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Sample records for achieve training outcomes

  1. Achieving Human Service Outcomes Through Competency-Based Training: A Guide for Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardi, Joseph N.

    2005-01-01

    During the past three decades, empirically supported strategies have been demonstrated for the training of competencies - highly specific skills and behaviors that are needed to complete a critical job task. The present article reviews several examples of competency-based training in human service programs and provides guidelines for the…

  2. Measurement of Training Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Nicholas A., Jr.; Rigney, Joseph W.

    Measurement of training outcomes is a requirement for evaluating new training techniques, but is one that is different to meet. Managers of education and training may have different concepts of what they want, as favorable outcomes, than do the investigators doing the research. Classical statistical and experimental designs assume laboratory rigor…

  3. Achieving Equitable Outcomes. A Supporting Paper to Australia's National Strategy for Vocational Education and Training, 1998-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    This paper is one of five supporting papers to "A Bridge to the Future: Australia's National Strategy for VET 1998-2003" (ED 420 764). Although some equity client groups in Australia are now relatively well represented in vocational education and training (VET), patterns of enrollment and achievement are not uniform. To respond to this situation…

  4. Music training and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Cheek, J M; Smith, L R

    1999-01-01

    Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) mathematics scores of eighth graders who had received music instruction were compared according to whether the students were given private lessons. Comparisons also were made between students whose lessons were on the keyboard versus other music lessons. Analyses indicated that students who had private lessons for two or more years performed significantly better on the composite mathematics portion of the ITBS than did students who did not have private lessons. In addition, students who received lessons on the keyboard had significantly higher ITBS mathematics scores than did students whose lessons did not involve the keyboard. These results are discussed in relation to previous research on music training and mathematics achievement.

  5. The Mediating Role of Attribution and Self-Efficacy Variables for Treatment Effects on Achievement Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relich, Joseph D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This experiment explored the mediating functions of attributional and self-efficacy variables on achievement outcomes for skill training treatments offered in conjunction with attributional feedback. Children who were identified as learned helpless and deficient in division skills received training on division operations either through modeling…

  6. Critical pathways: effectiveness in achieving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ireson, C L

    1997-06-01

    Refining the clinical care process to produce high-quality patient outcomes is becoming increasingly important as health care administrators strive for success in a mature managed care environment. This study examines the effect of structuring interventions and the evaluation of patient response, inherent in the critical pathway process, on clinical, length-of-hospital-stay, and financial patient outcomes. This study differs from previous critical pathway trials in that an objective measure of quality was used and the critical pathways were not introduced concurrently with a case management delivery model. The results show that critical pathways may be a significant determinant of improved quality in a managed care environment. The findings also suggest ways to improve nursing practice, nursing education, and nursing informatics.

  7. Digital skills training in care homes: achievement.

    PubMed

    Wild, Deidre; Kydd, Angela

    2016-05-27

    This article describes digital skills training (DST) for staff and later, residents, as part of a programme of culture change in a large care home with nursing in Glasgow. It presents the successes and challenges arising from DST from the perspectives of the two volunteer information technology (IT) champions (Thomas Sloan and John Thomson), who were also staff members. Using their written reports, questionnaires and subsequent conversations, the IT champions recall the challenges and gains for staff and residents as a result of their initial training. This is supplemented by a follow-up on IT activities in the 18 months after the introduction period. PMID:27231084

  8. Digital skills training in care homes: achievement.

    PubMed

    Wild, Deidre; Kydd, Angela

    2016-05-27

    This article describes digital skills training (DST) for staff and later, residents, as part of a programme of culture change in a large care home with nursing in Glasgow. It presents the successes and challenges arising from DST from the perspectives of the two volunteer information technology (IT) champions (Thomas Sloan and John Thomson), who were also staff members. Using their written reports, questionnaires and subsequent conversations, the IT champions recall the challenges and gains for staff and residents as a result of their initial training. This is supplemented by a follow-up on IT activities in the 18 months after the introduction period.

  9. How Much Can Spatial Training Improve STEM Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieff, Mike; Uttal, David

    2015-01-01

    Spatial training has been indicated as a possible solution for improving Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) achievement and degree attainment. Advocates for this approach have noted that the correlation between spatial ability and several measures of STEM achievement suggests that spatial training should focus on improving…

  10. An Evaluation of Training for Lay Providers in the Use of Motivational Interviewing to Promote Academic Achievement among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a motivational interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban, low-income minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of workshop training in MI. Additionally, two 2-hour…

  11. An Examination of English Language Proficiency and Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojica, Tammy C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the relationship between grade eight English language proficiency as measured by the ACCESS for ELL's assessment (Assessing Comprehension and Communication in English State to State for English Language Learners) and achievement test outcomes on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment, a state mandated…

  12. The Effectiveness of CASAs in Achieving Positive Outcomes for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litzelfelner, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of court-appointed special advocates (CASAs) in achieving positive outcomes for children in the child welfare system, using data from court and CASA program files on 200 children. Found that CASAs may have reduced the number of placements and court continuances children experienced. More services were provided to children…

  13. Motivational Climates, Achievement Goals, and Physical Education Outcomes: A Longitudinal Test of Achievement Goal Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2011-01-01

    The present research tested the longitudinal relations over a school-year between motivational climates, achievement goals, and five physical education outcomes, namely intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, positive attitude, exertion, and attendance in physical education. The results showed that students' mastery goals measured early in the…

  14. Effects of Psychotherapy Training and Intervention Use on Session Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, James F.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Wasserman, Rachel H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was an investigation of the relationships among therapist training variables, psychotherapy process, and session outcome in a psychotherapy training clinic. The aims were to assess the relationship between "training as usual" and intervention use in individual psychotherapy, to investigate the relationship between therapist…

  15. SOARing Into Strategic Planning: Engaging Nurses to Achieve Significant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Barbara; Felton, Fiona; Linus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a new system chief nursing officer engaged the nursing leaders and staff in an Appreciative Inquiry process utilizing strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR), and a Journey of Excellence to assess and understand the current environment. The ultimate goal was to engage all nurses in strategic planning and goal setting to connect their patient care to the system strategic initiatives. This work led to the creation of a nursing vision, a revised professional practice model and greater council alignment, resulting in significant positive change and ongoing advancement throughout the system. The shared decision-making structure was key to the process with a direct connection of each council's goals, leading to the successful achievement of 34 of the 36 goals in 2 years. This article outlines the process, tools, and staff engagement strategies used to achieve system-wide success. This methodology has improved the outcomes across the organization in both small and system-wide work groups. This work can easily be replicated and adapted to help disparate staffs brought together through mergers or acquisitions to become aligned as a new team. This process, model, and framework, provides structure and results in significant outcomes that recognizes and celebrates the work of individual entities while aligning future strategies and goals.

  16. SOARing Into Strategic Planning: Engaging Nurses to Achieve Significant Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Barbara; Felton, Fiona; Linus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a new system chief nursing officer engaged the nursing leaders and staff in an Appreciative Inquiry process utilizing strengths, opportunities, aspirations, and results (SOAR), and a Journey of Excellence to assess and understand the current environment. The ultimate goal was to engage all nurses in strategic planning and goal setting to connect their patient care to the system strategic initiatives. This work led to the creation of a nursing vision, a revised professional practice model and greater council alignment, resulting in significant positive change and ongoing advancement throughout the system. The shared decision-making structure was key to the process with a direct connection of each council's goals, leading to the successful achievement of 34 of the 36 goals in 2 years. This article outlines the process, tools, and staff engagement strategies used to achieve system-wide success. This methodology has improved the outcomes across the organization in both small and system-wide work groups. This work can easily be replicated and adapted to help disparate staffs brought together through mergers or acquisitions to become aligned as a new team. This process, model, and framework, provides structure and results in significant outcomes that recognizes and celebrates the work of individual entities while aligning future strategies and goals. PMID:27584888

  17. Social–Emotional Factors Affecting Achievement Outcomes Among Disadvantaged Students: Closing the Achievement Gap

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite concentrated efforts at improving inferior academic outcomes among disadvantaged students, a substantial achievement gap between the test scores of these students and others remains (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; National Center for Education Statistics, 2000a, 2000b; Valencia & Suzuki, 2000). Existing research used ecological models to document social–emotional factors at multiple levels of influence that undermine academic performance. This article integrates ideas from various perspectives in a comprehensive and interdisciplinary model that will inform policy makers, administrators, and schools about the social–emotional factors that act as both risk and protective factors for disadvantaged students’ learning and opportunities for academic success. Four critical social–emotional components that influence achievement performance (academic and school attachment, teacher support, peer values, and mental health) are reviewed. PMID:23255834

  18. Clinical Outcome Metrics for Optimization of Robust Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, Doug; Byrne, Vicky; Cole, Richard; Dulchavsky, Scott; Foy, Millennia; Garcia, Kathleen; Gibson, Robert; Ham, David; Hurst, Victor; Kerstman, Eric; McGuire, Kerry; Sargsyan, Ashot

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop and use clinical outcome metrics and training tools to quantify the differences in performance of a physician vs non-physician crew medical officer (CMO) analogues during simulations.

  19. Outcomes of crew resource management training.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, R L; Wilhelm, J A

    1991-01-01

    Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that crew resource management training is favorably received and causes highly significant, positive changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants reacted negatively to the training and showed boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and of the magnitude and direction of attitude change. Implications of these findings for organizations desiring to enhance crew effectiveness are discussed, and areas of needed additional research are described.

  20. Outcomes of crew resource management training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that crew resource management training is favorably received and causes highly significant, positive changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants reacted negatively to the training and showed boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and of the magnitude and direction of attitude changes. Implications of these findings for organizations desiring to enhance crew effectiveness are discussed, and areas of needed additional research are described.

  1. Summary of Outcome Evaluation Report for Preparing Educational Training Consultants: Skills Training (PETC-1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Catherine; Green, David

    This report summarizes the technical report Outcome Evaluation Report for Preparing Educational Training Consultants: Skills Training (PETC-I) which presents the data collected about the three outcome studies of the PETC-I system. This information is primarily summative in nature and is designed to help those who may be considering the system as a…

  2. TEACH (Train to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maulitz, Russell; Santarelli, Thomas; Barnieu, Joanne; Rosenzweig, Larry; Yi, Na Yi; Zachary, Wayne; OConnor, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    Personnel from diverse ethnic and demographic backgrounds come together in both civilian and military healthcare systems, facing diagnoses that at one level are equalizers: coronary disease is coronary disease, breast cancer is breast cancer. Yet the expression of disease in individuals from different backgrounds, individual patient experience of disease as a particular illness, and interactions between patients and providers occurring in any given disease scenario, all vary enormously depending on the fortuity of the equation of "which patient happens to arrive in whose exam room." Previously, providers' absorption of lessons-learned depended on learning as an apprentice would when exposed over time to multiple populations. As a result, and because providers are often thrown into situations where communications falter through inadequate direct patient experience, diversity in medicine remains a training challenge. The questions then become: Can simulation and virtual training environments (VTEs) be deployed to short-track and standardize this sort of random-walk problem? Can we overcome the unevenness of training caused by some providers obtaining the valuable exposure to diverse populations, whereas others are left to "sink or swim"? This paper summarizes developing a computer-based VTE called TEACH (Training to Enable/Achieve Culturally Sensitive Healthcare). TEACH was developed to enhance healthcare providers' skills in delivering culturally sensitive care to African-American women with breast cancer. With an authoring system under development to ensure extensibility, TEACH allows users to role-play in clinical oncology settings with virtual characters who interact on the basis of different combinations of African American sub-cultural beliefs regarding breast cancer. The paper reports on the roll-out and evaluation of the degree to which these interactions allow providers to acquire, practice, and refine culturally appropriate communication skills and to

  3. Organisational and Training Factors Affecting Academic Teacher Training Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renta-Davids, Ana-Inés; Jiménez-González, José-Miguel; Fandos-Garrido, Manel; González-Soto, Ángel-Pío

    2016-01-01

    University teacher training has become an important topic in recent years due to the curricular and methodological reforms introduced by the Bologna process. Despite its acknowledged importance, evaluations have been limited to measures of participants' satisfaction, and little is known about its impact on teaching practices. This study seeks to…

  4. Clinical Outcome Metrics for Optimization of Robust Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, D.; Byrne, V. E.; McGuire, K. M.; Hurst, V. W., IV; Kerstman, E. L.; Cole, R. W.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Garcia, K. M.; Reyes, D.; Young, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The emphasis of this research is on the Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability's (ExMC) "Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-Flight Medical Capabilities." Specifically, this project aims to contribute to the closure of gap ExMC 2.02: We do not know how the inclusion of a physician crew medical officer quantitatively impacts clinical outcomes during exploration missions. The experiments are specifically designed to address clinical outcome differences between physician and non-physician cohorts in both near-term and longer-term (mission impacting) outcomes. Methods: Medical simulations will systematically compare success of individual diagnostic and therapeutic procedure simulations performed by physician and non-physician crew medical officer (CMO) analogs using clearly defined short-term (individual procedure) outcome metrics. In the subsequent step of the project, the procedure simulation outcomes will be used as input to a modified version of the NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) to analyze the effect of the outcome (degree of success) of individual procedures (including successful, imperfectly performed, and failed procedures) on overall long-term clinical outcomes and the consequent mission impacts. The procedures to be simulated are endotracheal intubation, fundoscopic examination, kidney/urinary ultrasound, ultrasound-guided intravenous catheter insertion, and a differential diagnosis exercise. Multiple assessment techniques will be used, centered on medical procedure simulation studies occurring at 3, 6, and 12 months after initial training (as depicted in the following flow diagram of the experiment design). Discussion: Analysis of procedure outcomes in the physician and non-physician groups and their subsets (tested at different elapsed times post training) will allow the team to 1) define differences between physician and non-physician CMOs in terms of both procedure performance

  5. Mobility Outcomes Following Five Training Sessions with a Powered Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Dalley, Skyler; Clausen, Mike; Wilson, Edgar; Morrison, Scott; Etheridge, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background: Loss of legged mobility due to spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with multiple physiological and psychological impacts. Powered exoskeletons offer the possibility of regained mobility and reversal or prevention of the secondary effects associated with immobility. Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate mobility outcomes for individuals with SCI after 5 gait-training sessions with a powered exoskeleton, with a primary goal of characterizing the ease of learning and usability of the system. Methods: Sixteen subjects with SCI were enrolled in a pilot clinical trial at Shepherd Center, Atlanta, Georgia, with injury levels ranging from C5 complete to L1 incomplete. An investigational Indego exoskeleton research kit was evaluated for ease of use and efficacy in providing legged mobility. Outcome measures of the study included the 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) as well as measures of independence including donning and doffing times and the ability to walk on various surfaces. Results: At the end of 5 sessions (1.5 hours per session), average walking speed was 0.22 m/s for persons with C5-6 motor complete tetraplegia, 0.26 m/s for T1-8 motor complete paraplegia, and 0.45 m/s for T9-L1 paraplegia. Distances covered in 6 minutes averaged 64 meters for those with C5-6, 74 meters for T1-8, and 121 meters for T9-L1. Additionally, all participants were able to walk on both indoor and outdoor surfaces. Conclusions: Results after only 5 sessions suggest that persons with tetraplegia and paraplegia learn to use the Indego exoskeleton quickly and can manage a variety of surfaces. Walking speeds and distances achieved also indicate that some individuals with paraplegia can quickly become limited community ambulators using this system. PMID:26364278

  6. Secondary Student Motivation Orientations and Standards-Based Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Walkey, Frank; Weir, Kirsty F.; McKenzie, Lynanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individual student characteristics such as competence motivation, achievement values, and goal orientations have been related in meaningful ways to task attainment. The standards-based National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) was developed in New Zealand with the intention of strengthening connections between student…

  7. Student Achievement Outcomes Comprehensive School Reform: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a third-party study of the student achievement effects of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform (CSR). The design was a quasiexperimental, pre-post matched sample (N = 180) with school as unit of analysis, drawing on 3 years of achievement data from standardized external assessments.…

  8. Longitudinal Outcomes for Mathematics Achievement for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Sharon; Watson, Silvana M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the first 6 waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the authors examined mathematics achievement and growth trajectories by learning disability (LD) subgroups. The 2-level (time-student) growth curve model showed that lower levels of mathematics achievement were already evident at…

  9. Outcome Similarity Modulates Retroactive Interference between Cues Trained Apart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineno, Oskar; Matute, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Retroactive interference between cues trained apart has been regarded as an effect that occurs because the target and interfering associations share a common outcome. Although this view is consistent with evidence in the verbal learning tradition (Underwood, 1966) and, more recently, in predictive learning with humans (Pineno & Matute, 2000),…

  10. Predicting Outcome in Behavioral Parent Training: Expected and Unexpected Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Elizabeth P.; Fite, Paula J.; Bates, John E.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among clinical utility and treatment outcome variables in Behavioral Parent Training (BPT). The sample included 21 mothers with 3-8 year-old children with significant externalizing behavior problems who received treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder. The primary aim was to relate two treatment…

  11. Improving Student Achievement: A Study of High-Poverty Schools with Higher Student Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This research examined the education system at high-poverty schools that had significantly higher student achievement levels as compared to similar schools with lower student achievement levels. A multischool qualitative case study was conducted of the educational systems where there was a significant difference in the scores achieved on the…

  12. Training School Counselors to Close the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartline, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of a training provided to school counselors on the implementation of comprehensive school counseling programs based on the ASCA National Model was examined. The data analyzed were the closing the gap summary results reports submitted following training. The reports were used to determine whether those trained could design,…

  13. Achievement Motivation and Outcome in Social Work Field Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Anne E.; Lee, Mingun; Cavazos, Alonzo

    2005-01-01

    For this study, 188 students from 4 social work programs completed a questionnaire about their motivation and performance in field practicum. Achievement motivation included task value, intrinsic motivation, perception of task difficulty, confidence, and self-efficacy. Students were more satisfied with field education and rated their social work…

  14. Achieving competence in colonoscopy: Milestones and the need for a new endoscopic curriculum in gastroenterology training

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Sara B; Lee, Stephanie; Masaquel, Candace; Lee, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Colonoscopy is considered to be the most effective tool for reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality. As a result, certifying trainee competence in the performance of colonoscopy is critical to maximizing CRC screening and prevention efforts. Guidelines on training and accreditation around the world have been revised to emphasize the attainment of milestones in the technical and cognitive skills necessary to perform the procedure. To meet this challenge, new evaluation systems have been developed to measure trainee competence through all aspects of colonoscopy training. These changes stem from increased recognition that procedural numbers alone do not necessarily guarantee trainees’ proficiency in the performance of colonoscopy. Variability in endoscopic practice and in CRC screening outcomes also point to deficiencies in the current approach towards colonoscopy instruction. However, technological innovations hold great promise in training endoscopists to perform high quality colonoscopy. Furthermore, potential advances in the use of feedback as a training tool provide new avenues for research. This review summarizes the latest evidence on the effort to define, evaluate and promote the achievement of competence in colonoscopy among trainees. PMID:26675559

  15. The Role of Achievement Motivations and Achievement Goals in Taiwanese College Students' Cognitive and Psychological Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen; Lu, Luo

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how motivational factors are associated with Taiwanese college students' cognitive, personal, and social development by incorporating both relatively global, static self-attributes, such as social-oriented achievement motivation and individual-oriented achievement motivation, which are considered to be culturally balanced…

  16. Connecting Social Disorganization Theory to African-American Outcomes to Explain the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madyun, Na'im H.

    2011-01-01

    African-American student achievement outcomes have been and continue to be a critical concern for education researchers. Much of the framing of African-American student outcomes centers on what is known as achievement gaps that exist between African-American and White students. Unfortunately, these gaps have remained roughly the same since the…

  17. Identifying Pedagogy and Teaching Strategies for Achieving Nationally Prescribed Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, Clare; Kosta, Lauren; Ewen, Shaun; Nicholson, Patricia; Remedios, Louisa; Harms, Louise

    2016-01-01

    With the globalisation of university education, national frameworks are commonly used to prescribe standardised learning outcomes and achieve accountability. However, these frameworks are generally not accompanied by guiding pedagogy to support academics in adjusting their teaching practices to achieve the set outcomes. This paper reports the…

  18. [Challenges and Outcomes of the Process for Achieving Certification].

    PubMed

    Kadosaka, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Reiko; Yoshika, Masamichi; Tsuta, Koji

    2016-02-01

    Clinical laboratory tests have been indispensable for medical services in recent years, and such a situation is associated with the offering of accurate test results by clinical laboratory units. A large number of facilities wishing to achieve ISO 15189 Certification follow preparatory procedures with support from consulting companies. However, in our facility, a limited budget did not allow us to use such services. As a solution, we participated in the Future Lab Session in OSAKA (FLS), a support group for the achievement of ISO 15189 Certification, when it was organized. Aiming to extensively cover and fulfill its responsibility for all processes, including clinical interpretations of the results obtained through patient preparation, in order to continuously offer high-quality test results to clinicians, our clinical laboratory unit underwent examination for certification, and consequently realized the necessity of third-party evaluation. The provision of laboratory services, fully complying with these standards, contributes to medical safety, in addition to accuracy improvement. Although the certification and its maintenance are costly, it is sufficiently cost-effective to achieve it, when focusing on improved efficiency and the enhanced quality and safety of medical services after work standardization. PMID:27311281

  19. Impact of Teacher Use of Time Training on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thieme-Busch, Carolyn A.; Prom, Sukai E.

    A study evaluated an adaption of the Stallings Process of Teaching Reading in Secondary Schools in a large urban public school system. This inservice training program is designed to increase teachers' effective use of time. The program is composed of pre-training observations and resulting feedback on needed improvements in classroom behavior,…

  20. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  1. Replacing underperforming protected areas achieves better conservation outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Grantham, Hedley S; Watson, James E M; Klein, Carissa J; Green, David C; Possingham, Hugh P

    2010-07-15

    Protected areas vary enormously in their contribution to conserving biodiversity, and the inefficiency of protected area systems is widely acknowledged. However, conservation plans focus overwhelmingly on adding new sites to current protected area estates. Here we show that the conservation performance of a protected area system can be radically improved, without extra expenditure, by replacing a small number of protected areas with new ones that achieve more for conservation. Replacing the least cost-effective 1% of Australia's 6,990 strictly protected areas could increase the number of vegetation types that have 15% or more of their original extent protected from 18 to 54, of a maximum possible of 58. Moreover, it increases markedly the area that can be protected, with no increase in overall spending. This new paradigm for protected area system expansion could yield huge improvements to global conservation at a time when competition for land is increasingly intense.

  2. Could training executive function improve treatment outcomes for eating disorders?☆

    PubMed Central

    Juarascio, Adrienne S.; Manasse, Stephanie M.; Espel, Hallie M.; Kerrigan, Stephanie G.; Forman, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    Current gold standard treatments for eating disorders (EDs) lack satisfactory efficacy, and traditional psychological treatments do not directly address executive functioning deficits underpinning ED pathology. The goal of this paper is to explore the potential for enhancing ED treatment outcomes by improving executive functioning deficits that have been demonstrated to underlie eating pathology. To achieve our objective, we (1) review existing evidence for executive functioning deficits that underpin EDs and consider the extent to which these deficits could be targeted in neurocognitive training programs, (2) present the evidence for the one ED neurocognitive training program well-studied to date (Cognitive Remediation Therapy), (3) discuss the utility of neurocognitive training programs that have been developed for other psychiatric disorders with similar deficits, and (4) provide suggestions for the future development and research of neurocognitive training programs for EDs. Despite the fact that the body of empirical work on neurocognitive training programs for eating disorders is very small, we conclude that their potential is high given the combined evidence for the role of deficits in executive functioning in EDs, the initial promise of Cognitive Remediation Training, and the success in treating related conditions with neurocognitive training. Based on the evidence to date, it appears that the development and empirical evaluation of neurocognitive training programs for EDs is warranted. PMID:25777264

  3. Effects of Relaxation and EMG Training on Academic Achievement of Educable Retarded Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, John L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Eight educable mentally retarded boys who participated in a ten-week electromyographic biofeedback training evidenced significant gains in cognition, reading achievement, coordination, memory, and handwriting. (CL)

  4. Getting to Outcomes: A Best Practice Process to Help Schools Achieve Desired Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Melissa A.; Wandersman, Abe; Splett, Joni Williams; Flaspohler, Paul; Weist, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Getting to Outcomes (GTO), a 10-step framework for accountability designed to facilitate effective implementation of evidence-based programs and improvement of home-grown practices (Getting to Outcomes and GTO are trademarks registered by the University of South Carolina and RAND; Wandersman, Imm, Chinman, & Kaftarian, 1999,…

  5. Boredom in Achievement Settings: Exploring Control-Value Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of a Neglected Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Daniels, Lia M.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.

    2010-01-01

    The linkages of achievement-related boredom with students' appraisals and performance outcomes were examined in a series of 5 exploratory, cross-sectional, and predictive investigations. Studies 1 and 2 assessed students' boredom in a single achievement episode (i.e., state achievement boredom); Studies 3, 4, and 5 focused on their habitual…

  6. Alternative Routes to Teaching: The Impacts of Teach for America on Student Achievement and Other Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazerman, Steven; Mayer, Daniel; Decker, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a randomized experiment to study the impact of an alternative teacher preparation program, Teach for America (TFA), on student achievement and other outcomes. We found that TFA teachers had a positive impact on math achievement and no impact on reading achievement. The size of the impact on math scores was about 15 percent of…

  7. Learning curves and long-term outcome of simulation-based thoracentesis training for medical students

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Simulation-based medical education has been widely used in medical skills training; however, the effectiveness and long-term outcome of simulation-based training in thoracentesis requires further investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the learning curve of simulation-based thoracentesis training, study skills retention and transfer of knowledge to a clinical setting following simulation-based education intervention in thoracentesis procedures. Methods Fifty-two medical students were enrolled in this study. Each participant performed five supervised trials on the simulator. Participant's performance was assessed by performance score (PS), procedure time (PT), and participant's confidence (PC). Learning curves for each variable were generated. Long-term outcome of the training was measured by the retesting and clinical performance evaluation 6 months and 1 year, respectively, after initial training on the simulator. Results Significant improvements in PS, PT, and PC were noted among the first 3 to 4 test trials (p < 0.05). A plateau for PS, PT, and PC in the learning curves occurred in trial 4. Retesting 6 months after training yielded similar scores to trial 5 (p > 0.05). Clinical competency in thoracentesis was improved in participants who received simulation training relative to that of first year medical residents without such experience (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study demonstrates that simulation-based thoracentesis training can significantly improve an individual's performance. The saturation of learning from the simulator can be achieved after four practice sessions. Simulation-based training can assist in long-term retention of skills and can be partially transferred to clinical practice. PMID:21696584

  8. Training of affect recognition (TAR) in schizophrenia--impact on functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Sachs, G; Winklbaur, B; Jagsch, R; Lasser, I; Kryspin-Exner, I; Frommann, N; Wölwer, W

    2012-07-01

    Deficits in facial affect recognition as one aspect of social cognitive deficits are treatment targets to improve functional outcome in schizophrenia. According to preliminary results antipsychotics alone show little effects on affect recognition. A few randomized intervention studies have evaluated special psychosocial treatment programs on social cognition. In this study, the effects of a computer-based training of affect recognition were investigated as well as its impact on facial affect recognition and functional outcome, particularly on patients' quality of life. Forty clinically stabilized schizophrenic patients were randomized to a six-week training on affect recognition (TAR) or treatment as usual including occupational therapy (TAU) and completed pre- and post-treatment assessments of emotion recognition, cognition, quality of life and clinical symptoms. Between pre- and post treatment, the TAR group achieved significant improvements in facial affect recognition, in particular in recognizing sad faces and, in addition, in the quality of life domain social relationship. These changes were not found in the TAU group. Furthermore, the TAR training contributes to enhancing some aspects of cognitive functioning and negative symptoms. These improvements in facial affect recognition and quality of life were independent of changes in clinical symptoms and general cognitive functions. The findings support the efficacy of an affect recognition training for patients with schizophrenia and the generalization to social relationship. Further development is needed in the impact of a psychosocial intervention in other aspects of social cognition and functional outcome.

  9. Diachronic trends of employment outcome of prevocational training in psychiatric rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although many rehabilitation programmes of prevocational training for chronic mentally ill persons living in the community have been funded, there is scarce literature about the diachronic trends of their long-term employment outcome. Thus the aim of the present study was to compare the 2-year employment outcome of three groups of chronic psychiatric outpatients, having attended similar prevocational rehabilitation programmes in different periods of time. Methods The first group (1984 to 1986) comprised 67 rehabilitees, the second (1988 to 1989) 53 rehabilitees and the third (2000 to 2001) 56 rehabilitees. The three groups were compared with regard to employment follow-up achievements and hospitalisation rates assessed at the end of the 2-year follow-up period by a constructed overall index, encompassing employment qualitative and quantitative characteristics. Results The third group compared to the first and second ones presented a worse employment outcome. No differences were found among the three groups with regard to hospitalisation rates. Conclusions There has been a decline in the employment outcome of prevocational training during the current decade. This decline can be attributed to contextual adverse factors such as unemployment, a more demanding labour market and disability allowances offered by the state (the 'benefit trap'). Moreover, the training itself may be 'old-fashioned' enough, thus providing the trainees with inadequate skills to obtain and maintain a competitive job. PMID:20148106

  10. Circuit Weight Training--An Answer to Achieving Physical Fitness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobleigh, Bruce; Kaufer, Irwin J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a high school circuit weight training (CWT) program which promotes physical fitness and helps students understand relationships between health and physical activity. It consists of upper- and lower-body weight lifts and cardiorespiratory exercises. Research indicates that CWT improves even difficult to improve health-related components.…

  11. Postgraduate Training in Agricultural Sciences in Ethiopia: Achievements and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belay, Kassa

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Records Office of the University show that, over the period 1979-2003, Alemaya University trained and graduated a total of 492 students at Masters of Science degree level. The study also reveals that shortage of experienced and highly qualified resident national instructors, brain drain, scarcity of financial resources, lack of…

  12. Conservation covenants on private land: issues with measuring and achieving biodiversity outcomes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, James A; Carr, C Ben

    2014-09-01

    Conservation covenants and easements have become essential tools to secure biodiversity outcomes on private land, and to assist in meeting international protection targets. In Australia, the number and spatial area of conservation covenants has grown significantly in the past decade. Yet there has been little research or detailed policy analysis of conservation covenanting in Australia. We sought to determine how conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties, and factors inhibiting or contributing to measuring these outcomes. In addition, we also investigated the drivers and constraints associated with actually delivering the biodiversity outcomes, drawing on detailed input from covenanting programs. Although all conservation covenanting programs had the broad aim of maintaining or improving biodiversity in their covenants in the long term, the specific stated objectives of conservation covenanting programs varied. Programs undertook monitoring and evaluation in different ways and at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it was difficult to determine the extent Australian conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties on a national scale. Lack of time available to covenantors to undertake management was one of the biggest impediments to achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes. A lack of financial resources and human capital to monitor, knowing what to monitor, inconsistent monitoring methodologies, a lack of benchmark data, and length of time to achieve outcomes were all considered potential barriers to monitoring the biodiversity conservation outcomes of conservation covenants.

  13. Achievement for All: Improving Psychosocial Outcomes for Students with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-01-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA)…

  14. Conservation Covenants on Private Land: Issues with Measuring and Achieving Biodiversity Outcomes in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, James A.; Carr, C. Ben

    2014-09-01

    Conservation covenants and easements have become essential tools to secure biodiversity outcomes on private land, and to assist in meeting international protection targets. In Australia, the number and spatial area of conservation covenants has grown significantly in the past decade. Yet there has been little research or detailed policy analysis of conservation covenanting in Australia. We sought to determine how conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties, and factors inhibiting or contributing to measuring these outcomes. In addition, we also investigated the drivers and constraints associated with actually delivering the biodiversity outcomes, drawing on detailed input from covenanting programs. Although all conservation covenanting programs had the broad aim of maintaining or improving biodiversity in their covenants in the long term, the specific stated objectives of conservation covenanting programs varied. Programs undertook monitoring and evaluation in different ways and at different spatial and temporal scales. Thus, it was difficult to determine the extent Australian conservation covenanting agencies were measuring the biodiversity conservation outcomes achieved on covenanted properties on a national scale. Lack of time available to covenantors to undertake management was one of the biggest impediments to achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes. A lack of financial resources and human capital to monitor, knowing what to monitor, inconsistent monitoring methodologies, a lack of benchmark data, and length of time to achieve outcomes were all considered potential barriers to monitoring the biodiversity conservation outcomes of conservation covenants.

  15. Achievements in mental health outcome measurement in Australia: Reflections on progress made by the Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network (AMHOCN)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Australia’s National Mental Health Strategy has emphasised the quality, effectiveness and efficiency of services, and has promoted the collection of outcomes and casemix data as a means of monitoring these. All public sector mental health services across Australia now routinely report outcomes and casemix data. Since late-2003, the Australian Mental Health Outcomes and Classification Network (AMHOCN) has received, processed, analysed and reported on outcome data at a national level, and played a training and service development role. This paper documents the history of AMHOCN’s activities and achievements, with a view to providing lessons for others embarking on similar exercises. Method We conducted a desktop review of relevant documents to summarise the history of AMHOCN. Results AMHOCN has operated within a framework that has provided an overarching structure to guide its activities but has been flexible enough to allow it to respond to changing priorities. With no precedents to draw upon, it has undertaken activities in an iterative fashion with an element of ‘trial and error’. It has taken a multi-pronged approach to ensuring that data are of high quality: developing innovative technical solutions; fostering ‘information literacy’; maximising the clinical utility of data at a local level; and producing reports that are meaningful to a range of audiences. Conclusion AMHOCN’s efforts have contributed to routine outcome measurement gaining a firm foothold in Australia’s public sector mental health services. PMID:22640939

  16. College Performance of New Maryland High School Graduates. Student Outcome and Achievement Report (SOAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Higher Education Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 SOAR (Student Outcome and Achievement Report) relies upon two sets of data, the academic performance data (which are collected directly from the colleges and universities) and the SAT (Scholastic Assessment Test)/ACT (American College Testing Program) data, to examine the relationship between students' academic achievements and…

  17. Impacts of comprehensive reading instruction on diverse outcomes of low- and high-achieving readers.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, John T; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S; Lutz Klauda, Susan; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the effects of Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) with traditional instruction (TI) on several outcomes in a 12-week intervention for low achievers and high achievers. Low achievers in the CORI group were afforded explicit instruction, leveled texts, and motivation support. Compared with TI students, CORI students scored higher on posttest measures of word recognition speed, reading comprehension on the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test, and ecological knowledge. CORI was equally effective for lower achievers and higher achievers. Explicitly supporting multiple aspects of reading simultaneously appeared to benefit diverse learners on a range of reading outcomes.

  18. Bioethics training programmes for Africa: evaluating professional and bioethics-related achievements of African trainees after a decade of Fogarty NIH investment

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Nancy E; Ali, Joseph; Hallez, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our primary aim was to evaluate the impact of US National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded bioethics training programmes (Fogarty bioethics training programmes, FBTPs) that trained individuals from Africa over the programme's first 10 years to examine changes between pretraining and post-training in individual achievement and to document any associations between individual, training programme and post-training accomplishments. Design We surveyed trainees from the 10 bioethics programmes funded by NIH Fogarty International Center from 2000 to 2011 that included African trainees. McNemar's and Wilcoxon signed rank-sum tests were used to analyse pre–post levels of general and bioethics-related professional achievement. Likelihood of specific post-training achievement outcomes was measured using logistic regression including demographic, pretraining and intratraining variables. Setting 10 different FBTPs that trained individuals from Africa from 2000 to 2011. Participants Of 253 eligible respondents, 171 completed the survey (response rate 67.6%). Primary outcome measures Pre–post comparisons of professional achievement indicators (eg, serving in leadership roles, teaching, publishing manuscripts); likelihood of specific post-training achievement outcomes. Results Post-training, respondents were significantly more likely to report serving in a leadership role, being an investigator on a research grant, serving on international committees, serving as a mentor, and publishing manuscripts than at pretraining. Post-training, significantly greater numbers of respondents reported bioethics-related achievements including being a bioethics instructor, serving on an Institutional Review Board (IRB), being an investigator on a bioethics grant and publishing bioethics-related manuscripts than pretraining. Controlling for other factors, there were no significant differences by gender in the post-training success of these participants in terms of leadership roles

  19. Can adventurous training have a role in improving clinical outcomes?

    PubMed

    Mellor, A; Jackson, S; Hardern, R

    2012-06-01

    The aim of military adventurous training (AT) is "to develop, through authorised challenging pursuits and within an outdoor environment, leadership and the qualities necessary to enhance the performance of military personnel during peace and war". An increasing amount of effort is being applied by all three services to increase participation in AT to achieve these, largely immeasurable, aims. Existing guidance to Commanding Officers dictates that, where possible, 20% of a unit strength should undertake some form of AT annually with 5% taking part in an overseas expedition. In a speech in 2008 Alan Johnson, the then Secretary of State for Health, acknowledged that for Armed Forces medical personnel 'just as important as clinical skills are issues such as leadership, communication, adaptability and teamwork." Controlled exposure to risk, discomfort and personal hardship is a common theme for both AT activities and military deployments. Both General Medical Council competencies for all doctors and the Royal College of Anaesthetists military module include elements which can effectively be taught and developed through training in an outdoors environment. These skills include communication skills, leadership, risk assessment and interdisciplinary working. In this review the value of AT in training doctors to develop those attributes is examined. PMID:22860500

  20. Longer-Term Outcomes for Individuals Completing Vocational Education and Training Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Chris

    The longer-term employment and training outcomes of enrollment in vocational education and training (VET) were examined. The study analyzed data from the 1993 "Survey of Training and Education Experience" (STE) and the 1997 "Survey of Education and Training Experience" (SET) which were conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics to collect…

  1. Pro: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by selective out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Gathuya, Zipporah N

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships rather than structured outreach visits by teams of specialists from the developed world. Although this may seem an expensive option with slow return, it is the only sustainable way to train future generations of specialized pediatric anesthetists in developing countries.

  2. The Effects of Visual Training on the Reading Achievement of Fifth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Roberta A.

    A study examined what effect, if any, vision training exercises had on reading achievement. It was hypothesized that training students to control more accurately the speed and direction of their eye movements would improve their visual skills. However, it was also hypothesized that a more efficient visual system would have no effect on reading…

  3. Working memory and executive functions: effects of training on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Titz, Cora; Karbach, Julia

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this review is to illustrate the role of working memory and executive functions for scholastic achievement as an introduction to the question of whether and how working memory and executive control training may improve academic abilities. The review of current research showed limited but converging evidence for positive effects of process-based complex working-memory training on academic abilities, particularly in the domain of reading. These benefits occurred in children suffering from cognitive and academic deficits as well as in healthy students. Transfer of training to mathematical abilities seemed to be very limited and to depend on the training regime and the characteristics of the study sample. A core issue in training research is whether high- or low-achieving children benefit more from cognitive training. Individual differences in terms of training-related benefits suggested that process-based working memory and executive control training often induced compensation effects with larger benefits in low performing individuals. Finally, we discuss the effects of process-based training in relation to other types of interventions aimed at improving academic achievement. PMID:24389706

  4. The Training Evaluation Inventory (TEI)--Evaluation of Training Design and Measurement of Training Outcomes for Predicting Training Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzmann, Sandrina; Hagemann, Vera; Kluge, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Training evaluation in research and organisational contexts is vital to ensure informed decisions regarding the value of training. The present study describes the development of a valid and reliable training evaluation inventory (TEI), as it does not exist so far. The objectives were a) to construct an instrument that is theoretically and…

  5. Traditional birth attendant training for improving health behaviours and pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Lynn M; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Barry, Danika

    2014-01-01

    rate was lower but not significant (adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.22). Additionally trained TBAs versus trained TBAs: three large cluster-randomised trials compared TBAs who received additional training in initial steps of resuscitation, including bag-valve-mask ventilation, with TBAs who had received basic training in safe, clean delivery and immediate newborn care. Basic training included mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (two studies) or bag-valve-mask resuscitation (one study). There was no significant difference in the perinatal death rate between the intervention and control clusters (one study, adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.02) and no significant difference in late neonatal death rate between intervention and control clusters (one study, adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0.47, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.11). The neonatal death rate, however, was 45% lower in intervention compared with the control clusters (one study, 22.8% versus 40.2%, adjusted RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.92). We conducted a meta-analysis on two outcomes: stillbirths and early neonatal death. There was no significant difference between the additionally trained TBAs versus trained TBAs for stillbirths (two studies, mean weighted adjusted RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.28) or early neonatal death rate (three studies, mean weighted adjusted RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.01). Authors’ conclusions The results are promising for some outcomes (perinatal death, stillbirth and neonatal death). However, most outcomes are reported in only one study. A lack of contrast in training in the intervention and control clusters may have contributed to the null result for stillbirths and an insufficient number of studies may have contributed to the failure to achieve significance for early neonatal deaths. Despite the additional studies included in this updated systematic review, there remains insufficient evidence to establish the potential of TBA training to improve peri-neonatal mortality. PMID:22895949

  6. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Subsequent Educational Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This paper examined the relationship between exposure to sexual and physical abuse (CSA and CPA) in childhood and later educational achievement outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood in a birth cohort of over 1,000 children studied to age 25. Method: Retrospective data on CSA and CPA were gathered at ages 18 and 21 and used to…

  7. Working together to achieve the best outcomes for equine health and welfare.

    PubMed

    2016-03-19

    Gill Harris reports from this year's National Equine Forum where a key theme was the importance of collaboration and effective communication in achieving the best outcomes for the health and welfare of the horse and the future of equestrianism in the UK. PMID:26993448

  8. Birth Outcomes and Academic Achievement in Childhood: A Population Record Linkage Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Felicity; Laurens, Kristin R.; Green, Melissa J.; Brinkman, Sally; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Carr, Vaughan J.

    2014-01-01

    Poor academic performance during childhood predicts later adverse outcomes, and could be targeted for improvement if detected early. This study used population-based record linkage to examine the association between early life risk factors and academic achievement at two different stages of development using two different cohorts: a kindergarten…

  9. The Effects of Two Teaching Styles on College Students' Achievement of Selected Physical Education Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study that examined the influence of two teaching styles and class composition on college students' achievement of physical education outcomes. No significant differences were uncovered between teaching style and class composition on the motor task. Significant differences were revealed on the written test. (SM)

  10. Family Background and Academic Achievement: Does Self-Efficacy Mediate Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiser, Dana A.; Riggio, Heidi R.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates both family background and self-efficacy influence academic outcomes; however, family background also impacts self-efficacy development. The purpose of the current study was to establish whether self-efficacy mediates the relationship between family background and academic achievement. Results indicated family background…

  11. A Comparison of Mathematics Achievement Outcomes among Three Instruction Programs for Pacific Island Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardo, Jonathan Christian Amor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the mathematics achievement outcomes of 3rd grade students from some Pacific Island elementary schools that use 1 of 3 different modes of instruction: Direct Instruction (DI), Success for All (SFA), and noncomprehensive school reform (non-CSR). The need for this research stems from the large proportion of…

  12. The Role of Teachers' Support in Predicting Students' Motivation and Achievement Outcomes in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tao; Solmon, Melinda A.; Gu, Xiangli

    2012-01-01

    Examining how teachers' beliefs and behaviors predict students' motivation and achievement outcomes in physical education is an area of increasing research interest. Guided by the expectancy-value model and self-determination theory, the major purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of teachers' autonomy, competence, and…

  13. Emotional Design in Multimedia: Does Gender and Academic Achievement Influence Learning Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Jeya Amantha; Muniandy, Balakrishnan; Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar Wan

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed as a preliminary study (N = 33) to explore the effects of gender and academic achievement (Cumulative Grade Point Average-CGPA) on polytechnic students' learning outcomes when exposed to Multimedia Learning Environments (MLE) designed to induce emotions. Three designs namely positive (PosD), neutral (NeuD) and negative…

  14. Analysis of Year 2 (2003-2004) Student Achievement Outcomes for the Memphis KIPP DIAMOND Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Brenda McSparrin; Ross, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined outcomes on the Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program/Achievement Test (TCAP/AT) for the KIPP:DIAMOND Academy (KIPP:DA), which is in its second year of operation. Importantly, as in Year 1, a rigorous quasi-experimental research design was employed, in which each KIPP:DA student was individually matched to a highly…

  15. Educational and Employment Outcomes of Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Ann; Wilkinson, Anna; Jackson, Russell

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from a study of the Ronald E. McNair Postbaccaulaureate Achievement (McNair) Program. The McNair Program was established in 1986 to increase the attainment of doctoral degrees by students from disadvantaged and underrepresented backgrounds. This study is a descriptive analysis of participant outcomes: no attempt is…

  16. The Role of Self-Efficacy, Task Value, and Achievement Goals in Predicting Learning Strategies, Task Disengagement, Peer Relationship, and Achievement Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Arief Darmanegara; Lau, Shun; Nie, Youyan

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a combination of expectancy-value and achievement goal theories, this study examined the role of self-efficacy, task value, and achievement goals in students' learning strategies, task disengagement, peer relationship, and English achievement outcome. A sample of 1475 Year-9 students participated in the study. A structural equation model…

  17. Training Advanced Practice Providers to Collect Functional Outcomes After Fragility Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tiffany L.; Ames, Tyler D.; Le, Khoi M.; Wee, Corinne; Phieffer, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether advanced practice providers could learn to collect objective functional assessment data accurately and efficiently with commercially available devices that measure kinematics and kinetics (Nintendo Wii Balance Board [WBB] and Level Belt [LB]) to aid in the assessment of fall risk and outcomes after fragility fractures. Methods: Nine advanced practice providers participated in a 1-hour clinical assessment tools (CATs) training session on equipment use, providing standardized instructions, and practice of the testing procedures. Afterward, they participated in a skills demonstration evaluation and completed a postsession survey. Results: Participants successfully achieved a mean of 18.22 (standard deviation 1.56) of 20 performance measures. Of the incomplete or omitted tasks, the majority (10 of 16) occurred within the first of 3 CATs activities. Postsession survey results revealed that 9 of 9 participants reported that the 1 hour provided for training on the CATs was sufficient. All participants reported that after the training, they felt confident they could reliably carry out the tasks to test patients on both the WBB and the LB. The majority of participants reported that they believed that the WBB (7 of 9) and LB (8 out of 9) would be good assets to clinics in assessing patient functionality after fragility fractures. Conclusion: These results indicate that advanced practice providers can confidently learn and effectively test patients with the WBB and LB within 1 hour of training. In the future, adoption of CATs in the clinical setting may allow for objective, easy-to-use, portable, noninvasive, and relatively inexpensive measures to assess functional outcomes in patients with fragility fracture. PMID:26328225

  18. Increasing Mathematics and Science Achievement for Culturally Diverse Students through Teaching Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, Lee

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal was to field test and evaluate a Teacher Training program that would prepare teachers to increase the motivation and achievement of culturally diverse students in the areas of science and mathematics. Designed as a three year program, this report covers the first two years of the training program at the Ronald McNair School in the Ravenswood School district, using the resources of the NASA Ames Research Center and the California Framework for Mathematics and Science.

  19. Training with Differential Outcomes Enhances Discriminative Learning and Visuospatial Recognition Memory in Children Born Prematurely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Lourdes; Mari-Beffa, Paloma; Roldan-Tapia, Dolores; Ramos-Lizana, Julio; Fuentes, Luis J.; Estevez, Angeles F.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that discriminative learning is facilitated when a particular outcome is associated with each relation to be learned. When this training procedure is applied (the differential outcome procedure; DOP), learning is faster and more accurate than when the more common non-differential outcome procedure is used. This…

  20. The Progress Achieved By Judokas After Strength Training With A Judo-Specific Machine

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Laurent; Trilles, Francis

    2006-01-01

    For judo players, as in many sports activities, strength development has become an important element of performance. However, this should not be done separately from the development of technique. Specific strength training is thus used for the controlled strengthening of specific muscles or muscle groups, corresponding to the movement in a competitive situation. In line with this, the use of a judo specific apparatus is proposed. The aim of this study is to analyze the progress of a group of judokas after a training program with the apparatus. The results have shown that, using the apparatus, the heaviest weight achieved using the throwing technique is greater. In addition, the judokas' technique improves as a consequence of this training program. This judo specific apparatus could therefore be used to complement traditional judo training. Key Points Judo, strength training, machine, technical progress. PMID:24357985

  1. Achievement for All: improving psychosocial outcomes for students with special educational needs and disabilities.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-04-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA) programme that was designed to improve outcomes for students with SEND through: (1) academic assessment, tracking and intervention, (2) structured conversations with parents, and (3) developing provision to improve wider outcomes (e.g. positive relationships). Using a quasi-experimental, pre-test-post-test control group design, we assessed the impact of AfA on teacher ratings of the behaviour problems, positive relationships and bullying of students with SEND over an 18-month period. Participants were 4758 students with SEND drawn from 323 schools across England. Our main impact analysis demonstrated that AfA had a significant impact on all three response variables when compared to usual practice. Hierarchical linear modelling of data from the intervention group highlighted a range of school-level contextual factors and implementation activities and student-level individual differences that moderated the impact of AfA on our study outcomes. The implications of our findings are discussed, and study strengths and limitations are noted.

  2. Achievement for All: improving psychosocial outcomes for students with special educational needs and disabilities.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-04-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA) programme that was designed to improve outcomes for students with SEND through: (1) academic assessment, tracking and intervention, (2) structured conversations with parents, and (3) developing provision to improve wider outcomes (e.g. positive relationships). Using a quasi-experimental, pre-test-post-test control group design, we assessed the impact of AfA on teacher ratings of the behaviour problems, positive relationships and bullying of students with SEND over an 18-month period. Participants were 4758 students with SEND drawn from 323 schools across England. Our main impact analysis demonstrated that AfA had a significant impact on all three response variables when compared to usual practice. Hierarchical linear modelling of data from the intervention group highlighted a range of school-level contextual factors and implementation activities and student-level individual differences that moderated the impact of AfA on our study outcomes. The implications of our findings are discussed, and study strengths and limitations are noted. PMID:23380579

  3. Does aggregate school-wide achievement mediate fifth grade outcomes for former early childhood education participants?

    PubMed

    Curenton, Stephanie M; Dong, Nianbo; Shen, Xiangjin

    2015-07-01

    This study used a multilevel mediation model to test the theory that former early childhood education (ECE) attendees' 5th grade achievement is mediated by the aggregate school-wide achievement of their elementary school. Aggregate school-wide achievement was defined as the percentage of 5th graders in a school who were at/above academic proficiency in reading or math. Research questions were: (a) Do ECE program participants have better achievement at 5th grade compared with their matched peers who did not participate in an ECE program?; and (b) Is the association between ECE attendance and 5th grade academic performance mediated by school-wide achievement? Results indicated that children who attended prekindergarten (pre-K) and child care outperformed their matched peers who had not attended ECE programs; conversely, those children who did not attend ECE actually outperformed their Head Start counterparts. Mediation analyses indicated that aggregate school-wide achievement at 5th grade partially mediated the association between former ECE attendance and 5th grade performance; however, these mediated effects were small. Overall, the size of the total effects of ECE and the 5th grade academic outcomes were consistent with prior studies. This research confirms the long-term effects of pre-K and child care until 5th grade.

  4. The Effect of Metacognitive Strategy Training on Mathematical Problem Solving Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsoy, Gokhan; Ataman, Aysegul

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using metacognitive strategy training on mathematical problem solving achievement. The study took place over a nine-week period with 47 fifth grade students. The experimental group (n = 24) instructed to improve their metacognitive skills. At the same time the students in the control group…

  5. The Effect of Teachers' Cultural Proficiency Training on Sixth Grade Students' Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells-Rivers, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the overall reading achievement of African American (n = 42) and White (n = 21) sixth grade students in an urban Midwestern school, after their teachers' engaged in culturally proficiency training provided by The Minnesota Humanities Center. Data for students in the study was collected for comprehension levels or acuity…

  6. Achievement Goal Orientation for Athletic Training Education: Preparing for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This review of literature presents the theoretical framework of goal orientation and student achievement from a pedagogical perspective while providing practical applications and implications for integrating goal orientation into athletic training education programs. Data Sources: Selected literature derived from EBSCO, Education…

  7. Four National Training Systems Compared: Achievements and Issues. Occasional Paper No. 114.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Chris

    A comparison of the vocational education and training (VET) offered in Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United States revealed that programs in all three nations emphasized the following aims: competence at work, commitment of all to achieve excellence, and capacity to contribute to change. Organizations in all three nations were…

  8. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  9. Action Research: Effects of Self-Efficacy Training on Low Achieving Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselden, Polly G.; Sanders, Marla; Sturkie, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    This action research project investigated the effects of self-efficacy training on low achieving high school freshman who were considered to be at risk for academic failure. Six students participated in psycho-educational group counseling sessions for forty-five minutes weekly over the course of a nine-week reporting period. Findings indicated…

  10. Clinical Outcome Metrics for Optimization of Robust Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebert, D.; Byrne, V. E.; McGuire, K. M.; Hurst, V. W., IV; Kerstman, E. L.; Cole, R. W.; Sargsyan, A. E.; Garcia, K. M,; Foy, M. H.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Gibson, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    The emphasis of this research is on the Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) "Risk of Unacceptable Health and Mission Outcomes Due to Limitations of In-flight Medical Capabilities". Specifically, this project aims to contribute to the closure of gap ExMC 2.02: We do not know how the inclusion of a physician crew medical officer quantitatively impacts clinical outcomes during exploration missions. The experiments are specifically designed to address clinical outcome differences between physician and non-physician cohorts in both near-term and longer-term (mission impacting) outcomes.

  11. A Preliminary Outcome Study of Response Ability Pathways Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forthun, Larry F.; McCombie, Jeff W.

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 68 classroom teachers participated in a preliminary evaluation of Response Ability Pathways (RAP), a reclaiming training course for adults who work with children and youth. RAP offers basic training in the Circle of Courage Model and provides participants with general strategies for assisting youth who are experiencing challenges.…

  12. From Headline to Hard Grind: The Importance of Understanding Public Administration in Achieving Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    O’Flynn, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Many public policy programs fail to translate ambitious headlines to on-the-ground action. The reasons for this are many and varied, but for public administration and management scholars a large part of the gap between ambition and achievement is the challenge associated with the operation of the machinery of government itself, and how it relates to the other parties that it relies on to fulfill these outcomes. In their article, Carey and Friel set out key reasons why public health scholars should seek to better understand important ideas in public administration. In commenting on their contribution, I draw out two critical questions that are raised by this discussion: (i) what are boundaries and what forms do they take? and (ii) why work across boundaries? Expanding on these key questions extends the points made by Carey and Friel on the importance of understanding public administration and will better place public health scholars and practitioners to realise health outcomes. PMID:27694672

  13. Surgical treatment achieves better outcome in severe traumatic pericallosal aneurysm: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Mingxing; Mei, Qiyong; Sun, Kehua

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic pericallosal aneurysm (TPA) is typically seldom yet potentially lethal. Because of its rarity, also complicated by the unpredictable delayed-onset, TPA is more difficult to be diagnosed promptly. Due to the sporadic reports and diverse opinions on the priority of surgical treatment, a consensus about effective management of TPA has not been reached. Here we report a 55 year-old male patient with TPA, who received an emergent craniotomy to clip the pseudoaneurysm and remove the hematoma under intense intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. A satisfactory clinical outcome was achieved at a 3-month follow-up. Thereafter, a review was conducted to evaluate the outcomes of different managing modalities. PMID:25932088

  14. Accounting for Training: An Analysis of the Outcomes of California Employment Training Panel Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.; And Others

    The California Employment Training Panel (ETP), which was designed as a performance-driven training program, pays agencies for training provided only if the trainee is placed and retained in a related job for 90 days. The labor market experience of ETP trainees was tracked from 1989-90, 1990-91, and 1991-92 to measure the impact of ETP training on…

  15. Professional training in the workplace: the role of achievement motivation and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Campillo-Álvarez, Angela; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    The core objective of the present work is to explore the reasons why workers from different employment sectors join training courses to improve their job. To this end we assessed achievement motivation, locus of control and professional qualifications according to the participants' employment sector. The final sample consisted of 1460 active Spanish workers from four different employment sectors: services, catering, metal construction, and others. Of the sample, 40.1% were male and 59.9% female, with a mean age of 33.3 years (SD = 9.7). The results show that the new scale developed to assess achievement motivation, locus of control and workers' qualifications presents adequate psychometric characteristics. Statistically significant differences were found in relation to employment sector. The areas studied showed satisfactory levels of workers' effort and achievement motivation to perform their jobs, though their attitudes toward the training courses as a basis for improving their employability are varied. Workers in the catering sector had higher levels of external attribution and the lowest interest in training. Those in the service sector had higher levels of achievement motivation and effort at work. Future research should develop a joint program covering the public and private sectors for the modification of these beliefs, attitudes and attributions.

  16. Effective colonoscopy training techniques: strategies to improve patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Karatzas, Pantelis S; Varytimiadis, Lazaros T; Tsigaridas, Athanasios; Galanopoulos, Michail; Viazis, Nikos; Karamanolis, Dimitrios G

    2016-01-01

    Colonoscopy has substantially evolved during the last 20 years and many different training techniques have been developed in order to improve the performance of endoscopists. The most known are mechanical simulators, virtual reality simulators, computer-simulating endoscopy, magnetic endoscopic imaging, and composite and explanted animal organ simulators. Current literature generally indicates that the use of simulators improves performance of endoscopists and enhances safety of patients, especially during the initial phase of training. Moreover, newer endoscopes and imaging techniques such as high-definition colonoscopes, chromocolonoscopy with dyes spraying, and third-eye retroscope have been incorporated in everyday practice, offering better visualization of the colon and detection of polyps. Despite the abundance of these different technological features, training devices are not widely used and no official guideline or specified training algorithm or technique for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy has been evolved. In this review, we present the most important training methods currently available and evaluate these using existing literature. We also try to propose a training algorithm for novice endoscopists. PMID:27099542

  17. Development of Prototype Outcomes-Based Training Modules for Aesthetic Dentistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Maricar Joy T.; Borabo, Milagros L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to know the essential components of Aesthetic Dentistry that will be a basis for prototype Outcomes-based training modules. Using a 5-point Likert scale, the researcher-made questionnaire assessed the different elements of Aesthetic Dentistry which are needed in the designing of the training module, the manner of…

  18. Enhancing Learning Outcomes in Computer-Based Training via Self-Generated Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Haydee M.; Fiore, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the utility of an instructional strategy known as the "query method" for enhancing learning outcomes in computer-based training. The query method involves an embedded guided, sentence generation task requiring elaboration of key concepts in the training material that encourages learners to "stop and…

  19. Apprenticeship, Vocational Training, and Early Labor Market Outcomes--Evidence from East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…

  20. The Relationship between Perceived Training Opportunities, Work Motivation and Employee Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bard

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore alternative relationships between training opportunities and employee outcomes. A cross-sectional survey of 343 trainees from a broad range of Norwegian service organizations showed that the relationship between perceived training opportunities, and both task performance and citizenship behaviors were fully…

  1. Effect of Teacher Specialized Training on Limited English Speaking Students' Assessment Outcomes: Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaroan, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative study was a comparison of Limited English Proficient (LEP) students' assessment outcomes when taught by a teacher with specialized training and when taught by teachers with no specialized training. The comparison of 2007-2008 Northern Nevada LEP third grade student scores in the content areas of English language arts and…

  2. Learning by Helping? Undergraduate Communication Outcomes Associated with Training or Service-Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Jennifer; DuBois, Melinda; Wigderson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated communication outcomes after training or applied service-learning experiences. Pre-practicum trainees learned active listening skills over 10 weeks. Practicum students were successful trainees who staffed a helpline. Community interns were trained and supervised at community agencies. Undergraduate students in psychology…

  3. The Effects of Team Training on Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delise, Lisa A.; Gorman, C. Allen; Brooks, Abby M.; Rentsch, Joan R.; Steele-Johnson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to determine relationships between team training and team effectiveness. Results from the 21 studies provided evidence that training is positively related to team effectiveness and effectiveness in five outcome categories: affective, cognitive, subjective task-based skill, objective task-based skill, and teamwork…

  4. Sex and Training Differences in Mental Rotation: A Behavioral and Neurophysiological Comparison of Gifted Achievers, Gifted Underachievers and Average Intelligent Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergner, Sabine; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.

    2011-01-01

    A male advantage in spatial abilities is assumed to underlie their superior performance in complex mathematical problems. In this study we investigated whether sex differences in mental rotation (MR) tasks are related to female underachievement and whether training effects of a MR training can be generalized across achievers and underachievers.…

  5. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  6. Monetary incentives to reinforce engagement and achievement in a job-skills training program for homeless, unemployed adults.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Wong, Conrad J; Fingerhood, Michael; Svikis, Dace S; Bigelow, George E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether monetary incentives could increase engagement and achievement in a job-skills training program for unemployed, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. Participants (n=124) were randomized to a no-reinforcement group (n=39), during which access to the training program was provided but no incentives were given; a training reinforcement group (n=42), during which incentives were contingent on attendance and performance; or an abstinence and training reinforcement group (n=43), during which incentives were contingent on attendance and performance, but access was granted only if participants demonstrated abstinence from alcohol. abstinence and training reinforcement and training reinforcement participants advanced further in training and attended more hours than no-reinforcement participants. Monetary incentives were effective in promoting engagement and achievement in a job-skills training program for individuals who often do not take advantage of training programs.

  7. Building capacity for Health Impact Assessment: Training outcomes from the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchter, Joseph; Rutt, Candace; Seto, Edmund

    2015-01-15

    Background: Despite the continued growth of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) in the US, there is little research on HIA capacity-building. A comprehensive study of longer-term training outcomes may reveal opportunities for improving capacity building activities and HIA practice. Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with HIA trainees in the United States to assess their outcomes and needs. Using a training evaluation framework, we measured outcomes across a spectrum of reaction, learning, behavior and results. Results: From 2006 to 2012, four organizations trained over 2200 people in at least 75 in-person HIA trainings in 29 states. We interviewed 48 trainees, selected both randomly and purposefully. The mean duration between training and interview was 3.4 years. Trainees reported that their training objectives were met, especially when relevant case-studies were used. They established new collaborations at the trainings and maintained them. Training appeared to catalyze more holistic thinking and practice, including a range of HIA-related activities. Many trainees disseminated what they learned and engaged in components of HIA, even without dedicated funding. Going forward, trainees need assistance with quantitative methods, project management, community engagement, framing recommendations, and evaluation. Conclusions: The research revealed opportunities for a range of HIA stakeholders to refine and coordinate training resources, apply a competency framework and leverage complimentary workforce development efforts, and sensitize and build the capacity of communities. - Highlights: • We interviewed HIA trainees in the United States to assess longer-term outcomes. • Training appeared to catalyze a range of beneficial partnerships and activities. • Trainees reported outstanding needs for specific skills and competencies. • There are various opportunities to improve training and capacity-building.

  8. Outcome Evaluation of Active Support Training in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Harman, Anthony D.; Lin, Chwen-Jen; Lee, Wan-ping; Chang, Shu-chuan; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Active Support was implemented for the first time in Taiwan in March, 2009. This study aims to evaluate whether the supervisors and front line managers of residential services receiving Active Support Training (AST) caused a positive impact on their users with intellectual disabilities (ID) while comparing this with their counterparts with ID…

  9. Training with a Vocational Outcome for Adults with Intellectual Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Cathy; Boehm, Barbara

    To show that training programs for adults with intellectual handicaps can be successfully carried out regardless of the size of the community, information is provided on vocationally oriented programs in place at two Canadian community colleges: the Consumer and Job Preparation Program (CJPP) at Douglas College, in New Westminster, British…

  10. Learning science in a cooperative setting: Academic achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Baird, J. Hugh

    A learning unit in earth science was taught to high school students, using a jigsaw-group mastery learning approach. The sample consisted of 73 students in the experimental group and 47 students who learned the topic in an individualized mastery learning approach. The study lasted 5 weeks. Pretests and posttests on academic achievement and affective outcomes were administered. Data were treated with an analysis of covariance. The results show that students of the experimental group achieved significantly higher on academic outcomes, both normative and objective scores. On the creative essay test, the differences in number of ideas and total essay score were not significant between the groups, although the mean scores for number of words were higher for the individualized mastery learning group. On the affective domain, jigsaw-group mastery learning students scored significantly higher on self-esteem, number of friends, and involvement in the classroom. No differences were found in cohesiveness, cooperation, competition, and attitudes toward the subject learned. The results are discussed through the evaluation and comparison of the two methods of instruction used in this study.The cooperative learning movement began in junior high schools as part of the desegregation process, aiming at facilitating positive ethnic relations and increasing academic achievement and social skills among diverse students (Aronson, Stephan, Sikes, Blaney, & Snapp, 1978; Sharan & Hertz-Lazarowitz, 1980; Slavin, 1980). However, elementary teachers quickly recognized the potential of cooperative methods, and such methods were adopted freely in elementary schools before becoming widespread on the junior and senior high level. It has only been during the past few years that application of cooperative learning has been studied extensively with these older students.Cooperative learning methods generally involve heterogeneous groups working together on tasks that are deliberately structured to

  11. An Alternative Approach to Preservice Police Training: Combining Training and Education Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    Many states offer police and corrections officer certification through state approved police basic training, either after hire (in-service) or before hire (preservice). Only large agencies conduct their own basic training academies after being hired. The trend is to save money through preservice training offered by colleges. This especially…

  12. Can Research Design Explain Variation in Head Start Research Results? A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shager, Hilary M.; Schindler, Holly S.; Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which differences in research design explain variation in Head Start program impacts. We employ meta-analytic techniques to predict effect sizes for cognitive and achievement outcomes as a function of the type and rigor of research design, quality and type of outcome measure, activity level of control group, and…

  13. Nutrition Prescription to Achieve Positive Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Susan; Campbell, Katrina L.; Bogard, Jessica; Millichamp, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), management of diet is important in prevention of disease progression and symptom management, however evidence on nutrition prescription is limited. Recent international CKD guidelines and literature was reviewed to address the following question “What is the appropriate nutrition prescription to achieve positive outcomes in adult patients with chronic kidney disease?” Databases included in the search were Medline and CINAHL using EBSCOhost search engine, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published from 2000 to 2009. International guidelines pertaining to nutrition prescription in CKD were also reviewed from 2000 to 2013. Three hundred and eleven papers and eight guidelines were reviewed by three reviewers. Evidence was graded as per the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia criteria. The evidence from thirty six papers was tabulated under the following headings: protein, weight loss, enteral support, vitamin D, sodium, fat, fibre, oral nutrition supplements, nutrition counselling, including protein and phosphate, nutrients in peritoneal dialysis solution and intradialytic parenteral nutrition, and was compared to international guidelines. While more evidence based studies are warranted, the customary nutrition prescription remains satisfactory with the exception of Vitamin D and phosphate. In these two areas, additional research is urgently needed given the potential of adverse outcomes for the CKD patient. PMID:24451311

  14. Defining, Valuing, and Teaching Clinical Outcomes Assessment in Professional and Post-Professional Athletic Training Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Alison R.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Sauers, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To provide a basic introduction for athletic training educators about the importance of clinical outcomes measures and to recommend strategies for implementing clinical outcomes assessment education in professional and post-professional athletic training education programs. Background: Outcomes is a frequently used term amongst…

  15. Evaluating postgraduate public health and biomedical training program outcomes: : lost opportunities and renewed interest.

    PubMed

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica; Nelson, David E; Marcus, Stephen; Kudura, Aisha; Nghiem, Elaine

    2013-03-01

    To identify recent studies in the scientific literature that evaluated structured postgraduate public health and biomedical training programs and reported career outcomes among individual trainees, a comprehensive search of several databases was conducted to identify published studies in English between January 1995 and January 2012. Studies of interest included those that evaluated career outcomes for trainees completing full-time public health or biomedical training programs of at least 12 months duration, with structured training offered on-site. Of the over 600 articles identified, only 13 met the inclusion criteria. Six studies evaluated US federal agency programs and six were of university-based programs. Seven programs were solely or predominantly of physicians, with only one consisting mainly of PhDs. Most studies used a cohort or cross-sectional design. The studies were mainly descriptive, with only four containing statistical data. Type of employment was the most common outcome measure (n = 12) and number of scientific publications (n = 6) was second. The lack of outcomes evaluation data from postgraduate public health and biomedical training programs in the published literature is a lost opportunity for understanding the career paths of trainees and the potential impact of training programs. Suggestions for increasing interest in conducting and reporting evaluation studies of these structured postgraduate training programs are provided.

  16. Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weining C; Wong, Kaishi

    2008-10-01

    Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community-Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into consideration the significant social others in the students' lives. A measuring instrument was established with a sample of Singaporean Chinese university students (N = 196; 144 females and 52 males); its relationships to achievement motives, goals, and consequences were examined. Although the socially oriented achievement goal items were originally constructed from four categories of social others, confirmatory factor analysis suggested a unifactor structure. Results showed that the socially oriented goal was related positively with students' performance goal, mastery goal, and competitive motive; it bore no relationship to mastery motive, work ethic, and interest in learning; and it predicted negatively future engagement. After the effects of mastery and performance goals were controlled for, the socially oriented goal did not predict test anxiety. PMID:22022792

  17. Socially oriented achievement goals of Chinese university students in Singapore: structure and relationships with achievement motives, goals and affective outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weining C; Wong, Kaishi

    2008-10-01

    Contemporary literature on culture, self, and motivations (Markus & Kitayama, 1991) suggests that in collectivistic cultures, individual achievement is interdependent of one's social others. We proposed that this cultural characteristic could be exemplified in the achievement goal orientation and tested the notion with university students in a collectivistic community-Singapore. A socially oriented achievement goal construct was developed by taking into consideration the significant social others in the students' lives. A measuring instrument was established with a sample of Singaporean Chinese university students (N = 196; 144 females and 52 males); its relationships to achievement motives, goals, and consequences were examined. Although the socially oriented achievement goal items were originally constructed from four categories of social others, confirmatory factor analysis suggested a unifactor structure. Results showed that the socially oriented goal was related positively with students' performance goal, mastery goal, and competitive motive; it bore no relationship to mastery motive, work ethic, and interest in learning; and it predicted negatively future engagement. After the effects of mastery and performance goals were controlled for, the socially oriented goal did not predict test anxiety.

  18. The effects of training and competition on achievement goals, motivational responses, and performance in a golf-putting task.

    PubMed

    van de Pol P, K C; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships between goals and effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance. Participants (32 males, 28 females; M age = 19.12 years) performed a golf-putting task in a training condition and a competition condition and completed measures of goal involvement, effort, enjoyment, and tension; putting performance was also measured. Both task and ego involvement varied across training and competition, and variation in ego involvement explained variation in effort and enjoyment between these conditions. Ego involvement positively predicted effort in training and performance in competition, and interacted positively with task involvement to predict effort and enjoyment in competition. Our findings suggest that the distinction between training and competition is a valuable one when examining individuals' achievement motivation. PMID:23204359

  19. Juxtaposing Math Self-Efficacy and Self-Concept as Predictors of Long-Term Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip David; Marsh, Herbert W.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Marshall, Sarah; Abduljabbar, Adel Salah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that self-efficacy and self-concept reflect different underlying processes and both are critical to understanding long-term achievement outcomes. Although both types of self-belief are well established in educational psychology, research comparing and contrasting their relationship with achievement has been…

  20. Training Transfer, Metacognition Skills, and Performance Outcomes in Blended versus Traditional Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovengo, Rick D.

    2014-01-01

    The military instituted blended e-learning training programs to reduce manpower requirements and to lower training costs by leveraging technology, but success in this relationship has not been studied specifically. Working within theoretical constructs of motivation, expectancy, and social cognition this quasi-experimental study examined the…

  1. Improving Patient Outcomes: Effectively Training Healthcare Staff in Psychological Practice Skills: A Mixed Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Garzonis, Katherine; Mann, Eryn; Wyrzykowska, Aleksandra; Kanellakis, Pavlo

    2015-01-01

    Training is an important part of modern European healthcare services and is often cited as a way to improve care quality. To date, various training methods have been used to impart skills relevant to psychological practice in a variety of mental health professionals. However, patient outcomes are rarely used in evaluating the effectiveness of the different training methods used, making it difficult to assess true utility. In the present review, we consider methods of training that can effectively impact trainee and patient outcomes. To do so, PubMed, PsycNET, Scopus, CENTRAL and ERIC were searched for studies on training of healthcare staff in psychological practice approaches. In total, 24 studies were identified (16 quantitative and 8 qualitative). For the most part, group, individual, and web-based training was used. A variety of health professionals were trained in skills including ‘communication’, ‘diagnosis’, and ‘referral’ to name but a few. In the majority of studies staff skill level improved. These findings hold implications for the design, implementation, and evaluation of training for mental healthcare staff. PMID:27247676

  2. Quality training in laparoscopic colorectal surgery: does it improve clinical outcome?

    PubMed

    Pitiakoudis, M; Michailidis, L; Zezos, P; Kouklakis, G; Simopoulos, C

    2011-10-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCRS) is a safe, effective and cost-efficient option for the treatment of various benign and malignant conditions. However, its implementation to surgical practice is still limited. That is mainly due to its association with a steep learning curve. We performed a review of the literature to determine whether quality training in LCRS can reduce that learning curve and lead to better clinical outcomes. We concluded that a structured training program with pre-clinical phase focused on basic skill acquisition and a clinical phase focused on mentoring from experts can shorten the learning curve and improve clinical outcomes. PMID:21887564

  3. Programmatic assessment of a university-based implant training program using patient-reported outcomes.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Jenkins, Diane W; de Leeuw, Reny; Nihill, Patricia; Robinson, Fonda G; Thomas, Mark V

    2014-11-01

    The University of Kentucky College of Dentistry (UKCD) established an implant training program that provides training in the use of a single implant system, evidence-based diagnostic and treatment protocols (standardized work practices), and a total quality management system (Implant Quality Assurance Program). The aim of this study was to assess the programmatic effectiveness of the UKCD implant training program by reporting the success and survival of implants placed, using patient-reported outcomes and comparing them to previously established benchmarks. A total of 415 patients (963 implants) were interviewed, approximately 50 percent of all qualified patients. The implant survival rate was 97 percent, and 88 percent of the implants were considered successful (as determined by patient-centric criteria). These outcomes were consistent with the program's previously established benchmarks of 90 percent. These results suggest that work standardization (in the form of specific treatment protocols) and the use of a formal, incremental learning system can result in positive patient outcomes. Clinical outcomes should be monitored in academic dental settings as part of clinical process improvement, and these outcomes can provide a means of assessing the effectiveness of the training program.

  4. Training resident physicians in fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy. How many supervised examinations are required to achieve competence?

    PubMed

    Hawes, R; Lehman, G A; Hast, J; O'Connor, K W; Crabb, D W; Lui, A; Christiansen, P A

    1986-03-01

    Twenty-five resident physicians performed 495 fiberoptic sigmoidoscopic examinations that were graded for overall skill according to a six-point competence scale. In general, 24 to 30 examinations were required to become competent at fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy. Trainees with prior rigid sigmoidoscopy experience achieved competence more quickly than those with no prior rigid sigmoidoscopy experience. As experience increased, unassisted insertion distance and luminal visualization increased, insertion time and assisted time decreased, and management scores and percent correct diagnoses improved. Trainees detected 93 to 100 percent of polyps and cancers viewed by the experienced sigmoidoscopist once competence was achieved. These data indicate that programs for training primary care physicians in fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy are feasible, help define the number of examinations required to become competent, and indicate that such trainees should be effective in cancer screening.

  5. Effects of Balance Control Training on Functional Outcomes in Subacute Hemiparetic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Jin Seok; Lee, Yang-Soo; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Min, Yu-Sun; Kang, Min-Gu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of balance control training using a newly developed balance control trainer (BalPro) on the balance and gait of patients with subacute hemiparetic stroke. Methods Forty-three subacute stroke patients were assigned to either a balance control training (BCT) group or a control group. The BCT group (n=23) was trained with BalPro for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 2 weeks, and received one daily session of conventional physical therapy. The control group (n=20) received two sessions of conventional physical therapy every day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was assessment with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Secondary outcomes were Functional Ambulation Category (FAC), the 6-minute walking test (6mWT), Timed Up and Go (TUG), the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), and the manual muscle test (MMT) of the knee extensor. All outcome measures were evaluated before and after 2 weeks of training in both groups. Results There were statistically significant improvements in all parameters except MMT and FAC after 2 weeks of treatment in both groups. After training, the BCT group showed greater improvements in the BBS and the 6mWT than did the control group. Conclusion Balance control training using BalPro could be a useful treatment for improving balance and gait in subacute hemiparetic stroke patients. PMID:26798615

  6. Academic abilities in children and adolescents with a history of autism spectrum disorders who have achieved optimal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Troyb, Eva; Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine; Helt, Molly; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael; Fein, Deborah

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the academic abilities of children and adolescents who were once diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, but who no longer meet diagnostic criteria for this disorder. These individuals have achieved social and language skills within the average range for their ages, receive little or no school support, and are referred to as having achieved "optimal outcomes." Performance of 32 individuals who achieved optimal outcomes, 41 high-functioning individuals with a current autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (high-functioning autism), and 34 typically developing peers was compared on measures of decoding, reading comprehension, mathematical problem solving, and written expression. Groups were matched on age, sex, and nonverbal IQ; however, the high-functioning autism group scored significantly lower than the optimal outcome and typically developing groups on verbal IQ. All three groups performed in the average range on all subtests measured, and no significant differences were found in performance of the optimal outcome and typically developing groups. The high-functioning autism group scored significantly lower on subtests of reading comprehension and mathematical problem solving than the optimal outcome group. These findings suggest that the academic abilities of individuals who achieved optimal outcomes are similar to those of their typically developing peers, even in areas where individuals who have retained their autism spectrum disorder diagnoses exhibit some ongoing difficulty.

  7. Effects of divalproex on smoking cue reactivity and cessation outcomes among smokers achieving initial abstinence.

    PubMed

    Ditre, Joseph W; Oliver, Jason A; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Saladin, Michael E; Drobes, David J

    2012-08-01

    Divalproex, a GABA agonist, may be a useful agent in the treatment of tobacco dependence. Cue reactivity assessment paradigms are ideally suited to explore basic mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effects of medications that purport to have efficacy for smoking cessation. Our primary goal in the current study was to examine the effects of divalproex on in-treatment reactivity to smoking-relevant and affective cues, and to determine if these reactions were predictive of posttreatment smoking behavior. There were 120 nicotine dependent smokers enrolled in an 8-week double-blind clinical trial and randomly assigned to either divalproex or placebo conditions. Of these, 72 smokers (60% female) who achieved a minimal level of abstinence underwent an in-treatment cue reactivity assessment. Contrary to expectations, divalproex was associated with greater craving and arousal during smoking cue presentation. Divalproex also inhibited cardiovascular response to pleasant cues. Although no significant differences in cessation-related outcomes between divalproex- and placebo-treated participants were observed, cue-elicited craving to smoke predicted end-of-treatment and posttreatment smoking rates. These findings suggest that in-treatment cue reactivity assessment may proactively and dynamically inform ongoing treatment as well as provide a tool for screening potential medications for smoking cessation.

  8. Effects of Divalproex on Smoking Cue Reactivity and Cessation Outcomes Among Smokers Achieving Initial Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Oliver, Jason A.; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Saladin, Michael E.; Drobes, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Divalproex, a GABA agonist, may be a useful agent in the treatment of tobacco dependence. Cue reactivity assessment paradigms are ideally suited to explore basic mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effects of medications that purport to have efficacy for smoking cessation. Our primary goal in the current study was to examine the effects of divalproex on in-treatment reactivity to smoking-relevant and affective cues, and to determine if these reactions were predictive of posttreatment smoking behavior. There were 120 nicotine dependent smokers enrolled in an 8-week double-blind clinical trial and randomly assigned to either divalproex or placebo conditions. Of these, 72 smokers (60% female) who achieved a minimal level of abstinence underwent an in-treatment cue reactivity assessment. Contrary to expectations, divalproex was associated with greater craving and arousal during smoking cue presentation. Divalproex also inhibited cardiovascular response to pleasant cues. Although no significant differences in cessation-related outcomes between divalproex- and placebo-treated participants were observed, cue-elicited craving to smoke predicted end-of-treatment and posttreatment smoking rates. These findings suggest that in-treatment cue reactivity assessment may proactively and dynamically inform ongoing treatment as well as provide a tool for screening potential medications for smoking cessation. PMID:22468897

  9. Achieving graduate outcomes in undergraduate nursing education: following the Yellow Brick Road.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Adele; Bentley, Karyn; Langtree, Tanya; Mills, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Nursing practice is a dynamic and constantly changing field within healthcare, with well-documented challenges to maintaining a suitably skilled workforce to meet the needs of the community it serves. Undergraduate nursing education provides the mandatory minimum requirements for professional registration. Each nursing program has clearly stated graduate attributes, qualities that their graduates will possess on graduation. The aim of this paper is to stimulate discussion about graduate attributes for nurses, a transferrable set of specific attributes that make nursing graduates work ready. This paper focuses on identifying specific attributes, the embedding of those attributes in nursing education, particularly through role modelling, with the aim of producing a future workforce that is knowledgeable, compassionate and confident. The graduate attributes are likened to the qualities sought by the characters in 'The Wizard of Oz'; brains, heart and courage and the learning process as the 'Yellow Brick Road'. There is a relative lack of discussion about role modelling by nurse educators for nursing students, a potentially undervalued learning experience that we believe must be brought to the forefront of discussions pertaining to undergraduate nursing education and achieving graduate outcomes.

  10. Dissemination of behavioural activation for depression to mental health nurses: training evaluation and benchmarked clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ekers, D M; Dawson, M S; Bailey, E

    2013-03-01

    Depression causes significant distress, disability and cost within the UK. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective single-strand psychological approach which may lend itself to brief training programmes for a wide range of clinical staff. No previous research has directly examined outcomes of such dissemination. A 5-day training course for 10 primary care mental health workers aiming to increase knowledge and clinical skills in BA was evaluated using the Training Acceptability Rating Scale. Depression symptom level data collected in a randomized controlled trial using trainees were then compared to results from meta-analysis of studies using experienced therapists. BA training was highly acceptable to trainees (94.4%, SD 6%). The combined effect size of BA was unchanged by the addition of the results of this evaluation to those of studies using specialist therapists. BA offers a promising psychological intervention for depression that appears suitable for delivery by mental health nurses following brief training.

  11. Task oriented training improves the balance outcome & reducing fall risk in diabetic population

    PubMed Central

    Ghazal, Javeria; Malik, Arshad Nawaz; Amjad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to determine the balance impairments and to compare task oriented versus traditional balance training in fall reduction among diabetic patients. Methods: The randomized control trial with descriptive survey and 196 diabetic patients were recruited to assess balance impairments through purposive sampling technique. Eighteen patients were randomly allocated into two groups; task oriented balance training group TOB (n=8) and traditional balance training group TBT (n=10). The inclusion criteria were 30-50 years age bracket and diagnosed cases of Diabetes Mellitus with neuropathy. The demographics were taken through standardized & valid assessment tools include Berg Balance Scale and Functional Reach Test. The measurements were obtained at baseline, after 04 and 08 weeks of training. Results: The mean age of the participants was 49 ±6.79. The result shows that 165(84%) were at moderate risk of fall and 31(15%) were at mild risk of fall among total 196 diabetic patients. There was significant improvement (p <0.05) in task oriented balance training group for dynamic balance, anticipatory balance and reactive balance after 8 weeks of training as compare to traditional balance training. Conclusion: Task oriented balance training is effective in improving the dynamic, anticipator and reactive balance. The task oriented training reduces the risk of falling through enhancing balance outcome. PMID:27648053

  12. Innovative Training in Pediatrics, General Psychiatry, and Child Psychiatry: Background, Outcomes, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fritz, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The authors describe the history, rationale, and outcomes of combined training programs in pediatrics, psychiatry, and child psychiatry ("triple board"), including narrative feedback from graduates and reflections upon the important components of the program. Methods: This article reviews the background and experiences of triple board…

  13. Trading Places: The Impact and Outcomes of Market Reform in Vocational Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Damon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate, from a national perspective, the impact and outcomes of market reform in vocational education and training (VET), particularly the introduction of competitive tendering and "user choice". It does so by examining the structure, composition and dynamics of contestable or "quasi-markets" for VET, assessing…

  14. Predicting Employment Outcomes for Consumers in Community College Short-Term Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Benz, Michael R.; Yovanoff, Paul; Kato, Mary McGrath; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Postsecondary education has been linked to improved access to employment opportunities for individuals with and without disabilities. The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with increased employment outcomes for Vocational Rehabilitation consumers enrolled in community college short term occupational skill training programs.…

  15. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: Anxiety Outcomes and Impact of Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J.; Benas, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a…

  16. Vocational Education and Training in India: Challenges, Status and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Tushar

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of vocational education and training (VET) system in India, and discusses various challenges and difficulties in the Indian VET system. The paper also examines labour market outcomes of vocational graduates and compares these with those of general secondary graduates using a large-scale nationally representative…

  17. The Effect of Brief Training in Motivational Interviewing on Client Outcomes and Trainee Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2010-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based practice that focuses on working through client ambivalence and increasing clients' motivation to change. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect that a unique student-based training in MI had on counselor trainees' ability to perform MI, and on client outcomes. This training…

  18. Generating Outcome Measurements: Achievement and Attitudes. A Guide to Educational Outcome Measurements and Their Uses. Seminar No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mushkin, Selma J.; Billings, Bradley B.

    This guide is essentially designed as a teaching aid for those who would inform planners, officials of educational ministries, school administrators, principals, and teachers about educational outcome measurements. In outline and graphic form, the guide presents topics for discussion in a seminar dealing with how to obtain information on…

  19. Monetary Incentives to Reinforce Engagement and Achievement in a Job-Skills Training Program for Homeless, Unemployed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Wong, Conrad J.; Fingerhood, Michael; Svikis, Dace S.; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether monetary incentives could increase engagement and achievement in a job-skills training program for unemployed, homeless, alcohol-dependent adults. Participants (n?=?124) were randomized to a no-reinforcement group (n?=?39), during which access to the training program was provided but no incentives were given; a…

  20. Training Needs for Faculty Members: Towards Achieving Quality of University Education in the Light of Technological Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abouelenein, Yousri Attia Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify training needs of university faculty members, in order to achieve the desired quality in the light of technological innovations. A list of training needs of faculty members was developed in terms of technological innovations in general, developing skills of faculty members in the use of technological…

  1. Effect of Instructional Media in the Learning of English Grammar on the Achievement of Teacher Training Students at Namakkal District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arulselvi, Evangelin

    2011-01-01

    The present study is aimed at finding the effect of Instructional software program in the learning of grammar on the achievement of teacher training students of Namakkal District. Parallel group experimental method was adopted in this study. A sample of 80 students studying in the teacher training college were selected on the basis of their…

  2. Staff training and ambulatory tuberculosis treatment outcomes: a cluster randomized controlled trial in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Simon; Dick, Judy; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Lombard, Carl J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether adding a training intervention for clinic staff to the usual DOTS strategy (the internationally recommended control strategy for tuberculosis (TB)) would affect the outcomes of TB treatment in primary care clinics with treatment success rates below 70%. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted from July 1996 to July 2000 in nurse-managed ambulatory primary care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinics with successful TB treatment completion rates of less than 70% and annual adult pulmonary TB loads of more than 40 patients per year were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 12) or control (n = 12) groups. All clinics completed follow-up. Treatment outcomes were measured in cohorts of adult, pulmonary TB patients before the intervention (n = 1200) and 9 months following the training (n = 1177). The intervention comprised an 18-hour experiential, participatory in-service training programme for clinic staff delivered by nurse facilitators and focusing on patient centredness, critical reflection on practice, and quality improvement. The main outcome measure was successful treatment, defined as patients who were cured and those who had completed tuberculosis treatment. FINDINGS: The estimated effect of the intervention was an increase in successful treatment rates of 4.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): -5.5% to 15.2%) and in bacteriological cure rates of 10.4% (CI: -1.2% to 22%). A treatment effect of 10% was envisaged, based on the views of policy-makers on the minimum effect size for large-scale implementation. CONCLUSION: This is the first evidence from a randomized controlled trial on the effects of experiential, participatory training on TB outcomes in primary care facilities in a developing country. Such training did not appear to improve TB outcomes. However, the results were inconclusive and further studies are required. PMID:15868015

  3. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  4. FIASCO II failure to achieve a satisfactory cardiac outcome study: the elimination of system errors

    PubMed Central

    Farid, Shakil; Page, Aravinda; Jenkins, David; Jones, Mark T.; Freed, Darren; Nashef, Samer A.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Death in low-risk cardiac surgical patients provides a simple and accessible method by which modifiable causes of death can be identified. In the first FIASCO study published in 2009, local potentially modifiable causes of preventable death in low-risk patients with a logistic EuroSCORE of 0–2 undergoing cardiac surgery were inadequate myocardial protection and lack of clarity in the chain of responsibility. As a result, myocardial protection was improved, and a formalized system introduced to ensure clarity of the chain of responsibility in the care of all cardiac surgical patients. The purpose of the current study was to re-audit outcomes in low-risk patients to see if improvements have been achieved. METHODS Patients with a logistic EuroSCORE of 0–2 who had cardiac surgery from January 2006 to August 2012 were included. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analysed. The case notes of patients who died in hospital were subject to internal and external review and classified according to preventability. RESULTS Two thousand five hundred and forty-nine patients with a logistic EuroSCORE of 0–2 underwent cardiac surgery during the study period. Seven deaths occurred in truly low-risk patients, giving a mortality of 0.27%. Of the seven, three were considered preventable and four non-preventable. Mortality was marginally lower than in our previous study (0.37%), and no death occurred as a result of inadequate myocardial protection or communication failures. CONCLUSION We postulate that the regular study of such events in all institutions may unmask systemic errors that can be remedied to prevent or reduce future occurrences. We encourage all units to use this methodology to detect any similarly modifiable factors in their practice. PMID:23592726

  5. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School

    PubMed Central

    Thacher, Pamela V.; Onyper, Serge V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. Methods: We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the “Owl-Lark” Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010–2011 through 2013–2014. Results: Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Conclusions: Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. Citation: Thacher PV, Onyper SV. Longitudinal outcomes of start time delay on sleep, behavior, and achievement in high school. SLEEP 2016;39(2):271–281. PMID

  6. Employment Training Panel: Has Achieved Many of Its Training Program Responsibilities Despite Some Administrative and Planning Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Auditor General, Sacramento.

    California's Employment Training Panel was created in 1982 to work in partnership with the state's businesses, labor unions, and government to provide training funds to California businesses. In 1995, the Employment Training Panel's administrative practices, strategic planning efforts, and contracting policies and practices/procedures were…

  7. Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy in Beginning Weight Training Class: Their Relations to Students' Behavioral Intention and Actual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lee, Amelia M.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This study was an initial attempt to investigate the relationships among self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, behavioral intention, and actual behavior over time in a beginning weight training class. A total of 109 participants completed questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and intentions for future weight training.…

  8. An Examination of Behavioral Rehearsal During Consultation as a Predictor of Training Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Philip C.; Ringle, Vanesa A.; Read, Kendra L.; Brodman, Douglas A.; Pimentel, Sandra S.; Beidas, Rinad S.

    2013-01-01

    The training literature suggests that ongoing support following initial therapist training enhances training outcomes, yet little is known about what occurs during ongoing support and what accounts for its effectiveness. The present study examined consultation sessions provided to 99 clinicians following training in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety. The 104 recorded consultation sessions were coded for content and consultative methods. It was hypothesized that behavioral rehearsal (an active learning technique) would predict therapist adherence, skill, self-efficacy, and satisfaction at post-consultation. Regression analyses found no significant relation, however, clinician involvement during consultation sessions positively moderated the relationship between behavioral rehearsals and skill. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. PMID:23616234

  9. Achieving Faculty Buy-In: Motivation Performance in Learning Outcome Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sujitparapitaya, Sutee

    2014-01-01

    Despite the great value of student learning outcome assessment (SLOA), faculty have not fully embraced the assessment movement, and many remain locked in debates on its merits. To gain faculty buy-in and explain why many faculty were motivated to engage in outcome assessment, the modified CANE (Commitment And Necessary Effort) model was used to…

  10. The Secondary Head of Department and the Achievement of Exceptional Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinham, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of the secondary Head of Department (HoD) in leading teams producing exceptional education outcomes in Years 7-10 in New South Wales (NSW, Australia) government schools. Design/methodology/approach: Sites where exceptional educational outcomes were believed to be occurring were selected…

  11. Can Cooperative Learning Achieve the Four Learning Outcomes of Physical Education? A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Ashley; Goodyear, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Physical learning, cognitive learning, social learning, and affective learning are positioned as the legitimate learning outcomes of physical education. It has been argued that these four learning outcomes go toward facilitating students' engagement with the physically active life (Bailey et al., 2009; Kirk, 2013). With Cooperative Learning…

  12. Differential outcomes training improves face recognition memory in children and in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Laura; Plaza, Victoria; López-Crespo, Ginesa; Vivas, Ana B; Estévez, Angeles F

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the differential outcomes procedure (DOP), which involves paring a unique reward with a specific stimulus, enhances discriminative learning and memory performance in several populations. The present study aimed to further investigate whether this procedure would improve face recognition memory in 5- and 7-year-old children (Experiment 1) and adults with Down syndrome (Experiment 2). In a delayed matching-to-sample task, participants had to select the previously shown face (sample stimulus) among six alternatives faces (comparison stimuli) in four different delays (1, 5, 10, or 15s). Participants were tested in two conditions: differential, where each sample stimulus was paired with a specific outcome; and non-differential outcomes, where reinforcers were administered randomly. The results showed a significantly better face recognition in the differential outcomes condition relative to the non-differential in both experiments. Implications for memory training programs and future research are discussed.

  13. Schooling and Cognitive Achievements of Children in Morocco: Can the Government Improve Outcomes? World Bank Discussion Papers, No. 264.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; And Others

    This paper uses data from the Morocco Living Standard Survey in an econometric investigation of the relative effectiveness of supply- and demand-side factors in determining educational outcomes. A wide range of factors are examined that may be responsible for differences in grade completion levels and achievement among sexes, regions, and urban…

  14. It's Not Just "What" You Say: Verbal and Nonverbal Skills Help Leaders Address Challenges and Achieve Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoller, Kendall; Lahera, Antonia Issa; Normore, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a story about two school leaders in a large Southern California urban district who used skills developed in a university school leadership program to create rapport, empathy, and trust while leading through challenging situations and achieving actionable outcomes. In addition to developing relationships in support of…

  15. The Effects of Physical Activity and Physical Fitness on Children's Achievement and Cognitive Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2011-01-01

    It is common knowledge that physical activity leads to numerous health and psychological benefits. However, the relationship between children's physical activity and academic achievement has been debated in the literature. Some studies have found strong, positive relationships between physical activity and cognitive outcomes, while other studies…

  16. Eleven-year outcomes from an integrated residency program to train research psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alexander C; Ordóñez, Anna E; Reus, Victor I; Mathews, Carol A

    2013-07-01

    In 2000, to address the critical shortage of research psychiatrists, faculty in the Residency Training Program in General Adult Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine developed and implemented a research resident training program (RRTP). In this article, the authors describe the program's development process, including its organizational structure, eligibility criteria for residents, and core program elements, and they report 11 years of outcomes data. Notable RRTP components include research and career mentorship, individualized training plans, the integration of clinical and research experiences, protected research time, and research funding. From 2000 to 2011, the RRTP enrolled 48 residents. The authors' primary outcome of interest in determining the success of the program was whether or not each RRTP resident entered a postdoctoral research fellowship after graduation. The authors found that more than 80% of graduates had matriculated to postdoctoral research fellowships, irrespective of their previous doctoral-level training in the basic or social sciences. The authors conclude that this flexible, individualized, and innovative training program for psychiatry residents was successful in facilitating the entry of participants into primary research careers, reasoning that it may serve as a model for other residency programs with similar goals. More widespread adoption of similar educational models may help to address the critical shortage of research psychiatrists. PMID:23702520

  17. Does Aggregate School-Wide Achievement Mediate Fifth Grade Outcomes for Former Early Childhood Education Participants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Dong, Nianbo; Shen, Xiangjin

    2015-01-01

    This study used a multilevel mediation model to test the theory that former early childhood education (ECE) attendees' 5th grade achievement is mediated by the aggregate school-wide achievement of their elementary school. Aggregate school-wide achievement was defined as the percentage of 5th graders in a school who were at/above academic…

  18. Dominant Achievement Goals of Older Workers and Their Relationship with Motivation-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their dominant achievement goals were linked to…

  19. Academic Outcomes from Between-Class Achievement Grouping: The Australian Primary Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Grouping students by academic achievement level has been practised in a wide variety of forms and contexts for over a century. Despite a general consensus in the research that between-class achievement grouping provides no overall benefit for students, the practice has persisted in various guises. Between-class achievement grouping is common in…

  20. Cognitive Training for Children: Effects on Inductive Reasoning, Deductive Reasoning, and Mathematics Achievement in an Australian School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkl, Sophie; Porter, Amy; Ginns, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Inductive reasoning is a core cognitive process of fluid intelligence, predicting a variety of educational outcomes. The Cognitive Training for Children (CTC) program is an educational intervention designed to develop children's inductive reasoning skills, with previous investigations finding substantial effects of the program on both inductive…

  1. Promoting Organizational Learning in Higher Education to Achieve Equity in Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Georgia L.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter describes a project in which teams of faculty, administrators, and staff from fourteen colleges and universities engaged in organizational learning for the purposes of identifying and improving inequitable educational outcomes for African American and Latino students.

  2. Discordance of Cognitive and Academic Achievement Outcomes in Youth with Perinatal HIV Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Garvie, Patricia A.; Zeldow, Bret; Malee, Kathleen; Nichols, Sharon L.; Smith, Renee A.; Wilkins, Megan L.; Williams, Paige L.

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate achievement in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) compared to HIV-exposed uninfected peers (HEU), and to examine differential effects of HIV on cognition-achievement concordance. Methods Cognition and achievement were assessed using standardized measures. IQ-derived predicted achievement scores were subtracted from observed achievement scores to calculate discrepancy values. Linear regression models were used to compare achievement discrepancies between PHIV and HEU, adjusting for demographic covariates. Results Participants: 295 PHIV and 167 HEU youth; 71% black, 48% male, mean age 13.1 and 11.3 years, respectively. PHIV youth were relatively healthy (mean CD4%, 32%; viral load ≤400 copies/mL, 72%). PHIV and HEU youth had cognitive and achievement scores significantly below population norm means (p<0.001), but did not differ in cognition (mean FSIQ=86.7 vs. 89.4, respectively). In unadjusted models, HEU outperformed PHIV youth on Total Achievement (TA; mean=89.2 vs. 86.0, p=0.04) and Numerical Operations (NO; mean=88.8 vs. 82.9, p<0.001); no differences remained after adjustment. Mean observed-predicted achievement discrepancies reflected “underachievement”. History of encephalopathy predicted poorer achievement (p=0.039) and greater underachievement, even after adjustment. PHIV showed greater underachievement than HEU for NO (p<0.001) and TA (p=0.03), but these differences did not persist in adjusted models. Conclusions Both PHIV and HEU youth demonstrated lower achievement than normative samples, and underachieved relative to predicted achievement scores. Observed-predicted achievement discrepancies were associated with prior encephalopathy, older age and other non-HIV factors. PHIV youth with prior encephalopathy had significantly lower achievement and greater underachievement compared to PHIV without encephalopathy and HEU youth, even in adjusted models. PMID:25361033

  3. Virtual Reality Job Interview Training and 6-Month Employment Outcomes for Individuals with Schizophrenia Seeking Employment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew J.; Fleming, Michael F.; Wright, Michael A.; Roberts, Andrea G.; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Individuals with schizophrenia have low employment rates and the job interview presents a critical barrier for them to obtain employment. Virtual reality training has demonstrated efficacy at improving interview skills and employment outcomes among multiple clinical populations. However, the effects of this training on individuals with schizophrenia are unknown. This study evaluated the efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) at improving job interview skills and employment outcomes among individuals with schizophrenia in a small randomized controlled trial (n=21 VR-JIT trainees, n=11 waitlist controls). METHODS Trainees completed up to 10 hours of virtual interviews using VR-JIT, while controls received services as usual. Primary outcome measures included two pre-test and two post-test video-recorded role-play interviews scored by blinded human resource experts and self-reported interviewing self-confidence. Six-month follow-up data on employment outcomes were collected. RESULTS Trainees reported the intervention was easy-to-use, helpful, and prepared them for future interviews. Trainees demonstrated increased role-play scores between pre-test and post-test while controls did not (p=0.001). After accounting for neurocognition and months since prior employment, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6 month follow-up compared to controls (OR: 8.73, p=0.04) and more training was associated with fewer weeks until receiving a job offer (r=−0.63, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Results suggest VR-JIT is acceptable to trainees and may be efficacious for improving job interview skills in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, trainees had greater odds of receiving a job offer by 6-month follow-up. Future studies could evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT within community-based services. PMID:26032567

  4. Incorporating Age-Specific Plans of Care to Achieve Optimal Perioperative Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mower, Juliana

    2015-10-01

    When developing a nursing plan of care, a perioperative nurse identifies nursing diagnoses during the preoperative patient assessment. The ability to identify age-specific outcomes (ie, infant/child, adolescent, adult, elderly adult) in addition to those that are universally applicable is a major responsibility of the perioperative RN. Having an individualized plan of care is one of the best ways to determine whether desired patient outcomes have been successfully attained. Nursing care plans address intraoperative and postoperative risks and allow for a smooth transfer of care throughout the perioperative experience. A good nursing care plan also includes education for the patient and his or her caregiver. Within an overall plan of care, the use of methods such as a concept or mind map can visually demonstrate the relationships between systems, nursing diagnoses, nursing interventions, and desirable outcomes.

  5. Outcomes of neurofeedback training in childhood obesity management: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Puiu, Maria

    2014-11-01

    This pilot study sought to evaluate the neurofeedback training outcomes in childhood obesity management. The study involved 34 overweight and obese children, age 6-18 years (12 patients in the intervention group, 22 in the control group). Complete assessment of children was done before the intervention and 3 and 6 months after the intervention; eating behavior and quality-of-life questionnaires were assessed at study start and 6 months after. All children received classic lifestyle recommendations for weight management, while the intervention group also had 20 neurofeedback sessions (infra-low-frequency training). The neurofeedback intervention was associated with less weight loss compared with classic weight management. The mean change in body-mass index standard deviation score at 3 months was -0.29 for the intervention group and -0.36 for the control group (p=0.337); after 6 months, the changes were -0.30 and -0.56, respectively (p=0.035). Quality of life improved similarly for both groups. Subjective outcomes reported by patients in the intervention were less snacking, improved satiety, enhanced attention capacity, ameliorated hyperactivity, and better sleep patterns. Larger studies, with training methods involving both the left and right cortices, should further clarify the role of neurofeedback training in obesity management.

  6. The Postsecondary Achievement of Participants in Dual Enrollment: "An Analysis of Student Outcomes in Two States"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Calcagno, Juan Carlos; Hughes, Katherine L.; Jeong, Dong Wook; Bailey, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    Dual enrollment programs enable high school students to enroll in college courses and earn college credit. Once limited to high-achieving students, such programs are increasingly seen as a means to support the postsecondary preparation of average-achieving students and students in career and technical education (CTE) programs. This report seeks to…

  7. The effects of training in time-limited dynamic psychotherapy: changes in therapeutic outcome.

    PubMed

    Bein, E; Anderson, T; Strupp, H; Henry, W; Schacht, T; Binder, J; Butler, S

    2000-02-01

    The present study explored the effects on therapeutic outcomes of training therapists in brief manualized therapy. As part of the Vanderbilt II project, each of 16 therapists (8 psychiatrists and 8 clinical psychologists) treated 2 moderately disturbed adult patients using his or her customary short-term treatment methods; they then received a year of training in a manualized form of brief dynamic therapy, Time-Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy (TLDP); finally, they administered TLDP to 2 additional patients. It was hypothesized that training would result in improved outcomes generally and that differentially greater improvement would be seen in patients commonly considered less suitable for brief dynamic therapy. Outcome data obtained at termination failed to support either hypothesis. Measurements of interpersonal dependency obtained at a one-year follow-up were consistent with the first hypothesis, but the follow-up data were inconsistent with the second. A systematic review of the 32 posttraining cases suggested that the majority of the therapists had not achieved basic competence at TLDP. Die hier beschriebene Studie untersucht die Wirkungen eines Trainings in manualisierter Kurzzeitherapie auf das Therapierergebnis. Als Teil des Vanderbilt II Projektes behandelten jeweils 16 Therapeuten (8 Psychiater und 8 klinische Psychologen) zwei mittelgradig beeinrächtigte erwachsene Patienten mit den ihnen vertrauten Kurzzeitbehandlungsmethoden. Danach wurden sie über ein Jahr in einer manualisierten Form psychodynamischer Kurzzeittherapie ausgebildet und wandten diese Therapie auf zwei weitere Patienten an. Es wurde angenommen, dass die Ausbildung in besseren Ergebnisdaten, die bei Ende der Therapie erhoben wurden, konnten diese Hypothese nicht bestätigen. Maße für die interpersonale Abhängigkeit zu einem Einjahreskatamnesezeitpunkt waren mit der ersten Hypothese konform, aber inkonsistent mit der zweiten. Eine systematische Untersuchung der 32 nach der Ausbildung

  8. Students' Motivational Profiles and Achievement Outcomes in Physical Education: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boiche, Julie C. S.; Sarrazin, Philippe G.; Pelletier, Luc G.; Grouzet, Frederick M. E.; Chanal, Julien P.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies in education have inspected the relations between students' autonomous versus controlled motivation and relevant outcomes. In most of those studies a global index of self-determined motivation was created. The purpose of this article was to examine (a) how the different types of motivation proposed by Self-Determination Theory…

  9. The Costs of Services and Employment Outcomes Achieved by Adults with Autism in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert; Cowan, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the cost of services and employment outcomes obtained by adults with autism within the United States vocational rehabilitation (VR) system. It found that the number of such individuals has increased by more than 121 percent from 2002 to 2006. Moreover, though adults with autism were employed at higher rates than most…

  10. Guide to Success for Organisations in Achieving Employment Outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giddy, Kristine; Lopez, Jessica; Redman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Helping Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander job-seekers find and keep a job has been the focus of recent reforms announced by the Australian Government. This guide describes seven essential characteristics of employment service organisations that lead to successful employment outcomes for their Indigenous clients. Based on a selection of…

  11. Achieving Course Objectives and Student Learning Outcomes: Seeking Student Feedback on Their Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Danni; Loyle-Langholz, Anne; Higbee, Jeanne L.; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Most postsecondary faculty in the United States include course goals or objectives as key components of their syllabi. In addition to individual course objectives, many institutions have identified institution-wide student learning outcomes (SLOs). This paper describes one faculty member's attempts to elicit feedback from students regarding their…

  12. Narrowing the Field: Achieve Engagement Outcomes Faster by Targeting Potential Alumni Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolman, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Traditional alumni relations programs are about prompting graduates to do something--anything--for or with the institution. In this article, the author proposes something different: an outcome-oriented alumni relations programming model, which the author calls "strategic advancement," that focuses on smaller, targeted sets of graduates…

  13. Achieving optimal delivery of follow-up care for prostate cancer survivors: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Shawna V; O’Malley, Denalee M; Miller, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the US, and the second most prevalent cancer in men worldwide. High incidence and survival rates for prostate cancer have resulted in a large and growing population of long-term prostate cancer survivors. Long-term follow-up guidelines have only recently been developed to inform approaches to this phase of care for the prostate cancer population. Methods A PubMed search of English literature through August 2014 was performed. Articles were retrieved and reviewed to confirm their relevance. Patient-reported measures that were used in studies of long-term prostate cancer survivors (ie, at least 2 years posttreatment) were reviewed and included in the review. Results A total of 343 abstracts were initially identified from the database search. After abstract review, 105 full-text articles were reviewed of which seven met inclusion criteria. An additional 22 articles were identified from the references of the included articles, and 29 were retained. From the 29 articles, 68 patient-reported outcome measures were identified. The majority (75%) were multi-item scales that had been previously validated in existing literature. We identified four main areas of assessment: 1) physical health; 2) quality of life – general, physical, and psychosocial; 3) health promotion – physical activity, diet, and tobacco cessation; and 4) care quality outcomes. Conclusion There are a number of well-validated measures that assess patient-reported outcomes that document key aspects of long-term follow-up with respect to patient symptoms and quality of life. However, there are fewer patient-reported outcomes related to health promotion and care quality within the prevention, surveillance, and care coordination components of cancer survivorship. Future research should focus on development of additional patient-centered and patient-related outcomes that enlarge the assessment portfolio. PMID:25834471

  14. Improvement of nursing students' learning outcomes through scenario-based skills training

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Nurcan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: this study analyzed the influence of scenario-based skills training on students' learning skills. Method: the author evaluated the nursing skills laboratory exam papers of 605 sophomores in nursing programs for seven years. The study determined the common mistakes of students and the laboratory work was designed in a scenario-based format. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated by assessing the number of errors the students committed and their achievement scores in laboratory examinations. This study presents the students' common mistakes in intramuscular and subcutaneous injection and their development of intravenous access skills, included in the nursing skills laboratory examination. Results: an analysis of the students' most common mistakes revealed that the most common was not following the principles of asepsis for all three skills (intramuscular, subcutaneous injection, intravenous access) in the first year of the scenario-based training. The students' exam achievement scores increased gradually, except in the fall semester of the academic year 2009-2010. The study found that the scenario-based skills training reduced students' common mistakes in examinations and enhanced their performance on exams. Conclusion: this method received a positive response from both students and instructors. The scenario-based training is available for use in addition to other skills training methods. PMID:27508922

  15. Outcomes from two forms of training for first-responder competency in cholinergic crisis management.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Pamela; Klotz, Jessica J; Madsen, James M; Hurst, Charles G; Talbot, Thomas B

    2015-04-01

    Military and civilian first responders must be able to recognize and effectively manage mass disaster casualties. Clinical management of injuries resulting from nerve agents provides different challenges for first responders than those of conventional weapons. We evaluated the impact of a mixed-methods training program on competency acquisition in cholinergic crisis clinical management using multimedia with either live animal or patient actor examples, and hands-on practice using SimMan3G mannequin simulators. A purposively selected sample of 204 civilian and military first responders who had not previously completed nerve agent training were assessed pre- and post-training for knowledge, performance, self-efficacy, and affective state. We conducted analysis of variance with repeated measures; statistical significance p < 0.05. Both groups had significant performance improvement across all assessment dimensions: knowledge > 20%, performance > 50%, self-efficacy > 34%, and affective state > 15%. There were no significant differences between the live animal and patient actor groups. These findings could aid in the specification of training for first-responder personnel in military and civilian service. Although less comprehensive than U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense courses, the training outcomes associated with this easily distributed program demonstrate its value in increasing the competency of first responders in recognizing and managing a mass casualty cholinergic event.

  16. Gradually increased training intensity benefits rehabilitation outcome after stroke by BDNF upregulation and stress suppression.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Ke, Zheng; Yip, Shea Ping; Hu, Xiao-ling; Zheng, Xiao-xiang; Tong, Kai-yu

    2014-01-01

    Physical training is necessary for effective rehabilitation in the early poststroke period. Animal studies commonly use fixed training intensity throughout rehabilitation and without adapting it to the animals' recovered motor ability. This study investigated the correlation between training intensity and rehabilitation efficacy by using a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Sixty rats with successful stroke were then randomly assigned into four groups: control (CG, n = 15), low intensity (LG, n = 15), gradually increased intensity (GIG, n = 15), and high intensity (HG, n = 15). Behavioral tests were conducted daily to evaluate motor function recovery. Stress level and neural recovery were evaluated via plasma corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration, respectively. GIG rats significantly (P < 0.05) recovered motor function and produced higher hippocampal BDNF (112.87 ± 25.18 ng/g). GIG and LG rats exhibited similar stress levels (540.63 ± 117.40 nM/L and 508.07 ± 161.30 nM/L, resp.), which were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that (716.90 ± 156.48 nM/L) of HG rats. Training with gradually increased intensity achieved better recovery with lower stress. Our observations indicate that a training protocol that includes gradually increasing training intensity should be considered in both animal and clinical studies for better stroke recovery. PMID:25045713

  17. Student achievement outcomes in a scaling urban standards-based science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Robert R.

    This work examines the effects on achievement of a multifaceted reform supporting standards based science teaching in urban middle schools. Several project-based inquiry science curriculum units were introduced to the Detroit public schools, supported by aligned professional development, learning technologies, and administrative policy. The units scaled to over 20,000 students in 26 schools over 6 years, producing unique large-scale longitudinal achievement data on curriculum reform. Chapters include a review of achievement studies on scaling reforms, an examination of the impact of the inquiry curriculum units on state standardized test results, and an investigation of the effect of scaling and teacher experience on student learning. Two cohorts of 7th and 8th graders that participated in the curricula are compared with the remainder of the district population using state standardized test results. Both the initial (n = 760) and scaled up (n = 1,043) cohorts show higher science content understanding and process skills, and significantly higher pass rates. The effect does not attenuate with scaling, is greater for students who experience an inquiry curriculum in both 7th and 8th grade, and reduces the gender gap in achievement for urban African-American boys. Scaling effects as the curriculum innovation matured over 4--6 years are examined using pretest/posttest assessments for two curricula involving 6,396 and 5,043 students respectively. There is no attenuation in student achievement as the innovation scales and outside support fades. Student achievement shows significant gains in the first two years of curriculum enactment, before reaching a stable plateau. By contrast, individual teachers show yearly improvement in student achievement on average as they gain experience with curricula. The absence of a plateau suggests that stability of teacher staffing and administrative support for reform are important for maintaining and improving achievement. Together, the

  18. Con: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Walker, Isabeau A

    2009-01-01

    Medical migration is damaging health systems in developing countries and anesthesia delivery is critically affected, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. 'Within country' postgraduate anesthesia training needs to be supported to encourage more doctors into the specialty. Open-ended training programs to countries that do not share the same spectrum of disease should be discouraged. Donor agencies have an important role to play in supporting sustainable postgraduate training programs.

  19. Interdisciplinary mathematics and science: Characteristics, forms, and related effect sizes for student achievement and affective outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Marlene M.

    1999-12-01

    This study provides an analytic description of quasi-experimental studies that may either support or deny the wisdom of educational reform through interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Interdisciplinarity is examined on two dimensions, the philosophic and the pedagogic, and by two methodologies, meta-analytic and qualitative, in a search for greater understanding of the definitions, forms, characteristics, and effects from studies of interdisciplinary mathematics and science. Thirty-four studies were collected from a search of the literature that spanned the century, the grade levels, and included many forms of interdisciplinarity. Several research questions were asked: (1) What forms of interdisciplinarity, philosophically and practically, are represented by the studies? (2) What are their qualitative effects in school settings? (3) What are the characteristics of interdisciplinary quasi-experimental research? (4) What achievement effects typify the interdisciplinary comparative studies? (5) What factors account for variation in these achievement effects? (6) What claims or criticisms regarding interdisciplinarity are supported or refuted by the qualitative analysis of forms and effects and the quantitative meta-analytic study? Results from this study support the concerns that terms of interdisciplinarity are used without regard for context and that there is a trend toward a great diversity of ideas regarding the nature of interdisciplinary education. Student achievement data were provided by the 34 studies for mathematics and/or science. The mean effect sizes for student achievement were computed as: mathematics achievement, .27 (SE = .09); science achievement, .37 (SE = .12). Curricular materials developed by teachers were significantly less related to student achievement than materials developed by researchers or commercially. The methods of integration employed by the 34 studies formed a continuum from sequenced instructional integration to total

  20. Outcomes, moderators, and mediators of empathic-emotion recognition training for complex conduct problems in childhood.

    PubMed

    Dadds, Mark Richard; Cauchi, Avril Jessica; Wimalaweera, Subodha; Hawes, David John; Brennan, John

    2012-10-30

    Impairments in emotion recognition skills are a trans-diagnostic indicator of early mental health problems and may be responsive to intervention. We report on a randomized controlled trial of "Emotion-recognition-training" (ERT) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) with N=195 mixed diagnostic children (mean age 10.52 years) referred for behavioral/emotional problems measured at pre- and 6 months post-treatment. We tested overall outcomes plus moderation and mediation models, whereby diagnostic profile was tested as a moderator of change. ERT had no impact on the group as a whole. Diagnostic status of the child did not moderate outcomes; however, levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits moderated outcomes such that children with high CU traits responded less well to TAU, while ERT produced significant improvements in affective empathy and conduct problems in these children. Emotion recognition training has potential as an adjunctive intervention specifically for clinically referred children with high CU traits, regardless of their diagnostic status. PMID:22703720

  1. Effect of Previous Agricultural Mechanics Training on Achievement in a Basic Metals and Welding Course at Iowa State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Benjamin Arthur

    The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of previous training in agricultural mechanics upon achievement of students enrolled in a college level agricultural mechanics course and to determine factors that affect performance in this course of basic metals and welding. Students enrolled in the course during the fall and winter…

  2. Game-Based Practice versus Traditional Practice in Computer-Based Writing Strategy Training: Effects on Motivation and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proske, Antje; Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving sustained student engagement with practice in computer-based writing strategy training can be a challenge. One potential solution is to foster engagement by embedding practice in educational games; yet there is currently little research comparing the effectiveness of game-based practice versus more traditional forms of practice. In this…

  3. The Relationship between Teacher Training, Intervention Strategies, and Students' Academic Achievement in the Classroom with K-5 ADHD Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary intent of this study was to explore the effect between teachers' training, intervention strategies, and the academic achievement of K-5 ADHD students. The study design employed a mixed research design. The quantitative method focused on collecting data from certified regular and special-education teachers. Additionally, effects were…

  4. The Effects of Self-Regulated Learning Training on Community College Students' Metacognition and Achievement in Developmental Math Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Linda; Campbell, Karen D. Y.; Perez, Tony; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    The effects of training in self-regulation on metacognition and math achievement were investigated. The participants were 116 community college students enrolled in developmental math courses. Students enrolled in 16 classrooms were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group completed four…

  5. Effects of Adaptive Training on Working Memory and Academic Achievement of Children with Learning Disabilities: A School-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Rhonda Phillips

    2013-01-01

    Research has suggested many children with learning disabilities (LD) have deficits in working memory (WM) that hinder their academic achievement. Cogmed RM, a computerized intervention, uses adaptive training over 25 sessions and has shown efficacy in improving WM in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a variety of…

  6. Achievable Convergence Angle and the Effect of Preparation Design on the Clinical Outcome of Full Veneer Crowns in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Soukup, Jason W.; Snyder, Christopher J.; Karls, Tina L.; Riehl, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Summary It is widely accepted that the convergence angle of a full veneer crown preparation should be as close to parallel as possible to attain adequate retention/resistance. The shape of the dog’s canine tooth limits the veterinary dentists’ ability to achieve the recommended convergence angle. However, the clinically achievable convergence angle of the canine tooth in dogs has not been evaluated. In addition, the convergence angle and other physical properties of a preparation, such as height and base diameter, have been shown to affect the retention/resistance of full veneer crowns, in vitro. This effect has not been evaluated clinically in the dog. Physical properties of 32 stone dies from full veneer crowns of canine teeth were studied to evaluate the clinically achievable convergence angle and the potential effect physical properties of the preparation had on the clinical outcome of the restoration. The clinically achievable convergence angle was much higher than the current recommendation. There was an association, albeit not statistically significant, between physical properties of a preparation (convergence angle, height, base diameter) and the clinical outcome of the restoration. PMID:21916370

  7. Impacts of Comprehensive Reading Instruction on Diverse Outcomes of Low- and High-Achieving Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, John T.; McRae, Angela; Coddington, Cassandra S.; Klauda, Susan Lutz; Wigfield, Allan; Barbosa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Low-achieving readers in Grade 5 often lack comprehension strategies, domain knowledge, word recognition skills, fluency, and motivation to read. Students with such multiple reading needs seem likely to benefit from instruction that supports each of these reading processes. The authors tested this expectation experimentally by comparing the…

  8. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "KIPP Middle Schools: Impacts on Achievement and Other Outcomes, Final Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether attending a Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP) middle school improved students' reading, math, social studies, and science achievement for up to 4 years following enrollment. The study reported that students attending KIPP middle schools scored statistically significantly higher than matched students on all of the state…

  9. SMS-Based Learning in Tertiary Education: Achievement and Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Yaacov J.

    2013-01-01

    SMS delivery platforms are being increasingly used at the university level to enhance student achievement as well as traits and attitudes related to the learning process. SMS delivery provides access to learning materials without being limited by space or time and sophisticated technological advances in SMS delivery have led to enhanced learner…

  10. Outcomes and milestone achievement differences for very low-birth-weight multiples compared with singleton infants.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Sharon; Genen, Linda; Turenne, Wendy; Dysart, Kevin

    2010-06-01

    We examined if very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants of multiple gestation pregnancies experience more complications and take longer to achieve clinical milestones compared with similar singletons. We performed a retrospective analysis of all infants less than 1500 g at birth in a large neonatal database. Singletons were compared with twins and higher-order multiples for demographic, morbidities, and process milestones including feeding, respiratory, thermoregulation, and length of stay. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounding variables. A total of 5507 infants were included: 3792 singletons, 1391 twins, and 324 higher-order multiples. There were no differences in Apgar scores, small for gestational age status, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, severe retinopathy of prematurity, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or the need for surgery. Multiples had higher rates of apnea and patent ductus arteriosus than singletons. VLBW multiples achieved milestones at similar rates in most areas compared with singletons except for the achievement of full oral feedings. Length of stay, after controlling for confounding variables, did not differ between the groups. Compared with singletons, VLBW multiples had similar morbidity and achieved most feeding and thermoregulation milestones at similar rates.

  11. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael H; Fierke, Kerry K; Sucher, Brandon J; Janke, Kristin K

    2015-05-25

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI experts for structuring and planning EI development. Finally, we make 9 recommendations' to inform the process of including EI in pharmacy curricula. PMID:26089557

  12. The costs of services and employment outcomes achieved by adults with autism in the US.

    PubMed

    Cimera, Robert Evert; Cowan, Richard J

    2009-05-01

    This article examines the cost of services and employment outcomes obtained by adults with autism within the United States vocational rehabilitation (VR) system. It found that the number of such individuals has increased by more than 121 percent from 2002 to 2006. Moreover, though adults with autism were employed at higher rates than most disability groups investigated, they tended to work far fewer hours and earn less in wages per week. The study also found that adults with autism were among the most costly individuals to serve.

  13. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fierke, Kerry K.; Sucher, Brandon J.; Janke, Kristin K.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI experts for structuring and planning EI development. Finally, we make 9 recommendations’ to inform the process of including EI in pharmacy curricula. PMID:26089557

  14. Enhancement of Pavlovian Conditioned Inhibition Achieved by Posttraining Inflation of the Training Excitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, J.C.; Wheeler, D.S.; Miller, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    In two conditioned lick suppression experiments using water-deprived rats, we examined the effects of following Pavlovian conditioned inhibition training (i.e., A-US/AX-NoUS) with pairings of the training excitor (A) and the unconditioned stimulus (US). Experiments 1 and 2 assessed the effects of this posttraining inflation treatment on Pavlovian…

  15. Can developing countries achieve adequate improvements in child health outcomes without engaging the private sector?

    PubMed Central

    Bustreo, Flavia; Harding, April; Axelsson, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The private sector exerts a significant and critical influence on child health outcomes in developing countries, including the health of poor children. This article reviews the available evidence on private sector utilization and quality of care. It provides a framework for analysing the private sector's influence on child health outcomes. This influence goes beyond service provision by private providers and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Pharmacies, drug sellers, private suppliers, and food producers also have an impact on the health of children. Many governments are experimenting with strategies to engage the private sector to improve child health. The article analyses some of the most promising strategies, and suggests that a number of constraints make it hard for policy-makers to emulate these approaches. Few experiences are clearly described, monitored, and evaluated. The article suggests that improving the impact of child health programmes in developing countries requires a more systematic analysis of how to engage the private sector most effectively. The starting point should include the evaluation of the presence and potential of the private sector, including actors such as professional associations, producer organizations, community groups, and patients' organizations. PMID:14997241

  16. The Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Placement Outcomes of Biological Families in a State Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Sabrina B.; Mata, Francesca C.; Wofford, Erin; Briggs, Adam M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral parent training has proven effective in improving the skill performance of foster caregivers and biological parents of dependent children during role-play assessments. To date, however, no studies have examined the impact of behavioral parenting skills training on child placement outcomes. We conducted a quasi-experimental archival…

  17. Impact of fellowship training on robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: benchmarking perioperative safety and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Abby S; Lee, Bruce; Rawal, Bhupendra; Thiel, David D

    2015-06-01

    To provide perioperative benchmark data for surgeons entering practice from formal robotic training and performing robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RAPN). Perioperative outcomes of the first 100 RAPN from a surgeon entering into practice directly from robotic fellowship training were analyzed. Postoperative complications were categorized by Clavien-Dindo grade. Surgical "trifecta scores" and Margin, Ischemia, and Complication (MIC) scoring were utilized to assess surgical outcomes. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS (version 9.2; SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina). Median age of the cohort was 63 years (22-81 years), and 34 (34.3%) patients were over age 65. Forty-one (41.4%) patients had a BMI > 30. Thirteen (13.1%) had RENAL 10-12 tumors, 22 of which (22.2%) were >4 cm in size. Median warm ischemia time was 17 min, and 13 patients had resection without warm ischemia. Five patients were converted to open partial nephrectomy, and 1 patient was converted to laparoscopic nephrectomy. Twenty-one patients (21.2%) experienced a complication, 6 of whom had a major (Clavien grade 3 or higher) complication with one grade 5 complication. Operating room time decreased with experience, but surgical complications and hospital stay did not change with experience. MIC score of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients was 74.7%, while the surgical trifecta was reached in 71.3 % of RCC patients. Surgeons may enter practice directly from formal robotic training and perform RAPN with perioperative outcomes, surgical complications, surgical trifecta scores, and MIC scoring in line with those the most experienced robotic partial nephrectomists.

  18. Processes and Outcomes from a Medical Student Research Training Program in Integrative, Complementary, and Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Dicianno, Brad E; Glick, Ronald M; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Boninger, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    In response to the growing need to train a new generation of clinician scientists, a research program was developed to train medical students in integrative, complementary, and alternative medicine (ICAM) research early in their careers. A total of 25 students (100%) successfully completed a 10-week program. Students reported significantly increased levels of knowledge in all 7 integrative, complementary, and alternative medicine topics at the conclusion of the program. All students presented their work at one or more local research symposia. In addition, the average number of quality research outputs, which included manuscripts, awards, and abstracts presented at national and international meetings, was 1.5 per student, which exceeded benchmarks based on prior program outcomes. Results from this program may be useful when planning larger or longer-term projects aimed at attracting physicians who will become our next generation of academicians, researchers, and healers.

  19. The Minority Training Program in Cancer Control Research: impact and outcome over 12 years.

    PubMed

    Pasick, Rena J; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Stewart, Susan L; Pradhan, Amy; Kidd, Sherry C

    2012-06-01

    The Minority Training Program in Cancer Control Research (MTPCCR) encourages underrepresented master's level students and professionals in the social, behavioral, and public health sciences to pursue doctoral training and careers in cancer disparities research. This paper reports new data on the program outcome after 12 years. A web-based survey was sent to all 462 program alumni. The questions addressed current academic status and plans, job status and plans, research focus, and influence of the MTPCCR. The survey response rate was 79 %. Overall, 30 % of alumni are enrolled in or have completed doctoral programs; 88 % of whom report involvement in research related to cancer. Scaled and open-ended responses indicate a strong influence of the program on doctoral program enrollment and cancer focus. The MTPCCR model is successful because it targets underrepresented minorities who are capable of doctoral studies but have not yet chosen that path. PMID:22661253

  20. Computerized cognitive training interventions to improve neuropsychological outcomes: evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Howren, M Bryant; Vander Weg, Mark W; Wolinsky, Fredric D

    2014-03-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is common and may affect memory, orientation, attention, abstract thinking and perception, which may lead to substantial difficulties and disabilities in everyday life. Much evidence suggests that computerized cognitive training interventions may mitigate decline by improving neuropsychological outcomes in older adults, but there is clearly a need for large-scale, methodologically rigorous comparative effectiveness trials in the area. This article underscores that need and reviews eight trials that met a set of predetermined criteria before highlighting two novel and complementary analytic methods - big data analytics and network meta-analysis - that may be used to facilitate decisions regarding which cognitive training programs should serve as candidate interventions for large comparative effectiveness trials.

  1. Differences between African American and European American First-Year College Students in the Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectations, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFreitas, Stacie Craft

    2012-01-01

    First-year African American and European American college students were surveyed to examine ethnic differences in how their social cognitive beliefs (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) influenced their academic achievement. It was hypothesized that outcome expectations may better explain academic achievement for African Americans due to the…

  2. Comparison of attitudinal and achievement outcomes of innovative and conventional energy education units

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    The purposes of this research were to 1) compare Agriculture, Energy and Society (AES) , a unit of Project for an Energy-Enriched Curriculum and promoted nationwide by National Science Teachers Association, with the most widely used secondary school energy unit Ecological Relationships (ER), a unit of Modern Biology, for its relative ability to encourage student attitudes toward energy conservation and student achievements in reference to energy topics; and 2) investigate various student characteristics, such as sex and grade point average, which might differentially account for the range of student attitudes and achievements found over a four-week period. The study utilized a two-way factorial design. The sample was composed of 200 tenth-grade biology students from ten public schools who were randomly assigned to treatments. The results of this research are encouraging since the AES appears to be a promising adjunct to the teaching of energy topics and more recently developed NSTA units can now be researched.

  3. Enhancing Recognition of High Quality, Functional IFSP Outcomes: A Training Activity for Infant and Toddler Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Anne; Gillaspy, Kathi; Peters, Mary Louise; Hurth, Joicey

    2014-01-01

    This training activity was created to support participants' understanding of the criteria needed to develop and write high quality, participation-based Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) outcomes. The term "functional" is often used to describe what outcomes ought to be, yet many providers struggle to define what makes an outcome…

  4. Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Charles R; Eddy, J Mark

    2005-10-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction ratings, intervention participation and attendance, and overall program satisfaction. Intervention effects were evaluated by examining changes in parenting and youth adjustment for the intervention and control groups between baseline and intervention termination approximately 5 months later. Findings provided strong evidence for the feasibility of delivering the intervention in a larger community context. The intervention produced benefits in both parenting outcomes (i.e., general parenting, skill encouragement, overall effective parenting) and youth outcomes (i.e., aggression, externalizing, likelihood of smoking and use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs). Differential effects of the intervention were based on youth nativity status.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the learning outcome achieved by a nursing research seminar course for doctoral students.

    PubMed

    Lou, Meei-Fang; Chen, Yueh-Chih

    2008-06-01

    Educational evaluation is a priority policy of the Ministry of Education and student learning outcome is an important criterion used in educational evaluation work. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the learning outcome of a newly developed course for doctoral students entitled, Nursing Research Seminar. The course was one semester in length and required students to attend 2 hours of class per week. Student learning outcome was evaluated based on the level of understanding students had of course objectives. The six objectives of this course were: evaluating and integrating research papers; enhancing critical thinking skills; gaining an in-depth understanding of the literature related to topics of interest; enhancing ability to construct research proposals; guiding student dissertation work; and refining critical research skills. Data were collected from the responses provided by 25 students on a 5-point Likert-type evaluation form based on course objectives filled out during the last class of the semester. Descriptive and non-parametric statistics were adopted. Results showed: (1) The average post-course score (24.76 +/- 2.89) was significantly higher than the pre-course score (18.40 +/- 5.52); (2) Students realized significant improvements in all six objectives at the end of the course; (3) There were statistically significant differences in improvement scores in all six objectives for students in different years of their doctoral program; (4) The lower the year in the program, the higher the improvement scores for each course objective; (5) The two objectives of the six that saw the most significant improvements were "gaining an in-depth understanding of the literature related to topics of interest", and "enhancing critical thinking skills". Because of the small sample size, conclusions drawn from this study should be treated as tentative. Findings provide preliminary information supporting the importance and necessity of offering the Nursing Research

  6. Integrating empowerment evaluation and quality improvement to achieve healthcare improvement outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wandersman, Abraham; Alia, Kassandra Ann; Cook, Brittany; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    While the body of evidence-based healthcare interventions grows, the ability of health systems to deliver these interventions effectively and efficiently lags behind. Quality improvement approaches, such as the model for improvement, have demonstrated some success in healthcare but their impact has been lessened by implementation challenges. To help address these challenges, we describe the empowerment evaluation approach that has been developed by programme evaluators and a method for its application (Getting To Outcomes (GTO)). We then describe how GTO can be used to implement healthcare interventions. An illustrative healthcare quality improvement example that compares the model for improvement and the GTO method for reducing hospital admissions through improved diabetes care is described. We conclude with suggestions for integrating GTO and the model for improvement. PMID:26178332

  7. Development of case statements in academic administration: a proactive method for achieving outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Mary H

    2005-01-01

    The complex nature of higher education presents academic administrators with unique challenges to communicate vision and strategic direction to a variety of internal and external audiences. The administrator must be prepared to engage in persuasive communication to describe the needs and desired outcomes of the academic unit. This article focuses on the use of the case statement as a communication tool for the nursing academic administrator. The case statement is a form of persuasive communication where a situation or need is presented in the context of the mission, vision, and strategic direction of a group or organization. The aim of the case statement is to enlist support in meeting the identified need. Fundamental assumptions about communicating case statements are described, as well as guidelines for how the academic administrator can prepare themselves for using the case statement method.

  8. Integrating empowerment evaluation and quality improvement to achieve healthcare improvement outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wandersman, Abraham; Alia, Kassandra Ann; Cook, Brittany; Ramaswamy, Rohit

    2015-10-01

    While the body of evidence-based healthcare interventions grows, the ability of health systems to deliver these interventions effectively and efficiently lags behind. Quality improvement approaches, such as the model for improvement, have demonstrated some success in healthcare but their impact has been lessened by implementation challenges. To help address these challenges, we describe the empowerment evaluation approach that has been developed by programme evaluators and a method for its application (Getting To Outcomes (GTO)). We then describe how GTO can be used to implement healthcare interventions. An illustrative healthcare quality improvement example that compares the model for improvement and the GTO method for reducing hospital admissions through improved diabetes care is described. We conclude with suggestions for integrating GTO and the model for improvement.

  9. The role of the hospital registry in achieving outcome benchmarks in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Greene, Frederick L; Gilkerson, Sharon; Tedder, Paige; Smith, Kathy

    2009-06-15

    The hospital registry is a valuable tool for evaluating quality benchmarks in cancer care. As payment for performance standards are adopted, the registry will assume a more dynamic and economically important role in the hospital setting. At Carolinas Medical Center, the registry has been a key instrument in the comparison of state and national benchmarks and for program improvement in meeting standards in the care of breast and colon cancer. One of the significant successes of the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer (CoC) Hospital Approvals Program is the support of hospital registries, especially in small and midsized community hospitals throughout the United States. To become a member of the Hospital Approvals Program, a registry must be staffed appropriately and include analytic data for patients who have their primary diagnosis or treatment at the facility 1. The current challenge for most hospitals is to prove that the registry has specific worth when many facets of care are not compensated. Unfortunately a small number of hospitals have disbanded their registries because of the short-sighted decision that the registry and its personnel are a drain on the hospital system and do not generate revenue. In the present era of meeting benchmarks for care as a prelude to being paid by third party and governmental agencies 2,3, a primary argument is that the registry can be revenue-enhancing by quantifying specific outcomes in cancer care. Without having appropriate registry and abstract capability, the hospital leadership cannot measure the specific outcome benchmarks required in the era of "pay for performance" or "pay for participation".

  10. The impact of a simulation-based training lab on outcomes of hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Asoğlu, Mehmet Reşit; Achjian, Tamar; Akbilgiç, Oğuz; Borahay, Mostafa A.; Kılıç, Gökhan S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a simulation-based training lab on surgical outcomes of different hysterectomy approaches in a resident teaching tertiary care center. Material and Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted at The University of Texas, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. In total, 1397 patients who had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH), vaginal hysterectomy (VH), total laparoscopy-assisted hysterectomy (TLH), or robot-assisted hysterectomy (RAH) for benign gynecologic conditions between 2009 and 2014 were included in the study. The comparison was made according to the year when the surgeries were performed: 2009 (before simulation training) and the combination of 2010–2014 (after simulation training) for each technique (TAH, VH, and LAH). Since a simulation lab for robotic surgery was introduced in 2010 at our institute, the comparison for robotic surgery was made between the combination of 2009–2010 as the control and the combination of 2010–2014 as the study group. Results The average estimated blood loss before and after simulation-based training was significantly different in TAH and RAH groups (317±170 mL versus 257±146 mL, p=0.003 and 154±107 mL versus 102±88 mL, p=0.004, respectively), but no difference was found for TLH and VH. The mean of length of hospital stay was significantly different before and after simulation-based training for each technique: 3.7±2.3 versus 2.9±2.2 days for TAH, 2.0±1.2 versus 1.3±0.9 days for VH, 2.4±1.3 versus 1.9±2.5 days for TLH, and 2.0±1.3 versus 1.4±1.7 days for RAH (p<0.01). Conclusion Based on our data, simulator-based training may play an integrative role in developing the residents’ surgical skills and thus improving the surgical outcomes of hysterectomy. PMID:27403070

  11. [How can the mentally ill achieve sustained employment? Supported employment versus pre-vocational training].

    PubMed

    Brieger, P; Hoffmann, H

    2012-07-01

    People with severe mental disorders are often without work, although work may have a positive effect on their health. The paper presents some results in this field from the German S3 guidelines on psychosocial therapies. In terms of evidence-based medicine supported employment (SE - first place then train) has proven to be most effective. Nevertheless, SE is still rare in Germany. Pre-vocational training, however, follows the concept first train then place and is offered in rehabilitation of the mentally ill (RPK) centres in Germany. There is some evidence that the programs are beneficial for users. The UN Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities outlines an obligation for work on an equal basis with others and for vocational training. So far, the German mental health system only partly meets these requirements.

  12. Do Well-Balanced Primary TKA Patients Achieve Better Outcomes Within the First Year After Surgery?

    PubMed

    Lampe, Frank; Marques, Carlos J; Fiedler, Franziska; Sufi-Siavach, Anusch; Matziolis, Georg

    2016-05-01

    Some surgically modifiable factors are related to soft tissue balance. With computer-assisted surgery, it is possible to access these variables quantitatively. The aim of this analysis was to study the influence of gap balance on clinical outcomes within the first year after computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Based on navigation data, 3 independent variables reflecting gap balance were used to split the patients in 2 groups. The Knee Society Scores (Function [KSS-F] and Knee [KSS-K]) and the maximal knee flexion (MKF) measured preoperatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months were compared using analyses of variance (2×4 design) for repeated measures. Higher flexion-extension gap equality led to statistically higher KSS-F and KSS-K scores at 1 year (P=.02). Higher medial-lateral flexion gap equality led to superior mean MKF at all measurement points; however the differences were statistically only significant at 3 months (P=.01). The coefficients of variation of the variables used to select the patients were overall very low. With computer-assisted navigation, it is possible to access quantitatively the size of the medial and lateral flexion and extension gaps. Higher flexion-extension gap equality values led to statistically significant better KSS-F and KSS-K scores at 1 year. Higher medial-lateral flexion gap equality values led to better MKF values; however the differences were only statistically significant at 3 months. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):S6-S12.].

  13. Challenges to the Development and Implementation of Public Policies to Achieve Animal Welfare Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Margaret

    2010-12-31

    Although there is a long-established tradition of concern for the welfare of animals, it was not until the mid 1800's that governments sought to enact legislation to protect animals from cruelty. In the 1950's, questions concerning animal welfare re-emerged and in the ensuing years have been an on-going focus of government activities. These developments occurred against a backdrop of significant social change but there are important differences in what now underpins and informs these considerations. In the formulation and implementation of public policies, governments look for a course of action that represents and protects the interests of the community; the process may be challenging with competing interests but the final determination seeks a middle ground that best meets the needs and interests of the community as a whole. When policy development concerns our relationship with other animals, the complexity of this relationship presents particular challenges not only to the formulation of policies but also to the evaluation of outcomes. Notably, the depth of feelings and diversity of views in our community reflect the complex social, cultural and personal dimensions of this relationship. The use of animals for scientific purposes remains one of the most contentious animal welfare issues primarily because when animals are used for these purposes, accepted animal welfare benchmarks cannot always be met. Based on the Australian experience, this paper will discuss the influences in and on-going challenges to the development and implementation of public policy when animals are used for these purposes.

  14. Explicit and implicit second language training differentially affect the achievement of native-like brain activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Steinhauer, Karsten; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    It is widely believed that adults cannot learn a foreign language in the same way that children learn a first language. However, recent evidence suggests that adult learners of a foreign language can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms. Here, we show that the type of language training crucially impacts this outcome. We used an artificial language paradigm to examine longitudinally whether explicit training (that approximates traditional grammar-focused classroom settings) and implicit training (that approximates immersion settings) differentially affect neural (electrophysiological) and behavioral (performance) measures of syntactic processing. Results showed that performance of explicitly and implicitly trained groups did not differ at either low or high proficiency. In contrast, electrophysiological (ERP) measures revealed striking differences between the groups' neural activity at both proficiency levels in response to syntactic violations. Implicit training yielded an N400 at low proficiency, whereas at high proficiency, it elicited a pattern typical of native speakers: an anterior negativity followed by a P600 accompanied by a late anterior negativity. Explicit training, by contrast, yielded no significant effects at low proficiency and only an anterior positivity followed by a P600 at high proficiency. Although the P600 is reminiscent of native-like processing, this response pattern as a whole is not. Thus, only implicit training led to an electrophysiological signature typical of native speakers. Overall, the results suggest that adult foreign language learners can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms, but that the conditions under which the language is learned may be crucial in attaining this goal. PMID:21861686

  15. Explicit and implicit second language training differentially affect the achievement of native-like brain activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Steinhauer, Karsten; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    It is widely believed that adults cannot learn a foreign language in the same way that children learn a first language. However, recent evidence suggests that adult learners of a foreign language can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms. Here, we show that the type of language training crucially impacts this outcome. We used an artificial language paradigm to examine longitudinally whether explicit training (that approximates traditional grammar-focused classroom settings) and implicit training (that approximates immersion settings) differentially affect neural (electrophysiological) and behavioral (performance) measures of syntactic processing. Results showed that performance of explicitly and implicitly trained groups did not differ at either low or high proficiency. In contrast, electrophysiological (ERP) measures revealed striking differences between the groups' neural activity at both proficiency levels in response to syntactic violations. Implicit training yielded an N400 at low proficiency, whereas at high proficiency, it elicited a pattern typical of native speakers: an anterior negativity followed by a P600 accompanied by a late anterior negativity. Explicit training, by contrast, yielded no significant effects at low proficiency and only an anterior positivity followed by a P600 at high proficiency. Although the P600 is reminiscent of native-like processing, this response pattern as a whole is not. Thus, only implicit training led to an electrophysiological signature typical of native speakers. Overall, the results suggest that adult foreign language learners can come to rely on native-like language brain mechanisms, but that the conditions under which the language is learned may be crucial in attaining this goal.

  16. The effect of workshop groups on achievement goals and performance in biology: An outcome evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Wendi Kay

    This two-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on performance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students in a three-course series and investigated motivational explanations for performance differences. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992) at the University of California. Majority volunteers randomly assigned to workshops (n = 61) performed between 1/2 and 1 standard deviation better than those assigned to the control group (n = 60; p < .05) in each quarter without spending more time studying. During Quarter 1, workshop minority students (n = 25) showed a pattern of increasing exam performance in comparison to historic control minority students (n = 21), who showed a decreasing pattern (p < .05). Although sex differences in biology performance were a focus of investigation, none were detected. Motivational predictions derived from the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation (Elliot & Church, 1997) were partially supported. Self-report survey measures of achievement goals, modeled after those used by Elliot and colleagues, were requested from all enrolled students. Volunteers (n = 121) reported higher average levels of approach and avoidance goals than nonvolunteers (n = 439; p < .05) and the relationship of goals to performance was moderated by volunteer status. Performance of volunteers was negatively related to avoidance of failure goals (r = .41, p < .01) and unrelated to performance approach goals. Performance of nonvolunteers was unrelated to avoidance of failure goals and positively related to performance approach goals (r = .28, p < .01). Mastery goals were unrelated to performance for all students. Results were inconsistent with Dweck and Leggett's (1988) theory of mastery vs. performance orientation, but were similar to results found by Elliot and colleagues. Contrary to hypotheses, motivational goals did not mediate performance for

  17. Uncomplicated Resistance Training and Health-Related Outcomes: Evidence for a Public Health Mandate

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Stuart M.; Winett, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    PHILLIPS, S.M. and R.A. WINETT. Uncomplicated Resistance Training and Health-Related Outcomes: Evidence for a Public Health Mandate. Curr. Sports Med. Rep., Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 208–213, 2010. Compared to aerobic training (AT), resistance training (RT) has received far less attention as a prescription for general health. However, RT is as effective as AT in lowering risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other diseases. There is a clear ability of RT, in contrast to AT, to promote gains, maintenance, or slow loss of skeletal muscle mass/strength. Thus, as an antisarcopenic exercise treatment, RT is of greater benefit than AT; given the aging of our population, this is of primary importance. In our view, a substantial barrier to greater adoption of RT is the incorrectly perceived importance of variables such as external load, intensity, and volume, leading to complex, difficult-to-follow regimes. We propose a more feasible and easier-to-adhere-to paradigm for RT that could affect how RT is viewed and adopted as a prescription for public health. PMID:20622538

  18. Understanding the DNA damage response in order to achieve desired gene editing outcomes in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Overcash, Justin M; Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M; Adelman, Zach N

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes are high-impact disease vectors with the capacity to transmit pathogenic agents that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue. Continued growth in knowledge of genetic, molecular, and physiological pathways in mosquitoes allows for the development of novel control methods and for the continued optimization of existing ones. The emergence of site-specific nucleases as genomic engineering tools promises to expedite research of crucial biological pathways in these disease vectors. The utilization of these nucleases in a more precise and efficient manner is dependent upon knowledge and manipulation of the DNA repair pathways utilized by the mosquito. While progress has been made in deciphering DNA repair pathways in some model systems, research into the nature of the hierarchy of mosquito DNA repair pathways, as well as in mechanistic differences that may exist, is needed. In this review, we will describe progress in the use of site-specific nucleases in mosquitoes, along with the hierarchy of DNA repair in the context of mosquito chromosomal organization and structure, and how this knowledge may be manipulated to achieve precise chromosomal engineering in mosquitoes. PMID:25596822

  19. How to successfully achieve salt restriction in dialysis patients? What are the outcomes?

    PubMed

    Ok, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that dietary salt restriction is the most logical measure to prevent accumulation of salt and water in patients without renal function, it is not applied in most dialysis centers. In this review, the reasons for this unlucky development are analyzed. First, it appears that many dialysis patients are slightly overhydrated, but this is often not noticed and, if so, the deleterious effects in the long run are not appreciated. These consist not only of 'drug-resistant' hypertension, but also dilatation of the cardiac compartments leading to preventable cardiovascular events. Second, there are practical reasons why salt restriction is neglected. It is very difficult to buy salt-poor food. Salt consumption is an addiction, which can be overcome, but time and efforts are needed to achieve that. Suggestions are made how to reach that goal. Finally, examples are given how cardiac damage (often considered irreversible) can be improved or even cured by a 'volume control' strategy, whose crucial part is serious salt restriction.

  20. Understanding the DNA damage response in order to achieve desired gene editing outcomes in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Overcash, Justin M; Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M; Adelman, Zach N

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes are high-impact disease vectors with the capacity to transmit pathogenic agents that cause diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue. Continued growth in knowledge of genetic, molecular, and physiological pathways in mosquitoes allows for the development of novel control methods and for the continued optimization of existing ones. The emergence of site-specific nucleases as genomic engineering tools promises to expedite research of crucial biological pathways in these disease vectors. The utilization of these nucleases in a more precise and efficient manner is dependent upon knowledge and manipulation of the DNA repair pathways utilized by the mosquito. While progress has been made in deciphering DNA repair pathways in some model systems, research into the nature of the hierarchy of mosquito DNA repair pathways, as well as in mechanistic differences that may exist, is needed. In this review, we will describe progress in the use of site-specific nucleases in mosquitoes, along with the hierarchy of DNA repair in the context of mosquito chromosomal organization and structure, and how this knowledge may be manipulated to achieve precise chromosomal engineering in mosquitoes.

  1. Defining, Achieving, and Maintaining Competence in Cardiovascular Training and Practice.

    PubMed

    Kuvin, Jeffrey T; Williams, Eric S

    2016-09-20

    Patients, hospitals, insurers, and the public rely on competent physicians. The definition and documentation of competency in cardiovascular training and practice continues to evolve. New tools, such as the American College of Cardiology's in-training examination, restructured Core Cardiovascular Training Statement, curricular and lifelong learning competencies, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones help define competent trainees and practitioners, and level the playing field. The American Board of Internal Medicine's Maintenance of Certification program is undergoing critical review, and a common vision of its future form and role are not yet clear. This paper explores present-day cardiovascular competency components, assessment tools, and strategies, and identifies challenges for the future. PMID:27634126

  2. Behavioral treatment of social phobia in youth: does parent education training improve the outcome?

    PubMed

    Öst, Lars-Göran; Cederlund, Rio; Reuterskiöld, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Social phobia is one of the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, and it runs a fairly chronic course if left untreated. The goals of the present study were to evaluate if a parent education course would improve the outcome for children with a primary diagnosis of social phobia and if comorbidity at the start of treatment would impair the outcome of the social phobia. A total of 55 children, 8-14 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) Child is treated, 2) Child is treated and parent participates in the course, or 3) A wait-list for 12 weeks. The treatment consisted of individual exposure and group social skills training based on the Beidel, Turner, and Morris (2000) SET-C. Children and parents were assessed pre-, post-, and at one year follow-up with independent assessor ratings and self-report measures. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two active treatments and both were better than the wait-list. The treatment effects were maintained or furthered at the follow-up. Comorbidity did not lead to worse outcome of social phobia. Comorbid disorders improved significantly from pre-to post-treatment and from post-to follow-up assessment without being targeted in therapy.

  3. Health care providers' training, perceptions, and practices regarding stress and health outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Avey, Holly; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Robbins, Anna; Jacobson, Terry A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to assess health care providers' training, perceptions, and practices regarding stress and health outcomes, a survey was administered to primary care providers in the outpatient medical clinics of a southeastern urban hospital serving a predominantly African-American indigent population. One-hundred-fifty-one of 210 providers (72%) responded. Forty-two percent of respondents reported receiving no instruction regarding stress and health outcomes during their medical/professional education. While 90% believed stress management was "very" or "somewhat" effective in improving health outcomes, 45% "rarely" or "never" discussed stress management with their patients. Respondents were twice as likely to believe that counseling patients about smoking, nutrition, or exercise was more important than counseling them about stress. Seventy-six percent lacked confidence in their ability to counsel patients about stress. The majority of respondents (57%) "rarely" or "never" practiced stress reduction techniques themselves. Belief in the importance of stress counseling, its effectiveness in improving health, and confidence in one's ability to teach relaxation techniques were all related to the probability that providers would counsel patients regarding stress. There is a need for curriculum reform that emphasizes new knowledge about stress and disease, new skills in stress reduction, and more positive beliefs about mind/body medicine and its integration into the existing health care structure. PMID:14527051

  4. A Study of the Effects of Shift Operations on Student Achievement in Electronics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank F., Jr.

    This study was designed to determine if the hours during which students participated in electronics training had any influence on their learning efficiency and their ability to function effectively as students, and to identify those factors that contributed to diminished learning efficiency. The three shifts used for the experiment were the night…

  5. Achieving Recognition as a World Class Airport through Education and Training. Sorenson Best Paper Award Recipient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilty, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization has standards for airport certification that require education and training of personnel. The American Association of Airport Executives offers accreditation and certification in airport operations and safety that can meet the needs of world-class airports. (Contains 18 references.) (SK)

  6. Effect of Training in Math Metacognitive Strategy on Fractional Achievement of Nigerian Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onu, V. C.; Eskay, M.; Igbo, J. N.; Obiyo, N.; Agbo, O.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of training in math metacognition on fractional mathematics among primary school pupils, with a quasi-experimental design, specifically a post-test only control group design. Two intact classes were randomly selected and assigned to treatment and control conditions. Sixty primary six pupils constituted the sample…

  7. Developmental Program for Training of the Preschool Child. (Includes Skills Achievement Profile.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Margaret G.

    Presented is a developmental curriculum for training potentially learning disabled preschool children. Part 1 includes introductory information such as a rationale for the program and suggestions for the parent-teacher. Provided are guidelines for eight curriculum areas: attention; sensory stimulation, reception, and response; adaptive behaviors…

  8. Biofeedback Auditory Alpha EEG Training and Its Effect upon Anxiety and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, Marianne B.

    The major purpose of this exploratory study was to determine if electroencephalographic (EEG) auditory biofeedback training combined with Open Focus relaxation therapy would increase alpha-brain-wave production in highly anxious freshman university students who were also deficient in reading skills. The subjects for the study were 15 volunteer…

  9. Competency-Based Training in International Perspective: Comparing the Implementation Processes Towards the Achievement of Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boahin, Peter; Eggink, Jose; Hofman, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    This article undertakes a comparison of competency-based training (CBT) systems in a number of countries with the purpose of drawing lessons to support Ghana and other countries in the process of CBT implementation. The study focuses on recognition of prior learning and involvement of industry since these features seem crucial in achieving…

  10. Data Assimilation Techniques for Ionospheric Reference Scenarios - project overview and achieved outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzen, Tatjana; Wilken, Volker; Hoque, Mainul; Minkwitz, David; Schlueter, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    generated 3D ionosphere reconstructions as well as the final IRSs are validated with independent GNSS slant TEC (Total Electron Content) data, vertical sounding observations and JASON 1 and 2 derived vertical TEC. This presentation gives an overview about the DAIS project and the achieved results. We outline the assimilation approach, show the reconstruction and the validation results and finally address open questions.

  11. A community-engaged cardiovascular health disparities research training curriculum: implementation and preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Purnell, Tanjala; Halbert, Jennifer P; Matens, Richard; Miller, Edgar R Pete; Levine, David M; Nguyen, Tam H; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Mahlangu-Ngcobo, Mankekolo; Cooper, Lisa A

    2014-10-01

    To overcome cardiovascular disease (CVD) disparities impacting high-risk populations, it is critical to train researchers and leaders in conducting community-engaged CVD disparities research. The authors summarize the key elements, implementation, and preliminary outcomes of the CVD Disparities Fellowship and Summer Internship Programs at the Johns Hopkins University Schools of Medicine, Nursing, and Bloomberg School of Public Health. In 2010, program faculty and coordinators established a transdisciplinary CVD disparities training and career development fellowship program for scientific investigators who desire to conduct community-engaged clinical and translational disparities research. The program was developed to enhance mentorship support and research training for faculty, postdoctoral fellows, and predoctoral students interested in conducting CVD disparities research. A CVD Disparities Summer Internship Program for undergraduate and preprofessional students was also created to provide a broad experience in public health and health disparities in Baltimore, Maryland, with a focus on CVD. Since 2010, 39 predoctoral, postdoctoral, and faculty fellows have completed the program. Participating fellows have published disparities-related research and given presentations both nationally and internationally. Five research grant awards have been received by faculty fellows. Eight undergraduates, one postbaccalaureate, and two medical professional students representing seven universities have participated in the summer undergraduate internship. Over half of the undergraduate students are applying to or have been accepted into medical or graduate school. The tailored CVD health disparities training curriculum has been successful at equipping varying levels of trainees (from undergraduate students to faculty) with clinical research and public health expertise to conducting community-engaged CVD disparities research.

  12. Achieving a consensus on educational objectives and assessments for extended specialty training programmes for licensing in general practice.

    PubMed

    Mamelok, Jane

    2013-07-01

    This research aimed to define and agree a consensus on the overall aims, educational objectives and assessments for extended GP training. It used a modified Delphi technique to achieve a consensus of opinions from a representative group of stakeholders and assessment content experts. Existing curriculum gaps that could be developed further in a period of extended training were defined. The study showed a very strong consensus for a 'gateway' assessment-to-a-standard at the current ST3 endpoint before progression to extended GP training with those years of extended training giving 'added value'. The current MRCGP summative components of the applied knowledge test (AKT) and clinical skills assessment (CSA) are considered fit for purpose as an appropriate 'gateway' standard; with more robust workplace-based assessments to demonstrate continued progression during extended training. The results informed and provided the evidence base for the development of a proposed programmatic assessment model, which has been critically appraised. This paper reports in detail on the Delphi study and comments on the importance of further work developing assessments.

  13. Social Justice and Advocacy Training for Counselors: Using Outreach to Achieve Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Rachael D.; West-Olatunji, Cirecie

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present recommendations for conducting outreach in order to further the efforts in the counseling field towards social justice and advocacy. Informed by Freire's (2000) critical consciousness theory, examples of culturally centered counseling services are presented as outcomes of the experiences of participants.…

  14. Sport-Related Achievement Motivation and Alcohol Outcomes: An Athlete-Specific Risk Factor among Intercollegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Cameron C.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Takamatsu, Stephanie K.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n = 263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192

  15. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed.

  16. The Effects of a Non-Traditional Strength Training Program on the Health-Related Fitness Outcomes of Youth Strength Training Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Wendy; Foster, Byron

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a non-traditional strength training program will impact the health-related fitness of youth. Researchers hypothesized that the strengthening program would positively affect the fitness outcomes. Participant physical education classes incorporated strengthening exercises three days…

  17. Career Outcomes of Graduates of R25E Short-Term Cancer Research Training Programs.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Renee A; Padilla, Luz A; Daniel, Casey L; Prickett, Charles T; Venkatesh, Raam; Brooks, C Michael; Waterbor, John W

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy of short-term cancer research educational programs in meeting its immediate goals and long-term cancer research career objectives has not been well studied. The purpose of this report is to describe the immediate impact on, and the long-term career outcomes of, 499 medical students and graduate students who completed the Cancer Research Experiences for Students (CaRES) program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) from 1999 to 2013. In summer 2014, all 499 program alumni were located and 96.4 % (481 of 499) agreed to complete a longitudinal tracking survey. About 23 % of CaRES alumni (110 of 499) have published at least one cancer-related paper. Overall 238 cancer-related papers have been published by CaRES alumni, one third of this number being first-authored publications. Nearly 15 % (71 of 481 respondents) reported that their current professional activities include cancer research, primarily clinical research and outcomes research. Of these 71 individuals, 27 (38 %) have completed their training and 44 (62 %) remain in training. Of all respondents, 58 % reported that they administered care to cancer patients and 30 % reported other cancer-related professional responsibilities such as working with a health department or community group on cancer control activities. Of the 410 respondents not currently engaged in cancer research, 118 (29 %) stated intentions to conduct cancer research in the next few years. Nearly all respondents (99.6 %) recommended CaRES to today's students. Challenging short-term educational cancer research programs for medical students and graduate health professional students can help them refine and solidify their career plans, with many program alumni choosing cancer research careers. PMID:25604064

  18. Outcomes from a postgraduate biomedical technology innovation training program: the first 12 years of Stanford Biodesign

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Todd J.; Kurihara, Christine Q.; Camarillo, David B.; Pietzsch, Jan B.; Gorodsky, Julian; Zenios, Stefanos A.; Doshi, Rajiv; Shen, Christopher; Kumar, Uday N.; Mairal, Anurag; Watkins, Jay; Popp, Richard L.; Wang, Paul J.; Makower, Josh; Krummel, Thomas M.; Yock, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    The Stanford Biodesign Program began in 2001 with a mission of helping to train leaders in biomedical technology innovation. A key feature of the program is a full-time postgraduate fellowship where multidisciplinary teams undergo a process of sourcing clinical needs, inventing solutions and planning for implementation of a business strategy. The program places a priority on needs identification, a formal process of selecting, researching and characterizing needs before beginning the process of inventing. Fellows and students from the program have gone on to careers that emphasize technology innovation across industry and academia. Biodesign trainees have started 26 companies within the program that have raised over $200 Million and led to the creation of over 500 new jobs. More importantly, although most of these technologies are still at a very early stage, several projects have received regulatory approval and so far more than 150,000 patients have been treated by technologies invented by our trainees. This paper reviews the initial outcomes of the program and discusses lessons learned and future directions in terms of training priorities. PMID:23404074

  19. Outcomes from a postgraduate biomedical technology innovation training program: the first 12 years of Stanford Biodesign.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Todd J; Kurihara, Christine Q; Camarillo, David B; Pietzsch, Jan B; Gorodsky, Julian; Zenios, Stefanos A; Doshi, Rajiv; Shen, Christopher; Kumar, Uday N; Mairal, Anurag; Watkins, Jay; Popp, Richard L; Wang, Paul J; Makower, Josh; Krummel, Thomas M; Yock, Paul G

    2013-09-01

    The Stanford Biodesign Program began in 2001 with a mission of helping to train leaders in biomedical technology innovation. A key feature of the program is a full-time postgraduate fellowship where multidisciplinary teams undergo a process of sourcing clinical needs, inventing solutions and planning for implementation of a business strategy. The program places a priority on needs identification, a formal process of selecting, researching and characterizing needs before beginning the process of inventing. Fellows and students from the program have gone on to careers that emphasize technology innovation across industry and academia. Biodesign trainees have started 26 companies within the program that have raised over $200 million and led to the creation of over 500 new jobs. More importantly, although most of these technologies are still at a very early stage, several projects have received regulatory approval and so far more than 150,000 patients have been treated by technologies invented by our trainees. This paper reviews the initial outcomes of the program and discusses lessons learned and future directions in terms of training priorities. PMID:23404074

  20. Outcomes from a postgraduate biomedical technology innovation training program: the first 12 years of Stanford Biodesign.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Todd J; Kurihara, Christine Q; Camarillo, David B; Pietzsch, Jan B; Gorodsky, Julian; Zenios, Stefanos A; Doshi, Rajiv; Shen, Christopher; Kumar, Uday N; Mairal, Anurag; Watkins, Jay; Popp, Richard L; Wang, Paul J; Makower, Josh; Krummel, Thomas M; Yock, Paul G

    2013-09-01

    The Stanford Biodesign Program began in 2001 with a mission of helping to train leaders in biomedical technology innovation. A key feature of the program is a full-time postgraduate fellowship where multidisciplinary teams undergo a process of sourcing clinical needs, inventing solutions and planning for implementation of a business strategy. The program places a priority on needs identification, a formal process of selecting, researching and characterizing needs before beginning the process of inventing. Fellows and students from the program have gone on to careers that emphasize technology innovation across industry and academia. Biodesign trainees have started 26 companies within the program that have raised over $200 million and led to the creation of over 500 new jobs. More importantly, although most of these technologies are still at a very early stage, several projects have received regulatory approval and so far more than 150,000 patients have been treated by technologies invented by our trainees. This paper reviews the initial outcomes of the program and discusses lessons learned and future directions in terms of training priorities.

  1. 20 CFR 411.555 - Can the EN keep the milestone and outcome payments even if the beneficiary does not achieve all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can the EN keep the milestone and outcome payments even if the beneficiary does not achieve all outcome months? 411.555 Section 411.555 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment...

  2. 20 CFR 411.555 - Can the EN keep the milestone and outcome payments even if the beneficiary does not achieve all...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the EN keep the milestone and outcome payments even if the beneficiary does not achieve all outcome months? 411.555 Section 411.555 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment...

  3. Four Language Skills Performance, Academic Achievement, and Learning Strategy Use in Preservice Teacher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the differences in language learning strategies (LLS) use between preservice teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) and Arabic as a second language (ASL). It also examines the relationship between LLS use and language performance (academic achievement and four language skills) among ASL students. The study made use…

  4. Effect of Formal Study Skills Training on Sixth Grade Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udziela, Theresa

    A study examined whether sixth grade students taught formal study skills would obtain significantly higher reading achievement than those not taught these skills. Study skills can be broken down into ten or more skill areas including: study habits, time management, test taking, lecture notetaking, reading comprehension, vocabulary, test anxiety,…

  5. Student Achievement in Middle Grades: Gauging the Effect of Teacher Training on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnedko, Natalya S.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, teacher certification has been a baseline measure of teacher quality and gateway to the teaching profession for many decades. Research suggests that teacher certification is beneficial to student achievement, with findings particularly promising when content area of teacher certification is taken into account. Positive…

  6. A qualitative comparison of primary care clinicians’ and their patients’ perspectives on achieving depression care: implications for improving outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Improving the patient experience of primary care is a stated focus of efforts to transform primary care practices into “Patient-centered Medical Homes” (PCMH) in the United States, yet understanding and promoting what defines a positive experience from the patient’s perspective has been de-emphasized relative to the development of technological and communication infrastructure at the PCMH. The objective of this qualitative study was to compare primary care clinicians’ and their patients’ perceptions of the patients’ experiences, expectations and preferences as they try to achieve care for depression. Methods We interviewed 6 primary care clinicians along with 30 of their patients with a history of depressive disorder attending 4 small to medium-sized primary care practices from rural and urban settings. Results Three processes on the way to satisfactory depression care emerged: 1. a journey, often from fractured to connected care; 2. a search for a personal understanding of their depression; 3. creation of unique therapeutic spaces for treating current depression and preventing future episodes. Relative to patients’ observations regarding stigma’s effects on accepting a depression diagnosis and seeking treatment, clinicians tended to underestimate the presence and effects of stigma. Patients preferred clinicians who were empathetic listeners, while clinicians worried that discussing depression could open “Pandora’s box” of lengthy discussions and set them irrecoverably behind in their clinic schedules. Clinicians and patients agreed that somatic manifestations of mental distress impeded the patients’ ability to understand their suffering as depression. Clinicians reported supporting several treatment modalities beyond guideline-based approaches for depression, yet also displayed surface-level understanding of the often multifaceted support webs their patient described. Conclusions Improving processes and outcomes in primary care

  7. Treating Children With Early-Onset Conduct Problems: Intervention Outcomes for Parent, Child, and Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila; Hammond, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Families of 159, 4- to 8-year-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were randomly assigned to parent training (PT); parent plus teacher training (PT + TT); child training (CT); child plus teacher training (CT + TT); parent, child, plus teacher training (PT + CT + TT); or a waiting list control. Reports and independent observations…

  8. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Almenning, Ida; Rieber-Mohn, Astrid; Lundgren, Kari Margrethe; Shetelig Løvvik, Tone; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Moholdt, Trine

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and Methods Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks. Results The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20), equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014). After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5) mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04). Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0) %, between-group difference (p = 0.08). Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4) pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04). There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group. Conclusions High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and

  9. Workforce Results Matter: "The Critical Role of Employment Outcome Data in Improving Transparency of Postsecondary Education and Training"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Tim; Ridley, Neil

    2014-01-01

    At a time of sustained unemployment and sluggish job growth, students and policymakers are increasingly asking tough questions about postsecondary education and training outcomes. Do graduates find jobs? What are they paid? What will they earn in the future? Despite growing national interest in this information, good answers are not widely…

  10. Interprofessional and Interagency Training for Working with Young People with Harmful Sexual Behaviours: An Evaluation of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Simon; Carpenter, John; Patsios, Demi; Szilassy, Eszter

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the outcomes of short interagency training courses provided by six Local Safeguarding Children Boards in England. The aim was to develop practical skills in recognising and responding to the needs of children with harmful sexual behaviour in an interagency context. The courses all employed interactive learning and teaching…

  11. Best Practices for Improving Capacity Building Outcomes through Professional Training: Insights from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blevins, B.; Mehta, A. V.; Gupta, P.; Prados, A. I.; McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training Program (ARSET), http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov, has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. To date, the program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support, and to help end-users navigate through the vast, freely available and open data resources. We discuss ARSET's best practices and training approach to improved data access and application of NASA satellite and model data for air quality, water resources, disasters, land, and wildfire management. ARSET follows an iterative approach where the end user community is engaged and data needs input is solicited throughout the training process. End-user data needs and feedback are also incorporated into current and future training content and communicated to NASA Applied Sciences Program principal investigators and data centers responsible for developing NASA tools, portals, data formats, and other data delivery structures. ARSET's success has relied upon 1) targeting outreach to applied science professionals both as training participants and collaborators in developing training activities 2) developing training content tailored to a specific to community's decision support activities and unique environmental challenges 3) promoting interactive forums during trainings to capture and assess end-user needs 4) training scientists within the program in science communication 5) adopting a contextualized gradual learning approach through online and hands-on instruction, and 6) conducting program evaluation, used to assess the benefit of ARSET to program participants and to plan and adapt future training content, methods, and outreach activities.

  12. Achieving competency in wound care: an innovative training module using the long-term care setting.

    PubMed

    Williams, Evelyn M; Deering, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Structured academic teaching on wound care was developed, based on the long-term care (LTC) setting, with the goal of ensuring that postgraduate family medicine residents attain competency in assessment and treatment of wounds and pressure ulcers (PUs). The curriculum for the 1-month learning module was based on clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, assessment, and treatment of PUs and wounds. The learning techniques used include a learners' needs assessment, a small-group didactic session, interdisciplinary bedside case discussions and a toolkit. The curriculum is delivered in four weekly, 90-minute interdisciplinary teaching sessions during the mandatory 1-month geriatrics rotation for postgraduate family medicine trainees. Competency is evaluated by the end of the module by reviewing trainees' documentation of a thorough objective clinical wound assessment, diagnosis of underlying cause, significant contributing risk factors and proposed treatment plan. This approach can be used to train family medicine, hospitalist, and geriatric residents in other acute or LTC teaching facilities where there is a prevalence of PUs.

  13. Feasibility and Outcomes of an Internet-Based Mindfulness Training Program: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventions based on meditation and mindfulness techniques have been shown to reduce stress and increase psychological well-being in a wide variety of populations. Self-administrated Internet-based mindfulness training programs have the potential to be a convenient, cost-effective, easily disseminated, and accessible alternative to group-based programs. Objective This randomized controlled pilot trial with 90 university students in Stockholm, Sweden, explored the feasibility, usability, acceptability, and outcomes of an 8-week Internet-based mindfulness training program. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n=46) or an active control condition (n=44). Intervention participants were invited to an Internet-based 8-week mindfulness program, and control participants were invited to an Internet-based 4-week expressive writing program. The programs were automated apart from weekly reminders via email. Main outcomes in pre- and postassessments were psychological well-being and depression symptoms. To assess the participant’s experiences, those completing the full programs were asked to fill out an assessment questionnaire and 8 of the participants were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as content analysis, were performed. Results In the mindfulness program, 28 out of 46 students (60%) completed the first week and 18 out of 46 (39%) completed the full program. In the expressive writing program, 35 out of 44 students (80%) completed the first week and 31 out of 44 (70%) completed the full program. There was no statistically significantly stronger intervention effect for the mindfulness intervention compared to the active control intervention. Those completing the mindfulness group reported high satisfaction with the program. Most of those interviewed were satisfied with the layout and technique and with the support provided by the study coordinators. More

  14. Assessment of Local HOx and ROx Measurement Techniques: Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions - Outcomes from the International HOx Workshop 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Heard, Dwayne

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of HOx radicals are an important tool for the investigation of tropospheric chemistry in field campaigns and simulation chamber experiments. The measured data allow us to test chemical models simulating the atmospheric concentrations of OH, HO2 and RO2, and help to improve chemical mechanisms used in regional and global models for predictions of the atmospheric chemical composition. In Spring 2015, an international, IGAC-endorsed workshop took place at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, to assess the performance and reliability of current HOx measurement techniques. Fifteen international groups from Germany, UK, Ireland, France, Finland, USA, China and Japan came together to discuss achievements, challenges and future directions of laser-based, mass-spectrometry based, and chemical techniques. Following the discussions, a working group was established to guide the community in the near future in making progress on continued improvement in HOx measurements. Three goals will be persued: the development of a common calibration unit, the development of procedures to investigate and, if necessary, eliminate possible measurement artefacts, and planning for future instrumental intercomparisons. This poster contribution will give an overview of the workshop, its outcome and planned activites.

  15. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  16. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  17. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.

  18. A Study of Home Environment, Academic Achievement and Teaching Aptitude on Training Success of Pre-Service Elementary Teachers of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, Sunita; Siddiqui, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary intend of the study was to explore the relationship of Arts, Science and Commerce stream and training success and the influence of Home Environment, Academic Achievement and Teaching Aptitude on training success of ETE trainees. The study analyzed the numerical data from a survey of 380 teacher trainees of three DIETs of Delhi, India.…

  19. To Evaluate the Effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training for Mental Patients Being Rehabilitated to the Community: Goal Planning in Mental Health Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houts, Peter S.; Scott, Robert A.

    A project sought to identify how the strategies used in training programs for the development of achievement motivation could be applied to the field of mental health. In addition to using goal planning in all its aspects, if focused on the patients' strengths rather than their problems. It also trained the staff who worked with the patients…

  20. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.

  1. The effects of study groups on teachers' transfer of inquiry instruction training to elementary school science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerer, Karen M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the study group model of job-embedded professional development implemented by one district to determine its effectiveness on the degree to which teachers successfully transferred the "best practice" of inquiry into their science classroom as a result of the study group, and the impact of this professional development on students' science achievement in grades 3, 4 and 5. Upon the implementation of a new science curriculum, grade 3, 4 and 5 teachers and students were randomly selected to comprise two treatment groups. One group of teachers participated in two workshops while the other group of teachers participated in the workshops and formed study groups to continue their science professional development training, meeting six times during the course of four months. Students completed a science content assessment as a pre- and post-test measure of their achievement. Teachers and students also completed a pre- and post-test Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) to measure the implementation of constructivist practices in the classroom. An analysis of covariance was conducted to determine if any significant results occurred. Teachers from both treatment groups were also observed using the Science Teacher Inquiry Rubric (STIR), which was designed and validated to measure their transfer of inquiry training into the science classroom. An occurrence analysis was utilized to examine the results. Significant findings occurred in the achievement results of grade 3 and 5 study group students. In addition, it was determined that study groups may have resulted in the implementation of more student-centered inquiry practices than the workshop group in grades 3 and 5. However, in this study, it appeared that the study group teachers may not have used enough student-centered features of inquiry to establish constructivist learning environments as no statistically significant findings occurred. Grade 4 achievement results were

  2. An in-house prevocational training program for newly discharged psychiatric inpatients: exploring its employment outcomes and the predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Fang; Hwang, Eric; Lee, Hui-Ling; Wu, Shang-Liang

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with severe mental disorders continue to experience low employment rates. Occupational therapists play an important role in helping these individuals develop the skills and obtain the supports necessary for productive living. This retrospective cohort study aimed to explore employment outcomes and identify factors predictive of the outcomes of an in-house prevocational training program designed for newly discharged psychiatric inpatients. Data retrieved from the files of 58 participants including demographics, diagnostic history, physical fitness, functional assessment results, the use of vocational counselling service and employment status were analyzed. The overall employment rates among the participants were high (67.2-79.3%) within the 6 months following the prevocational training program. No significant differences were found in the employment rates across the 1, 3 and 6-month time periods post-training. Vocational counselling service post-training and hand function were two factors predictive of participants' employment outcomes. Occupational therapists should attend to the clients' need for continuous vocational support and carefully identify the personal, functional and environmental factors contributing to successful employment. Caution in interpreting the results is warranted because of the lack of control and randomization in this retrospective study. Additional longitudinal cohort or experimental studies would add further certainty to the current findings. PMID:25783143

  3. On the Diverse Outcome of Communication Partner Training of Significant Others of People with Aphasia: An Experimental Study of Six Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Karin; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Communication partner training (CPT) has been shown to improve the communicative environment of people with aphasia. Interaction-focused training is one type of training that provides an individualized intervention to participants. Although shown to be effective, outcomes have mostly been evaluated in non-experimental case studies.…

  4. Effect of pre-operative neuromuscular training on functional outcome after total knee replacement: a randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Total Knee Replacement (TKR) is the standard treatment for patients with severe knee osteoarthritis (OA). Significant improvement in pain and function are seen after TKR and approximately 80% of patients are very satisfied with the outcome. Functional status prior to TKR is a major predictor of outcome after the intervention. Thus, improving functional status prior to surgery through exercise may improve after surgery outcome. However, results from several previous trials testing the concept have been inconclusive after surgery. Methods/design In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) we will test the effect of a pre-operative neuromuscular trainingprogram versus an attention control program on lower extremity function – before and after surgery. We will enroll 80 participants, aged between 55–90 years, who are scheduled for TKR. In this single-blinded RCT, the intervention group will receive a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 24 training sessions plus 3 educational sessions of the knee school. The control group will receive the 3 educational sessions only. Assessments are performed immediately before and after the intervention (before surgery), at 6 weeks, 3 months and 12 months (after surgery). The primary outcome will include the Chair Stand Test as a measure of leg strength and reaction time. Secondary outcomes are knee function and pain assessed with the self-reported Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). All measurements will be carried out by a specially trained physical therapist, blinded to group allocation. Discussion To our knowledge this is the first single-blinded RCT to test the effect of pre-operative neuromuscular training plus knee school against knee school alone – on knee function and pain, assessed immediately after the interventions prior to surgery and repeatedly after surgery. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00913575 PMID:23641782

  5. Professional and medical outcomes for French train drivers after "person under train" accidents: three year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Cothereau, C; de Beaurepaire, C; Payan, C; Cambou, J; Rouillon, F; Conso, F

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate psychiatric disorders, somatic health, and professional effects in French train drivers having experienced a "person under train" accident, and somatic health and professional effects. Methods: A total of 202 train drivers were evaluated several times: immediately after the event, three months later, and one, two, and three years later. These drivers were compared with 186 train drivers not exposed to that psychotraumatic shock. The evaluations relied primarily on the GHQ-28 and MINI questionnaires. Results: In the exposed group, at the first evaluation, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress was 4%; scores ⩾5 on the GHQ-28 were significantly higher than in the non-exposed group (32% versus 6%), for both the overall result and three sub-scores (somatic symptoms, anxiety and sleep, and psychosocial functioning). All these differences disappeared within a year. Vulnerability factors concerned prior traumas, acute and lasting life events, and the particular occupational situation where the driver is not accompanied but drives the train away alone in the aftermath of the accident. Over 95% of subjects had no short, medium, or long term impairment of their occupational fitness. Conclusions: Most of the psycho-behavioural disorders were observed in the immediate aftermath of the accident and disappeared within a year. The driver's occupational future does not seem to be affected by the "person under train" accident. Consideration of a traumatic accident as a job related risk and close psychological support of drivers after an accident probably increase the subject's ability to recover from the event. PMID:15150387

  6. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins-Crépeau, Laurence; Berryman, Nicolas; Fraser, Sarah A; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Li, Karen ZH; Bosquet, Laurent; Bherer, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults. Methods Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT) training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention. Results All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training. All groups showed improved speed of processing and inhibition abilities, but only participants who took part in the DT training, independently of physical training, showed increased task-switching abilities. The level of functional mobility after intervention was significantly associated with task-switching abilities. Conclusion Combined training did not yield synergetic effects. However, DT training did lead to transfer effects on executive performance in neuropsychological tests. Both aerobic-resistance training and stretching-toning exercises can improve functional mobility in older adults. PMID:27698558

  7. Master's Level Professional Athletic Training Programs: Program Characteristics, Graduation Requirements, and Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrowski, Jennifer Lynn; Marshall, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Context: While currently there are 2 curriculum route options leading to athletic training certification, the future of athletic training education is being heavily debated. While master's-level professional (MLP) athletic training programs account for less than 8% of all accredited programs, these programs have seen tremendous growth in the past…

  8. Effects of combined physical and cognitive training on fitness and neuropsychological outcomes in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins-Crépeau, Laurence; Berryman, Nicolas; Fraser, Sarah A; Vu, Thien Tuong Minh; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Li, Karen ZH; Bosquet, Laurent; Bherer, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Physical exercise and cognitive training have been shown to enhance cognition among older adults. However, few studies have looked at the potential synergetic effects of combining physical and cognitive training in a single study. Prior trials on combined training have led to interesting yet equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of combined physical and cognitive interventions on physical fitness and neuropsychological performance in healthy older adults. Methods Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to one of four training combinations using a 2×2 factorial design. The physical intervention was a mixed aerobic and resistance training program, and the cognitive intervention was a dual-task (DT) training program. Stretching and toning exercises and computer lessons were used as active control conditions. Physical and cognitive measures were collected pre- and postintervention. Results All groups showed equivalent improvements in measures of functional mobility. The aerobic–strength condition led to larger effect size in lower body strength, independently of cognitive training. All groups showed improved speed of processing and inhibition abilities, but only participants who took part in the DT training, independently of physical training, showed increased task-switching abilities. The level of functional mobility after intervention was significantly associated with task-switching abilities. Conclusion Combined training did not yield synergetic effects. However, DT training did lead to transfer effects on executive performance in neuropsychological tests. Both aerobic-resistance training and stretching-toning exercises can improve functional mobility in older adults.

  9. Permissible Inferences from the Outcome of Training Studies in Cognitive Development Research. Technical Report No. 127.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ann L.; Campione, Joseph C.

    In modal training studies, the comparative groups differ in the use of a particular cognitive process; training to overcome the deficiency is provided for the deficient group only, and their performance is then compared to the standard set by the untrained group. Improvements are necessary in the design of training studies, as are a…

  10. Playing vs. nonplaying aerobic training in tennis: physiological and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players. PMID:25816346

  11. Playing vs. nonplaying aerobic training in tennis: physiological and performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players.

  12. Playing vs. Nonplaying Aerobic Training in Tennis: Physiological and Performance Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Pialoux, Vincent; Genevois, Cyril; Capoen, Arnaud; Forbes, Scott C.; Thomas, Jordan; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the effects of playing and nonplaying high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on physiological demands and tennis stroke performance in young tennis players. Eleven competitive male players (13.4 ± 1.3 years) completed both a playing and nonplaying HIIT session of equal distance, in random order. During each HIIT session, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored. Before and after each HIIT session, the velocity and accuracy of the serve, and forehand and backhand strokes were evaluated. The results demonstrated that both HIIT sessions achieved an average HR greater than 90% HRmax. The physiological demands (average HR) were greater during the playing session compared to the nonplaying session, despite similar lactate concentrations and a lower RPE. The results also indicate a reduction in shot velocity after both HIIT sessions; however, the playing HIIT session had a more deleterious effect on stroke accuracy. These findings suggest that 1) both HIIT sessions may be sufficient to develop maximal aerobic power, 2) playing HIIT sessions provide a greater physiological demand with a lower RPE, and 3) playing HIIT has a greater deleterious effect on stroke performance, and in particular on the accuracy component of the ground stroke performance, and should be incorporated appropriately into a periodization program in young male tennis players. PMID:25816346

  13. An Examination of Reading and Mathematic Achievement among Second Grade Students Who Have Received Instruction from Either Teachers Who Have Been Trained in Choice Theory/Reality Therapy Methods or Teachers Who Have Not Been Trained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Jane V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if second grade students who were taught by teachers trained in choice theory/reality therapy (CT/RT) methods had higher achievement scores in mathematics/reading compared to students who were taught by teachers who were not trained. The American School Counselor Association (ASCA) National Model suggests that…

  14. The Effect of Instructor-Student Interaction on Achievement in Computer-Based Training (CBT). Interim Technical Paper for Period April 1990-February 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Stanley D.

    The role of the instructor in computer-based training (CBT) has not been previously studied. However, the role of instructor in traditional instruction (TI) has been studied and has been shown to influence student achievement. A key finding from TI research is that instructor-student interaction is positively related to achievement. This…

  15. A Methodology to Assist Faculty in Developing Successful Approaches for Achieving Learner Centered Information Systems Curriculum Outcomes: Team Based Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Teresa A.; Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Landry, Jeffrey P.; Lusk, C. Scott; Saulnier, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    All industries face the interrelated challenges of identifying and training the critical skills needed to be successful in the workplace. Specifically of interest to the information systems field is that any newly trained IS professional has to be equipped to solve increasingly difficult problems with great confidence and competence. In this paper…

  16. Evaluation of Life Skills Training and Infused-Life Skills Training in a Rural Setting: Outcomes at Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward A.; Swisher, John D.; Vicary, Judith R.; Bechtel, Lori J.; Minner, Daphne; Henry, Kimberly L.; Palmer, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    This study reports on findings from the first two years of a study to compare a standard Life Skill Training (LST) program with an infused (I-LST) approach. Nine small, rural school districts were randomly assigned to LST, I-LST, or control conditions in grade seven. The LST program significantly reduced alcohol use, binge drinking, marijuana use,…

  17. The Impact of a Proficiency-Based Assessment and Reassessment of Learning Outcomes System on Student Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This research compares a student-centered, proficiency-based assessment and reassessment of learning outcomes (PARLO) system to traditional assessment in a college-level introductory statistics class. The PARLO class was assessed on learning outcomes using a three-tiered proficiency scale and given the opportunity to resubmit assignments to…

  18. Food Stamp Employment and Training Program: Better Data Needed To Understand Who Is Served and What the Program Achieves. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to determine who is being served by the Food Stamp Employment and Training Program (FSE&T program), what services are being provided through the program, and what is known about the program's outcomes and effectiveness. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) does not collect nationwide data on the…

  19. "I Am a Scientist": How Setting Conditions That Enhance Focused Concentration Positively Relate to Student Motivation and Achievement Outcomes in Inquiry-Based Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellwood, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants…

  20. Graduate Management Admission Test Outcomes and the Academic Achievement: A Study on Masters of Business Administration Students at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Saint Omala; Kakumba, Umar

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether the outcomes of the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) can predict the academic achievement of enrollees in masters programs. The study is based on administrative data of 516 Masters of Business Administration (MBA) enrollees at the College of Business and Management Science, Makerere University in the 2011…

  1. Benefits of Career and Technical Student Organizations' on Female and Racial Minority Students' Psychosocial and Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Steven R.; Alfeld, Corinne; Hansen, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent do CTSOs affect student psychosocial and achievement outcomes (above and beyond stand-alone CTE programs) when controlling for gender and race. Using a cross-sectional descriptive research design, a total of 5,677 students from 10 states were surveyed regarding their high school…

  2. The Economic Benefits of Closing Educational Achievement Gaps: Promoting Growth and Strengthening the Nation by Improving the Educational Outcomes of Children of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Robert G.; Oakford, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Our nation is currently experiencing growing levels of income and wealth inequality, which are contributing to longstanding racial and ethnic gaps in education outcomes and other areas. This report quantifies the economic benefits of closing one of the most harmful racial and ethnic gaps: the educational achievement gap that exists between black…

  3. Interfacing Essential Competencies and Learner Outcomes with Developmental Reading: Program for Improving Reading Achievement; Recreational Reading and Personal Development: Inservice Mini-Package for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, Carolyn P.; And Others

    Developed in West Virginia as part of a statewide effort to improve reading achievement through a competency based staff development program, this inservice instructional packet on recreational reading and personal development is one of five devised to present classroom teachers with the essential competencies and learner outcomes involved in…

  4. Connections between Teacher Perceptions of School Effectiveness and Student Outcomes in Idaho's Low-Achieving Schools. REL 2014-012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Caitlin; Parsley, Danette

    2014-01-01

    Policymakers and practitioners frequently use teacher surveys to inform decisions on school improvement efforts in low-achieving schools. There is little empirical evidence on how the results of these surveys relate to student outcomes. This study provides information on how perception data from a teacher survey in Idaho is correlated with three…

  5. Feelings and Performance in the First Year at University: Learning-Related Emotions as Predictors of Achievement Outcomes in Mathematics and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niculescu, Alexandra C.; Templelaar, Dirk; Leppink, Jimmie; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the predictive value of four learning-related emotions--Enjoyment, Anxiety, Boredom and Hopelessness for achievement outcomes in the first year of study at university. Method: We used a large sample (N = 2337) of first year university students enrolled over three consecutive academic years in a mathematics and…

  6. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  7. Recruitment, training outcomes, retention, and performance of community health advisors in two tobacco control interventions for Latinos.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Susan I; Candelaria, Jeanette I; Elder, John P

    2010-04-01

    Community Health Advisors (CHAs) are indigenous lay health advisors who, with training, can create health awareness, disseminate health information and support behavior change in their communities. Little data are available that describe the characteristics, recruitment, training, retention, and performance of CHAs. The present study described the characteristics, recruitment process, training outcomes, retention activities, and performance of two sets of CHAs who delivered tobacco-related interventions in the local Latino community. The Tobacco Control in Latino Communities (TCLC) Center trained 35 CHAs to conduct either a smoking cessation program for Spanish-speaking adult smokers or a behavioral problem-solving intervention to reduce environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among low-income Latino children. Theoretical psychosocial constructs related to behavior change, general self-esteem, general self-efficacy, and demographics were collected from CHAs before and after training. Additional measures captured the level of professionalism exercised and effort undertaken by the CHAs, as well actual outcomes of their efforts. Of the 33 women and 2 men CHAs recruited, 86% were originally from Mexico, most had a high school education, most were married, and the average monthly household income was $1,100-$1,400. Mean participant age was 42 years, and level of acculturation was relatively low. There were changes in the desired direction pre-to-post training for both ETS and smoking cessation program CHAs for most of the psychosocial constructs. Expert ratings of CHA performance were good, and recipients of the CHAs' efforts showed positive changes in behavior. This information may aid in planning for recruitment and evaluation of CHAs for future tobacco control programs. PMID:20012475

  8. Initial review of the U.S. Navy's pressurized submarine escape training outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Seth W; Horn, Wayne G

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Navy reinstituted pressurized submarine escape training (PSET) for submarine sailors in 2009 after a nearly 30-year absence. This training addresses escape from a disabled submarine at depth with the use of the Beaufort, Ltd. Mk 10 Submarine Escape and Immersion Equipment (SEIE) suit. Training is classified as "high-risk" due to previous U.S. and foreign navy experience with training-associated morbidity and mortality, particularly from diving-related illness. To reduce risk, medical screening procedures are performed. During the first 39 months of training, 7,025 students screened for PSET with 32% completing all phases, including two pressurized ascents. The most common reason for screening disqualification was presence of upper respiratory congestion. During training, middle ear barotrauma was responsible for 53% of attrition, primarily during the test of pressure.

  9. When training boomerangs - Negative outcomes associated with Cockpit Resource Management programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1989-01-01

    Participants' self-reports and measures of attitudes regarding flightdeck management indicate that Cockpit Resource Management training is positively received and causes highly significant changes in attitudes regarding crew coordination and personal capabilities. However, a subset of participants react negatively to the training and show boomerangs (negative change) in attitudes. Explorations into the causes of this effect pinpoint personality factors and group dynamics as critical determinants of reactions to training and the magnitude and direction of attitude change.

  10. The Impact of Achieve3000 on Elementary Literacy Outcomes: Evidence from a Two-Year Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Darryl V.; Lenard, Matthew A.; Page, Lindsay Coleman

    2016-01-01

    School districts are increasingly adopting technology-based resources in an attempt to improve student achievement. This paper reports the two-year results from randomized control trial of Achieve3000 in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) in Raleigh, North Carolina. Achieve3000 is an early literacy program that differentiates non-fiction…

  11. Job or Further Training?: Impact of the Swiss Basic Federal Vocational Education and Training (VET) Certificate on the Careers of Low Achieving Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kammermann, Marlise

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The two-year basic training course leading to the Basic Federal Certificate was established in Switzerland by the new Vocational Training Act in 2002 with the intention of ensuring upper secondary education and training for disadvantaged young people. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the findings of a longitudinal study of youths…

  12. Relationship between midweek training measures of testosterone and cortisol concentrations and game outcome in professional rugby union matches.

    PubMed

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Cook, Christian J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations across selected midweek skill-based training sessions and their association with subsequent match outcome 3 days later. Twenty-two rugby union players were assessed for salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after a midweek training session over 6 consecutive weeks. The relative percentage change (response) in the testosterone and cortisol concentration and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio was also determined. Game-day analysis consisted of prematch testosterone concentrations and match outcome. Data were pooled across the winning (n = 3) and losing (n = 3) outcomes. The midweek pretraining T/C ratio was significantly lower (p < 0.01) before a win than a loss and the increase in the pre- to post-T/C ratio before a win was significant (p < 0.001). The increase in the pre- to post-testosterone concentration before a win was also shown to be significant (p < 0.01). However, the relative changes in testosterone before games that were won were not statistically different to that of games lost (p > 0.01). Significant relationships were also demonstrated between game-day pre-testosterone concentrations and the midweek cortisol response (r = -0.90, p = 0.01) and midweek T/C ratio response (r = 0.90, p = 0.01). In conclusion, a midweek measurement of the T/C ratio against a skill-based training session seems to show some potential as an early indicator of subsequent successfully executed performances in competitive rugby union. If this work is subsequently validated, further monitoring of midweek hormone concentrations in response to a mixed psychological-physical training session may assist with assessing competitive readiness leading up to competition.

  13. Motor and functional outcomes of a patient post-stroke following combined activity and impairment level training.

    PubMed

    Combs, Stephanie; Miller, Ellen Winchell; Forsyth, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this single-subject report was to determine the effect of a targeted training regimen aimed at improving motor and functional outcomes for a patient with chronic deficits after stroke. A 51-year-old woman with hemiparesis, 6 months post-stroke, participated in this prospective study. During the baseline, intervention, and immediate retention phases, performance was established by using repeated measures of four dependent variables: Fugl-Meyer assessment, Berg Balance Scale, 10-meter walk, and 6-minute walk. Two standard deviation band analyses were conducted on the four dependent variables with repeated measures. The Frenchay Activities Index and step length/single-limb support time measured at baseline and immediate retention were compared. During intervention, the participant was involved in a combined treatment protocol including body weight supported (BWS) treadmill training and strengthening exercises. Results indicated significant improvements in motor activity, balance, gait speed, and endurance. Progression was found in self-perceived participation. Although an improvement in step length symmetry occurred following training, a decrease in single-limb support time symmetry was found. BWS treadmill training, combined with strength training, significantly improved motor and functional performance in this participant with chronic deficits after stroke.

  14. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Fitness and Walking Related Outcomes in Ambulatory Individuals with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    DiPiro, Nicole D.; Embry, Aaron E.; Fritz, Stacy L.; Middleton, Addie; Krause, James S.; Gregory, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single group, pretest-posttest study. Objectives To determine the effects of a non-task-specific, voluntary, progressive aerobic exercise training (AET) intervention on fitness and walking-related outcomes in ambulatory adults with chronic motor-incomplete SCI. Setting Rehabilitation research center. Methods Ten ambulatory individuals (50% female; 57.94 ± 9.33 years old; 11.11 ± 9.66 years post injury) completed voluntary, progressive moderate-to-vigorous intensity AET on a recumbent stepper three days per week for six weeks. The primary outcome measures were aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and self-selected overground walking speed (OGWS). Secondary outcome measures included: walking economy, six-minute walk test (6MWT), daily step counts, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI-II), Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Results Nine participants completed all testing and training. Significant improvements in aerobic capacity (P=0.011), OGWS (P=0.023), the percentage of VO2peak utilized while walking at self-selected speed (P=0.03), and daily step counts (P=0.025) resulted following training. Conclusions The results indicate that total-body, voluntary, progressive AET is safe, feasible, and effective for improving aerobic capacity, walking speed, and select walking-related outcomes in an exclusively ambulatory SCI sample. This study suggests the potential for non-task-specific aerobic exercise to improve walking following incomplete SCI and builds a foundation for further investigation aimed at the development of exercise based rehabilitation strategies to target functionally limiting impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic SCI. PMID:26666508

  15. Motivational Interviewing Training for Juvenile Correctional Staff in California: One Year Initial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Doran, Neal; Koutsenok, Igor

    2009-01-01

    This study reports initial results of a program designed to train California corrections staff (n = 576) in motivational interviewing (MI), a method of communication that is based on a client-centered, collaborative style. After three days of training, participants made significant gains in terms of knowledge of MI principles and reflective…

  16. Outcomes of Persons with Disabilities Who Receive Vocational Training at Tennessee Rehabilitation Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of Tennessee Rehabilitation Center (TRC) students' education. TRC is a vocational rehabilitation training school in Middle Tennessee for individuals with disabilities throughout the state of Tennessee that are seeking employment after graduating from their training. In Tennessee,…

  17. Outcomes of a Peer Assessment/Feedback Training Program in an Undergraduate Sports Medicine Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Melissa Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Peer assessment/feedback is clearly occurring in athletic training education programs. However, it remains unclear whether students would improve their ability to assess their peers and provide corrective feedback if they received formal training in how to do so. The purpose of this study was to determine the following: (1) if a peer…

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Focus Parent Training for Toddlers with Autism: 1-Year Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris; Visser, Janne; Swinkels, Sophie; Rommelse, Nanda; Donders, Rogier; Woudenberg, Tim; Roos, Sascha; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Buitelaar, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial compared results obtained after 12 months of nonintensive parent training plus care-as-usual and care-as-usual alone. The training focused on stimulating joint attention and language skills and was based on the intervention described by Drew et al. (Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatr 11:266-272, 2002). Seventy-five…

  19. Does Curriculum Practical Training Affect Engineers' Workplace Outcomes? Evidence from an Engineer Survey in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Tsang, Mun; Li, Manli

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing attention to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math), hands-on Curriculum Practical Training (CPT) has been expanding rapidly worldwide as a requirement of the undergraduate engineering education. In China, a typical CPT for undergraduate engineering students requires several weeks of hands-on training in the…

  20. Contemporary Approaches for Assessing Outcomes on Training, Education, and HRD Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brauchle, Paul E.; Schmidt, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    When educators, trainers, and human resource development (HRD) practitioners are asked to produce evidence that supports the productivity of the training enterprise, they are often frustrated by the lack of simple and effective methods for assessment. While administrators in an organization are likely to know exactly how much training costs, they…

  1. Mentoring and Social Skills Training: Ensuring Better Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Youth in foster care face significant life challenges that make it more likely that they will face negative outcomes (i.e., school failure, homelessness, and incarceration). While the reason(s) for out-of-home placement (i.e., family violence, abuse, neglect and/or abandonment) provide some context for negative outcomes, such negative outcomes…

  2. Outcome of a one-week intensive training workshop for veterinary diagnostic laboratory workers in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Julie A; Tornquist, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    There is a huge unmet need for veterinary diagnostic laboratory services in developing nations such as Liberia. One way of bridging the service gap is for visiting experts to provide veterinary laboratory training to technicians in a central location in a short-course format. An intensive 1-week training workshop was organized for 18 student and faculty participants from the College of Agriculture and Integrated Development Studies (CAIDS) at Cuttington University in rural central Liberia. The training was designed and delivered by the non-governmental organization Veterinarians Without Borders US and funded through a Farmer-to-Farmer grant provided by the United States Agency for International Development. Although at the start of training none of the students had any veterinary laboratory experience, by the end of the course over 80% of the students were able to discuss appropriate care and use of a microscope and name at least three important components of laboratory record keeping; over 60% were able to describe how to make and stain a blood smear and how to perform a passive fecal flotation; and over 30% were able to describe what a packed cell volume is and how it is measured and name at least three criteria for classifying bacteria. The intensive training workshop greatly improved the knowledge of trainees about veterinary diagnostic laboratory techniques. The training provided initial skills to students and faculty who are awaiting the arrival of additional grant-funded laboratory equipment to continue their training.

  3. [Electronic fetal monitoring and management of adverse outcomes: how to perform and improve a training program for clinicians?].

    PubMed

    Secourgeon, J-F

    2012-10-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring during labor is the most commonly used method to evaluate the fetal status, but it remains exposed to some criticism. By comparison with intermittent auscultation and in the light of the results of the great studies in the last 30 years, it may be accused its failure to improve the neonatal outcome and its responsibility in the increase on operative deliveries. Actually, the electronic fetal monitoring is a tool whose effectiveness is linked to the accuracy of the analysis developed by the clinician. Studies on assessment of the tracing interpretation indicate that there is always a lack of quality, which may be improved through training programs. It also reveals the benefit of the fetal blood sampling to reduce operative deliveries and the generalization of this method, in addition to electronic fetal monitoring, is recommended by referral agencies. More generally, the continuous monitoring is only a part of the patient safety strategy in the labour ward and we are currently observing, in some European countries and in the United States, the development of training programs concerning the management of the adverse outcomes in obstetrics. The good performances related to the quality of care are demonstrated by the findings of the studies performed in the centers that have implemented an active training policy. In France, the professionals directly involved in the field of the perinatology should benefit from such educational programs that could be organized within the care networks under the authority of referral agencies.

  4. Impact of Web-based Case Conferencing on Cancer Genetics Training Outcomes for Community-based Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Blazer, Kathleen R.; Christie, Christina; Uman, Gwen; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Technology and market forces are driving the demand for cancer risk assessment services in the community setting, where few clinicians are trained to order and interpret predictive genetic tests. City of Hope conducts a three-phase course in genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) for community-based clinicians, comprised of distance didactics, face-to-face workshops and 12 months of professional development. As designed, the course cannot meet increasing demands for GCRA training. Action research identified face-to-face workshops as a barrier to increasing course capacity. This study compared the learning effectiveness of Web-based case conferencing to face-to-face training. Methods A quasi-experimental design compared pre-post knowledge, skills and professional self-efficacy outcomes from 2009-2010 course cohorts (n=96). The intervention group (n=52) engaged in Web-based case conferences during distance learning; the comparison group (n=44) participated in the course as originally designed. Results Both groups and all practice disciplines demonstrated significant pre-to-post increases on all measures. Knowledge increases were higher for the intervention group (p < .015); skills and self-efficacy increases were comparable between groups (p < .33 and p < .30, respectively). Discussion Findings support the learning utility of Web-based case conferencing. Further studies may inform the development of tools to assess the impact of Web-based case conferencing on practice change and patient outcomes, in alignment with the highest standards of continuing professional development. PMID:22328115

  5. A Qualitative Study of Self-Esteem, Peer Affiliation, and Academic Outcome among Low Achieving Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Chi-hung; Choi, Eudora

    2010-01-01

    Background: A limited amount of research has been conducted on children and adolescents who are low achievers. In Hong Kong, educators describe low achieving students in terms of academic performance, they seldom focus on socio-emotional aspects, such as self-esteem, peer affiliation, and inter-personal relationships. However, low achieving…

  6. An Alcohol and Drug Counselor Training Program: Hazelden Foundation's Trainee Characteristics and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laundergan, J. Clark; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Introduces the Minnesota Model of chemical dependency treatment, describes the Hazelden Counselor Training Program, and summarizes trainee characteristics and survey follow-up findings of 100 former trainees. (Author/BL)

  7. Inspiratory muscle training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: structural adaptation and physiologic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Sarmiento, Alba; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Guell, Rosa; Barreiro, Esther; Hernandez, Nuria; Mota, Susana; Sangenis, Merce; Broquetas, Joan M; Casan, Pere; Gea, Joaquim

    2002-12-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of a specific inspiratory muscle training protocol on the structure of inspiratory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Fourteen patients (males, FEV1, 24 +/- 7% predicted) were randomized to either inspiratory muscle or sham training groups. Supervised breathing using a threshold inspiratory device was performed 30 minutes per day, five times a week, for 5 consecutive weeks. The inspiratory training group was subjected to inspiratory loading equivalent to 40 to 50% of their maximal inspiratory pressure. Biopsies from external intercostal muscles and vastus lateralis (control muscle) were taken before and after the training period. Muscle samples were processed for morphometric analyses using monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain isoforms I and II. Increases in both the strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles were observed in the inspiratory training group. This improvement was associated with increases in the proportion of type I fibers (by approximately 38%, p < 0.05) and in the size of type II fibers (by approximately 21%, p < 0.05) in the external intercostal muscles. No changes were observed in the control muscle. The study demonstrates that inspiratory training induces a specific functional improvement of the inspiratory muscles and adaptive changes in the structure of external intercostal muscles. PMID:12406842

  8. Views from the Field: Conservation Educators' and Practitioners' Perceptions of Education as a Strategy for Achieving Conservation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Heimlich, Joe E.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents data from a mixed-methods study that collected data through surveys (n = 656), interviews (n = 15), and discussion groups (n = 75) to explore the use of social strategies such as education and outreach by non-governmental organizations and government agencies to reach outcomes related to biodiversity conservation and resource…

  9. A Family Music Project in the North of England: A Study of the Pedagogical Methodologies Employed and the Outcomes Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article examines learning outcomes in relation to the pedagogical methodologies employed in a community music project involving families. The research was designed with three stages. In the first stage case studies of existing family music projects were undertaken. In the second stage findings from the case studies were applied in the design…

  10. Language and Verbal Memory in Individuals with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Have Achieved Optimal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Katherine; Kelley, Elizabeth; Fein, Deborah; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some individuals who lose their autism spectrum disorder diagnosis may continue to display subtle weaknesses in language. We examined language and verbal memory in 44 individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 individuals with "optimal outcomes" (OO) and 34 individuals with typical development (TD). The OO group scored in the…

  11. Identification with Academics and Motivation to Achieve in School: How the Structure of the Self Influences Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.; Jones, Brett D.

    2011-01-01

    Authors since William James ("1892/1968") have implied that the structure of the self-concept can influence motivation and outcomes in particular domains. The value or importance an individual places on a domain influences how motivated that individual is to expend effort in that domain, ultimately influencing the positivity or negativity of the…

  12. Fitness, fatness, cognition, behavior, and academic achievement among overweight children: Do cross-sectional associations correspond to exercise trial outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine L.; Cooper, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined associations of fitness and fatness with cognitive processes, academic achievement, and behavior, independent of demographic factors, at the baseline of an exercise trial. Methods Overweight, sedentary but otherwise healthy 7–11 year olds (N=170) participated in a study of health, cognition and achievement in the Augusta, GA area from 2003–2006. Children underwent evaluations of fatness and fitness, psychological assessments of cognition and academic achievement, and behavior ratings by parents and teachers. Partial correlations examined associations of fitness and fatness with cognitive and achievement scores and behavior ratings, controlling for demographic factors. Results Fitness was associated with better cognition, achievement and behavior, and fatness with worse scores. Specifically, executive function, mathematics and reading achievement, and parent ratings of child behavior were related to fitness and fatness. Teacher ratings were related to fitness. Conclusion These results extend prior studies by providing reliable, standardized measures of cognitive processes, achievement, and behavior in relation to detailed measures of fitness and fatness. However, cross-sectional associations do not necessarily indicate that improving one factor, such as fatness or fitness, will result in improvements in factors that were associated with it. Thus, randomized clinical trials are necessary to determine the effects of interventions. PMID:21281668

  13. The influence of 2 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training on health outcomes in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Barker, Alan R; Day, Josephine; Smith, Aaron; Bond, Bert; Williams, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to establish whether 2 weeks of high-intensity interval training would have a beneficial effect on aerobic fitness, fat oxidation, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in healthy adolescent boys. Ten adolescent boys (15.1 ± 0.3 years, 1.3 ± 0.2 years post-estimated peak height velocity) completed six sessions of Wingate-style high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period. The first session consisted of four sprints with training progressed to seven sprints in the final session. High-intensity interval training had a beneficial effect on maximal O2 uptake (mean change, ±90% confidence intervals: 0.19 L · min(-1), ±0.19, respectively), on the O2 uptake at the gas exchange threshold (0.09 L · min(-1), ±0.13) and on the O2 cost of sub-maximal exercise (-0.04 L · min(-1), ±0.04). A beneficial effect on the contribution of lipid (0.06 g · min(-1), ±0.06) and carbohydrate (-0.23 g · min(-1), ±0.14) oxidation was observed during sub-maximal exercise, but not for the maximal rate of fat oxidation (0.04 g · min(-1), ±0.08). Systolic blood pressure (1 mmHg, ±4) and BMI (0.1 kg · m2, ±0.1) were not altered following training. These data demonstrate that meaningful changes in health outcomes are possible in healthy adolescent boys after just six sessions of high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period.

  14. An Industry/Academe Consortium for Achieving 20% wind by 2030 through Cutting-Edge Research and Workforce Training

    SciTech Connect

    Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.; Milliren, Christopher; Kaveh, Mos; Mohan, Ned; Stolarski, Henryk; Glauser, Mark; Arndt, Roger

    2013-12-01

    In January 2010, the University of Minnesota, along with academic and industry project partners, began work on a four year project to establish new facilities and research in strategic areas of wind energy necessary to move the nation towards a goal of 20% wind energy by 2030. The project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy with funds made available through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. $7.9M of funds were provided by DOE and $3.1M was provided through matching funds. The project was organized into three Project Areas. Project Area 1 focused on design and development of a utility scale wind energy research facility to support research and innovation. The project commissioned the Eolos Wind Research Field Station in November of 2011. The site, located 20 miles from St. Paul, MN operates a 2.5MW Clipper Liberty C-96 wind turbine, a 130-ft tall sensored meteorological tower and a robust sensor and data acquisition network. The site is operational and will continue to serve as a site for innovation in wind energy for the next 15 years. Project Areas 2 involved research on six distinct research projects critical to the 20% Wind Energy by 2030 goals. The research collaborations involved faculty from two universities, over nine industry partners and two national laboratories. Research outcomes include new knowledge, patents, journal articles, technology advancements, new computational models and establishment of new collaborative relationships between university and industry. Project Area 3 focused on developing educational opportunities in wind energy for engineering and science students. The primary outcome is establishment of a new graduate level course at the University of Minnesota called Wind Engineering Essentials. The seminar style course provides a comprehensive analysis of wind energy technology, economics, and operation. The course is highly successful and will continue to be offered at the University. The vision of U.S. DOE to

  15. The Interaction Effects of Program Training, Dosage, and Implementation Quality on Targeted Student Outcomes for The RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Maria Regina; Brackett, Marc A.; Rivers, Susan E.; Elbertson, Nicole A.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how training, dosage, and implementation quality of a social and emotional learning program, The RULER Approach, were related to students' social and emotional competencies. There were no main effects for any of the variables on student outcomes, but students had more positive outcomes when their teachers (a) attended more…

  16. Brief report: vocational outcomes for young adults with autism spectrum disorders at six months after virtual reality job interview training.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Fleming, Michael F; Wright, Michael A; Losh, Molly; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D

    2015-10-01

    Young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have low employment rates and job interviewing presents a critical barrier to employment for them. Results from a prior randomized controlled efficacy trial suggested virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) improved interviewing skills among trainees with ASD, but not controls with ASD. We conducted a brief survey with 23 of 26 participants from this study to evaluate their vocational outcomes at 6-month follow-up with a focus on whether or not they attained a competitive position (employment or competitive volunteering). Logistic regression indicated VR-JIT trainees had greater odds of attaining a competitive position than controls (OR 7.82, p < 0.05). Initial evidence suggests VR-JIT is a promising intervention that enhances vocational outcomes among young adults with high-functioning ASD.

  17. Brief Report: Vocational Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders at Six Months After Virtual Reality Job Interview Training

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Michael F.; Wright, Michael A.; Losh, Molly; Boteler Humm, Laura; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D.

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have low employment rates and job interviewing presents a critical barrier to employment for them. Results from a prior randomized controlled efficacy trial suggested virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) improved interviewing skills among trainees with ASD, but not controls with ASD. We conducted a brief survey with 23 of 26 participants from this study to evaluate their vocational outcomes at 6-month follow-up with a focus on whether or not they attained a competitive position (employment or competitive volunteering). Logistic regression indicated VR-JIT trainees had greater odds of attaining a competitive position than controls (OR 7.82, p < 0.05). Initial evidence suggests VR-JIT is a promising intervention that enhances vocational outcomes among young adults with high-functioning ASD. PMID:25986176

  18. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Ives, Stephen J; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O'Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5-6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. -5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (-5 ± 9 vs. -11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5-6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  19. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study †

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Ives, Stephen J.; Norton, Chelsea; Escudero, Daniela; Minicucci, Olivia; O’Brien, Gabe; Paul, Maia; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Miller, Vincent; Sheridan, Caitlin; He, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE) training (PRISE) in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power) outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week) were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15) or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15) for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP) endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs), power (bench throws, BTs), blood pressure (BP), augmentation index, (AIx), and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre) and 13 (post). At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05) in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively), BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts), AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%), and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg). These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day) diet and multi-component exercise (RISE) training (PRISE) enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women. PMID:27258301

  20. Effects of strength training on muscle cellular outcomes in prostate cancer patients on androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, T S; Thorsen, L; Fosså, S D; Wiig, M; Kirkegaard, C; Skovlund, E; Benestad, H B; Raastad, T

    2016-09-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) improves life expectancy in prostate cancer (PCa) patients, but is associated with adverse effects on muscle mass. Here, we investigated the effects of strength training during ADT on muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and regulators of muscle mass. PCa patients on ADT were randomized to 16 weeks of strength training (STG) (n = 12) or a control group (CG; n = 11). Muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis and analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Muscle fiber CSA increased with strength training (898 μm(2) , P = 0.04), with the only significant increase observed in type II fibers (1076 μm(2) , P = 0.03). There was a trend toward a difference in mean change between groups myonuclei number (0.33 nuclei/fiber, P = 0.06), with the only significant increase observed in type I fibers, which decreased the myonuclear domain size of type I fibers (P = 0.05). Satellite cell numbers and the content of androgen receptor and myostatin remained unchanged. Sixteen weeks of strength training during ADT increased type II fiber CSA and reduced myonuclear domain in type I fibers in PCa patients. The increased number of satellite cells normally seen following strength training was not observed. PMID:26282343

  1. Does Self-Regulated Learning-Skills Training Improve High-School Students' Self-Regulation, Math Achievement, and Motivation While Using an Intelligent Tutor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrus, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This study empirically evaluated the effectiveness of the instructional design, learning tools, and role of the teacher in three versions of a semester-long, high-school remedial Algebra I course to determine what impact self-regulated learning skills and learning pattern training have on students' self-regulation, math achievement, and…

  2. Report of the NIACE International Women's Day Conference, March 1992. Building on Achievements: Women's Education and Training into the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffery, Juliet; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (McCaffery, Edmond-Smith); "Celebrating Achievements" (Hancock); "Building for Future" (Coleman); "Women in Community" (Patel); "Education/Training for Older Women" (Cooper, Kennedy); "Women with Disabilities" (Goddard); "Open/Distance Learning" (Sargant); "Open College Networks" (Mager); "Staff Development Initiatives"…

  3. Achieving Professional Excellence: Proceedings of a National Conference on Performance-Based Approaches to Training (Little Rock, Arkansas, October 8-10, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Lois G., Comp.; Kalamas, David J., Comp.

    This document contains 47 presentations which focus on professional preparation of personnel in vocational-technical education and industry as an essential step in achieving excellence in educational and industrial training programs. The presentations include "Critical Issues Facing Vocational Teacher Education" (Zellner, Parrish); "A Call for…

  4. Implementation and Outcomes of a Collaborative Multi-Center Network Aimed at Web-Based Cognitive Training – COGWEB Network

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Joana; Ruano, Luis; Mateus, Cátia; Colunas, Márcio; Alves, Ivânia; Barreto, Rui; Conde, Eduardo; Sousa, Andreia; Araújo, Isabel; Bento, Virgílio; Coutinho, Paula; Rocha, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive care for the most prevalent neurologic and psychiatric conditions will only improve through the implementation of new sustainable approaches. Innovative cognitive training methodologies and collaborative professional networks are necessary evolutions in the mental health sector. Objective The objective of the study was to describe the implementation process and early outcomes of a nationwide multi-organizational network supported on a Web-based cognitive training system (COGWEB). Methods The setting for network implementation was the Portuguese mental health system and the hospital-, academic-, community-based institutions and professionals providing cognitive training. The network started in August 2012, with 16 centers, and was monitored until September 2013 (inclusions were open). After onsite training, all were allowed to use COGWEB in their clinical or research activities. For supervision and maintenance were implemented newsletters, questionnaires, visits and webinars. The following outcomes were prospectively measured: (1) number, (2) type, (3) time to start, and (4) activity state of centers; age, gender, level of education, and medical diagnosis of patients enrolled. Results The network included 68 professionals from 41 centers, (33/41) 80% clinical, (8/41) 19% nonclinical. A total of 298 patients received cognitive training; 45.3% (n=135) female, mean age 54.4 years (SD 18.7), mean educational level 9.8 years (SD 4.8). The number enrolled each month increased significantly (r=0.6; P=.031). At 12 months, 205 remained on treatment. The major causes of cognitive impairment were: (1) neurodegenerative (115/298, 38.6%), (2) structural brain lesions (63/298, 21.1%), (3) autoimmune (40/298, 13.4%), (4) schizophrenia (30/298, 10.1%), and (5) others (50/298, 16.8%). The comparison of the patient profiles, promoter versus all other clinical centers, showed significant increases in the diversity of causes and spectrums of ages and education

  5. Learning to interpret one's own outcome as unjustified amplifies altruistic compensation: a training study.

    PubMed

    Maltese, Simona; Baumert, Anna; Knab, Nadine; Schmitt, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Interpretational tendencies in ambiguous situations were investigated as causal mechanisms of altruistic compensation. We used a training procedure to induce a tendency to interpret one's own advantages as unjustified. In a subsequent mixed-game, participants had to decide whether to invest their own money to compensate a victim of a norm violation. The amount of one's own resources invested as an altruistic compensation was enhanced after the training procedure compared to controls. These findings suggest that interpretational patterns with regard to injustice determine prosocial behavior. The training procedure offers a potential intervention strategy for enhancing altruistic compensation in bystander situations in which people must invest their own resources to restore justice. PMID:24391614

  6. Translating school health research to policy. School outcomes related to the health environment and changes in mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Snelling, Anastasia M; Belson, Sarah Irvine; Watts, Erin; George, Stephanie; Van Dyke, Hugo; Malloy, Elizabeth; Kalicki, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes an exploration of the relationship between mathematic achievement and the school health environment relative to policy-driven changes in the school setting, specifically with regard to physical education/physical activity. Using school-level data, the authors seek to understand the relationship between mathematics achievement and the school health environment and physical education minutes. This work provides a description of the aspects of the school health environment, an exploration of the interrelationships between school health and student achievement, and an assessment of the effects of the school health policy and practice on student performance and health status. Based on these findings, we identify additional research necessary to describe the relationship between obesity and learning in children.

  7. "I am a scientist": How setting conditions that enhance focused concentration positively relate to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Robin B.

    This research investigated how student social interactions within two approaches to an inquiry-based science curriculum could be related to student motivation and achievement outcomes. This qualitative case study consisted of two cases, Off-Campus and On-Campus, and used ethnographic techniques of participant observation. Research participants included eight eighth grade girls, aged thirteen to fourteen years old. Data sources included formal and informal participant interviews, participant journal reflections, curriculum artifacts including quizzes, worksheets, and student-generated research posters, digital video and audio recordings, photographs, and researcher field notes. Data were transcribed verbatim and coded, then collapsed into emergent themes using NVIVO 9. The results of this research illustrate how setting conditions that promote focused concentration and communicative interactions can be positively related to student motivation and achievement outcomes in inquiry-based science. Participants in the Off-Campus case experienced more frequent states of focused concentration and out performed their peers in the On-Campus case on forty-six percent of classroom assignments. Off-Campus participants also designed and implemented a more cognitively complex research project, provided more in-depth analyses of their research results, and expanded their perceptions of what it means to act like a scientist to a greater extent than participants in the On-Campus case. These results can be understood in relation to Flow Theory. Student interactions that promoted the criteria necessary for initiating flow, which included having clearly defined goals, receiving immediate feedback, and maintaining a balance between challenges and skills, fostered enhanced student motivation and achievement outcomes. This research also illustrates the positive gains in motivation and achievement outcomes that emerge from student experiences with extended time in isolated areas referred to

  8. Why Process Improvement Training Fails

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Dawei; Betts, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying reasons why providing process improvement training, by itself, may not be sufficient to achieve the desired outcome of improved processes; and to attempt a conceptual framework of management training for more effective improvement. Design/methodology/approach: Two similar units within…

  9. Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2005-01-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

  10. Increasing Self-Efficacy Expectations and Outcome Expectations: A Model to Facilitate Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Jean M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Without organizationwide commitment to training programs, educators may be able to increase learners' self-efficacy to acquire desired skills or behavior. But behavior and skills will not be transferred to the job if learners have low expectations about their use or if positive reinforcement is lacking. (SK)

  11. Tying the Design of Your Camp Staff Training to the Delivery of Desired Youth Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Robin; Bourdeau, Virginia; Arnold, Mary; Nott, Brooke D.

    2013-01-01

    As experience camp directors, we've seen the challenges faced by young camp counselors and inexperienced staff. Evaluations from staff at many camps motivated us to help our people be more effective with their campers. In response we created a comprehensive camp staff training. Lessons showed staff what we wanted them to do and say as they…

  12. The Influence of Program Structure and Learner Characteristics on Teacher Training Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Susan Mansfield; Dietrich, Amy P.

    This paper reports on research developed from a more comprehensive study of five teacher training programs at a large urban Southern university. During the initial study characteristics were observed in special education and Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) cohorts which differed from those of students in the three traditional programs. The…

  13. Outcome of a Pilot Dementia Training Program for Primary Care Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizemore, Mark T.; Vicioso, Belinda; Lothrop, Julia L.; Rubin, Craig D.

    1998-01-01

    Data from primary care physicians attending a workshop on Alzheimer's disease included 21 pretests, 14 posttests, and 17 interviews. Results showed that 41% had used workshop materials to train other health care providers; all felt better able to conduct patient education. (SK)

  14. Analysis of Postdoctoral Training Outcomes That Broaden Participation in Science Careers

    PubMed Central

    Rybarczyk, Brian J.; Lerea, Leslie; Whittington, Dawayne; Dykstra, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Postdoctoral training is an optimal time to expand research skills, develop independence, and shape career trajectories, making this training period important to study in the context of career development. Seeding Postdoctoral Innovators in Research and Education (SPIRE) is a training program that balances research, teaching, and professional development. This study examines the factors that promote the transition of postdocs into academic careers and increase diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Data indicate that SPIRE scholars (n = 77) transition into faculty positions at three times the national average with a greater proportion of underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) and females represented among SPIRE scholars. Logistic regression models indicate that significant predictors are the intended career track at the start of the postdoctoral training and the number of publications. Factors necessary for successful transition are teaching experience as independent instructors, professional development opportunities, and the experience of balancing teaching with research. Scholars’ continued commitment to increasing diversity in their faculty roles was demonstrated by their attainment of tenure-track positions at minority-serving institutions, continued mentorship of URMs, and engagement with diversity initiatives. These results suggest that a postdoctoral program structured to include research, teaching, and diversity inclusion facilitates attainment of desired academic positions with sustained impacts on broadening participation. PMID:27543634

  15. Brief Report: Outcomes of a Teacher Training Program for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Paul; Leppert, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    In this study a teacher training program for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), based on "structured teaching" (Mesibov et al., The TEACCH approach to autism spectrum disorders, 2006) was developed and evaluated within a Pre-Post design. In total, 10 teachers working with 10 students with ASD (mean age 10.0 years) in special education classrooms in…

  16. Shifting the HIV Training and Research Paradigm to Address Disparities in HIV Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Levison, Julie H; Alegría, Margarita

    2016-09-01

    Tailored programs to diversify the pool of HIV/AIDS investigators and provide sufficient training and support for minority investigators to compete successfully are uncommon in the US and abroad. This paper encourages a shift in the HIV/AIDS training and research paradigm to effectively train and mentor Latino researchers in the US, Latin America and the Caribbean. We suggest three strategies to accomplish this: (1) coaching senior administrative and academic staff of HIV/AIDS training programs on the needs, values, and experiences unique to Latino investigators; (2) encouraging mentors to be receptive to a different set of research questions and approaches that Latino researchers offer due to their life experiences and perspectives; and (3) creating a virtual infrastructure to share resources and tackle challenges faced by minority researchers. Shifts in the research paradigm to include, retain, and promote Latino HIV/AIDS researchers will benefit the scientific process and the patients and communities who await the promise of HIV/AIDS research. PMID:27501811

  17. Analysis of Postdoctoral Training Outcomes That Broaden Participation in Science Careers.

    PubMed

    Rybarczyk, Brian J; Lerea, Leslie; Whittington, Dawayne; Dykstra, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Postdoctoral training is an optimal time to expand research skills, develop independence, and shape career trajectories, making this training period important to study in the context of career development. Seeding Postdoctoral Innovators in Research and Education (SPIRE) is a training program that balances research, teaching, and professional development. This study examines the factors that promote the transition of postdocs into academic careers and increase diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Data indicate that SPIRE scholars (n = 77) transition into faculty positions at three times the national average with a greater proportion of underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) and females represented among SPIRE scholars. Logistic regression models indicate that significant predictors are the intended career track at the start of the postdoctoral training and the number of publications. Factors necessary for successful transition are teaching experience as independent instructors, professional development opportunities, and the experience of balancing teaching with research. Scholars' continued commitment to increasing diversity in their faculty roles was demonstrated by their attainment of tenure-track positions at minority-serving institutions, continued mentorship of URMs, and engagement with diversity initiatives. These results suggest that a postdoctoral program structured to include research, teaching, and diversity inclusion facilitates attainment of desired academic positions with sustained impacts on broadening participation.

  18. Aggression Replacement Training in Norway: Outcome Evaluation of 11 Norwegian Student Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, Knut; Svartdal, Frode

    2006-01-01

    Eleven groups of students performed a 24-session intervention based on Aggression Replacement Training (ART) as part of their further education programme. Subjects were 65 children and young people with varying degrees of behavioural problems. Forty-seven subjects received the ART programme. Eighteen received standard social and educational…

  19. Effects of Preschool Phoneme Identity Training after Six Years: Outcome Level Distinguished from Rate of Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Ashley, Luise

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a study of Grade 5 children who had been trained in phoneme identity six years earlier. Results reveal that these children were superior to untrained controls on irregular word reading and on a composite list of nonwords, regular words, and irregular words. Preschool instruction in phonemic structure had modest but detectable effects on…

  20. The Effects of Discrete-Trial Training Commission Errors on Learner Outcomes: An Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Sarah R.; Hirst, Jason M.; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a parametric analysis of treatment integrity errors during discrete-trial training and investigated the effects of three integrity conditions (0, 50, or 100 % errors of commission) on performance in the presence and absence of programmed errors. The presence of commission errors impaired acquisition for three of four participants.…

  1. Analysis of Postdoctoral Training Outcomes That Broaden Participation in Science Careers.

    PubMed

    Rybarczyk, Brian J; Lerea, Leslie; Whittington, Dawayne; Dykstra, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Postdoctoral training is an optimal time to expand research skills, develop independence, and shape career trajectories, making this training period important to study in the context of career development. Seeding Postdoctoral Innovators in Research and Education (SPIRE) is a training program that balances research, teaching, and professional development. This study examines the factors that promote the transition of postdocs into academic careers and increase diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Data indicate that SPIRE scholars (n = 77) transition into faculty positions at three times the national average with a greater proportion of underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) and females represented among SPIRE scholars. Logistic regression models indicate that significant predictors are the intended career track at the start of the postdoctoral training and the number of publications. Factors necessary for successful transition are teaching experience as independent instructors, professional development opportunities, and the experience of balancing teaching with research. Scholars' continued commitment to increasing diversity in their faculty roles was demonstrated by their attainment of tenure-track positions at minority-serving institutions, continued mentorship of URMs, and engagement with diversity initiatives. These results suggest that a postdoctoral program structured to include research, teaching, and diversity inclusion facilitates attainment of desired academic positions with sustained impacts on broadening participation. PMID:27543634

  2. Athletic Training Program Commitment: Four-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Windee M.; Neibert, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Changes in commitment and the predictors of commitment to an athletic training program (ATP) across the academic 4-year program is important for facilitating students' continued success in ATPs and on the Board of Certification (BOC) exam. Objective: The purpose of this study was 2-fold: (1) examine changes in 1 cohort's perceptions of…

  3. Evaluation of Achieving Collegiate Excellence and Success Program: Student Outcomes Year One, Grades 11 and 12. Evaluation Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Natalie; Modarresi, Shahpar

    2015-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) is conducting a multiyear evaluation of the "Achieving Collegiate Excellence and Success" (ACES) program. ACES is a collaboration between MCPS, Montgomery College (MC), and the Universities at Shady Grove (USG) to create a seamless pathway from high…

  4. Achievement and Climate Outcomes for the Knowledge Is Power Program in an Inner-City Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron J.; Alberg, Marty; McSparrin-Gallagher, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of a whole school reform, the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP), specifically designed to raise academic achievement of at-risk urban middle school students by establishing an extended school day and year, a rigorous curriculum, after-school access to teachers, and increased family-school connections.…

  5. Evaluation of Outcomes, 1976-77: An Evaluation System Report on Reading Programs and Reading Achievement; Part IA Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    This document, prepared by the Evaluation System of the Public Schools of the District of Columbia, summarizes the results of analyses of factors affecting reading achievement for elementary students for the year 1976-77. It also provides comparisons with results obtained from analyses of the 1975-76 data. It includes the purpose and scope of the…

  6. Evaluation of Outcomes, 1976-77: An Evaluation System Report on Reading Programs and Reading Achievement; Part IIA Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    This document, prepared by the Evaluation System of the Public Schools of the District of Columbia, is the technical report of the results of analyses of factors affecting reading achievement for elementary students for the year 1976-77. The chapters include a discussion of the purpose and scope of the study; the methodology used; characteristics…

  7. Perceived Teacher Factors in Relation to Students' Achievement-Related Outcomes in Science Classrooms in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakiz, Gönül

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the roles that perceived teacher affective support (PTAS), perceived teacher mastery goal orientation (PTMGO), academic emotions, self-efficacy and behavioural engagement play on students' science achievement in elementary school science classrooms. The potential relations of different levels of…

  8. The Validity of Goal Achievement as an Outcome Measure in Physical Rehabilitation Day Hospitals for Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneebone, Ian I.; Hurn, Jane S.; Raisbeck, Elizabeth; Cropley, Mark; Khoshnaw, Hiro; Milton, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Physical rehabilitation day hospitals are widely used community-based services designed to meet the medical and rehabilitation needs of older people. While there is evidence for the effectiveness of these services, concerns about the shortcomings of how this is measured have led to the recommendation that the achievement of individually tailored…

  9. Does rational selection of training and test sets improve the outcome of QSAR modeling?

    PubMed

    Martin, Todd M; Harten, Paul; Young, Douglas M; Muratov, Eugene N; Golbraikh, Alexander; Zhu, Hao; Tropsha, Alexander

    2012-10-22

    Prior to using a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model for external predictions, its predictive power should be established and validated. In the absence of a true external data set, the best way to validate the predictive ability of a model is to perform its statistical external validation. In statistical external validation, the overall data set is divided into training and test sets. Commonly, this splitting is performed using random division. Rational splitting methods can divide data sets into training and test sets in an intelligent fashion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether rational division methods lead to more predictive models compared to random division. A special data splitting procedure was used to facilitate the comparison between random and rational division methods. For each toxicity end point, the overall data set was divided into a modeling set (80% of the overall set) and an external evaluation set (20% of the overall set) using random division. The modeling set was then subdivided into a training set (80% of the modeling set) and a test set (20% of the modeling set) using rational division methods and by using random division. The Kennard-Stone, minimal test set dissimilarity, and sphere exclusion algorithms were used as the rational division methods. The hierarchical clustering, random forest, and k-nearest neighbor (kNN) methods were used to develop QSAR models based on the training sets. For kNN QSAR, multiple training and test sets were generated, and multiple QSAR models were built. The results of this study indicate that models based on rational division methods generate better statistical results for the test sets than models based on random division, but the predictive power of both types of models are comparable.

  10. Affective Learning Outcomes in Workplace Training: A Test of Synchronous vs. Asynchronous Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland-Innes, Martha; Ally, Mohamed

    2004-01-01

    Research employing an experimental design pilot-tested two delivery platforms, WebCT™ and vClass™, for the generation of affective learning outcomes in the workplace. Using a sample of volunteer participants in the help-desk industry, participants were randomly assigned to one of the two types of delivery software. Thirty-eight subjects…

  11. The rationale for patient-reported outcomes surveillance in cancer and a reproducible method for achieving it.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tenbroeck G; Castro, Kathleen M; Troeschel, Alyssa N; Arora, Neeraj K; Lipscomb, Joseph; Jones, Shelton M; Treiman, Katherine A; Hobbs, Connie; McCabe, Ryan M; Clauser, Steven B

    2016-02-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measure quality of life, symptoms, patient functioning, and patient perceptions of care; they are essential for gaining a full understanding of cancer care and the impact of cancer on people's lives. Repeatedly captured facility-level and/or population-level PROs (PRO surveillance) could play an important role in quality monitoring and improvement, benchmarking, advocacy, policy making, and research. This article describes the rationale for PRO surveillance and the methods of the Patient Reported Outcomes Symptoms and Side Effects Study (PROSSES), which is the first PRO study to use the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer's Rapid Quality Reporting System to identify patients and manage study data flow. The American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute, the Commission on Cancer, and RTI International collaborated on PROSSES. PROSSES was conducted at 17 cancer programs that participated in the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program among patients diagnosed with locoregional breast or colon cancer. The methods piloted in PROSSES were successful as demonstrated by high eligibility (93%) and response (61%) rates. Differences in clinical and demographic characteristics between respondents and nonrespondents were mostly negligible, with the exception that non-white individuals were somewhat less likely to respond. These methods were consistent across cancer centers and reproducible over time. If repeated and expanded, they could provide PRO surveillance data from patients with cancer on a national scale.

  12. Effect of Microvascular Anastomosis Technique on End Product Outcome in Simulated Training: A Prospective Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsol; Singh, Masha; Akelina, Yelena; Shurey, Sandra; Myers, Simon R; Ghanem, Ali M

    2016-09-01

    Background The aim of this article is to evaluate the difference in skills acquisition of two end-to-end microvascular anastomosis techniques-the triangulation and biangulation-in early microsurgery training. Method In this study, 32 candidates ranging from medical students to higher surgical trainees underwent a 5-day basic microsurgery course. On days 3 and 5 of the course, candidates performed two end-to-end anastomoses on cryopreserved rat aortas. One anastomosis was performed using the biangulation technique and the other using the triangulation technique. Candidates were randomized to the order of technique performed. Structural patency, errors performed, and suture distribution were evaluated randomly by a blinded reviewer using the anastomosis lapse index score and ImageJ (U.S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD) Software. Results A total of 128 anastomoses were evaluated during the study period. A total of six anastomoses performed with the biangulation technique, and four anastomoses with the triangulation technique, were physically occluded on day 3 of the course. On day 5, two biangulation technique anastomoses and one triangulation technique produced a nonpatent outcome. There was a statistically significant difference of patency rate between the 2 days of evaluation confirming evidence of skill acquisition but no statistically significant difference between the two techniques in relation to anastomotic patency, errors performed, or suture placement quality. Conclusion The biangulation and triangulation techniques of microvascular anastomosis produce similar outcomes in relation to vessel structural patency and quality of anastomosis when taught in early stages of microsurgery training. Our results suggest that both techniques are equally suitable in training novices, basic microsurgical skills. PMID:27303937

  13. Multicomponent exercises including muscle power training enhance muscle mass, power output, and functional outcomes in institutionalized frail nonagenarians.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabricio; Idoate, Fernando; Millor, Nora; Gómez, Marisol; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-04-01

    This randomized controlled trial examined the effects of multicomponent training on muscle power output, muscle mass, and muscle tissue attenuation; the risk of falls; and functional outcomes in frail nonagenarians. Twenty-four elderly (91.9 ± 4.1 years old) were randomized into intervention or control group. The intervention group performed a twice-weekly, 12-week multicomponent exercise program composed of muscle power training (8-10 repetitions, 40-60 % of the one-repetition maximum) combined with balance and gait retraining. Strength and power tests were performed on the upper and lower limbs. Gait velocity was assessed using the 5-m habitual gait and the time-up-and-go (TUG) tests with and without dual-task performance. Balance was assessed using the FICSIT-4 tests. The ability to rise from a chair test was assessed, and data on the incidence and risk of falls were assessed using questionnaires. Functional status was assessed before measurements with the Barthel Index. Midthigh lower extremity muscle mass and muscle fat infiltration were assessed using computed tomography. The intervention group showed significantly improved TUG with single and dual tasks, rise from a chair and balance performance (P < 0.01), and a reduced incidence of falls. In addition, the intervention group showed enhanced muscle power and strength (P < 0.01). Moreover, there were significant increases in the total and high-density muscle cross-sectional area in the intervention group. The control group significantly reduced strength and functional outcomes. Routine multicomponent exercise intervention should be prescribed to nonagenarians because overall physical outcomes are improved in this population.

  14. Team training for safer birth.

    PubMed

    Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women.

  15. Effectiveness of a Tai-Chi Training and Detraining on Functional Capacity, Symptomatology and Psychological Outcomes in Women with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Zurita, Alejandro; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A.; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Tercedor, Pablo; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose was to analyze the effects of Tai-Chi training in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods. Thirty-two women with FM (mean age, 51.4 ± 6.8 years) attended to Tai-Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. The outcome measures were: tenderness, body composition, functional capacity and psychological outcomes (Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)). Results. Patients showed improvements on pain threshold, total number of tender points and algometer score (all P < 0.001). The intervention was effective on 6-min walk (P = 0.006), back scratch (P = 0.002), handgrip strength (P = 0.006), chair stand, chair sit & reach, 8 feet up & go and blind flamingo tests (all P < 0.001). Tai-Chi group improved the FIQ total score (P < 0.001) and six subscales: stiffness (P = 0.005), pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, anxiety, and depression (all P < 0.001). The intervention was also effective in six SF-36 subscales: bodily pain (P = 0.003), vitality (P = 0.018), physical functioning, physical role, general health, and mental health (all P < 0.001). Conclusions. A 28-week Tai-Chi intervention showed improvements on pain, functional capacity, symptomatology and psychological outcomes in female FM patients. PMID:22649476

  16. Long-term outcomes of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who achieved complete remission after sorafenib therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Sorafenib is currently the sole molecular targeted agent that improves overall survival in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite the efficacy of sorafenib, the response rate varies in patients with advanced HCC. We retrospectively analyzed a series of Korean patients with advanced HCC with complete remission (CR) after sorafenib therapy. Methods In total, 523 patients with advanced HCC were treated with sorafenib in 3 large tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. A survey was conducted to collect data on patients who experienced CR after sorafenib monotherapy, and their medical records and follow-up data were analyzed. The tumor response and recurrence rates were assessed by radiologic study, based on modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. Results Seven patients with advanced HCC experienced CR after sorafenib therapy. The median time to tumor disappearance and the median disease-free survival time were 3 months and 9 months, respectively. HCC recurrence was identified in three cases (42.9%). Of these, two patients discontinued sorafenib before or after achieving CR and the other patient continued sorafenib after achieving CR. HCC recurred at 3, 10, and 42 months after CR in these three patients. Three patients needed dose reduction for toxicity and adverse events. Conclusions Though CR was achieved after sorafenib therapy in patients with advanced HCC, the recurrence rate was relatively high. Subsequent strategies to reduce a chance of recurrence after sorafenib therapy are required to investigate. PMID:26527250

  17. Achieving deeper molecular response is associated with a better clinical outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia patients on imatinib front-line therapy

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Gabriel; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Nicolini, Franck-Emmanuel; Morisset, Stéphane; Fort, Marie-Pierre; Schmitt, Anna; Etienne, Madeleine; Hayette, Sandrine; Lippert, Eric; Bureau, Caroline; Tigaud, Isabelle; Adiko, Didier; Marit, Gérald; Reiffers, Josy; Mahon, François-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Sustained imatinib treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia patients can result in complete molecular response allowing discontinuation without relapse. We set out to evaluate the frequency of complete molecular response in imatinib de novo chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients, to identify base-line and under-treatment predictive factors of complete molecular response in patients achieving complete cytogenetic response, and to assess if complete molecular response is associated with a better outcome. A random selection of patients on front-line imatinib therapy (n=266) were considered for inclusion. Complete molecular response was confirmed and defined as MR 4.5 with undetectable BCR-ABL transcript levels. Median follow up was 4.43 years (range 0.79–10.8 years). Sixty-five patients (24%) achieved complete molecular response within a median time of 32.7 months. Absence of spleen enlargement at diagnosis, achieving complete cytogenetic response before 12 months of therapy, and major molecular response during the year following complete cytogenetic response was predictive of achieving further complete molecular response. Patients who achieved complete molecular response had better event-free and failure-free survivals than those with complete cytogenetic response irrespective of major molecular response status (95.2% vs. 64.7% vs. 27.7%, P=0.00124; 98.4% vs. 82.3% vs. 56%, P=0.0335), respectively. Overall survival was identical in the 3 groups. In addition to complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response, further deeper molecular response is associated with better event-free and failure-free survivals, and complete molecular response confers the best outcome. PMID:24362549

  18. Decreased Sperm Motility Retarded ICSI Fertilization Rate in Severe Oligozoospermia but Good-Quality Embryo Transfer Had Achieved the Prospective Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jufeng; Lu, Yongning; Qu, Xianqin; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Luiwen; Gao, Minzhi; Shi, Huijuan; Jin, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    . Overall rates in all groups were 41.26% clinical pregnancy, 25.74% implantation and 36.32% live birth, which gave live birth to 252 girls and 252 boys. Conclusions The reduction of motile spermatozoa in severe oligozoospermia decreased the rates of fertilization and good-quality embryo. Obtaining and transfer of good-quality embryos was the good prognostic to achieve prospective clinical outcomes regardless of the severity of oligozoospermia. PMID:27661081

  19. Redesigning a clinical mentoring program for improved outcomes in the clinical training of clerks

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Der; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lee, Cheng-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mentorship has been noted as critical to medical students adapting to clinical training in the medical workplace. A lack of infrastructure in a mentoring program might deter relationship building between mentors and mentees. This study assessed the effect of a redesigned clinical mentoring program from the perspective of clerks. The objective was to assess the benefits of the redesigned program and identify potential improvements. Methods A redesigned clinical mentoring program was launched in a medical center according to previous theoretical and practical studies on clinical training workplaces, including the elements of mentor qualifications, positive and active enhancers for mentor–mentee relationship building, the timing of mentoring performance evaluation, and financial and professional incentives. A four-wave web survey was conducted, comprising one evaluation of the former mentoring program and three evaluations of the redesigned clinical mentoring program. Sixty-four fifth-year medical students in clerkships who responded to the first wave and to at least two of the three following waves were included in the study. A structured and validated questionnaire encompassing 15 items on mentor performance and the personal characteristics of the clerks was used. Mixed linear models were developed for repeated measurements and to adjust for personal characteristics. Results The results revealed that the redesigned mentoring program improved the mentors’ performance over time for most evaluated items regarding professional development and personal support provided to the mentees. Conclusions Our findings serve as an improved framework for the role of the institution and demonstrate how institutional policies, programs, and structures can shape a clinical mentoring program. We recommend the adoption of mentorship schemes for other cohorts of medical students and for different learning and training stages involved in becoming a physician. PMID

  20. Coping Skills Training for Parents of Children with Type 1 Diabetes: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Jaser, Sarah S.; Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Lindemann, Evie

    2011-01-01

    Background Although it is recognized that caring for a child with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is stressful for parents, few interventions have been developed and tested for this population. Objectives To compare a group educational intervention for parents of children with T1D to a coping skills training intervention. Method Parents of children with T1D were randomized to the group educational (n = 106) or coping skills training (n = 75) conditions. Parents completed measures of family conflict, responsibility for treatment, coping, and quality of life at baseline and 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Clinical data (i.e., HbA1c) were collected from children’s medical records pre- and postintervention. Results There were no significant treatment effects 12 months postintervention, but parents in both groups reported improved coping (p < .001), less responsibility for treatment management (p < .001), and improved quality of life (p = .005). While children’s metabolic control worsened over time, mean values at 12 months were still within the recommended levels in this well-controlled sample (HbA1c < 8%). Discussion Group-based interventions for parents of children with T1D may lessen the impact of treatment management, improving coping and quality of life. PMID:21522034

  1. Independence Training and School Achievement: A Study of Parental Attitudes and Expectations as Related to Children's Elementary School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, W. C.; And Others

    In this study of the relationship between factors in the home and school achievement, teachers' ratings and student scores on a standard achievement test were examined in light of parental expectations for the child's independence behavior, the child's personal qualities, and his future work values. Mothers of 441 fifth graders were interviewed…

  2. Rigorously Selected and Well Trained Senior Student Tutors in Problem Based Learning: Student Perceptions and Study Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Rijdt, Catherine; van der Rijt, Janine; Dochy, Filip; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2012-01-01

    We compared effects of tutoring by students and by staff. In four courses in each of two consecutive first years of an undergraduate problem-based law curriculum we examined the achievements and perceptions of tutors of students taught by student and staff tutors. Achievements were measured by the results on the regular end-of-course tests. After…

  3. Impact of Early Code-Skill and Oral-Comprehension Training on Reading Achievement in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Maryse; Pellenq, Catherine; Lambert, Eric; Bressoux, Pascal; Lima, Laurent; Doyen, Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    In a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined the relationships between oral language development, early training and reading acquisition on word-identification and reading-comprehension tests administered to a sample of 687 French children. Hierarchical linear models showed that both phonological awareness and oral comprehension at the age of 4…

  4. Academic Resilience and Achievement: Self-Motivational Resources That Guide Faculty Participation in Instructional Technology Training at a Mexican University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero-Hernandez, Virginia; Levin, John; Diaz-Castillo, Maribel

    2014-01-01

    This study uses narrative analysis to understand the ways in which Mexican university faculty members used their self-motivational resources to persist in an instructional technology training program within adverse work conditions. The methodology included interviews and participant observation. Findings suggest that faculty's academic…

  5. The Effects of Experience Grouping on Achievement, Problem-Solving Discourse, and Satisfaction in Professional Technical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Robert Sean

    2010-01-01

    Learners inevitably enter adult technical training classrooms--indeed, in all classrooms--with different levels of expertise on the subject matter. When the diversity of expertise is wide and the course makes use of small group problem solving, instructors have a choice about how to group learners: they may distribute learners with greater…

  6. Institutional Incorporation of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in Residency Training: Achieving a Sustainable Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Denise M.; McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda; Brown, Fannie D.; Newton, Robin; Marshall, Vanessa J.; Kalu, Nnenna; Cain, Gloria E.; Taylor, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The success of implementing a screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) program within a medical residency program for sustainability is contingent upon a well-crafted training curriculum that incorporates substance abuse education and clinical practice skills. The goal of the Howard University (HU) SBIRT program is to train…

  7. Achieving the Impossible? Teaching Practice Component of a Pre-Service Distance English Language Teacher Training Program in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kecik, Ilknur; Aydin, Belgin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the model developed for the teaching practice component of the pre-service Distance English Language Teacher Training Program (DELTT) at Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey. The steps taken to improve the model over a six-year period will be explained and the recent developments in the teaching practice…

  8. Working Memory Training and the Effect on Mathematical Achievement in Children with Attention Deficits and Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlin, Karin I. E.

    2013-01-01

    Working Memory (WM) has a central role in learning. It is suggested to be malleable and is considered necessary for several aspects of mathematical functioning. This study investigated whether work with an interactive computerised working memory training programme at school could affect the mathematical performance of young children. Fifty-seven…

  9. Overview of outcome data of potential meditation training for soldier resilience.

    PubMed

    Rees, Brian

    2011-11-01

    In order to identify potential training to enhance comprehensive soldier fitness, this analysis searched MEDLINE via PubMed and elsewhere for 33 reasonably significant modalities, screening over 11,500 articles for relevance regarding soldier resilience. Evaluation of modalities that are exclusively educational or cognitive/behavioral in nature is deferred. Using the volume and quality of research over 40 parameters distributed among the five domains of resilience (physical, emotional, spiritual, social, and family life), these data allow culling of most of the meditative modalities and discrimination among the remaining techniques. The resulting order of merit is Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and progressive muscle relaxation. Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness, and progressive muscle relaxation, in that order, have the most supporting data. Fortuitously, they also represent a cross section of the domain of techniques regarded as meditation, stress management, or relaxation, with three very different mechanisms of action. They are suitable potential options for improving soldier resilience.

  10. Functional and postoperative outcomes after preoperative exercise training in patients with lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sebio Garcia, Raquel; Yáñez Brage, Maria Isabel; Giménez Moolhuyzen, Esther; Granger, Catherine L; Denehy, Linda

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. For early stages of the disease, lung resection surgery remains the best treatment with curative intent, but significant morbidity is associated, especially among patients with poor pulmonary function and cardiorespiratory fitness. In those cases, the implementation of a preoperative exercise-based intervention could optimize patient's functional status before surgery and improve postoperative outcomes and enhance recovery. The aim of this systematic review is to provide the current body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of a preoperative exercise-based intervention on postoperative and functional outcomes in patients with lung cancer submitted to lung resection surgery. A systematic review of the literature using CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Pubmed, PEDro and SCOPUS was undertaken in September 2015 yielding a total of 1656 references. Two independent reviewers performed the assessment of the potentially eligible records against the inclusion criteria and finally, 21 articles were included in the review. Articles were included if they examined the effects of an exercise-based intervention on at least one of the selected outcomes: pulmonary function, (functional) exercise capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and postoperative outcomes (length of stay and postoperative complications). Fourteen studies were further selected for a meta-analysis to quantify the mean effect of the intervention and generate 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the Cochrane Review Manager 5.0.25. For two of the outcomes included (exercise capacity and HRQoL), studies showed large heterogeneity and thus, a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s) was significantly enhanced after the intervention [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.38; 95% CI 0.14, 0.63 and SMD = 0.27, 95% CI 0.11, 0.42, respectively]. In comparison with the

  11. Functional and postoperative outcomes after preoperative exercise training in patients with lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sebio Garcia, Raquel; Yáñez Brage, Maria Isabel; Giménez Moolhuyzen, Esther; Granger, Catherine L; Denehy, Linda

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. For early stages of the disease, lung resection surgery remains the best treatment with curative intent, but significant morbidity is associated, especially among patients with poor pulmonary function and cardiorespiratory fitness. In those cases, the implementation of a preoperative exercise-based intervention could optimize patient's functional status before surgery and improve postoperative outcomes and enhance recovery. The aim of this systematic review is to provide the current body of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of a preoperative exercise-based intervention on postoperative and functional outcomes in patients with lung cancer submitted to lung resection surgery. A systematic review of the literature using CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Pubmed, PEDro and SCOPUS was undertaken in September 2015 yielding a total of 1656 references. Two independent reviewers performed the assessment of the potentially eligible records against the inclusion criteria and finally, 21 articles were included in the review. Articles were included if they examined the effects of an exercise-based intervention on at least one of the selected outcomes: pulmonary function, (functional) exercise capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and postoperative outcomes (length of stay and postoperative complications). Fourteen studies were further selected for a meta-analysis to quantify the mean effect of the intervention and generate 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the Cochrane Review Manager 5.0.25. For two of the outcomes included (exercise capacity and HRQoL), studies showed large heterogeneity and thus, a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Pulmonary function (forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s) was significantly enhanced after the intervention [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.38; 95% CI 0.14, 0.63 and SMD = 0.27, 95% CI 0.11, 0.42, respectively]. In comparison with the

  12. How do outcomes in a specified parent training intervention maintain or wane over time?

    PubMed

    DeGarmo, David S; Patterson, Gerald R; Forgatch, Marion S

    2004-06-01

    In a randomized prevention trial, 238 recently separated mothers and their young sons were assigned to either Parent Management Training (PMT) or a comparison group. Families were intensively assessed at baseline and at each 6-month interval through 30 months. To understand the effects of PMT, we first evaluated effect sizes among family variables over time. Second, because observed parenting was the target of PMT, we hypothesized a sequential pattern of structured changes within and between individuals. Using constructs with mismatched sources of data, we conducted a set of latent growth mediational analyses to test hypothesized mechanisms explaining change. Effect sizes indicated that parenting changed first within 12 months, followed by changes in boy behaviors and finally changes in maternal depression within 30 months. Unique follow-up findings indicated that intervention effects on reductions in maternal depression were mediated by reductions in boy externalizing; intervention effects on externalizing were mediated by reductions in boy depression. As expected, increases in effective parenting predicted reductions in child behavior problems. PMT effects on internalizing were direct and indirect, partially mediated by parenting practices. Results are discussed from a system's perspective on PMT amplifiers.

  13. Arm weight support training improves functional motor outcome and movement smoothness after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bartolo, Michelangelo; De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Sebastiano, Fabio; Spicciato, Francesca; Tortola, Paolo; Nilsson, Jan; Pierelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness in acute stroke patients of a rehabilitation program performed with or without an arm weight support device. Twenty-eight acute, first-ever unilateral stroke patients were enrolled in a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Clinical evaluation included Fugl-Mayer Assessment, Functional Independence Measure and kinematic analysis [maximum and mean hand velocity, maximum range of motion (Max RoM), normalized jerk (NJ)]. Patients received 12 daily 30-minute sessions (6/week) of additional upper limb therapy performed using an arm weight support device (study group) or additional traditional physiotherapy (control group). The patients were evaluated on admission and at the end of the rehabilitation intervention. The two groups were clinically comparable on admission (p>0.05). Both groups showed significant improvements in clinical scale scores and in Max RoM in flexion-extension, while only the study group showed improvements in NJ and in Max RoM in adduction-abduction. Rehabilitation training using an arm weight support device appears to be a useful method to supplement conventional therapy in acute stroke patients, increasing smoothness of movement and motor function. PMID:25014045

  14. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  15. An Investigation into an Interaction Programme for Children on the Autism Spectrum: Outcomes for Children, Perceptions of Schools and a Model for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kyffin; Howley, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate a system of training designed by a Local Education Authority support service to promote interactive skill building with children on the autism spectrum. Using a case study approach, the study focused thematically upon outcomes for children, perceptions of schools regarding impact of the training…

  16. Case-Based Learning in Virtual Groups--Collaborative Problem Solving Activities and Learning Outcomes in a Virtual Professional Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Birgitta; Hasenbein, Melanie; Mandl, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the collaborative problem solving activities and learning outcomes of five groups that worked on two different complex cases in a virtual professional training course. In this asynchronous virtual learning environment, all knowledge management content was delivered virtually and collaboration took place through forums. To…

  17. Outcomes of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-Based Skills Training Group for Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahnke, Johan; Lundgren, Tobias; Hursti, Timo; Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social impairments and behavioural inflexibility. In this pilot study, the feasibility and outcomes of a 6-week acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group were evaluated in a special school setting using a quasi-experimental design (acceptance and commitment therapy/school classes as…

  18. Primary Teacher Educators' Perception of Desired and Achieved Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Geography Education in Primary Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankman, Marian; van der Schee, Joop; Volman, Monique; Boogaard, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted among primary geography teacher educators. The research examines the perceptions of educators of primary teacher students' desired and achieved levels of substantial knowledge, syntactic knowledge, and beliefs about the subject of geography. The findings indicate that primary teacher…

  19. An Evaluation of Student Achievement before and after Training in Response to Instruction in a Rural School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to provide research in examining the difference in student achievement in reading and math through the quantitative data collection of North Carolina EOG scores for students in third through fifth grade from one high poverty and high performing North Carolina public school district before and after…

  20. LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT, RETENTION, AND TRANSFER OF TRAINING IN SPELLING AS A FUNCTION OF MODE OF PRESENTATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HANCOCK, JOHN C.; AND OTHERS

    THE EFFECTS OF AUDIO, PRINT, AND AUDIOPRINT MODES OF PROGRAMED SPELLING INSTRUCTION WERE COMPARED. RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THESE MODES AND SPELLING ACHIEVEMENT, RETENTION, AND TRANSFER WHERE OBTAINED. ALSO INCLUDED IN THE STUDY WERE PUPIL PREFERENCES FOR PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION AS CONTRASTED WITH TEACHER-PRESENTED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 60…

  1. Cardiovascular and affective outcomes of active gaming: using the nintendo wii as a cardiovascular training tool.

    PubMed

    Naugle, Keith E; Naugle, Kelly M; Wikstrom, Erik A

    2014-02-01

    Active-video gaming is purported to produce similar cardiovascular responses as aerobic fitness activities. This study compared the emotional and cardiovascular effects of Wii games with those of traditional exercise in college-aged adults with different exercise backgrounds. Specifically, the percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), level of enjoyment, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule scores were compared between subjects who reported exercising frequently at high intensities (high-intensity exerciser group: age = 20.18 years [0.87]; Height = 165.23 cm [9.97]; Mass = 62.37 kg [11.61]), N = 11 and those who exercise more often at lower intensities (low-intensity exercisers group: age = 20.72 years [1.19]; Height = 164.39 cm [8.05]; Mass = 68.04 kg [10.71]), N = 11. The subjects completed six 20-minute exercises sessions: treadmill walking, stationary cycling, and Wii's Tennis, Boxing, Cycling, and Step. The low-intensity exerciser group achieved a greater percentage of heart rate reserve (a) during traditional exercise compared with that during Wii boxing, (b) playing Wii boxing compared with that for Wii tennis, and (c) playing Wii boxing compared with that when the high-intensity exercisers group played any Wii games (p < 0.05). The RPE was greater for boxing and cycling compared with that for tennis and step (p < 0.05). Ratings of enjoyment and the increase in positive emotion were greater for boxing and for tennis compared with those for traditional exercises (p < 0.05). Results suggest that Wii boxing shows the greatest potential as a cardiovascular fitness tool among the Wii games, particularly for individuals who typically exercise at lower intensities.

  2. Improving Nigerian health policymakers’ capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers’ ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  3. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  4. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  5. Using optimal combination of teaching-learning methods (open book assignment and group tutorials) as revision exercises to improve learning outcome in low achievers in biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Suryapriya, R; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2016-07-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving the learning outcome. About 143 graduate medical students were classified into low (<50%: group 1, n = 23), medium (50-75%: group 2, n = 74), and high (>75%: group 3, n = 46) achievers, based on their internal assessment marks. After the regular teaching module on the topics "Vitamins and Enzymology", all the students attempted an open book assignment without peer consultation. Then all the students participated in group tutorials. The effects on the groups were evaluated by pre and posttests at the end of each phase, with the same set of MCQs. Gain from group tutorials and overall gain was significantly higher in the low achievers, compared to other groups. High and medium achievers obtained more gain from open book assignment, than group tutorials. The overall gain was significantly higher than the gain obtained from open book assignment or group tutorials, in all three groups. All the three groups retained the gain even after 1 week of the exercise. Hence, optimal use of novel T-L methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) as revision exercises help in strengthening concepts in Biochemistry in this oft neglected group of low achievers in graduate medical education. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):321-325, 2016.

  6. Effectiveness of the palliative care ‘Availability, Current issues and Anticipation’ (ACA) communication training programme for general practitioners on patient outcomes: A controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Blankenstein, Annette H; Schweitzer, Bart PM; Knol, Dirk L; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Aaronson, Neil K; Deliens, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although communicating effectively with patients receiving palliative care can be difficult, it may contribute to maintaining or enhancing patients’ quality of life. Little is known about the effect of training general practitioners in palliative care–specific communication. We hypothesized that palliative care patients of general practitioners exposed to the ‘Availability, Current issues and Anticipation’ communication training programme would report better outcomes than patients of control general practitioners. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation training programme for general practitioners on patient-reported outcomes. Design: In a controlled trial, general practitioners followed the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation programme or were part of the control group. Patients receiving palliative care of participating general practitioners completed the Palliative Care Outcome Scale, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative, the Rest & Peace Scale, the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–III and the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation Scale, at baseline and 12 months follow-up. We analysed differences between groups using linear mixed models. Trial registration: ISRCTN56722368. Setting/participants: General practitioners who attended a 2-year Palliative Care Training Course in the Netherlands. Results: Questionnaire data were available for 145 patients (89 in intervention and 56 in control group). We found no significant differences over time between the intervention and control groups in any of the five outcome measures. Ceiling effects were observed for the Rest & Peace Scale, Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire–III and Availability, Current issues and Anticipation Scale. Conclusion: General practitioner participation in the Availability, Current issues and Anticipation training programme did not have

  7. Parent Training Outcomes among Young Children with Callous-Unemotional Conduct Problems with or At-Risk for Developmental Delay

    PubMed Central

    Kimonis, Eva R.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Linares, Dainelys; Blake, Clair A.; Rodriguez, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    School-aged children with conduct problems and high levels of callous-unemotional (i.e., lack of empathy, guilt, and lack of caring behaviors) traits (CP+CU) tend to yield less benefit from traditional interventions than do their low-CU counterparts, particularly with respect to CP outcomes. To date, little is known about treatment response among young children with CP+CU, particularly those with or at risk for developmental delay. Components of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a parent training program effective at reducing CP in young children, have compelling theoretical support for addressing core deficits unique to children with CP+CU and have been used successfully with young children with developmental delay. Our first aim was to test the psychometric properties of a measure of CU traits in preschool children with and without developmental delay. Our second aim was to test whether CU traits predicted post-treatment CP after controlling for initial levels of CP. Participants were 63 families of young children (mean age = 3.87 years), with or at-risk for developmental delay, who presented with elevated CP and were treated in a hospital-based outpatient clinic. Results indicated that developmentally delayed children with high levels of CU traits, but not children at-risk for delay due to premature birth, showed significantly poorer CP outcomes following treatment with PCIT than did children scoring low on CU traits, even after controlling for initial CP severity. The implications of these findings with regard to treating and preventing severe disruptive behaviors among young children with CP+CU are discussed. PMID:24511217

  8. The Effect of Additional Training on Motor Outcomes at Discharge from Recovery Phase Rehabilitation Wards: A Survey from Multi-Center Stroke Data Bank in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Nariaki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Jeong, Seungwon; Sugiyama, Motoya; Kondo, Katsunori; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential benefits of additional training in patients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation ward using the data bank of post-stroke patient registry. Subjects and Methods Subjects were 2507 inpatients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation wards between November 2004 and November 2010. Participants were retrospectively divided into four groups based upon chart review; patients who received no additional rehabilitation, patients who were added with self-initiated off hours training, patients who were added with off hours training by ward staff, patients who received both self-initiated training and training by ward staff. Parameters for assessing outcomes included length of stay, motor/cognitive subscales of functional independent measures (FIM) and motor benefit of FIM calculated by subtracting the score at admission from that at discharge. Results Participants were stratified into three groups depending on the motor FIM at admission (≦28, 29∼56, 57≦) for comparison. Regarding outcome variables, significant inter-group differences were observed in all items examined within the subgroup who scored 28 or less and between 29 and 56. Meanwhile no such trends were observed in the group who scored 57 or more compared with those who scored less. In a decision tree created based upon Exhaustive Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection method, variables chosen were the motor FIM at admission (the first node) additional training (the second node), the cognitive FIM at admission(the third node). Conclusions Overall the results suggest that additional training can compensate for the shortage of regular rehabilitation implemented in recovery phase rehabilitation ward, thus may contribute to improved outcomes assessed by motor FIM at discharge. PMID:24626224

  9. Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Mark D; Orban, Sarah A; Kofler, Michael J; Friedman, Lauren M

    2013-12-01

    Children with ADHD are characterized frequently as possessing underdeveloped executive functions and sustained attentional abilities, and recent commercial claims suggest that computer-based cognitive training can remediate these impairments and provide significant and lasting improvement in their attention, impulse control, social functioning, academic performance, and complex reasoning skills. The present review critically evaluates these claims through meta-analysis of 25 studies of facilitative intervention training (i.e., cognitive training) for children with ADHD. Random effects models corrected for publication bias and sampling error revealed that studies training short-term memory alone resulted in moderate magnitude improvements in short-term memory (d=0.63), whereas training attention did not significantly improve attention and training mixed executive functions did not significantly improve the targeted executive functions (both nonsignificant: 95% confidence intervals include 0.0). Far transfer effects of cognitive training on academic functioning, blinded ratings of behavior (both nonsignificant), and cognitive tests (d=0.14) were nonsignificant or negligible. Unblinded raters (d=0.48) reported significantly larger benefits relative to blinded raters and objective tests (both p<.05), indicating the likelihood of Hawthorne effects. Critical examination of training targets revealed incongruence with empirical evidence regarding the specific executive functions that are (a) most impaired in ADHD, and (b) functionally related to the behavioral and academic outcomes these training programs are intended to ameliorate. Collectively, meta-analytic results indicate that claims regarding the academic, behavioral, and cognitive benefits associated with extant cognitive training programs are unsupported in ADHD. The methodological limitations of the current evidence base, however, leave open the possibility that cognitive training techniques designed to improve

  10. Do programs designed to train working memory, other executive functions, and attention benefit children with ADHD? A meta-analytic review of cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Mark D; Orban, Sarah A; Kofler, Michael J; Friedman, Lauren M

    2013-12-01

    Children with ADHD are characterized frequently as possessing underdeveloped executive functions and sustained attentional abilities, and recent commercial claims suggest that computer-based cognitive training can remediate these impairments and provide significant and lasting improvement in their attention, impulse control, social functioning, academic performance, and complex reasoning skills. The present review critically evaluates these claims through meta-analysis of 25 studies of facilitative intervention training (i.e., cognitive training) for children with ADHD. Random effects models corrected for publication bias and sampling error revealed that studies training short-term memory alone resulted in moderate magnitude improvements in short-term memory (d=0.63), whereas training attention did not significantly improve attention and training mixed executive functions did not significantly improve the targeted executive functions (both nonsignificant: 95% confidence intervals include 0.0). Far transfer effects of cognitive training on academic functioning, blinded ratings of behavior (both nonsignificant), and cognitive tests (d=0.14) were nonsignificant or negligible. Unblinded raters (d=0.48) reported significantly larger benefits relative to blinded raters and objective tests (both p<.05), indicating the likelihood of Hawthorne effects. Critical examination of training targets revealed incongruence with empirical evidence regarding the specific executive functions that are (a) most impaired in ADHD, and (b) functionally related to the behavioral and academic outcomes these training programs are intended to ameliorate. Collectively, meta-analytic results indicate that claims regarding the academic, behavioral, and cognitive benefits associated with extant cognitive training programs are unsupported in ADHD. The methodological limitations of the current evidence base, however, leave open the possibility that cognitive training techniques designed to improve

  11. Development and preliminary evaluation of a training workshop for the collection of patient-reported outcome (PRO) interview data by research support staff.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Thomas M; Hurley, Karen; Bylund, Carma L; Berk, Alexandra; Diminni, Kimberly; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the development and initial evaluation of a didactic curriculum to prepare research support staff with the core knowledge and skills required to collect patient-reported outcomes (PROs) via interviews. Research support staff members (N = 77) were recruited for eight separate workshops, each consisting of a didactic presentation followed by role-play scenarios with trained actors depicting common scenarios they may encounter as part of patient interaction. Trainees were observed and received feedback on their performance from trained facilitators and peers. In comparison to their pre-training assessment, trainees showed significant improvement in their confidence to conduct a research interview, handle a distressed participant, manage a wandering interview, ask participants sensitive questions, and handle irritated patients. Training research support staff in the effective collection of PROs via patient interviews can improve the confidence of these individuals in interacting with patients, which can ultimately lead to increased accuracy of data collection. PMID:23090591

  12. Counselee participation in follow-up breast cancer genetic counselling visits and associations with achievement of the preferred role, cognitive outcomes, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control.

    PubMed

    Albada, Akke; Ausems, Margreet G E M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the counselee participation in the follow-up visits, compared to the first visits, for breast cancer genetic counselling and to explore associations with counselees' achievement of their preferred role in decision making, information recall, knowledge, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control. First and follow-up visits for breast cancer genetic counselling of 96 counselees of a Dutch genetics center were videotaped (2008-2010). Counselees completed questionnaires before counselling (T1), after the follow-up visit (T2) and one year after the follow-up visit (T3). Consultations were rated with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Counselee participation was measured as the percentage of counselee utterances, the percentage of counselee questions and the interactivity (number of turns per minute). Follow-up visits had higher levels of counselee participation than first visits as assessed by the percentage of counselee talk, the interactivity and counselee questions. More counselee talk in the follow-up visit was related to higher achievement of the preferred role (T2) and higher perceived personal control (T3). Higher interactivity in the follow-up visit was related to lower achievement of the preferred role in decision making and lower information recall (T2). There were no significant associations with the percentage of questions asked and none of the participation measures was related to knowledge, risk perception alignment and perceived personal control (T2). In line with the interviewing admonishment 'talk less and listen more', the only assessment of counselee participation associated to better outcomes is the percentage of counselee talk. High interactivity might be associated with lower recall in breast cancer genetic counselees who are generally highly educated. However, this study was limited by a small sample size and a heterogeneous group of counselees. Research is needed on the interactions

  13. High-load strength training improves outcome in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rathleff, M S; Mølgaard, C M; Fredberg, U; Kaalund, S; Andersen, K B; Jensen, T T; Aaskov, S; Olesen, J L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of shoe inserts and plantar fascia-specific stretching vs shoe inserts and high-load strength training in patients with plantar fasciitis. Forty-eight patients with ultrasonography-verified plantar fasciitis were randomized to shoe inserts and daily plantar-specific stretching (the stretch group) or shoe inserts and high-load progressive strength training (the strength group) performed every second day. High-load strength training consisted of unilateral heel raises with a towel inserted under the toes. Primary outcome was the foot function index (FFI) at 3 months. Additional follow-ups were performed at 1, 6, and 12 months. At the primary endpoint, at 3 months, the strength group had a FFI that was 29 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI): 6-52, P = 0.016] compared with the stretch group. At 1, 6, and 12 months, there were no differences between groups (P > 0.34). At 12 months, the FFI was 22 points (95% CI: 9-36) in the strength group and 16 points (95% CI: 0-32) in the stretch group. There were no differences in any of the secondary outcomes. A simple progressive exercise protocol, performed every second day, resulted in superior self-reported outcome after 3 months compared with plantar-specific stretching. High-load strength training may aid in a quicker reduction in pain and improvements in function.

  14. "A Great First Step into Research": Stepping Into Research Is an Effective and Sustainable Model for Research Training in Clinical Settings: A Report of 6-Year Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harding, Katherine E; Shields, Nora; Whiteside, Mary; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating a dynamic research culture is critical to growing the allied health professions. The Stepping into Research training program was developed in 2008 using small group training and mentoring to train allied health clinicians at a large health service in basic research skills. This paper describes the outcomes 6 years after its implementation, including translation of the program to a second health service. This mixed-methods observational evaluation included (1) quantitative data on research outputs (publications, conference presentations- and enrolment in further research training) and (2) qualitative analysis of the experiences of the first cohort of participants following translation of the program to a second site, with comparison to a previous evaluation conducted at the first site. Of the 55 participants enrolled in the program over 6 years, 49 completed the basic program resulting in 22 academic publications, 21 conference presentations, and 5 PhD enrolments. Qualitative data suggest the first cohort of participants and mentors at both sites experienced similar benefits and challenges. The Stepping into Research program has led to tangible research outcomes, has been sustained over 6 years, and been translated to a second health service. Questions remain about the impact of the program on clinical outcomes and research culture. PMID:27585613

  15. "A Great First Step into Research": Stepping Into Research Is an Effective and Sustainable Model for Research Training in Clinical Settings: A Report of 6-Year Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harding, Katherine E; Shields, Nora; Whiteside, Mary; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating a dynamic research culture is critical to growing the allied health professions. The Stepping into Research training program was developed in 2008 using small group training and mentoring to train allied health clinicians at a large health service in basic research skills. This paper describes the outcomes 6 years after its implementation, including translation of the program to a second health service. This mixed-methods observational evaluation included (1) quantitative data on research outputs (publications, conference presentations- and enrolment in further research training) and (2) qualitative analysis of the experiences of the first cohort of participants following translation of the program to a second site, with comparison to a previous evaluation conducted at the first site. Of the 55 participants enrolled in the program over 6 years, 49 completed the basic program resulting in 22 academic publications, 21 conference presentations, and 5 PhD enrolments. Qualitative data suggest the first cohort of participants and mentors at both sites experienced similar benefits and challenges. The Stepping into Research program has led to tangible research outcomes, has been sustained over 6 years, and been translated to a second health service. Questions remain about the impact of the program on clinical outcomes and research culture.

  16. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education.

    PubMed

    Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE.

  17. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education

    PubMed Central

    Whipp, Peter R.; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A.; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE. PMID:25741309

  18. Does the addition of specific acupuncture to standard swallowing training improve outcomes in patients with dysphagia after stroke? a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wenguang; Zheng, Chanjuan; Zhu, Suiqiang; Tang, Zhouping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of adding acupuncture to standard swallowing training for patients with dysphagia after stroke. Design: Single-blind randomized controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient and outpatient clinics. Subjects: A total of 124 patients with dysphagia after stroke were randomly divided into two groups: acupuncture and control. Interventions: The acupuncture group received standard swallowing training and acupuncture treatment. In comparison, the control group only received standard swallowing training. Participants in both groups received six days of therapy per week for a four-week period. Main measures: The primary outcome measures included the Standardized Swallowing Assessment and the Dysphagia Outcome Severity Scale. The secondary outcome measures included the Modified Barthel Index and Swallowing-Related Quality of Life, which were assessed before and after the four-week therapy period. Results: A total of 120 dysphagic subjects completed the study (60 in acupuncture group and 60 in control group). Significant differences existed in the Standardized Swallowing Assessment, Dysphagia Outcome Severity Scale, Modified Barthel Index, and Swallowing-Related Quality of Life scores of each group after the treatment (P < 0.01). After the four-week treatment, the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (mean difference − 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) – 5.0 to − 0.81; P < 0.01), Dysphagia Outcome Severity Scale (mean difference 2.3; 95% CI 0.7 to 1.2; P < 0.01), Modified Barthel Index (mean difference 17.2; 95% CI 2.6 to 9.3; P < 0.05) and Swallowing-Related Quality of Life scores (mean difference 31.4; 95% CI 3.2 to 11.4; P < 0.01) showed more significant improvement in the acupuncture group than the control group. Conclusions: Acupuncture combined with the standard swallowing training may be beneficial for dysphagic patients after stroke. PMID:25819076

  19. The First Pilot Comprehensive Evaluation of the Outcomes of Different Types of Robotic Surgeries in the Different Surgical Departments: The Penta, Tetra and Trifecta Achievements in Robotic Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Sejima, Takehiro; Morizane, Shuichi; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Ashida, Keigo; Saito, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Yuji; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Background To ensure safe performance in robotic surgery, the Minimal Invasive Surgery Center (MISC) is composed of the anesthesiology department, five surgery departments and co-medical staff in our institution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of different types of robotic surgeries for cancer treatment (n = 326) from different surgery departments in the MISC. Methods The outcomes of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), partial nephrectomy (RAPN), transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for pharyngeal cancer, and robotic surgery for lung, gastric and rectal cancer were evaluated using the similar concept of pentafecta in RARP. Results The pentafecta rates of RARP and robotic surgery for rectal cancer were 33.3 and 56.5%, respectively. The tetrafecta rates of RARP (excluding potency evaluation from pentafecta) and TORS were 48.4 and 57.1%, respectively. The trifecta rates of RAPN, robotic surgeries for lung and gastric cancer were 75.9, 74.2 and 84.2%, respectively. The failure of tetrafecta in RARP achievement was significantly associated with high risk than with low risk according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network classification. Conclusion This is the world’s first comprehensive evaluation of different types of robotic surgeries for cancer treatment in the constitutional framework of an academic institution. MISC, which provides the constitutional framework of an academic institution, is providing immeasurable benefits in terms of robotic surgery quality, and it may ultimately lead to high penta-, tetra-, and trifecta rates for robotic surgeries for cancer treatment in all surgical departments. PMID:27493484

  20. The Effects of Self-Regulated Learning on Community College Students' Metacognition and Achievement in Developmental Math Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Karen D. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of training in self-regulation on metacognition and math achievement were investigated in this study. The moderator effect of gender, age and ethnicity on the relationships between training and the outcomes of metacognition and math achievement were also explored. The participants for this study were 116 community college students…

  1. Training and Assessment (TAA40104) in Community Providers in New South Wales: Participant Intentions and Outcomes. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Five years after implementation, the Certificate IV in Training and Assessment (TAA40104, and hereafter also referred to as the Certificate IV) remains a pivotal qualification in the national vocational education and training (VET) system. Under the Australian Quality Training Framework (AQTF) it is the qualification required by both workplace…

  2. Developing Behavioural Training Services to Meet Defined Standards within an Australian Statewide Disability Service System and the Associated Client Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crates, Nicola; Spicer, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background: LaVigna, Christian, and Willis (2005) reported on a project where Institute for Applied Behaviour Analysis (IABA) staff trained a professional team in New Zealand (NZ) to provide behavioural services that met defined criteria. The NZ team was then trained to train other practitioners to meet the same professional standards. However, no…

  3. The North Dakota Mental Health and Aging Education Project: Curriculum Design and Training Outcomes for a Train-the-Trainer Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Margaret A.; Chromy, Barbara; Philbrick, Candace A.; Sanders, Gregory F.; Muske, Kara L.; Bratteli, Marlys

    2009-01-01

    A training curriculum on mental health and aging was developed and disseminated to 32 natural caregivers throughout a frontier state using a train-the-trainer model. Those certified as trainers included social workers, religious professionals, volunteers, long-term care employees, nurses, home health workers, and professional and informal…

  4. How to become a mentalist: reading decisions from a competitor's pupil can be achieved without training but requires instruction.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Stoll, Josef; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Carter, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Pupil dilation is implicated as a marker of decision-making as well as of cognitive and emotional processes. Here we tested whether individuals can exploit another's pupil to their advantage. We first recorded the eyes of 3 "opponents", while they were playing a modified version of the "rock-paper-scissors" childhood game. The recorded videos served as stimuli to a second set of participants. These "players" played rock-paper-scissors against the pre-recorded opponents in a variety of conditions. When players just observed the opponents' eyes without specific instruction their probability of winning was at chance. When informed that the time of maximum pupil dilation was indicative of the opponents' choice, however, players raised their winning probability significantly above chance. When just watching the reconstructed area of the pupil against a gray background, players achieved similar performance, showing that players indeed exploited the pupil, rather than other facial cues. Since maximum pupil dilation was correct about the opponents' decision only in 60% of trials (chance 33%), we finally tested whether increasing this validity to 100% would allow spontaneous learning. Indeed, when players were given no information, but the pupil was informative about the opponent's response in all trials, players performed significantly above chance on average and half (5/10) reached significance at an individual level. Together these results suggest that people can in principle use the pupil to detect cognitive decisions in another individual, but that most people have neither explicit knowledge of the pupil's utility nor have they learnt to use it despite a lifetime of exposure.

  5. Fostering a culture of engagement: a pilot study of the outcomes of training mental health nurses working in two UK acute admission units in brief solution-focused therapy techniques.

    PubMed

    Hosany, Z; Wellman, N; Lowe, T

    2007-10-01

    It is widely acknowledged that there are major concerns about quality of care, ward atmosphere, the nature of nurse-patient interactions and patient outcomes in UK psychiatric acute admission units. Brief solution-focused therapy (SFT) is an approach which aims to shift the focus of interactions in professional care away from the traditional concentration on an individual's problems and weaknesses towards a more proactive identification of their strengths and positive coping mechanisms. This approach relies on a collaborative engagement with patients, in which the nurse or therapist using simple language aims to help the patient construct a plan to ensure their immediate safety while working to identify, focus on and reinforce their strengths and coping mechanisms in the achievement of identified future goals. This paper reports on a pilot study whose principal objective was to determine whether a short training in brief SFT for psychiatric nurses can produce measurable improvements in nurse-patient interactions in two psychiatric acute admission wards. In this study, 36 nurses undertook a 2-day training course in SFT and were followed up 3 months after training. Positive results were obtained on a number of measures indicating that nurses had acquired knowledge and skills and were applying SFT techniques in their clinical work.

  6. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women.

    PubMed

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo; Nose, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0 °C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women.

  7. Impact of 5-aminolevulinic acid with iron supplementation on exercise efficiency and home-based walking training achievement in older women

    PubMed Central

    Masuki, Shizue; Morita, Atsumi; Kamijo, Yoshi-ichiro; Ikegawa, Shigeki; Kataoka, Yufuko; Ogawa, Yu; Sumiyoshi, Eri; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Tanaka, Tohru; Nakajima, Motowo

    2015-01-01

    A reduction in exercise efficiency with aging limits daily living activities. We examined whether 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) increased exercise efficiency and voluntary achievement of interval walking training (IWT) in older women. Ten women [65 ± 3(SD) yr] who had performed IWT for >12 mo and were currently performing IWT participated in this study. The study was conducted in a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design. All subjects underwent two trials for 7 days each in which they performed IWT with ALA+SFC (100 and 115 mg/day, respectively) or placebo supplement intake (CNT), intermittently with a 2-wk washout period. Before and after each trial, subjects underwent a graded cycling test at 27.0°C atmospheric temperature and 50% relative humidity, and oxygen consumption rate, carbon dioxide production rate, and lactate concentration in plasma were measured. Furthermore, for the first 6 days of each trial, exercise intensity for IWT was measured by accelerometry. We found that, in the ALA+SFC trial, oxygen consumption rate and carbon dioxide production rate during graded cycling decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) and 11% (P = 0.001) at every workload, respectively, accompanied by a 16% reduction in lactate concentration in plasma (P < 0.001), although all remained unchanged in the CNT trial (P > 0.2). All of the reductions were significantly greater in the ALA+SFC than the CNT trial (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the training days, impulse, and time at fast walking were 42% (P = 0.028), 102% (P = 0.027), and 69% (P = 0.039) higher during the ALA+SFC than the CNT intake period, respectively. Thus ALA+SFC supplementation augmented exercise efficiency and thereby improved IWT achievement in older women. PMID:26514619

  8. The Effects of Expert Systems Training versus Content-Based Training on the Troubleshooting Achievement of Onan Corporation Service Personnel. Training and Development Research Center, Project Number Forty-Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerdahl, Edward John

    This study compared the effectiveness and efficiency of trainees in the Onan small products gasoline course under two training curricula: (1) the control group curriculum was the in-place course on the Emerald generator set; and (2) the experimental group curriculum was essentially the same with the addition of one lesson based on methods used by…

  9. Minimal Residual Disease at First Achievement of Complete Remission Predicts Outcome in Adult Patients with Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Xiaoyu; Tan, Yamin; Zheng, Weiyan; Shi, Jimin; Zhao, Yanmin; Lin, Maofang; He, Jingsong; Cai, Zhen; Luo, Yi; Huang, He

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the prognostic effect of minimal residual disease at first achievement of complete remission (MRD at CR1) in adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A total of 97 patients received treatment in our center between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Patients were divided into two arms according to the post-remission therapy (chemotherapy alone or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT)) they received. MRD was detected by four-color flow cytometry. We chose 0.02% and 0.2% as the cut-off points of MRD at CR1 for risk stratification using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The 3-year overall survival (OS) and leukemia free survival (LFS) rates for the whole cohort were 46.2% and 40.5%. MRD at CR1 had a significantly negative correlation with survival in both arms. Three-year OS rates in the chemotherapy arm were 70.0%, 25.2%, 0% (P = 0.003) for low, intermediate, and high levels of MRD at CR1, respectively. Three-year OS rates in the transplant arm were 81.8%, 64.3%, 27.3% (P = 0.005) for low, intermediate, and high levels of MRD at CR1, respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed that higher level of MRD at CR1 was a significant adverse factor for OS and LFS. Compared with chemotherapy alone, allo-HSCT significantly improved LFS rates in patients with intermediate (P = 0.005) and high (P = 0.022) levels of MRD at CR1, but not patients with low level of MRD at CR1 (P = 0.851). These results suggested that MRD at CR1 could strongly predict the outcome of adult ALL. Patients with intermediate and high levels of MRD at CR1 would benefit from allo-HSCT. PMID:27695097

  10. Summary of Field Test and Outcome Milestone Report for Preparing Educational Training Consultants: Consulting (PETC-II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Catherine A.; Murray, Stephen L.

    Preparing Educational and Training Consultants (PECT-II) is the second in a series of three cumulative and sequential instructional systems designed to help a cadre of educators acquire process training and consulting skills. The PETC-II graduate should be capable of forming a temporary relationship with a small group or major subsystem of an…

  11. Increasing School Success through Partnership-Based Family Competency Training: Experimental Study of Long-Term Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoth, Richard; Randall, G. Kevin; Shin, Chungyeol

    2008-01-01

    An expanding body of research suggests an important role for parent or family competency training in children's social-emotional learning and related school success. This article summarizes a test of a longitudinal model examining partnership-based family competency training effects on academic success in a general population. Specifically, it…

  12. Adults with autism spectrum disorder as behavior technicians for young children with autism: Outcomes of a behavioral skills training program.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In Experiment 1, training of the adults focused on the implementation of mand training via incidental teaching. Experiment 2 focused on teaching participants to use discrete-trial training (DTT) with children who exhibited problem behavior. Both experiments showed that behavioral skills training was effective for teaching the adult participants the behavioral procedures needed to teach children with autism. In addition, the children acquired skills as a result of training. Results of Experiment 2 further demonstrated that the DTT skills generalized across untrained targets and children. Social validity ratings suggested that some participants' teaching was indistinguishable from that of individuals without ASD.

  13. An Integrated Approach to Change the Outcome Part II: Targeted Neuromuscular Training Techniques to Reduce Identified ACL Injury Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Brent, Jensen L.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Prior reports indicate that female athletes who demonstrate high knee abduction moments (KAMs) during landing are more responsive to neuromuscular training designed to reduce KAM. Identification of female athletes who demonstrate high KAM, which accurately identifies those at risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, may be ideal for targeted neuromuscular training. Specific neuromuscular training targeted to the underlying biomechanical components that increase KAM may provide the most efficient and effective training strategy to reduce noncontact ACL injury risk. The purpose of the current commentary is to provide an integrative approach to identify and target mechanistic underpinnings to increased ACL injury in female athletes. Specific neuromuscular training techniques will be presented that address individual algorithm components related to high knee load landing patterns. If these integrated techniques are employed on a widespread basis, prevention strategies for noncontact ACL injury among young female athletes may prove both more effective and efficient. PMID:22580980

  14. The Role of Vocational Education and Training in the Labour Market Outcomes of People with Disabilities. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Mavromaras, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of education generally among people with a disability is one of the factors contributing to their lower rate of labour market participation. What role vocational education and training (VET) plays in ameliorating this is the focus of this report. Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics of Australia surveys, the report…

  15. "Breakthrough" 1981 Eight Months Later. A Summary of the Presentations, Recommendations, and Outcomes of the 1981 Breakthrough Conference, to Assist Minority Women and Men and Nonminority Women Achieve Leadership Positions in Wisconsin's Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grengg, Dolores A., Ed.; Thompson, Mary B., Ed.

    These proceedings consist of a summary of the presentations, recommendations, and outcomes of a conference held to assist minority women and men and nonminority women achieve leadership positions in Wisconsin's vocational, technical, and adult education (VTAE) system. Following a brief introduction and copy of the conference agenda, summaries are…

  16. Impact of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program on School-Level Indicators of Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, and Disciplinary Outcomes: A Matched-Pair, Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster-randomized, controlled design. The "Positive Action" Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (M…

  17. Title III Accountability Policies and Outcomes for K-12: Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for English Language Learner Students in Southeast Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 105

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly S.; Dufford-Melendez, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This report details Title III accountability policies and outcomes for K-12 English language learner (ELL) students for school year 2007/08 in the six Southeast Region states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina) under the Title III annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAO) provision of the No Child…

  18. Feasibility of resistance training in adult McArdle patients: clinical outcomes and muscle strength and mass benefits

    PubMed Central

    Santalla, Alfredo; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Brea-Alejo, Lidia; Pagola-Aldazábal, Itziar; Díez-Bermejo, Jorge; Fleck, Steven J.; Ara, Ignacio; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of a 4-month resistance (weight lifting) training program followed by a 2-month detraining period in 7 adult McArdle patients (5 female) on: muscle mass (assessed by DXA), strength, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and clinical severity. Adherence to training was ≥84% in all patients and no major contraindication or side effect was noted during the training or strength assessment sessions. The training program had a significant impact on total and lower extremities’ lean mass (P < 0.05 for the time effect), with mean values increasing with training by +855 g (95% confidence interval (CI): 30, 1679) and +547 g (95%CI: 116, 978), respectively, and significantly decreasing with detraining. Body fat showed no significant changes over the study period. Bench press and half-squat performance, expressed as the highest value of average muscle power (W) or force (N) in the concentric-repetition phase of both tests showed a consistent increase over the 4-month training period, and decreased with detraining. Yet muscle strength and power detraining values were significantly higher than pre-training values, indicating that a training effect was still present after detraining. Importantly, all the participants, with no exception, showed a clear gain in muscle strength after the 4-month training period, e.g., bench press: +52 W (95% CI: 13, 91); half-squat: +173 W (95% CI: 96, 251). No significant time effect (P > 0.05) was noted for baseline or post strength assessment values of serum CK activity, which remained essentially within the range reported in our laboratory for McArdle patients. All the patients changed to a lower severity class with training, such that none of them were in the highest disease severity class (3) after the intervention and, as such, they did not have fixed muscle weakness after training. Clinical improvements were retained, in all but one patient, after detraining, such that after detraining all patients were classed as

  19. Feasibility of resistance training in adult McArdle patients: clinical outcomes and muscle strength and mass benefits.

    PubMed

    Santalla, Alfredo; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Brea-Alejo, Lidia; Pagola-Aldazábal, Itziar; Díez-Bermejo, Jorge; Fleck, Steven J; Ara, Ignacio; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of a 4-month resistance (weight lifting) training program followed by a 2-month detraining period in 7 adult McArdle patients (5 female) on: muscle mass (assessed by DXA), strength, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and clinical severity. Adherence to training was ≥84% in all patients and no major contraindication or side effect was noted during the training or strength assessment sessions. The training program had a significant impact on total and lower extremities' lean mass (P < 0.05 for the time effect), with mean values increasing with training by +855 g (95% confidence interval (CI): 30, 1679) and +547 g (95%CI: 116, 978), respectively, and significantly decreasing with detraining. Body fat showed no significant changes over the study period. Bench press and half-squat performance, expressed as the highest value of average muscle power (W) or force (N) in the concentric-repetition phase of both tests showed a consistent increase over the 4-month training period, and decreased with detraining. Yet muscle strength and power detraining values were significantly higher than pre-training values, indicating that a training effect was still present after detraining. Importantly, all the participants, with no exception, showed a clear gain in muscle strength after the 4-month training period, e.g., bench press: +52 W (95% CI: 13, 91); half-squat: +173 W (95% CI: 96, 251). No significant time effect (P > 0.05) was noted for baseline or post strength assessment values of serum CK activity, which remained essentially within the range reported in our laboratory for McArdle patients. All the patients changed to a lower severity class with training, such that none of them were in the highest disease severity class (3) after the intervention and, as such, they did not have fixed muscle weakness after training. Clinical improvements were retained, in all but one patient, after detraining, such that after detraining all patients were classed as

  20. The effect of gym training on multiple outcomes in Parkinson's disease: a pilot randomised waiting-list controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Ellen; Galpin, Adam J; McDonald, Kathryn; Kellett, Mark; Dick, Jeremy P R; Hayes, Sue; Wearden, Alison J

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence for the benefits of exercise in Parkinson's disease (PD), but less is known about group exercise interventions. We evaluated the effect of gym-training programme on people with PD. Thirty-two adults with mild to moderate PD, not currently exercising formally, were randomised to an immediate 20-week biweekly gym training programme at a local leisure complex, or a 10-week programme starting 10 weeks later. Assessments at baseline (T1), 10 weeks (T2) and 20 weeks (T3) included reaction time, motor performance (UPDRS), quality of life and illness perceptions. Experiences of the programme were assessed via questionnaire and a focus group. Overall UPDRS motor function score did not change over time. However, gym training was associated with significant improvements in reaction times and some timed tests in the immediate training group (T1-T2). The delayed group showed similar improvements following gym training (T2-T3). Participants reported enjoyment, obtaining social benefits, and increased confidence. However, the questionnaire measures did not show improvements in subjective health ratings or illness perceptions. Although benefits were not apparent in the questionnaire measures or overall UPDRS scores, our findings suggest that a 10-week gym training programme in a community setting can provide some benefits for people with PD.

  1. Does Pre-Survey Training Impact Knowledge of Survey Administrators and Survey Outcomes in Developing Countries? Evaluation Findings of a Training of Trainers Workshop for National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey-Plus in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Kolawole Solomon; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Ogboi, Johnbull Sonny; Bashorun, Adebobola Toluwalashe; Issa, Kawu Bolakale; Amida, Perpetua; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Onoriode, Ezire

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although, Nigeria had conducted various national surveys followed by central and state level trainings for survey administrators, prior pre-survey trainings have not been systematically evaluated to assess their impact on knowledge gain and final outcome of the survey. A central training of trainers’ session was organized for master trainers on the conduct of the 2012 National AIDS and Reproductive Health Survey. Objectives: To evaluate the impact of training on the quality of conduct of a national research survey in the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria. Method: A total of 185 participants consisting of State AIDS Program Coordinators, Reproductive Health Coordinators, State Laboratory Scientists, Lead Supervisors and Counselor Testers were invited from the 36 states in Nigeria and the FCT for the central training of trainers in Abuja. The training lasted 5 days and the trainees were grouped into two on the basis of behavioral epidemiology and laboratory components. Training tools such as the developed protocol, training power point slides, practical sessions such as role plays, and usage of HIV rapid test kits were utilized during the training. The facilitators were drawn from Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH), universities and research Institutions as well as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). The facilitators prepared and administered 25 structured questions for the behavioral group and 28 questions for the laboratory group at the beginning of the training to assess the participants’ knowledge of HIV and the survey. The same questions answered by Trainees responded to the same questions prior to the commencement and at the end of the trainings. Scores were aggregated to 100 for each test. We conducted paired t-test to determine statistically significant differences between pre-test and post-test results at 0.05 significance level and ANOVA to determine if there were differences in knowledge level among different groups

  2. Segmented Versus Traditional Crisis Intervention Team Training.

    PubMed

    Cuddeback, Gary S; Kurtz, Robert A; Wilson, Amy Blank; VanDeinse, Tonya; Burgin, Stacey E

    2016-09-01

    There are more than 2,500 Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) in operation across the country. Results of research on the effectiveness and impact of CIT are mixed. One aspect of CIT training that has yet to be examined is the expert-derived suggestion that 40 consecutive hours of training is an essential element of CIT for law enforcement officers. That is, CIT training is delivered in one 40-hour week, but it is unclear whether the training could be delivered in segments and still achieve its desired outcomes. Segmented training could make CIT more accessible to smaller, particularly rural, law enforcement agencies. Can segmented CIT achieve outcomes similar to those of traditional CIT training? We compared the knowledge and attitudes of 47 police officers who received traditional CIT training and 32 officers who received segmented CIT training. Our findings suggest that segmented CIT training and traditional CIT training produce comparable results regarding officers' knowledge of mental illness and attitudes toward persons with mental illness, providing preliminary support for this adaptation to the delivery of CIT training. PMID:27644867

  3. Segmented Versus Traditional Crisis Intervention Team Training.

    PubMed

    Cuddeback, Gary S; Kurtz, Robert A; Wilson, Amy Blank; VanDeinse, Tonya; Burgin, Stacey E

    2016-09-01

    There are more than 2,500 Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) in operation across the country. Results of research on the effectiveness and impact of CIT are mixed. One aspect of CIT training that has yet to be examined is the expert-derived suggestion that 40 consecutive hours of training is an essential element of CIT for law enforcement officers. That is, CIT training is delivered in one 40-hour week, but it is unclear whether the training could be delivered in segments and still achieve its desired outcomes. Segmented training could make CIT more accessible to smaller, particularly rural, law enforcement agencies. Can segmented CIT achieve outcomes similar to those of traditional CIT training? We compared the knowledge and attitudes of 47 police officers who received traditional CIT training and 32 officers who received segmented CIT training. Our findings suggest that segmented CIT training and traditional CIT training produce comparable results regarding officers' knowledge of mental illness and attitudes toward persons with mental illness, providing preliminary support for this adaptation to the delivery of CIT training.

  4. Outcomes of an acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a quasi-experimental pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pahnke, Johan; Lundgren, Tobias; Hursti, Timo; Hirvikoski, Tatja

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by social impairments and behavioural inflexibility. In this pilot study, the feasibility and outcomes of a 6-week acceptance and commitment therapy-based skills training group were evaluated in a special school setting using a quasi-experimental design (acceptance and commitment therapy/school classes as usual). A total of 28 high-functioning students with autism spectrum disorder (aged 13-21 years) were assessed using self- and teacher-ratings at pre- and post-assessment and 2-month follow-up. All participants completed the skills training, and treatment satisfaction was high. Levels of stress, hyperactivity and emotional distress were reduced in the treatment group. The acceptance and commitment therapy group also reported increased prosocial behaviour. These changes were stable or further improved at the 2-month follow-up. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the benefits of acceptance and commitment therapy for autism spectrum disorder.

  5. The Effects of the Combination of Cognitive Training and Supported Employment on Improving Clinical and Working Outcomes for People with Schizophrenia in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Sayaka; Iwata, Kazuhiko; Furukawa, Shun-Ichi; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Hatsuse, Norifumi; Ikebuchi, Emi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Japan, Job assistance for SMI have been not active. Compared with mental retardation, employment rate of SMI was low. The needs of the effective job assistance for SMI are growing. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the combination approach of Cognitive Remediation (CR) and Supported Employment (SE) in clinical outcomes, including cognitive functioning and psychiatric symptoms besides vocational outcomes. Methods: The participants diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assigned to CR+SE group (n=52) and SE group (n=57). CR comprised computer based trainings using COGPACK and group works. SE was individualized vocational support provided by employment specialists. Outcome measures included cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, social functioning, performance of tasks as clinical outcomes, employment rate, duration of employment, and earned wage as vocational outcome. Results: CR+SE group displayed significantly better psychiatric symptoms (F=3.490, p<.10), interpersonal relations (F=11.695, p<.01), and social and cognitive functioning including verbal memory (F=9.439, p<.01), digit sequencing (F=5.544, p<.05), token motor tasks (F=6.685, p<.05), and overall cognitive functioning (F=8.136, p<.01). We did not find any significant difference between two groups in terms of employment rate and earned wage. Discussions: This is the first controlled study to determine the effectiveness of CR on vocational outcomes in Japan. The results showed that CR and SE programs were feasible in Japan and that CR using COGPACK had favorable effects on cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, and social functioning, which is consistent with previous researches. PMID:24600481

  6. Objective Evaluation of Motor Skills for Orthopedic Residents Using a Motion Tracking Drill System: Outcomes of an ABOS Approved Surgical Skills Training Program

    PubMed Central

    Pourkand, Ashkan; Salas, Christina; Regalado, Jasmin; Bhakta, Krishan; Tufaro, Rachel; Mercer, Deana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Orthopedics is a motor skills-demanding surgical specialty requiring surgical skills training outside of the operating room. Unfortunately, limited quantitative techniques exist to determine the effectiveness of these surgical skills training programs. Using a variety of drill, surgeon, and specimen mounted sensors, we evaluated orthopedic surgery residents during a surgical skills training course approved by the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgeons (ABOS). This evaluation consisted of quantitative measures of various kinematic and kinetic parameters with the goal of relating these to clinically-significant outcomes. Methods Seven experienced surgeons and 22 surgical residents participated in this study, each performing 5 surgical drilling trials, pre- and post-training. Utilizing arm and tool kinematics, applied force, tool and bone vibration, and drill RPM were measured using a combination of force, acceleration, and optical tracking sensors. Post hoc screw pullout testing and resident survey data were also evaluated. Overall, 25 measured parameters were expressed as scalars and their covariance calculated. Results Non-trivial direct correlations whose magnitude exceeded 0.5 were: maximum penetration distance with applied force, drill toggle with drill roll angle, and drill RPM with force. Surgeons applying a high drill RPM also yielded a large force which in turn gave an increase in tendency for over-penetration. As a whole, the differences between experienced and novice surgeons measured in these trials were not statistically significant. However, when looking at specific performance criterion individually (maintaining steady force, minimizing over-penetration, minimizing both the major and minor axis diameters, minimizing toggle and drill vibration), experienced surgeons tended to outperform their novice counterparts. Conclusions Objective assessment of surgical skills using sensor based technologies may help elucidate differences between

  7. Brief Report: Vocational Outcomes for Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders at Six Months after Virtual Reality Job Interview Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matthew J.; Fleming, Michael F.; Wright, Michael A.; Losh, Molly; Humm, Laura Boteler; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D.

    2015-01-01

    Young adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have low employment rates and job interviewing presents a critical barrier to employment for them. Results from a prior randomized controlled efficacy trial suggested virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) improved interviewing skills among trainees with ASD, but not…

  8. Examination of Individual Differences in Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Formal and Informal Individual Auditory Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sherri L.; Saunders, Gabrielle H.; Chisolm, Theresa H.; Frederick, Melissa; Bailey, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if patient characteristics or clinical variables could predict who benefits from individual auditory training. Method: A retrospective series of analyses were performed using a data set from a large, multisite, randomized controlled clinical trial that compared the treatment effects of at-home…

  9. Collaborative Approaches to Increasing the Participation and Outcomes of People with a Disability in Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Craig; Barnett, Kate

    One strategy to increase participation in vocational education and training (VET) by Australians with a disability involves intervention at the secondary school level to reduce early school leaving by providing structured VET learning and work placement opportunities. The Enterprise Career Education Foundation's Lighthouse initiative, which was…

  10. Effects of Training in Dream Recall and Dream Interpretation Skills on Dream Recall, Attitudes, and Dream Interpretation Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Ligiero, Daniela P.; Hill, Clara E.; Heaton, Kristin J.

    1999-01-01

    Volunteer clients (N=44) with below-average dream recall and attitudes toward dreams participated in training sessions focusing on either improving dream recall and attitudes toward dreams, building dream-interpretation skills, or educating about counseling. No significant differences were found within the three groups. Results suggest that…

  11. The Effect of Adapting Instructional Design to Individual Learning Style Pathways on Learning Outcome in a Combat Pilot Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malachowski, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a convenience sample military officers from the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps enrolled in an undergraduate pilot training course but awaiting the start of their program. All participants were 4-year college graduates with a median age of 23. Of the 114 participants, 87% were male and 13% were female. Participants were…

  12. Training and Dissemination of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Depression in Adults: A Preliminary Examination of Therapist Competence and Client Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Anne D.; Padesky, Christine A.; Montemarano, Jeremy; Lewis, Cara C.; Murakami, Jessica; Lamb, Kristen; DeVinney, Sharon; Reid, Mark; Smith, David A.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the authors examined the feasibility and effectiveness of training community therapists to deliver cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for depression. Method: Participants were therapists (n = 12) and clients (n = 116; mean age = 41 years, 63% women) presenting for treatment of depression at a not-for-profit and designated…

  13. Opportunities to Improve Skills and to Teach and Train Others: Employee Outcomes in the United States and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, HaeNim; McNamara, Tay K.; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Lee, Jungui

    2014-01-01

    Opportunities to improve skills and opportunities to teach or train others may be associated with job satisfaction, work engagement and organizational commitment. The analysis reported in this paper used a subsample of 823 employees within two Japanese and three American worksites. We tested not only the direct relationships of each type of…

  14. Does a Gatekeeper Suicide Prevention Program Work in a School Setting? Evaluating Training Outcome and Moderators of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody; Abraibesh, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The current study sought to evaluate the suicide prevention gatekeeper training program QPR (Question, Persuade, and Refer) among school personnel using a non-equivalent control group design. Substantial gains were demonstrated from pre- to post-test for attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding suicide and suicide prevention. Exploratory…

  15. The Outcomes of Education and Training: What the Australian Research Is Telling Us, 2011-14. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddie, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The body of research produced by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) over the lifetime of the 2011-14 National Research Priorities (see figure 1) has exposed many of the problems facing tertiary education and training. With the aim of "understanding the problem", the research has further investigated the…

  16. Effects of 8 Weeks of Balance or Weight Training for the Independently Living Elderly on the Outcomes of Induced Slips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether the balance or weight training could alter gait characteristics of elderly contributing to a reduction in the likelihood of slip-induced falls. A total of 18 elderly were evaluated for the study. The results indicated decreases in heel contact velocities and the friction demand characteristics after 8…

  17. From Pilot Schools to Reform Strategy: Outcomes of the Phare Programme Reform of Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This document contains 18 policy, synthesis, and analysis papers and foreign experts' contributions examining the following topics: challenges facing vocational education and training (VET) in the Czech Republic; the main aims and strategies of reforming the country's VET system; the role of VET in transforming the republic into a learning society…

  18. Treatment Outcomes and Mediators of Parent Management Training: A One-Year Follow-Up of Children with Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Kristine Amlund; Ogden, Terje; Bjornebekk, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    This effectiveness study presents the results of a 1-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of Parent Management Training. Families of 112 Norwegian girls and boys with clinic-level conduct problems participated, and 75 (67%) families were retained at follow-up. Children ranged in age from 4 to 12 at intake (M = 8.44). Families randomized…

  19. Does Entry Route Really Affect Academic Outcome? Academic Achievement of Traditional versus Non Traditional Entrants to BN(Hons) Pre-Registration Nursing Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimble, Mandy J.

    2015-01-01

    International trends for pre-registration nurse education at degree level alongside "widening access" initiatives mean that academic achievement of students entering via different educational routes is of interest to both higher and further education institutions. This article examines the academic achievement of students undertaking a…

  20. If I Read Better, Will I Score Higher ?: The Relationship between Oral Reading Fluency Instruction and Standardized Reading Achievement Test Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Chad H.

    2008-01-01

    The research study examined whether a difference existed between the reading achievement scores of an experimental group and a control group in standardized reading achievement. This difference measured the effect of systematic oral reading fluency instruction with repeated readings. Data from the 4Sight Pennsylvania Benchmark Reading Assessments…

  1. Effect of 10-week core stabilization exercise training and detraining on pain-related outcomes in patients with clinical lumbar instability

    PubMed Central

    Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Areeudomwong, Pattanasin; Emasithi, Alongkot; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Clinical lumbar instability causes pain and socioeconomic suffering; however, an appropriate treatment for this condition is unknown. This article examines the effect of a 10 week core stabilization exercise (CSE) program and 3 month follow-up on pain-related outcomes in patients with clinical lumbar instability. Methods Forty-two participants with clinical lumbar instability of at least 3 months in duration were randomly allocated either to 10 weekly treatments with CSE or to a conventional group (CG) receiving trunk stretching exercises and hot pack. Pain-related outcomes including pain intensity during instability catch sign, functional disability, patient satisfaction, and health-related quality of life were measured at 10 weeks of intervention and 1 and 3 months after the last intervention session (follow-up); trunk muscle activation patterns measured by surface electromyography were measured at 10 weeks. Results CSE showed significantly greater reductions in all pain-related outcomes after 10 weeks and over the course of 3 month follow-up periods than those seen in the CG (P<0.01). Furthermore, CSE enhanced deep abdominal muscle activation better than in the CG (P<0.001), whereas the CG had deterioration of deep back muscle activation compared with the CSE group (P<0.01). For within-group comparison, CSE provided significant improvements in all pain-related outcomes over follow-up (P<0.01), whereas the CG demonstrated reduction in pain intensity during instability catch sign only at 10 weeks (P<0.01). In addition, CSE showed an improvement in deep abdominal muscle activation (P<0.01), whereas the CG revealed the deterioration of deep abdominal and back muscle activations (P<0.05). Conclusion Ten week CSE provides greater training and retention effects on pain-related outcomes and induced activation of deep abdominal muscles in patients with clinical lumbar instability compared with conventional treatment. PMID:24399870

  2. The Outcome of a Social Cognitive Training for Mainstream Adolescents with Social Communication Deficits in a Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathy Y. S.; Crooke, Pamela J.; Lui, Aster L. Y.; Kan, Peggy P. K.; Mark, Yuen-mai; van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Tong, Michael C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of cognitive-based strategies for improving social communication behaviours for individuals who have solid language and cognition is an important question. This study investigated the outcome of teaching Social Thinking®, a framework based in social-cognition, to Chinese adolescents with social communication deficits. Thirty-nine students…

  3. Outcomes from Combining Work and Tertiary Study. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Zakirova, Rezida

    2011-01-01

    Working in some capacity is almost considered de rigueur for tertiary students. The reasons for working and the impact this has on both an individual's ability to complete their studies and on their post-study labour market outcomes are only recently receiving attention. Using the 1995 and 1998 cohorts of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian…

  4. Long-Term (Six Years) Clinical Outcome Discrimination of Patients in the Vegetative State Could be Achieved Based on the Operational Architectonics EEG Analysis: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are increasingly used to evaluate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) or assess their prognosis outcome in the short-term perspective. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effectiveness of EEG in classifying long-term (many years) outcome in chronic DOC patients. Here we tested whether EEG operational architectonics parameters (geared towards consciousness phenomenon detection rather than neurophysiological processes) could be useful for distinguishing a very long-term (6 years) clinical outcome of DOC patients whose EEGs were registered within 3 months post-injury. The obtained results suggest that EEG recorded at third month after sustaining brain damage, may contain useful information on the long-term outcome of patients in vegetative state: it could discriminate patients who remain in a persistent vegetative state from patients who reach a minimally conscious state or even recover a full consciousness in a long-term perspective (6 years) post-injury. These findings, if confirmed in further studies, may be pivotal for long-term planning of clinical care, rehabilitative programs, medical-legal decisions concerning the patients, and policy makers. PMID:27347266

  5. Long-Term (Six Years) Clinical Outcome Discrimination of Patients in the Vegetative State Could be Achieved Based on the Operational Architectonics EEG Analysis: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are increasingly used to evaluate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) or assess their prognosis outcome in the short-term perspective. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effectiveness of EEG in classifying long-term (many years) outcome in chronic DOC patients. Here we tested whether EEG operational architectonics parameters (geared towards consciousness phenomenon detection rather than neurophysiological processes) could be useful for distinguishing a very long-term (6 years) clinical outcome of DOC patients whose EEGs were registered within 3 months post-injury. The obtained results suggest that EEG recorded at third month after sustaining brain damage, may contain useful information on the long-term outcome of patients in vegetative state: it could discriminate patients who remain in a persistent vegetative state from patients who reach a minimally conscious state or even recover a full consciousness in a long-term perspective (6 years) post-injury. These findings, if confirmed in further studies, may be pivotal for long-term planning of clinical care, rehabilitative programs, medical-legal decisions concerning the patients, and policy makers. PMID:27347266

  6. Effects of Traditional and Nontraditional Forms of Parental Involvement on School-Level Achievement Outcome: An HLM Study Using SASS 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jianping; Washington, Alandra L.; Bierlein Palmer, Louann; Xia, Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined parental involvement's (PI) impact on school performance. The hierarchical linear modeling method was applied to national Schools and Staffing Survey 2007-2008 data. They found that PI variables explained significant variance for the outcomes of (a) meeting adequate yearly progress (AYP) and (b) being free from sanctions.…

  7. Achieving Successful Employment Outcomes with the Use of Assistive Technology. Report from the Study Group, Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (24th, Washington, DC, May 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtke, Jean, Ed.

    Developed as a result of an institute on rehabilitation issues, this document is a guide to assistive technology as it affects successful competitive employment outcomes for people with disabilities. Chapter 1 offers basic information on assistive technology including basic assumptions, service provider approaches, options for technology…

  8. The Effectiveness of Training Program Based on the Six Hats Model in Developing Creative Thinking Skills and Academic Achievements in the Arabic Language Course for Gifted and Talented Jordanian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziadat, Ayed H.; Al Ziyadat, Mohammad T.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a training program based on the six hats model in developing creative thinking skills and academic achievements in the Arabic language for gifted and talented Jordanian students. The study sample consisted of 59 gifted male and female students of the 7th grade from King Abdullah…

  9. Questionnaires for outcome expectancy, self-regulation, and behavioral expectation for resistance training among young-old adults: development and preliminary validity.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Brenda M; Kelleher, Sarah A; Marinik, Elaina L; Winett, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present research was to develop questionnaires to assess outcome expectancy for resistance training (RT), behavioral expectation in the context of perceived barriers to RT, and self-regulation strategies for RT among young-old adults (50-69 years). Measurement development included (a) item generation through elicitation interviews (N = 14) and open-ended questionnaires (N = 56), (b) expert feedback on a preliminary draft of the questionnaires (N = 4), and (c) a quantitative longitudinal study for item-reduction and psychometric analyses (N = 94). Elicitation procedures, expert feedback, and item reduction yielded four questionnaires with a total of 33 items. Positive outcome expectancy (α = .809), negative outcome expectancy (α = .729), behavioral expectation (α = .925), and self-regulation (α = .761) had-with one exception-moderate bivariate associations with two different indicators of self-reported RT behavior at one-month follow-up (r = .298 to .506). The present research provides preliminary support for newly developed questionnaires to facilitate understanding of the psychosocial determinants of RT among young-old adults.

  10. Mentoring Strategies and Outcomes of Two Federally Funded Cancer Research Training Programs for Underrepresented Students in the Biomedical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Ford, Marvella E; Abraham, Latecia M; Harrison, Anita L; Jefferson, Melanie S; Hazelton, Tonya R; Varner, Heidi; Cannady, Kimberly; Frichtel, Carla S; Bagasra, Omar; Davis, Leroy; Rivers, David E; Slaughter, Sabra C; Salley, Judith D

    2016-06-01

    The US is experiencing a severe shortage of underrepresented biomedical researchers. The purpose of this paper is to present two case examples of cancer research mentoring programs for underrepresented biomedical sciences students. The first case example is a National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute (NIH/NCI) P20 grant titled "South Carolina Cancer Disparities Research Center (SC CaDRe)" Training Program, contributing to an increase in the number of underrepresented students applying to graduate school by employing a triple-level mentoring strategy. Since 2011, three undergraduate and four graduate students have participated in the P20 SC CaDRe program. One graduate student published a peer-reviewed scientific paper. Two graduate students (50 %) have completed their master's degrees, and the other two graduate students will receive their degrees in spring 2015. Two undergraduate students (67 %) are enrolled in graduate or professional school (grad./prof. school), and the other graduate student is completing her final year of college. The second case example is a prostate cancer-focused Department of Defense grant titled "The SC Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Training Program," providing 24 students training since 2009. Additionally, 47 students made scientific presentations, and two students have published peer-reviewed scientific papers. All 24 students took a GRE test preparation course; 15 (63 %) have applied to graduate school, and 11 of them (73 %) are enrolled in grad./prof. school. Thirteen remaining students (54 %) are applying to grad./prof. school. Leveraged funding provided research-training opportunities to an additional 201 National Conference on Health Disparities Student Forum participants and to 937 Ernest E. Just Research Symposium participants at the Medical University of South Carolina.

  11. Reshaping the Focus of Vocational Teacher and Trainer Training. A Cross Country Review of Needs, Achievements and Obstacles in Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Soren P.

    This document reports the results of a comparative analysis of the current situation and future needs of teacher and trainer training in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Following an introductory section explaining the methodology of the study, the second section focuses on features common to teacher and trainer training in all Central…

  12. The effect of teamwork training on team performance and clinical outcome in elective orthopaedic surgery: a controlled interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Lauren; Hadi, Mohammed; Pickering, Sharon; Robertson, Eleanor; Griffin, Damian; Collins, Gary; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Catchpole, Ken; McCulloch, Peter; New, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of aviation-style teamwork training in improving operating theatre team performance and clinical outcomes. Setting 3 operating theatres in a UK district general hospital, 1 acting as a control group and the other 2 as the intervention group. Participants 72 operations (37 intervention, 35 control) were observed in full by 2 trained observers during two 3-month observation periods, before and after the intervention period. Interventions A 1-day teamwork training course for all staff, followed by 6 weeks of weekly in-service coaching to embed learning. Primary and secondary outcome measures We measured team non-technical skills using Oxford NOTECHS II, (evaluating the whole team and the surgical, anaesthetic and nursing subteams, and evaluated technical performance using the Glitch count. We evaluated compliance with the WHO checklist by recording whether time-out (T/O) and sign-out (S/O) were attempted, and whether T/O was fully complied with. We recorded complications, re-admissions and duration of hospital stay using hospital administrative data. We compared the before–after change in the intervention and control groups using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression modelling. Results Mean NOTECHS II score increased significantly from 71.6 to 75.4 in the active group but remained static in the control group (p=0.047). Among staff subgroups, the nursing score increased significantly (p=0.006), but the anaesthetic and surgical scores did not. The attempt rate for WHO T/O procedures increased significantly in both active and control groups, but full compliance with T/O improved only in the active group (p=0.003). Mean glitch rate was unchanged in the control group but increased significantly (7.2–10.2/h, p=0.002) in the active group. Conclusions Teamwork training was associated with improved non-technical skills in theatre teams but also with a rise in operative glitches. PMID:25897025

  13. Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of At-Risk Youth Following Participation in a Required Ninth-Grade Academic Support Study Center Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Overall, pretest-posttest results for achievement, behavior, and engagement for at-risk boys not eligible (n = 13) and eligible (n = 9) for participation in the free or reduced price lunch program who completed a school-year long academic support study center program were not statistically different over time and end of school year for cumulative…

  14. Do Goals Lead to Outcomes or Can It Be the Other Way Around?: Causal Ordering of Mastery Goals, Metacognitive Strategies, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Goal theory research has mostly focused on the unidirectional effects of goals on learning strategies and academic achievement. Reciprocal relationships have mostly been neglected. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to examine the reciprocal relations and causal ordering of mastery goals, metacognitive strategy use, and academic…

  15. Achieving Dramatic School Improvement: An Exploratory Study. A Cross-Site Analysis from the Evaluation of Comprehensive School Reform Program Implementation and Outcomes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K.; Birman, Beatrice F.; Orland, Martin; Harr-Robins, Jenifer; Heredia, Alberto; Parrish, Thomas B.; Ruffini, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study describes approaches to improving schools through retrospective, in-depth qualitative case studies. To select schools to be examined, the authors sought to identify Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) schools demonstrating two distinctive patterns of improved student achievement between 2000 and 2005, rapid-improvement (i.e.,…

  16. Feasibility and preliminary outcomes from a pilot study of coping skills training for adolescent--young adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents.

    PubMed

    Judge Santacroce, Sheila; Asmus, Kirsten; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Grey, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty is a central feature of long-term childhood cancer survivorship during which time it principally has to do with late effects. Therefore, the purposes of this article are (a) to assess feasibility of a randomized clinical trial of a telephone-delivered coping skills training (CST) intervention in terms of recruitment, retention, and timeline, as well as the performance of the study measures; and (b) to demonstrate trends in change on outcomes within the context of a small pilot study. The results of this pilot study suggest that HEROS PLUS CST has clinical relevance and that in-person long-term follow-up plus telephone-delivered psychosocial care is a practical way to deliver integrated care to adolescent-young adult childhood cancer survivors and their parents.

  17. Expanding the Oncofertility Workforce: Training Allied Health Professionals to Improve Health Outcomes for Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Woodruff, Teresa K; Knapp, Caprice A; Bowman, Meghan Lorraine; Reinecke, Joyce; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2016-09-01

    As cancer survivors live longer, fertility and reproductive health become important health concerns. Like other secondary effects of cancer treatment, these anticipated health risks should be addressed before the initiation of cancer treatment. While existing and emerging technologies may prevent or reduce risk of infertility (e.g., sperm, oocyte, embryo, or tissue banking), the lack of a trained workforce knowledgeable about oncology and reproductive health poses a barrier to care. The allied health professional (AHP) is a target of opportunity because of the direct and sustained patient relationships. Thus, developing tailored educational programs for nurses, social workers, psychologists, and physician assistants is an urgent unmet need toward field building. In this report, we outline results from a pilot study evaluating AHP perceptions of an oncology and reproductive health curriculum originally developed for nurses and adapted to meet the needs of several other AHP groups. PMID:26978683

  18. Eighteen-Month Follow-Up of Internet-Based Parent Management Training for Children with Conduct Problems and the Relation of Homework Compliance to Outcome.

    PubMed

    Högström, Jens; Enebrink, Pia; Melin, Bo; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if previously reported treatment gains of a parent management training (PMT) program, administered via Internet, were retained from post to the 18-month follow-up. Another aim was to evaluate homework compliance as a predictor of short and long-term outcomes. Participants were parents of 58 children (3-11 years) with conduct problems who received a 10-week self-directed PMT program, with limited therapist support. Parents of 32 children (55.2 %) responded at all measurement point (baseline, post-test and follow-up) and analyses showed that child conduct problems continued to decrease during the 18-month period after the intervention whereas parenting skills deteriorated somewhat from post treatment. Pre- to post-treatment change in child conduct problems was predicted by parental engagement in homework assignments intended to reduce negative child behaviors. The findings provide support for the use of Internet-based PMT and stress the importance of parental compliance to homework training.

  19. Eighteen-Month Follow-Up of Internet-Based Parent Management Training for Children with Conduct Problems and the Relation of Homework Compliance to Outcome.

    PubMed

    Högström, Jens; Enebrink, Pia; Melin, Bo; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if previously reported treatment gains of a parent management training (PMT) program, administered via Internet, were retained from post to the 18-month follow-up. Another aim was to evaluate homework compliance as a predictor of short and long-term outcomes. Participants were parents of 58 children (3-11 years) with conduct problems who received a 10-week self-directed PMT program, with limited therapist support. Parents of 32 children (55.2 %) responded at all measurement point (baseline, post-test and follow-up) and analyses showed that child conduct problems continued to decrease during the 18-month period after the intervention whereas parenting skills deteriorated somewhat from post treatment. Pre- to post-treatment change in child conduct problems was predicted by parental engagement in homework assignments intended to reduce negative child behaviors. The findings provide support for the use of Internet-based PMT and stress the importance of parental compliance to homework training. PMID:25236326

  20. Similar Clinical and Surgical Outcomes Achieved with Early Compared to Late Anti-TNF Induction in Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, Darryl K.; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Halloran, Brendan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha are effective in the management of ulcerative colitis (UC), but their use is often postponed until after failure of other treatment modalities. Objectives. We aim to determine if earlier treatment with infliximab or adalimumab alters clinical and surgical outcomes in UC patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating UC outpatients treated with infliximab or adalimumab from 2003 to 2014. Patients were stratified by time to first anti-TNF exposure; early initiation was defined as starting treatment within three years of diagnosis. Primary outcomes were colectomy, UC-related hospitalization, and clinical secondary loss of response. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess time to the primary outcomes. Results. 115 patients were included (78 infliximab, 37 adalimumab). Median follow-up was 175.6 weeks (IQR 72.4–228.4 weeks). Fifty-seven (49.6%) patients received early anti-TNF therapy; median time to treatment in this group was 38.1 (23.3–91.0) weeks compared to 414.0 (254.0–561.3) weeks in the late initiator cohort (p < 0.0001). Patients treated with early anti-TNF therapy had more severe endoscopic disease at induction (mean Mayo endoscopy subscore 2.46 (SD ± 0.66) versus 1.86 (±0.67), p < 0.001) and trended towards increased risk of colectomy (17.5% versus 8.6%, p = 0.16) and UC-related hospitalization (43.9% versus 27.6%, p = 0.07). In multivariate regression analysis, early anti-TNF induction was not associated with colectomy (HR 2.02 [95% CI: 0.57–7.20]), hospitalization (HR 1.66 [0.84–3.30]), or secondary loss of response (HR 0.86 [0.52–1.42]). Conclusions. Anti-TNF therapy is initiated earlier in patients with severe UC but earlier treatment does not prevent hospitalization, colectomy, or secondary loss of response. PMID:27478817

  1. Strict Selection Criteria During Surgical Training Ensures Good Outcomes in Laparoscopic Omental Patch Repair (LOPR) for Perforated Peptic Ulcer (PPU).

    PubMed

    Shelat, Vishal G; Ahmed, Saleem; Chia, Clement L K; Cheah, Yee Lee

    2015-02-01

    Application of minimal access surgery in acute care surgery is limited due to various reasons. Laparoscopic omental patch repair (LOPR) for perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) surgery is safe and feasible but not widely implemented. We report our early experience of LOPR with emphasis on strict selection criteria. This is a descriptive study of all patients operated on for PPU at academic university-affiliated institutes from December 2010 to February 2012. All the patients who were operated on for LOPR were included as the study population and their records were studied. Perioperative outcomes, Boey score, Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), and physiologic and operative severity scores for enumeration of mortality and morbidity (POSSUM) scores were calculated. All the data were tabulated in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using Stata Version 8.x. (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA). Fourteen patients had LOPR out of a total of 45 patients operated for the PPU. Mean age was 46 years (range 22-87 years). Twelve patients (86%) had a Boey score of 0 and all patients had MPI < 21 (mean MPI = 14). The predicted POSSUM morbidity and mortality were 36% and 7%, respectively. Mean ulcer size was 5 mm (range 2-10 mm), mean operating time was 100 minutes (range 70-123 minutes) and mean length of hospital stay was 4 days (range 3-6 days). There was no morbidity or mortality pertaining to LOPR. LOPR should be offered by acute care surgical teams when local expertise is available. This can optimize patient outcomes when strict selection criteria are applied.

  2. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  3. Predictors and outcomes of sustained, intermittent or never achieving remission in patients with recent onset inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Register

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael J.; Diffin, Janet; Scirè, Carlo A.; Lunt, Mark; MacGregor, Alex J.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Early remission is the current treatment strategy for patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and RA. Our objective was to identify baseline factors associated with achieving remission: sustained (SR), intermittent (IR) or never (NR) over a 5-year period in patients with early IP. Methods. Clinical and demographic data of patients with IP recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) were obtained at baseline and years 1, 2, 3 and 5. Remission was defined as no tender or swollen joints (out of 51). Patients were classified as NR or PR, respectively, if they were in remission at: no assessment or ⩾3 consecutive assessments after baseline, and IR otherwise. Ordinal regression and a random effects model, respectively, were used to examine the association between baseline factors, remission group and HAQ scores over time. Results. A total of 868 patients (66% female) were included. Of these, 54%, 34% and 12% achieved NR, IR and SR, respectively. In multivariate analysis, female sex (odds ratio, OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.63), higher tender joint count (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.93, 0.96), higher HAQ (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.74), being obese (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.99), hypertensive (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.90) or depressed (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.00) at baseline were independent predictors of being in a lower remission group. IR and SR were associated with lower HAQ scores over time and lower DAS28 at year 5. Conclusion. Women with higher tender joint count and disability at baseline, depression, obesity and hypertension were less likely to achieve remission. This information could help when stratifying patients for more aggressive therapy. PMID:27220594

  4. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a residual risk factor associated with long-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease who achieve optimal control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shinya; Kurata, Takeshi; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is recognized an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Clinical trials have shown that statins significantly reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statin. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established coronary risk factor that is independent of LDL-C levels. We evaluated the impact of HDL-C on long-term mortality in diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieved optimal LDL-C. We enrolled 438 consecutive diabetic patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention between 2004 and 2007 at our institution. We identified 165 patients who achieved target LDL-C <100 mg/dl. Patients were stratified into two groups according to HDL-C levels (low HDL-C group, baseline HDL-C <40 mg/dl; high HDL-C group, ≥40 mg/dl). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) that included all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome, and target lesion revascularization were evaluated between the two groups. The median follow-up period was 946 days. The rate of MACE was significantly higher in diabetic patients with low-HDL-C who achieved optimal LDL-C (6.9 vs 17.9 %, log-rank P = 0.030). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C is significantly associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for MACE 1.33, 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.75, P = 0.042). Low HDL-C is a residual risk factor that is significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieve optimal LDL-C levels.

  5. Process and Performance Outcomes of a Nontraditional Postbaccalaureate PharmD Program Geared Toward Internationally Trained Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eunice; Le, Quang A.; Nguyen, Megan; Robinson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Established in 2003, the fully accredited international postbaccalaureate doctor of pharmacy (IPBP) program has attracted internationally trained pharmacists from approximately 25 countries and 6 continents, mostly residents of the United States, to attain the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree at the Western University of Health Sciences. While recent trends in the IPBP applicant pool have shown a decline from its peak numbers in 2009 (222 applicants) for the 20 available seats each year, the quality of students remains high. Benchmark measures assessed for this group of students include the internal assessment entrance examination, admissions scores, academic assessments from didactic blocks, and scores on the North American Pharmacy Licensure Examination (NAPLEX), all of which indicate this quality. Moreover, graduates from the program not only consistently demonstrate excellence in the pharmacy curriculum and board examinations, but also go on to establish themselves as competent practitioners and educators. While the long-term future of the program is unknown, the status of the program and its graduates provides ample evidence of its value and ensures its continued success going forward. PMID:26689176

  6. Transforming the Patient Role to Achieve Better Outcomes Through a Patient Empowerment Program: A Randomized Wait-List Control Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Plaksin, Joseph; Zabar, Sondra; Wallach, Andrew; Sawicki, Chester; Kundrod, Sarita; Kalet, Adina

    2016-01-01

    Background In the patient-centered medical home model of health care, both health care providers (HCPs) and patients must understand their respective roles and responsibilities, view the other as a partner, and use communication skills that promote shared decision making. This is particularly necessary in chronic conditions where outcomes depend on behavior change and in underserved populations where the burden of chronic disease is high. Objective The objectives of this study are to determine if a Patient Empowerment Program (PEP) (1) is acceptable to patients and feasible across multiple clinical sites; (2) will increase patient preference for control in medical decision making, improve patient perceptions of patient-HCP communication, and increase patient activation; (3) is associated with an increase in diabetes self-management behaviors; and (4) has an effect on hemoglobin A 1c(HbA 1c) level. Methods This study recruited English-speaking adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from three urban clinical sites in New York City and randomized them to an immediate intervention group that completed the PEP intervention or a deferred intervention group that served as a wait-list control and completed the PEP intervention after 3-4 months. The PEP intervention consists of two facilitated small group sessions. Session 1 focuses on defining HCP and patient roles in the medical encounter by introducing ideal communication behaviors in each role and by providing both positive and negative examples of patient-HCP encounters. Session 2 focuses on practicing communication skills by role-playing with actors who serve as standardized health care providers. After the role play, participants set goals for their own health care and for future interactions with their HCPs. Outcome measures include the Patient Activation Measure; Ask, Understand, Remember Assessment; Krantz Health Opinion Survey; SF-12v2 Health Survey; Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire; and HbA 1c. These

  7. Long-Term Treatment Outcomes of Patients Infected With Hepatitis C Virus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Survival Benefit of Achieving a Sustained Virological Response

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Bryony; Saleem, Jawaad; Heath, Katherine; Cooke, Graham S.; Hill, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background. Achievement of a sustained virologic response (SVR) after treatment for Hepatitis C infection is associated with improved outcomes. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the impact of SVR on long-term mortality risk compared with nonresponders in a range of populations. Methods. An electronic search identified all studies assessing all-cause mortality in SVR and non-SVR patients. Eligible articles were stratified into general, cirrhotic, and populations coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. The adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) for mortality in patients achieving SVR vs non-SVR, and pooled estimates for the 5-year mortality in each group were calculated. Results. 31 studies (n = 33 360) were identified as suitable for inclusion. Median follow-up time was 5.4 years (interquartile range, 4.9–7.5) across all studies. The adjusted hazard ratio of mortality for patients achieving SVR vs non-SVR was 0.50 (95% CI, .37–.67) in the general population, 0.26 (95% CI, .18–.74) in the cirrhotic group, and 0.21 (.10–.45) in the coinfected group. The pooled 5-year mortality rates were significantly lower for patients achieving SVR compared with non-SVR in all 3 populations. Conclusions. The results suggest that there is a significant survival benefit of achieving an SVR compared with unsuccessful treatment in a range of populations infected with hepatitis C virus. PMID:25987643

  8. The Effects of Cognitive Training on Private Speech and Task Performance during Problem Solving among Learning Disabled and Normally Achieving Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R.

    To investigate task performance and the use of private speech and to examine the effects of a cognitive training approach, 30 learning disabled (LD) and 30 nonLD Ss (7 to 8 years old) were given a 17 piece wooden puzzle rigged so that it could not be completed correctly. Six variables were measured: (1) proportion of private speech that was task…

  9. Model VESL Program Guide, Office Information Systems, International: One Semester Intensive Training Certificate of Achievement Programs in General, Medical, and Legal Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Irma J.

    The Office Information Systems-International Program at Southwestern College, in California, was designed to provide Hispanic students with training for entry-level office employment. This model program guide stems from a project to improve curricula and delivery and focuses on changes in three intensive bilingual programs in general, medical, and…

  10. Fostering Early Numerical Skills at School Start in Children at Risk for Mathematical Achievement Problems: A Small Sample Size Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasselhorn, Marcus; Linke-Hasselhorn, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Eight six-year old German children with development disabilities regarding such number competencies as have been demonstrated to be among the most relevant precursor skills for the acquisition of elementary mathematics received intensive training with the program "Mengen, zählen, Zahlen" ["quantities, counting, numbers"] (MZZ,…

  11. Australia's Vocational Education & Training System. Annual National Report. Volume 3: Vocational Education & Training Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    The state of vocational education and training (VET) in Australia in 1997 was evaluated by collecting data on the following key performance measures: participation and achievement in VET; employer views on VET; student outcomes from VET; VET's benefits for particular client groups (females, people from rural and remote areas, indigenous…

  12. Location and stability of a newly established eccentric retinal locus suitable for reading, achieved through training of patients with a dense central scotoma.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, U L; Frennesson, C; Nilsson, S E

    1998-12-01

    Six patients, median age 71 years, with a dense central scotoma in one eye and a median visual acuity of 0.06 (20/330) in the same eye, were all (100%) shown by means of fundus photography including a fixation target to preferably use an unfavorable retinal locus for fixation, i.e., within the lesion (scotoma). None of the patients was able to read novel text with the affected eye. A computer and video display system were used to determine the most suitable area above or below the visual field scotoma (below or above the retinal lesion) for reading and the magnification needed at this eccentricity. The same setup was also used for an introductory training in reading single words as well as scrolled text with the aim of establishing a preferred retinal locus (PRL) at a favorable, eccentric position, the trained retinal locus (TRL). Thereafter, the patients were provided with strong positive lenses (median power, 40 D) for reading printed text at a very short reading distance (median, 2.5 cm), first single words, above and below which help lines were printed to facilitate eccentric fixation, and finally, novel text. The total training time was 4 to 5 h. Thereafter, fundus photography showed that five of the patients (83%) used their TRL as their PRL. Reading speed was 71 words per minute (median). Our results seem to indicate that an eccentric PRL favorable for effective reading can be established through training and that a fairly low number of training sessions is required.

  13. Young Persons' Education, Training and Employment Outcomes with Special Reference to Early School Leavers. A Report Prepared for the Business Council of Australia and Dusseldorp Skills Forum by Applied Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Australian researchers investigated the education training outcomes of young people (age 15-19 years), focusing on early school leavers. Data came from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and the National Center for Vocational and Educational Research. About one-third of the 270,000 students who leave school each year leave before 12th grade. The…

  14. Educational Outcomes of I-BEST, Washington State Community and Technical College System's Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training Program: Findings from a Multivariate Analysis. CCRC Working Paper No. 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Zeidenberg, Matthew; Kienzl, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study conducted by the Community College Research Center (CCRC) at Teachers College, Columbia University, on the outcomes of the Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training program (I-BEST), developed by the community and technical colleges in Washington State to increase the rate at which adult basic skills…

  15. Financial management and job social skills training components in a summer business institute: a controlled evaluation in high achieving predominantly ethnic minority youth.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Brad; Conway, Debbie; Beisecker, Monica; Murphy, Heather; Farley, Alisha; Waite, Melissa; Gugino, Kristin; Knatz, Danielle; Lopez-Frank, Carolina; Burns, Jack; Madison, Suzanne; Shorty, Carrie

    2005-07-01

    Ninety-two adolescents, predominantly ethnic minority high school students, participated in a structured Summer Business Institute (SBI). Participating youth were randomly assigned to receive either job social skills or financial management skills training components. Students who additionally received the job social skills training component were more likely to recommend their employment agency to others than were youth who received the financial management component, rated their overall on-the-job work experience more favorably, and demonstrated higher scores in areas that were relevant to the skills that were taught in the job social skills workshops. The financial management component also appeared to be relatively effective, as youth who received this intervention improved their knowledge of financial management issues more than youth who received job social skills, and rated their workshops as more helpful in financial management, as well as insurance management. Future directions are discussed in light of these results.

  16. Utilizing Computerized Cognitive Training to Improve Working Memory and Encoding: Piloting a School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiest, Dudley J.; Wong, Eugene H.; Minero, Laura P.; Pumaccahua, Tessy T.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory has been well documented as a significant predictor of academic outcomes (e.g., reading and math achievement as well as general life outcomes). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training to improve both working memory and encoding abilities in a school setting. Thirty students…

  17. Relative Effectiveness of Two Approaches to the Teaching of Music Theory on the Achievement and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Training as Church Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchen, John Dawson, III

    2012-01-01

    As a result of a perceived need to improve the music theory curricula for the preparation of church music leaders, this study compared two diverse approaches to the teaching of music theory for church music university students on achievement, attitudes, and self-preparedness. This current study was a quantitative, quasi-experimental research…

  18. Effects of neuromuscular training (NEMEX-TJR) on patient-reported outcomes and physical function in severe primary hip or knee osteoarthritis: a controlled before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of exercise in mild and moderate knee or hip osteoarthritis (OA) are apparent, but the evidence in severe OA is less clear. We recently reported that neuromuscular training was well tolerated and feasible in patients with severe primary hip or knee OA. The aims of this controlled before-and-after study were to compare baseline status to an age-matched population-based reference group and to examine the effects of neuromuscular training on patient-reported outcomes and physical function in patients with severe primary OA of the hip or knee. Methods 87 patients (60–77 years) with severe primary OA of the hip (n = 38, 55% women) or knee (n = 49, 59% women) awaiting total joint replacement (TJR) had supervised, neuromuscular training (NEMEX-TJR) in groups with individualized level and progression of training. A reference group (n = 43, 53% women) was included for comparison with patients’ data. Assessments included self-reported outcomes (HOOS/KOOS) and measures of physical function (chair stands, number of knee bends/30 sec, knee extensor strength, 20-meter walk test) at baseline and at follow-up before TJR. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used for comparing patients and references and elucidating influence of demographic factors on change. The paired t-test was used for comparisons within groups. Results At baseline, patients reported worse scores than the references in all HOOS/KOOS subscales (hip 27–47%, knee 14–52%, of reference scores, respectively) and had functional limitations (hip 72–85%, knee 42–85%, of references scores, respectively). NEMEX-TJR (mean 12 weeks (SD 5.6) of training) improved self-reported outcomes (hip 9–29%, knee 7–20%) and physical function (hip 3–18%, knee 5–19%) (p < 0.005). Between 42% and 62% of hip OA patients, and 39% and 61% of knee OA patients, displayed a clinically meaningful improvement (≥15%) in HOOS/KOOS subscales by training. The improvement in HOOS

  19. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  20. Simulation: improving patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Abi; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Crofts, Joanna; Draycott, Tim

    2013-06-01

    Effective training has been shown to improve perinatal care and outcome, decrease litigation claims and reduce midwifery sick leave. To be effective, training should be incentivised, in a realistic context, and delivered to inter-professional teams similar to those delivering actual care. Teamwork training is a useful addition, but it should be based on the characteristics of effective teamwork as derived from the study of frontline teams. Implementation of simulation and teamwork training is challenging, with constraints on staff time, facilities and finances. Local adoption and adaptation of effective programmes can help keep costs down, and make them locally relevant whilst maintaining effectiveness. Training programmes need to evolve continually in line with new evidence. To do this, it is vital to monitor outcomes and robustly evaluate programmes for their impact on patient care and outcome, not just on participants. PMID:23721770

  1. How Should "Quality" Technical Education and Training Be Defined? A Statement from the National Council for Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, James; Gershwin, Mary; Hayes, Homer; Jacobs, James; Mundhenk, Robert

    Although objectively measurable achievement of outcomes is an important guide to the quality of education, the process of defining and assuring the quality of technical education and training must include consideration for the context in which technical education and training occurs. It is also critical to remember that education has two sets of…

  2. A Self-Advocacy Training Program for Students with Disabilities: Adult Outcomes and Advocacy Involvement One to Six Years after Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Eric Landon

    2013-01-01

    The Texas Statewide Youth Leadership Forum (TXYLF) provides self-advocacy training to high school youths with disabilities. TXYLF is an enhanced version of the Youth Leadership Forum (YLF) that is comprised of an initial five day training, a nine month support phase, regional YLFs, and the opportunity for participants to return to the five day…

  3. Effects of Classroom Management Intervention Based on Teacher Training and Performance Feedback on Outcomes of Teacher-Student Dyads in Inclusive Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akalin, Selma; Sucuoglu, Bulbin

    2015-01-01

    Teacher training and teacher quality are an important part of the education system, therefore there is a need for new training programs for teachers to gain new knowledge and skills and to support their professional development. In recent years, new programs have been developed to offer knowledge and experience to teachers, and different methods…

  4. Benefits of exercise training and the correlation between aerobic capacity and functional outcomes and quality of life in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Tu, Hung-Pin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Jhong, Jing-Hui; Lin, Ko-Long

    2014-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise training is beneficial to people with coronary artery disease (CAD). Nevertheless, the correlation between aerobic capacity, and functional mobility and quality of life in elderly CAD patients is less addressed. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the beneficial effects of exercise training in elderly people with CAD, integrating exercise stress testing, functional mobility, handgrip strength, and health-related quality of life. Elderly people with CAD were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of a cardiac rehabilitation unit in a medical center. Participants were assigned to the exercise training group (N = 21) or the usual care group (N = 15). A total of 36 sessions of exercise training, completed in 12 weeks, was prescribed. Echocardiography, exercise stress testing, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, and handgrip strength testing were performed, and the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) was administered at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Peak oxygen consumption improved significantly after training. The heart rate recovery improved from 13.90/minute to 16.62/minute after exercise training. Functional mobility and handgrip strength also improved after training. Significant improvements were found in SF-36 physical function, social function, role limitation due to emotional problems, and mental health domains. A significant correlation between dynamic cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, handgrip strength, and SF-36 physical function and general health domains was also detected. Twelve-week, 36-session exercise training, including moderate-intensity cardiopulmonary exercise training, strengthening exercise, and balance training, is beneficial to elderly patients with CAD, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters correlate well with balance and quality of life.

  5. Benefits of exercise training and the correlation between aerobic capacity and functional outcomes and quality of life in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Jen; Tu, Hung-Pin; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Jhong, Jing-Hui; Lin, Ko-Long

    2014-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise training is beneficial to people with coronary artery disease (CAD). Nevertheless, the correlation between aerobic capacity, and functional mobility and quality of life in elderly CAD patients is less addressed. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the beneficial effects of exercise training in elderly people with CAD, integrating exercise stress testing, functional mobility, handgrip strength, and health-related quality of life. Elderly people with CAD were enrolled from the outpatient clinic of a cardiac rehabilitation unit in a medical center. Participants were assigned to the exercise training group (N = 21) or the usual care group (N = 15). A total of 36 sessions of exercise training, completed in 12 weeks, was prescribed. Echocardiography, exercise stress testing, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, and handgrip strength testing were performed, and the Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) was administered at baseline and at 12-week follow-up. Peak oxygen consumption improved significantly after training. The heart rate recovery improved from 13.90/minute to 16.62/minute after exercise training. Functional mobility and handgrip strength also improved after training. Significant improvements were found in SF-36 physical function, social function, role limitation due to emotional problems, and mental health domains. A significant correlation between dynamic cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters, the 6-minute walking test, Timed Up and Go test, handgrip strength, and SF-36 physical function and general health domains was also detected. Twelve-week, 36-session exercise training, including moderate-intensity cardiopulmonary exercise training, strengthening exercise, and balance training, is beneficial to elderly patients with CAD, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters correlate well with balance and quality of life. PMID:25438684

  6. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  7. Disability and Learning Outcomes: How Much Does the Disability Really Matter? Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom; Nguyen, Nhi

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) produced a statistical compendium examining vocational education and training (VET) students with a disability as a whole group; it also compared different disability groups, focusing on their participation levels, achievements and outcomes from VET in 2003 (Cavallaro et al.…

  8. Achieving urinary continence in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsi-Yang

    2010-07-01

    Achievement of urinary continence is an important developmental step that most children attain with the assistance of their parents and caregivers. Debate continues as to the best time to toilet train; in some Asian and African cultures children are trained as infants, while training at age 2-3 years is more typical in Western cultures. Infant voiding is not merely a spinal reflex, as the sensation of bladder filling is relayed to the brain. However, the ability of the brain to inhibit bladder contractions, and to achieve coordinated bladder contraction with sphincter relaxation, matures over time. While there is a concern that later toilet training may be responsible for an increase in urinary incontinence in children, no controlled studies on early versus late toilet training exist to evaluate this hypothesis. A number of medical conditions such as spina bifida, posterior urethral valves, cerebral palsy and autism can cause incontinence and difficulties in toilet training. The decision to start toilet training a child should take into account both the parents' expectation of how independent the child will be in terms of toileting, and the child's developmental readiness, so that a realistic time course for toilet training can be implemented.

  9. Working memory training in children: Effectiveness depends on temperament.

    PubMed

    Studer-Luethi, Barbara; Bauer, Catherine; Perrig, Walter J

    2016-02-01

    Studies revealing transfer effects of working memory (WM) training on non-trained cognitive performance of children hold promising implications for scholastic learning. However, the results of existing training studies are not consistent and provoke debates about the potential and limitations of cognitive enhancement. To examine the influence of individual differences on training outcomes is a promising approach for finding causes for such inconsistencies. In this study, we implemented WM training in an elementary school setting. The aim was to investigate near and far transfer effects on cognitive abilities and academic achievement and to examine the moderating effects of a dispositional and a regulative temperament factor, neuroticism and effortful control. Ninety-nine second-graders were randomly assigned to 20 sessions of computer-based adaptive WM training, computer-based reading training, or a no-contact control group. For the WM training group, our analyses reveal near transfer on a visual WM task, far transfer on a vocabulary task as a proxy for crystallized intelligence, and increased academic achievement in reading and math by trend. Considering individual differences in temperament, we found that effortful control predicts larger training mean and gain scores and that there is a moderation effect of both temperament factors on post-training improvement: WM training condition predicted higher post-training gains compared to both control conditions only in children with high effortful control or low neuroticism. Our results suggest that a short but intensive WM training program can enhance cognitive abilities in children, but that sufficient self-regulative abilities and emotional stability are necessary for WM training to be effective. PMID:26353877

  10. Working memory training in children: Effectiveness depends on temperament.

    PubMed

    Studer-Luethi, Barbara; Bauer, Catherine; Perrig, Walter J

    2016-02-01

    Studies revealing transfer effects of working memory (WM) training on non-trained cognitive performance of children hold promising implications for scholastic learning. However, the results of existing training studies are not consistent and provoke debates about the potential and limitations of cognitive enhancement. To examine the influence of individual differences on training outcomes is a promising approach for finding causes for such inconsistencies. In this study, we implemented WM training in an elementary school setting. The aim was to investigate near and far transfer effects on cognitive abilities and academic achievement and to examine the moderating effects of a dispositional and a regulative temperament factor, neuroticism and effortful control. Ninety-nine second-graders were randomly assigned to 20 sessions of computer-based adaptive WM training, computer-based reading training, or a no-contact control group. For the WM training group, our analyses reveal near transfer on a visual WM task, far transfer on a vocabulary task as a proxy for crystallized intelligence, and increased academic achievement in reading and math by trend. Considering individual differences in temperament, we found that effortful control predicts larger training mean and gain scores and that there is a moderation effect of both temperament factors on post-training improvement: WM training condition predicted higher post-training gains compared to both control conditions only in children with high effortful control or low neuroticism. Our results suggest that a short but intensive WM training program can enhance cognitive abilities in children, but that sufficient self-regulative abilities and emotional stability are necessary for WM training to be effective.

  11. Transforming the Academic Faculty Perspective in Graduate Medical Education to Better Align Educational and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S

    2016-04-01

    The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients.

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Family Employment Awareness Training Program: Expectations, Knowledge, Barriers, and Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities Who Have Individualized Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Grace L.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation consists of four individual, but related chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to competitive employment for people with disabilities who have individualized support needs and the Family Employment Awareness Training ("FEAT"). This chapter also provides a general overview of the other chapters in this…

  13. Simulation-based multiprofessional obstetric anaesthesia training conducted in situ versus off-site leads to similar individual and team outcomes: a randomised educational trial

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jette Led; van der Vleuten, Cees; Rosthøj, Susanne; Østergaard, Doris; LeBlanc, Vicki; Johansen, Marianne; Ekelund, Kim; Starkopf, Liis; Lindschou, Jane; Gluud, Christian; Weikop, Pia; Ottesen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of in situ simulation (ISS) versus off-site simulation (OSS) on knowledge, patient safety attitude, stress, motivation, perceptions of simulation, team performance and organisational impact. Design Investigator-initiated single-centre randomised superiority educational trial. Setting Obstetrics and anaesthesiology departments, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 100 participants in teams of 10, comprising midwives, specialised midwives, auxiliary nurses, nurse anaesthetists, operating theatre nurses, and consultant doctors and trainees in obstetrics and anaesthesiology. Interventions Two multiprofessional simulations (clinical management of an emergency caesarean section and a postpartum haemorrhage scenario) were conducted in teams of 10 in the ISS versus the OSS setting. Primary outcome Knowledge assessed by a multiple choice question test. Exploratory outcomes Individual outcomes: scores on the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, stress measurements (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, cognitive appraisal and salivary cortisol), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and perceptions of simulations. Team outcome: video assessment of team performance. Organisational impact: suggestions for organisational changes. Results The trial was conducted from April to June 2013. No differences between the two groups were found for the multiple choice question test, patient safety attitude, stress measurements, motivation or the evaluation of the simulations. The participants in the ISS group scored the authenticity of the simulation significantly higher than did the participants in the OSS group. Expert video assessment of team performance showed no differences between the ISS versus the OSS group. The ISS group provided more ideas and suggestions for changes at the organisational level. Conclusions In this randomised trial, no significant differences were found regarding knowledge, patient safety attitude, motivation or stress

  14. Enriching the Hierarchical Model of Achievement Motivation: Autonomous and Controlling Reasons Underlying Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between…

  15. Clinical outcomes and cardiovascular responses to exercise training in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dieberg, Gudrun; Ismail, Hashbullah; Giallauria, Francesco; Smart, Neil A

    2015-09-15

    Exercise training induces physical adaptations for heart failure patients with systolic dysfunction, but less is known about those patients with preserved ejection fraction. To establish whether exercise training produces changes in peak V̇o2 and related measures, quality of life, general health, and diastolic function in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction. We conducted a MEDLINE search (1985 to October 10, 2014), for exercise-based rehabilitation trials in heart failure, using search terms "exercise training, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, heart failure with normal ejection fraction, peak V̇o₂, and diastolic heart dysfunction". Seven intervention studies were included providing a total of 144 exercising subjects and 114 control subjects, a total of 258 participants. Peak V̇o₂ increased by a mean difference (MD) 2.13 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54 to 2.71, P < 0.00001] in exercise training vs. sedentary control, equating to a 17% improvement from baseline. The corresponding data are provided for the following exercise test variables: V̇e/V̇co₂ slope, MD 0.85 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) (95% CI 0.05 to 1.65, P = 0.04); maximum heart rate, MD 5.60 beats per minute (95% CI 3.95 to 7.25, P < 0.00001); Six-Minute Walk Test, MD 32.1 m (95% CI 17.2 to 47.1, P < 0.0001); and indices of diastolic function: E/A ratio, MD 0.07 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.12, P = 0.005); E/E' ratio MD -2.31 (95% CI -3.44 to -1.19, P < 0.0001); deceleration time (DT), MD -13.2 ms (95% CI -19.8 to -6.5, P = 0.0001); and quality of life: Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, MD -6.50 (95% CI -9.47 to -3.53, P < 0.0001); and short form-36 health survey (physical dimension), MD 15.6 (95% CI 7.4 to 23.8, P = 0.0002). In 3,744 h patient-hours of training, not one death was directly attributable to exercise. Exercise training appears to effect several health-related improvements in people with heart failure and preserved ejection

  16. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  17. Comparison of Online and Traditional Basic Life Support Renewal Training Methods for Registered Professional Nurses.

    PubMed

    Serwetnyk, Tara M; Filmore, Kristi; VonBacho, Stephanie; Cole, Robert; Miterko, Cindy; Smith, Caitlin; Smith, Charlene M

    2015-01-01

    Basic Life Support certification for nursing staff is achieved through various training methods. This study compared three American Heart Association training methods for nurses seeking Basic Life Support renewal: a traditional classroom approach and two online options. Findings indicate that online methods for Basic Life Support renewal deliver cost and time savings, while maintaining positive learning outcomes, satisfaction, and confidence level of participants. PMID:26580468

  18. Successful Family Engagement in the Classroom: What Teachers Need to Know and Be Able to Do to Engage Families in Raising Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberg, Lela

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that family engagement leads to increased student achievement, reduced drop-out rates, and a host of other positive outcomes for kids. Teachers are rarely trained or supported in engaging families, and, according to the 2005 MetLife Survey of the American Teacher, find family engagement to be their biggest challenge.…

  19. The classwide peer tutoring program: implementation factors moderating students' achievement.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, C R; Terry, B; Arreaga-Mayer, C; Finney, R

    1992-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to assess implementation of the classwide peer tutoring program and the relationship between implementation variation and student outcome. A clinical replication design was used. Five volunteer elementary teachers were trained to implement the program; their implementation was monitored for 19 consecutive weeks during 1 school year. Overall, the results indicated that specific variations in program implementation were associated with students' responses to treatment. It was also demonstrated that different teachers' applications of the program produced differential levels of student outcome. Implementation factors related to lower spelling achievement were (a) reduced opportunities to receive program sessions, (b) reduced probabilities of students' participation in program opportunities, (c) too many students assigned unchallenging spelling words, and (d) reduced rates of daily point earning reflecting lower levels of spelling practice during tutoring sessions. The implications of these findings and methods of preventing these implementation problems are discussed in the context of quality assurance and social validity. PMID:1582960

  20. Combined Cognitive Training vs. Memory Strategy Training in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Zhu, Xinyi; Hou, Jianhua; Chen, Tingji; Wang, Pengyun; Li, Juan

    2016-01-01

    As mnemonic utilization deficit in older adults associates with age-related decline in executive function, we hypothesized that memory strategy training combined with executive function training might induce larger training effect in memory and broader training effects in non-memory outcomes than pure memory training. The present study compared the effects of combined cognitive training (executive function training plus memory strategy training) to pure memory strategy training. Forty healthy older adults were randomly assigned to a combined cognitive training group or a memory strategy training group. A control group receiving no training was also included. Combined cognitive training group received 16 sessions of training (eight sessions of executive function training followed by eight sessions of memory strategy training). Memory training group received 16 sessions of memory strategy training. The results partly supported our hypothesis in that indeed improved performance on executive function was only found in combined training group, whereas memory performance increased less in combined training compared to memory strategy group. Results suggest that combined cognitive training may be less efficient than pure memory training in memory outcomes, though the influences from insufficient training time and less closeness between trained executive function and working memory could not be excluded; however it has broader training effects in non-memory outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn, identifier ChiCTR-OON-16007793. PMID:27375521