of sulfated glycans.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2016-09-15

    Sulfated glycans currently explored in medicine like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or those of potential medical application like algal sulfated galactans (SGs) and fucoidans exhibit significant effects in numerous pathophysiological systems. According to the structure of these sulfated glycans, sample concentration and the method utilized in the approach opposite effects can be achieved. The effects aimed at down-regulating the events usually dominate. These effects are expected in most clinical endeavors. However, the effects capable of accelerating the events can be also beneficial in certain circumstances. Besides discoursing about the paradoxical effects of sulfated glycans in coagulation/thrombosis, angiogenesis, inflammation and microbial infections; this report aims primarily at highlighting the possible contribution of the neglected activities of some well-known sulfated glycans in up-regulating the events of these pathophysiological systems. The representative sulfated glycans taken here are the mammalian-derived GAGs, the unique holothurian GAG, the red algal SGs and the brown algal fucoidans. The current discussion is highly relevant in light of the future strategies for developing novel sulfated glycan-based therapies. PMID:27480032

  4. The Therapeutic Effects of Singing in Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wan, Catherine Y; Rüber, Theodor; Hohmann, Anja; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2010-04-01

    Music making (playing an instrument or singing) is a multimodal activity that involves the integration of auditory and sensorimotor processes. The ability to sing in humans is evident from infancy, and does not depend on formal vocal training but can be enhanced by training. Given the behavioral similarities between singing and speaking, as well as the shared and distinct neural correlates of both, researchers have begun to examine whether singing can be used to treat some of the speech-motor abnormalities associated with various neurological conditions. This paper reviews recent evidence on the therapeutic effects of singing, and how it can potentially ameliorate some of the speech deficits associated with conditions such as stuttering, Parkinson's disease, acquired brain lesions, and autism. By reviewing the status quo, it is hoped that future research can help to disentangle the relative contribution of factors to why singing works. This may ultimately lead to the development of specialized or "gold-standard" treatments for these disorders, and to an improvement in the quality of life for patients. PMID:21152359

  5. V-ATPase as an effective therapeutic target for sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Perut, Francesca; Avnet, Sofia; Fotia, Caterina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Salerno, Manuela; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Baldini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors show intense glycolysis and, as a consequence, high lactate production and proton efflux activity. We investigated proton dynamics in osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma, and evaluated the effects of esomeprazole as a therapeutic agent interfering with tumor acidic microenvironment. All sarcomas were able to survive in an acidic microenvironment (up to 5.9–6.0 pH) and abundant acidic lysosomes were found in all sarcoma subtypes. V-ATPase, a proton pump that acidifies intracellular compartments and transports protons across the plasma membrane, was detected in all cell types with a histotype-specific expression pattern. Esomeprazole administration interfered with proton compartmentalization in acidic organelles and induced a significant dose-dependent toxicity. Among the different histotypes, rhabdomyosarcoma, expressing the highest levels of V-ATPase and whose lysosomes are most acidic, was mostly susceptible to ESOM treatment. - Highlights: • Osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and chondrosarcoma survive in acidic microenvironment. • At acidic extracellular pH, sarcoma survival is dependent on V-ATPase expression. • Esomeprazole administration induce a significant dose-dependent toxicity.

  6. Pharmacological Drug Delivery Strategies for Improved Therapeutic Effects: Recent Advances.

    PubMed

    Savaliya, Reema; Singh, Poornima; Singh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    The latest pharmacologic research has resulted number of new molecules with the potential to modernize the prevention or treatment of different complex diseases, including cancer. The therapeutics generally include moieties such as proteins, drugs and genes, etc. Current activities in the pharmacological field include the development of novel drug-delivery systems to overcome pharmacokinetic glitches such as limited bioavailability, unwanted distribution, drug resistant, and stability, etc. Therefore, to address these issues various biotechnological and pharmacological techniques has been introduced. However, effective drug delivery with improved efficacy remains challenging. This review is focused towards different strategies such as physical and biological methods for efficacious delivery at desired tissues and even sub-cellular targeting. Emphasis is also given about nanotechnology based drug or gene delivery strategies and co-delivery of drug-drug; gene-gene or combinations of drug-gene, etc. are the current cuttingedge methods, which are under clinical or pre-clinical stage of research. Uses of biodegradable materials, such as liposomes and polymeric particles are another class of drug delivery vehicles, which have shown tremendous success, are also discussed. Towards the end, future directions of pharmacological drug delivery methods have also been summarized. PMID:26654439

  7. The effect of red on avoidance behavior in achievement contexts.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Binser, Martin J; Friedman, Ron; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2009-03-01

    This research tests whether the perception of red in an achievement context evokes avoidance behavior without conscious awareness and also examines the context specificity of the hypothesized red effect. In Experiment 1, participants were briefly shown red or green on the cover of an analogies test that they would ostensibly take (an achievement context) or rate on likability of (a nonachievement context) in an adjacent lab. Those shown red, relative to those shown green, knocked fewer times on the door of the adjacent lab in the achievement context; no red-green difference in knocking was observed in the nonachievement context. In Experiment 2, participants were briefly shown red, green, or gray on the cover of an IQ test that they would ostensibly take. Those shown red moved their body away from the test cover to a greater degree than did those shown green or gray. This research contributes to incipient work on color psychology and to the more established literature on the automatic link between evaluation and behavior. PMID:19223458

  8. The Effect of Thinking Maps on Fifth Grade Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Darlene

    Informational texts, such as those found in science education, have historically been reserved for secondary students. With the increased emphasis on elementary students' academic accountability, these high impact instructional strategies must also be utilized to support subject matter comprehension for younger students. This causal-comparative study, grounded in cognitive learning theory, sought to discover if 2 years of implementation and use of Thinking Maps, a visual tool program, had an effect on student achievement in elementary science as measured by Georgia's statewide assessment known as the Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). Achievement data of 2 groups that received Thinking Maps instruction for 2 years was compared to 1 group that did not. An analysis of covariance was used to analyze the assessment data. The findings suggest that the students who did not use Thinking Maps performed significantly better than those who did use Thinking Maps, even though both groups showed positive mean score gains from 2010 to 2012 on the science portion of the CRCT. Limitations of the study, such as the lack of randomization and manipulation of the independent variable, suggest that further research is needed to fairly evaluate the program and its effectiveness. Also, the instructional setting and amount of time used for science instruction in the elementary classroom warrants additional investigation. Findings related to the implementation and use of graphic tools such as Thinking Maps will help school systems choose professional learning opportunities and effective instructional strategies to develop content literacy.

  9. Achieving a Strongly Temperature-Dependent Casimir Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Woolf, David; Capasso, Federico; McCauley, Alexander P.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2010-08-06

    We propose a method of achieving large temperature T sensitivity in the Casimir force that involves measuring the stable separation between dielectric objects immersed in a fluid. We study the Casimir force between slabs and spheres using realistic material models, and find large >2 nm/K variations in their stable separations (hundreds of nanometers) near room temperature. In addition, we analyze the effects of Brownian motion on suspended objects, and show that the average separation is also sensitive to changes in T. Finally, this approach also leads to rich qualitative phenomena, such as irreversible transitions, from suspension to stiction, as T is varied.

  10. Therapist Effects and the Impact of Early Therapeutic Alliance on Symptomatic Outcome in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Graham; Bentall, Richard P.; Lewis, Shôn W.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined therapist effects and therapeutic alliance (TA) in treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Therapist effects are the differences in outcomes achieved by different therapists. TA is the quality of the bond and level of agreement regarding the goals and tasks of therapy. Prior research suffers the methodological problem that the allocation of therapist was not randomized, meaning therapist effects may be confounded with selection effects. We used data from a randomized controlled treatment trial of 296 people with CFS. The trial compared pragmatic rehabilitation (PR), a nurse led, home based self-help treatment, a counselling-based treatment called supportive listening (SL), with general practitioner treatment as usual. Therapist allocation was randomized. Primary outcome measures, fatigue and physical functioning were assessed blind to treatment allocation. TA was measured in the PR and SL arms. Regression models allowing for interactions were used to examine relationships between (i) therapist and therapeutic alliance, and (ii) therapist and average treatment effect (the difference in mean outcomes between different treatment conditions). We found no therapist effects. We found no relationship between TA and the average treatment effect of a therapist. One therapist formed stronger alliances when delivering PR compared to when delivering SL (effect size 0.76, SE 0.33, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.41). In these therapies for CFS, TA does not influence symptomatic outcome. The lack of significant therapist effects on outcome may result from the trial’s rigorous quality control, or random therapist allocation, eliminating selection effects. Further research is needed. Trial Registration: ISRCTN74156610 PMID:26657793

  11. Enhanced loading regimen of teicoplanin is necessary to achieve therapeutic pharmacokinetics levels for the improvement of clinical outcomes in patients with renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Takesue, Y; Nakajima, K; Ichiki, K; Doita, A; Wada, Y; Tsuchida, T; Takahashi, Y; Ishihara, M; Ikeuchi, H; Uchino, M; Kimura, T

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of teicoplanin according to the pharmacokinetics (PK) therapeutic level achieved in patients with renal dysfunction. Target trough concentration (Cmin) was ≥15-30 μg/ml which has been recommended in patients with normal renal function. Adult patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) who were treated by teicoplanin were included in the study. We adopted two types of regimen for the initial 3 days: the conventional regimen, and the enhanced loading regimen (10 mg/kg twice daily on the 1st day, followed by 6.7-10 mg/kg once daily for the 2nd and 3rd days]. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients were evaluated for safety, and 106 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections were evaluated for clinical efficacy. A significantly higher success rate was obtained in patients who achieved the target initial Cmin compared with those that did not (75.0 % vs 50.0 %, p = 0.008). In a multivariate analysis, initial Cmin ≥15 μg/ml was an independent factor for clinical success (adjusted odds ratio: 4.20, 95 % confidence interval: 1.34-13.15). In patients with 15-30 μg/ml of maximal Cmin during therapy, nephrotoxicity occurred in 13.1 %, and hepatotoxicity in 2.6 %, and these incidences were not significantly higher compared with those patients with <15 μg/ml. In conclusion, achievement of Cmin of 15-30 μg/ml without delay was necessary to improve clinical outcomes for the treatment by teicoplanin in patients with renal dysfunction. Further investigation is required regarding the optimal loading regimen to achieve the therapeutic levels in those patients. PMID:27278654

  12. The Effects of Different Approaches to Reading Instruction on Letter Detection Tasks in Normally Achieving and Low Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Miriam; Kandelshine-Waldman, Osnat

    2011-01-01

    The present study used two letter detection tasks, the classic missing letter effect paradigm and a single word versus familiar word compound version of this paradigm, to study bottom-up and top-down processes involved in reading in normally achieving as compared to low achieving elementary school readers. The research participants were children…

  13. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Anticancer Phytochemicals on Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jisun; Hlatky, Lynn; Jeong, Yong-Seob; Kim, Dohoon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how to target cancer stem cells (CSCs) may provide helpful insights for the development of therapeutic or preventive strategies against cancers. Dietary phytochemicals with anticancer properties are promising candidates and have selective impact on CSCs. This review summarizes the influence of phytochemicals on heterogeneous cancer cell populations as well as on specific targeting of CSCs. PMID:27376325

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL FATE AND EFFECTS OF AQUACULTURE THERAPEUTANT POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potassium permanganate is a widely used freshwater aquaculture drug for the treatment and prevention of waterborne parasitic, bacterial and fungal diseases. However, it is not approved by the USFDA for use as a therapeutant. One of the requirements for approval is an ecological risk assessment. T...

  15. The effects of testing on science process skill achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawitz, Barbara M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of testing on the achievement of students using self-instructional materials to learn science process skills. In one section of an undergraduate science method class, students were paced through a programmed textbook and were given short quizzes in class after each of the process skill lessons was assigned, while in another section, students worked at their own pace and were held responsible for completing the lessons by the end of the semester. Students taking the quizzes throughout the semester were expected to attain a higher level of process skill proficiency because previous studies have shown that taking a test immediately after learning leads to better retention of the material. Results indicated that taking frequent quizzes did not differentially affect process skill acquisition.

  16. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2015-11-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  17. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  18. Functional Nanostructures for Effective Delivery of Small Interfering RNA Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Cheol Am; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2014-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has proved to be a powerful tool for target-specific gene silencing via RNA interference (RNAi). Its ability to control targeted gene expression gives new hope to gene therapy as a treatment for cancers and genetic diseases. However, siRNA shows poor pharmacological properties, such as low serum stability, off-targeting, and innate immune responses, which present a significant challenge for clinical applications. In addition, siRNA cannot cross the cell membrane for RNAi activity because of its anionic property and stiff structure. Therefore, the development of a safe, stable, and efficient system for the delivery of siRNA therapeutics into the cytoplasm of targeted cells is crucial. Several nanoparticle platforms for siRNA delivery have been developed to overcome the major hurdles facing the therapeutic uses of siRNA. This review covers a broad spectrum of non-viral siRNA delivery systems developed for enhanced cellular uptake and targeted gene silencing in vitro and in vivo and discusses their characteristics and opportunities for clinical applications of therapeutic siRNA. PMID:25285170

  19. The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on social functioning in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Bass, Margaret M; Duchowny, Catherine A; Llabre, Maria M

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the effects of therapeutic horseback riding on social functioning in children with autism. We hypothesized that participants in the experimental condition (n = 19), compared to those on the wait-list control (n = 15), would demonstrate significant improvement in social functioning following a 12-weeks horseback riding intervention. Autistic children exposed to therapeutic horseback riding exhibited greater sensory seeking, sensory sensitivity, social motivation, and less inattention, distractibility, and sedentary behaviors. The results provide evidence that therapeutic horseback riding may be a viable therapeutic option in treating children with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:19350376

  20. A Survey of Therapeutic Effects of Artemisia capillaris in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Eungyeong; Kim, Bum-Joon; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Jang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia capillaris has been recognized as an herb with therapeutic efficacy in liver diseases and widely used as an alternative therapy in Asia. Numerous studies have reported the antisteatotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, choleretic, antiviral, antifibrotic, and antitumor activities of A. capillaris. These reports support its therapeutic potential in various liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, several properties of its various constituents, which provide clues to the underlying mechanisms of its therapeutic effects, have been studied. This review describes the scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic potential of A. capillaris and its constituents in various liver diseases. PMID:26366183

  1. The Effects of Therapeutic Storytelling and Behavioral Parent Training on Noncompliant Behavior in Young Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Laura T.; Cook, J. William; Silverman, Paul S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates effects of therapeutic storytelling and behavioral parent training in treating four clinic-referred, noncomplaint males. In condition I, one therapeutic storytelling session was followed by one behavioral parent training session. In condition II, the sequence was reversed. Results indicate that both treatments decreased frequency and…

  2. The Effects of National Board Certification on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Shawn Berry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between National Board Certification and student achievement in mathematics and reading as measured by an achievement test used in South Carolina. Using the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measures of Academic Progress (MAP), the study examined the RIT (Rasch Unit) scores of third…

  3. EFFECT OF PERCEPTUAL TRAINING ON INTELLIGENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANSKY, NORMAN M.

    THE PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR BEHAVIOR IN LEARNING WAS STUDIED IN RELATIONSHIP TO INTELLIGENCE AND SCHOOL ACHIEVEMENT. THE SAMPLE CONSISTED OF 178 THIRD-GRADE PUPILS, WHO WERE MATCHED ON RACE, SEX, INTELLIGENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT, RESULTING IN FOUR EQUIVALENT GROUPS. TRAINING METHODS INCLUDED BLOCKS, PUZZLES, AND READING. POST-TEST PROCEDURES WERE EMPLOYED…

  4. The Effect of Guided Reading Instruction on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Vanda Lea

    2010-01-01

    Although reading achievement correlates highly with a student's ability to do well in school, not all children achieve in reading. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate whether reading instruction provided in small groups at the child's own reading level, known as "guided reading instruction," would result in significant…

  5. The Effect of Student Mobility on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Dolores A.

    The impact of mobility on academic achievement has been the focus of many studies. The findings are generally consistent and suggest that mobility lowers student achievement, particularly when the students are from low-income, less educated families. For this study, 30 students, classified as either mobile or stable, were randomly selected from a…

  6. Flipping College Algebra: Effects on Student Engagement and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ichinose, Cherie; Clinkenbeard, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study compared student engagement and achievement levels between students enrolled in a traditional college algebra lecture course and students enrolled in a "flipped" course. Results showed that students in the flipped class had consistently higher levels of achievement throughout the course than did students in the traditional…

  7. The Effect of Constructivist Mathematics on Achievement in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Michael; Watkins, Sandra; Montalvo, Greg

    2012-01-01

    International assessment data indicate American students are not competing with their counterparts in other countries. The mathematics curriculum and pedagogy are not preparing students to compete in a global economy. This study compared student achievement using sixth grade mathematics results from the Illinois Standards Achievement Test.…

  8. Effect of Tax Ratification Elections on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groppel, Lance

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact a Tax Ratification Election has on student achievement in Texas. Texas schools continue to struggle with shrinking budgets and increasing standards of student achievement (Equity Center, 2011). This study will provide greater insight into whether school districts that have completed a TRE have created a…

  9. Moving towards effective therapeutic strategies for Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis.

    PubMed

    Geraets, Ryan D; Koh, Seung yon; Hastings, Michelle L; Kielian, Tammy; Pearce, David A; Weimer, Jill M

    2016-01-01

    The Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are a family of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders that annually affect 1:100,000 live births worldwide. This family of diseases results from mutations in one of 14 different genes that share common clinical and pathological etiologies. Clinically, the diseases are subcategorized into infantile, late-infantile, juvenile and adult forms based on their age of onset. Though the disease phenotypes may vary in their age and order of presentation, all typically include progressive visual deterioration and blindness, cognitive impairment, motor deficits and seizures. Pathological hallmarks of NCLs include the accumulation of storage material or ceroid in the lysosome, progressive neuronal degeneration and massive glial activation. Advances have been made in genetic diagnosis and counseling for families. However, comprehensive treatment programs that delay or halt disease progression have been elusive. Current disease management is primarily targeted at controlling the symptoms rather than "curing" the disease. Recognizing the growing need for transparency and synergistic efforts to move the field forward, this review will provide an overview of the therapeutic approaches currently being pursued in preclinical and clinical trials to treat different forms of NCL as well as provide insight to novel therapeutic approaches in development for the NCLs. PMID:27083890

  10. Clinical therapeutic effect of intense pulse light PhotoDerm for vascular dermatosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Li-Jun; Xu, Li-Wei; Li, Ying-Yi; Yang, Ji-Qing; Qi, Jia-Xue

    2008-12-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of intense pulsed light PhotoDerm (IPL PhotoDerm) for vascular dermatosis and analysis the possible factors affecting the therapeutic effect. Methods: Treat all blank kinds of vascular dermatosis 85 cases with IPL PhotoDerm, observe the therapeutic effect and no obvious side-effects of vascular dermatosis. Results: The cure rate of telangiectasis, arterial spider nevus, strawberry nevus, avermrus uemongioma and nevus flammeus with IPL PhotoDerm is respective 76.5%, 91.7%, 88.9%, 27.8%, 15%, and the cure rate in three times is respective 35.3%, 91.7%, 66.7%, 5.6% and 5%. 6 eases appear pigmentation, pigment subsidence or atrophic scar. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of vascular dermatosis with IPL PhotoDerm is satisfying, and the no obvious side-effects is less.

  11. Therapeutic effects of acetylspiramycin and garlicin on cryptosporidiosis among drug users

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min-Zhu; Li, Jin; Guan, Lan; Li, Deng-Qing; Nie, Xin-Min; Gui, Rong; Chen, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis affects humans of all ages, particularly malnourished children and those with compromised immune systems such as HIV/AIDS. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of acetylspiramycin and garlicin on Cryptosporidium infection in institutionalized male drug users receiving rehabilitative treatment. Examination of stool specimens from 903 drug users via modified acid-fast bacilli staining resulted in 172 positive cases. Among them 151 subjects consented to participate in a randomized trial of acetylspiramycin and garlicin in four groups: acetylspiramycin plus garlicin, acetylspiramycin only, garlicin only, and placebo control. The cryptosporidiosis rate was higher in younger subjects with longer drug use history than subjects who are older with shorter history of drug use. After two segments of treatments, 76.2% of the cases achieved negative test results, with the four groups achieving the rates of 92.1%, 76.7%, 72.2%, and 61.8%, respectively (χ2 = 9.517, P = 0.023). These results indicate clinical potential of garlicin in conjunction with acetylspiramycin in treating cryptosporidiosis. PMID:27120065

  12. Stereotype Threat's Effect on Women's Achievement in Chemistry: The Interaction of Achievement Goal Orientation for Women in Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…

  13. FcRn binding is not sufficient for achieving systemic therapeutic levels of immunoglobulin G after oral delivery of enteric-coated capsules in cynomolgus macaques.

    PubMed

    Muzammil, Salman; Mabus, John R; Cooper, Philip R; Brezski, Randall J; Bement, Courtney B; Perkinson, Rob; Huebert, Norman D; Thompson, Suzanne; Levine, Dalia; Kliwinski, Connie; Bradley, Dino; Hornby, Pamela J

    2016-06-01

    Although much speculation has surrounded intestinally expressed FcRn as a means for systemic uptake of orally administered immunoglobulin G (IgG), this has not been validated in translational models beyond neonates or in FcRn-expressing cells in vitro. Recently, IgG1 intestinal infusion acutely in anesthetized cynomolgus resulted in detectable serum monoclonal antibody (mAb) levels. In this study, we show that IgG2 has greater protease resistance to intestinal enzymes in vitro and mice in vivo, due to protease resistance in the hinge region. An IgG2 mAb engineered for FcRn binding, was optimally formulated, lyophilized, and loaded into enteric-coated capsules for oral dosing in cynomolgus. Small intestinal pH 7.5 was selected for enteric delivery based on gastrointestinal pH profiling of cynomolgus by operator-assisted IntelliCap System(®). Milling of the lyophilized IgG2 M428L FcRn-binding variant after formulation in 10 mmol/L histidine, pH 5.7, 8.5% sucrose, 0.04% PS80 did not alter the physicochemical properties nor the molecular integrity compared to the batch released in PBS. Size 3 hard gel capsules (23.2 mg IgG2 M428L ~3 mg/kg) were coated with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate for rapid dissolution at pH 7.5 in small intestine and FcRn binding of encapsulated mAb confirmed. Initial capsule dosing by endoscopic delivery into the small intestine achieved 0.2 + 0.1 ng/mL (n = 5) peak at 24 h. Weekly oral capsule dosing for 6 weeks achieved levels of 0.4 + 0.2 ng/mL and, despite increasing the dose and frequency, remained below 1 ng/mL. In conclusion, lyophilized milled mAb retains FcRn binding and molecular integrity for small intestinal delivery. The low systemic exposure has demonstrated the limitations of intestinal FcRn in non-human primates and the unfeasibility of employing this for therapeutic levels of mAb. Local mAb delivery with limited systemic exposure may be sufficient as a therapeutic for intestinal diseases. PMID

  14. Pegfilgrastim Enhances the Antitumor Effect of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Sébastien; Mathé, Doriane; Chettab, Kamel; Evesque, Anne; Matera, Eva-Laure; Trédan, Olivier; Dumontet, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Therapeutic mAbs exert antitumor activity through various mechanisms, including apoptotic signalization, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) or phagocytosis (ADCP). G-CSF and GM-CSF have been reported to increase the activity of antibodies in preclinical models and in clinical trials. To determine the potential role of pegfilgrastim as an enhancer of anticancer antibodies, we performed a comparative study of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim. We found that pegfilgrastim was significantly more potent than filgrastim in murine xenograft models treated with mAbs. This was observed with rituximab in CD20(+) models and with trastuzumab in HER2(+) models. Stimulation with pegfilgrastim was associated with significant enhancement of leukocyte content in spleen as well as mobilization of activated monocytes/granulocytes from the spleen to the tumor bed. These results suggest that pegfilgrastim could constitute a potent adjuvant for immunotherapy with mAbs possessing ADCC/ADCP properties. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(6); 1238-47. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26988998

  15. Effects of Orientations to Happiness on Vocational Identity Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased interest in vocational psychology and career counseling regarding the link between career development and well-being, yet, little is known about how different ways to achieve well-being or happiness relate to career development. This study explored the relationship between 3 orientations to happiness (meaning, pleasure, and…

  16. Capital at Home and at School: Effects on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcel, Toby L.; Dufur, Mikaela J.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of longitudinal data on over 2,000 elementary school students found that reading and mathematics achievement were modestly affected by financial and social capital at school and more strongly affected by indicators of family capital; combinations of school and family capital boosted or modified additive findings. (Contains 69 references.)…

  17. Educational Achievement and Effective Schools: Examples of Best Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez-Ortega, Magdalena; Ballesteros-Velazquez, Belen; Malik-Lievano, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present key aspects of a research project entitled "Students' Cultural Diversity and School Efficacy: A Repertory of Best Practice in Compulsory Learning Centers." First, we present our concept of cultural diversity and a reflection regarding "best school practices" and the notion of "student achievement at school." In the…

  18. Differentiated Instruction: Effects on Primary Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    Low mathematics achievement is a concern of educators and the general public because many Americans are emerging from school without the requisite mathematics skills to function well in our complex, quickly changing society. Individuals with low math abilities are more likely to be unemployed and be a burden to fellow taxpayers. Educators and…

  19. The Effects of Playing Educational Video Games on Kindergarten Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Feng S.; Calao, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether kindergarten students who played Sony PlayStation educational video games for 40 minutes daily for 11 weeks learned better than peers who did not play such games. Found that the experimental group gained significantly more than the control group in spelling and decoding on the Wide Range Achievement Test-R3. Found no…

  20. The Effects of Podcasting on College Student Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francom, Jeff; Ryan, Thomas G.; Kariuki, Mumbi

    2011-01-01

    In this mixed methods study, weekly podcasts written and recorded by course instructors to summarize college course content, were used to study the impact, if any, on student achievement and attitudes. Specifically, weekly summative podcasts were posted on an Internet website in Windows Media format and downloaded by college students. After 4…

  1. The Effect of Instructional Approach on Mathematics Anxiety and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Karen S.

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of covariance of pre- and posttest scores on mathematics anxiety and arithmetic achievement tests of (n=123) college students taught arithmetic using two different instructional approaches (rule oriented versus concept oriented) found a significant difference between the posttest anxiety scores of the two groups. (22 references)…

  2. An Analysis of Alternative School Effectiveness on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moger, Scott Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis investigating student achievement, attendance rates, grade point average and credit earned by at-risk students attending an alternative high school of choice, at-risk students attending a traditional high school and at-risk students attending a Disciplinary Alternative Education Placement Campus within the same…

  3. Possible Effects of Early Childhood Music on Mathematical Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geoghegan, Noel; Mitchelmore, Michael

    Assuming that young children's involvement in music programs provides a conceptual foundation for subjects such as mathematics, this study examined the impact of music education on mathematics achievement in preschool children. A pseudo-experimental design was used in which 35 preschool children involved in a music program treatment were compared…

  4. Spatial Dependency and Contextual Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlock, Ki; Song, Joon Jin; Goering, Christian Z.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of district-related variables on a district's academic performance. Arkansas augmented benchmark examination scores were used to measure a district's scholastic achievement. Spatial analysis fit each district's performance to its geographical location; spatial autocorrelation measured the amount of influence…

  5. On the Effect of Learning Style on Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Rahmatullah; Bart, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to explore the influence of learning styles on scholastic achievement levels. The participants in this study were undergraduate students studying social sciences at a Division 1 research university. The frequencies of the participants in the four learning style categories are the following: Convergent ("n"…

  6. Formal Teacher Competence and Its Effect on Pupil Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosén, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of formal teacher competence on pupils' reading achievement. The data comes from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 in grade 3. Information was obtained from pupils (n = 5271) and teachers (n = 351). The analyses were conducted using 2-level structural equation modeling. Teacher…

  7. Dyad Composition Effects on Cognitive Elaboration and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denessen, Eddie; Veenman, Simon; Dobbelsteen, Janine; van Schilt, Josie

    2008-01-01

    The authors addressed the following research question: Does composition of dyads in terms of gender and ability affect student participation, the level of cognitive elaborations during a collaborative activity, and individual student achievement? The study involved 24 6th-grade dyads paired as follows: a low-ability student with a medium-ability…

  8. Interaction Effects in Cross-National Studies of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Todd V.; Sabers, Darrell L.

    1995-01-01

    The Bateria Woodcock Psico-Educativa en Espanol was administered to urban children in grades 1, 3, 5, 8, and 11 in Spain, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Peru. Spain consistently ranked highest on all achievement clusters (subject areas). For the other countries, interactions of cluster by grade level preclude any interpretation of main…

  9. Rural Social Studies Teaching: Characteristics and Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results of teaching social studies in a rural environment. Addresses size of school, teacher preparation in social studies, teacher orientation toward teaching content, and achievement scores. Concludes that teachers in rural schools have more positive opinions of their students but need additional teaching materials and inservice…

  10. The Effects of Math Intervention on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulichnie, Staci

    2015-01-01

    Within diverse classrooms, sometimes teachers need extra assistance to reach all students. This quantitative research design was used to determine the affects of math intervention on student achievement. Students in this study were selected by their "Not Met" PASS scores from their 3rd grade year. A survey assessing student attitudes…

  11. The Effect of Metacognitive Scaffolds on Low Achievers' Laboratory Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sufen; Huang, Chih-Chi; Chou, Te-Lien

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the influence of experimental goal setting and planning on the attitudes toward science, self-efficacy, inquiry performance, and achievement of students with low academic performance. A total of 71 students aged 16-18 were randomly divided into a treatment group (with goal setting and planning) and a control group (without goal…

  12. Student Achievement as a Measure of Instructor Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsch, Joseph E.; And Others

    Using an eight-day hydraulics maintenance course taught by 121 instructors on a regular basis to classes of about 14 students using the same classrooms and materials, the Air Force conducted a study designed to determine instructor measures which correlate with, and are therefore predictive of, student achievement. The study report first discusses…

  13. Response to Intervention (RTI) Effectiveness in Kindergarten Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether kindergarten-reading achievement could be increased by implementing Response to Intervention (RtI) strategies. Kindergarten children (N = 290) who were identified as at-risk for reading difficulties were assigned to receive intervention through a) small reading groups (SRG), b)…

  14. Effects of Cochlear Implants on Children's Reading and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Rhoten, Cathy; Fabich, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of empirical studies assessing literacy and other domains of academic achievement among children with cochlear implants. A variety of recent studies have demonstrated benefits to hearing, language, and speech from implants, leading to assumptions that early implantation and longer periods of implant should…

  15. Teacher Effects on Student Achievement and Height: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Corcoran, Sean P.; Domina, Thurston; Penner, Emily K.

    2014-01-01

    The growing availability of data linking students to classroom teachers has made it possible to estimate the contribution teachers make to student achievement. While there is a growing consensus that teacher quality is important and current evaluation systems are inadequate, many have expressed concerns over the use of value-added measures (VAMs)…

  16. An Effective Way to Improve Mathematics Achievement in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taik

    2010-01-01

    The local Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEARUP) partnership serves 11 K-8 schools with the lowest achievement scores and the highest poverty rates in a large Midwestern urban district. Recently, GEARUP launched a specially designed teaching program, Mathematics Enhancement Group (MEG), for underachievers in…

  17. The Effects of Participation in Marching Band on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitucci, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    As schools face tough decisions regarding budget cuts and program elimination, research regarding the importance of extracurricular activities is increasingly important. This study focused on the impact of involvement in band on student achievement as defined by GPA and attendance. Because students were only involved in band extracurricularly…

  18. Classroom Effects on Children's Achievement Trajectories in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C.; Belsky, Jay; Vandergrift, Nathan; Houts, Renate; Morrison, Fred J.

    2008-01-01

    This nonexperimental, longitudinal field study examines the extent to which variation in observed classroom supports (quality of emotional and instructional interactions and amount of exposure to literacy and math activities) predicts trajectories of achievement in reading and math from 54 months to fifth grade. Growth mixture modeling detected…

  19. Depressive Mood and Social Maladjustment: Differential Effects on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluja, Anton; Blanch, Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Children Depression Inventory (CDI) is a multidimensional instrument that includes items of social withdrawal, anhedonia, asthenia, low self-esteem (internalized) and behavioral problems (externalized). Child depression has been related with low academic achievement, neurotic and introverted personality traits and social maladjustment defined…

  20. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  1. Therapeutic effects of Chinese osteopathy in patients with lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Wei, Jie; Li, Xi-De; Liu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted in 72 lumbar disc herniation (LDH) patients and 40 asymptomatic subjects to evaluate the efficacy of Feng's spinal manipulation (FSM). FSM was performed twice a week for less than 20 days. Changes in the symmetrical index of spinal column (SISC) and quantified symptom index (QSI) before and after FSM in both groups were collected. The QSI consisted of the visual analogue scale (VAS), score of the Japanese Orthopedic Association, and straight leg raising test, for measurement of pain perception, dysfunction of lower limb extension or flexion, and symptomatic relief. A correlation analysis was conducted to compare the difference in protruded nucleus pulposus size using computerized projection grating profilometry, SISC, and QSI before and after the therapy. The results showed that the SISC and QSI significantly decreased after treatment in the LDH group (p < 0.01). The SISC before and after treatment was closely correlated with the improvement of QSI, although there was no change in protruded nucleus pulposus following the therapy. Among the five components in SISC, the LR was found to be an ideal indicator for evaluation of the real circumstances in LDH patients. Our data suggested that FSM achieved satisfactory therapeutic effects in relieving the symptom of LDH while no effects were observed in asymptomatic subjects. PMID:24117063

  2. Effect of language of instruction on physics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kwok K.

    This study investigated the relationship between physics achievement and language of instruction in a situation where instruction was in the second language of both students and teachers. One hundred and seventy-six grade ten physics students (first language was Chinese) were selected from four classes of two secondary schools in Hong Kong. For three months (with four lessons per week), two classes of students learned the content material (light and sound) in Chinese and two classes learned the material in English. Group differences were controlled by using individual aptitude scores as covariates in the analysis. There were no differences in achievement, students' motivation, and effort spent in physics in that controlled teaching period. This was probably because the Anglo-Chinese group was sufficiently proficient in English so they did not encounter additional difficulty in learning physics when compared with the Chinese group.

  3. The immediate effects of therapeutic keyboard music playing for finger training in adults undergoing hand rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Liu, Songhuai; Yang, Degang; Du, Liangjie; Wang, Ziyuan

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of therapeutic keyboard music playing on the finger function of subjects’ hands through measurements of the joint position error test, surface electromyography, probe reaction time, and writing time. [Subjects and Methods] Ten subjects were divided randomly into experimental and control groups. The experimental group used therapeutic keyboard music playing and the control group used grip training. All subjects were assessed and evaluated by the joint position error test, surface electromyography, probe reaction time, and writing time. [Results] After accomplishing therapeutic keyboard music playing and grip training, surface electromyography of the two groups showed no significant change, but joint position error test, probe reaction time, and writing time obviously improved. [Conclusion] These results suggest that therapeutic keyboard music playing is an effective and novel treatment for improving joint position error test scores, probe reaction time, and writing time, and it should be promoted widely in clinics.

  4. Effects of fotemustine or dacarbasine on a melanoma cell line pretreated with therapeutic proton irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ristić-Fira, Aleksandra M; Korićanac, Lela B; Žakula, Jelena J; Valastro, Lucia M; Iannolo, Gioacchin; Privitera, Giuseppe; Cuttone, Giacomo; Petrović, Ivan M

    2009-01-01

    Background Considering that HTB140 melanoma cells have shown a poor response to either protons or alkylating agents, the effects of a combined use of these agents have been analysed. Methods Cells were irradiated in the middle of the therapeutic 62 MeV proton spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). Irradiation doses were 12 or 16 Gy and are those frequently used in proton therapy. Four days after irradiation cells were treated with fotemustine (FM) or dacarbazine (DTIC). Drug concentrations were 100 and 250 μM, values close to those that produce 50% of growth inhibition. Cell viability, proliferation, survival and cell cycle distribution were assessed 7 days after irradiation that corresponds to more than six doubling times of HTB140 cells. In this way incubation periods providing the best single effects of drugs (3 days) and protons (7 days) coincided at the same time. Results Single proton irradiations have reduced the number of cells to ~50%. FM caused stronger cell inactivation due to its high toxicity, while the effectiveness of DTIC, that was important at short term, almost vanished with the incubation of 7 days. Cellular mechanisms triggered by proton irradiation differently influenced the final effects of combined treatments. Combination of protons and FM did not improve cell inactivation level achieved by single treatments. A low efficiency of the single DTIC treatment was overcome when DTIC was introduced following proton irradiation, giving better inhibitory effects with respect to the single treatments. Most of the analysed cells were in G1/S phase, viable, active and able to replicate DNA. Conclusion The obtained results are the consequence of a high resistance of HTB140 melanoma cells to protons and/or drugs. The inactivation level of the HTB140 human melanoma cells after protons, FM or DTIC treatments was not enhanced by their combined application. PMID:19358719

  5. Macromolecular therapeutics in cancer treatment: the EPR effect and beyond.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiroshi

    2012-12-10

    In this review, I have discussed various issues of the cancer drug targeting primarily related to the EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect, which utilized nanomedicine or macromolecular drugs. The content goes back to the development of the first polymer-protein conjugate anticancer agent SMANCS and development of the arterial infusion in Lipiodol formulation into the tumor feeding artery (hepatic artery for hepatoma). The brief account on the EPR effect and its definition, factors involved, heterogeneity, and various methods of augmentation of the EPR effect, which showed remarkably improved clinical outcomes are also discussed. Various obstacles involved in drug developments and commercialization are also discussed through my personal experience and recollections. PMID:22595146

  6. Another Look at the Nonspecific Hypothesis of Therapeutic Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Enrico E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined effects of therapist actions and techniques, and patient behaviors and attitudes, on psychotherapy outcome. Treated patients suffering from stress-response syndromes in brief, 12-session psychodynamic psychotherapy. All specific factors influenced treatment outcome, usually in interaction with patient pretreatment disturbance level, with…

  7. Effect of emulsifier and viscosity on oil separation in ready-to-use therapeutic food.

    PubMed

    Ordiz, M Isabel; Ryan, Kelsey N; Cimo, Elizabeth D; Stoner, Margo E; Loehnig, Margaret E; Manary, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Oil separation is a common food quality problem in ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), the shelf-stable, peanut-based food used to treat severe acute malnutrition in home settings. Our objective was to evaluate the effect on oil separation of three emulsifiers at different concentrations in RUTF. We also assessed two viscosity measurements. A scale-up experiment was carried out during full-scale RUTF production in Malawi. Results indicate that viscosity is inversely correlated with oil separation, and that the Bostwick consistometer is a simple, useful tool to predict viscosity. Oil separation in RUTF may be mitigated by use of an emulsifier, which increases the viscosity of the product. The emulsifier that reduced oil separation to the greatest extent was a mixture of high and low monoacylglycerol (MAG) emulsifiers. Proper raw material quality control to achieve consistent ingredient fat level and fat type, and production temperature and shearing control should be a focus in RUTF manufacturing. PMID:26299733

  8. Pharmacologic rationale underlying the therapeutic effects of tiotropium/olodaterol in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Pelaia, Girolamo; Vatrella, Alessandro; Busceti, Maria Teresa; Gallelli, Luca; Calabrese, Cecilia; Terracciano, Rosa; Lombardo, Nicola; Maselli, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Bronchodilators are the most important drugs used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In particular, these therapeutic agents are mostly long-acting compounds utilized via inhalation, and include LAMA (long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists) and LABA (long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists). Because LAMA and LABA induce bronchodilation by distinct mechanisms of action, LABA/LAMA combinations provide a reciprocal potentiation of the pharmacological effects caused by each component. Hence, many COPD patients who do not achieve a satisfactory control of their symptoms using a single, either LAMA or LABA bronchodilator, can experience relevant benefits with the use of LAMA/LABA fixed combinations. Many different LAMA/LABA combinations have been recently developed and evaluated in randomized clinical trials. In this context, our review focuses on the pharmacological mechanisms underpinning the bronchodilation elicited by the LAMA tiotropium bromide and the LABA olodaterol. We also discuss the results of the most important clinical studies carried out in COPD patients to assess the efficacy and safety of tiotropium/olodaterol combinations. PMID:26504398

  9. The Warburg effect: molecular aspects and therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Hanh; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-04-01

    It has been about nine decades since the proposal of Otto Warburg on the metabolism of cancer cells. Unlike normal cells which undergo glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of oxygen, proliferating and cancer cells exhibit an increased uptake of glucose and increased rate of glycolysis and predominantly undergo lactic acid fermentation. Whether this phenomenon is the consequence of genetic dysregulation in cancer or is the cause of cancer still remains unknown. However, there is certainly a strong link between the genetic factors, epigenetic modulation, cancer immunosurveillance and the Warburg effect, which will be discussed in this review. Dichloroacetate and 3-bromopyruvate are among the substances that have been studied as potential cancer therapies. With our expanding knowledge of cellular metabolism, therapies targeting the Warburg effect appear very promising. This review discusses different aspects of these emerging therapies. PMID:25253100

  10. Aromatase inhibitors in men: effects and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors effectively delay epiphysial maturation in boys and improve testosterone levels in adult men Therefore, aromatase inhibitors may be used to increase adult height in boys with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, idiopathic short stature and constitutional delay of puberty. Long-term efficacy and safety of the use of aromatase inhibitors has not yet been established in males, however, and their routine use is therefore not yet recommended. PMID:21693046

  11. Theophylline-7-acetic acid: lack of absorption and therapeutic effectiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Fleetham, J A; Owen, J A; May, B; Munt, P W; Nakatsu, K

    1979-01-01

    A double-blind cross-over trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of oral theophylline-7-acetic acid (T7AA) in 13 asthmatic patients. Pulmonary function tests showed no difference between T7AA and placebo. No T7AA or theophylline was found in the sera of these patients or of healthy volunteers who took T7AA tablets or syrup. PMID:388714

  12. Pharmacogenetics and Antipsychotics: Therapeutic Efficacy and Side Effects Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Antipsychotic drug is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, and there are large inter-individual differences is clinical response and side effects. Pharmacogenetics provides a valuable tool to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine by tailoring treatment based on one's genetic markers. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the pharmacogenetic literature from early 1990s to 2010, focusing on two aspects of drug action: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Genetic variants in the neurotransmitter receptors including dopamine and serotonin, and metabolic pathways of drugs including CYP2D6 and COMT, were discussed in association with clinical drug response and side effects. What the reader will gain Readers are expected to learn the up-to-date evidence in pharmacogenetic research, and to gain familiarity to the issues and challenges facing the field. Take home message Pharmacogenetic research of antipsychotic drugs is both promising and challenging. There is consistent evidence that some genetic variants can affect clinical response and side effects. However, more studies that are designed specifically to test pharmacogenetic hypotheses are clearly needed to advance the field. PMID:21162693

  13. Therapeutic effects of isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ryo, Koufuchi; Takahashi, Ayako; Tamaki, Yoh; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Inoue, Hiroko; Saito, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Dry mouth, which is characterized by decreased salivation, has a number of causes; the involvement of estrogen has been suggested as symptoms typically develop in middle-aged females. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of this condition. Soy isoflavones, a subgroup of flavonoids, are abundantly found in the soy germ. They are thought to exert a number of effects by specifically binding to estrogen receptors due to their structural similarity to estrogen. Recently, soy isoflavones have been found to exert antioxidant effects, ameliorating disorders caused by reactive oxygen/free radicals. Based on these observations, the effects of soybean isoflavones on impaired salivary secretion were studied in patients with dry mouth. Soy isoflavone aglycones were administered at 25 mg per day to 15 subjects with an average age of 67.9 ± 8.0 years for 2 months, and salivary secretion was analyzed. The results showed a significant improvement based on the saliva flow rate and self-completed questionnaire, thus suggesting the usefulness of isoflavones in improving the symptoms of salivary gland hypofunction. PMID:25411521

  14. Placebo Effects and the Ethics of Therapeutic Communication: A Pragmatic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Annoni, Marco; Miller, Franklin G

    2016-03-01

    In this article we explore the ethics of manipulating verbal information for the sake of influencing health outcomes through placebo and nocebo responses. Recent scientific research on placebo and nocebo effects has drawn attention to the ways in which communication by health professionals may modulate the symptoms of patients across an array of highly prevalent conditions such as pain, depression, anxiety, insomnia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, and Parkinson's disease. The positive and negative effects of clinicians' communication on patient outcomes pose important ethical issues, which we describe in this article under the label of "the ethics of therapeutic communication" (TC). We begin by reviewing available evidence supporting the claim that doctor-patient communication has therapeutic effects. We then identify in truthfulness, helpfulness, and pragmatism three morally relevant considerations that can guide clinicians in therapeutic communication with their patients. Finally, we examine the ethics of using TC to enhance the effectiveness of proven medical interventions and open-label placebos. PMID:27157112

  15. Therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okereke, Emmanuel O.

    2000-09-01

    This quasi-experiment study examined the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress. By utilizing drug interventions that reduced cardiovascular distress through changes in the hypertensive indices, previous studies have shown that improvements in life expectancy, lowering of health care costs in later years, and reduction in all-cause mortality were achieved. In fact, individuals without risk factors or with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adulthood or middle age were healthier, had a greater life expectancy, and incurred lower health care costs in later years. The hypertensive indices of interest include elevated heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (Ps), diastolic blood pressure (PD), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), pulse pressure (PP), and mechanical disadvantages of the heart MDH. Mechanical disadvantage of the heart is a term that has been developed for the purposes of this study. The alternative hypotheses for this study proposed to show a significant change in the relevant hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress in volunteers after a minimum of 45 days treatment with multiple nutritional supplements. The target population was all middle-aged (30 to 65 years) volunteer hypertensives in Nigeria (West Africa), who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or control group, controlling for individuals who were on any form of medication, smokers, alcoholics, and those who were pregnant or on contraceptives. Treatment involved multiple doses of the various vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and accessory nutrients in their complementary combinations that influence various levels of cardiovascular function. After 45 days of treatment, the differences between the mean sores of the experimental group and control group on Ps, PD, MABP, and PP were found to be statistically significant, at p ≤ .05 cut-off level for

  16. The Effects of Teacher Entry Portals on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Purtell, Kelly M.; Bastian, Kevin C.; Fortner, C. Kevin; Thompson, Charles L.; Campbell, Shanyce L.; Patterson, Kristina M.

    2014-01-01

    The current teacher workforce is younger, less experienced, more likely to turnover, and more diverse in preparation experiences than the workforce of two decades ago. Research shows that inexperienced teachers are less effective, but we know little about the effectiveness of teachers with different types of preparation. In this study, we classify…

  17. Is Scientific Achievement a Correlate of Effective Teaching Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, A. I.; Preshaw, R.

    1975-01-01

    Teststhe hypothesis that in the context of a large health science center heavily committed to scientific activity, there would be a positive relationship between the scientific productivity of faculty and their effectiveness as teachers. The results indicate that research activity is supportive of effective teaching. (Editor/PG)

  18. Effects of Grading on Achievement in College Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Youxiang; Zakrajsek, Dorothy B.

    1994-01-01

    Study examined the effects of three grading systems on college physical education students' outcome measures in table tennis using skill tests, written tests, game play variables, class attendance, student behaviors, and attitudes toward the systems. Positive effects of the three grading systems were demonstrated on most process and outcome…

  19. [Therapeutic and prophylactic effect of LH-release in cattle].

    PubMed

    Goehring, C; Aurich, C; Lange, J; Hoppen, H O; Aurich, J E

    1999-02-01

    In this study, LH release in response to the GnRH agonist buserelin and during treatment with a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) was studied. A dose of 20 micrograms buserelin induced a more pronounced LH release than 4, 8, 40 and 80 micrograms. After injection of buserelin, pituitary response to a second buserelin injection was markedly reduced for at least 24 hours. Repeated buserelin injections at an interval of several hours therefore cannot be recommended. LH release was markedly suppressed by treatment with PRID. Two PRID tended to be more effective than one. After PRID removal, LH release increased significantly. PMID:10077811

  20. The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

  1. Performance Trajectories and Performance Gaps as Achievement Effect-Size Benchmarks for Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.; Hill, Carolyn J.; Black, Alison Rebeck; Lipsey, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to developing empirical benchmarks for achievement effect sizes in educational interventions are explored. The first approach characterizes the natural developmental progress in achievement made by students from one year to the next as effect sizes. Data for seven nationally standardized achievement tests show large…

  2. Novel Therapeutics for Diabetes: Uptake, Usage Trends, and Comparative Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Vishal; Chou, Chia-Hung

    2016-06-01

    The number of available therapies for treating type 2 diabetes has grown considerably in recent years. This growth has been fueled by availability of newer medications, whose benefits and risks have not been fully established. In this study, we review and synthesize the existing literature on the uptake, efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of novel antidiabetic agents. Specifically, we focus on three drug classes that were introduced in the market recently: thiazolidinediones (TZDs), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. Not surprisingly, we find that the usage trends reflect the efficacy and safety profile of these novel drugs. The use of TZDs increased initially but decreased after a black-box warning was issued for rosiglitazone in 2007 that highlighted the cardiovascular risks associated with using the drug. Conversely, DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists gained market shares due to their efficacy in glycemic control as an add-on treatment to metformin. DPP-4 inhibitors were the most commonly prescribed agents among the three novel drug classes, likely because they are relatively less expensive, have better safety profile, are administered orally, and are weight neutral. Sitagliptin was the most preferred DPP-4 inhibitor. The level of evidence on the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost implications of using novel antidiabetic agents remains low and further studies with long-term follow-ups are needed. PMID:27076180

  3. The Effects of Web-Based/Non-Web-Based Problem-Solving Instruction and High/Low Achievement on Students' Problem-Solving Ability and Biology Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wen-Feng; She, Hsiao-Ching; Lee, Yu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two factors: the mode of problem-solving instruction (i.e. Web-based versus non-Web-based) and the level of academic achievement (i.e. high achievers versus low achievers) on students' problem-solving ability and biology achievement. A quasi-experimental design was used, in which the experimental group…

  4. Psychotherapist countertransference in the nuclear age: Effects on therapeutic interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Oderberg, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, there has been considerable attention in the psychology literature to mental health problems related to living in a world threatened by nuclear destruction. Questionnaires were mailed to 630 psychotherapists from the Colorado Psychological Association, California Psychotherapists for Social Responsibility, California Psychologists for Social Responsibility, the US Army, and the APA Division of Military Psychology; 174 questionnaires were returned. It was hypothesized that liberalism, nuclear weapons opposition, nuclear concern, nuclear awareness, and anti-nuclear activism in psychotherapists would facilitate perception of, and openness to working with, a client's nuclear concerns and thus, would be positively correlated with intentions to discuss nuclear issues with clients in three different clinical vignettes. Results indicated that when controlling for subject group, psychotherapy orientation, age, sex, and income, all five independent variables were positively correlated with responses to all three clinical vignettes, with nuclear concern having the strongest unique effect in accounting for variance in responses to the vignettes.

  5. Potential therapeutic effects of oral bisphosphonates on the intestine.

    PubMed

    Pazianas, Michael; Russell, R Graham G

    2011-12-01

    Bisphosphonates are the principal drugs prescribed for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. They are bone specific but poorly absorbed. In oral formulations, almost 99% of the administered dose remains within the intestinal tract and reaches the small and large bowel. Although the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates can irritate the distal esophageal/gastric mucosa, they improve drug-induced colitis in animal models and exhibit antitumor properties on intestinal cells in vitro. Several recent epidemiological studies provide evidence of a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in osteoporotic patients treated with oral bisphosphonates, notably alendronate. In this review, we will explore the possible mechanisms of action underlying these effects and raise the question of whether these agents might be used in the chemoprophylaxis against colorectal cancer. PMID:22360293

  6. Possible pubertal effect on therapeutic gains in an autistic girl.

    PubMed

    Ayres, A J; Mailloux, Z K

    1983-08-01

    A deaf, partially sighted, severely retarded autistic girl, 11 years, 6 months of age, received approximately 2 years of occupational therapy, where sensory integration procedures were employed to reduce self-stimulation. Videotaped time samples of the amount of stereotypies showed a consistent reduction from the time of starting therapy to an interruption for vacation and surgery for scoliosis 46 weeks later. On returning to therapy after a 9-week break, self-stimulation had greatly increased and did not return to the presurgery level during an additional 55 weeks of therapy, 30 of which followed the removal of a cast. Menarche occurred 1 week after removing the cast. Increased self-stimulation is linked to reduced inclination toward environmental interaction as well as to an interruption of intervention and possible pubertal effect. Brief reports on four other autistic adolescents who received similar therapy are consistent with the conjecture of frequent pubertal regression. PMID:6624850

  7. Curcumin shows excellent therapeutic effect on psoriasis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Di; Li, Bowen; Luo, Lei; Jiang, Wenbing; Lu, Qiumin; Rong, Mingqing; Lai, Ren

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin is an active herbal ingredient possessing surprisingly wide range of beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. Recently, it has been reported to exhibit inhibitory activity on potassium channel subtype Kv1.3. As Kv1.3 channels are mainly expressed in T cells and play a key role in psoriasis, the effects of curcumin were investigated on inflammatory factors secretion in T cells and psoriasis developed in keratin (K) 14-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transgenic mouse model. Results showed that, 10 μM of curcumin significantly inhibited secretion of inflammatory factors including interleukin (IL)-17,IL-22, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-8 and TNF-α in T cells by 30-60% in vitro. Notably, more than 50% of T cells proliferation was inhibited by application of 100 μM curcumin. Compared with severe psoriatic symptoms observed in the negative control mice, all psoriasis indexes including ear redness, weight, thickness and lymph node weight were significantly improved by oral application of curcumin in treatment mouse group. Histological examination indicated that curcumin had anti-inflammatory function in the experimental animals. More than 50% level of inflammatory factors including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-22 and IL-23 in mouse serum was decreased by curcumin treatment as well as cyclosporine. Compared with renal fibrosis observed in the mouse group treated by cyclosporine, no obvious side effect in mouse kidney was found after treated by curcumin. Taken together, curcumin, with high efficacy and safety, has a great potential to treat psoriasis. PMID:26826458

  8. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  9. Microdosimetric relative biological effectiveness of therapeutic proton beams.

    PubMed

    Tung, Chuan-Jong

    2015-01-01

    When compared to photon beams, particle beams have distinct spatial distributions on the energy depositions in both the macroscopic and microscopic volumes. In a macroscopic volume, the absorbed dose distribution shows a rapid increase near the particle range, that is, Bragg peak, as particle penetrates deep inside the tissue. In a microscopic volume, individual particle deposits its energy along the particle track by producing localized ionizations through the formation of clusters. These highly localized clusters can induce complex types of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage which are more difficult to repair and lead to higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE) as compared to photons. To describe the biological actions, biophysical models on a microscopic level have been developed. In this review, microdosimetric approaches are discussed for the determination of RBE at different depths in a patient under particle therapy. These approaches apply the microdosimetric lineal energy spectra obtained from measurements or calculations. Methods to determine these spectra will be focused on the tissue equivalent proportional counter and the Monte Carlo program. Combining the lineal energy spectrum and the biological model, RBE can be determined. Three biological models are presented. A simplified model applies the dose-mean lineal energy and the measured RBE (linear energy transfer) data. A more detailed model makes use of the full lineal energy spectrum and the biological weighting function spectrum. A comprehensive model calculates the spectrum-averaged yields of DNA damages caused by all primary and secondary particles of a particle beam. Results of these models are presented for proton beams. PMID:26459792

  10. Effects of Mode of Instruction, Testing, Order of Testing, and Cued Recall on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Francis M.; De Melo, Hermes

    1984-01-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate effect of verbal instruction alone vs. verbal instruction complemented by simple line drawings; effect of visual testing vs. nonvisual testing; effect of verbal cued vs. free recall on student achievement; effect of order of testing on subsequent achievement; and interaction among type of instruction,…

  11. The Effective Principal: Achieving Equity and Excellence in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denbo, Sheryl; Ross, Marlene

    The suggestions presented in this publication are designed to assist principals in improving school effectiveness through a well-planned, well-executed program of staff supervision and curriculum development. The document is organized into four major areas. First, the need for the principal to provide strong curriculum leadership through…

  12. Effects of Jigsaw III Technique on Achievement in Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the Jigsaw III technique (of cooperative learning) with the instructional teacher-centered teaching method in six graders in terms of the effect of written expression on their academic success. The universe of the study consists of 71 sixth-grade students studying during 2009-2010 academic term in a…

  13. Assessing Teacher Quality: Understanding Teacher Effects on Instruction and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Recent educational reforms have promoted accountability systems which attempt to identify "teacher effects" on student outcomes and hold teachers accountable for producing learning gains. But in the complex world of classrooms, it may be difficult to attribute "success" or "failure" to teachers. In this timely collection, leading education…

  14. Colour and Light Effects on Students' Achievement, Behavior and Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlfarth, H.

    A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was used to investigate the effects of full-spectrum light, prescribed color and light/color combinations, ultra-violet light, and electromagnetic radiation in an elementary school environment. Four schools in the Wetaskiwin School District, Alberta, were involved in the study; three served…

  15. Effects of Differentiated Instruction on Student Achievement in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Darryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Reading teachers are faced with the challenge of providing instruction to a population of diverse students with various abilities and styles of learning within local and state school districts. In an effort to improve student performance on high-stake examinations in reading, teachers continue to seek the most effective instructional strategies.…

  16. The Effect of Kindergarten Entry Age on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buten, Nicole A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of kindergarten entry age on the scores of the eighth grade Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) math and reading scores, while controlling for the demographic variables of gender and socioeconomic status. The subjects included 1,197 students who participated in the randomized, long-term STAR (Student-Teacher…

  17. Assessing School Effects without Controlling for Prior Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyten, Hans; Tymms, Peter; Jones, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The research findings presented in this paper illustrate how the "value added" of schooling can be assessed empirically using cross-sectional data. Application of the regression-discontinuity approach within a multilevel framework produces both an estimate of the absolute effect of 1 year schooling and an estimate of the variation across schools…

  18. Functional correlates of the therapeutic and adverse effects evoked by thalamic stimulation for essential tremor.

    PubMed

    Gibson, William S; Jo, Hang Joon; Testini, Paola; Cho, Shinho; Felmlee, Joel P; Welker, Kirk M; Klassen, Bryan T; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H

    2016-08-01

    Deep brain stimulation is an established neurosurgical therapy for movement disorders including essential tremor and Parkinson's disease. While typically highly effective, deep brain stimulation can sometimes yield suboptimal therapeutic benefit and can cause adverse effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging could be used to detect deep brain stimulation-evoked changes in functional and effective connectivity that would correlate with the therapeutic and adverse effects of stimulation. Ten patients receiving deep brain stimulation of the ventralis intermedius thalamic nucleus for essential tremor underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation applied at a series of stimulation localizations, followed by evaluation of deep brain stimulation-evoked therapeutic and adverse effects. Correlations between the therapeutic effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (3 months postoperatively) and deep brain stimulation-evoked changes in functional and effective connectivity were assessed using region of interest-based correlation analysis and dynamic causal modelling, respectively. Further, we investigated whether brain regions might exist in which activation resulting from deep brain stimulation might correlate with the presence of paraesthesias, the most common deep brain stimulation-evoked adverse effect. Thalamic deep brain stimulation resulted in activation within established nodes of the tremor circuit: sensorimotor cortex, thalamus, contralateral cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei (FDR q < 0.05). Stimulation-evoked activation in all these regions of interest, as well as activation within the supplementary motor area, brainstem, and inferior frontal gyrus, exhibited significant correlations with the long-term therapeutic effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (P < 0.05), with the strongest correlation (P < 0.001) observed within the contralateral cerebellum. Dynamic causal

  19. Functional correlates of the therapeutic and adverse effects evoked by thalamic stimulation for essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, William S.; Jo, Hang Joon; Testini, Paola; Cho, Shinho; Felmlee, Joel P.; Welker, Kirk M.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Min, Hoon-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation is an established neurosurgical therapy for movement disorders including essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease. While typically highly effective, deep brain stimulation can sometimes yield suboptimal therapeutic benefit and can cause adverse effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging could be used to detect deep brain stimulation-evoked changes in functional and effective connectivity that would correlate with the therapeutic and adverse effects of stimulation. Ten patients receiving deep brain stimulation of the ventralis intermedius thalamic nucleus for essential tremor underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation applied at a series of stimulation localizations, followed by evaluation of deep brain stimulation-evoked therapeutic and adverse effects. Correlations between the therapeutic effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (3 months postoperatively) and deep brain stimulation-evoked changes in functional and effective connectivity were assessed using region of interest-based correlation analysis and dynamic causal modelling, respectively. Further, we investigated whether brain regions might exist in which activation resulting from deep brain stimulation might correlate with the presence of paraesthesias, the most common deep brain stimulation-evoked adverse effect. Thalamic deep brain stimulation resulted in activation within established nodes of the tremor circuit: sensorimotor cortex, thalamus, contralateral cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei (FDR q < 0.05). Stimulation-evoked activation in all these regions of interest, as well as activation within the supplementary motor area, brainstem, and inferior frontal gyrus, exhibited significant correlations with the long-term therapeutic effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (P < 0.05), with the strongest correlation (P < 0.001) observed within the contralateral cerebellum. Dynamic causal

  20. Effects of lecture information density on medical student achievement.

    PubMed

    Russell, I J; Hendricson, W D; Herbert, R J

    1984-11-01

    With the virtual explosion of biomedical information, the medical educator regularly faces a quandary regarding how much to include in the medical curriculum. Opinions differ regarding how much of the available information on a particular topic should be presented in a medical school lecture. To understand better the effect of lecture information density on learning by medical students, one of the authors gave a basic clinical lecture only or clinical lectures with varying amounts of semirelated information. Tests which measured only retention of the basic material were given before lecture attendance, immediately after the lecture, and 15 days later. The results indicated that increasing the information density of a lecture reduced retention of the basic information. The memory loss apparently was due to information presented late in the lecture displacing facts learned by the students earlier in the same hour. The data suggest that lectures to medical students are more effective aids to learning when the information density is limited to a few main points that are "essential to know." PMID:6492106

  1. Patients’ empowerment, physicians’ perceptions, and achievement of therapeutic goals in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Chiquete, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Background Physicians’ perception may not parallel objective measures of therapeutic targets in patients with diabetes. This is an issue rarely addressed in the medical literature. We aimed to analyze physicians’ perception and characteristics of adequate control of patients with diabetes. Patients and methods We studied information on physicians and their patients who participated in the third wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study registry in Mexico. This analysis was performed on 2,642 patients, 203 with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 2,439 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), treated by 200 physicians. Results The patients perceived at target had lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose than those considered not at target. However, overestimation of the frequency of patients with HbA1c <7% was 41.5% in patients with T1DM and 31.7% in patients with T2DM (underestimation: 2.8% and 8.0%, respectively). The agreement between the physicians’ perception and the class of HbA1c was suboptimal (κ: 0.612). Diabetologists and endocrinologists tested HbA1c more frequently than primary care practitioners, internists, or cardiologists; however, no differences were observed in mean HbA1c, for both T1DM (8.4% vs 7.2%, P=0.42) and T2DM (8.03% vs 8.01%, P=0.87) patients. Nevertheless, insulin users perceived at target, who practiced self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, had a lower mean HbA1c than patients without these characteristics (mean HbA1c in T1DM: 6.8% vs 9.6%, respectively; mean HbA1c in T2DM: 7.0% vs 10.1%, respectively). Conclusion Although there is a significant physicians’ overestimation about the optimal glycemic control, this global impression and characteristics of patients’ empowerment, such as self-monitoring and self-adjustment of insulin, are associated with the achievement of targets. PMID:27555751

  2. Heritability and Educational Policy: Genetic and Environmental Effects on IQ, Aptitude and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    The effects of family background on adolescents' IQ, aptitude, and school achievement test scores challenge some of the usual beliefs about the fairness of achievement rather than IQ tests, and the role of genetic differences among individuals and social class groups in academic achievements. Subjects included 115 adoptive families with adolescent…

  3. The Effects of Extracurricular Activities on the Academic Achievement of Seventh and Eighth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Sudhir K.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the effects of extracurricular activities on academic achievement of seventh and eighth graders. This study compared the academic achievements of participants and non-participants in Mathematics and Language Arts. The three different measurements used for the academic achievement were TCAP, ThinkLink, and GPA…

  4. Effects of Traditional, Blended and E-Learning on Students' Achievement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qahtani, Awadh A. Y.; Higgins, S. E.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of e-learning, blended learning and classroom learning on students' achievement. Two experimental groups together with a control group from Umm Al-Qura University in Saudi Arabia were identified randomly. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and post-achievement tests were used. The…

  5. Effects of Improvements in Interval Timing on the Mathematics Achievement of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on mathematics achievement. A total of 86 participants attending 1st through 4th grades completed pre- and posttest measures of mathematics achievement from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Students in the experimental group participated in a 4-week intervention…

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Programs for Reducing Achievement Gaps: A Case Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Tseng, Fen-Lan; Kuo, Nien-Ping; Chang, Tien-Ying; Chiou, Jia-Min

    2014-01-01

    Considering that achievement gaps have become a serious educational problem worldwide, the Ministry of Education in Taiwan has been addressing a series of policies to reduce achievement gaps, but the effect of these policies has not yet been carefully examined. Therefore, the present study investigated current educational policies, achievement gap…

  7. The Effects of Concealing Academic Achievement Information on Adolescents' Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Baoshan; Wang, Mo; Li, Juan; Yu, Guoliang; Bi, Yan-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Using an experimental design, the effect of concealing academic achievement information on adolescents' self-concept was examined in the current study. Specifically, adolescents with low academic achievement and adolescents with average to high academic achievement (N = 129) were randomly assigned to different interview contexts wherein…

  8. Effects of Movement Instruction on Children's Singing Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Mary Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of movement instruction on children's singing achievement scores. When controlling for age, four overarching questions and nine sub-questions were asked. First, when controlling for age, how do pitch achievement scores at the outset compare to pitch achievement scores after movement…

  9. The effects of early grade retention: Effect modification by prior achievement and age.

    PubMed

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the effects of early grade retention and different effects according to prior achievement and age. Within a population of children at risk of early retention, we compared the development throughout primary school in mathematics achievement after kindergarten retention, first-grade retention, and continuous promotion. Analyzing data from a large-scale longitudinal study using covariate balancing propensity score weighting, the findings revealed that early grade repeaters would score higher in mathematics if they were promoted each year instead. However, the effects diminished or even disappeared in the long term. Compared to kindergarten retention, first-grade retention was found to be more harmful for the mathematics development of younger children specifically. PMID:26790704

  10. The Combined Effect of Teacher Effectiveness Characteristics on Value-Added Student Achievement in Junior High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadleigh, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic achievement in junior high mathematics is an ongoing mission for educational leaders. To achieve that undertaking, teacher effectiveness plays an important role. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of teacher effectiveness on student achievement. The study was conducted in a suburban school district in…

  11. What Effective Principals Do to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Elizabeth Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this mixed method study were to (a) Examine the relationships among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership, and student achievement; (b) examine the differences among principal effectiveness, principal instructional leadership and student achievement; and (c) investigate what effective principals do to improve…

  12. Parental Involvement, Homework, and TV Time: Direct and Indirect Effects on High School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A set of High School and Beyond data was used to study the effect of three variables on academic achievement. Homework had a positive effect, TV a negative, and parental involvement no direct effect on seniors' achievement scores, but influenced the amount of time students spent on homework. (Author/JAZ)

  13. Barriers to Effective Counseling with Blacks and Therapeutic Strategies for Overcoming Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carolyn M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents strategies for counselors working with Black clients. Suggests awareness of potential barriers to effective counseling enables the therapist to gear the initial sessions toward overcoming these obstacles and thus make early observations of tangible therapeutic gains. Proposes such advances are important in overcoming client skepticism and…

  14. Nanoparticle delivery of an AKT/PDK1 inhibitor improves the therapeutic effect in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lucero-Acuña, Armando; Jeffery, Justin J; Abril, Edward R; Nagle, Raymond B; Guzman, Roberto; Pagel, Mark D; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J

    2014-01-01

    The K-ras mutation in pancreatic cancer can inhibit drug delivery and increase drug resistance. This is exemplified by the therapeutic effect of PH-427, a small molecule inhibitor of AKT/PDK1, which has shown a good therapeutic effect against a BxPC3 pancreatic cancer model that has K-ras, but has a poor therapeutic effect against a MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer model with mutant K-ras. To increase the therapeutic effect of PH-427 against the MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer model with mutant K-ras, we encapsulated PH-427 into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PNP) to form drug-loaded PH-427-PNP. PH-427 showed a biphasic release from PH-427-PNP over 30 days during studies in sodium phosphate buffer, and in vitro studies revealed that the PNP was rapidly internalized into MiaPaCa-2 tumor cells, suggesting that PNP can improve PH-427 delivery into cells harboring mutant K-ras. In vivo studies of an orthotopic MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer model showed reduced tumor load with PH-427-PNP as compared with treatment using PH-427 alone or with no treatment. Ex vivo studies confirmed the in vivo results, suggesting that PNP can improve drug delivery to pancreatic cancer harboring mutant K-ras. PMID:25516710

  15. Effectiveness of a Therapeutic Summer Camp for Children with ADHD: Phase I Clinical Intervention Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantson, Julie; Wang, Pan Pan; Grizenko-Vida, Michael; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Harvey, William; Joober, Ridha; Grizenko, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-week therapeutic summer day camp for children with ADHD, which included a social skills training program and parent psychoeducation and training program. This was an open-label, nonrandomized Phase I Clinical Intervention Trial. Method: Parents completed the Weiss…

  16. Impatience versus achievement strivings in the Type A pattern: Differential effects on students' health and academic achievement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Pred, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychometric analyses of college students' responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey, a self-report measure of the Type A behavior pattern, revealed the presence of two relatively independent factors. Based on these analyses, two scales, labeled Achievement Strivings (AS) and Impatience and Irritability (II), were developed. In two samples of male and female college students, scores on AS but not on II were found to be significantly correlated with grade point average. Responses to a health survey, on the other hand, indicated that frequency of physical complaints was significantly correlated with II but not with AS. These results suggest that there are two relatively independent factors in the Type A pattern that have differential effects on performance and health. Future research on the personality factors related to coronary heart disease and other disorders might more profitably focus on the syndrome reflected in the II scale than on the Type A pattern.

  17. Effects of therapeutic exercise on masticatory function in patients with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Kawazoe, Y; Kobayashi, M; Tasaka, T; Tamamoto, M

    1982-01-01

    The slope of the curve relating integrated electromyographic activity of masseter muscle to biting force, the latency of the jaw-jerk reflex, and masticatory performance wee estimated in patients with Duchenne type of progressive muscular dystrophy before and during therapeutic exercise of the somatogenc system. The slope and latency were slightly decreased, and masticatory performance was increased during exercise. These results suggest that therapeutic exercise of the stomatognathic system is effective in improving masticatory function in patients with progressive muscular dystrophy. Images PMID:7077343

  18. Preventive and therapeutic effects of sodium bicarbonate on melamine-induced bladder stones in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shu-Ting; Du, Yun-Xia; Xu, Chang-Fu; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Mo, Li-Ping; Sun, Ying; Gao, Xiao-Li

    2014-10-01

    The actual preventive and therapeutic effects of alkalinizing urine on melamine-induced bladder stones (cystolith) are not completely known. Using an ideal model, two experiments were conducted in Balb/c mice. The mice were fed a normal diet in controls and a melamine diet in the other groups. The first day was set as experiment-day 1. In "Experiment 1", either low-/mid-/high-dose sodium bicarbonate (SB) or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once daily) to the mice for 14 days. Relative to the model group, the mean pH of the urine in the SB groups was significantly elevated at 3 h after SB administration, with a significant decrease in cystolith incidence on experiment-day 14. In "Experiment 2", on experiment-day 12, the melamine diet was replaced by a normal diet in 4 groups with melamine withdrawal (MW). Meanwhile, either mid-/high-dose SB or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once) to the mice in the corresponding groups. On experiment-day 12, after an additional 8 h, the cystolith incidence was significantly reduced in the high-SB, MW + mid-SB and MW + high-SB groups than in the model group. In conclusion, low urinary pH is one of the main determinants of the formation of melamine-associated stones, urinary alkalinization can be achieved by a proper dose of oral SB, and SB acts to prevent and treat melamine-induced cystoliths in mice. PMID:25092435

  19. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products. PMID:24747979

  20. Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase quality of life.

    PubMed

    Woodyard, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the findings of selected articles regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga and to provide a comprehensive review of the benefits of regular yoga practice. As participation rates in mind-body fitness programs such as yoga continue to increase, it is important for health care professionals to be informed about the nature of yoga and the evidence of its many therapeutic effects. Thus, this manuscript provides information regarding the therapeutic effects of yoga as it has been studied in various populations concerning a multitude of different ailments and conditions. Therapeutic yoga is defined as the application of yoga postures and practice to the treatment of health conditions and involves instruction in yogic practices and teachings to prevent reduce or alleviate structural, physiological, emotional and spiritual pain, suffering or limitations. Results from this study show that yogic practices enhance muscular strength and body flexibility, promote and improve respiratory and cardiovascular function, promote recovery from and treatment of addiction, reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and chronic pain, improve sleep patterns, and enhance overall well-being and quality of life. PMID:22022122

  1. Therapeutic effect of intratumoral administration of DCs with conditional expression of combination of different cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun; Ramakrishnan, Rupal; Trkulja, Marko; Ren, Xiubao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of intratumoral administration of dendritic cells (DCs) with inducible expression of different cytokines, using the novel Rheoswitch Therapeutic System on the experimental models of renal cell cancer (RENCA) and MethA sarcoma. Intratumoral injection of DCs, engineered to express IL-12, IL-21, or IFN-α, showed potent therapeutic effect against established tumor. This effect was associated with the induction of potent tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, as well as the infiltration of tumors with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells but not with the cytotoxic activity of DCs. Combination of i.t. administration of DCs, producing different cytokines, did not enhance the antitumor effect of therapy with single cytokine. These results indicate that RTS can be a potent tool for conditional topical cytokine delivery, in combination with DC administration. However, combination of different cytokines may not necessarily improve the outcome of treatment. PMID:22223258

  2. Immediate Effect of Therapeutic Massage on Pain Sensation and Unpleasantness: A Consecutive Case Series

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal pain is a common condition that poses a significant burden to its sufferers and costs the US economy billions of dollars each year in lost productivity. Individuals complaining of musculoskeletal pain make up a large proportion of clients treated by massage therapists in community practices, yet few studies have examined the immediate effect of therapeutic massage on this type of pain in the practice setting. Purpose: To assess the immediate effect of therapeutic massage on musculoskeletal pain sensation and unpleasantness in a community setting. Setting: Solo private practice in central Virginia, United States. Participants: One hundred sixteen first-time clients who complained of musculoskeletal pain as a presenting symptom. Research design: Prospective, consecutive practice-based case series. Intervention: A single 60-minute session of individualized therapeutic massage; techniques used included Swedish massage employing effleurage, petrissage, and friction,;deep tissue; myofascial; positional release; passive and resisted joint mobilization; and biofield modalities. Main Outcome Measures: Visual Analog Scales for pain sensation and unpleasantness. Results: Both pain sensation and unpleasantness were significantly reduced by a single session of therapeutic massage. Mean pain sensation decreased from 3.76 (SD=1.87) prior to massage to .89 (SD=1.35) following massage, with t=18.87, P<.001. Mean pain unpleasantness decreased from 5.21 (SD=2.48) prior to massage to .64 (SD=1.23) following massage, with t =20.45, P<.001. Effect sizes were 1.76 and 1.90, respectively. Conclusions: In this case series, therapeutic massage appeared to be an effective intervention for common musculoskeletal pain that influenced both the physical and affective dimension of the pain experience. Although care was taken to reduce potential bias through limiting eligibility to first time clients and use of a standardized script, practice-based case series have

  3. The Effect of General Objectives Defined by Behavioral Objectives on Achievement in a College Zoology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushin, John W.; Baller, William

    1981-01-01

    Tests the effect of developmental level objectives on student achievement and efficiency in a zoology course. These objectives were found to have no significant effect on achievement, but they did significantly increase student efficiency in learning the content material of the module. (Author)

  4. Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive School Reform in Low Achieving Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Tim M.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform implemented in 100 low achieving schools serving disadvantaged students in a Canadian province. The results show that while Struggling Schools had a statistically significant positive effect on Grade 3 Reading achievement, d = 0.48…

  5. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  6. The Effect of Direct Instruction Model on Intermediate Class Achievement and Attitudes toward English Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kousar, Rubina

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the direct instruction model on intermediate class achievement and attitudes toward English grammar. It was an experimental study and the purpose was to explore the relative effectiveness of instructional methodology (independent variable) on students' achievement and attitude (dependent…

  7. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review

    PubMed Central

    Khorasany, Alireza Rezaee; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings. PMID:27403251

  8. Therapeutic effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in digestive disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Khorasany, Alireza Rezaee; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Saffron, the dried red-orange stigmas of Crocus sativus L, has been known as a flavoring agent, food coloring and traditional herbal medicine. Pharmacological effects of saffron are mainly attributed to crocin, crocetin, picrocrocin and safranal. These components especially crocin, have significant effects including antidepressant and anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-cancer and other therapeutic effects on different parts of our body namely cardiovascular, immune, respiratory, genital-urinary and central nervous system. According to the reports and findings, saffron plays a key role to cure different digestive system disorders via chemopreventive, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, antioxidant effects and radical scavenging, genoprotective property, prevention of lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammatory processes. The outcome of the above mentioned mechanisms shows potential therapeutic properties of saffron against liver cancer, hepatotoxicity, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia, stomach cancer, peptic ulcer, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, diabetes and pancreas cancer and ileum contractions. According to global statistics, the susceptibility to intestinal diseases is considered as a significant matter and can be important in health planning in any community. Several strategies for treatment and prevention of the digestive system diseases have provided that the use of herbal remedies seems effective and useful. Considering the available findings, the present study aims to introduce saffron as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against gastrointestinal tract disorders. However, further clinical studies seem necessary in various aspects of saffron effects in different parts of body to verify these findings. PMID:27403251

  9. Effect of drug release kinetics on nanoparticle therapeutic efficacy and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Manish; Sukumar, Rohit; Karve, Shrirang; Werner, Michael E; Wang, Edina C; Moore, Dominic T; Kowalczyk, Sonya R; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Andrew Z

    2014-02-21

    The effects of nanoparticle (NP) properties, such as size, shape and surface charge, on their efficacy and toxicity have been studied extensively. However, the effect of controlled drug release on NP efficacy and toxicity has not been thoroughly evaluated in vivo. Our study aims to fill this knowledge gap. A key challenge in characterizing the relationship between drug release and therapeutic ratio is to fabricate NPs that differ only in their drug release profile but are otherwise identical. To overcome this challenge, we developed crosslinkable lipid shell (CLS) NPs, where the drug release kinetics can be modulated without changing any other NP property. Using CLS NPs with wortmannin and docetaxel as model drugs, we determined the relationship between the release kinetics and therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of the drugs. We have determined that drug release kinetics can affect the therapeutic efficacy of NP docetaxel and NP wortmannin in vitro and in vivo. Our study also demonstrates that a decrease in drug release kinetics can result in a decrease in the hepatotoxicity of CLS NP wortmannin. Using two model drugs, the current findings provide the first direct evidence that NP drug release profile is a critical factor in determining the NP therapeutics' efficacy and toxicity in vivo. PMID:24418914

  10. Hyaluronan nanoparticles bearing γ-secretase inhibitor: in vivo therapeutic effects on rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Heo, Roun; Park, Jong-Sung; Jang, Hye Jin; Kim, Seol-Hee; Shin, Jung Min; Suh, Yung Doug; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Park, Jae Hyung

    2014-10-28

    γ-Secretase inhibitors which prevent Notch activation are emerging as potent therapeutics for various inflammatory diseases, including ischemic stroke and rheumatoid arthritis. However, their indiscriminate distribution in the body causes serious side effects after systemic administration, since Notch proteins are ubiquitous receptors that play an important role in cellular functions such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. In this study, hyaluronan nanoparticles (HA-NPs) bearing a γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) were prepared as potential therapeutics for rheumatoid arthritis. In vivo biodistribution of the DAPT-loaded HA-NPs (DNPs), labeled with near-infrared dye, were observed using a non-invasive optical imaging system after systemic administration to a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. The results demonstrated that DNPs were effectively accumulated at the inflamed joint of the CIA mice. From the in vivo therapeutic efficacy tests, DNPs (1mg DAPT/kg) significantly attenuated the severity of RA induction compared to DAPT alone (2mg/kg), which was judged from clinical scores, tissue damage, and neutrophil infiltration. In addition, DNPs dramatically reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, MCP-1, and IL-6, -12, -17) and collagen-specific auto-antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a) in the serum of the CIA mice. These results suggest that DNPs have potential as therapeutics for rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:25109660

  11. Morphine and clonidine combination therapy improves therapeutic window in mice: synergy in antinociceptive but not in sedative or cardiovascular effects.

    PubMed

    Stone, Laura S; German, Jonathan P; Kitto, Kelly F; Fairbanks, Carolyn A; Wilcox, George L

    2014-01-01

    Opioids are used to manage all types of pain including acute, cancer, chronic neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Unfortunately, opioid-related adverse effects such as respiratory depression, tolerance, physical dependence and addiction have led to an underutilization of these compounds for adequate pain relief. One strategy to improve the therapeutic utility of opioids is to co-administer them with other analgesic agents such as agonists acting at α2-adrenergic receptors (α2ARs). Analgesics acting at α2ARs and opioid receptors (ORs) frequently synergize when co-administered in vivo. Multimodal analgesic techniques offer advantages over single drug treatments as synergistic combination therapies produce analgesia at lower doses, thus reducing undesired side effects. This inference presumes, however, that the synergistic interaction is limited to the analgesic effects. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of α2AR/OR combination therapy in acute antinociception and in the often-undesired side effects of sedation and cardiovascular depression in awake unrestrained mice. Morphine, clonidine or their combination was administered by spinal or systemic injection in awake mice. Antinociception was determined using the warm water tail flick assay (52.5°C). Sedation/motor impairment was evaluated using the accelerating rotarod assay and cardiovascular function was monitored by pulse oximetry. Data were converted to percent maximum possible effect and isobolographic analysis was performed to determine if an interaction was subadditive, additive or synergistic. Synergistic interactions between morphine and clonidine were observed in the antinociceptive but not in the sedative/motor or cardiovascular effects. As a result, the therapeutic window was improved ∼200-fold and antinociception was achieved at non-sedating doses with little to no cardiovascular depression. In addition, combination therapy resulted in greater maximum analgesic efficacy over

  12. Immunoactive effects of cannabinoids: considerations for the therapeutic use of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists.

    PubMed

    Greineisen, William E; Turner, Helen

    2010-05-01

    The active constituents of Cannabis sativa have been used for centuries as recreational drugs and medicinal agents. Today, marijuana is the most prevalent drug of abuse in the United States and, conversely, therapeutic use of marijuana constituents are gaining mainstream clinical and political acceptance. Given the documented contributions of endocannabinoid signaling to a range of physiological systems, including cognitive function, and the control of eating behaviors, it is unsurprising that cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists are showing significant clinical potential. In addition to the neuroactive effects of cannabinoids, an emerging body of data suggests that both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids are potently immunoactive. The central premise of this review article is that the immunological effects of cannabinoids should be considered in the context of each prescribing decision. We present evidence that the immunological effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists are highly relevant to the spectrum of disorders for which cannabinoid therapeutics are currently offered. PMID:20219697

  13. Therapeutic effects of trehalose liposomes against lymphoblastic leukemia leading to apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoko; Kuwabara, Keiji; Ichihara, Hideaki; Kuwano, Masataka

    2016-01-15

    Inhibitory effects of trehalose liposomes (DMTre) composed of 30mol% l-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 70mol% trehalose surfactants on the growth of lymphoblastic leukemia (MOLT-4) cells in vitro and therapeutic effects of DMTre for xenograft mice model of carcinoma in vivo were examined. DMTre inhibited the growth of MOLT-4 cells in a dose-dependent manner due to apoptosis. The activation of caspase-3, -8, and 9 was obtained for MOLT-4 cells after the treatment with DMTre. The clustering of lipid rafts in plasma membranes of MOLT-4 cells was examined with a marker Cholera toxin subunit B conjugates Alexa Fluor (CTB), which binds to the pentasaccharide chains of ganglioside GM1 on the cellular surfaces. The clustering of lipid rafts in plasma membranes of MOLT-4 cells was observed after the treatment with DMTre. Therapeutic effects of DMTre were obtained for xenograft mice model of carcinoma in vivo. PMID:26711146

  14. Therapeutic effect of bovine albumin in the experimental fat embolism syndrome.

    PubMed

    Agnantis, N; Gyras, M; Tserkezoglou, A; Apostolikas, N; Papacharalampous, N

    1988-01-01

    The toxic effects of the free fatty acids (FFA) are responsible for the initiation and the clinical manifestations of the fat embolism syndrome (FES). Serum albumin binds to the FFA and by producing atoxic compounds it has a therapeutic effect on the syndrome. In this study we applied bovine albumin to 48 Sprague-Dawley rats which were previously submitted to intravenous infusions of FFA solutions (oleic, palmitic, stearic). The histopathologic lesions observed in their lungs were compared to those of 50 control animals suffering from the FES. The administration of 0.5% bovine albumin solution intravenously and 0.2% intraperitoneally, especially when it was synchronous to the FFA infusion and not metachronous, resulted in substantial and statistically significant therapeutic effects. PMID:3387690

  15. Extending Antecedents of Achievement Goals: The Double-Edged Sword Effect of Social-Oriented Achievement Motive and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Youyan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2013-01-01

    Underpinned by the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation, the study examined the differential relations of individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motives to approach and avoidance achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-avoidance). A total of 570 Chinese high school…

  16. Effects of Partner's Ability on the Achievement and Conceptual Organization of High-Achieving Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Investigates high-achieving fifth-grade students' achievement gains and conceptual reorganization on convection. Features an instructional sequence of three dyadic inquiry investigations related to convection currents as well as pre- and post-assessment consisting of a multiple-choice test, a card sorting task, construction of a concept map, and…

  17. Is the Black-White Achievement Gap a Public Sector Effect? An Examination of Student Achievement in the Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has suggested private school education in middle school and high school as a solution for the Black-White achievement gap. However, more recent research calls this solution into question. Additionally, research increasingly implicates third grade as being of preeminent importance in driving students' subsequent academic achievement.…

  18. Effect of Therapeutic Touch in Patients with Cancer: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaee, Amir; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Rassouli, Maryam; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; AlaviMajd, Hamid; Farahmand, Seyed Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) techniques has been growing. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine places therapeutic touch (TT) into the category of bio field energy. This literature review is aimed at critically evaluating the data from clinical trials examining the clinical efficacy of therapeutic touch as a supportive care modality in adult patients with cancer. Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Scholar Google, and Science Direct) were searched from the year 1990 to 2015 to locate potentially relevant peer-reviewed articles using the key words therapeutic touch, touch therapy, neoplasm, cancer, and CAM. Additionally, relevant journals and references of all the located articles were manually searched for other potentially relevant studies. Results: The number of 334 articles was found on the basis of the key words, of which 17 articles related to the clinical trial were examined in accordance with the objectives of the study. A total of 6 articles were in the final dataset in which several examples of the positive effects of healing touch on pain, nausea, anxiety and fatigue, and life quality and also on biochemical parameters were observed. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, an affirmation can be made regarding the use of TT, as a non-invasive intervention for improving the health status in patients with cancer. Moreover, therapeutic touch was proved to be a useful strategy for adult patients with cancer. PMID:27194823

  19. A study of the differential effects of Tomm's questioning styles on therapeutic alliance.

    PubMed

    Ryan, D; Carr, A

    2001-01-01

    To replicate and extend Dozier's (1992) test of Tomm's hypothesis about the differential effects of questioning styles on therapeutic alliance, an analogue study was conducted. Twenty-eight family triads, each including a son and his parents, viewed four videotaped, simulated family therapy scenarios in which Tomm's four questioning styles were separately portrayed. Participants were asked to identify with the client whose role corresponded to theirs (that is, father, mother, or son) and, on the basis of this, to rate the client's alliance with the therapist. They were also asked to rate the overall alliance between the family and the therapist. Finally, having viewed all four scenarios, they were invited to rate comparatively the quality of the therapeutic alliance across the four questioning styles. Compared with strategic and lineal questioning styles, circular and reflexive questions led to higher ratings of therapeutic alliance on all three measures. The results of this study support Tomm's hypothesis that questioning styles based on circular assumptions lead to a better therapeutic alliance at an individual and systemic level than do questions based on lineal assumptions. PMID:11288371

  20. Therapeutic effectiveness of a Mimosa tenuiflora cortex extract in venous leg ulceration treatment.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Arce, Erika; Chávez-Soto, Marco Antonio; Herrera-Arellano, Armando; Arzate, Silvia; Agüero, Juan; Feria-Romero, Iris Angélica; Cruz-Guzmán, Angélica; Lozoya, Xavier

    2007-02-12

    The cortex of Mimosa tenuiflora is a popular remedy utilized in Mexico for the treatment of skin lesions. Modern studies support the existence in this cortex of compounds with cicatrizing properties. In the present study the therapeutic effectiveness of an extract elaborated with this bark in the treatment of venous leg ulceration disease was explored. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with ambulatory patients distributed into two groups, one receiving a hydrogel containing 5% of a crude extract standardized in its tannin concentration (1.8%), while the control group, was administered the same hydrogel but without addition of the extract. In both aseptic washings were performed initially followed by topical application of the corresponding hydrogel and dressing. Follow-up lasted 13 weeks and ulcer healing was determined through measurement of the lesion area by digital-photographic parameters. Therapeutic effectiveness occurred in all patients of the extract group; after the 8th treatment week, ulcer size was reduced by 92% as mean value in this group, whereas therapeutic effectiveness was observed only in one patient of the control group (chi(2), p=0.0001). No side effects were observed in any patient in either group. PMID:17088036

  1. Novel therapeutic mechanisms determine the effectiveness of lipid-core nanocapsules on melanoma models.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Carine C; Fiel, Luana A; Bexiga, Celina G; Asbahr, Ana Carolina C; Uchiyama, Mayara K; Cogliati, Bruno; Araki, Koiti; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Farsky, Sandra P

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a severe metastatic skin cancer with poor prognosis and no effective treatment. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches using nanotechnology have been proposed to improve therapeutic effectiveness. Lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs), prepared with poly(ε-caprolactone), capric/caprylic triglyceride, and sorbitan monostearate and stabilized by polysorbate 80, are efficient as drug delivery systems. Here, we investigated the effects of acetyleugenol-loaded LNC (AcE-LNC) on human SK-Mel-28 melanoma cells and its therapeutic efficacies on melanoma induced by B16F10 in C57B6 mice. LNC and AcE-LNC had z-average diameters and zeta potential close to 210 nm and -10.0 mV, respectively. CytoViva(®) microscopy images showed that LNC and AcE-LNC penetrated into SK-Mel-28 cells, and remained in the cytoplasm. AcE-LNC in vitro treatment (18-90×10(9) particles/mL; 1 hour) induced late apoptosis and necrosis; LNC and AcE-LNC (3-18×10(9) particles/mL; 48 hours) treatments reduced cell proliferation and delayed the cell cycle. Elevated levels of nitric oxide were found in supernatant of LNC and AcE-LNC, which were not dependent on nitric oxide synthase expressions. Daily intraperitoneal or oral treatment (days 3-10 after tumor injection) with LNC or AcE-LNC (1×10(12) particles/day), but not with AcE (50 mg/kg/day, same dose as AcE-LNC), reduced the volume of the tumor; nevertheless, intraperitoneal treatment caused toxicity. Oral LNC treatment was more efficient than AcE-LNC treatment. Moreover, oral treatment with nonencapsulated capric/caprylic triglyceride did not inhibit tumor development, implying that nanocapsule supramolecular structure is important to the therapeutic effects. Together, data herein presented highlight the relevance of the supramolecular structure of LNCs to toxicity on SK-Mel-28 cells and to the therapeutic efficacy on melanoma development in mice, conferring novel therapeutic mechanisms to LNC further than a drug delivery system. PMID:27099491

  2. Novel therapeutic mechanisms determine the effectiveness of lipid-core nanocapsules on melanoma models

    PubMed Central

    Drewes, Carine C; Fiel, Luana A; Bexiga, Celina G; Asbahr, Ana Carolina C; Uchiyama, Mayara K; Cogliati, Bruno; Araki, Koiti; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Farsky, Sandra P

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a severe metastatic skin cancer with poor prognosis and no effective treatment. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches using nanotechnology have been proposed to improve therapeutic effectiveness. Lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs), prepared with poly(ε-caprolactone), capric/caprylic triglyceride, and sorbitan monostearate and stabilized by polysorbate 80, are efficient as drug delivery systems. Here, we investigated the effects of acetyleugenol-loaded LNC (AcE-LNC) on human SK-Mel-28 melanoma cells and its therapeutic efficacies on melanoma induced by B16F10 in C57B6 mice. LNC and AcE-LNC had z-average diameters and zeta potential close to 210 nm and -10.0 mV, respectively. CytoViva® microscopy images showed that LNC and AcE-LNC penetrated into SK-Mel-28 cells, and remained in the cytoplasm. AcE-LNC in vitro treatment (18–90×109 particles/mL; 1 hour) induced late apoptosis and necrosis; LNC and AcE-LNC (3–18×109 particles/mL; 48 hours) treatments reduced cell proliferation and delayed the cell cycle. Elevated levels of nitric oxide were found in supernatant of LNC and AcE-LNC, which were not dependent on nitric oxide synthase expressions. Daily intraperitoneal or oral treatment (days 3–10 after tumor injection) with LNC or AcE-LNC (1×1012 particles/day), but not with AcE (50 mg/kg/day, same dose as AcE-LNC), reduced the volume of the tumor; nevertheless, intraperitoneal treatment caused toxicity. Oral LNC treatment was more efficient than AcE-LNC treatment. Moreover, oral treatment with nonencapsulated capric/caprylic triglyceride did not inhibit tumor development, implying that nanocapsule supramolecular structure is important to the therapeutic effects. Together, data herein presented highlight the relevance of the supramolecular structure of LNCs to toxicity on SK-Mel-28 cells and to the therapeutic efficacy on melanoma development in mice, conferring novel therapeutic mechanisms to LNC further than a drug delivery system. PMID:27099491

  3. The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca: Possible Effects against Various Diseases of Civilization.

    PubMed

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Winkelman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: (1) the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and (2) on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the Sig-1R which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications. PMID:26973523

  4. The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca: Possible Effects against Various Diseases of Civilization

    PubMed Central

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Winkelman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychoactive brew of two main components. Its active agents are β-carboline and tryptamine derivatives. As a sacrament, ayahuasca is still a central element of many healing ceremonies in the Amazon Basin and its ritual consumption has become common among the mestizo populations of South America. Ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of traditional medicine and cultural psychiatry. During the last two decades, the substance has become increasingly known among both scientists and laymen, and currently its use is spreading all over in the Western world. In the present paper we describe the chief characteristics of ayahuasca, discuss important questions raised about its use, and provide an overview of the scientific research supporting its potential therapeutic benefits. A growing number of studies indicate that the psychotherapeutic potential of ayahuasca is based mostly on the strong serotonergic effects, whereas the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) agonist effect of its active ingredient dimethyltryptamine raises the possibility that the ethnomedical observations on the diversity of treated conditions can be scientifically verified. Moreover, in the right therapeutic or ritual setting with proper preparation and mindset of the user, followed by subsequent integration of the experience, ayahuasca has proven effective in the treatment of substance dependence. This article has two important take-home messages: (1) the therapeutic effects of ayahuasca are best understood from a bio-psycho-socio-spiritual model, and (2) on the biological level ayahuasca may act against chronic low grade inflammation and oxidative stress via the Sig-1R which can explain its widespread therapeutic indications. PMID:26973523

  5. Therapeutic Effect of the Tuber of Alisma orientale on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kwun, Min Jung; Choi, Jun-Yong; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Yong Gyu; Christman, John W.; Sadikot, Ruxana T.

    2013-01-01

    Although Alisma orientale, an ethnic herb, has been prescribed for treating various diseases in Asian traditional medicine, experimental evidence to support its therapeutic effects is lacking. Here, we sought to determine whether A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury (ALI). Ethanol extract of the tuber of A. orientale (EEAO) was prepared and fingerprinted by HPLC for its constituents. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the induction of ALI. At 2 h after LPS treatment, mice received an intratracheal (i.t.) spraying of various amounts of EEAO to the lung. Bioluminescence imaging of transgenic NF-κB/luciferase reporter mice shows that i.t. EEAO posttreatment suppressed lung inflammation. In similar experiments with C57BL/6 mice, EEAO posttreatment significantly improved lung inflammation, as assessed by H&E staining of lung sections, counting of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and semiquantitative RT-PCR analyses of proinflammatory cytokines and Nrf2-dependent genes in the inflamed lungs. Furthermore, EEAO posttreatment enhanced the survival of mice that received a lethal dose of LPS. Together, our results provide evidence that A. orientale has a therapeutic effect on ALI induced by sepsis. PMID:23983806

  6. Effects of Activity Based Blended Learning Strategy on Prospective of Teachers' Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelraheem, Ahmed Yousif; Ahmed, Abdelrahman Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the effect of Activity based Blended Learning strategy and Conventional Blended Learning strategy on students' achievement and motivation. Two groups namely, experimental and control group from Sultan Qaboos University were selected randomly for the study. To assess students' achievement in the different groups, pre- and…

  7. Effects of Homework Motivation and Worry Anxiety on Homework Achievement in Mathematics and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa; Peng, Yun; Lee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Direct and mediating effects of homework worry anxiety on homework effort and homework achievement and the differences in the structural relations among homework motivation constructs and homework achievement across mathematics and English homework were examined in 268 tenth graders in China. Homework motivation included task value, homework…

  8. The Effect of a Developmental Writing Course on Student Persistence and Achievement: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, George R.

    A study was conducted at Butte College to determine the effectiveness of a developmental writing course (Eng 102) by examining comparative achievement and persistence in a subsequent freshman composition course (Eng 210) and comparative persistence and achievement in course work in general. Analyses of data on all 3,497 students who enrolled in…

  9. Cooperative Learning and Group Educational Modules: Effects on Cognitive Achievement of High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Scott B.

    1991-01-01

    Reports a study examining the effects of cooperative learning and self-instructional packets--"Group Educational Modules" (GEM)--on the achievement of biology students. Significant differences in achievement (as compared to control groups) were found for students using GEM materials and students in cooperative learning situations. (PR)

  10. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Student Achievement and Motivation in a High School Geometry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Joe D.; Hall, Neff

    In this study, the effects of a form of cooperative group instruction (Student Teams Achievement Divisions) on student motivation and achievement in a high school geometry class were examined. Ninety (mostly 10th-grade) students were randomly assigned to either a control group receiving traditional instruction or one of two treatment groups…

  11. Effects of Drama-Based Geometry Instruction on Student Achievement, Attitudes, and Thinking Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duatepe-Paksu, Asuman; Ubuz, Behiye

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of drama-based instruction on students' geometry achievement, geometric thinking level, attitudes toward mathematics and geometry, and retention of achievement, in comparison with traditional teaching. The sample involved 102 7th-grade students from a public school. Multivariate analyses of covariance revealed…

  12. The Effects of Explicit Teaching of Metastrategic Knowledge on Low- And High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Peled, Bracha

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of explicit teaching of metastrategic knowledge (MSK) on gains of low-achieving (LA) and high-achieving (HA) 5th grade students (N=41). Gains in reasoning scores of students from the Experimental group (compared to students from the control group) were obtained on the strategic and on the metastrategic level. Gains…

  13. Exploring the Effect of a Non-Residential Learning Community on Academic Achievement and Institutional Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Patrick Michael

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine what effect the Freshmen Interest Group (FIG) program, a variation of a non-residential learning community had on academic achievement scores and institutional rates of persistence. Study variables included: gender; race; pre-collegiate academic achievement (GPA scores); educational preferences (major…

  14. The Effects of Participation versus Non-Participation in Interscholastic Sports on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jewell J.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that participation in interscholastic sports may not affect student academic achievement and self-esteem. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of participation versus non-participation in interscholastic sports on the academic achievement and self-esteem of eighth grade students. Reading and math achievement…

  15. Examining the Effects of School Composition on North Carolina Student Achievement over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southworth, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the effects of school-level characteristics on North Carolina students' reading and math achievement from fourth through eighth grade, focusing on the relationships between achievement and the racial and poverty composition of schools. After creating race-by-poverty cohorts of schools, I use multilevel models to examine math…

  16. The Effect of Gender on the Achievement of Students in Biology Using the Jigsaw Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amedu, Odagboyi Isaiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of gender on the achievement of students in biology using the jigsaw method. The sample was made up of 87 students in SS1 in a secondary school. The study utilized an intact class because the study took place in a normal school term. There were 39 males and 49 females. The Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was…

  17. Effective Strategies Urban Superintendents Utilize That Improve the Academic Achievement for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prioleau, Lushandra

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effective strategies, resources, and programs urban superintendents utilize to improve the academic achievement for African-American males. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to answer the following research questions regarding urban superintendents and the academic achievement for African-American males: What…

  18. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Achievement and Attitude among Students of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Winston

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of cooperative learning on achievement in and attitudes toward mathematics among fifth graders of color in a culture different from that of the United States (Bermuda). Participants completed parts of the California Achievement Test and Penelope Peterson's Attitude Toward Mathematics Scale. Pre-test and post-test data…

  19. Effects of Fidelity of Implementation on Science Achievement Gains among English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okhee; Penfield, Randall; Maerten-Rivera, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of fidelity of implementation (FOI) on the science achievement gains of third grade students broadly and students with limited literacy in English specifically. The study was conducted in the context of a professional development intervention with elementary school teachers to promote science achievement of ELL…

  20. The Effects of Controversy, Concurrence Seeking, and Individualistic Learning on Achievement and Attitude Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Compared effects of cooperative learning activities (with and without structured controversy) and individualistic learning activities on the achievement and attitudes of fifth graders (N=84) toward wolves. Results show that cooperative-controversy resulted in the highest achievement, greatest motivation to learn about wolves, and more positive…

  1. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  2. The Effects of Reading Recovery™ on the American Indian/Non-American Indian Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the attention being paid to the achievement gap of minorities, the regulations and laws being enacted, the research being conducted, and the funding made available to narrow the achievement gap, there is evidence that shows it still exists for American Indians. This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery, an early literacy…

  3. The Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Secondary Schooling on Girls' Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The effect of coeducational and single-sex secondary schooling on female students' academic achievement was examined. Reexamination of earlier survey data from Northern Ireland studied six outcomes related to student performance on public examinations. Results indicated a small achievement advantage for single-sex schooling (not significant…

  4. Effect of Cooperative Learning on Achievement of Students in General Science at Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parveen, Qaisara; Batool, Sadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of cooperative learning on General Science achievement among 9th class students. Based upon previous research literature it was hypothesized that significant difference existed between the mean posttest scores of General Science achievement of experimental group and control group. The pretest…

  5. Endorsing Achievement Goals Exacerbates the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde; Van Damme, Jan; Verschueren, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) model predicts students' academic self-concept to be negatively predicted by the achievement level of their reference group, controlling for individual achievement. Despite an abundance of empirical evidence supporting the BFLPE, there have been relatively few studies searching for possible moderators.…

  6. Effects of Attractiveness and Gender on the Perception of Achievement-Related Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, R. C.; Allred, L. J.; Grossnickle, W. F.; Lee, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of physical attractiveness and gender on perceptions of academic success, achievement-related traits, intelligence, initiative, and attributions of ability and effort in relation to academic success. Finds that being perceived as physically attractive created positive impressions of achievement-related traits for men but…

  7. An Empirical Study on the Effect of School Consolidation in Rural Areas on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Dong; Fang, Chang; Yuanyan, Bai

    2013-01-01

    With Shaanxi province as an example, this study presents empirical evidence on the effect of primary school consolidation in rural areas on student achievement, using the difference-in-differences method. The results show no significant differences in student achievement between consolidated schools and nonconsolidated schools. If student…

  8. Effects of Teacher Educational Background and Experience on Student Achievement in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leak, James Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the relationship between teacher educational background, teacher experience, and student achievement in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. The first essay of this dissertation, "Effects of Teacher Degree Level, Coursework, and Certification on Student Achievement in Math and Reading in Kindergarten,"…

  9. The Effect of Using Concept Maps as Study Tools on Achievement in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Attieh, May

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) examine whether or not the construction of concept maps by students improves their achievement and ability to solve higher order questions in chemistry, (2) investigate the differential effect of the treatment by gender and achievement level, and (3) explore the relationships between performance on concept…

  10. The Effects of Chess Instruction on the Mathematics Achievement of Southern, Rural, Black Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James P.; Cage. Bob N.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the effects of 120 hours of chess instruction on the mathematics achievement of southern, rural, black secondary students. Analysis of covariance results show the treatment group (11 females, 9 males) scored significantly higher than the control group (10 females, 10 males) in mathematics achievement. Discusses results in terms of altering…

  11. The Effects of CSCOPE on Student Achievement as Measured by Both TAKS and STAAR Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Maricela Robledo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of CSCOPE curriculum on student achievement. CSCOPE is a curriculum management system used in 750 of the 1,039 school districts in the state of Texas. Student achievement is based on the results acquired from the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the new version of the state…

  12. Effects of a Collaborative Science Intervention on High Achieving Students' Learning Anxiety and Attitudes toward Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Zuway-R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a collaborative science intervention on high achieving students' learning anxiety and attitudes toward science. Thirty-seven eighth-grade high achieving students (16 boys and 21 girls) were selected as an experimental group who joined a 20-week collaborative science intervention, which integrated and utilized…

  13. Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher-Student Relationship on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at-risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in Grade 2…

  14. Effects of Identity Processing Styles on Academic Achievement of First Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabi, Joseph; Payne, Jarrod

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Academic achievement of first year university students in the international arena, as well as in South Africa, has been a point of concern for all stakeholders because of high failure and dropout rates. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of identity processing styles on academic achievement in first year university…

  15. Computers and Gender: Differential Effects of Electronic Search on Students' Achievement and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Susan Tyler; Krendl, Kathy A.

    The effects of using a microcomputer for electronic research on the achievement and attitudes of eighth-grade boys and girls (N=247) were investigated. The study analyzed three dimensions of student themes, two sets of computer achievement measures, and three attitudinal dimensions for each of three treatment groups. Results showed no unpredicted…

  16. The Causal Ordering of Self-Concept and Academic Motivation and Its Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jasmine; Nelson, Genevieve; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herb

    2006-01-01

    Critical questions in educational psychology research to be addressed in this paper concern the casual relationship between academic self-concept, academic motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Do changes in academic self-concept and academic motivation lead to changes in subsequent academic achievement? Various studies have attempted…

  17. The Effects of Sustained Silent Reading on Reading Achievement and Reading Attitudes of Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Holly Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a Sustained Silent Reading program on reading achievement and reading attitude. The study accessed scores from the DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (Good, Kaminski, & Dill, 2007) to measure reading achievement. This measure was given before and after a twelve week period, during which the treatment group…

  18. The Impact of the Developmental Discipline Management System on Teaching Effectiveness and Student Achievement in Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, J'Anne; Monahan, Alicia K.

    This study analyzed the impact of the Developmental Discipline Management System (DD) on teaching effectiveness and student achievement in special needs classrooms. DD was developed as a human centered, systems approach to education. Its core philosophy was to help each child achieve self mastery and mastery of subjects and to help teachers feel…

  19. Effect of Digital Game Based Learning on Ninth Grade Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearingen, Dixie K.

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of an educational massive multiplayer online game (MMOG) on achievement on a standards-based mathematics exam. It also examined the interaction of student characteristics (gender and socioeconomic status) with digital game play on mathematics achievement. Two hundred eighty ninth grade students from a…

  20. The Effects of Differentiated Instruction Support Inclusion Services on Fifth Grade Reading/Language Arts Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Stephanie L.

    2012-01-01

    Using a causal-comparative research design, this study investigated the effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction Support Inclusion Services on fifth grade regular education and gifted students' Reading/Language Arts achievement. The study analyzed and compared the achievement of the regular education students who received no inclusion…

  1. The Effects of Sex-Grouped Schooling on Achievement: The Role of National Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Grade-12 results of the Second International Mathematics Study for Belgium, New Zealand, Thailand, and Japan suggest that when single-sex schooling is relatively scarce in a country, it influences student achievement by attracting students with unique characteristics. Achievement effects may be positive or negative depending on the function of…

  2. The Effect of a State Department of Education Mentoring Program for Teachers on Science Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Gilda Darlene

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the Georgia Department of Education Science Specialist teacher-mentoring program on student achievement on science standardized tests. This study analyzed the impact this program has had on student achievement in participating high schools when compared with high schools across the state where…

  3. The Effects of a Breakfast Program on Reading Achievement of Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambless, Martha; Parham, Charles

    To discover the effects of breakfast on reading achievement a study was conducted comparing 100 primary students from the 1975-1976 school year before a school breakfast program was instituted and 100 students from the 1977-1978 school year who participated in a school breakfast program. Reading scores from the California Achievement Test…

  4. The Effect of Paraprofessional Assistance on the Academic Achievement of Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veaco, Lelia

    The study investigated the effect of guided paraprofessional assistance on the academic achievement of lower achieving intermediate grade migrant children. It examined one possible means of overcoming some of the overwhelming handicaps experienced by migrant children by using indigenous paraprofessionals as a humanizing, tutorial factor. Eighty…

  5. The Effects of Pre-Teaching Teacher Interaction Style on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Lynette

    Experiments were conducted on five treatment groups of undergraduate students to determine the effect teacher/student interaction styles would have on the achievement levels of these students. The undergraduate students were administered mathematical achievement tests, after which the test administrators conducted fifteen-minute interviews. Each…

  6. Students' Achievement in Human Circulatory System Unit: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of gender and reasoning ability on the human circulatory system concepts achievement and attitude toward biology. Reports a statistically significant mean difference between concrete and formal students with regard to achievement and attitude toward biology. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. Therapeutic Effect of Chenodeoxycholic Acid in an Experimental Rabbit Model of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhao-wei; Dong, Ji; Qin, Chen-hao; Zhao, Chun-yang; Miao, Li-yan; He, Chun-yan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a slowly progressive joint disease typically seen in middle-age to elderly people. At present, there is no ideal agent to treat OA. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was a principal active constituent from animal bile. However, the therapeutic effect of CDCA on OA severity was largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of intra-articular injection of CDCA in a rabbit OA model. OA was induced in experimental rabbits by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and then rabbits were intra-articularly injected with CDCA (10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg) once per week for 5 weeks. The results showed that CDCA significantly decreased cartilage degradation on the surface of femoral condyles, reducing the pathological changes of articular cartilage and synovial membrane by macroscopic and histological analysis. CDCA also significantly decreased bone destruction and erosion of joint evaluated by micro-CT. Furthermore, CDCA could markedly reduce the release of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in synovial fluid. These observations highlight CDCA might be a potential therapeutic agent for OA. PMID:26538834

  8. The Effect of Low Inference Teacher Clarity Inhibitors on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, M. L.; Smith, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Research on the effects of teacher clarity on student achievement levels suggests that teacher trainees should concentrate on reducing their use of "vagueness terms" and ambiguous word phraseology in a classroom situation. (LH)

  9. Effects of Conceptual Systems and Instructional Methods on General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Lance E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three instructional methods and conceptual systems orientation on achievement in a freshman general chemistry laboratory course. Traditional approach, learning cycle, and computer simulations are discussed. (KR)

  10. Potential therapeutic effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor for treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Li-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), a major micro-vascular complication of diabetes, has emerged as a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness among working adults in the worldwide. The pathobiology of DR involves multiple molecular pathways and is characterized chronic neurovascular degeneration. Current approaches to prevent or to treat DR are still far from satisfactory. Therefore, it is important to develop new therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment to DR. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a 50-kDa secreted glycoprotein, has been described as a multi-functional protein. Some emerging evidences indicate that PEDF are able to target multiple pathways exerting neurotropic, neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic, antivasopermeability, anti-inflammation, anti-thrombogenic and anti-oxidative effects in DR. In this review, we addressed the functions of PEDF in different pathways, which could lead to potential therapeutics on the treatment to DR. PMID:23638428

  11. Effect of drug release kinetics on nanoparticle therapeutic efficacy and toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Manish; Sukumar, Rohit; Karve, Shrirang; Werner, Michael E.; Wang, Edina C.; Moore, Dominic T.; Kowalczyk, Sonya R.; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Andrew Z.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nanoparticle (NP) properties, such as size, shape and surface charge, on their efficacy and toxicity have been studied extensively. However, the effect of controlled drug release on NP efficacy and toxicity has not been thoroughly evaluated in vivo. Our study aims to fill this knowledge gap. A key challenge in characterizing the relationship between drug release and therapeutic ratio is to fabricate NPs that differ only in their drug release profile but are otherwise identical. To overcome this challenge, we developed crosslinkable lipid shell (CLS) NPs, where the drug release kinetics can be modulated without changing any other NP property. Using CLS NPs with wortmannin and docetaxel as model drugs, we determined the relationship between the release kinetics and therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of the drugs. We have determined that drug release kinetics can affect the therapeutic efficacy of NP docetaxel and NP wortmannin in vitro and in vivo. Our study also demonstrates that a decrease in drug release kinetics can result in a decrease in the hepatotoxicity of CLS NP wortmannin. Using two model drugs, the current findings provide the first direct evidence that NP drug release profile is a critical factor in determining the NP therapeutics' efficacy and toxicity in vivo.The effects of nanoparticle (NP) properties, such as size, shape and surface charge, on their efficacy and toxicity have been studied extensively. However, the effect of controlled drug release on NP efficacy and toxicity has not been thoroughly evaluated in vivo. Our study aims to fill this knowledge gap. A key challenge in characterizing the relationship between drug release and therapeutic ratio is to fabricate NPs that differ only in their drug release profile but are otherwise identical. To overcome this challenge, we developed crosslinkable lipid shell (CLS) NPs, where the drug release kinetics can be modulated without changing any other NP property. Using CLS NPs with

  12. Primary photophysical processes which define the biological and therapeutic effect of low-intensity laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostovnikov, Vasili A.; Mostovnikova, Galina R.; Plavski, Vitali Y.; Plavskaja, Ljudmila G.; Morozova, Raisa P.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that reversible conformations (changes of spatial structure) of the cell components, responsible for the metabolic processes regulation, are the basis of biological activity and as a consequence therapeutic effect of low-intensity laser radiation. The physical mechanism of these changes is the reorientation of high regulated anisotropic parts-domains with the liquid- crystalline type of ordering due to the interaction between electric field of the laser lightwave and integral electric dipole of the domain (light induced analogue of Frederix's effect).

  13. In vitro therapeutic effect of PDT combined with VEGF-A gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecaros, Rumwald Leo G.; Huang, Leaf; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2014-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), commonly known as VEGF, is one of the primary factors that affect tumor angiogenesis. It was found to be expressed in cancer cell lines including oral squamous cell carcinoma. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a novel therapeutic modality to treat cancer by using a photosensitizer which is activated by a light source to produce reactive oxygen species and mediates oxygen-independent hypoxic conditions to tumor. Another emerging treatment to cure cancer is the use of interference RNA (e.g. siRNA) to silence a specific mRNA sequence. VEGF-A was found to be expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma and overexpressed after 24 hour post-PDT by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was found to decrease at 25 nM of transfected VEGF-A siRNA. In vitro combined therapy of PDT and VEGF-A siRNA showed better response as compared with PDT and gene therapy alone. The results suggest that PDT combined with targeted gene therapy has a potential mean to achieve better therapeutic outcome.

  14. The Effect of the Texas Instrument Interactive Instructional Environment on the Mathematical Achievement of Eleventh Grade Low Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Teaching and learning mathematics with technology poses a unique dilemma. If technology is to enhance mathematical achievement (NCTM, 2000), why do documented studies indicate that this may not be the case (Waxman, Connell, & Gray, 2002)? This study looks at the learning environment used when teaching with technology. What in the instructional…

  15. The Effects of After-School Program Participation on Mathematics Achievement: The Case of LA's BEST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinen, Marjorie Harue

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the short-term effects of attending an after-school program (i.e., LA's BEST) on student mathematic achievement. The effects of one, two and three years of participation are studied, as well as the extent to which the magnitude of these effects varies across grades in which participation occurs, and the extent to which…

  16. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozuyesil, Eda; Dikici, Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    This study's aim is to measure the effect sizes of the quantitative studies that examined the effectiveness of brain-based learning on students' academic achievement and to examine with the meta-analytical method if there is a significant difference in effect in terms of the factors of education level, subject matter, sampling size, and…

  17. [Mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of therapeutic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors used in treatment of Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Takatori, Yuki

    2006-08-01

    Donepezil, galanthamine, and tacrine are therapeutic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this paper is to review recent findings on their neuroprotective properties and the mechanisms of neuroprotection against glutamate neurotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. First, the hallmark of neurotoxicity induced by two different glutamate treatment conditions was examined, revealing that acute glutamate treatment (1 mM, 10 min) induces necrotic neuronal death and that moderate glutamate treatment (100 microM, 24 hr) induces apoptotic neuronal death. Next, we showed that therapeutic AChE inhibitors protect cortical neurons from glutamate neurotoxicity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. We examined the mechanism of this neuroprotective effect and found that the neuroprotective effects against both acute and moderate glutamate treatments are mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), or more specifically, the effects of donepezil and galanthamine are mediated through alpha4- and alpha7-nAChR. We also showed that donepezil and galanthamine protect cortical neurons against acute glutamate treatment-induced neurotoxicity at steps before, and that tacrine protects at steps after, nitric oxide radical formation. On the other hand, the neuroprotective effects of donepezil and galanthamine, but not of tacrine, against neurotoxicity induced by moderate glutamate treatment were mediated through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway. These findings unveiled the hitherto unknown neuroprotective effects of therapeutic AChE inhibitors and provided valuable insights into its neuroprotective mechanisms. They may very likely form the basis for a novel treatment strategy against Alzheimer's disease. PMID:16880719

  18. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  19. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-03-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  20. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Mentha Longifolia L. and its main constituent, menthol

    PubMed Central

    Mikaili, Peyman; Mojaverrostami, Sina; Moloudizargari, Milad; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Mentha longifolia (wild mint) is a popular folk remedy. Some parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine of Iran and other countries. Many studies have shown various pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the plant. Our aim in preparing this study was to review the traditional uses of M. longifolia together with the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of its entire extract and major compounds. Mentha longifolia is an herb with a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, gastrointestinal, and nervous system effects. Pulegone is the main compound of the plant responsible for most of its pharmacological effects followed by menthone, isomenthone, menthol, 1, 8-cineole, borneol, and piperitenone. Moreover, the plant may dose-dependently exert toxic effects in different systems of the body. Based on the review of various studies, it can be concluded that M. longifolia is a potential natural source for the development of new drugs. However, further studies are required to determine the precise quality and safety of the plant to be used by clinicians. PMID:25284948

  1. Therapeutic abortion in Islam: contemporary views of Muslim Shiite scholars and effect of recent Iranian legislation

    PubMed Central

    Hedayat, K M; Shooshtarizadeh, P; Raza, M

    2006-01-01

    Abortion is forbidden under normal circumstances by nearly all the major world religions. Traditionally, abortion was not deemed permissible by Muslim scholars. Shiite scholars considered it forbidden after implantation of the fertilised ovum. However, Sunni scholars have held various opinions on the matter, but all agreed that after 4 months gestation abortion was not permitted. In addition, classical Islamic scholarship had only considered threats to maternal health as a reason for therapeutic abortion. Recently, scholars have begun to consider the effect of severe fetal deformities on the mother, the families and society. This has led some scholars to reconsider the prohibition on abortion in limited circumstances. This article reviews the Islamic basis for the prohibition of abortion and the reasons for its justification. Contemporary rulings from leading Shiite scholars and from the Sunni school of thought are presented and reviewed. The status of abortion in Muslim countries is reviewed, with special emphasis on the therapeutic abortion law passed by the Iranian Parliament in 2003. This law approved therapeutic abortion before 16 weeks of gestation under limited circumstances, including medical conditions related to fetal and maternal health. Recent measures in Iran provide an opportunity for the Muslim scholars in other countries to review their traditional stance on abortion. PMID:17074823

  2. Relations between aggression and adjustment in chinese children: moderating effects of academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Chen, Xinyin; Wang, Li

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of academic achievement on relations between aggressive behavior and social and psychological adjustment in Chinese children. A sample of children (N = 1,171; 591 boys, 580 girls; initial M age = 9 years) in China participated in the study. Two waves of longitudinal data were collected in Grades 3 and 4 from multiple sources including peer nominations, teacher ratings, self-reports, and school records. The results indicated that the main effects of aggression on adjustment were more evident than those of adjustment on aggression. Moreover, aggression was negatively associated with later leadership status and positively associated with later peer victimization, mainly for high-achieving children. The results suggested that consistent with the resource-potentiating model, academic achievement served to enhance the positive development of children with low aggression. On the other hand, although the findings indicated fewer main effects of adjustment on aggression, loneliness, depression, and perceived social incompetence positively predicted later aggression for low-achieving, but not high-achieving, children, which suggested that consistent with the stress-buffering model, academic achievement protected children with psychological difficulties from developing aggressive behavior. The results indicate that academic achievement is involved in behavioral and socioemotional development in different manners in Chinese children. Researchers should consider an integrative approach based on children's behavioral, psychological, and academic functions in designing prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23557214

  3. Pulmonary liposomal formulations encapsulated procaterol hydrochloride by a remote loading method achieve sustained release and extended pharmacological effects.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Kohei; Tomida, Hiromasa; Ito, Yousuke; Tachikawa, Suguru; Onodera, Risako; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Tozuka, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2016-05-30

    Drug inhalation provides localized drug therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled drugs is limited by rapid clearance from the lungs. Small hydrophilic compounds have short half-lives to systemic absorption. We developed a liposomal formulation as a sustained-release strategy for pulmonary delivery of procaterol hydrochloride (PRO), a short-acting pulmonary β2-agonist for asthma treatment. After PRO-loaded liposomes were prepared using a pH gradient (remote loading) method, 100-nm liposomes improved residence times of PRO in the lungs. PRO encapsulation efficiency and release profiles were examined by screening several liposomal formulations of lipid, cholesterol, and inner phase. Although PRO loading was not achieved using the conventional hydration method, PRO encapsulation efficiency was >60% using the pH gradient method. PRO release from liposomes was sustained for several hours depending on liposomal composition. The liposomal formulation effects on the PRO behavior in rat lungs were evaluated following pulmonary administration in vivo. Sustained PRO release was achieved using simplified egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC)/cholesterol (8/1) liposome in vitro, and greater PRO remnants were observed in rat lungs following pulmonary administration. Extended pharmacological PRO effects were observed for 120min in a histamine-induced bronchoconstriction guinea pig model. We indicated the simplified EPC/cholesterol liposome potential as a controlled-release PRO carrier for pulmonary administration. PMID:27012982

  4. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002–2006 (ELS:02/06), this study investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course taking had positive effects on math achievement and college enrollment. Results also demonstrated that the effect of advanced math course taking on math achievement was greater for low SES students than for high SES students, but smaller for Black students than for White students. No interaction effects were found for college enrollment. Limitations, policy implications, and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26508803

  5. Alcohol Versus Cannabinoids: A Review of Their Opposite Neuro-Immunomodulatory Effects and Future Therapeutic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Madhavan P.; Figueroa, Gloria; Casteleiro, Gianna; Muñoz, Karla; Agudelo, Marisela

    2015-01-01

    Due to the legalization of marijuana and the increased demand for cannabis and alcohol consumption, research efforts highlighting the biomedical consequences of the use of alcohol and cannabinoids are not only relevant to the substance abuse scientific field, but are also of public health interest. Moreover, an overview of the recent literature about alcohol and cannabinoids neuro-immunomodulatory effects highlighting their future therapeutic potentials will provide a significant contribution to science and medicine. Therefore, in the current review, we will first discuss briefly the prevalence of alcohol and marijuana abuse, followed by a discussion on the individual effects of alcohol and cannabinoids on the immune system; then, we will focus on the role of endocannabinoids on the alcohol-induced inflammatory effects. In addition, the review also incorporates cytokine array data obtained from human monocyte-derived dendritic cells, providing a different perspective on the alcohol and cannabinoid abuse divergent effects on cytokine production. The final section will highlight the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid receptors and the novel strategies to treat alcohol dependence as determined by in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. PMID:26478902

  6. [Cannabis: Effects in the Central Nervous System. Therapeutic, societal and legal consequences].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Olmos, Víctor Manuel; Parra-Bernal, Marisela C

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy. Evidence indicates significant adverse effects of smoked marijuana on the structure, functioning and brain connectivity. Cannabis exposure during pregnancy affects fetal brain development, potentially leading to later behavioral problems in children. Neuropsychological tests and advanced imaging techniques show involvement in the learning process in adolescents with substance use. Also, marijuana increases the cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Social and ethical consequences to legally free marijuana for recreational use may be deleterious transcendentally. The medicinal or psychoactive cannabinol no addictive effect requires controlled proven efficacy and safety before regulatory approval studies. PMID:27428345

  7. Are morphological changes necessary to mediate the therapeutic effects of electroconvulsive therapy?

    PubMed

    Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Palomero Gallagher, Nicola; Kumar, Vinod; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Brügmann, Elisabeth; Habel, Ute; Eickhoff, Simon B; Grözinger, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The neurotrophic hypothesis has become the favorite model to explain the antidepressant properties of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). It is based on the assumption that a restoration of previously defective neural networks drives therapeutic effects. Recent data in rather young patients suggest that neurotrophic effects of ECT might be detectable by diffusion tensor imaging. We here aimed to investigate whether the therapeutic response to ECT necessarily goes along with mesoscopic effects in gray matter (GM) or white matter (WM) in our patients in advanced age. Patients (n = 21, 15 males and 7 females) suffering from major depressive disorder were treated with ECT. Before the start of treatment and after the completion of the index series, they underwent magnetic resonance imaging, including a diffusion-weighed sequence. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess GM changes and tract-based spatial statistics and an SPM-based whole-brain analysis to detect WM changes in the course of treatment. Patients significantly improved clinically during the course of ECT. This was, however, not accompanied by GM or WM changes. This result challenges the notion that mesoscopic brain structure changes are an obligatory prerequisite for the antidepressant effects of ECT. PMID:26260901

  8. Protective effect and the therapeutic index of indralin in juvenile rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Vasin, Mikhail V.; Semenov, Leonid F.; Suvorov, Nikolai N.; Antipov, Vsevolod V.; Ushakov, Igor B.; Ilyin, Leonid A.; Lapin, Boris A.

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of indralin in rhesus monkeys was examined over 60 d following gamma irradiation. Male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) 2–3-years-old and weighing 2.1–3.5 kg were used. Animals were exposed to total-body gamma irradiation from 60Co at a dose of 6.8 Gy (lethal dose, 100% lethality over 30 days). Indralin (40–120 mg kg–1) was administered intramuscularly 5 min prior to radiation exposure. Indralin taken at a dose of 120 mg kg–1 protected five out of six monkeys (compared with the radiation control group, in which all 10 animals died). The average effective dose of indralin in the monkeys exposed to gamma irradiation for 30 min was equal to 77.3 (63.3–94.3) mg kg–1, and the maximum tolerated dose of indralin administered to monkeys was 800 mg kg–1. Indralin reduced radiation-induced injuries in macaques, thus resulting in a less severe course of acute radiation syndrome. Delayed and less pronounced manifestation of the haemorrhagic syndrome of the disease, and milder forms of both leukopenia and anaemia were also noted. The therapeutic index for indralin, expressed as the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the average effective dose, was equal to 10. Therefore, indralin has a significant radioprotective effect against radiation and has a high therapeutic index in rhesus monkeys. PMID:25012697

  9. Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher-Student Relationship on Achievement.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y

    2012-01-01

    The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in grade 2 (24.8%) or grade 3 (74.6%). Child-reported conflict was stable across the 3 years, whereas warmth declined. Boys and African American students reported greater conflict than did girls and Caucasian and Hispanic students. Girls and African American students reported higher warmth than boys and non-African American students. Using path analysis, the authors tested the hypothesis that measures of student motivation in Year 2 mediated the effects of conflict and warmth in Year 1 on reading and math achievement in Year 3. Child-perceived conflict predicted cross-year changes in teacher-rated behavioral engagement, which, in turn, predicted cross-year changes in reading and math achievement. Math competence beliefs also mediated the effect of child- perceived warmth on math achievement. Effects controlled for stability of measures across time, the within-wave association between measures, and baseline measures of IQ and economic adversity. Implications of findings for improving the academic achievement of students at-risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:23226873

  10. Indirect Effects of Child Reports of Teacher-Student Relationship on Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-man; Villarreal, Victor; Johnson, Audrea Y.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) on academic motivation and achievement was investigated among a sample of 690 academically at risk elementary students (52.8% male). Measures of TSRQ, achievement, and motivation were collected annually for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in grade 2 (24.8%) or grade 3 (74.6%). Child-reported conflict was stable across the 3 years, whereas warmth declined. Boys and African American students reported greater conflict than did girls and Caucasian and Hispanic students. Girls and African American students reported higher warmth than boys and non-African American students. Using path analysis, the authors tested the hypothesis that measures of student motivation in Year 2 mediated the effects of conflict and warmth in Year 1 on reading and math achievement in Year 3. Child-perceived conflict predicted cross-year changes in teacher-rated behavioral engagement, which, in turn, predicted cross-year changes in reading and math achievement. Math competence beliefs also mediated the effect of child- perceived warmth on math achievement. Effects controlled for stability of measures across time, the within-wave association between measures, and baseline measures of IQ and economic adversity. Implications of findings for improving the academic achievement of students at-risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:23226873

  11. Recombinant Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Monoclonal Antibody Fab is Effective Therapeutically when Introduced Directly into the Lungs of RSV-Infected Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, James E., Jr.; Murphy, Brian R.; Chanock, Robert M.; Williamson, R. Anthony; Barbas, Carlos F., III; Burton, Dennis R.

    1994-02-01

    Previously, recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) monoclonal antibody Fabs were generated by antigen selection from random combinatorial libraries displayed at the tip of filamentous phage. Two such Fabs, which exhibited high binding affinity for RSV F glycoprotein (a major protective antigen), were evaluated for therapeutic efficacy in infected mice just before or at the time of peak virus replication in the lungs. Fab 19, which neutralized RSV infectivity with high efficiency in tissue culture, was effective therapeutically when delivered directly into the lungs by intranasal instillation under anesthesia. In contrast, RSV Fab 126, which failed to neutralize virus in cell culture, did not exhibit a therapeutic effect under these conditions. The amount of Fab 19 required to effect a 5000- to 12,000-fold reduction in titer of RSV in the lungs within 24 hr was rather small. In four separate experiments, a single instillation of 12.9-50 μg of RSV Fab 19 was sufficient to achieve such a reduction in pulmonary virus in a 25g mouse. The use of Fabs instead of the whole immunoglobulin molecules from which they are derived reduced the protein content of a therapeutic dose. This is important because the protein load that can be delivered effectively into the lungs is limited. The therapeutic effect of a single treatment with Fab 19 was not sustained, so that a rebound in pulmonary virus titer occurred on the 2nd day after treatment. This rebound in pulmonary RSV titer could be prevented by treating infected mice with a single dose of Fab 19 daily for 3 days. These observations suggest that human monoclonal Fabs grown in Escherichia coli may prove useful in the treatment of serious RSV disease as well as diseases caused by other viruses where replication in vivo is limited primarily to the lumenal lining of the respiratory tract.

  12. Therapeutic perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Carmelo E.; Pennisi, Pietra; Tinè, Marianna

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are linked by biological association. This encourages the search for therapeutic strategies having both cardiovascular and skeletal beneficial effects. Among drugs that may concordantly enhance bone density and reduce the progression of atherosclerosis we can include bisphosphonates (BP), statins, β -blockers, and possibly anti-RANKL antibodies. Available data come from experimental animals and human studies. All these treatments however lack controlled clinical studies designed to demonstrate dual-action effects. PMID:22460845

  13. Academic self-efficacy mediates the effects of school psychological climate on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovač, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:24708286

  14. The preventive and therapeutic effects of GCPII (NAALADase) inhibition on painful and sensory diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Murakawa, Y; Wozniak, K M; Slusher, B; Sima, A A F

    2006-09-25

    Excitotoxic glutamate release occurs in several neurological disorders. One source is derived from the hydrolysis of the neuropeptide N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate (NAAG) by glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII, also known as NAALADase). Drugs that attenuate glutamate transmission have been shown to relieve neuropathic pain, however side effects have limited their clinical use. It appears that GCPII is exclusively recruited to provide a glutamate source in hyperglutamatergic, excitotoxic conditions and therefore would be devoid of such side effects. Here we report on the therapeutic effects of an orally bio-available GCP II inhibitor on established painful and sensory neuropathy in the spontaneously diabetic BB/Wor rat. It significantly improved hyperalgesia, nerve conduction velocity and underlying myelinated fiber atrophy. The data suggest that GCP II inhibition may provide a meaningful and effective approach to the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:16780883

  15. Developing effective therapeutic relationships with children, young people and their families.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jane; Fenton, Gaynor; Barnard, Michaela

    2015-05-01

    It is imperative that nurses caring for children, young people and their families develop and maintain effective, trusting and collaborative therapeutic relationships that sit within the scope of professional boundaries. This relationship is the nurse's responsibility and should be positive and mutually acceptable to all stakeholders. A unique challenge for children's nurses is to address and prioritise the child's care needs, while meeting the needs of, and empowering, the family. The 6Cs--care, compassion, competence, communication, courage, commitment--should underpin care and enable nurses to overcome challenges such as time pressures, acute situations or disturbed family expectation. Confidentiality and safeguarding should always be observed. PMID:25959488

  16. Early metabolism evaluation making traditional Chinese medicine effective and safe therapeutics*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Yang, Ling

    2006-01-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the scientific evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As many TCMs are capable of biotransformation in the gastrointestinal tract, attention to biotransformation of TCM in the gastrointestinal tract may lead to discovery of the active components and active mechanisms. In this article, we review reports that host metabolic enzymes and intestinal bacteria may be responsible for the metabolism of TCM. Good understanding of the in vivo course of TCM will help us to know how to conduct metabolism evaluation of TCM by using in vitro human-derived system. This evaluation system will create new views on TCM as effective and safe therapeutic agents. PMID:16421964

  17. Cutaneous autoimmune effects in the setting of therapeutic immune checkpoint inhibition for metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Mochel, Mark C; Ming, Michael E; Imadojemu, Sotonye; Gangadhar, Tara C; Schuchter, Lynn M; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Payne, Aimee S; Chu, Emily Y

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic immune checkpoint blockade for metastatic melanoma has been associated with vitiligo, pruritus and morbilliform eruptions. Reports of other autoimmune skin disease in this setting are rare. We sought to expand the spectrum of cutaneous immune-mediated effects related to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. In this report, we describe two unusual cutaneous reactions related to checkpoint inhibitor therapy, namely bullous pemphigoid (BP) and dermatitis herpetiformis. The development of BP and dermatitis herpetiformis in the context of checkpoint inhibitor therapy is consistent with previous investigations supporting the importance of effector and regulatory T cells in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:27161449

  18. Effects of pay resets following drug use on attendance and hours worked in a therapeutic workplace.

    PubMed

    Holtyn, August F; Silverman, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    This secondary data analysis examined effects of an abstinence contingency on participation in a therapeutic workplace. Participants exposed to a pay reset after drug use did not differ in overall attendance from participants who were not exposed to a pay reset after drug use; however, they initially worked less after a pay reset than participants who did not receive a pay reset, and their attendance increased as their pay increased. Overall participation was not influenced by the abstinence contingency, but transient decreases in attendance occurred. PMID:26990530

  19. Therapeutic Effect of Berberine on Huntington’s Disease Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Wei, Wenjie; Gaertig, Marta A.; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) represents a family of neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by misfolded proteins. The misfolded proteins accumulate in the affected brain regions in an age-dependent manner to cause late-onset neurodegeneration. Transgenic mouse models expressing the HD protein, huntingtin, have been widely used to identify therapeutics that may retard disease progression. Here we report that Berberine (BBR), an organic small molecule isolated from plants, has protective effects on transgenic HD (N171-82Q) mice. We found that BBR can reduce the accumulation of mutant huntingtin in cultured cells. More importantly, when given orally, BBR could effectively alleviate motor dysfunction and prolong the survival of transgenic N171-82Q HD mice. We found that BBR could promote the degradation of mutant huntingtin by enhancing autophagic function. Since BBR is an orally-taken drug that has been safely used to treat a number of diseases, our findings suggest that BBR can be tested on different HD animal models and HD patients to further evaluate its therapeutic effects. PMID:26225560

  20. Comparison of Therapeutic Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave in Calcific Versus Noncalcific Lateral Epicondylopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Wook; Hwang, Ji Hye; Choi, Yoo Seong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the therapeutic effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in lateral epicondylopathy with calcification, and compare it to the effect of ESWT in lateral epicondylopathy without calcification. Methods A retrospective study was conducted. Forty-three patients (19 with calcific and 24 with noncalcific lateral epicondylopathy in ultrasound imaging) were included. Clinical evaluations included the 100-point score, Nirschl Pain Phase scale before and after ESWT, and Roles and Maudsley (R&M) scores after ESWT. ESWT (2,000 impulses and 0.06–0.12 mJ/mm2) was performed once a week for 4 weeks. Results The 100-point score and Nirschl Pain Phase scale changed significantly over time (p<0.001), but there was no significant difference between groups (p=0.555). The R&M scores at 3 and 6 months after ESWT were not significantly different between groups. In the presence of a tendon tear, those in the calcific lateral epicondylopathy group showed poor improvement of 100-point scores compared to the noncalcific group (p=0.004). Conclusion This study demonstrated that the therapeutic effect of ESWT in calcific lateral epicondylopathy was not significantly different from that in noncalcific lateral epicondylopathy. When a tendon tear is present, patients with calcific lateral epicondylopathy might show poor prognosis after ESWT relative to patients with noncalcific lateral epicondylopathy. PMID:27152280

  1. Beneficial therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale in HCV patients in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Morsy, Basant M.; Mahmoud, Ayman M.; Abo-Seif, Mohamed A.; Zanaty, Mohamed I.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major global health burden and Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa, Zingiber officinale and their mixture in Egyptian HCV patients. Sixty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon alpha (IFN-α) therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, alpha fetoprotein and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinale were prepared and formulated into gelatinous capsules, each containing 500 mg of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale. Clinical response and incidence of adverse drug reactions were assessed initially, periodically, and at the end of the study. Both extracts as well as their mixture significantly ameliorated the altered viral load, alpha fetoprotein, liver function parameters; with more potent effect for the combined therapy. In conclusion, administration of Nigella sativa and/or Zingiber officinale ethanolic extracts to HCV patients exhibited potential therapeutic benefits via decreasing viral load and alleviating the altered liver function, with more potent effect offered by the mixture. PMID:27298610

  2. Therapeutic effect of Pleurotus eryngii cellulose on experimental fatty liver in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, J F; Zhan, T; Yu, X L; He, Q A; Huang, W J; Lin, L Z; Du, Y T; Pan, Y T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effect of Pleurotus eryngii cellulose on experimental fatty liver in rats. Rats were fed high-fat fodder to establish a rat fatty liver model, and were then fed different concentrations of Pleurotus eryngii cellulose for six weeks. Lipitor was used as a positive control. Measured levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), and total triglyceride (TG); the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), hepatic lipase (HL), and lipoprotein lipase; and liver histopathological changes. Successfully established rat fatty liver model after feeding high-fat fodder for one week. A diet of P. eryngii cellulose for six weeks significantly reduced ALT, AST, TC, and TG levels in rat serum (P < 0.01); TC and AST levels in P. eryngii cellulose high-dose group and Lipitor group were not significantly different from those of the control (P > 0.05). SOD activity increased significantly, while MDA and HL activity decreased (P < 0.05); fatty degeneration and fat accumulation both decreased in hepatic tissue. Hepatic protection of P. eryngii cellulose showed dose-related effect. P. eryngii cellulose can affect lipid metabolism, having therapeutic effects on fatty liver in rats. PMID:26985922

  3. Effects of Different Therapeutic Ultrasound Waveforms on Endothelial Function in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jeferson Mendes; Hauck, Melina; Cardoso Pereira, Ana Paula; Moraes, Maicon Borges; Martins, Cassio Noronha; da Silva Paulitsch, Felipe; Plentz, Rodrigo Della Méa; Peres, William; Vargas da Silva, Antônio Marcos; Signori, Luis Ulisses

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different therapeutic 1-MHz ultrasound waveforms on endothelial function before and after cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. Forty-two healthy volunteers aged 27.2 ± 3.8 y underwent interventions and an evaluation for endothelial function (n = 15; with COX inhibition, n = 15; duration of the vasodilator effect, n = 12) by technique flow-mediated dilation. Continuous ultrasound therapy (0.4 W/cm(2 SATA)), pulsed ultrasound therapy (20% duty cycle, 0.08 W/cm(2 SATA)) or placebo (equipment power off) was randomly applied over the brachial artery for 5 min. COX inhibition (aspirin) was carried out 30 min before treatments. In relation to the placebo, flow-mediated dilation increased by 4.8% using continuous ultrasound and by 3.4% using pulsed ultrasound. After COX, flow-mediated dilation was enhanced by 2.1% by continuous ultrasound and 2.6% by pulsed ultrasound. This vasodilation persisted for 20 min. Continuous and pulsed therapeutic 1-MHz ultrasound waveforms improved endothelial function in humans, which provided them with anti-inflammatory vascular effects. PMID:26578361

  4. Academic Self-Concept and Learning Strategies: Direction of Effect on Student Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Lam, Amy Kwok Hap

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prediction of academic self-concept (English and Mathematics) and learning strategies (deep and surface), and their direction of effect, on academic achievement (English and Mathematics) of 8,354 students from 16 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Two competing models were tested to ascertain the direction of effect: Model A…

  5. The School Compositional Effect of Single Parenthood on 10th-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling

    1998-01-01

    Uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) to reveal a detrimental contextual effect on 10th-grade mathematics and reading achievement associated with attending a school with a high concentration of children from single-parent homes. Maintains this effect is evident even when individual demographic characteristics and family…

  6. Relationship between Teachers' Effective Communication and Students' Academic Achievement at the Northern Border University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication between faculty members and students is one of the concerns of the educational stakeholders at the Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia. This study investigates the relationship between teachers' effective communication and students' academic achievement at the Northern Border University. The survey questionnaire…

  7. Effect of Feedback and Remediation on Students' Achievement in Junior Secondary School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Ajogbeje Oke; Folorunso, Alonge Micheal

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of feedback and remediation as instructional strategies on junior secondary school students' achievement in mathematics. The effects of gender and socio economic status on these learning outcomes were also examined. The sample for the study consisted of 240 junior secondary two (JSS II) students in intact classes…

  8. The Effect of the Developed Differentiation Approach on the Achievements of the Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Esra; Özdemir, Ahmet S.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: The present study is of importance for designing a differentiation approach, which enables gifted students to use their present potential in mathematics effectively and enables them to develop their achievement, while looking at the effect of the approach on both gifted and non-gifted students. Within the scope of the developed…

  9. High School Success: An Effective Intervention for Achievement and Dropout Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowder, Christopher Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-design study was to use quantitative and qualitative research to explore the effects of High School Success (a course for at-risk ninth graders) and its effectiveness on student achievement, attendance, and dropout prevention. The research questions address whether there is a significant difference between at-risk ninth…

  10. The Effects of Peer Tutoring on the Reading Achievement and Social Acceptance of Mainstreamed Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajar, Anna H.; And Others

    The research analyzed the effects of peer tutoring and teacher presentations about handicaps on the social acceptance of 16 mainstreamed educable mentally retarded (EMR) children (10 from primary and 6 from intermediate level classes). In addition, the effect of peer tutoring on reading achievement of EMR students was examined. Results showed that…

  11. Group Investigation Effects on Achievement, Motivation, and Perceptions of Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ivy Geok Chin; Sharan, Shlomo; Lee, Christine Kim Eng

    2007-01-01

    In an experiment conducted in 7 eighth-grade (Ages 13-14) classes in Singapore, the authors evaluated the effects of the group investigation method of cooperative learning versus the effects of the traditional whole-class method of instruction on students' academic achievement and on their motivation to learn. The authors also investigated…

  12. An Examination of South Carolina School Boards' Effectiveness and Its Influence on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Marty S.

    2009-01-01

    In the era of school accountability, school boards are under scrutiny for their effectiveness in improving student achievement. It has become more than obvious that school boards play an important role in the effectiveness, ineffectiveness, successes and failures of school districts. However, to what degree of importance was the premise for this…

  13. The Effect of Foster Care Experience and Characteristics on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calix, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of foster care experience and characteristics on educational outcomes. The typical strategy in examining the effect foster care has on educational outcomes is to compare the educational achievement of youth with foster care experience to that of their peers or to national norms. This strategy fails to take selection…

  14. Before or after the Bell? School Context and Neighborhood Effects on Student Achievement. Working Paper 28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jargowsky, Paul A.; El Komi, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relative effects of school and neighborhood characteristics on student achievement. Previous empirical studies have estimated one of these effects in the absence of controls for the other, leading to potentially misleading results. Results show school variables are more robust and explain a greater degree of the variance in…

  15. Reading Recovery: Exploring the Effects on First-Graders' Reading Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Celeste C.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Gambrell, Linda; Xu, Meling

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Reading Recovery on children's motivational levels, and how motivation may contribute to the effect of the intervention on literacy achievement. Prior studies concluded that Reading Recovery was positively associated with increased student motivation levels, but most of those studies were limited…

  16. The Effects of the "Groups of Four" Program on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lizbeth Champagne

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Groups of Four" program, examining the impact of the cooperative learning strategy on students' achievement in mathematical problem solving. Effects of three specific independent variables in the program were examined in terms of gender, group assignment, and ability, to…

  17. Class Size Effects on Reading Achievement Using PIRLS Data: Evidence from Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Traynor, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The effects of class size on student achievement have gained considerable attention in education research and policy, especially over the last 30 years. Perhaps the best evidence about the effects of class size thus far has been produced from analyses of Project STAR data, a large-scale experiment where students and teachers…

  18. The Effects of Online Homework on Achievement and Self-Efficacy of College Algebra Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, David Shane

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness, in terms of mathematical achievement and mathematics self-efficacy, of online homework to textbook homework over an entire semester for 145 students enrolled in multiple sections of college algebra at a large community college. A quasi-experimental, posttest design was used to analyze the effect on…

  19. The Effects of Alcohol Use on Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Giuliano, Laura M.; French, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol use on high school students' quality of learning. We estimate fixed-effects models using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our primary measure of academic achievement is the student's grade point average (GPA) abstracted from official school transcripts. We find that…

  20. The Instructional Effect of Stimulus-Explicitness in Facilitating Student Achievement of Varied Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Thomas C.; Dwyer, Francis M.

    In order to investigate the relative effectiveness of specific media attributes on student performance on criterion tests, a comparison was made of the effectiveness of two levels of stimulus explicitness in visuals in facilitating student achievement on criterion tests of knowledge, comprehension, and total understanding. Subjects were 171…

  1. The Effects of Prior Knowledge, Presentation Mode, and Visual Realism on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John H.; Dwyer, Francis M.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of integrating abstract and realistic visualization, the effectiveness of four treatments was measured for: (1) facilitating student achievement of different kinds of educational objectives; (2) students possessing different levels of student ability; (3) externally paced and self-paced methods of instruction; and…

  2. Can Schools Achieve Both Quality and Equity? Investigating the Two Dimensions of Educational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, L.; Creemers, B. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which schools can achieve both equity and quality. Data emerged from two effectiveness studies in teaching mathematics and Greek language, which were conducted to test the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness. Separate multilevel analyses for each subject were conducted and it was found…

  3. Peer Ethnicity and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis into the Compositional Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ewijk, Reyn; Sleegers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study reports a meta-analysis on the effects of ethnic minority share in school on achievement test scores. Best evidence from the studies that have appeared thus far on this topic shows that these compositional effects appear small in general, but may be larger when the ethnic minority group is African Americans in the USA than when the…

  4. Effects of Student Uniforms on Attendance, Behavior Problems, Substance Use, and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsma, David L.; Rockquemore, Kerry A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined 10th-grade data from the 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Study to investigate the effects of school uniforms on student attendance, behavior problems, substance use, and academic achievement. Data from public, private, and Catholic schools indicated that uniforms had no direct effect on substance use, attendance, or behavior, and a…

  5. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  6. Advanced Math Course Taking: Effects on Math Achievement and College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byun, Soo-yong; Irvin, Matthew J.; Bell, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002-2006, the authors investigated the effects of advanced math course taking on math achievement and college enrollment and how such effects varied by socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity. Results from propensity score matching and sensitivity analyses showed that advanced math course…

  7. Prevention and Therapeutic Effects and Mechanisms of Tanshinone IIA Sodium Sulfonate on Acute Liver Injury Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lunjie; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Jingying; Che, Jun; Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Yusong

    2016-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSS) is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, which is the main pharmacologically active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza. This study aimed to verify the preventive and therapeutic effects of TSS and its combined therapeutic effects with magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) in D-galactosamine- (D-Gal-) induced acute liver injury (ALI) in mice. The potential regulatory mechanisms of TSS on ALI were also examined. Our results may provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutics for ALI. PMID:27274751

  8. [Achievement of therapeutic target in subjects on statin treatment in clinical practice. Results of the STAR (Statins Target Assessment in Real practice) study].

    PubMed

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Arca, Marcello; Vigna, Giovanni B; Budal, Stefano; Degli Esposti, Ezio

    2011-12-01

    The primary aim of the STAR Study (Statins Target Assessment in Real practice) was to determine the LDL-cholesterol reduction and to analyse patient's and therapeutic factors associated to LDL-cholesterol target attainment in newly treated subjects with statins in an unselected population in clinical practice setting. Administrative databases (including pharmaceutical prescriptions and hospital admissions) and laboratory test databases (including LDL-cholesterol values) of five local health units, distributed in Emilia Romagna, Toscana and Umbria, were linked. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and all subjects aged > or =18 years with a first prescription for statins (newly treated subjects) between January 1st, 2007 and June 30th, 2008 were included. All statin prescriptions over a 12 months follow-up period were considered and used to calculate adherence to treatment. Baseline and follow-up LDL-cholesterol, respectively, were defined according to the nearest determination to the first prescription for statins and to the end of the follow-up period. A total of 3.232 subjects was included, 1.516 males (47%) and 1.716 females (53%), with an average age equal to 65.9 +/- 11.3 years. Among included subjects, 22.,6% had a gap to LDL-cholesterol target <10%, 30.0% between 10 and 29%, 20.7% between 30 and 49%, and 26.7% . or =50%. Among those with a gap to target > or =50%, 30-49%, and 10-29%, respectively, LDL-cholesterol target was attained by 7.1%, 41.8%, and 62.% of subjects. LDL-cholesterol target attainment was associated to gap to target, adherence with treatment, and type of statin. PMID:22567731

  9. Fc-fusion proteins and FcRn: structural insights for longer-lasting and more effective therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Timo; Baker, Kristi; Dumont, Jennifer A.; Peters, Robert T.; Jiang, Haiyan; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Lencer, Wayne I.; Pierce, Glenn F.; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 350 IgG-based therapeutics are approved for clinical use or are under development for many diseases lacking adequate treatment options. These include molecularly engineered biologicals comprising the IgG Fc-domain fused to various effector molecules (so-called Fc-fusion proteins) that confer the advantages of IgG, including binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) to facilitate in vivo stability, and the therapeutic benefit of the specific effector functions. Advances in IgG structure-function relationships and an understanding of FcRn biology have provided therapeutic opportunities for previously unapproachable diseases. This article discusses approved Fc-fusion therapeutics, novel Fc-fusion proteins and FcRn-dependent delivery approaches in development, and how engineering of the FcRn–Fc interaction can generate longer-lasting and more effective therapeutics. PMID:24156398

  10. Polydopamine-Based Surface Modification of Novel Nanoparticle-Aptamer Bioconjugates for In Vivo Breast Cancer Targeting and Enhanced Therapeutic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wei; Zeng, Xiaowei; Wu, Jun; Zhu, Xi; Yu, Xinghua; Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Jinxie; Liu, Gan; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we reported a simple polydopamine (pD)-based surface modification method to prepare novel nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates (Apt-pD-DTX/NPs) for in vivo tumor targeting and enhanced therapeutic effects of breast cancer. With simple preparation procedures, the new functionalized Apt-pD-DTX/NPs could maximumly increase the local effective drug concentration on tumor sites, achieving enhanced treatment effectiveness and minimizing side effects. The dopamine polymerization and aptamer conjugation barely changed the characters of NPs. Both in vitro cell experiments (i.e. endocytosis of fluorescent NPs, in vitro cellular targeting and cytotoxicity assays) and in vivo animal studies (i.e. in vivo imaging, biodistribution and antitumor effects of NPs) demonstrated that the Apt-pD-DTX/NPs could achieve significantly high targeting efficiency and enhanced therapeutic effects compared with clinical Taxotere® and NPs without functional modification. Above all, the Apt-pD-DTX/NPs showed great potential as a promising nanoformulation for in vivo breast cancer therapy and the construction of pD-modified NP-aptamer bioconjugates could be of great value in medical use. PMID:26941841

  11. The numerical stroop effect in primary school children: a comparison of low, normal, and high achievers.

    PubMed

    Heine, Angela; Tamm, Sascha; De Smedt, Bert; Schneider, Michael; Thaler, Verena; Torbeyns, Joke; Stern, Elsbeth; Verschaffel, Lieven; Jacobs, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Sixty-six primary school children were selected, of which 21 scored low on a standardized math achievement test, 23 were normal, and 22 high achievers. In a numerical Stroop experiment, children were asked to make numerical and physical size comparisons on digit pairs. The effects of congruity and numerical distance were determined. All children exhibited congruity and distance effects in the numerical comparison. In the physical comparison, children of all performance groups showed Stroop effects when the numerical distance between the digits was large but failed to show them when the distance was small. Numerical distance effects depended on the congruity condition, with a typical effect of distance in the congruent, and a reversed distance effect in the incongruent condition. Our results are hard to reconcile with theories that suggest that deficits in the automaticity of numerical processing can be related to differential math achievement levels. Immaturity in the precision of mappings between numbers and their numerical magnitudes might be better suited to explain the Stroop effects in children. However, as the results for the high achievers demonstrate, in addition to numerical processing capacity per se, domain-general functions might play a crucial role in Stroop performance, too. PMID:20437281

  12. A review of the therapeutic effects of using miswak (Salvadora Persica) on oral health

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammad M.; Alsareii, Saeed A.

    2015-01-01

    Miswak is a traditional chewing stick prepared from the roots, twigs, and stem of Salvadora persica and has been used as a natural method for tooth cleaning in many parts of the world for thousands of years. A number of scientific studies have demonstrated that the miswak (Salvadora persica) possesses antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-cariogenic, and anti-plaque properties. Several studies have also claimed that miswak has anti-oxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of a miswak has an immediate effect on the composition of saliva. Several clinical studies have confirmed that the mechanical and chemical cleansing efficacy of miswak chewing sticks are equal and at times greater than that of the toothbrush. The present article provides a review of the various therapeutic effects of Salvadora persica on oral health, which will help to elucidate the significance and importance of this indigenous oral hygiene tool. PMID:25935172

  13. Effects of berberine in the gastrointestinal tract - a review of actions and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunqiu; Yu, Zhen; Li, Yongyu; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid present in several plant species, including Coptis sp. and Berberis sp. In traditional medicine, extracts of berberine are used in the treatment of diarrhea of different origins. Recent studies have shown that berberine and its derivatives have significant biological effects on gastrointestinal (GI) and other functions and may become therapeutics for the treatment of diarrhea, gastroenteritis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory conditions. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the actions of berberine in the GI tract. Binding and target sites, activated intracellular pathways, as well as the absorption and metabolism of berberine are discussed. Effects that may be useful in future clinical treatment, like antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects are critically reviewed and potential clinical applications are presented in detail. PMID:25183302

  14. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in counteracting chemotherapy-induced adverse effects: an exploratory review.

    PubMed

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Cannabinoids (the active constituents of Cannabis sativa) and their derivatives have got intense attention during recent years because of their extensive pharmacological properties. Cannabinoids first developed as successful agents for alleviating chemotherapy associated nausea and vomiting. Recent investigations revealed that cannabinoids have a wide range of therapeutic effects such as appetite stimulation, inhibition of nausea and emesis, suppression of chemotherapy or radiotherapy-associated bone loss, chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity, pain relief, mood amelioration, and last but not the least relief from insomnia. In this exploratory review, we scrutinize the potential of cannabinoids to counteract chemotherapy-induced side effects. Moreover, some novel and yet important pharmacological aspects of cannabinoids such as antitumoral effects will be discussed. PMID:25504799

  15. A review of the therapeutic effects of using miswak (Salvadora Persica) on oral health.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mohammad M; Alsareii, Saeed A

    2015-05-01

    Miswak is a traditional chewing stick prepared from the roots, twigs, and stem of Salvadora persica and has been used as a natural method for tooth cleaning in many parts of the world for thousands of years. A number of scientific studies have demonstrated that the miswak (Salvadora persica) possesses antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-cariogenic, and anti-plaque properties. Several studies have also claimed that miswak has anti-oxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The use of a miswak has an immediate effect on the composition of saliva. Several clinical studies have confirmed that the mechanical and chemical cleansing efficacy of miswak chewing sticks are equal and at times greater than that of the toothbrush. The present article provides a review of the various therapeutic effects of Salvadora persica on oral health, which will help to elucidate the significance and importance of this indigenous oral hygiene tool. PMID:25935172

  16. Therapeutic Effect of External Application of Ligustrazine Combined with Holistic Nursing on Pressure Sores

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Junzhi; Han, Lin; Gong, Fen

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of external application of ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing on pressure sores, as well as the underlying mechanism. Material/Methods From February 2014 to March 2015, a total of 32 patients with Phase II and Phase III pressure sores were enrolled and randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The clinical data were comparable between the 2 groups. In addition to holistic nursing, the patients in the experimental group received 4 weeks of continuous external application of ligustrazine, whereas patients in the control group received compound clotrimazole cream. Therapeutic effect and healing time were recorded. HaCaT cells were used as an in vitro model for mechanism analysis of the effect of ligustrazine in treating pressure sores. After culturing with different concentrations of ligustrazine or the inhibitor of AKT (LY294002) for 72 h, cell viability, clone formation numbers, and levels of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), p-AKT, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) were determined. Results Compared to the control group, the total effective rate in the experimental group was significantly higher, and the healing time was significantly reduced. Cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly upregulated by ligustrazine in a dose-dependent manner. Both the cell viability and clone formation numbers were significantly inhibited by application of LY294002. Conclusions Our results suggest that ligustrazine combined with holistic nursing is an effective treatment of pressure sores. The protective effect may be associated with the promotion of cell growth by activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. PMID:27523814

  17. Effects of simulated interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequalities in educational achievement.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718

  18. Effects of Simulated Interventions to Improve School Entry Academic Skills on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. PMID:25327718

  19. Molecular and Cellular Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Human Lung Cancer Cells: Potential Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has a very high mortality-to-incidence ratio, representing one of the main causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Therefore, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Several diseases including lung cancer have been associated with the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the most studied. Despite the fact that H2O2 may have opposite effects on cell proliferation depending on the concentration and cell type, it triggers several antiproliferative responses. H2O2 produces both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA lesions, increases the expression of cell adhesion molecules, and increases p53 activity and other transcription factors orchestrating cancer cell death. In addition, H2O2 facilitates the endocytosis of oligonucleotides, affects membrane proteins, induces calcium release, and decreases cancer cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the MAPK pathway and the expression of genes related to inflammation including interleukins, TNF-α, and NF-κB are also affected by H2O2. Herein, we will summarize the main effects of hydrogen peroxide on human lung cancer leading to suggesting it as a potential therapeutic tool to fight this disease. Because of the multimechanistic nature of this molecule, novel therapeutic approaches for lung cancer based on the use of H2O2 may help to decrease the mortality from this malignancy. PMID:27375834

  20. Molecular and Cellular Effects of Hydrogen Peroxide on Human Lung Cancer Cells: Potential Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Vilema-Enríquez, Gabriela; Arroyo, Aurora; Grijalva, Marcelo; Amador-Zafra, Ricardo Israel; Camacho, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has a very high mortality-to-incidence ratio, representing one of the main causes of cancer mortality worldwide. Therefore, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Several diseases including lung cancer have been associated with the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the most studied. Despite the fact that H2O2 may have opposite effects on cell proliferation depending on the concentration and cell type, it triggers several antiproliferative responses. H2O2 produces both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA lesions, increases the expression of cell adhesion molecules, and increases p53 activity and other transcription factors orchestrating cancer cell death. In addition, H2O2 facilitates the endocytosis of oligonucleotides, affects membrane proteins, induces calcium release, and decreases cancer cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the MAPK pathway and the expression of genes related to inflammation including interleukins, TNF-α, and NF-κB are also affected by H2O2. Herein, we will summarize the main effects of hydrogen peroxide on human lung cancer leading to suggesting it as a potential therapeutic tool to fight this disease. Because of the multimechanistic nature of this molecule, novel therapeutic approaches for lung cancer based on the use of H2O2 may help to decrease the mortality from this malignancy. PMID:27375834

  1. Anticancer strategies based on the metabolic profile of tumor cells: therapeutic targeting of the Warburg effect

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi-sha; Li, Lan-ya; Guan, Yi-di; Yang, Jin-ming; Cheng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells rely mainly on glycolysis for energy production even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, a phenomenon termed the Warburg effect, which is the most outstanding characteristic of energy metabolism in cancer cells. This metabolic adaptation is believed to be critical for tumor cell growth and proliferation, and a number of onco-proteins and tumor suppressors, including the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, Myc, hypoxia-inducible factor and p53, are involved in the regulation of this metabolic adaptation. Moreover, glycolytic cancer cells are often invasive and impervious to therapeutic intervention. Thus, altered energy metabolism is now appreciated as a hallmark of cancer and a promising target for cancer treatment. A better understanding of the biology and the regulatory mechanisms of aerobic glycolysis has the potential to facilitate the development of glycolysis-based therapeutic interventions for cancer. In addition, glycolysis inhibition combined with DNA damaging drugs or chemotherapeutic agents may be effective anticancer strategies through weakening cell damage repair capacity and enhancing drug cytotoxicity. PMID:27374491

  2. Therapeutic Effect of Oral Bisphosphonates on Choroidal Neovascularization in the Human Eye

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Shigeru; Nagai, Takayuki; Kondo, Naoshi; Fukuda, Masahide; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Tsukahara, Yasutomo; Negi, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is often associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and pathological myopia (PM). Bisphosphonates, the drug of choice to treat osteoporosis, have been recently reported to have anti-angiogenic effects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of oral bisphosphonates for CNV in humans. Methods. Thirty-six consecutive cases with CNV due to AMD or PM who declined anti-VEGF therapy were recruited. The patients were prescribed 5 mg of oral alendronates daily for 6 months. The best-corrected visual-acuity (BCVA), the lesion size in fundus photographs and fluorescein angiography, foveal thickness and total macular volume in optical coherence tomography were compared between pre- and post-treatment. Results. The mean BCVA of the patients was significantly improved after a months with the treatment in the AMD group. In the PM group, the mean BCVA was maintained up to 6 months with the treatment. The mean lesion size was significantly decreased by 3 months in both groups. The averages of foveal thickness and total macular volume were significantly reduced after 1 month of treatment in the AMD group.Conclusions. Oral bisphosphonate should be further investigated as a possible therapeutic and preventive drug for CNV due to AMD and PM. PMID:20706646

  3. Instant effect of therapeutic abortion on serum steroid hormones during first trimester.

    PubMed

    Kisnisci, H A; Ayhan, A; Yucebilgin, S; Beksac, M S; Sefercioglu, A; Tasarkan, K

    1980-01-01

    Study focus was on the instant effect of therapeutic abortion under general anesthesia on serum levels of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone during the 1st trimester. Patients were 20 healthy women. Gestational age was determined clinically by the obstetrician on the basis of the menstrual history and estimation of the size of the uterus. The procedure was cervical dilatation by Hegar's dilators and curettage under general anesthesia. Venous blood samples were taken from each patient before dilatation and curettage and 3 hours after the termination of the procedure. In all samples serum estradiol, testosterone and progesterone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. There was no significant correlation between the preoperative and postoperative serum estradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels. On the basis of the study findings it was concluded that there was no sudden effect of general anesthesia and therapeutic abortion on the serum estradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels. A 3-hour interval may be insufficient for the change of steriod hormones in serum samples. PMID:12262089

  4. Therapeutic effects of topical application of ozone on acute cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Su; Noh, Sun Up; Han, Ye Won; Kim, Kyoung Moon; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok; Park, Young Min

    2009-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical ozonated olive oil on acute cutaneous wound healing in a guinea pig model and also to elucidate its therapeutic mechanism. After creating full-thickness skin wounds on the backs of guinea pigs by using a 6 mm punch biopsy, we examined the wound healing effect of topically applied ozonated olive oil (ozone group), as compared to the pure olive oil (oil group) and non-treatment (control group). The ozone group of guinea pig had a significantly smaller wound size and a residual wound area than the oil group, on days 5 (P<0.05) and 7 (P<0.01 and P<0.05) after wound surgery, respectively. Both hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson-trichrome staining revealed an increased intensity of collagen fibers and a greater number of fibroblasts in the ozone group than that in the oil group on day 7. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated upregulation of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions, but not fibroblast growth factor expression in the ozone group on day 7, as compared with the oil group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that topical application of ozonated olive oil can accelerate acute cutaneous wound repair in a guinea pig in association with the increased expression of PDGF, TGF-beta, and VEGF. PMID:19543419

  5. Therapeutic Effects of Topical Application of Ozone on Acute Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Su; Noh, Sun Up; Han, Ye Won; Kim, Kyoung Moon; Kang, Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ok

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical ozonated olive oil on acute cutaneous wound healing in a guinea pig model and also to elucidate its therapeutic mechanism. After creating full-thickness skin wounds on the backs of guinea pigs by using a 6 mm punch biopsy, we examined the wound healing effect of topically applied ozonated olive oil (ozone group), as compared to the pure olive oil (oil group) and non-treatment (control group). The ozone group of guinea pig had a significantly smaller wound size and a residual wound area than the oil group, on days 5 (P<0.05) and 7 (P<0.01 and P<0.05) after wound surgery, respectively. Both hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson-trichrome staining revealed an increased intensity of collagen fibers and a greater number of fibroblasts in the ozone group than that in the oil group on day 7. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated upregulation of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions, but not fibroblast growth factor expression in the ozone group on day 7, as compared with the oil group. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that topical application of ozonated olive oil can accelerate acute cutaneous wound repair in a guinea pig in association with the increased expression of PDGF, TGF-β, and VEGF. PMID:19543419

  6. Study of Cytotoxic and Therapeutic Effects of Stable and Purified Silver Nanoparticles on Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Xu, Xiao-Hong Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We have synthesized and purified silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) (11.3 ± 2.3 nm) that are stable (non-aggregated) in cell culture medium and inside single living cells. We have developed new imaging methods to characterize sizes and number of single NPs in the medium and in single living cells in real-time and determine their stability (non-aggregation) in the medium and in single living cells at single NP resolution. These new approaches allow us to study toxic and therapeutic effects of single Ag NPs on tumor cells (L929, mouse fibroblast cells) with determined sizes and concentrations (doses) of NPs over time at single NP and single cell resolution. We found that Ag NPs inhibited the growth and division of tumor cells and their nuclei, at a dose and time dependent manner, showing significant inhibitory effects and abnormal cells with giant undivided nuclei or multiple nuclei beyond 12 h incubation. The results show that Ag NPs inhibited the segregation of chromosomes, but not their replications. Intracellular Ag NPs were well distributed in the cell population, and located in the nuclei and cytoplasm with higher number in the cytoplasm. This study demonstrates the possibility of using Ag NPs to inhibit the growth and division of the tumor cells and their cytotoxicity for potential therapeutic treatments, and offers a new method to count the number of single NPs in the medium for characterization their concentration and stability at single NP resolution over time. PMID:20648292

  7. Anticancer strategies based on the metabolic profile of tumor cells: therapeutic targeting of the Warburg effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi-Sha; Li, Lan-Ya; Guan, Yi-di; Yang, Jin-Ming; Cheng, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Tumor cells rely mainly on glycolysis for energy production even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, a phenomenon termed the Warburg effect, which is the most outstanding characteristic of energy metabolism in cancer cells. This metabolic adaptation is believed to be critical for tumor cell growth and proliferation, and a number of onco-proteins and tumor suppressors, including the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, Myc, hypoxia-inducible factor and p53, are involved in the regulation of this metabolic adaptation. Moreover, glycolytic cancer cells are often invasive and impervious to therapeutic intervention. Thus, altered energy metabolism is now appreciated as a hallmark of cancer and a promising target for cancer treatment. A better understanding of the biology and the regulatory mechanisms of aerobic glycolysis has the potential to facilitate the development of glycolysis-based therapeutic interventions for cancer. In addition, glycolysis inhibition combined with DNA damaging drugs or chemotherapeutic agents may be effective anticancer strategies through weakening cell damage repair capacity and enhancing drug cytotoxicity. PMID:27374491

  8. Therapeutic and preventive effects of methylene blue on Alzheimer's disease pathology in a transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Paban, V; Manrique, C; Filali, M; Maunoir-Regimbal, S; Fauvelle, F; Alescio-Lautier, B

    2014-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) belongs to the phenothiazinium family. It has been used to treat a variety of human conditions and has beneficial effects on the central nervous system in rodents with and without brain alteration. The present study was designed to test whether chronic MB treatment taken after (therapeutic effect) or before (preventive effect) the onset of beta-amyloid pathology influences cognition in a transgenic mouse model (APP/PS1). In addition, the present study aims at revealing whether these behavioral effects might be related to brain alteration in beta-amyloid deposition. To this end, we conducted an in vivo study and compared two routes of drug administration, drinking water versus intraperitoneal injection. Results showed that transgenic mice treated with MB orally or following intraperitoneal injection were protected from cognitive impairments in a variety of social, learning, and exploratory tasks. Immunoreactive beta-amyloid deposition was significantly reduced in the hippocampus and adjacent cortex in MB-treated transgenic mice. Interestingly, these beneficial effects were observed independently of beta-amyloid load at the time of MB treatment. This suggests that MB treatment is beneficial at both therapeutic and preventive levels. Using solid-state High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (HRMAS-NMR), we showed that MB administration after the onset of amyloid pathology significantly restored the concentration of two metabolites related to mitochondrial metabolism, namely alanine and lactate. We conclude that MB might be useful for the therapy and prevention of Alzheimer's disease. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Synaptic Basis of Neurodegenerative Disorders'. PMID:23891615

  9. Endocannabinoid System and Psychiatry: In Search of a Neurobiological Basis for Detrimental and Potential Therapeutic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Eva M.; García-Gutiérrez, María S.; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco-Javier; Moreira, Fabricio A.; Guimarães, Francisco; Manzanares, Jorge; Viveros, María-Paz

    2011-01-01

    Public concern on mental health has noticeably increased given the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognition and emotionality are the most affected functions in neuropsychiatric disorders, i.e., anxiety disorders, depression, and schizophrenia. In this review, most relevant literature on the role of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in neuropsychiatric disorders will be presented. Evidence from clinical and animal studies is provided for the participation of CB1 and CB2 receptors (CB1R and CB2R) in the above mentioned neuropsychiatric disorders. CBRs are crucial in some of the emotional and cognitive impairments reported, although more research is required to understand the specific role of the eCB system in neuropsychiatric disorders. Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of the Cannabis sativa plant, has shown therapeutic potential in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Although further studies are needed, recent studies indicate that CBD therapeutic effects may partially depend on facilitation of eCB-mediated neurotransmission. Last but not least, this review includes recent findings on the role of the eCB system in eating disorders. A deregulation of the eCB system has been proposed to be in the bases of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including eating disorders. Cannabis consumption has been related to the appearance of psychotic symptoms and schizophrenia. In contrast, the pharmacological manipulation of this eCB system has been proposed as a potential strategy for the treatment of anxiety disorders, depression, and anorexia nervosa. In conclusion, the eCB system plays a critical role in psychiatry; however, detrimental consequences of manipulating this endogenous system cannot be underestimated over the potential and promising perspectives of its therapeutic manipulation. PMID:22007164

  10. Cost-effective therapeutic hypothermia treatment device for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, John J; Buchbinder, Nathan; Ammanuel, Simon; Kim, Robert; Moore, Erika; O'Donnell, Neil; Lee, Jennifer K; Kulikowicz, Ewa; Acharya, Soumyadipta; Allen, Robert H; Lee, Ryan W; Johnston, Michael V

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances in neonatal care and monitoring, asphyxia globally accounts for 23% of the 4 million annual deaths of newborns, and leads to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Occurring in five of 1000 live-born infants globally and even more in developing countries, HIE is a serious problem that causes death in 25%-50% of affected neonates and neurological disability to at least 25% of survivors. In order to prevent the damage caused by HIE, our invention provides an effective whole-body cooling of the neonates by utilizing evaporation and an endothermic reaction. Our device is composed of basic electronics, clay pots, sand, and urea-based instant cold pack powder. A larger clay pot, lined with nearly 5 cm of sand, contains a smaller pot, where the neonate will be placed for therapeutic treatment. When the sand is mixed with instant cold pack urea powder and wetted with water, the device can extract heat from inside to outside and maintain the inner pot at 17°C for more than 24 hours with monitoring by LED lights and thermistors. Using a piglet model, we confirmed that our device fits the specific parameters of therapeutic hypothermia, lowering the body temperature to 33.5°C with a 1°C margin of error. After the therapeutic hypothermia treatment, warming is regulated by adjusting the amount of water added and the location of baby inside the device. Our invention uniquely limits the amount of electricity required to power and operate the device compared with current expensive and high-tech devices available in the United States. Our device costs a maximum of 40 dollars and is simple enough to be used in neonatal intensive care units in developing countries. PMID:23319871

  11. Gender differences in science achievement: Do school effects make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Deidra J.; Fraser, Barry J.

    The problem of the underrepresentation of girls in science in Australian schools is often attributed to their poor performance. Yet the role of both the home and the school in affecting female science achievement is rarely examined empirically. The comprehensiveness of the Second International Science Study database provided an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of gender differences in science achievement. Although previous studies of gender differences in science achievement have relied on methodology that has not adequately accounted for the school effects, this study used the design effect and hierarchical linear modeling (multilevel analysis) to explore whether there were significant gender differences. The relative contribution of schools to student achievement was examined, and school-level differences were found to contribute significantly toward explaining variations in student performance. Although statistically significant sex differences were found in physics achievement for 10-year-old, 14-year-old, and year-12 students, school effects were much more powerful in explaining student differences (9-19%) when compared with gender (3%).

  12. Does contemporary vancomycin dosing achieve therapeutic targets in a heterogeneous clinical cohort of critically ill patients? Data from the multinational DALI study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in ICU patients and to examine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing results in concentrations that have been associated with favourable response. Methods The Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive Care (DALI) study was a prospective, multicentre pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. Antibiotic dosing was as per the treating clinician either by intermittent bolus or continuous infusion. Target trough concentration was defined as ≥15 mg/L and target pharmacodynamic index was defined as an area under the concentration-time curve over a 24-hour period divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration of the suspected bacteria (AUC0–24/MIC ratio) >400 (assuming MIC ≤1 mg/L). Results Data of 42 patients from 26 ICUs were eligible for analysis. A total of 24 patients received vancomycin by continuous infusion (57%). Daily dosage of vancomycin was 27 mg/kg (interquartile range (IQR) 18 to 32), and not different between patients receiving intermittent or continuous infusion. Trough concentrations were highly variable (median 27, IQR 8 to 23 mg/L). Target trough concentrations were achieved in 57% of patients, but more frequently in patients receiving continuous infusion (71% versus 39%; P = 0.038). Also the target AUC0–24/MIC ratio was reached more frequently in patients receiving continuous infusion (88% versus 50%; P = 0.008). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment by the propensity score could not confirm continuous infusion as an independent predictor of an AUC0–24/MIC >400 (odds ratio (OR) 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2 to 12.0) or a Cmin ≥15 mg/L (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.4 to 8.5). Conclusions This study demonstrated large interindividual variability in vancomycin pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic target attainment in ICU patients. These data suggests that a re-evaluation of current vancomycin dosing recommendations in

  13. Neurocognitive, Neuroprotective, and Cardiometabolic Effects of Raloxifene: Potential for Improving Therapeutic Outcomes in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad M

    2016-07-01

    Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has been approved for treating osteoporosis and breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women. However, recent evidence suggests that raloxifene adjunct therapy improves cognition and reduces symptom severity in men and women with schizophrenia. In animal models, raloxifene increases forebrain neurogenesis and enhances working memory and synaptic plasticity. It may consequently repair the neuronal and synaptic connectivity that is disrupted in schizophrenia. It also reduces oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, which are potent etiological factors in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, in postmenopausal women, raloxifene reduces the risks for atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and weight gain, which are serious adverse effects associated with long-term antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia; therefore, it may improve the safety and efficacy of antipsychotic drugs. In this review, recent insights into the neurocognitive, neuroprotective, and cardiometabolic effects of raloxifene in relation to therapeutic outcomes in schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:27193386

  14. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Peganum harmala and its main alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Moloudizargari, Milad; Mikaili, Peyman; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Shayegh, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Wild Syrian rue (Peganum harmala L. family Zygophyllaceae) is well-known in Iran and various parts of this plant including, its seeds, bark, and root have been used as folk medicine. Recent years of research has demonstrated different pharmacological and therapeutic effects of P. harmala and its active alkaloids, especially harmine and harmaline. Analytical studies on the chemical composition of the plant show that the most important constituents of this plant are beta-carboline alkaloids such as harmalol, harmaline, and harmine. Harmine is the most studied among these naturally occurring alkaloids. In addition to P. harmala (Syrian rue), these beta-carbolines are present in many other plants such as Banisteria caapi and are used for the treatment of different diseases. This article reviews the traditional uses and pharmacological effects of total extract and individual active alkaloids of P. harmala (Syrian rue). PMID:24347928

  15. Pharmacological and Therapeutic Effects of A3 Adenosine Receptor (A3AR) Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Pnina; Bar-Yehuda, Sara; Liang, Bruce T.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    The Gi-coupled A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) mediates anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-ischemic protective effects. The receptor is overexpressed in inflammatory and cancer cells, while low expression is found in normal cells, rendering the A3AR as a potential therapeutic target. Highly selective A3AR agonists have been synthesized and molecular recognition in the binding site has been characterized. The present review summarizes preclinical and clinical human studies demonstrating that A3AR agonists induce specific anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects via a molecular mechanism that entails modulation of the Wnt and the NF-κB signal transduction pathways. Currently, A3AR agonists are being developed for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis; ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye syndrome and glaucoma; liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis. PMID:22033198

  16. [Essence of scientific and technical achievements and the nature of the effect of veterinary medical research].

    PubMed

    Iliev, I; Kostadinov, I

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made at elucidating the essence of veterinary scientific and technological achievements and the character of the effect of their implementation. On the basis of a structural analysis veterinary scientific investigations are grouped as: theoretical-fundamental, scientific-applicative and scientific-technological elaborations. Starting out from the character of the effect that is achieved through their application, the scientific works, as well as the scientific and technological achievements in the field of veterinary medicine, are categorized as follows: cognitive (New knowledge), technical and technological (medico-biological), socio-sanitary, economic and those having a mixed effect (cognitive- medico-biological, medico-biological-socio-sanitary, socio-sanitary and economic, etc. The identification of the various types of effects requires the elaboration of respective criteria, as well as a system of indexes for their characterization, a qualitative and a quantitative determination, as necessary conditions for determining the effectiveness of research veterinary works and that of research technological achievement. PMID:7233814

  17. Antibodies targeting human IL1RAP (IL1R3) show therapeutic effects in xenograft models of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ågerstam, Helena; Karlsson, Christine; Hansen, Nils; Sandén, Carl; Askmyr, Maria; von Palffy, Sofia; Högberg, Carl; Rissler, Marianne; Wunderlich, Mark; Juliusson, Gunnar; Richter, Johan; Sjöström, Kjell; Bhatia, Ravi; Mulloy, James C.; Järås, Marcus; Fioretos, Thoas

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with a poor survival rate, and there is an urgent need for novel and more efficient therapies, ideally targeting AML stem cells that are essential for maintaining the disease. The interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP; IL1R3) is expressed on candidate leukemic stem cells in the majority of AML patients, but not on normal hematopoietic stem cells. We show here that monoclonal antibodies targeting IL1RAP have strong antileukemic effects in xenograft models of human AML. We demonstrate that effector-cell–mediated killing is essential for the observed therapeutic effects and that natural killer cells constitute a critical human effector cell type. Because IL-1 signaling is important for the growth of AML cells, we generated an IL1RAP-targeting antibody capable of blocking IL-1 signaling and show that this antibody suppresses the proliferation of primary human AML cells. Hence, IL1RAP can be efficiently targeted with an anti-IL1RAP antibody capable of both achieving antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and blocking of IL-1 signaling as modes of action. Collectively, these results provide important evidence in support of IL1RAP as a target for antibody-based treatment of AML. PMID:26261316

  18. The Effect of Treatment History on Therapeutic Outcome: Psychological and Neurobiological Underpinnings

    PubMed Central

    Kessner, Simon; Forkmann, Katarina; Ritter, Christoph; Wiech, Katja; Ploner, Markus; Bingel, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the efficacy of medical treatments is determined in critical part by the therapeutic context in which it is delivered. An important characteristic of that context is treatment history. We recently reported first evidence for a carry-over of treatment experience to subsequent treatment response across different treatment approaches. Here we expand on these findings by exploring the psychological and neurobiological underpinnings of the effect of treatment experience on future treatment response in an experimental model of placebo analgesia with a conditioning procedure. In a combined behavioral and neuroimaging study we experimentally induced positive or negative experiences with an analgesic treatment in two groups of healthy human subjects. Subsequently we compared responses to a second, different analgesic treatment between both groups. We found that participants with an experimentally induced negative experience with the first treatment showed a substantially reduced response to a second analgesic treatment. Intriguingly, several psychological trait variables including anxiety, depression and locus of control modulate the susceptibility for the effects of prior treatment experiences on future treatment outcome. These behavioral effects were supported by neuroimaging data which showed significant differences in brain regions encoding pain and analgesia between groups. These differences in activation patterns were present not only during the pain phase, but also already prior to painful stimulation and scaled with the individual treatment response. Our data provide behavioral and neurobiological evidence showing that the influence of treatment history transfers over time and over therapeutic approaches. Our experimental findings emphasize the careful consideration of treatment history and a strictly systematic treatment approach to avoid negative carry-over effects. PMID:25275613

  19. Mapping numerical magnitudes onto symbols: the numerical distance effect and individual differences in children's mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian D; Ansari, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Although it is often assumed that abilities that reflect basic numerical understanding, such as numerical comparison, are related to children's mathematical abilities, this relationship has not been tested rigorously. In addition, the extent to which symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing play differential roles in this relationship is not yet understood. To address these questions, we collected mathematics achievement measures from 6- to 8-year-olds as well as reaction times from a numerical comparison task. Using the reaction times, we calculated the size of the numerical distance effect exhibited by each child. In a correlational analysis, we found that the individual differences in the distance effect were related to mathematics achievement but not to reading achievement. This relationship was found to be specific to symbolic numerical comparison. Implications for the role of basic numerical competency and the role of accessing numerical magnitude information from Arabic numerals for the development of mathematical skills and their impairment are discussed. PMID:18513738

  20. Effects of attractiveness and gender on the perception of achievement-related variables.

    PubMed

    Chia, R C; Allred, L J; Grossnickle, W F; Lee, G W

    1998-08-01

    The present study was an examination of the effects of physical attractiveness and gender on perceptions of academic success, achievement-related traits, intelligence, initiative, and attributions of ability and effort in relation to academic success. It was hypothesized that attractive persons and men would be rated more favorably along these dimensions than would unattractive persons and women. The participants were 144 U.S. undergraduates who observed photographs of attractive and unattractive men and women and then rated the persons in the photographs on the aforementioned dimensions. Physical attractiveness had a differential effect on the dimensions within achievement. Also, being perceived as physically attractive created positive impressions of achievement-related traits for men but negative impressions for women. PMID:9664863

  1. Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    1999-12-01

    This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total

  2. Unraveling the Effect of Immunogenicity on the PK/PD, Efficacy, and Safety of Therapeutic Proteins.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alison; Manoli, Hugh; Jaw, Stacey; Frutoz, Kimberley; Epstein, Alan L; Khawli, Leslie A; Theil, Frank-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Biologics have emerged as a powerful and diverse class of molecular and cell-based therapies that are capable of replacing enzymes, editing genomes, targeting tumors, and more. As this complex array of tools arises a distinct set of challenges is rarely encountered in the development of small molecule therapies. Biotherapeutics tend to be big, bulky, polar molecules comprised of protein and/or nucleic acids. Compared to their small molecule counterparts, they are fragile, labile, and heterogeneous. Their biodistribution is often limited by hydrophobic barriers which often restrict their administration to either intravenous or subcutaneous entry routes. Additionally, their potential for immunogenicity has proven to be a challenge to developing safe and reliably efficacious drugs. Our discussion will emphasize immunogenicity in the context of therapeutic proteins, a well-known class of biologics. We set out to describe what is known and unknown about the mechanisms underlying the interplay between antigenicity and immune response and their effect on the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of these therapeutic agents. PMID:27579329

  3. Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection. PMID:20185867

  4. The therapeutic effects of SET/I2PP2A inhibitors on canine melanoma.

    PubMed

    Enjoji, Shuhei; Yabe, Ryotaro; Fujiwara, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Shunya; Vitek, Michael P; Mizuno, Takuya; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Usui, Tatsuya; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi

    2015-11-01

    Canine melanoma is one of the most important diseases in small animal medicine. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a well conserved serine/threonine phosphatase, plays a critical role as a tumor suppressor. SET/I2PP2A is an endogenous inhibitor for PP2A, which directly binds to PP2A and suppresses its phosphatase activity. Elevated SET protein levels have been reported to exacerbate human tumor progression. The role of SET in canine melanoma, however, has not been understood. Here, we investigated the potential therapeutic role for SET inhibitors in canine melanoma. The expression of SET protein was observed in 6 canine melanoma cell lines. We used CMeC-1 cells (primary origin) and CMeC-2 cells (metastatic origin) to generate cell lines stably expressing SET-targeting shRNAs. Knockdown of SET expression in CMeC-2, but not in CMeC-1, leads to decreased cell proliferation, invasion and colony formation. Phosphorylation level of p70 S6 kinase was decreased by SET knockdown in CMeC-2, suggesting the involvement of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)/p70 S6 kinase signaling. The SET inhibitors, OP449 and FTY720, more effectively killed CMeC-2 than CMeC-1. We observed PP2A activation in CMeC-2 treated with OP449 and FTY720. These results demonstrated the potential therapeutic application of SET inhibitors for canine melanoma. PMID:26062569

  5. Innate immune receptors in heart failure: Side effect or potential therapeutic target?

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Katharina B; Felix, Stephan B; Riad, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in western countries and occasions major expenses for public health systems. Although optimal medical treatment is widely available according to current guidelines, the prognosis of patients with HF is still poor. Despite the etiology of the disease, increased systemic or cardiac activation of the innate immune system is well documented in several types of HF. In some cases there is evidence of an association between innate immune activation and clinical outcome of patients with this disease. However, the few large trials conducted with the use of anti-inflammatory medication in HF have not revealed its benefits. Thus, greater understanding of the relationship between alteration in the immune system and development and progression of HF is urgently necessary: prior to designing therapeutic interventions that target pathological inflammatory processes in preventing harmful cardiac effects of immune modulatory therapy. In this regard, relatively recently discovered receptors of the innate immune system, i.e., namely toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nod-like receptors (NLRs)-are the focus of intense cardiovascular research. These receptors are main up-stream regulators of cytokine activation. This review will focus on current knowledge of the role of TLRs and NLRs, as well as on downstream cytokine activation, and will discuss potential therapeutic implications. PMID:25228958

  6. Therapeutic Effects of Erythroid Differentiation Regulator 1 on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Houh, Younkyung; Park, Hyun Jeong; Cho, Daeho

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease accompanied by chronic inflammation. In previous studies, erythroid differentiation regulator 1 (ERDR1) was shown to have a negative correlation with proinflammatory cytokine IL-18. However, the role of ERDR1 in the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis has not been evaluated. In this study, to investigate the role of ERDR1 in psoriasis, recombinant ERDR1 was injected intraperitoneally into a psoriasis mouse model. Recombinant ERDR1 (rERDR1) significantly alleviated the symptoms of psoriasis-like skin inflammation and reduced the mRNA of various psoriasis-related markers, including keratin 14, S100A8, and Th17-related cytokines IL-17 and IL-22, suggesting that rERDR1 exerts therapeutic effects on psoriasis via the regulation of Th17 functions. Additionally, the expression of CCL20, a well-known Th17 attracting chemokine, was determined. CCL20 expression significantly decreased in the rERDR1-injected group compared with the vehicle (PBS)-injected group. CCR6 expression in the psoriatic lesional skin was also decreased by rERDR1 administration, implying the inhibition of CCR6-expressing Th17 cell chemotaxis via the downregulation of CCL20. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence that ERDR1 may be a potential therapeutic target for psoriasis. PMID:26901187

  7. Preventive and therapeutic effects of Smad7 on radiation-induced oral mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gangwen; Bian, Li; Li, Fulun; Cotrim, Ana; Wang, Donna; Lu, Jian Bo; Deng, Yu; Bird, Gregory; Sowers, Anastasia; Mitchell, James B.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Zhao, Rui; Raben, David; Dijke, Peter ten; Refaeli, Yosef; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2013-01-01

    We report that K5.Smad7 mice, which express Smad7 transgene by a keratin-5 promoter, were resistant to radiation-induced oral mucositis, a painful oral ulceration. In addition to NF-κB activation known to contribute to oral mucositis, we found activated TGF-β signaling in oral mucositis. Smad7 dampened both pathways to attenuate inflammation, growth inhibition and apoptosis. Additionally, Smad7 promoted oral epithelial migration to close the wound. Further analyses revealed that TGF-β signaling Smads and their co-repressor CtBP1 transcriptionally repressed Rac1, and Smad7 abrogated this repression. Knocking down Rac1 in mouse keratinocytes abrogated Smad7-induced migration. Topically applying Smad7 protein with a cell permeable Tat-tag (Tat-Smad7) to oral mucosa showed preventive and therapeutic effects on radiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. Thus, we have identified novel molecular mechanisms involved in oral mucositis pathogenesis and our data suggest an alternative therapeutic strategy to block multiple pathological processes of oral mucositis. PMID:23475202

  8. Effects of therapeutic relationship, expectancy, and credibility in breathing therapies for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunyoung; Roth, Walton T; Wollburg, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of the quality of the therapeutic alliance, expectancy of improvement, and credibility of treatment on the outcome of two breathing therapies for anxiety and panic. Data were collected during a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of two theoretically opposing, end-tidal pCO2 feedback-assisted breathing therapies for patients experiencing anxiety attacks. In this study, five weekly individual breathing therapy sessions were administered for the patients who were experiencing anxiety attacks as symptoms of various anxiety disorders. The outcome of this trial indicated that regardless of the opposing breathing instructions (raise or lower pCO2) used in the two breathing therapies, patients in both treatment groups improved equally after treatment. Nonspecific factors rather than the different directions of pCO2 changes could have played a role in the improvement. Regression analyses showed that for both therapies patient-rated therapeutic alliance was predictive of improvement at the 1-month follow-up, and that patient-rated confidence that the therapy would produce improvement, an aspect of its credibility, accounted for almost half of the variance in improvement at the 6-month follow-up. Thus, two factors usually considered nonspecific were identified to be potent predictors of treatment outcome. PMID:26035087

  9. Regulation Effects by Programmed Molecules for Transcription-Based Diagnostic Automata towards Therapeutic Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Miki; Ohashi, Hirotada; Kubo, Tai

    We have presented experimental analysis on the controllability of our transcription-based diagnostic biomolecular automata by programmed molecules. Focusing on the noninvasive transcriptome diagnosis by salivary mRNAs, we already proposed the novel concept of diagnostic device using DNA computation. This system consists of the main computational element which has a stem shaped promoter region and a pseudo-loop shaped read-only memory region for transcription regulation through the conformation change caused by the recognition of disease-related biomarkers. We utilize the transcription of malachite green aptamer sequence triggered by the target recognition for observation of detection. This algorithm makes it possible to release RNA-aptamer drugs multiply, different from the digestion-based systems by the restriction enzyme which was proposed previously, for the in-vivo use, however, the controllability of aptamer release is not enough at the previous stage. In this paper, we verified the regulation effect on aptamer transcription by programmed molecules in basic conditions towards the developm! ent of therapeutic automata. These results would bring us one step closer to the realization of new intelligent diagnostic and therapeutic automata based on molecular circuits.

  10. Therapeutic effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Omar, S A; Webb, A J; Lundberg, J O; Weitzberg, E

    2016-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is generated endogenously by NO synthases to regulate a number of physiological processes including cardiovascular and metabolic functions. A decrease in the production and bioavailability of NO is a hallmark of many major chronic diseases including hypertension, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and diabetes. This NO deficiency is mainly caused by dysfunctional NO synthases and increased scavenging of NO by the formation of reactive oxygen species. Inorganic nitrate and nitrite are emerging as substrates for in vivo NO synthase-independent formation of NO bioactivity. These anions are oxidation products of endogenous NO generation and are also present in the diet, with green leafy vegetables having a high nitrate content. The effects of nitrate and nitrite are diverse and include vasodilatation, improved endothelial function, enhanced mitochondrial efficiency and reduced generation of reactive oxygen species. Administration of nitrate or nitrite in animal models of cardiovascular disease shows promising results, and clinical trials are currently ongoing to investigate the therapeutic potential of nitrate and nitrite in hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, peripheral artery disease and myocardial infarction. In addition, the nutritional aspects of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway are interesting as diets suggested to protect against cardiovascular disease, such as the Mediterranean diet, are especially high in nitrate. Here, we discuss the potential therapeutic opportunities for nitrate and nitrite in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. PMID:26522443

  11. Unraveling the Effect of Immunogenicity on the PK/PD, Efficacy, and Safety of Therapeutic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alison; Manoli, Hugh; Jaw, Stacey; Frutoz, Kimberley; Epstein, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    Biologics have emerged as a powerful and diverse class of molecular and cell-based therapies that are capable of replacing enzymes, editing genomes, targeting tumors, and more. As this complex array of tools arises a distinct set of challenges is rarely encountered in the development of small molecule therapies. Biotherapeutics tend to be big, bulky, polar molecules comprised of protein and/or nucleic acids. Compared to their small molecule counterparts, they are fragile, labile, and heterogeneous. Their biodistribution is often limited by hydrophobic barriers which often restrict their administration to either intravenous or subcutaneous entry routes. Additionally, their potential for immunogenicity has proven to be a challenge to developing safe and reliably efficacious drugs. Our discussion will emphasize immunogenicity in the context of therapeutic proteins, a well-known class of biologics. We set out to describe what is known and unknown about the mechanisms underlying the interplay between antigenicity and immune response and their effect on the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of these therapeutic agents. PMID:27579329

  12. Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in the treatment of substance dependence--qualitative results.

    PubMed

    Loizaga-Velder, Anja; Verres, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative empirical study explores the ritual use of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions. Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychedelic plant compound created from an admixture of the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the bush Psychotria viridis. The study included interviews with 13 therapists who apply ayahuasca professionally in the treatment of addictions (four indigenous healers and nine Western mental health professionals with university degrees), two expert researchers, and 14 individuals who had undergone ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addictions in diverse contexts in South America. The study provides empirically based hypotheses on therapeutic mechanisms of ayahuasca in substance dependence treatment. Findings indicate that ayahuasca can serve as a valuable therapeutic tool that, in carefully structured settings, can catalyze neurobiological and psychological processes that support recovery from substance dependencies and the prevention of relapse. Treatment outcomes, however, can be influenced by a number of variables that are explained in this study. In addition, issues related to ritual transfer and strategies for minimizing undesired side-effects are discussed. PMID:24830187

  13. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety. PMID:26253552

  14. The effects of using guided notes and review of science achievement for male and female students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrrell, Diann Marie

    2000-11-01

    The National Science Foundation predicts a shortage of scientists and engineers within the next 15 years. Some agree that the participation of women in science will be required to help meet the future demand for scientists (Malcom, 1990). Consequently, conscientious teachers search for learning strategies that provide opportunities for young women to achieve success with others in their science classes. This research concerns a note taking and teaching strategy that involves seventh grade science students. The investigation measured student achievement under three prescribed conditions. The treatment conditions were reviewing, guided notes, and guided notes with reviewing. For this experiment, the Solomon four-group design was utilized. This 2 x 2 factorial design tested for treatment effect and pretest sensitivity. Data was collected on seventh grade boys (n = 119) and seventh grade girls (n = 139) in science. Comparisons were made between the boys and girls groups. The results showed that achievement improved significantly when reviewing car using guided notes independently. The results also shower that significant improvements in achievement were not observed when participants used guided notes and reviewing together. Analysis was completed to measure how well the participants performed according to gender. This research showed that both boys and girls significantly improved their achievement in science equally well for all treatment conditions. This research went a step further by factoring in cognitive ability test scores and comparing them to the treatment results. This provided the researcher with information on which treatment condition worked best for high or low achieving students.

  15. Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Senior Secondary School Students' Achievements in Further Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatade, Alfred Olufemi; Mogari, David; Arigbabu, Abayomi Adelaja

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of Problem-based learning (PBL) on senior secondary school students' achievements in Further Mathematics (FM) in Nigeria within the blueprint of pretest-post-test non-equivalent control group quasi-experimental design. Intact classes were used and in all, 96 students participated in the study (42 in the…

  16. The Effects of Diagnostic Testing and Remediation on Science Achievement and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Joe C.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to provide students with differing types of learning needs instruction following diagnostic testing; also examined were the effects of the instruction on science achievement and retention. A total of 154 seventh-grade students from six classes completed a five-week block of instruction in earth science composed of…

  17. High School Size, Achievement Equity, and Cost: Robust Interaction Effects and Tentative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Howley, Craig; Williams, Tony; Glascock, Catherine

    Research has revealed interactive effects of school size and socioeconomic status--as school size increases, the mean measured achievement of schools with disadvantaged students declines. The larger the number of less advantaged students attending a school, the greater the decline. The same school-level interactions have been found in California,…

  18. Achievement Motivation Training--Effects on ABE/ASE Students' Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    A study was conducted to identify psychosocial needs of Adult Basic Education (ABE)/Adult Secondary Education (ASE) students by using the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ). A second purpose was to test effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training (AMT) as a technique to counterbalance the negative impact of these students' former…

  19. Technology's Effect on Achievement in Higher Education: A Stage I Meta-Analysis of Classroom Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Richard F.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana; Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Surkes, Michael A.; Lowerison, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a Stage I meta-analysis exploring the achievement effects of computer-based technology use in higher education classrooms (non-distance education). An extensive literature search revealed more than 6,000 potentially relevant primary empirical studies. Analysis of a representative sample of 231 studies (k = 310)…

  20. An Integrated Assessment of the Effects of Title I on School Behavior, Resources, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsudaira, Jordan D.; Hosek, Adrienne; Walsh, Elias

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of Title I on school behavior, resources, and academic performance using a rich set of school finance and student-level achievement data from one large urban school district using a regression discontinuity design. We find that Title I eligibility raises Federal revenues of schools by about $460 per student. This is…

  1. The Effects of Different Applications on Creativity Regarding Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel; Batdi, Veli

    2016-01-01

    In this study, through a meta-analysis of 20 studies, it is aimed to compare the effectiveness of various forms of learning methods including creativity based learning, problem based learning, and differentiated instruction on creativity in terms of the academic achievement of students and to find out other study characteristics, related to the…

  2. The Effects of Guided Inquiry Instruction on Student Achievement in High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vass, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to measure the effect of a student-centered instructional method called guided inquiry on the achievement of students in a unit of study in high school biology. The study used a non-random sample of 109 students, the control group of 55 students enrolled in high school one, received…

  3. Relevant Prior Knowledge Moderates the Effect of Elaboration during Small Group Discussion on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Blankenstein, Floris M.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; Van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to test whether relevant prior knowledge would moderate a positive effect on academic achievement of elaboration during small-group discussion. In a 2 × 2 experimental design, 66 undergraduate students observed a video showing a small-group problem-based discussion about thunder and lightning. In the video, a teacher asked…

  4. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on the Academic Achievement and Knowledge Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Van Dat

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on the achievement and knowledge retention of 110 first-year primary education students toward the psychology subject over the eight weeks of instruction at An Giang University. These tertiary students were divided into two matched groups of 55 to be taught by the same…

  5. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Strategies on Elementary Students' Science Achievement and Social Skills in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahim, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the effects of two methods of teaching--teacher-centered and cooperative learning--on students' science achievement and use of social skills. The sample consists of 163 female elementary science students in 8 intact grade 5 classes who were assigned to 2 instructional methods and were taught an identical science unit by 4…

  6. The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2013-01-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not…

  7. Performance-Approach Goal Effects on Achievement under Low versus High Challenge Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senko, Corwin; Durik, Amanda M.; Patel, Lily; Lovejoy, Chelsea M.; Valentiner, David

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of university students' achievement goals on performance under low versus high challenge conditions. The first was a laboratory experiment in which participants were assigned goals to pursue on a novel mathematics task alleged to be simple or complex to use. The second was a survey study in which students set goals…

  8. The Effects of Response to Intervention on Third Graders' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Marlon Demetrius

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the effects of the Response to Intervention Three Tier Model on third graders' reading achievement. Two hundred forty-three students participated in this study. Students were from an elementary school in the southeastern region of the United States. The data on the students was collected…

  9. Reading for Success: The Effectiveness of Literacy Interventions for Increasing Student Achievement in Core Academic Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to utilize quantitative and qualitative data to measure the effects of Tier 2 and Tier 3 literacy interventions as they affect student achievement in the secondary school setting. The research questions addressed performance of students who were enrolled in Reading for Success as compared to a cohort…

  10. The Effects of Grouping Patterns in a Cooperative Learning Environment on Student Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Mary Burke

    This study investigated the effects of grouping patterns in a cooperative learning environment on the mathematics achievement of two high school geometry classes. Heterogeneous, homogenous, random, mixed gender and single gender grouping patterns were coordinated with six similar geometry topics and students were grouped accordingly for a period…

  11. Longitudinal Study of the Effects of LOGO Programming on Cognitive Abilities and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the delayed effects of LOGO programing on the cognitive abilities and achievement of children in the primary grades. Results of tests administered 18 months after first graders participated in either LOGO computer programing or computer-assisted instruction treatments and interviews five months after testing are reported…

  12. Effects of Developed Electronic Instructional Medium on Students' Achievement in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinna, Nsofor Caroline; Dada, Momoh Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of developed electronic instructional medium (video DVD instructional package) on students' achievement in Biology. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-postest control group design. The sample comprised of 180 senior secondary, year two students from six…

  13. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  14. The Effects of Two Intervention Programs on Teaching Quality and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azkiyah, S. N.; Doolaard, Simone; Creemers, Bert P. M.; Van Der Werf, M. P. C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the effectiveness of two interventions aimed to improve teaching quality and student achievement in Indonesia. The first intervention was the use of education standards, while the second one was the combination of education standards with a teacher improvement program. The study involved 50 schools, 52 teachers, and 1660…

  15. The Effect of an Instructional Intervention on Middle School English Learners' Science and English Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Tong, Fuhui; Irby, Beverly J.; Guerrero, Cindy; Huerta, Maggie; Fan, Yinan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a quasi-experimental project on fifth grade English learners' achievement in state-mandated standards-based science and English reading assessment. A total of 166 treatment students and 80 comparison students from four randomized intermediate schools participated in the current project. The intervention consisted…

  16. Comparative Effects of Two Modes of Computer-Assisted Instructional Package on Solid Geometry Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Ezenwa, Victoria Ifeoma; Anyanwu, Romanus Chogozie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effects of two modes of computer-assisted instructional package on solid geometry achievement amongst senior secondary school students in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI(AT) and CAI(AN) packages were examined. This study adopted a pretest-posttest…

  17. Effects of Cloze Instructional Approach on Senior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Igbo Language Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eze, Nneka Justina

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of cloze instructional approach on senior secondary school students' achievement in Igbo language reading comprehension. The study utilized a quasi experimental research design of the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group design. The study was conducted in Abakaliki education zone of Ebonyi State of Nigeria.…

  18. The Effect of Manipulatives on Mathematics Achievement and Attitudes of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontas, Hakki

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of manipulatives (concrete learning materials) both on the academic achievement of secondary school students in mathematics and on their attitudes towards mathematics. Pretest-posttest control group experimental model, which is one of the quasi-experimental research designs, was used in the…

  19. The Effect of Leadership Style on Student Achievement in Title I Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Fredrick Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the different types of leadership styles of public school administrators of Title I elementary schools in order to determine how these different types of leadership styles may affect student academic achievement. Specifically, the leadership style behaviors of flexibility and effectiveness were considered.…

  20. An Elaboration on the Effect of Reading Anxiety on Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpur, Bijan; Ghafournia, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    The present study was an elaboration on the effect of foreign language anxiety on reading comprehension achievement of Iranian EFL learners. The participants comprised 100 BA students, doing General English Course in different academic fields at Islamic University of Neyshabur. The participants took a reading proficiency test of TOEFL and answered…

  1. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science…

  2. Examining the Effects of Turkish Education Reform on Students' TIMSS 2007 Science Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz; Atar, Burcu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of some of the changes such as student centered learning (i.e. inquiry science instruction), outfitting classrooms with latest technology and computers that the reform movement has brought about on students' TIMSS 2007 science achievements. Two-staged stratified sampling was used in the selection…

  3. The Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Instruction on Student Achievement in a Hybrid Developmental English Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Ra Shaunda Vernee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore what effect instruction in metacognitive strategy (MS) use had on student achievement in a hybrid developmental English course at a community college. The study examined whether the addition of teacher-led or peer-led instruction in MS use would result in improved writing ability for the student…

  4. The Effect of Web-Based Homework on University Students' Physics Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effect of web-based homework on university students' physics achievement was compared. One of the two identical sections of introductory physics course students received pen-and-paper homework done in groups while the other received web-based online homework performed individually. And then both groups' homework performance and…

  5. Rater Agreement on IQ and Achievement Tests Effect on Evaluations of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Noord, Robert G.; Prevatt, Frances F.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effects of rater reliability of common IQ and achievement tests on subsequent learning disorder eligibility determinations, particularly with respect to difficulty level of individual subtests and expertise of the scorer. The study corroborates previous findings of strong interrater reliability on most subtests of common IQ and…

  6. The Effect of Teaching Strategy Based on Multiple Intelligences on Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali; Laei, Susan; Ahmadyan, Hamze

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Teaching Strategy based on Multiple Intelligences on students' academic achievement in sciences course. Totally 40 students from two different classes (Experimental N = 20 and Control N = 20) participated in the study. They were in the fifth grade of elementary school and were selected…

  7. Effects of Single-Sex and Coeducational Schooling on the Gender Gap in Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of single-sex and coeducational schooling on the gender gap in educational achievement to age 25. Data were drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 individuals born in 1977 in Christchurch, New Zealand. After adjustment for a series of covariates…

  8. Gender Peer Effects in School: Does the Gender of School Peers Affect Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabezas, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses gender peer effects in education and their impact on student achievement in Chile. We address the topic from three different level of analysis: (a) whether the proportion of girls in a cohort influences students' educational outcomes (b) whether assignment to a classroom with a higher proportion of girls influences…

  9. The Effect of Foreign Language Study in Tennessee Middle Schools on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative method, quasi-experimental design study examined the possible effect of foreign language study in Tennessee middle schools on mathematics achievement. The population was 1,708 historical student test scores of a single cohort spanning 6th through 8th Grades from the same schools within a large urban public school district. NCLB…

  10. Gender and Capacity Effects on Achievement before and after CPC Way of Individualizing Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furukawa, James M.

    This study considered the effects of gender and cognitive processing capacity on achievement of students at an intermediate school. The capacity test developed by J. M. Furukawa (1970, 1977), which requires examinees to recall word pairs immediately after a brief exposure, was modified for use with these students. The test was adopted because it…

  11. Effectiveness of Refutational Teaching for High- and Low-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Patricia; Taylor, Annette Kujawski

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of refutational readings and lecture on decreasing psychological misconceptions for students of high versus low levels of achievement. During the course of a semester we addressed introductory psychology students' misconceptions with refutational readings, refutational lecture, or not at all. From pre- and post-test…

  12. Academic Achievement, Self-Concept and Depression in Taiwanese Children: Moderated Mediation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen; Kuo, Shin-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to utilize a multidimensional perspective to examine whether children's self-concept served as a mediator between academic achievement and depression, and to further investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the ages of children. The participants consisted of 632 Taiwanese children in the…

  13. Effects of Group Size on Students Mathematics Achievement in Small Group Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enu, Justice; Danso, Paul Amoah; Awortwe, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal group size is hard to obtain in small group settings; hence there are groups with more members than others. The purpose of the study was to find out whether group size has any effects on students' mathematics achievement in small group settings. Two third year classes of the 2011/2012 academic year were selected from two schools in the…

  14. Effect of Pullout Lessons on the Academic Achievement of Eighth-Grade Band Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hash, Phillip M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of pullout instrumental lessons on the academic achievement of eighth-grade band students. Participants (N = 353) included 292 nonband students and 61 band students pulled once per week for music lessons in a single suburban K-8 school district in Midwestern United States. Data indicated that eighth-grade band…

  15. The Effect of Mobile Learning on Students' Achievement and Conversational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfeky, Abdellah Ibrahim Mohammed; Masadeh, Thouqan Saleem Yakoub

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of Mobile Learning, which is a kind of E-learning that uses mobile devices, on the development of the academic achievement and conversational skills of English language specialty students at Najran University. The study used the quasi-experimental approach. Participants consisted of (50) students who…

  16. Instructional Effects of Three Concept Mapping Strategies in Facilitating Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Charles Xiaoxue; Dwyer, Francis M.

    2006-01-01

    This study identifies the variables in construction of concept maps and purposefully tests the instructional effects of concept mapping in facilitating student achievement when those identified variables are manipulated. Concept map development consists of three important elements: the concepts, propositions and its hierarchical structure. A total…

  17. The Effect of Peer-Based Instruction on Rhythm Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of peer-based instruction on rhythm reading achievement of instrumental and choral music students attending a large urbanfringe high school in a major metropolitan area. Participants (N = 131) included band (n = 71) and choir (n = 60) students whose backgrounds reflected extensive economic (78%…

  18. Teacher Attitudes toward Dyslexia: Effects on Teacher Expectations and the Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstra, Lisette; Denessen, Eddie; Bakker, Joep; van den Bergh, Linda; Voeten, Marinus

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined teacher attitudes toward dyslexia and the effects of these attitudes on teacher expectations and the academic achievement of students with dyslexia compared to students without learning disabilities. The attitudes of 30 regular education teachers toward dyslexia were determined using both an implicit measure and an…

  19. An Examination of Effective Practice: Moving toward Elimination of Achievement Gaps in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla C.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study of middle school science teachers explored the relationship between effective science instruction, as defined by the National Science Education Standards (NRC in National science education standards. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1996), and student achievement in science. Eleven teachers participated in a three…

  20. Multilevel Effects of Student and Classroom Factors on Elementary Science Achievement in Five Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Sibel; Rice, Diana C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual student factors and classroom factors on elementary science achievement within and across five countries. The student-level factors included gender, self-confidence in science and home resources. The classroom-level factors included teacher characteristics, instructional variables and classroom…

  1. Effect of Learning Cycle Approach-Based Science Teaching on Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…

  2. Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback…

  3. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  4. Summary of Effects of Biological Factors on Sex-Related Differences in Mathematics Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Julia

    Critically reviewed evidence relevant to hypotheses of biological sources of sex-related cognitive differences as they relate to mathematics achievement include the following: explanations based on the assumption of greater variability in male cognitive performance; sex-related differences in serum urate; effects of estrogens compared to androgens…

  5. Type A Behavior and Marital Satisfaction: Differential Effects of Achievement Striving and Impatience/Irritability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacEwen, Karyl; Barling, Julian

    1993-01-01

    Examined how dimensions of Type A behavior exert different effects on marital relationship. Findings from 200 couples are consistent with view that Type A behavior should be divided into at least 2 components, and that it is Impatience/Irritability dimension rather than achievement-oriented or job-involved dimension that exerts detrimental effects…

  6. The Effects of School Wide Bonuses on Student Achievement: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the incentive effects of North Carolina's practice of awarding performance bonuses on test score achievement on the state tests. Bonuses were awarded based solely on whether a school exceeds a threshold on a continuous performance metric. The study uses a sharp regression discontinuity design, an approach with strong internal…

  7. Mitigating Disadvantage: Effects of Small-Scale Schooling on Student Achievement in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Gary; Howley, Craig

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of data from the 1989 Alaska Statewide Student Testing Program for grades four, six, and eight shows that, given similar school resources, school climate, and student academic background, the negative effect of a disadvantaged background on student achievement was significantly less in small than in medium or large schools. (KS)

  8. Concept Mapping Effects on Science Content Comprehension of Low-Achieving Inner-City Seventh Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guastello, E. Francine; Beasley, T. Mark; Sinatra, Richard C.

    2000-01-01

    Low-achieving seventh-grade students were assigned to two science intervention groups, a read-and-discuss teacher-directed method group and a group in which a model of concept mapping that connected major and minor concepts followed the lesson. Results indicate that using graphic representations was more effective than the traditional approach.…

  9. Effects of Graphic Organiser on Students' Achievement in Algebraic Word Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Josiah; Adaramati, Tobiloba Faith

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of graphic organiser and gender on students' academic achievement in algebraic word problem. Three research questions and three null hypotheses were used in guiding this study. Quasi experimental research was employed and Non-equivalent pre and post test design was used. The study involved the Senior Secondary…

  10. Effects of School Characteristics upon Achievement Test Scores in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr.

    The effects of school characteristics upon achievement test scores in New York State were studied. Data, composed of the 1975-76 Consolidated Data Base and Finance Tapes for all 705 school districts in the state, were supplied by the New York State Department of Education. Among the 24 variables of interest were: state pupil evaluation tests of…

  11. Test Language Effect in International Achievement Comparisons: An Example from PISA 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2014-01-01

    International achievement comparison studies assess students on core subjects such as Reading, Mathematics and Science. Students who do not speak the test language at home can be expected to be disadvantaged because of language proficiency. The test language effect has not been given sufficient attention. The present study investigated probable…

  12. The Effect of School-Specific Parenting Processes on Academic Achievement in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Mellissa S.; Cui, Ming

    2012-01-01

    There is inconsistency in the current literature regarding the association between dimensions of parenting processes and academic achievement for adolescents. Further, few studies have extended such an association into young adulthood. In this study, we examined the effect of three dimensions of parenting processes, including school-specific…

  13. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Effects of Welfare Policies on Early School Readiness and Later Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Gassman-Pines, Anna; Morris, Pamela A.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Godfrey, Erin B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of employment-based policies on children's math and reading achievement differed for African American, Latino and Caucasian children of welfare receiving parents, and if so, why. Two kinds of employment policies were examined: "education-first" programs with an emphasis on adult education and job training;…

  14. The Effects of Using PBWorks in a Hybrid Collaborative Class Environment on Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Abdullah Y. A. A. A.

    2011-01-01

    E-learning plays an important role in higher education, especially with the appearance of web 2.0. The study investigated the effects of using PBWorks, as a free web 2.0 wiki, on students' academic achievement, and students' attitudes toward collaborative learning. The study was designed as an experimental study. There was comparison between two…

  15. The Effect of Graphical Representation on the Learner's Learning Interest and Achievement in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sanghoon; Lim, Jung

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of different types of visual illustrations on learner's learning interest, motivation and achievement, especially in multimedia learning. The participants were drawn from two classes of an "Introduction to Educational Technology" course and randomly assigned to one of the three treatments:…

  16. The Effectiveness of Education Technology for Enhancing Reading Achievement: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    The present review examines research on the effects of technology use on reading achievement in K-12 classrooms. Unlike previous reviews, this review applies consistent inclusion standards to focus on studies that met high methodological standards. In addition, methodological and substantive features of the studies are investigated to examine the…

  17. Low (Linear) Teacher Effect on Student Achievement in Pre-Academic Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottaar, Alice

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of physics education on students' achievement in a large-scale quantitative study of pre-academic high school students throughout the Netherlands. Two aspects of teacher characteristics as perceived by their students are included: "pleasantness" principally defined by their perceived friendliness and positive…

  18. The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karsten; Heckman, James J.; Mullen, Kathleen J.

    This study developed two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. The methods were applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in…

  19. Effects of Autonomy Supportive vs. Controlling Teachers' Behavior on Students' Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferber, Natalia; Eckes, Alexander; Wilde, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Grolnick and Ryan (1987) assume that an autonomy supportive environment leads to higher learner engagement and thus to greater achievements and deeper understanding of content. In school, knowledge acquisition (rote learning as well as conceptual learning) are regarded as most important. In this study, we examined the effects of teachers' autonomy…

  20. The Effects of an ICT-Based Reading Intervention on Students' Achievement in Grade Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Deborah; Chambers, Alex; Mather, Nancy; Bauschatz, Retina; Bauer, Meredyth; Doan, Lesli

    2016-01-01

    A controlled quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the use of MindPlay Virtual Reading Coach on participants' reading and spelling achievement. After attrition, participants included 170 students enrolled in eight second-grade classrooms (four classrooms in each school) in two public elementary schools in the southwestern…

  1. The Effect of Web-Based Portfolio Use on Academic Achievement and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzeller, Cem Oktay

    2012-01-01

    The web-based portfolio emerged as a result of the influence of technological developments on educational practices. In this study, the effect of the web-based portfolio building process on academic achievement and retention is explored. For this purpose, a study platform known as a computer-assisted personal development portfolio was designed for…

  2. Effects of Concept Mapping Instruction Approach on Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogonnaya, Ukpai Patricia; Okafor, Gabriel; Abonyi, Okechukwu S.; Ugama, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of concept mapping on students' achievement in basic science. The study was carried out in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Specifically the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group research design was used. The sample was 122 students selected from two secondary…

  3. Effect of Three Instructional Strategies on Students' Attitudes and Cognitive Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Dennis R.; Purohit, Anal

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different instructional strategies upon the attitudes and cognitive achievement of nursing students. The major conclusions were: (a) fewer students were manifesting philosophies supportive of independent study strategies, and (b) significant interaction between students' attitudes,…

  4. The Effective Behaviors and Practices of Administrators in Urban Charter Schools Relating to Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwell, Prima N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to analyze and identify the leadership styles that directly influence student achievement that were used by the school leaders sustaining the schools. A basic qualitative research study was appropriate to acknowledge the leadership style of the principal in demonstrating effective practices that link…

  5. Effects of the "Auditory Discrimination in Depth Program" on Auditory Conceptualization and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Timothy Gerald

    Statistically significant differences were not found between the treatment and non-treatment groups in a study designed to investigate the effectiveness of the Auditory Discrimination in Depth (A.D.D.) Program. The treatment group involved thirty-nine normally achieving and educationally handicapped students who were given the A.D.D. Program…

  6. Effects of Modality and Pace on Achievement, Mental Effort, and Positive Affect in Multimedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izmirli, Serkan; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of instruction given with different multimedia modalities (written text + animation or narration + animation) on the academic achievement, cognitive load, and positive affect in different paces (learner-paced or system-paced); 97 freshmen university students divided into four groups taught in…

  7. The Effects of Using an Interactive Whiteboard on the Academic Achievement of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbas, Oktay; Pektas, Huseyin Mirac

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the use of an interactive whiteboard on the academic achievement of university students on the topic of electricity in a science and technology laboratory class. The study was designed as a pretest/posttest control group experimental study. Mean, standard deviation and t- tests were used for…

  8. Effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Used data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey to study the effects of remarriage following divorce on children's academic achievement. Results indicate that children from reconstituted families score no higher, and often lower than children of divorce from single-parent families. (SLD)

  9. The Effect of Creative Drama on Student Achievement in the Course of Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özek, Müzeyyen Bulut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of creative drama on student achievement in the Information Technologies course. The study was carried out for the unit "Tomorrow's Technology" which is the first unit of Information Technologies course. For this study, 89 sixth grade students were selected from primary school in…

  10. Examining the Effect of Academic Procrastination on Achievement Using LMS Data in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of academic procrastination on e-learning course achievement. Because all of the interactions among students, instructors, and contents in an e-learning environment were automatically recorded in a learning management system (LMS), procrastination such as the delays in weekly scheduled learning and late…

  11. Perceptions of Achievement: The Effects of Gender, School Type, and Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornholt, Laurel J.; And Others

    To investigate factors which influence achievement self-concepts, students in grades 7 to 10 at three schools were asked to estimate their performance following standardized tests in mathematics and English. Two of the schools were single-sex and one was co-ed. Analyses dealt primarily with the effects of gender, grade, school type, and school…

  12. Effects of a Language Arts Service-Learning Project on Sixth-Grade Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001 created new instructional intervention practices, reading and writing scores across K-12 and postsecondary levels continue to reflect stagnant achievement outcomes. The research questions in this study concerned the effect of a northern Michigan middle school language arts…

  13. Peer Effects in Urban Schools: Assessing the Impact of Classroom Composition on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of classroom peers on standardized testing achievement for all third- and fourth-grade students in the Philadelphia School District over 6 school years. With a comprehensive individual-and multilevel data set of all students matched to teachers, classrooms, and schools, two empirical strategies are employed. The…

  14. The Effects of Learning Strategies on Mathematical Literacy: A Comparison between Lower and Higher Achieving Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magen-Nagar, Noga

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the effects of learning strategies on Mathematical Literacy (ML) of students in higher and lower achieving countries. To address this issue, the study utilizes PISA2002 data to conduct a multi-level analysis (HLM) of Hong Kong and Israel students. In PISA2002, Israel was rated 31st in Mathematics,…

  15. Instruction of Statistics via Computer-Based Tools: Effects on Statistics' Anxiety, Attitude, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciftci, S. Koza; Karadag, Engin; Akdal, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of statistics instruction using computer-based tools, on statistics anxiety, attitude, and achievement. This study was designed as quasi-experimental research and the pattern used was a matched pre-test/post-test with control group design. Data was collected using three scales: a Statistics…

  16. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  17. Effectiveness of Explicit and Constructivist Mathematics Instruction for Low-Achieving Students in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E.H.; Maas, Cora J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we compared the effects of smallgroup constructivist and explicit mathematics instruction in basic multiplication on low-achieving students' performance and motivation. A total of 265 students (aged 8-11 years) from 13 general and 11 special elementary schools for students with learning and/or behavior disorders participated in the…

  18. The Effects of Modeling Instruction on High School Physics Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffanie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether Modeling Instruction, compared to traditional lecturing, is an effective instructional method to promote academic achievement in selected high school physics classes at a rural middle Tennessee high school. This study used an "ex post facto," quasi-experimental research methodology. The…

  19. Effectiveness of a Metacognitive Reading Strategies Program for Improving Low Achieving EFL Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Nasrah Mahmoud; Tawalbeh, Tha'er Issa

    2015-01-01

    As the training of language learners was a main concern of EFL teachers, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of metacognitive reading strategies instruction (MRSI) on Taif University EFL students who achieved low results in reading. The final sample of this study was (21) female university students. The sample was divided into two groups;…

  20. Effect of Self Regulated Learning Approach on Junior Secondary School Students' Achievement in Basic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwafor, Chika E.; Obodo, Abigail Chikaodinaka; Okafor, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the effect of self-regulated learning approach on junior secondary school students' achievement in basic science. Quasi-experimental design was used for the study.Two co-educational schools were drawn for the study through simple random sampling technique. One school was assigned to the treatment group while the other was…