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Sample records for achieve true clinical

  1. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  2. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22753040

  4. Teriparatide: A Novel Means to Ultimately Achieve True Regeneration!!!

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Harpreet Singh; Luthra, Shailly; Maroo, Shruti

    2013-01-01

    “Perioceutics” or the use of the pharmacological agents which are specifically developed to manage periodontitis, is an interesting and an emerging aid in the management of periodontal diseases, along with mechanical debridement. Host modulation therapies are being proposed and developed to bring down excessive levels of enzymes, cytokines, prostanoids, as well modulate osteoclast functions. Over the past two decades, many drugs have been investigated for their host modulating properties in both animal and early human clinical studies. These agents include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sub antimicrobial dose doxycycline and systemic bisphosphonates. Recently, a new drug has been added to the list, namely, teriparatide, which is a bone forming drug. It is a biosynthetic human parathyroid hormone. Multiple clinical trials have shown that teriparatide is associated with increased bone mineral density. This review has focused on the mechanism of action of teriparatide and its potential role in the treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:24086927

  5. Clinical and Imaging Findings of True Hemifacial Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bhuta, Bansari A.; Desai, Rajiv S.; Bansal, Shivani P.; Chemburkar, Vipul V.; Dev, Prashant V.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital hemifacial hyperplasia is a rare developmental disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by a marked unilateral facial asymmetry. It involves the hard (bones and teeth) and soft tissues of the face. We report an interesting case of true hemifacial hyperplasia in a 25-year-old male highlighting the clinical and computed tomography imaging findings. PMID:24349801

  6. Differentiation of true anophthalmia from clinical anophthalmia using neuroradiological imaging.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Sasani, Hadi

    2014-07-28

    Anophthalmia is a condition of the absence of an eye and the presence of a small eye within the orbit. It is associated with many known syndromes. Clinical findings, as well as imaging modalities and genetic analysis, are important in making the diagnosis. Imaging modalities are crucial scanning methods. Cryptophthalmos, cyclopia, synophthalmia and congenital cystic eye should be considered in differential diagnoses. We report two clinical anophthalmic siblings, emphasizing the importance of neuroradiological and orbital imaging findings in distinguishing true congenital anophthalmia from clinical anophthalmia.

  7. True challenges of disposable optical fiber sensors for clinical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Éric; Hamel, Caroline

    2007-07-01

    Medical applications represent a unique chance of expansion for the optical fiber sensors (OFS) market that was confined so far mostly in niche applications where higher technological costs were justified by OFS distinctive advantages. Single use medical devices integrating OFS could however generate a significant growth for this type of technology. Thanks to cost reductions derived from the success of optical fiber used in the telecom industry, it is now possible to produce competitive disposable OFS for clinical environment. Cost reduction is nevertheless not the only challenge for this type of application: materials bio-compatibility and sterilization resistance, packaging issues, design considerations for end-user acceptance and operational simplicity, technology reliability including connectivity and sensor performances, manufacturing process monitoring and outstanding quality control, are among few of the problems that have to be considered to address correctly the complex medical market with successful disposable OFS devices. With a clear understanding of the needs and challenges of clinical applications, it is easier to respond to this reality and to offer commercially suitable solutions.

  8. True 3D chemical dosimetry (gels, plastics): Development and clinical role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of volumetric chemical dosimetry with Fricke gel dosimeters in the 1980s, three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry has been a promising technique for the clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for 3D dose measurement of the complex conformal dose distributions achieved by modern techniques such as Intensity Modulated and Volumetric Arc Radiation Therapy. In the last decade, the potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced by the development of improved 3D dosimeters such as normoxic polymer gel systems, radiochromic plastics (such as PRESAGE) and, recently, newer radiochromic gel dosimeters. Some of these new 3D dosimetry systems were enabled by the availability of optical computed tomography imaging systems for fast dose readout. However, despite its promise, true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community. Its use has been confined primarily to select centres of expertise and to specialised quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement. In this paper I review some of the current 3D chemical dosimeters available, discuss the requirements for their use and briefly review the roles that these systems can provide to complement the other dose delivery validation approaches available in the clinic. I conclude by describing two roles that may be uniquely served by 3D chemical dosimetry in end-to-end process testing and validation in the complex environment coming into play with the development of Image Guided Adaptive Radiation Therapy.

  9. True aneurysm of the facial artery. Report of a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Hampel Aljaro, H; Villanueva Maffei, J; Encina Moriámez, S

    2001-01-01

    Aneurysms are abnormal and localized dilations of a blood vessels presenting in any artery or vein of the body. They can be classified in false aneurysms, when the have a traumatic etiology, and in true aneurysms, when the vessel wall is weakened but containing all layers. True aneurysms are not much described in literature. We present a case of a 54 year old female patient with a true aneurysm of the facial vein, its surgical treatment and its final diagnosis. The clinical and pathological aspects of these kind of lesions and differential diagnosis with other similar lesions are discussed.

  10. Graduate Medical Education: Its Role in Achieving a True Medical Education Continuum.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrener, Carol A; Ast, Cori; Kirch, Darrell G

    2015-09-01

    Nearly half a century ago, Lowell T. Coggeshall recommended, through what has come to be known as the Coggeshall Report, that physician education-medical school (or undergraduate medical education [UME]), residency training (or graduate medical education [GME]), and continuing medical education (CME)-be "planned and provided as a continuum." While the dream of a true continuum remains unfulfilled, recent innovations focused on defining and assessing meaningful outcomes at last offer the anchor for the creation of a seamless, flexible, and ongoing pathway for the preparation of physicians. Recent innovations, including a widely accepted competency framework and entrustable professional activities (EPAs), provide key tools for creating a continuum. The competency framework is being leveraged in UME, GME, and CME and is serving as the foundation for the continuum. Learners and those who assess them are increasingly relying on observable behaviors (e.g., EPAs) to determine progress. The GME community in the United States and Canada has played-and continues to play-a leading role in the creation of these tools and a true medical education continuum. Despite some systemic challenges to implementation (e.g., premedical learner formation, time-in-step requirements), the GME community is already operationalizing these tools as a basis for other innovations that are improving transitions across the continuum (e.g., competency-based progression of residents). The medical education community's greatest responsibility in the years ahead will be to build on these efforts in GME-joining together to learn from one another and develop a continuum that serves the public and the profession. PMID:26177531

  11. Achievement of Specificational Information Usage with True and False Feedback in Learning a Visual Relative-Mass Discrimination Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runeson, Sverker; Andersson, Isabell E. K.

    2007-01-01

    Participants' usage of informational variables in learning visual relative-mass discrimination in collisions was tracked by means of PROBIT correlations. Four groups received feedback that was true or accorded with either of three nonspecificational cue variables. A majority in each group adopted the feedback, but several participants defied the…

  12. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  13. Improving International Research with Clinical Specimens: 5 Achievable Objectives

    PubMed Central

    LaBaer, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Our increased interest in translational research has created a large demand for blood, tissue and other clinical samples, which find use in a broad variety of research including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested internationally on the collection, storage and distribution of samples. Nevertheless, many researchers complain in frustration about their inability to obtain relevant and/or useful samples for their research. Lack of access to samples, poor condition of samples, and unavailability of appropriate control samples have slowed our progress in the study of diseases and biomarkers. In this editorial, I focus on five major challenges that thwart clinical sample use for translational research and propose near term objectives to address them. They include: (1) defining our biobanking needs; (2) increasing the use of and access to standard operating procedures; (3) mapping inter-observer differences for use in normalizing diagnoses; (4) identifying natural internal protein controls; and (5) redefining the clinical sample paradigm by building partnerships with the public. In each case, I believe that we have the tools at hand required to achieve the objective within 5 years. Potential paths to achieve these objectives are explored. However we solve these problems, the future of proteomics depends on access to high quality clinical samples, collected under standardized conditions, accurately annotated and shared under conditions that promote the research we need to do. PMID:22998582

  14. Different clinical electrodes achieve similar electrical nerve conduction block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, Adam; Bhadra, Narendra; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. We aim to evaluate the suitability of four electrodes previously used in clinical experiments for peripheral nerve electrical block applications. Approach. We evaluated peripheral nerve electrical block using three such clinical nerve cuff electrodes (the Huntington helix, the Case self-sizing Spiral and the flat interface nerve electrode) and one clinical intramuscular electrode (the Memberg electrode) in five cats. Amplitude thresholds for the block using 12 or 25 kHz voltage-controlled stimulation, onset response, and stimulation thresholds before and after block testing were determined. Main results. Complete nerve block was achieved reliably and the onset response to blocking stimulation was similar for all electrodes. Amplitude thresholds for the block were lowest for the Case Spiral electrode (4 ± 1 Vpp) and lower for the nerve cuff electrodes (7 ± 3 Vpp) than for the intramuscular electrode (26 ± 10 Vpp). A minor elevation in stimulation threshold and reduction in stimulus-evoked urethral pressure was observed during testing, but the effect was temporary and did not vary between electrodes. Significance. Multiple clinical electrodes appear suitable for neuroprostheses using peripheral nerve electrical block. The freedom to choose electrodes based on secondary criteria such as ease of implantation or cost should ease translation of electrical nerve block to clinical practice.

  15. Identification of Synergistic, Clinically Achievable, Combination Therapies for Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Diana; Kahen, Elliot; Cubitt, Christopher L.; McGuire, Jeremy; Kreahling, Jenny; Lee, Jae; Altiok, Soner; Lynch, Conor C.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Reed, Damon R.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic therapy has improved osteosarcoma event-free and overall survival, but 30–50% of patients originally diagnosed will have progressive or recurrent disease, which is difficult to cure. Osteosarcoma has a complex karyotype, with loss of p53 in the vast majority of cases and an absence of recurrent, targetable pathways. In this study, we explored 54 agents that are clinically approved for other oncologic indications, agents in active clinical development, and others with promising preclinical data in osteosarcoma at clinically achievable concentrations in 5 osteosarcoma cell lines. We found significant single-agent activity of multiple agents and tested 10 drugs in all permutations of two-drug combinations to define synergistic combinations by Chou and Talalay analysis. We then evaluated order of addition to choose the combinations that may be best to translate to the clinic. We conclude that the repurposing of chemotherapeutics in osteosarcoma by using an in vitro system may define novel drug combinations with significant in vivo activity. In particular, combinations of proteasome inhibitors with histone deacetylase inhibitors and ixabepilone and MK1775 demonstrated excellent activity in our assays. PMID:26601688

  16. Identification of Synergistic, Clinically Achievable, Combination Therapies for Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Diana; Kahen, Elliot; Cubitt, Christopher L; McGuire, Jeremy; Kreahling, Jenny; Lee, Jae; Altiok, Soner; Lynch, Conor C; Sullivan, Daniel M; Reed, Damon R

    2015-01-01

    Systemic therapy has improved osteosarcoma event-free and overall survival, but 30-50% of patients originally diagnosed will have progressive or recurrent disease, which is difficult to cure. Osteosarcoma has a complex karyotype, with loss of p53 in the vast majority of cases and an absence of recurrent, targetable pathways. In this study, we explored 54 agents that are clinically approved for other oncologic indications, agents in active clinical development, and others with promising preclinical data in osteosarcoma at clinically achievable concentrations in 5 osteosarcoma cell lines. We found significant single-agent activity of multiple agents and tested 10 drugs in all permutations of two-drug combinations to define synergistic combinations by Chou and Talalay analysis. We then evaluated order of addition to choose the combinations that may be best to translate to the clinic. We conclude that the repurposing of chemotherapeutics in osteosarcoma by using an in vitro system may define novel drug combinations with significant in vivo activity. In particular, combinations of proteasome inhibitors with histone deacetylase inhibitors and ixabepilone and MK1775 demonstrated excellent activity in our assays. PMID:26601688

  17. Achieving the World Health Organization's vision for clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jennifer H; Henry, David; Gray, Jean; Day, Richard; Bochner, Felix; Ferro, Albert; Pirmohamed, Munir; Mörike, Klaus; Schwab, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology is a medical specialty whose practitioners teach, undertake research, frame policy, give information and advice about the actions and proper uses of medicines in humans and implement that knowledge in clinical practice. It involves a combination of several activities: drug discovery and development, training safe prescribers, providing objective and evidence-based therapeutic information to ethics, regulatory and pricing bodies, supporting patient care in an increasingly subspecialized arena where co-morbidities, polypharmacy, altered pharmacokinetics and drug interactions are common and developing and contributing to medicines policies for Governments. Clinical pharmacologists must advocate drug quality and they must also advocate for sustainability of the Discipline. However for this they need appropriate clinical service and training support. This Commentary discusses strategies to ensure the Discipline is supported by teaching, training and policy organizations, to communicate the full benefits of clinical pharmacology services, put a monetary value on clinical pharmacology services and to grow the clinical pharmacology workforce to support a growing clinical, academic and regulatory need. PMID:26466826

  18. Intelligence and Academic Achievement in a Clinical Adolescent Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David W.; Morris, Linda

    1977-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with two related goals: (a) to examine the relationships between the WRAT and CAT, and (b) to examine the relationships which may exist between these academic achievement tests -nd a standard intelligence battery such as the Wechsler Scale. (Author)

  19. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this "knowing" or "being better at judging" is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts.

  20. Feedback and assessment for clinical placements: achieving the right balance

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Annette; Mellis, Craig

    2015-01-01

    During clinical placements, the provision of feedback forms an integral part of the learning process and enriches students’ learning experiences. The purpose of feedback is to improve the learner’s knowledge, skills, or behavior. Receipt of accurate feedback can help to narrow the gap between actual and desired performance. Effective and regular feedback has the potential to reinforce good practice and motivate the learner toward the desired outcome. Despite the obvious role of feedback in effective teaching and learning, a common complaint from students is that they do not receive adequate feedback. Unfortunately, skills in giving and receiving feedback are rarely taught to students or clinicians. This study aims to provide an understanding of the role of feedback within the learning process, consider consequences of inadequate or poorly given feedback, consider the barriers to the feedback process, provide practical guidelines for providing feedback, and consider the need for student and faculty development in feedback skills. PMID:26056511

  1. Facilitating cells: Translation of hematopoietic chimerism to achieve clinical tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ildstad, Suzanne T; Leventhal, Joseph; Wen, Yujie; Yolcu, Esma

    2015-04-01

    For over 50 y the association between hematopoietic chimerism and tolerance has been recognized. This originated with the brilliant observation by Dr. Ray Owen that freemartin cattle twins that shared a common placental blood supply were red blood cell chimeras, which led to the discovery that hematopoietic chimerism resulted in actively acquired tolerance. This was first confirmed in neonatal mice by Medawar et al. and subsequently in adult rodents. Fifty years later this concept has been successfully translated to solid organ transplant recipients in the clinic. The field is new, but cell-based therapies are being used with increasing frequency to induce tolerance and immunomodulation. The future is bright. This review focuses on chimerism and tolerance: past, present and prospects for the future.

  2. True User Involvement by People Living With HIV is Possible: Description of a User-driven HIV Clinic in Norway.

    PubMed

    Berg, Rigmor C; Gamst, Are; Said, Maryan; Aas, Kristin Bårdsen; Songe, Solveig Helene; Fangen, Kim; Rysstad, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Involvement of People Living with or Affected by HIV principle highlights the various contributions HIV-infected people can make in HIV program development and implementation. We present a unique example of how service users' involvement led to a complete organizational redesign of an outpatient HIV clinic in Southern Norway. We applied a user-driven, case study method, which showed that establishing a user board laid the foundation for the redesign process, as the board provided a clear infrastructure of user involvement and developed a set of user-defined targets for services. The main targets-optimal health, holistic care and treatment, and empowerment-were operationalized as a set of action points, such as establishing HIV nurse coordinators. While there is no single method for user involvement, we offer useful ideas that can help others develop an involvement project that is effective and sustainable.

  3. A True Metasurface Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Badawe, Mohamed El; Almoneef, Thamer S.; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a true metasurface antenna based on electrically-small resonators. The resonators are placed on a flat surface and connected to one feed point using corporate feed. Unlike conventional array antennas where the distance between adjacent antennas is half wavelength to reduce mutual coupling between adjacent antennas, here the distance between the radiating elements is electrically very small to affect good impedance matching of each resonator to its feed. A metasurface antenna measuring 1.2λ × 1.2λ and designed to operate at 3 GHz achieved a gain of 12 dBi. A prototype was fabricated and tested showing good agreement between numerical simulations and experimental results. Through numerical simulation, we show that the metasurface antenna has the ability to provide beam steering by phasing all the resonators appropriately. PMID:26759177

  4. High-fidelity simulation: Assessment of student nurses' team achievements of clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Karin; Bäckström, Britt; Häggström, Marie; Kristiansen, Lisbeth

    2016-07-01

    Nursing educators have the challenge of preparing nursing students to handle complex patient care situations in real life, but much remains unknown about the ability to make clinical judgments. In this study, high-fidelity simulation (HFS) was used at a Swedish university to find answers about pre-licensure nursing students' success in clinical judgment in terms of team ability and relationships with theoretical achievements, and personal and scenario circumstances. The matrix Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) was used to analyze and score the students' ability in teams to notice, interpret and respond to complex care situations. Overall, the results showed the student teams in their first meeting with HFS in a complex care situation achieved low clinical judgment points; most teams were in the stages of Beginning and Developing. For attaining high team achievements the majority of the students in the team should theoretically be "high performance". Being observers and having HFS experience before nursing education was significant too. However, age, health care experience, and assistant nurse degrees were of secondary importance. Further research at universities regionally, nationally, and internationally is needed. PMID:27428686

  5. "Making dreams come true"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    At an exciting stage in the evolution of the European Space Agency's Science Programme, Director-General Antonio Rodota and Director of Science Roger Bonnet will meet the press in ESA Head Office for a frank discussion of progress and problems. The Science Programme serves scientists in all of ESA's Member States, who want to do adventurous research in space of importance to all mankind. Making their dreams come true is more difficult in the face of recent cuts in the Programme's budget. Scientific boldness combined with administrative prudence nevertheless results in a series of current and future projects in which Europe can take pride. Highlights for discussion at the Press Conference will include: * MARS. In 2003, the newly approved mission Mars Express will make Europe's debut at the Red Planet, with innovative science at a very low cost. * THE SUN. SOHO is back in business after a nail-biting summer, Ulysses is heading for its second visit to the polar regions of the Sun, and Cluster II is on schedule for launch in 2000. * ASTRONOMY. Following the outstanding successes of ISO's infrared observations, completed this year, XMM and Integral are preparing to match its achievements by detecting X-rays and gamma-rays from the Universe. Journalists will also be updated about the status of Huygens (already en route for Titan), SMART-1 (new propulsion), Rosetta (comet mission), MiniSTEP (relativity), FIRST (far infra-red astronomy) and Planck (microwave background) -- as well as other adventurous missions under study.

  6. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  7. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  8. Clinical decision support systems for improving diagnostic accuracy and achieving precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Christian; Nalley, Kip; Mannion, Ciaran; Bhattacharyya, Pritish; Blake, Patrick; Pecora, Andrew; Goy, Andre; Suh, K Stephen

    2015-01-01

    As research laboratories and clinics collaborate to achieve precision medicine, both communities are required to understand mandated electronic health/medical record (EHR/EMR) initiatives that will be fully implemented in all clinics in the United States by 2015. Stakeholders will need to evaluate current record keeping practices and optimize and standardize methodologies to capture nearly all information in digital format. Collaborative efforts from academic and industry sectors are crucial to achieving higher efficacy in patient care while minimizing costs. Currently existing digitized data and information are present in multiple formats and are largely unstructured. In the absence of a universally accepted management system, departments and institutions continue to generate silos of information. As a result, invaluable and newly discovered knowledge is difficult to access. To accelerate biomedical research and reduce healthcare costs, clinical and bioinformatics systems must employ common data elements to create structured annotation forms enabling laboratories and clinics to capture sharable data in real time. Conversion of these datasets to knowable information should be a routine institutionalized process. New scientific knowledge and clinical discoveries can be shared via integrated knowledge environments defined by flexible data models and extensive use of standards, ontologies, vocabularies, and thesauri. In the clinical setting, aggregated knowledge must be displayed in user-friendly formats so that physicians, non-technical laboratory personnel, nurses, data/research coordinators, and end-users can enter data, access information, and understand the output. The effort to connect astronomical numbers of data points, including '-omics'-based molecular data, individual genome sequences, experimental data, patient clinical phenotypes, and follow-up data is a monumental task. Roadblocks to this vision of integration and interoperability include ethical, legal

  9. Predictive factors of true bacteremia and the clinical utility of blood cultures as a prognostic tool in patients with community-onset pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Hoo; Kim, Yee Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although blood cultures (BCs) are an important component of diagnostic practice for antibiotic management in patients with pneumonia, several studies have questioned whether they should be performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive factors of bacteremia and the role of BCs in patients with community-onset pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia and healthcare-associated pneumonia). This study was retrospectively conducted in patients with community-onset pneumonia who were hospitalized at Jeju National University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2014. A true bacteremia (TB) group and a contaminants or negative bacteremia (CNB) group were classified according to the bacterial growth on the BC media and were investigated for the clinical relevance of the BCs. We enrolled 785 patients; the TB group and the CNB group contained 36 patients (4.5%) and 749 (95.4%) patients, respectively. Only 10 patients (1.2%) required a change in antibiotic therapy based on the BC results (3 patients with an escalation, 7 with a de-escalation). There was no significant difference between the community-acquired pneumonia and the healthcare-associated pneumonia groups with regard to the rate of antibiotic change due to the BC results (1.1% vs 1.4%; P = 0.751). Chronic liver disease (odds ratio [OR] 2.973, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.099–8.037), a confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age ≥65 (CURB-65) score of 4 to 5 points (OR 3.484, 95% CI 1.304–9.307), and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) class V (OR 2.405, 95% CI 1.007–5.743) were independently associated with TB. In patients with PSI class V and a CURB-65 score of 4 to 5 points, the TB group tended to show a higher inhospital mortality rate than the CNB group (50.0% vs 29.4%; P = 0.060, 60.0% vs 42.5%; P = 0.480). The areas under the curve for PSI score and CURB-65 score for predicting TB revealed an increased tendency compared with that of C-reactive protein (0

  10. Using visual and narrative methods to achieve fair process in clinical care.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Laura S; Chilingerian, Jon A

    2011-02-16

    The Institute of Medicine has targeted patient-centeredness as an important area of quality improvement. A major dimension of patient-centeredness is respect for patient's values, preferences, and expressed needs. Yet specific approaches to gaining this understanding and translating it to quality care in the clinical setting are lacking. From a patient perspective quality is not a simple concept but is best understood in terms of five dimensions: technical outcomes; decision-making efficiency; amenities and convenience; information and emotional support; and overall patient satisfaction. Failure to consider quality from this five-pronged perspective results in a focus on medical outcomes, without considering the processes central to quality from the patient's perspective and vital to achieving good outcomes. In this paper, we argue for applying the concept of fair process in clinical settings. Fair process involves using a collaborative approach to exploring diagnostic issues and treatments with patients, explaining the rationale for decisions, setting expectations about roles and responsibilities, and implementing a core plan and ongoing evaluation. Fair process opens the door to bringing patient expertise into the clinical setting and the work of developing health care goals and strategies. This paper provides a step by step illustration of an innovative visual approach, called photovoice or photo-elicitation, to achieve fair process in clinical work with acquired brain injury survivors and others living with chronic health conditions. Applying this visual tool and methodology in the clinical setting will enhance patient-provider communication; engage patients as partners in identifying challenges, strengths, goals, and strategies; and support evaluation of progress over time. Asking patients to bring visuals of their lives into the clinical interaction can help to illuminate gaps in clinical knowledge, forge better therapeutic relationships with patients living

  11. Using visual and narrative methods to achieve fair process in clinical care.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Laura S; Chilingerian, Jon A

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has targeted patient-centeredness as an important area of quality improvement. A major dimension of patient-centeredness is respect for patient's values, preferences, and expressed needs. Yet specific approaches to gaining this understanding and translating it to quality care in the clinical setting are lacking. From a patient perspective quality is not a simple concept but is best understood in terms of five dimensions: technical outcomes; decision-making efficiency; amenities and convenience; information and emotional support; and overall patient satisfaction. Failure to consider quality from this five-pronged perspective results in a focus on medical outcomes, without considering the processes central to quality from the patient's perspective and vital to achieving good outcomes. In this paper, we argue for applying the concept of fair process in clinical settings. Fair process involves using a collaborative approach to exploring diagnostic issues and treatments with patients, explaining the rationale for decisions, setting expectations about roles and responsibilities, and implementing a core plan and ongoing evaluation. Fair process opens the door to bringing patient expertise into the clinical setting and the work of developing health care goals and strategies. This paper provides a step by step illustration of an innovative visual approach, called photovoice or photo-elicitation, to achieve fair process in clinical work with acquired brain injury survivors and others living with chronic health conditions. Applying this visual tool and methodology in the clinical setting will enhance patient-provider communication; engage patients as partners in identifying challenges, strengths, goals, and strategies; and support evaluation of progress over time. Asking patients to bring visuals of their lives into the clinical interaction can help to illuminate gaps in clinical knowledge, forge better therapeutic relationships with patients living

  12. Diabetic gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy: current status and new achievements for everyday clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gatopoulou, A; Papanas, N; Maltezos, E

    2012-09-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms occur frequently among patients with diabetes mellitus and are associated with considerable morbidity. Diabetic gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy represents a complex disorder with multifactorial pathogenesis, which is still not well understood. It appears to involve a spectrum of metabolic and cellular changes that affect gastrointestinal motor and sensory control. It may affect any organ in the digestive system. Clinical manifestations are often underestimated, and therefore autonomic neuropathy should be suspected in all diabetic patients with unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms. Advances in technology have now enabled assessment of gastrointestinal motor function. Moreover, novel pharmacological approaches, along with endoscopic and surgical treatment options, contribute to improved outcomes. This review summarises the progress achieved in diabetic gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy during the last years, focusing on clinical issues of practical importance to the everyday clinician. PMID:22863425

  13. The relationship between medical students’ epistemological beliefs and achievement on a clinical performance examination

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sun-A; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong; Kevin, Deiter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the relationship between clinical performance examination (CPX) achievement and epistemological beliefs to investigate the potentials of epistemological beliefs in ill-structured medical problem solving tasks. Methods: We administered the epistemological beliefs questionnaire (EBQ) to fourth-year medical students and correlated the results with their CPX scores. The EBQ comprised 61 items reflecting five belief systems: certainty of knowledge, source of knowledge, rigidity of learning, ability to learn, and speed of knowledge acquisition. The CPX included scores for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Results: The higher epistemological beliefs group obtained significantly higher scores on the CPX with regard to history taking and patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores on certainty of knowledge and source of knowledge were significantly positively correlated with patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores for ability to learn were significantly positively correlated with those for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Conclusion: Students with more sophisticated and advanced epistemological beliefs stances used more comprehensive and varied approaches in the patient-physician interaction. Therefore, educational efforts that encourage discussions pertaining to epistemological views should be considered to improve clinical reasoning and problem-solving competence in the clinic setting. PMID:26838566

  14. A Pharmacist-Staffed, Virtual Gout Management Clinic for Achieving Target Serum Uric Acid Levels: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldfien, Robert; Pressman, Alice; Jacobson, Alice; Ng, Michele; Avins, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Context: Relatively few patients with gout receive appropriate treatment. Objective: To determine whether a pharmacist-staffed gout management program is more effective than usual care in achieving target serum uric acid (sUA) levels in gout patients. Design: A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of a pharmacist-staffed, telephone-based program for managing hyperuricemia vs usual care. Trial duration was 26 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measure was achieving sUA levels at or below 6 mg/dL at the 26-week visit. Secondary outcome was mean change in sUA levels in the control and intervention groups. Participants were adults with recurrent gout and sUA levels above 6.0 mg/dL. Participants were randomly assigned to management by a clinical pharmacist following protocol or to monitoring of sUA levels but management of their gout by their usual treating physician. Results: Of 102 patients who met eligibility criteria, 77 subjects obtained a baseline sUA measurement and were entered into the trial. Among 37 participants in the intervention group, 13 (35%) had sUA levels at or below 6.0 mg/dL at 26 weeks, compared with 5 (13%) of 40 participants in the control group (risk ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 7.1, p = 0.03). The mean change in sUA levels among controls was +0.1 mg/dL compared with −1.5 mg/dL in the intervention group (sUA difference = −1.6, 95% CI = −0.9 to −2.4, p < 0.001). Conclusions: A structured pharmacist-staffed program was more effective than usual care for achieving target sUA levels. These results suggest a structured program could greatly improve gout management. PMID:27352414

  15. Pre-operative Thresholds for Achieving Meaningful Clinical Improvement after Arthroscopic Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U.; Fields, Kara G.; Nawabi, Danyal H.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Ranawat, Anil S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge of the thresholds and determinants for successful femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) treatment is evolving. The primary purpose of this study was to define pre-operative outcome score thresholds that can be used to predict patients most likely to achieve meaningful clinically important difference (MCID) after arthroscopic FAI treatment. Secondarily determinants of achieving MCID were evaluated. Methods: A prospective institutional hip arthroscopy registry was reviewed to identify patients with FAI treated with arthroscopic labral surgery, acetabular rim trimming, and femoral osteochondroplasty. The modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) and the international Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) tools were administered at baseline and at one year post-operatively. MCID was calculated using a distribution-based method. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate cohort-based threshold values predictive of achieving MCID. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to define predictive ability (strength of association) with AUC >0.7 considered acceptably predictive. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to analyze demographic, radiographic and intra-operative factors associated with achieving MCID. Results: There were 374 patients (mean + SD age, 32.9 + 10.5) and 56.4% were female. The MCID for mHHS, HOS activities of daily living (HOS-ADL), HOS Sports, and iHOT-33 was 8.2, 8.4,14.5, and 12.0 respectively. ROC analysis (threshold, % achieving MCID, strength of association) for these tools in our population was: mHHS (61.6, 78%, 0.68), HOS-ADL (83.8, 68%, 0.84), HOS-Sports (63.9, 64%, 0.74), and iHOT-33 (54.3, 82%, 0.65). Likelihood for achieving MCID declined above and increased below these thresholds. In univariate analysis female sex, femoral version, lower acetabular outerbridge score and increasing CT sagittal center edge angle (CEA) were predictive of achieving MCID. In multivariable analysis

  16. Lipid target achievement among patients with very high and high cardiovascular risk in a lipid clinic.

    PubMed

    Barkas, Fotios; Liberopoulos, Evangelos N; Kostapanos, Michael S; Liamis, George; Tziallas, Dimitrios; Elisaf, Moses

    2015-04-01

    This was a retrospective study that assessed achievement of lipid-lowering treatment targets in the setting of a University Hospital Lipid Clinic. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) and European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) guidelines was recorded in 1000 consecutive adult patients followed for ≥3 years (mean 8 years). The LDL-C targets according to the NCEP ATP III were attained by 66% and 86% of patients with "very high" (n = 477) and "high" (n = 408) cardiovascular risk, respectively. Fewer patients were within LDL-C goals according to the ESC/EAS guidelines: 25% and 42%. Overall, 92% of the patients were on statins: 67% were on statin monotherapy, while 33% were on combinations with ezetimibe (25%), ω-3 fatty acids (5%), fibrates (4%), or colesevelam (2%). Even in a specialist lipid clinic, a large proportion of patients are not at goal according to the recent ESC/EAS guidelines. PMID:24830420

  17. True ternary fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K. R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; von Oertzen, W.

    2015-04-01

    The study of the ternary fission of nuclei has received new interest recently. It is of general interest for nuclear dynamics, although the process is very rare. In the present work, we discuss the possibilities of true ternary fission (fragment masses A >30 ) in 252Cf for different mass splits. These mass splits are strongly favored in a collinear geometry. Based on the three cluster model (TCM), it is shown that the true ternary fission into fragments with almost equal masses is one of the possible fission modes in 252Cf . For general decays it is shown that the formation of the lightest fragment at the center has the highest probability. Further the formation of tin isotopes and/or other closed shell fragments are favored. For the decay products the presence of closed shell nuclei among the three fragments enhances the decay probabilities.

  18. What level of accuracy is achievable for preclinical dose painting studies on a clinical irradiation platform?

    PubMed

    Trani, Daniela; Reniers, Brigitte; Persoon, Lucas; Podesta, Mark; Nalbantov, Georgi; Leijenaar, Ralph T H; Granzier, Marlies; Yaromina, Ala; Dubois, Ludwig; Verhaegen, Frank; Lambin, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    in a rat tumor model on a clinical platform, with a high accuracy achieved in the delivery of complex dose distributions. Our work demonstrates the technical feasibility of this approach and enables future investigations on the therapeutic effect of preclinical dose painting strategies using a state-of-the-art clinical platform.

  19. NOTE: On the clinical spatial resolution achievable with protons and heavier charged particle radiotherapy beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreo, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    The 'sub-millimetre precision' often claimed to be achievable in protons and light ion beam therapy is analysed using the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT for a broad range of energies. Based on the range of possible values and uncertainties of the mean excitation energy of water and human tissues, as well as of the composition of organs and tissues, it is concluded that precision statements deserve careful reconsideration for treatment planning purposes. It is found that the range of I-values of water stated in ICRU reports 37, 49 and 73 (1984, 1993 and 2005) for the collision stopping power formulae, namely 67 eV, 75 eV and 80 eV, yields a spread of the depth of the Bragg peak of protons and heavier charged particles (carbon ions) of up to 5 or 6 mm, which is also found to be energy dependent due to other energy loss competing interaction mechanisms. The spread is similar in protons and in carbon ions having analogous practical range. Although accurate depth-dose distribution measurements in water can be used at the time of developing empirical dose calculation models, the energy dependence of the spread causes a substantial constraint. In the case of in vivo human tissues, where distribution measurements are not feasible, the problem poses a major limitation. In addition to the spread due to the currently accepted uncertainties of their I-values, a spread of the depth of the Bragg peak due to the varying compositions of soft tissues is also demonstrated, even for cases which could be considered practically identical in clinical practice. For these, the spreads found were similar to those of water or even larger, providing support to international recommendations advising that body-tissue compositions should not be given the standing of physical constants. The results show that it would be necessary to increase the margins of a clinical target volume, even in the case of a water phantom, due to an 'intrinsic basic physics uncertainty', adding to those margins usually

  20. [Clinical efficacy and achievement of a complete remission in depression: increasing interest in treatment with escitalopram].

    PubMed

    Favré, P

    2012-02-01

    Such a prevalent disease as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), associated with prominent impairment in physical and social functioning, implies as well an increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatments are required due to the frequent occurrence of relapses. Patient compliance is a core factor in both acute and continuation treatment, closely related to tolerability issues. We have partially reviewed the literature published on PubMed since 2004 which assess the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and comparator antidepressants in adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants. These analyses are in favor of a superior efficacy and tolerability of long-term escitalopram treatment (10 to 20mg/day) compared with active controls, including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (paroxetine, citalopram, bupropion, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline), serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (venlafaxine, milnacipran and duloxetine) and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) (mirtazapine). Cipriani et al. (2009) have performed a network meta-analysis of 12 new generation antidepressants. They have shown that clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants for both efficacy and acceptability in favor of escitalopram and sertraline in acute treatment, defined as 8-week treatment. Kasper et al. (2009) conducted a post-hoc pooled analysis of data from two 6-month randomized controlled trials that revealed superior efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram when compared with paroxetine. The pooled analysis of four randomized, double-blind, active comparator, 6-month trials in MDD, by Wade et al. (2009), showed that short-term outcomes may predict long-term treatment compliance and outcomes. A higher probability of achieving remission was associated with responding

  1. Achievable Convergence Angle and the Effect of Preparation Design on the Clinical Outcome of Full Veneer Crowns in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Soukup, Jason W.; Snyder, Christopher J.; Karls, Tina L.; Riehl, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Summary It is widely accepted that the convergence angle of a full veneer crown preparation should be as close to parallel as possible to attain adequate retention/resistance. The shape of the dog’s canine tooth limits the veterinary dentists’ ability to achieve the recommended convergence angle. However, the clinically achievable convergence angle of the canine tooth in dogs has not been evaluated. In addition, the convergence angle and other physical properties of a preparation, such as height and base diameter, have been shown to affect the retention/resistance of full veneer crowns, in vitro. This effect has not been evaluated clinically in the dog. Physical properties of 32 stone dies from full veneer crowns of canine teeth were studied to evaluate the clinically achievable convergence angle and the potential effect physical properties of the preparation had on the clinical outcome of the restoration. The clinically achievable convergence angle was much higher than the current recommendation. There was an association, albeit not statistically significant, between physical properties of a preparation (convergence angle, height, base diameter) and the clinical outcome of the restoration. PMID:21916370

  2. Is there an added clinical value of "true"whole body(18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with malignant melanoma?

    PubMed

    Tan, Julie C; Chatterton, Barry E

    2012-01-01

    Accurate and reliable staging of disease extent in patients with malignant MM is essential to ensure appropriate treatment planning. The detection of recurrent or residual malignancy after primary treatment is important to allow for early intervention and to optimise patient survival. 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET or PET computed tomography (PET/CT) is indicated for surveillance of malignant MM due to its high sensitivity and specificity for soft-tissue or nodal recurrences and metastases. It has been claimed that including lower extremities and skull in addition to 'eyes to thigh' images in PET/CT evaluation of metastatic MM routinely is warranted. We have studied retrospectively the reports of whole-body PET/CT scans in all patients with MM scanned in our Department from April 2005 to December 2010. All PET abnormalities in the brain/scalp and lower extremities were tabulated by location and whether they were 'expected' or 'unexpected'. Findings were correlated with pathology, other imaging studies, and clinical follow-up. In this study, 398 PET/CT examinations in 361 patients with MM were included. Results showed that twelve of the 398 (3%) scans had brain/scalp abnormalities, with only 4 (1.0%) showing unexpected abnormalities. Twenty nine of the 398 (7.2%) scans showed lower extremity abnormalities, with only 5 (1.2%) showing unexpected abnormalities. In no case was an isolated unexpected malignant lesion identified in the brain/scalp or lower extremities. In conclusion, whole body PET/CT scan showed about 1% unexpected primary or metastatic MM lesions involving the head or lower extremities, which seldom offered significant additional clinical benefit and were unlikely to change clinical management. No clinically significant change in staging would have occurred. Routine 'eyes to thighs' images were adequate for this subset of patients. PMID:23106051

  3. True Colors Shining Through

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic illustrates how scientists use the color calibration targets (upper left) located on both Mars Exploration Rovers to fine-tune the rovers' sense of color. In the center, spectra, or light signatures, acquired in the laboratory of the colored chips on the targets are shown as lines. Actual data from Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera is mapped on top of these lines as dots. The plot demonstrates that the observed colors of Mars match the colors of the chips, and thus approximate the red planet's true colors. This finding is further corroborated by the picture taken on Mars of the calibration target, which shows the colored chips as they would appear on Earth.

  4. Evaluation of preceptors and skills achievement by clinical pharmacy clerkship students during their clinical rotations at University of Gondar, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Getachew, Henok; Tefera, Yonas Getaye

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the overall experiences of clinical pharmacy students during their clinical attachments and to understand the breadth and depth of clinical skills provided by their preceptors. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire containing 34 items to obtain feedback from the clerkship students from June to July 2015. Data analysis was performed to calculate mean, standard deviation, percentages, and multiple logistic regression using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software Version 22. Statistical significance was set at P<0.01. Results All 58 clerkship students actively participated in the study, yielding a response rate of 100%. While students ranked their clerkship experience as moderate, >15% remarked that they did not receive enough opportunities to hone their pharmaceutical care documentation skills. A relatively high percentage of students (32.8%) strongly agreed that their preceptors had provided ample opportunity to discuss the patient problems at the bedside and encouraged them to express their opinions regarding patients’ drug therapeutic issues. This study also revealed that students’ continuity in developing their therapeutic and disease process knowledge was significantly associated with the preceptor’s ability to provide adequate training and orientation (P =0.01), engagement in clinical pharmacy activities (P =0.01), regular review of students’ work (P =0.01), and instruction to students before entering clinical sites (P =0.00). Conclusion The findings of this study reveal that a majority of the students were moderately satisfied with the clinical training program and preceptors need to demonstrate effective pharmaceutical care processes in their clinical sites. PMID:27099540

  5. A hybrid approach to achieving both marginal and conditional balances for stratification variables in sequential clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunzhi; Su, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Various methods exist in the literature for achieving marginal balance for baseline stratification variables in sequential clinical trials. One major limitation with balancing on the margins of the stratification variables is that there is an efficiency loss when the primary analysis is stratified. To preserve the efficiency of a stratified analysis one recently proposed approach balances on the crossing of the stratification variables included in the analysis, which achieves conditional balance for the variables. A hybrid approach to achieving both marginal and conditional balances in sequential clinical trials is proposed, which is applicable to both continuous and categorical stratification variables. Numerical results based on extensive simulation studies and a real dataset show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing ones and is particularly useful when both additive and stratified models are planned for a trial.

  6. Paving the critical path: how can clinical pharmacology help achieve the vision?

    PubMed

    Lesko, L J

    2007-02-01

    It has been almost 3 years since the launch of the FDA critical path initiative following the publication of the paper "Innovation or Stagnation: Challenges and Opportunities on the Critical Path of New Medical Product Development." The initiative was intended to create an urgency with the drug development enterprise to address the so-called "productivity problem" in modern drug development. Clinical pharmacologists are strategically aligned with solutions designed to reduce late phase clinical trial failures to show adequate efficacy and/or safety. This article reviews some of the ways that clinical pharmacologists can lead and implement change in the drug development process. It includes a discussion of model-based, semi-mechanistic drug development, drug/disease models that facilitate informed clinical trial designs and optimal dosing, the qualification process and criteria for new biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, approaches to streamlining clinical trials and new types of interaction between industry and FDA such as the end-of-phase 2A and voluntary genomic data submission meetings respectively. PMID:17259944

  7. Randomization in clinical trials in orthodontics: its significance in research design and methods to achieve it.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2011-12-01

    Randomization is a key step in reducing selection bias during the treatment allocation phase in randomized clinical trials. The process of randomization follows specific steps, which include generation of the randomization list, allocation concealment, and implementation of randomization. The phenomenon in the dental and orthodontic literature of characterizing treatment allocation as random is frequent; however, often the randomization procedures followed are not appropriate. Randomization methods assign, at random, treatment to the trial arms without foreknowledge of allocation by either the participants or the investigators thus reducing selection bias. Randomization entails generation of random allocation, allocation concealment, and the actual methodology of implementing treatment allocation randomly and unpredictably. Most popular randomization methods include some form of restricted and/or stratified randomization. This article introduces the reasons, which make randomization an integral part of solid clinical trial methodology, and presents the main randomization schemes applicable to clinical trials in orthodontics.

  8. Relationships between Preferred Learning and Clinical Achievement of Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Norma Neahr

    Paper presented at the Regional achievement in a nursing course in an integrated curriculum were studied. The theoretical framework was based on Kolb's model of experiential learning, which posited four phases: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was…

  9. Nuclear imaging of the breast: Translating achievements in instrumentation into clinical use

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Carrie B.; O'Connor, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Approaches to imaging the breast with nuclear medicine and/or molecular imaging methods have been under investigation since the late 1980s when a technique called scintimammography was first introduced. This review charts the progress of nuclear imaging of the breast over the last 20 years, covering the development of newer techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging, molecular breast imaging, and positron emission mammography. Key issues critical to the adoption of these technologies in the clinical environment are discussed, including the current status of clinical studies, the efforts at reducing the radiation dose from procedures associated with these technologies, and the relevant radiopharmaceuticals that are available or under development. The necessary steps required to move these technologies from bench to bedside are also discussed. PMID:23635248

  10. Nuclear imaging of the breast: Translating achievements in instrumentation into clinical use

    SciTech Connect

    Hruska, Carrie B.; O'Connor, Michael K.

    2013-05-15

    Approaches to imaging the breast with nuclear medicine and/or molecular imaging methods have been under investigation since the late 1980s when a technique called scintimammography was first introduced. This review charts the progress of nuclear imaging of the breast over the last 20 years, covering the development of newer techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging, molecular breast imaging, and positron emission mammography. Key issues critical to the adoption of these technologies in the clinical environment are discussed, including the current status of clinical studies, the efforts at reducing the radiation dose from procedures associated with these technologies, and the relevant radiopharmaceuticals that are available or under development. The necessary steps required to move these technologies from bench to bedside are also discussed.

  11. Achieving clinical statement interoperability using R-MIM and archetype-based semantic transformations.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Ozgur; Dogac, Asuman

    2009-07-01

    Effective use of electronic healthcare records (EHRs) has the potential to positively influence both the quality and the cost of health care. Consequently, sharing patient's EHRs is becoming a global priority in the healthcare information technology domain. This paper addresses the interoperability of EHR structure and content. It describes how two different EHR standards derived from the same reference information model (RIM) can be mapped to each other by using archetypes, refined message information model (R-MIM) derivations, and semantic tools. It is also demonstrated that well-defined R-MIM derivation rules help tracing the class properties back to their origins when the R-MIMs of two EHR standards are derived from the same RIM. Using well-defined rules also enable finding equivalences in the properties of the source and target EHRs. Yet an R-MIM still defines the concepts at the generic level. Archetypes (or templates), on the other hand, constrain an R-MIM to domain-specific concepts, and hence, provide finer granularity semantics. Therefore, while mapping clinical statements between EHRs, we also make use of the archetype semantics. Derivation statements are inferred from the Web Ontology Language definitions of the RIM, the R-MIMs, and the archetypes. Finally, we show how to transform Health Level Seven clinical statement instances to EHRcom clinical statement instances and vice versa by using the generated mapping definitions.

  12. Achieving collaboration in ethical decision making: strategies for nurses in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Wocial, L D

    1996-01-01

    Ethical decision making is a process that combines justice and caring in moral reflection to select sound choices. Nurses and physicians often have different perspectives on how to resolve ethical dilemmas. Satisfactory resolution depends on overcoming conflict and achieving collaboration between members of the health care team. Conflict can occur on a number of different levels. For example, it can be between nurses, nurses and physicians or the entire health care team and the patient. This article helps prepare critical care nurses to handle ethical dilemmas in crisis situations by providing them with specific strategies that help promote collaboration in resolving ethical dilemmas. PMID:8715871

  13. Nutrition and education. IV. Clinical signs of malnutrition and its relationship with socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietetic and educational achievement parameters.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic Marincovich, D

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of clinical signs of malnutrition, and to measure the interrelationship with socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietetic and educational achievement parameters. A random sample of 550 Chilean elementary and high school graduates (1:1), of both sexes (1:1), from public and private schools (1:1) and from high, medium and low socioeconomic status (SES) (1:1:1), was chosen in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile. SES was measured through the Graffar Modified Scale. Clinical signs of malnutrition were assessed according to Jelliffe. Nutritional status was determined by means of anthropometric measurements: percentages of weight/age (W/A), height/age (H/A) and weight for height (W/H) were compared with the WHO Tables; head circumference/age (HC/A) with the Tanner Tables, and branchial anthropometric parameters by applying the Frisancho norms. Standard procedures for the 24 hour dietary recall interviews were used to collect data, and adequacy of intake was assessed by the FAO/WHO pattern. Educational achievement (EA) was measured through the Achievement Evaluation Program, (AEP) and Academic Aptitude Test (AAT) in elementary and high school graduates, respectively. Results showed that apart from caries (87.5%), most prevalent clinical signs of malnutrition were dermatosis (13.4%), follicular hyperkeratosis type I (13.2%), nasolabial dyssebacea (7.9%), lustreless hair (7.7%), angular stomatitis (4.4%) and cheilosis (2.7%). The number of clinical signs of malnutrition was found inversely and significantly associated with SES, H/A, vitamin A and calcium intake, as well as with EA, besides registering a lower nutrient intake, specially for energy, riboflavin and niacin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Towards Achieving the Full Clinical Potential of Proton Therapy by Inclusion of LET and RBE Models

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bleddyn

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing use of proton therapy (PBT), several systematic literature reviews show limited gains in clinical outcomes, with publications mostly devoted to recent technical developments. The lack of randomised control studies has also hampered progress in the acceptance of PBT by many oncologists and policy makers. There remain two important uncertainties associated with PBT, namely: (1) accuracy and reproducibility of Bragg peak position (BPP); and (2) imprecise knowledge of the relative biological effect (RBE) for different tissues and tumours, and at different doses. Incorrect BPP will change dose, linear energy transfer (LET) and RBE, with risks of reduced tumour control and enhanced toxicity. These interrelationships are discussed qualitatively with respect to the ICRU target volume definitions. The internationally accepted proton RBE of 1.1 was based on assays and dose ranges unlikely to reveal the complete range of RBE in the human body. RBE values are not known for human (or animal) brain, spine, kidney, liver, intestine, etc. A simple efficiency model for estimating proton RBE values is described, based on data of Belli et al. and other authors, which allows linear increases in α and β with LET, with a gradient estimated using a saturation model from the low LET α and β radiosensitivity parameter input values, and decreasing RBE with increasing dose. To improve outcomes, 3-D dose-LET-RBE and bio-effectiveness maps are required. Validation experiments are indicated in relevant tissues. Randomised clinical studies that test the invariant 1.1 RBE allocation against higher values in late reacting tissues, and lower tumour RBE values in the case of radiosensitive tumours, are also indicated. PMID:25790470

  15. Achieving a True Multicultural Focus in Today's Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Karen D.

    1994-01-01

    Academic multiculturalism, an emerging educational trend, is a one-dimensional approach that adds a list of admirable persons of color to the existing curriculum. Political multiculturalism opens the curriculum to analysis and reconstruction of historical power struggles, including the social conditions and inequitable power relations behind…

  16. Fostering Dental Students' Academic Achievements and Reflection Skills Through Clinical Peer Assessment and Feedback.

    PubMed

    Tricio, Jorge A; Woolford, Mark J; Escudier, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Peer assessment is increasingly being encouraged to enhance dental students' learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational impact in terms of academic achievements and reflective thinking of a formative prospective peer assessment and feedback protocol. Volunteer final-year dental students at King's College London Dental Institute, UK, received training on peer assessment, peer feedback, and self-reflection. At the beginning (baseline) and end (resultant) of the 2012-13 academic year, 86 students (55% of the year group) completed a reflection questionnaire (RQ). Sixty-eight of those students used a modified Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) as a framework for peer assessment and peer feedback during a complete academic year. End-of-year, high-stakes examination grades and RQ scores from the participants and nonparticipants were statistically compared. The participants completed 576 peer DOPS. Those 22 students who peer assessed each other ≥10 times exhibited highly statistically significant differences and powerful positive effect sizes in their high-stakes exam grades (p=0.0001, d=0.74) and critical reflection skills (p=0.005, d=1.41) when compared to those who did not assess one another. Furthermore, only the same 22 students showed a statistically significant increase and positive effect size in their critical reflection skills from baseline to resultant (p=0.003, d=1.04). The results of this study suggest that the protocol used has the potential to impact dental students' academic and reflection skills, provided it is practiced in ten or more peer encounters and ensuring peer feedback is provided followed by self-reflection. PMID:27480702

  17. Fostering Dental Students' Academic Achievements and Reflection Skills Through Clinical Peer Assessment and Feedback.

    PubMed

    Tricio, Jorge A; Woolford, Mark J; Escudier, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Peer assessment is increasingly being encouraged to enhance dental students' learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational impact in terms of academic achievements and reflective thinking of a formative prospective peer assessment and feedback protocol. Volunteer final-year dental students at King's College London Dental Institute, UK, received training on peer assessment, peer feedback, and self-reflection. At the beginning (baseline) and end (resultant) of the 2012-13 academic year, 86 students (55% of the year group) completed a reflection questionnaire (RQ). Sixty-eight of those students used a modified Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) as a framework for peer assessment and peer feedback during a complete academic year. End-of-year, high-stakes examination grades and RQ scores from the participants and nonparticipants were statistically compared. The participants completed 576 peer DOPS. Those 22 students who peer assessed each other ≥10 times exhibited highly statistically significant differences and powerful positive effect sizes in their high-stakes exam grades (p=0.0001, d=0.74) and critical reflection skills (p=0.005, d=1.41) when compared to those who did not assess one another. Furthermore, only the same 22 students showed a statistically significant increase and positive effect size in their critical reflection skills from baseline to resultant (p=0.003, d=1.04). The results of this study suggest that the protocol used has the potential to impact dental students' academic and reflection skills, provided it is practiced in ten or more peer encounters and ensuring peer feedback is provided followed by self-reflection.

  18. A True Training Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowack, Kenneth M.

    1991-01-01

    Employees often want training in areas that are irrelevant to their jobs or inconsistent with organizational objectives. A well-designed questionnaire can weed out training wants to uncover an employee's true training needs. (Author)

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 12: Implementation of a Clinical Lung Tumour High Dose Containment Verification Procedure using Respiratory Cone-Beam CT (4DCBCT) on a Varian TrueBeam Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, J.; Bergman, A.

    2014-08-15

    Lung tumours move due to respiratory motion. This is managed during planning by acquiring a 4DCT and capturing the excursion of the GTV (gross tumour volume) throughout the breathing cycle within an IGTV (Internal Gross Tumour Volume) contour. Patients undergo a verification cone-beam CT (CBCT) scan immediately prior to treatment. 3D reconstructed images do not consider tumour motion, resulting in image artefacts, such as blurring. This may lead to difficulty in identifying the tumour on reconstructed images. It would be valuable to create a 4DCBCT reconstruction of the tumour motion to confirm that does indeed remain within the planned IGTV. CBCT projections of a Quasar Respiratory Motion Phantom are acquired in Treatment mode (half-fan scan) on a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. This phantom contains a mobile, low-density lung insert with an embedded 3cm diameter tumour object. It is programmed to create a 15s periodic, 2cm (sup/inf) displacement. A Varian Real-time Position Management (RPM) tracking-box is placed on the phantom breathing platform. Breathing phase information is automatically integrated into the projection image files. Using in-house Matlab programs and RTK (Reconstruction Tool Kit) open-source toolboxes, the projections are re-binned into 10 phases and a 4DCBCT scan reconstructed. The planning IGTV is registered to the 4DCBCT and the tumour excursion is verified to remain within the planned contour. This technique successfully reconstructs 4DCBCT images using clinical modes for a breathing phantom. UBC-BCCA ethics approval has been obtained to perform 4DCBCT reconstructions on lung patients (REB#H12-00192). Clinical images will be accrued starting April 2014.

  20. Exemplary Care and Learning Sites: A Model for Achieving Continual Improvement in Care and Learning in the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ogrinc, Greg; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Stevenson, Katherine M.; Shalaby, Marc; Beard, Albertine S.; Thörne, Karin E.; Coleman, Mary T.; Baum, Karyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Problem Current models of health care quality improvement do not explicitly describe the role of health professions education. The authors propose the Exemplary Care and Learning Site (ECLS) model as an approach to achieving continual improvement in care and learning in the clinical setting. Approach From 2008–2012, an iterative, interactive process was used to develop the ECLS model and its core elements—patients and families informing process changes; trainees engaging both in care and the improvement of care; leaders knowing, valuing, and practicing improvement; data transforming into useful information; and health professionals competently engaging both in care improvement and teaching about care improvement. In 2012–2013, a three-part feasibility test of the model, including a site self-assessment, an independent review of each site’s ratings, and implementation case stories, was conducted at six clinical teaching sites (in the United States and Sweden). Outcomes Site leaders reported the ECLS model provided a systematic approach toward improving patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. Most sites found it challenging to incorporate the patients and families element. The trainee element was strong at four sites. The leadership and data elements were self-assessed as the most fully developed. The health professionals element exhibited the greatest variability across sites. Next Steps The next test of the model should be prospective, linked to clinical and educa tional outcomes, to evaluate whether it helps care delivery teams, educators, and patients and families take action to achieve better patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. PMID:26760058

  1. "True enough" formulations: the MAPS approach.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Clinical case formulation is at the core of competent care. When appropriately constructed it is grounded in best practices and serves as an explanatory model, a prescriptive road map, and a yardstick for all interventions. Despite the key role of formulations, many clinicians struggle with their construction and usage. The author offers a new model described as the MAPS approach. This framework, which is pragmatic, driven by clinical data, and process oriented, helps clinicians develop a "true enough" core formulation focusing on the most salient clinical elements that must be addressed. Its graphic nature helps reinforce the interrelated systems nature of psychiatric work and directs the clinician to a restricted number of specific areas that both inform the "core formulation" and serve as the targets for care. This comprehensive model, which includes evaluation, formulation, treatment planning, and treatment monitoring, readily complements and dovetails with the full range of treatment approaches.

  2. Two flavonolignans from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) inhibit CYP2C9-mediated warfarin metabolism at clinically achievable concentrations.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Scott J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Kroll, David J; Paine, Mary F

    2010-03-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a popular herbal product used for hepatoprotection and chemoprevention. Two commercially available formulations are the crude extract, silymarin, and the semipurified product, silibinin. Silymarin consists of at least seven flavonolignans, of which the most prevalent are the diastereoisomers silybin A and silybin B; silibinin consists only of silybin A and silybin B. Based on a recent clinical study showing an interaction between a silymarin product and the CYP2C9 substrate losartan, the CYP2C9 inhibition properties of silybin A and silybin B and corresponding regioisomers, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, were evaluated using human liver microsomes (HLMs), recombinant CYP2C9 (rCYP2C9) enzymes, and the clinically relevant probe, (S)-warfarin. Silybin B was the most potent inhibitor in HLMs, followed by silybin A, isosilybin B, and isosilybin A (IC(50) of 8.2, 18, 74, and >100 microM, respectively). Next, silybin A and silybin B were selected for further characterization. As with HLMs, silybin B was more potent than silybin A toward rCYP2C9 1 (6.7 versus 12 microM), rCYP2C9 2 (9.3 versus 19 microM), and rCYP2C9 3 (2.4 versus 9.3 microM). Using a matrix of five substrate (1-15 microM) and six inhibitor (1-80 microM) concentrations and HLMs, both diastereoisomers inhibited (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in a manner described best by a mixed-type inhibition model (K(i) values of 4.8 and 10 microM for silybin B and silybin A, respectively). These observations, combined with the high systemic silibinin concentrations (>5-75 microM) achieved in a phase I study involving prostate cancer patients, prompt clinical evaluation of a potential warfarin-milk thistle interaction.

  3. Two Flavonolignans from Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Inhibit CYP2C9-Mediated Warfarin Metabolism at Clinically Achievable Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Kroll, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a popular herbal product used for hepatoprotection and chemoprevention. Two commercially available formulations are the crude extract, silymarin, and the semipurified product, silibinin. Silymarin consists of at least seven flavonolignans, of which the most prevalent are the diastereoisomers silybin A and silybin B; silibinin consists only of silybin A and silybin B. Based on a recent clinical study showing an interaction between a silymarin product and the CYP2C9 substrate losartan, the CYP2C9 inhibition properties of silybin A and silybin B and corresponding regioisomers, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, were evaluated using human liver microsomes (HLMs), recombinant CYP2C9 (rCYP2C9) enzymes, and the clinically relevant probe, (S)-warfarin. Silybin B was the most potent inhibitor in HLMs, followed by silybin A, isosilybin B, and isosilybin A (IC50 of 8.2, 18, 74, and >100 μM, respectively). Next, silybin A and silybin B were selected for further characterization. As with HLMs, silybin B was more potent than silybin A toward rCYP2C9*1 (6.7 versus 12 μM), rCYP2C9*2 (9.3 versus 19 μM), and rCYP2C9*3 (2.4 versus 9.3 μM). Using a matrix of five substrate (1–15 μM) and six inhibitor (1–80 μM) concentrations and HLMs, both diastereoisomers inhibited (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in a manner described best by a mixed-type inhibition model (Ki values of 4.8 and 10 μM for silybin B and silybin A, respectively). These observations, combined with the high systemic silibinin concentrations (>5–75 μM) achieved in a phase I study involving prostate cancer patients, prompt clinical evaluation of a potential warfarin-milk thistle interaction. PMID:19934397

  4. An alternative clinical approach to achieve greater anterior than posterior maxillary expansion in cleft lip and palate patients.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; Bartolomeo, Flávia Uchôa Costa; Cardinal, Lucas; Figueiredo, Daniel Santos Fonseca; Palomo, Juan Martin; Andrade, Ildeu

    2014-11-01

    Cleft lip and palate patients commonly present maxillary constriction, particularly in the anterior region. The aim of this case report was to describe an alternative clinical approach that used a smaller Hyrax screw unconventionally positioned to achieve greater anterior than posterior expansion in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate. The idea presented here is to take advantage of a reduced dimension screw to position it anteriorly. When only anterior expansion was needed (patient 1), the appliance was soldered to the first premolar bands and associated to a transpalatal arch cemented to the first molars. However, when overall expansion was required (patient 2), the screw was positioned anteriorly, but soldered to the first molar bands. Intercanine, premolar, and first molar widths were measured on dental casts with a digital caliper. Pre-expansion and postexpansion radiographs and tomographies were also evaluated. A significant anterior expansion and no intermolar width increase were registered in the first patient. Although patient 2 also presented a greater anterior than posterior expansion, a noteworthy expansion occurred at the molar region. The alternative approach to expand the maxilla in cleft patients reported here caused greater anterior than posterior expansion when the Mini-Hyrax was associated to a transpalatal arch, and its reduced dimension also minimized discomfort and facilitated hygiene.

  5. True anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jia-yue; Zhang, Wei; An, Ji-long; Sun, Ya-peng; Ding, Wen-yuan; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) surgery in the treatment of degenerative disc disease of lumbar spine in spinal surgery highlights the gradual decrease in the use of traditional pedicle screw insertion technology. This study aims to analyze the accuracy of the true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery, compare it with conventional pedicle screw insertion technology, and discuss its clinical application value. Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing true anteroposterior view (group A) and 87 patients undergoing conventional pedicle screw insertion (group B) were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis. Time for screw placement, intraoperative irradiation exposure, accuracy rate of pedicle screw insertion, and incidence of neurovascular injury were compared between the two groups. Results The time for screw placement and intraoperative irradiation exposure was significantly less in group A. Penetration rates of the paries lateralis of vertebral pedicle, medial wall of vertebral pedicle, and anterior vertebral wall were 1.44%, 0%, and 2.40%, respectively, all of which were significantly lower than that in group B. No additional serious complications caused by the placement of screw were observed during the follow-up period in patients in group A, but two patients with medial penetration underwent revision for unbearable radicular pain. Conclusion The application of true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery shortens time for screw placement and reduces the intraoperative irradiation exposure along with a higher accuracy rate of screw placement, which makes it a safe, accurate, and efficient technique. PMID:27418828

  6. Busulphan is active against neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts in athymic mice at clinically achievable plasma drug concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Boland, I; Vassal, G; Morizet, J; Terrier-Lacombe, M-J; Valteau-Couanet, D; Kalifa, C; Hartmann, O; Gouyette, A

    1999-01-01

    High-dose busulphan-containing chemotherapy regimens have shown high response rates in children with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma and medulloblastoma. However, the anti-tumour activity of busulfan as a single agent remains to be defined, and this was evaluated in athymic mice bearing advanced stage subcutaneous paediatric solid tumour xenografts. Because busulphan is highly insoluble in water, the use of several vehicles for enteral and parenteral administration was first investigated in terms of pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The highest bioavailability was obtained with busulphan in DMSO administered i.p. When busulphan was suspended in carboxymethylcellulose and given orally or i.p., the bioavailability was poor. Then, in the therapeutic experiments, busulphan in DMSO was administered i.p. on days 0 and 4. At the maximum tolerated total dose (50 mg kg−1), busulphan induced a significant tumour growth delay, ranging from 12 to 34 days in the three neuroblastomas evaluated and in one out of three medulloblastomas. At a dose level above the maximum tolerated dose, busulphan induced complete and partial tumour regressions. Busulphan was inactive in a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) xenograft. When busulphan pharmacokinetics in mice and humans were considered, the estimated systemic exposure at the therapeutically active dose in mice (113 μg h ml−1) was close to the mean total systemic exposure in children receiving high-dose busulphan (102.4 μg h ml−1). In conclusion, busulphan displayed a significant anti-tumour activity in neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma xenografts at plasma drug concentrations which can be achieved clinically in children receiving high-dose busulphan-containing regimens. 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10070870

  7. Mendel had no "true" monohybrids.

    PubMed

    Corcos, A; Monaghan, F

    1984-01-01

    Mendel's experiments in hybridizing peas started in 1856 and ended in 1863. When one attempts to fit the described experiments--in the sequence indicated in the paper--into those limits some serious implications emerge with regard to parental types needed and the scheduling of the experiments. If Mendel had to develop the parental types of his monohybrid and dihybrid crosses and then do the experiments he described, 8 years would not have been a sufficient amount of time. We believe that his original true-breeding varieties differed in more than one trait on the basis of a logical analysis of breeding relationships. It follows first that his "monohybrid" experiments were performed with varieties in several traits but that in each offering he concentrated his attention on only one, second that he had the parental lines for his dihybrid and trihybrid experiments on hand before he started those experiments.

  8. Achieving standardized medication data in clinical research studies: two approaches and applications for implementing RxNorm.

    PubMed

    Richesson, Rachel L; Smith, Susan B; Malloy, Jamie; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2010-08-01

    The National Institutes of Health has proposed a roadmap for clinical research. Test projects of this roadmap include centralized data management for distributed research, the harmonization of clinical and research data, and the use of data standards throughout the research process. In 2003, RxNorm was named as a standard for codifying clinical drugs. Clinical researchers looking to implement RxNorm have few template implementation plans. Epidemiological studies and clinical trials (types of clinical research) have different requirements for model standards and best implementation tools. This paper highlights two different (epidemiological and intervention) clinical research projects, their unique requirements for a medication standard, the suitability of RxNorm as a standard for each, and application and process requirements for implementation. It is hoped that our experience of selecting and implementing the RxNorm standard to address varying study requirements in both domestic and international settings will be of value to other efforts. PMID:20703919

  9. Achieving standardized medication data in clinical research studies: two approaches and applications for implementing RxNorm.

    PubMed

    Richesson, Rachel L; Smith, Susan B; Malloy, Jamie; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2010-08-01

    The National Institutes of Health has proposed a roadmap for clinical research. Test projects of this roadmap include centralized data management for distributed research, the harmonization of clinical and research data, and the use of data standards throughout the research process. In 2003, RxNorm was named as a standard for codifying clinical drugs. Clinical researchers looking to implement RxNorm have few template implementation plans. Epidemiological studies and clinical trials (types of clinical research) have different requirements for model standards and best implementation tools. This paper highlights two different (epidemiological and intervention) clinical research projects, their unique requirements for a medication standard, the suitability of RxNorm as a standard for each, and application and process requirements for implementation. It is hoped that our experience of selecting and implementing the RxNorm standard to address varying study requirements in both domestic and international settings will be of value to other efforts.

  10. Seeking the True Antarctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. G.

    2007-12-01

    With World Ocean warming a corrected name use is recommend with a universal adoption of the name, "Antarctic Ocean. This one large body of circumpolar water lies adjacent to - and south of - the Antarctic Convergence, on its northern perimeter, and is bordered to the south by the shoreline of the Antarctic continent. The Antarctic Ocean has a distinct water mass, with a true perimeter, and with a homogeneity, comprizing a unique environment for a specialized flora and fauna. It is recognized generally by its surface waters, ranging from 3.5 - 4.5 degrees Celsius (summer) and one degree C (winter).While its northern boundary, ' The Antarctic Convergence', has a water quality and thermal difference, this polar front is continuous and circumpolar, and it abuts -- and streams along with -- the ultimate southern extremities of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean waters. Parameters, characteristics and dynamics of water exchange are considered, here, with some water exchanges, with Intermediate and Antarctic Bottom water noted. It maintains its own forceful 'West Wind Drift', a current driven and emboldened by Earth's Geostrophic West Wind. Features defining the Antarctic Ocean: (1)Washing all shores of the continent named Antarctica; it is .the only ocean reaching this Antarctic Continent.; (2) it is one of Earth's two Polar (and coldest) oceans, the other, named Arctic Ocean, of which it is the opposite (the Anti); (3) its distinctive cold waters of the Antarctic Ocean and its peripheral seas, floating ice tongues, the frigid stamp of Antarctica's continental glaciers and ice fields; (4) the Antarctic Continent is the source of continual replenishment from her ice cap and melt-water derived from the great mountains, valleys and the massive polar dome of ice. Further, in the literature the present usage, 'Southern Ocean', by some authors, confuses the true Antarctic environmental waters (i.e. south of - and within the South Polar Front - Convergence) with southern

  11. True pubertas praecox in a girl; onset at nineteen months.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, F; Didato, M; Albeggiani, A; Perino, A; Campesi, G

    1976-12-01

    The authors report a case of true pubertas praecox in a girl with onset at 19 months; they describe the principal histopathologic, clinical and laboratory features and discuss problems of etiopathogenesis and differential diagnosis, as well as the prognosis and treatment of this disorder. PMID:1026001

  12. Achieving appropriate design for developing world heath care: the case of a low-cost autoclave for primary health clinics.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hallie S; Tao, Gregory D; Winter, Amos

    2012-01-01

    In developing world health clinics, incidence of surgical site infection is 2 to 10 times higher than in developed world hospitals. This paper identifies lack of availability of appropriately designed, low-cost autoclaves in developing world health clinics as a major contributing factor to the dramatic gap in surgical site infection rates. The paper describes the process of developing a low-cost autoclave that addresses the unique challenges faced by developing world primary health clinics and discusses how appropriateness of design was determined. The resulting pressure cooker-based autoclave design was fabricated and tested against the CDC specifications. Twelve partnering clinics in Nepal trialed these autoclaves from July until December 2012.

  13. Nonlinear speech analysis algorithms mapped to a standard metric achieve clinically useful quantification of average Parkinson's disease symptom severity

    PubMed Central

    Tsanas, Athanasios; Little, Max A.; McSharry, Patrick E.; Ramig, Lorraine O.

    2011-01-01

    The standard reference clinical score quantifying average Parkinson's disease (PD) symptom severity is the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). At present, UPDRS is determined by the subjective clinical evaluation of the patient's ability to adequately cope with a range of tasks. In this study, we extend recent findings that UPDRS can be objectively assessed to clinically useful accuracy using simple, self-administered speech tests, without requiring the patient's physical presence in the clinic. We apply a wide range of known speech signal processing algorithms to a large database (approx. 6000 recordings from 42 PD patients, recruited to a six-month, multi-centre trial) and propose a number of novel, nonlinear signal processing algorithms which reveal pathological characteristics in PD more accurately than existing approaches. Robust feature selection algorithms select the optimal subset of these algorithms, which is fed into non-parametric regression and classification algorithms, mapping the signal processing algorithm outputs to UPDRS. We demonstrate rapid, accurate replication of the UPDRS assessment with clinically useful accuracy (about 2 UPDRS points difference from the clinicians' estimates, p < 0.001). This study supports the viability of frequent, remote, cost-effective, objective, accurate UPDRS telemonitoring based on self-administered speech tests. This technology could facilitate large-scale clinical trials into novel PD treatments. PMID:21084338

  14. Clinically significant responses achieved with romidepsin across disease compartments in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ellen J.; Kim, Youn H.; Rook, Alain H.; Lerner, Adam; Duvic, Madeleine; Reddy, Sunil; Robak, Tadeusz; Becker, Jürgen C.; Samtsov, Alexey; McCulloch, William; Waksman, Joel; Whittaker, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a rare heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that arises in the skin but can progress to systemic disease (lymph nodes, blood, viscera). Historically, in clinical trials of CTCL there has been little consistency in how responses were defined in each disease “compartment”; some studies only assessed responses in the skin. The histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of CTCL in patients who have received at least one prior systemic therapy. Phase II studies that led to approval used rigorous composite end points that incorporated disease assessments in all compartments. The objective of this analysis was to thoroughly examine the activity of romidepsin within each disease compartment in patients with CTCL. Romidepsin was shown to have clinical activity across disease compartments and is suitable for use in patients with CTCL having skin involvement only, erythroderma, lymphadenopathy and/or blood involvement. PMID:25791237

  15. Clinically significant responses achieved with romidepsin across disease compartments in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ellen J; Kim, Youn H; Rook, Alain H; Lerner, Adam; Duvic, Madeleine; Reddy, Sunil; Robak, Tadeusz; Becker, Jürgen C; Samtsov, Alexey; McCulloch, William; Waksman, Joel; Whittaker, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a rare heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that arises in the skin but can progress to systemic disease (lymph nodes, blood, viscera). Historically, in clinical trials of CTCL there has been little consistency in how responses were defined in each disease "compartment"; some studies only assessed responses in the skin. The histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of CTCL in patients who have received at least one prior systemic therapy. Phase II studies that led to approval used rigorous composite end points that incorporated disease assessments in all compartments. The objective of this analysis was to thoroughly examine the activity of romidepsin within each disease compartment in patients with CTCL. Romidepsin was shown to have clinical activity across disease compartments and is suitable for use in patients with CTCL having skin involvement only, erythroderma, lymphadenopathy and/or blood involvement.

  16. Can Universities Become True Learning Organizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Judith; Weathersby, Rita

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to assess whether a university can become a true learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: Focuses on the need for, and challenges of, transforming universities into true learning organizations. Findings: Observes that few of the underlying values that serve as the underpinnings of the learning organizations are actually…

  17. Achievement of recommended glucose and blood pressure targets in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in clinical practice – study rationale and protocol of DIALOGUE

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with type 2 diabetes have 2–4 times greater risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than those without, and this is even further aggravated if they also suffer from hypertension. Unfortunately, less than one third of hypertensive diabetic patients meet blood pressure targets, and more than half fail to achieve target HbA1c values. Thus, appropriate blood pressure and glucose control are of utmost importance. Since treatment sometimes fails in clinical practice while clinical trials generally suggest good efficacy, data from daily clinical practice, especially with regard to the use of newly developed anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive compounds in unselected patient populations, are essential. The DIALOGUE registry aims to close this important gap by evaluating different treatment approaches in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients with respect to their effectiveness and tolerability and their impact on outcomes. In addition, DIALOGUE is the first registry to determine treatment success based on the new individualized treatment targets recommended by the ADA and the EASD. Methods DIALOGUE is a prospective observational German multicentre registry and will enrol 10,000 patients with both diabetes and hypertension in up to 700 sites. After a baseline visit, further documentations are scheduled at 6, 12 and 24 months. There are two co-primary objectives referring to the most recent guidelines for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension: 1) individual HbA1c goal achievement with respect to anti-diabetic pharmacotherapy and 2) individual blood pressure goal achievement with different antihypertensive treatments. Among the secondary objectives the rate of major cardio-vascular and cerebro-vascular events (MACCE) and the rate of hospitalizations are the most important. Conclusion The registry will be able to gain insights into the reasons for the obvious gap between the demonstrated efficacy and safety of anti-diabetic and anti

  18. The True Liberal Education in Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Takeo

    Recently the true liberal education is uncommon in Japanese universities. Though there are liberal arts and science as the subjects. But the students want to attend to the lectures of the true liberal education by excellent professors in the small groups on such as on virtue and vice, on beautiful things, on great persons in the history and on what is the meaning to be in the world. But strange to say the true liberal educations are, though the cases are rare, in the private universities whose entrance exams are comparatively easy.

  19. Value of sonography in true complete diphallia.

    PubMed

    Marti-Bonmati, L; Menor, F; Gomez, J; Cortina, H; Garcia Ibarra, F

    1989-08-01

    A case of true complete diphallia associated with multiple malformations is presented. Complete radiological evaluation should include sonography of both penes preoperatively to classify the penile duplication correctly. PMID:2664222

  20. The myth of the true self.

    PubMed

    Anscombe, R

    1989-05-01

    The true self is a central construct of psychotherapy, but its status as fact or fiction is uncertain. Much of the plausibility of the true self comes from the concept's ambiguity, since it encompasses several different kinds of mental entity. It may be construed as a person's belief about himself or herself, as the experience of the working of the mind, or as a characterological essence. The true self is composed of qualities borrowed from these quite disparate kinds of self, none of which, considered singly, readily fits the description. However, if the true self is viewed as a fantasy, grounded on fact, of whom the patient might become, it is an instrument that gives coherence and direction to psychotherapy.

  1. Effects of Achieving Target Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis on Functional Status, Quality of Life, and Resource Utilization: Analysis of Clinical Practice Data

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Seongjung; Kawabata, Hugh; Al, Maiwenn J.; Allison, Paul D.; Rutten‐van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.; Frits, Michelle L.; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Weinblatt, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations between achieving guideline‐recommended targets of disease activity, defined by the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using C‐reactive protein level (DAS28‐CRP) <2.6, the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) ≤3.3, or the Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ≤2.8, and other health outcomes in a longitudinal observational study. Methods Other defined thresholds included low disease activity (LDA), moderate (MDA), or severe disease activity (SDA). To control for intraclass correlation and estimate effects of independent variables on outcomes of the modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (M‐HAQ), the EuroQol 5‐domain (EQ‐5D; a quality‐of‐life measure), hospitalization, and durable medical equipment (DME) use, we employed mixed models for continuous outcomes and generalized estimating equations for binary outcomes. Results Among 1,297 subjects, achievement (versus nonachievement) of recommended disease targets was associated with enhanced physical functioning and lower health resource utilization. After controlling for baseline covariates, achievement of disease targets (versus LDA) was associated with significantly enhanced physical functioning based on SDAI ≤3.3 (ΔM‐HAQ −0.047; P = 0.0100) and CDAI ≤2.8 (−0.073; P = 0.0003) but not DAS28‐CRP <2.6 (−0.022; P = 0.1735). Target attainment was associated with significantly improved EQ‐5D (0.022–0.096; P < 0.0030 versus LDA, MDA, or SDA). Patients achieving guideline‐recommended disease targets were 36–45% less likely to be hospitalized (P < 0.0500) and 23–45% less likely to utilize DME (P < 0.0100). Conclusion Attaining recommended target disease‐activity measures was associated with enhanced physical functioning and health‐related quality of life. Some health outcomes were similar in subjects attaining guideline targets versus LDA. Achieving LDA is a worthy clinical objective in some patients. PMID:26238974

  2. Apparent and true resistant hypertension: definition, prevalence and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Judd, E; Calhoun, D A

    2014-08-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal despite the use of > or =3 antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses (one ideally being a diuretic) or BP that requires > or =4 agents to achieve control, has received more attention with increased efforts to improve BP control rates and the emergence of device-based therapies for hypertension. This classically defined resistant group consists of patients with true resistant hypertension, controlled resistant hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. In studies where pseudo-resistant hypertension cannot be excluded (for example, 24-h ambulatory BP not obtained), the term apparent resistant hypertension has been used to identify 'apparent' lack of control on > or =3 medications. Large, well-designed studies have recently reported the prevalence of resistant hypertension. Pooling prevalence data from these studies and others within North America and Europe with a combined sample size of >600,000 hypertensive participants, the prevalence of resistant hypertension is 14.8% of treated hypertensive patients and 12.5% of all hypertensives. However, the prevalence of true resistant hypertension, defined as uncontrolled both by office and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring with confirmed medication adherence, may be more meaningful in terms of identifying risk and estimating benefit from newer therapies like renal denervation. Rates of cardiovascular events and mortality follow mean 24-h ambulatory BPs in patients with resistant hypertension, and true resistant hypertension represents the highest risk. The prevalence of true resistant hypertension has not been directly measured in large trials; however, combined data from smaller studies suggest that true resistant hypertension is present in half of the patients with resistant hypertension who are uncontrolled in the office. Our pooled analysis shows prevalence rates of 10.1% and 7.9% for uncontrolled resistant hypertension among

  3. Decreased Sperm Motility Retarded ICSI Fertilization Rate in Severe Oligozoospermia but Good-Quality Embryo Transfer Had Achieved the Prospective Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jufeng; Lu, Yongning; Qu, Xianqin; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Luiwen; Gao, Minzhi; Shi, Huijuan; Jin, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    . Overall rates in all groups were 41.26% clinical pregnancy, 25.74% implantation and 36.32% live birth, which gave live birth to 252 girls and 252 boys. Conclusions The reduction of motile spermatozoa in severe oligozoospermia decreased the rates of fertilization and good-quality embryo. Obtaining and transfer of good-quality embryos was the good prognostic to achieve prospective clinical outcomes regardless of the severity of oligozoospermia. PMID:27661081

  4. True-color night vision cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriesel, Jason; Gat, Nahum

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes True-Color Night Vision cameras that are sensitive to the visible to near-infrared (V-NIR) portion of the spectrum allowing for the "true-color" of scenes and objects to be displayed and recorded under low-light-level conditions. As compared to traditional monochrome (gray or green) night vision imagery, color imagery has increased information content and has proven to enable better situational awareness, faster response time, and more accurate target identification. Urban combat environments, where rapid situational awareness is vital, and marine operations, where there is inherent information in the color of markings and lights, are example applications that can benefit from True-Color Night Vision technology. Two different prototype cameras, employing two different true-color night vision technological approaches, are described and compared in this paper. One camera uses a fast-switching liquid crystal filter in front of a custom Gen-III image intensified camera, and the second camera is based around an EMCCD sensor with a mosaic filter applied directly to the sensor. In addition to visible light, both cameras utilize NIR to (1) increase the signal and (2) enable the viewing of laser aiming devices. The performance of the true-color cameras, along with the performance of standard (monochrome) night vision cameras, are reported and compared under various operating conditions in the lab and the field. In addition to subjective criterion, figures of merit designed specifically for the objective assessment of such cameras are used in this analysis.

  5. True Cervicothoracic Meningocele: A Rare and Benign Condition

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Bruno L.; Lima, Yara

    2015-01-01

    Cervical meningoceles are rare spinal dysraphism, accounting for approximately 7% of all cystic spinal dysraphism. In spite of the rarity, the clinical course is most of the times benign. The surgical treatment includes resection of the lesion and untethering, when presented. We present a 14-day-old female child with true meningoceles who underwent to surgical excision and dura-mater repair. Retrospect analysis of the literature concerning true cervical meningocele is performed. By reporting this illustrative case, we focus on its classification and its differentiation from other types of cervical spinal dysraphism, such as myelocystocele and myelomeningocele. Although its course is benign, it is mandatory a continuum follow up with periodic magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord, since late neurological deterioration has been described. PMID:26788266

  6. True Cervicothoracic Meningocele: A Rare and Benign Condition.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Bruno L; Lima, Yara; Orsini, Marco

    2015-12-29

    Cervical meningoceles are rare spinal dysraphism, accounting for approximately 7% of all cystic spinal dysraphism. In spite of the rarity, the clinical course is most of the times benign. The surgical treatment includes resection of the lesion and untethering, when presented. We present a 14-day-old female child with true meningoceles who underwent to surgical excision and dura-mater repair. Retrospect analysis of the literature concerning true cervical meningocele is performed. By reporting this illustrative case, we focus on its classification and its differentiation from other types of cervical spinal dysraphism, such as myelocystocele and myelomeningocele. Although its course is benign, it is mandatory a continuum follow up with periodic magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord, since late neurological deterioration has been described.

  7. What is the 'true' function of skin?

    PubMed

    Chuong, C M; Nickoloff, B J; Elias, P M; Goldsmith, L A; Macher, E; Maderson, P A; Sundberg, J P; Tagami, H; Plonka, P M; Thestrup-Pederson, K; Bernard, B A; Schröder, J M; Dotto, P; Chang, C M; Williams, M L; Feingold, K R; King, L E; Kligman, A M; Rees, J L; Christophers, E

    2002-04-01

    Conventional textbook wisdom portrays the skin as an organ that literally enwraps whatever each of us stands for as a more or less functional, individual member of the mammalian species, and has it that the skin primarily establishes, controls and transmits contacts with the external world. In addition, the skin has long been recognized to protect the organism from deleterious environmental impacts (physical, chemical,microbiological), and is well-known as crucial for the maintenance of temperature, electrolyte and fluid balance. Now, ever more studies are being published that show the skin to also operate as a huge and highly active biofactory for the synthesis,processing and/or metabolism of an astounding range of e.g. structural proteins, glycans, lipids and signaling molecules. Increasingly, it becomes appreciated that the skin, furthermore, is an integral component of the immune, nervous and endocrine systems, with numerous lines of cross-talk between these systems established intracutaneously (e.g. Ann NY Acad Sci Vol 885, 1999; Endocrine Rev 21:457-487, 2000; Physiol Rev 80:980-1020, 2001; Exp Dermatol 10: 349-367, 2001). All these emerging cutaneous functions beyond the classical image of the skin as a barrier and sensory organ are immediately relevant for many of the quandaries that clinical dermatology, dermatopathology, and dermatopharmacology are still struggling with to-date, and offer the practising dermatologist attractive new targets for therapeutic intervention. Yet, many of these skin functions are not even mentioned in dermatology textbooks and await systematic therapeutic targeting. Following a suggestion by Enno Christophers, the current 'Controversies' feature brings together an unusually diverse council of biologists and clinicians, who share their thought-provoking views with the readers and allow us to peek into the future of research in cutaneous biology, not the least by reminding us of the -- often ignored -- evolutionary and embryonal

  8. Dodging the Dilemma of True-False Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, Richard R.; Long, Clifford A.

    1977-01-01

    A scoring technique for true-false tests is presented. The technique, paired item scoring, involves combining two statements and having the student select one of the four resultants possible: true-true, false-true, true-false, and false-false. The combined item is treated as a multiple choice item. (Author/JKS)

  9. How to Make Their Dreams Come True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    The beginning of January--a fresh start. This presents a brand new opportunity to help students plan a bright future. This article provides a step-by-step guide to ensure a student's dreams come true. Each new year gives students another chance to get it right. The author provides the following 12 steps to ensure students' success in achieving…

  10. True cyclopia-very rare anomaly.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K R; Joseph, N Abraham Ratna; Koteswary, P

    2014-08-01

    During our routine postmortem examination, we found a female infant with "True Cyclopia." The two entire eye balls had fused completely to form one midline organ. The infant was a female who weighed 2910 g. The gestation period was 35 weeks. Infant lived for a short period of less than 20 minutes. The birth was a product of a 4(th) pregnancy. PMID:25302183

  11. Automated balance for determining true mass

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.E.

    1982-08-08

    An automated weighing system utilizing a precision electronic balance and a small desktop computer is described. An example of a computer program demonstrating some of the capabilities attainable with this system is included. The program demonstrates a substitution weighing technique with true mass determination for the object being weighed.

  12. Finding the True Incidence Rate of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Julie; Price, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on research that explores the use of detection software in the fight against plagiarism. The aim of the research was to determine if the true incidence rate of plagiarism could be found for a cohort of Higher Education students. The paper outlines the problems and issues when attempting this. In addition, this report highlights…

  13. Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves

  14. True Cyclopia–Very Rare Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, K. R.; Koteswary, P.

    2014-01-01

    During our routine postmortem examination, we found a female infant with “True Cyclopia.” The two entire eye balls had fused completely to form one midline organ. The infant was a female who weighed 2910 g. The gestation period was 35 weeks. Infant lived for a short period of less than 20 minutes. The birth was a product of a 4th pregnancy. PMID:25302183

  15. Histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin induces HIV expression in CD4 T cells from patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy at concentrations achieved by clinical dosing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Datsen George; Chiang, Vicki; Fyne, Elizabeth; Balakrishnan, Mini; Barnes, Tiffany; Graupe, Michael; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Irrinki, Alivelu; Murry, Jeffrey P; Stepan, George; Stray, Kirsten M; Tsai, Angela; Yu, Helen; Spindler, Jonathan; Kearney, Mary; Spina, Celsa A; McMahon, Deborah; Lalezari, Jacob; Sloan, Derek; Mellors, John; Geleziunas, Romas; Cihlar, Tomas

    2014-04-01

    Persistent latent reservoir of replication-competent proviruses in memory CD4 T cells is a major obstacle to curing HIV infection. Pharmacological activation of HIV expression in latently infected cells is being explored as one of the strategies to deplete the latent HIV reservoir. In this study, we characterized the ability of romidepsin (RMD), a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphomas, to activate the expression of latent HIV. In an in vitro T-cell model of HIV latency, RMD was the most potent inducer of HIV (EC50 = 4.5 nM) compared with vorinostat (VOR; EC50 = 3,950 nM) and other histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in clinical development including panobinostat (PNB; EC50 = 10 nM). The HIV induction potencies of RMD, VOR, and PNB paralleled their inhibitory activities against multiple human HDAC isoenzymes. In both resting and memory CD4 T cells isolated from HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a 4-hour exposure to 40 nM RMD induced a mean 6-fold increase in intracellular HIV RNA levels, whereas a 24-hour treatment with 1 µM VOR resulted in 2- to 3-fold increases. RMD-induced intracellular HIV RNA expression persisted for 48 hours and correlated with sustained inhibition of cell-associated HDAC activity. By comparison, the induction of HIV RNA by VOR and PNB was transient and diminished after 24 hours. RMD also increased levels of extracellular HIV RNA and virions from both memory and resting CD4 T-cell cultures. The activation of HIV expression was observed at RMD concentrations below the drug plasma levels achieved by doses used in patients treated for T-cell lymphomas. In conclusion, RMD induces HIV expression ex vivo at concentrations that can be achieved clinically, indicating that the drug may reactivate latent HIV in patients on suppressive cART.

  16. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation). PMID:27386623

  17. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation).

  18. TRUE MASSES OF RADIAL-VELOCITY EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert A.

    2015-06-01

    We study the task of estimating the true masses of known radial-velocity (RV) exoplanets by means of direct astrometry on coronagraphic images to measure the apparent separation between exoplanet and host star. Initially, we assume perfect knowledge of the RV orbital parameters and that all errors are due to photon statistics. We construct design reference missions for four missions currently under study at NASA: EXO-S and WFIRST-S, with external star shades for starlight suppression, EXO-C and WFIRST-C, with internal coronagraphs. These DRMs reveal extreme scheduling constraints due to the combination of solar and anti-solar pointing restrictions, photometric and obscurational completeness, image blurring due to orbital motion, and the “nodal effect,” which is the independence of apparent separation and inclination when the planet crosses the plane of the sky through the host star. Next, we address the issue of nonzero uncertainties in RV orbital parameters by investigating their impact on the observations of 21 single-planet systems. Except for two—GJ 676 A b and 16 Cyg B b, which are observable only by the star-shade missions—we find that current uncertainties in orbital parameters generally prevent accurate, unbiased estimation of true planetary mass. For the coronagraphs, WFIRST-C and EXO-C, the most likely number of good estimators of true mass is currently zero. For the star shades, EXO-S and WFIRST-S, the most likely numbers of good estimators are three and four, respectively, including GJ 676 A b and 16 Cyg B b. We expect that uncertain orbital elements currently undermine all potential programs of direct imaging and spectroscopy of RV exoplanets.

  19. True reason for Zipf's law in language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahui, Wang; Menghui, Li; Zengru, Di

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of word frequency have historically used data that included English, French, or other language, data typically described by Zipf's law. Using data on traditional and modern Chinese literatures, we show here that Chinese character frequency stroked Zipf's law based on literature before Qin dynasty; however, it departed from Zipf's law based on literature after Qin dynasty. Combined with data about English dictionaries and Chinese dictionaries, we show that the true reason for Zipf's Law in language is that growth and preferential selection mechanism of word or character in given language.

  20. Regulatory false positives: true, false, or uncertain?

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Hansen et al. (2007) recently assessed the historical performance of the precautionary principle in 88 specific cases, concluding that "applying our definition of a regulatory false positive, we were able to identify only four cases that fit the definition of a false positive." Empirically evaluating how prone the precautionary principle is to classify nonproblems as problems ("false positives") is an excellent idea. Yet, Hansen et al.'s implementation of this idea applies a diverse set of questionable criteria to label many highly uncertain risks as "real" even when no real or potential harm has actually been demonstrated. Examples include treating each of the following as reasons to categorize risks as "real": considering that a company's actions contaminated its own product; lack of a known exposure threshold for health effects; occurrence of a threat; treating deliberately conservative (upper-bound) regulatory assumptions as if they were true values; treating assumed exposures of children to contaminated soils (by ingestion) as evidence that feared dioxin risks are real; and treating claimed (sometimes ambiguous) epidemiological associations as if they were known to be true causal relations. Such criteria can classify even nonexistent and unknown risks as "real," providing an alternative possible explanation for why the authors failed to find more false positives, even if they exist.

  1. A comprehensive study on urban true orthorectification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, G.; Chen, W.; Kelmelis, J.A.; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2005-01-01

    To provide some advanced technical bases (algorithms and procedures) and experience needed for national large-scale digital orthophoto generation and revision of the Standards for National Large-Scale City Digital Orthophoto in the National Digital Orthophoto Program (NDOP), this paper presents a comprehensive study on theories, algorithms, and methods of large-scale urban orthoimage generation. The procedures of orthorectification for digital terrain model (DTM)-based and digital building model (DBM)-based orthoimage generation and their mergence for true orthoimage generation are discussed in detail. A method of compensating for building occlusions using photogrammetric geometry is developed. The data structure needed to model urban buildings for accurately generating urban orthoimages is presented. Shadow detection and removal, the optimization of seamline for automatic mosaic, and the radiometric balance of neighbor images are discussed. Street visibility analysis, including the relationship between flight height, building height, street width, and relative location of the street to the imaging center, is analyzed for complete true orthoimage generation. The experimental results demonstrated that our method can effectively and correctly orthorectify the displacements caused by terrain and buildings in urban large-scale aerial images. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  2. Pancreatic true cysts--diagnosis and treatment difficulties.

    PubMed

    Vilcea, I D; Vasile, I; Mirea, C; Mesină, C; Calota, F; Pasalega, M; Cheie, M; Dumitrescu, T; Mogoanta, S; Vilcea, A-M

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic true cysts represent a rare, heterogeneous group of pancreatic tumors; therapeutic strategy is based on patient's general status, cyst topography, and especially the estimated risk of malignancy. This paper aim is to present 7 cases of pancreatic true cysts, operated on a six years period (January 2004-January 2010) in our surgical clinic: 2 men and 5 women, aged between 24-61 years old; cyst diameter varies between 3.5-15 cm, tumor location being pancreatic head in two cases and the distal pancreas in 5 cases. Surgical treatment consisted in cyst enucleation (two cases), splenopancreatectomy (three cases), duodenopancreatectomy (one case), and subtotal splenopancreatectomy (one case). Histology was represented by serous cystadenoma (one case), mucinous cystadenoma (2 cases), intraductal papillary mucinous cystadenoma (one case), and papillary cystadenocarcinoma (3 cases).Postoperative results were good in all cases, with 3 postoperative pancreatic external fistulas, resolved conservatory; no case of post-pancreatectomy diabetes mellitus was registered. In conclusion, surgical removal of the pancreatic cystic tumors is necessary, especially due to the risk of malignancy, at least in the absence of rigorous histological proofs of benignancy. Postoperative results are favorable in terms of postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  3. In Search of the True Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2013-11-01

    1. The nineteenth century's last five years; Part I. The Import of Theoretical Tools: 2. An overview; 3. Conclusions based on principles; 4. Conclusions based on a premise; 5. Conclusions based on calculations; 6. Asking the right questions, accepting limited answers; Part II. A National Plan Shaping the Universe We Perceive: 7. A new order and the new universe it produced; 8. Where did the chemical elements arise?; 9. Landscapes; 10. The evolution of astrophysical theory after 1960; 11. Turmoils of leadership; 12. Cascades and shocks that shape astrophysics; 13. Astrophysical discourse and persuasion; Part III. The Cost of Discerning the True Universe: 14. Organization and functioning of the astronomical community; 15. Language and astrophysical stability; 16. An economically viable astronomical program; Epilogue.

  4. In Search of the True Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2014-01-01

    1. The nineteenth century's last five years; Part I. The Import of Theoretical Tools: 2. An overview; 3. Conclusions based on principles; 4. Conclusions based on a premise; 5. Conclusions based on calculations; 6. Asking the right questions, accepting limited answers; Part II. A National Plan Shaping the Universe We Perceive: 7. A new order and the new universe it produced; 8. Where did the chemical elements arise?; 9. Landscapes; 10. The evolution of astrophysical theory after 1960; 11. Turmoils of leadership; 12. Cascades and shocks that shape astrophysics; 13. Astrophysical discourse and persuasion; Part III. The Cost of Discerning the True Universe: 14. Organization and functioning of the astronomical community; 15. Language and astrophysical stability; 16. An economically viable astronomical program; Epilogue.

  5. Characteristic Age and True Age of Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long; Zhang, Cheng-Min; Tanni, Ali; Zhao, Hai-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Age of a pulsar is a useful parameter, but it is difficult to get the age from observation. We can only derive the characteristic age from the observed parameters: spin period (P) and period derivative (Ṗ). In this paper, we discussed the relationship between characteristic age and magnetic field of a pulsar. Monte Carlo simulation is also used to support the idea: it is useless to study the magnetic field evolution using characteristic age. From some observation evidences we get that: the characteristic age cannot be used as true age, especially for millisecond pulsar (MSP). The difference between them is also discussed. From the studying of breaking index and MSP's initial spin period (P0), we get the conclusion that: the problem cannot be resolved using different radiation models.

  6. Kepler's winding Path to true Heliocentrism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    The paper concerns the evolution of concepts by Johannes Kepler from Aristotelian conception of the Universe to Heliocentrism. Already as young Magister in Tubingen Kepler has taken an active part in Physical disputations of the candidates and has defended the doctrines of Copernik (1). In the Mysterium Cosmographicum he refers the planetary distances no longer to the center of the earth's orbit, but to the center of the true sun. But just by working out his Astronomia Nova Kepler succeeds in creating a strictly heliocentric astronomy as his handwriting Manuscripts give detailed information (2). Notes: 1) fragmentum orations de motu terrae. In Keppler Gesammelte werke Vol. 20.1, Munich 1988, p. 147-149 2) Commentaria in Theoriam Martis. Edition in: Kepler Gessamelete Werke Vol. 20.2 (in preparation)

  7. New York State TrueAllele ® casework validation study.

    PubMed

    Perlin, Mark W; Belrose, Jamie L; Duceman, Barry W

    2013-11-01

    DNA evidence can pose interpretation challenges, particularly with low-level or mixed samples. It would be desirable to make full use of the quantitative data, consider every genotype possibility, and objectively produce accurate and reproducible DNA match results. Probabilistic genotype computing is designed to achieve these goals. This validation study assessed TrueAllele(®) probabilistic computer interpretation on 368 evidence items in 41 test cases and compared the results with human review of the same data. Whenever there was a human result, the computer's genotype was concordant. Further, the computer produced a match statistic on 81 mixture items (for 87 inferred matching genotypes) in the test cases, while human review reported a statistic on 25 of these items (30.9%). Using match statistics to quantify information, probabilistic genotyping was shown to be sensitive, specific, and reproducible. These results demonstrate that objective probabilistic genotyping of biological evidence can reliably preserve DNA identification information.

  8. Uranus in True and False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two pictures of Uranus -- one in true color (left) and the other in false color -- were compiled from images returned Jan. 17, 1986, by the narrow-angle camera of Voyager 2. The spacecraft was 9.1 million kilometers (5.7 million miles) from the planet, several days from closest approach. The picture at left has been processed to show Uranus as human eyes would see it from the vantage point of the spacecraft. The picture is a composite of images taken through blue, green and orange filters. The darker shadings at the upper right of the disk correspond to the day-night boundary on the planet. Beyond this boundary lies the hidden northern hemisphere of Uranus, which currently remains in total darkness as the planet rotates. The blue-green color results from the absorption of red light by methane gas in Uranus' deep, cold and remarkably clear atmosphere. The picture at right uses false color and extreme contrast enhancement to bring out subtle details in the polar region of Uranus. Images obtained through ultraviolet, violet and orange filters were respectively converted to the same blue, green and red colors used to produce the picture at left. The very slight contrasts visible in true color are greatly exaggerated here. In this false-color picture, Uranus reveals a dark polar hood surrounded by a series of progressively lighter concentric bands. One possible explanation is that a brownish haze or smog, concentrated over the pole, is arranged into bands by zonal motions of the upper atmosphere. The bright orange and yellow strip at the lower edge of the planet's limb is an artifact of the image enhancement. In fact, the limb is dark and uniform in color around the planet. The Voyager project is manages for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  9. True malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Kameda, N; Katayama, K; Hiruta, N; Nakada, M; Takeda, Y

    1990-02-01

    A case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland is reported. The submandibular tumor, occurring in a 52-year-old man, started to grow rapidly after a long history without any change in size. Surgical resection was carried out and the resected tumor measured 5.5 cm with a cut surface showing mixed solid structures. Microscopically, the tumor had both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements, the former consisting of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with squamous cell differentiation and the latter consisting of osteosarcoma with chondrosarcomatous and fibrosarcomatous elements. A remnant of benign pleomorphic adenoma could also be identified. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated keratin and epithelial membrane antigen in the carcinoma cells and vimentin in all elements of the osteosarcoma. It is assumed from these clinical and histological findings that the tumor had transformed from a pre-existing benign pleomorphic adenoma.

  10. Finding economies of scale and coordination of care along the continuum to achieve true system integration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Maura

    2014-01-01

    Is it time to reduce hospitals and replace them with digitally enabled distributed specialty service delivery channels that focus on ambulatory care, urgent care, and patient reactivation? Is delivery system integration immaterial if care is standardized and supported by integrated information systems? Maybe Lean methodology needs to be applied across the entire delivery systems, not just within its component functions and processes. Comments are offered on each of these perspectives.

  11. Finding economies of scale and coordination of care along the continuum to achieve true system integration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Maura

    2014-01-01

    Is it time to reduce hospitals and replace them with digitally enabled distributed specialty service delivery channels that focus on ambulatory care, urgent care, and patient reactivation? Is delivery system integration immaterial if care is standardized and supported by integrated information systems? Maybe Lean methodology needs to be applied across the entire delivery systems, not just within its component functions and processes. Comments are offered on each of these perspectives. PMID:25671876

  12. True HIV seroprevalence in Indian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, N; Ayagiri, A; Ray, V L

    2000-03-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), the apex body for controlling AIDS in India, projected that HIV seroprevalence would increase from 7/1000 in 1995 to 21.2/1000 in 1997. A high incidence (8.2%) of HIV was observed in blood donors. This study was carried out to find out the true HIV positivity in Indian blood donors. Blood donors from our centre were followed for more than 5 years to determine the true HIV seroprevalence and our result was compared with similar studies from India. Voluntary and relative blood donors who visited the SGPGIMS, Lucknow, since 1993 to June 1998 were included. They were screened for HIV 1/2 by ELISA kits (WHO approved). First-time HIV-positive samples were preserved frozen for further study (stage-I). They were repeated in duplicate and retested with other kits. If found positive, the sample was labelled as ELISA positive (stage-II). ELISA-positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB) at stage-III. A total of 65 288 donors were included and 834 (12.8/1000) were reactive at stage-I. But 1.1/1000 donors were found to be ELISA positive at stage-II, and 0.28/1000 donors were positive by WB at stage-III. The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than our study. There were five similar Indian studies and seropositivity rate varied from 0.72/1000 (using ELISA and WB) to 5.5/1000 (using ELISA alone). The 'seropositivity' rate from the NACO was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than all these studies. HIV seroprevalence in the present study is lower (P < 0.001) than other Indian figures. The present and other studies confirmed that the projected HIV seroprevalence (82/1000) in Indian blood donors was high. The NACO result was based on one-time ELISA screening reports from zonal blood testing centres which also receive samples from paid donors donating in commercial blood banks. The HIV prevalence of blood donors (and national prevalence) is to be reassessed.

  13. Production of the Smallest QED Atom: True Muonium

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Lebed, Richard F.

    2009-04-15

    The 'true muonium' ({mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) and 'true tauonium' ({tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}) bound states are not only the heaviest, but also the most compact pure QED systems. The rapid weak decay of the {tau} makes the observation of true tauonium difficult. However, as we show, the production and study of true muonium is possible at modern electron-positron colliders.

  14. Mechanisms for oscillatory true polar wander.

    PubMed

    Creveling, J R; Mitrovica, J X; Chan, N-H; Latychev, K; Matsuyama, I

    2012-11-01

    Palaeomagnetic studies of Palaeoproterozoic to Cretaceous rocks propose a suite of large and relatively rapid (tens of degrees over 10 to 100 million years) excursions of the rotation pole relative to the surface geography, or true polar wander (TPW). These excursions may be linked in an oscillatory, approximately coaxial succession about the centre of the contemporaneous supercontinent. Within the framework of a standard rotational theory, in which a delayed viscous adjustment of the rotational bulge acts to stabilize the rotation axis, geodynamic models for oscillatory TPW generally appeal to consecutive, opposite loading phases of comparable magnitude. Here we extend a nonlinear rotational stability theory to incorporate the stabilizing effect of TPW-induced elastic stresses in the lithosphere. We demonstrate that convectively driven inertia perturbations acting on a nearly prolate, non-hydrostatic Earth with an effective elastic lithospheric thickness of about 10 kilometres yield oscillatory TPW paths consistent with palaeomagnetic inferences. This estimate of elastic thickness can be reduced, even to zero, if the rotation axis is stabilized by long-term excess ellipticity in the plane of the TPW. We speculate that these sources of stabilization, acting on TPW driven by a time-varying mantle flow field, provide a mechanism for linking the distinct, oscillatory TPW events of the past few billion years. PMID:23135471

  15. Hippocrates, the true father of hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Gahhos, F N; Ariyan, S

    1985-02-01

    The methods used by Hippocrates for treating fractures and dislocations formed the basis for further development in operations performed upon the hand. He described the common distal radial fracture, and the method to reduce and immobilize it. Of carpal dislocations, he mentioned two patterns which are similar to the common "anterior dislocation of the lunate" and the "perilunar dislocation." He treated pressure sores and wound infection with frequent dressings, application of heat and mechanical debridement; limb necrosis was treated with delayed amputation, and tetanus, with immediate exploration and drainage of the wound. His general principles of fracture management include the value of early reduction, strict fluid diet after reductions of large joints, keeping sites of fracture warm and changing splints as the swelling resolves. It is obvious that many of the principles for the treatment of fractures and dislocations of the wrist and hand are still valid today. The genius of Hippocrates surpassed all those whom we know at a corresponding stage of civilization and for many years to come. The discovery of roentgenograms an antiseptics only furthered his established sound principles. On the basis of these principles, perhaps Hippocrates should be considered the true father of operations performed upon the hand.

  16. Placebo: the lie that comes true?

    PubMed

    Justman, Stewart

    2013-04-01

    Over the decades of experimentation on the placebo effect, it has become clear that it is driven largely by expectation, and that strong expectations of efficacy are more likely to give rise to the experience of benefit. No wonder the placebo effect has come to resemble a self-fulfilling prophecy. However, this resemblance is considerably exaggerated. The placebo effect does not work as strongly as it is advertised to do in some efforts to elicit it. Half-truths about the placebo effect are now in circulation, reinforced by a number of other equivocations that it seems to attract. As the deceptive use of placebos has fallen into discredit, the use of half-truths and exaggerations-neither of which is technically a deception-becomes an ever more inviting possibility. However, there are risks and costs associated with the half-truth that the doctor possesses the power to make his or her words come true by the alchemy of the placebo effect. PMID:23250230

  17. True Color of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Roughly true color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter as taken by the Galileo imaging system on June 26, 1996. Because the Galileo imaging system's wavelength sensitivities go beyond those of the human eye, this is only an approximation of what a human observer would have seen in place of the Galileo spacecraft. To simulate red as our eyes see it, the near-infrared filter (756 nm) image was used. To simulate blue as our eyes see it, the violet filter (410 nm) image was used. Finally, to simulate green as our eyes see it, a combination of 2/3 violet and 1/3 near-infrared was used. The result is an image that is similar in color to that seen when looking through a telescope at Jupiter with your eye, but allowing detail about 100 times finer to be visible! The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  18. Nathan Watt: A True American Idol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Diana

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles her son Nathan Watt, a 14-year-old who was born with Spina Bifida, who does not allow setbacks to keep him from achieving his goals and dreams in the areas of writing, recording, and performing his own music. He has also opened a business website and turned his story, "Anything is Possible," into a color story…

  19. Class Rank Weighs Down True Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining class rank does not help students achieve more or reach higher levels of proficiency. Evidence indicates ranking students may diminish students' motivation. High school educators argue that they are compelled to rank-order graduating students because selective colleges and universities require information about…

  20. Guilty, but not ashamed: "true" self-conceptions influence affective responses to personal shortcomings.

    PubMed

    Vess, Matthew; Schlegel, Rebecca J; Hicks, Joshua A; Arndt, Jamie

    2014-06-01

    The current research examined how true self-conceptions (who a person believes he or she truly is) influence negative self-relevant emotions in response to shortcomings. In Study 1 (N = 83), an Internet sample of adults completed a measure of authenticity, reflected on a shortcoming or positive life event, and completed state shame and guilt measures. In Study 2 (N = 49), undergraduates focused on true versus other determined self-attributes, received negative performance feedback, and completed state shame and guilt measures. In Study 3 (N = 138), undergraduates focused on self-determined versus other determined self-aspects, reflected on a shortcoming or neutral event, and completed state shame, guilt, and self-esteem measures. In Study 4 (N = 75), undergraduates thought about true self-attributes, an achievement, or an ordinary event; received positive or negative performance feedback; and completed state shame and guilt measures. In Study 1, differences in true self-expression positively predicted shame-free guilt (but not guilt-free shame) following reminders of a shortcoming. Studies 2-4 found that experimental activation of true self-conceptions increased shame-free guilt and generally decreased guilt-free shame in response to negative evaluative experiences. The findings offer novel insights into true self-conceptions by revealing their impact on negative self-conscious emotions.

  1. Formative self-assessment using multiple true-false questions on the Internet: feedback according to confidence about correct knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Khalid S.; Davies, David A.; Gupta, Janesh K.

    2001-03-01

    In undergraduate clinical courses, students are often dispersed over several teaching sites. Traditional curricula do not have mechanisms that allow monitoring of an individual student's educational progress or that of a small group of students at a teaching site relative to that of the whole group. To address these issues, we have developed a web-based formative assessment system that consists of knowledge tests based on multiple true-false questions. During the test, in addition to marking true or false against each question, students indicate their level of confidence (doubt or certainty) about each answer. The feedback consists of whether the answer is correct or incorrect and the confidence with which the student had responded. Feedback to students assesses their own performance in relation to that of their peers. Feedback to tutors provides anonymized information about the level of achievement of students at their teaching site relative to that of students at other sites. This systems has the tools that students can use to direct their learning and tutors can use to tailor their teaching in the light of the instantaneously available comparative feedback.

  2. Why several truths can be true

    PubMed Central

    Meland, Eivind; Brodersen, John

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a perspective on complementarity, acknowledging that it is not possible for human perception and cognition to grasp reality with unambiguous concepts or theories. Therefore, multiple concepts and perspectives are valid when they are not exaggerated beyond reasonable limits and do not claim exclusive validity. We recommend a humble stance enabling respectful dialogue between different perspectives in medical science and practice. Key Points No single perspective in clinical or scientific medicine can exhaustively explain medical phenomena.Scientific attitude is characterised by a willingness to look for objections against what we prefer as truths.Complementarity or unifying contradictions are concepts that allow for humility and pluralism in clinical and scientific medicine. PMID:27406215

  3. Why several truths can be true.

    PubMed

    Meland, Eivind; Brodersen, John

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we offer a perspective on complementarity, acknowledging that it is not possible for human perception and cognition to grasp reality with unambiguous concepts or theories. Therefore, multiple concepts and perspectives are valid when they are not exaggerated beyond reasonable limits and do not claim exclusive validity. We recommend a humble stance enabling respectful dialogue between different perspectives in medical science and practice. KEY POINTS No single perspective in clinical or scientific medicine can exhaustively explain medical phenomena. Scientific attitude is characterised by a willingness to look for objections against what we prefer as truths. Complementarity or unifying contradictions are concepts that allow for humility and pluralism in clinical and scientific medicine. PMID:27406215

  4. Stars of the theatre show true colours.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    With surgical advances seeing hospitals and other healthcare facilities now undertaking an ever wide range of procedures, increasing emphasis is now being placed on the quality of the lighting installed in operating theatres, where 'older' technologies like halogen and xenon gas discharge are increasingly being superseded by LED. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie considers some of the key criteria for healthcare estates/engineering and clinical personnel considering purchasing operating lights, and discovers some of the innovations now on offer from leading suppliers.

  5. Relationship Between the Clinical Components of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns and the Stanford Achievement Test: Validity of the Boder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the concurrent validity of the diagnostic components of the Boder Test of Reading-Spelling Patterns with the reading and spelling measures of the Stanford Achievement Reading Test (SAT) in 87 reading-disabled elementary school students. Results indicated the relationship between the reading components of the Boder and SAT were…

  6. True beam commissioning experience at Nordland Hospital Trust, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daci, Lulzime; Malkaj, Partizan

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the measured of all photon beam data of first Varian True Beam version 2.0 slim model, recently commissioned at Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø. To compare and evaluate the possibility of beam matching with the Clinac2300, for the energies of 6MV and 15 MV. Materials/Methods: Measurements of PDD, OAR, and Output factors were realized with the IBA Blue-phantom with different detectors and evaluated between them for all photon energies: 6MV, 15MV, 6MV FFF and 10MV FFF. The ionization chambers used were Pin Point CC01, CC04, Semiflex CC13 and photon diode by Iba dosimetry. The data were processed using Beizer algorithm with a resolution of 1 mm. The measured depth dose curves, diagonals, OAR, and output factors were imported into Eclipse in order to calculate beam data for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA version 10.0.28) for both the dataset measured with CC04 and CC13 and compared. The model head of 23EX was selected as the most near model to True Beam as a restriction of our version of Aria. It was seen that better results were achieved with the CC04 measured data as a result of better resolution. For the biggest field after 10 cm depth a larger difference is seen between measured and calculated for both dataset, but it is within the criteria for acceptance. Results: The Beam analysis criteria of 2 mm at 50% dose is achieved for all the fields accept for 40x40 that is within 3%. Depth difference at maximum dose is within 1 mm for all the fields and dose difference at 100 mm and 200 mm is lower than 1% for or all the fields. The PDD between two machines for all the fields differ after Dmax with less than 1%. For profiles in the field zone and outside field the difference is within 1% for all the fields. In the penumbra region the difference is from 2% up to 12% for big fields. As for diagonals they differ as a result of the head construction at the edge of the field and the penumbra region. The output factors differ for big fields within 5% and

  7. Achieving deeper molecular response is associated with a better clinical outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia patients on imatinib front-line therapy

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Gabriel; Dulucq, Stéphanie; Nicolini, Franck-Emmanuel; Morisset, Stéphane; Fort, Marie-Pierre; Schmitt, Anna; Etienne, Madeleine; Hayette, Sandrine; Lippert, Eric; Bureau, Caroline; Tigaud, Isabelle; Adiko, Didier; Marit, Gérald; Reiffers, Josy; Mahon, François-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Sustained imatinib treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia patients can result in complete molecular response allowing discontinuation without relapse. We set out to evaluate the frequency of complete molecular response in imatinib de novo chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients, to identify base-line and under-treatment predictive factors of complete molecular response in patients achieving complete cytogenetic response, and to assess if complete molecular response is associated with a better outcome. A random selection of patients on front-line imatinib therapy (n=266) were considered for inclusion. Complete molecular response was confirmed and defined as MR 4.5 with undetectable BCR-ABL transcript levels. Median follow up was 4.43 years (range 0.79–10.8 years). Sixty-five patients (24%) achieved complete molecular response within a median time of 32.7 months. Absence of spleen enlargement at diagnosis, achieving complete cytogenetic response before 12 months of therapy, and major molecular response during the year following complete cytogenetic response was predictive of achieving further complete molecular response. Patients who achieved complete molecular response had better event-free and failure-free survivals than those with complete cytogenetic response irrespective of major molecular response status (95.2% vs. 64.7% vs. 27.7%, P=0.00124; 98.4% vs. 82.3% vs. 56%, P=0.0335), respectively. Overall survival was identical in the 3 groups. In addition to complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response, further deeper molecular response is associated with better event-free and failure-free survivals, and complete molecular response confers the best outcome. PMID:24362549

  8. True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of palatal minor salivary gland origin.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y

    1991-01-01

    True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of salivary gland origin is exceedingly rare and is distinguishable from the more frequently occurring carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. This paper reports a case of true malignant mixed tumor originating from a palatal minor salivary gland of a 55-year-old male. Histologically, nests of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma were scattered in a sarcomatous background which partially showed an unequivocal chondrosarcoma. Clinical course of the present patient suggested that a pre-existing benign minor salivary gland lesion developed to a carcinosarcoma.

  9. To discover or to create: metaphors and the true self.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Rebecca J; Vess, Matthew; Arndt, Jamie

    2012-08-01

    Three studies examined how endorsement of self-discovery and self-creation metaphors influences belief in the true self and its use as meaning source. It was hypothesized that discovery metaphors contribute to belief in the true self and bolster the relationship between true self-knowledge and meaning. Study 1 supported the hypothesis that discovery is positively associated with belief in the true self among a sample of college students (N = 311). Studies 2 and 3 extended the analysis by showing that the discovery metaphor also facilitates perceptions of meaning and the use of the true self specifically as a source of meaning in a second sample of college students (N = 75) as well as an adult sample of university employees (N = 173). Implications for understanding what enables the true self to infuse life with meaning, as well as an individual differences approach to metaphoric cognition, are discussed.

  10. Dynamic 1.5-T vs 3-T true fast imaging with steady-state precession (trueFISP)-MRI sequences for assessment of velopharyngeal function

    PubMed Central

    Sinko, K; Czerny, C; Jagsch, R; Baumann, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the image quality of MRI scans produced with 1.5- and 3.0-T devices during functional test condition. Methods: 65 MRI scans obtained with 1.5- (n = 43) or 3.0-T (n = 22) true fast imaging with steady-state precession (trueFISP) sequences from patients with a history of a cleft palate were evaluated. Two experts assessed the MRI scans, independently of each other, and blinded to the MRI technique used. Subjective ratings were entered on a five-point Likert scale. The median planes of three anatomical structures (velum, tongue and pharyngeal wall) were assessed in three functional states (at rest, during phonation of sustained “e” and during articulation of “kkk”). In addition, MRI scans taken during velopharyngeal closure were evaluated. Results: Under blinded conditions, both observers (radiologist and orthodontist) independently rated the quality of 1.5-T scans higher than that of 3.0 T. Statistical analysis of pooled data showed that the differences were highly significant (p < 0.009) in 4 out of 10 test conditions. The greatest differences in favour of 1.5 T were observed for MRI scans of the velum. Conclusions: 1.5 T used with trueFISP may be preferable over 3.0-T trueFISP for the evaluation of the velopharyngeal structures in the clinical routine. PMID:26090932

  11. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a residual risk factor associated with long-term clinical outcomes in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease who achieve optimal control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Manabu; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Miyazaki, Tadashi; Naito, Ryo; Konishi, Hirokazu; Tsuboi, Shuta; Dohi, Tomotaka; Kasai, Takatoshi; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Okazaki, Shinya; Kurata, Takeshi; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is recognized an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. Clinical trials have shown that statins significantly reduce cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statin. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is an established coronary risk factor that is independent of LDL-C levels. We evaluated the impact of HDL-C on long-term mortality in diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieved optimal LDL-C. We enrolled 438 consecutive diabetic patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention between 2004 and 2007 at our institution. We identified 165 patients who achieved target LDL-C <100 mg/dl. Patients were stratified into two groups according to HDL-C levels (low HDL-C group, baseline HDL-C <40 mg/dl; high HDL-C group, ≥40 mg/dl). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) that included all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome, and target lesion revascularization were evaluated between the two groups. The median follow-up period was 946 days. The rate of MACE was significantly higher in diabetic patients with low-HDL-C who achieved optimal LDL-C (6.9 vs 17.9 %, log-rank P = 0.030). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that HDL-C is significantly associated with clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio for MACE 1.33, 95 % confidence interval 1.01-1.75, P = 0.042). Low HDL-C is a residual risk factor that is significantly associated with long-term clinical outcomes among diabetic patients with stable CAD who achieve optimal LDL-C levels.

  12. Non-syndromic occurrence of true generalized microdontia with mandibular mesiodens - a rare case

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abnormalities in size of teeth and number of teeth are occasionally recorded in clinical cases. True generalized microdontia is rare case in which all the teeth are smaller than normal. Mesiodens is commonly located in maxilary central incisor region and uncommon in the mandible. In the present case a 12 year-old boy was healthy; normal in appearance and the medical history was noncontributory. The patient was examined and found to have permanent teeth that were smaller than those of the average adult teeth. The true generalized microdontia was accompanied by mandibular mesiodens. This is a unique case report of non-syndromic association of mandibular hyperdontia with true generalized microdontia. PMID:22035324

  13. Creating the Business Case for Achieving Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations have increasingly acknowledged the presence of health care disparities across race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, but significantly fewer have made health equity for diverse patients a true priority. Lack of financial incentives is a major barrier to achieving health equity. To create a business case for equity, governmental and private payors can: 1) Require health care organizations to report clinical performance data stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. 2) Incentivize preventive care and primary care. Implement more aggressive shared savings plans, update physician relative value unit fee schedules, and encourage partnerships across clinical and non-clinical sectors. 3) Incentivize the reduction of health disparities with equity accountability measures in payment programs. 4) Align equity accountability measures across public and private payors. 5) Assist safety-net organizations. Provide adequate Medicaid reimbursement, risk-adjust clinical performance scores for sociodemographic characteristics of patients, provide support for quality improvement efforts, and calibrate cuts to Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to the pace of health insurance expansion. 6) Conduct demonstration projects to test payment and delivery system reform interventions to reduce disparities. Commitment to social justice is essential to achieve health equity, but insufficient without a strong business case that makes interventions financially feasible.

  14. Creating the Business Case for Achieving Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations have increasingly acknowledged the presence of health care disparities across race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, but significantly fewer have made health equity for diverse patients a true priority. Lack of financial incentives is a major barrier to achieving health equity. To create a business case for equity, governmental and private payors can: 1) Require health care organizations to report clinical performance data stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. 2) Incentivize preventive care and primary care. Implement more aggressive shared savings plans, update physician relative value unit fee schedules, and encourage partnerships across clinical and non-clinical sectors. 3) Incentivize the reduction of health disparities with equity accountability measures in payment programs. 4) Align equity accountability measures across public and private payors. 5) Assist safety-net organizations. Provide adequate Medicaid reimbursement, risk-adjust clinical performance scores for sociodemographic characteristics of patients, provide support for quality improvement efforts, and calibrate cuts to Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to the pace of health insurance expansion. 6) Conduct demonstration projects to test payment and delivery system reform interventions to reduce disparities. Commitment to social justice is essential to achieve health equity, but insufficient without a strong business case that makes interventions financially feasible. PMID:26883523

  15. FPGA Implementation of Metastability-Based True Random Number Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Hisashi; Ichikawa, Shuichi

    True random number generators (TRNGs) are important as a basis for computer security. Though there are some TRNGs composed of analog circuit, the use of digital circuits is desired for the application of TRNGs to logic LSIs. Some of the digital TRNGs utilize jitter in free-running ring oscillators as a source of entropy, which consume large power. Another type of TRNG exploits the metastability of a latch to generate entropy. Although this kind of TRNG has been mostly implemented with full-custom LSI technology, this study presents an implementation based on common FPGA technology. Our TRNG is comprised of logic gates only, and can be integrated in any kind of logic LSI. The RS latch in our TRNG is implemented as a hard-macro to guarantee the quality of randomness by minimizing the signal skew and load imbalance of internal nodes. To improve the quality and throughput, the output of 64-256 latches are XOR'ed. The derived design was verified on a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA (XC4VFX20), and passed NIST statistical test suite without post-processing. Our TRNG with 256 latches occupies 580 slices, while achieving 12.5Mbps throughput.

  16. Efficient true-time-delay adaptive array processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Kelvin H.; Kraut, Shawn; Griffiths, Lloyd J.; Weaver, Samuel P.; Weverka, Robert T.; Sarto, Anthony W.

    1996-11-01

    We present a novel and efficient approach to true-time-delay (TTD) beamforming for large adaptive phased arrays with N elements, for application in radar, sonar, and communication. This broadband and efficient adaptive method for time-delay array processing algorithm decreases the number of tapped delay lines required for N-element arrays form N to only 2, producing an enormous savings in optical hardware, especially for large arrays. This new adaptive system provides the full NM degrees of freedom of a conventional N element time delay beamformer with M taps, each, enabling it to fully and optimally adapt to an arbitrary complex spatio-temporal signal environment that can contain broadband signals, noise, and narrowband and broadband jammers, all of which can arrive from arbitrary angles onto an arbitrarily shaped array. The photonic implementation of this algorithm uses index gratings produce in the volume of photorefractive crystals as the adaptive weights in a TTD beamforming network, 1 or 2 acousto-optic devices for signal injection, and 1 or 2 time-delay-and- integrate detectors for signal extraction. This approach achieves significant reduction in hardware complexity when compared to systems employing discrete RF hardware for the weights or when compared to alternative optical systems that typically use N channel acousto-optic deflectors.

  17. Translating the therapeutic potential of neurotrophic factors to clinical 'proof of concept': a personal saga achieving a career-long quest.

    PubMed

    Bartus, Raymond T

    2012-11-01

    While the therapeutic potential of neurotrophic factors has been well-recognized for over two decades, attempts to translate that potential to the clinic have been disappointing, largely due to significant delivery obstacles. Similarly, gene therapy (or gene transfer) emerged as a potentially powerful, new therapeutic approach nearly two decades ago and despite its promise, also suffered serious setbacks when applied to the human clinic. As advances continue to be made in both fields, ironically, they may now be poised to complement each other to produce a translational breakthrough. The accumulated data argue that gene transfer provides the 'enabling technology' that can solve the age-old delivery problems that have plagued the translation of neurotrophic factors as treatments for chronic central nervous system diseases. A leading translational program applying gene transfer to deliver a neurotrophic factor to rejuvenate and protect degenerating human neurons is CERE-120 (AAV2-NRTN). To date, over two dozen nonclinical studies and three clinical trials have been completed. A fourth (pivotal) clinical trial has completed all dosing and is currently evaluating safety and efficacy. In total, eighty Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects have thus far been dosed with CERE-120 (some 7 years ago), representing over 250 cumulative patient-years of exposure, with no serious safety issues identified. In a completed sham-surgery, double-blinded controlled trial, though the primary endpoint (the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UDPRS) motor off score measured at 12 months) did not show benefit from CERE-120, several important motor and quality of life measurements did, including the same UPDRS-motor-off score, pre-specified to also be measured at a longer, 18-month post-dosing time point. Importantly, not a single measurement favored the sham control group. This study therefore, provided important, well-controlled evidence establishing 'clinical proof of concept' for

  18. General Rules for the Clinical and Pathological Study of Primary Liver Cancer, Nationwide Follow-Up Survey and Clinical Practice Guidelines: The Outstanding Achievements of the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Masatoshi; Kitano, Masayuki; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Naoshi

    2015-10-01

    This review outlines the significance of establishing general rules, a nationwide follow-up survey, and clinical practice guidelines for liver cancer in Japan. The general rules are an essential part of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment, enabling a 'common language' to be used in daily clinical practice and for the nationwide follow-up survey. The Japanese General Rules for the Clinical and Pathological Study of Primary Liver Cancer, which provide detailed descriptions of HCC, are excellent and are unique to Japan. Items in the General Rules for the Clinical and Pathological Study of Primary Liver Cancer are used substantially in another important project, the Nationwide Follow-Up Survey of Primary Liver Cancer, which has been rigorously undertaken with great effort by the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan biannually since 1969. Both evidence-based and consensus-based treatment algorithms for HCC are used to complement each other in clinical practice in Japan.

  19. [Neurological Signs and Symptoms of True Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Mana; Konoeda, Fumie; Sonoo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but many aspects of its pathology, including its definition, has been disputed. True neurogenic TOS (TN-TOS) is a rare but well-defined clinical condition. TN-TOS results from the compression of the C8/T1 roots (dominant for the T1 root) or the proximal lower trunk of the brachial plexus by a fibrous band. The band extends from the first rib to either the tip of an elongated C7 transverse process or a rudimentary cervical rib. The most common presenting symptoms of TN-TOS are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digit flexors. Nerve conduction studies demonstrate pathognomonic findings: severely attenuated compound muscle action potential of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, and usually, loss of the sensory nerve action potential of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Numbness and sensory loss are typically observed, mainly in the medial forearm, although they are usually mild, and may be absent in some patients. Severe pain or paresthesia proximal to the elbow is not observed. The classical concept of TOS underlie nonspecific neurogenic TOS. It has been primarily diagnosed using provocative maneuvers. However, there is controversy regarding its pathological conceptualization and existence, as objective evidence of the disease is still lacking. PMID:27156505

  20. Material Properties Test to Determine Ultimate Strain and True Stress-True Strain Curves for High Yield Steels

    SciTech Connect

    K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

    2003-04-01

    This testing was undertaken to develop material true stress-true strain curves for elastic-plastic material behavior for use in performing transient analysis. Based on the conclusions of this test, the true stress-true strain curves derived herein are valid for use in elastic-plastic finite element analysis for structures fabricated from these materials. In addition, for the materials tested herein, the ultimate strain values are greater than those values cited as the limits for the elastic-plastic strain acceptance criteria for transient analysis.

  1. Past and present achievements, and future direction of the Gastrointestinal Oncology Study Group (GIOSG), a Division of Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG).

    PubMed

    Boku, Narikazu

    2011-12-01

    Initially, Gastrointestinal Study Group in Japan Clinical Oncology Group (GIOSG/JCOG) focused on gastric cancer. In 1980s, fluoropyrimidine, cisplatin and mitomycin C were key drugs. A randomized Phase II trial (JCOG8501) comparing futrafur plus mitomycin C and uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C showed a higher response rate of uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C than futrafur plus mitomycin C. From the results of two Phase II trials of etoposide, adriamycin and cisplatin, and cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil, uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C and cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil were adopted for the test arms of the Phase III trial (JCOG9205) comparing with continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil as a control arm. Neither cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil nor uracil plus futrafur and mitomycin C showed a survival benefit over continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil. In late 1990s, new agents, irinotecan and S-1, were developed for gastric cancer in Japan. GIOSG conducted a Phase III trial (JCOG9912) investigating superiority of irinotecan plus cisplatin and non-inferiority of monotherapy with S-1 compared with continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil, and S-1 succeeded in showing non-inferiority. Then, SPIRITS trial showed a survival benefit of S-1 plus cisplatin over S-1, resulting in the establishment of a standard care for advanced gastric cancer in Japan. GIOSG have merged with Gastric Cancer Study Group as the Stomach Cancer Study Group (SCSG) from 2011. Recent progress in the development of new drugs has been remarkable. From the point of the roles shared with many other study groups for clinical trials, including registration trials of new drugs conducted by pharmaceutical companies, SCSG should recognize its role and conduct clinical trials with high quality for establishing new standard treatment.

  2. Simply the best: teaching gerontological nursing students to teach evidence-based practice. Creating tip sheets can help achieve the goal of implementing EBP in clinical facilities.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Deborah Perry

    2007-08-01

    This article describes a teaching strategy used in an undergraduate gerontological nursing clinical course to familiarize students with evidence-based practice. Students are required to read and summarize an assigned evidence-based practice guideline published by The University of Iowa Gerontological Nursing Interventions Research Center. They then develop a "tip sheet," based on the assigned guideline, to disseminate to health care staff at their practicum sites, which is either a long-term care facility or a hospital-based skilled nursing facility. Nursing students' reactions to the assignment and nursing staff's responses to the tip sheets are discussed.

  3. Long-Term (Six Years) Clinical Outcome Discrimination of Patients in the Vegetative State Could be Achieved Based on the Operational Architectonics EEG Analysis: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are increasingly used to evaluate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) or assess their prognosis outcome in the short-term perspective. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effectiveness of EEG in classifying long-term (many years) outcome in chronic DOC patients. Here we tested whether EEG operational architectonics parameters (geared towards consciousness phenomenon detection rather than neurophysiological processes) could be useful for distinguishing a very long-term (6 years) clinical outcome of DOC patients whose EEGs were registered within 3 months post-injury. The obtained results suggest that EEG recorded at third month after sustaining brain damage, may contain useful information on the long-term outcome of patients in vegetative state: it could discriminate patients who remain in a persistent vegetative state from patients who reach a minimally conscious state or even recover a full consciousness in a long-term perspective (6 years) post-injury. These findings, if confirmed in further studies, may be pivotal for long-term planning of clinical care, rehabilitative programs, medical-legal decisions concerning the patients, and policy makers. PMID:27347266

  4. Long-Term (Six Years) Clinical Outcome Discrimination of Patients in the Vegetative State Could be Achieved Based on the Operational Architectonics EEG Analysis: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are increasingly used to evaluate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) or assess their prognosis outcome in the short-term perspective. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effectiveness of EEG in classifying long-term (many years) outcome in chronic DOC patients. Here we tested whether EEG operational architectonics parameters (geared towards consciousness phenomenon detection rather than neurophysiological processes) could be useful for distinguishing a very long-term (6 years) clinical outcome of DOC patients whose EEGs were registered within 3 months post-injury. The obtained results suggest that EEG recorded at third month after sustaining brain damage, may contain useful information on the long-term outcome of patients in vegetative state: it could discriminate patients who remain in a persistent vegetative state from patients who reach a minimally conscious state or even recover a full consciousness in a long-term perspective (6 years) post-injury. These findings, if confirmed in further studies, may be pivotal for long-term planning of clinical care, rehabilitative programs, medical-legal decisions concerning the patients, and policy makers. PMID:27347266

  5. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  6. Teaching Human Capital by Calculating the True Costs of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Leigh S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an approach to calculating the costs of college education to maximize students' human capital. When considering college expenses, students often overlook the opportunity costs of income foregone while pursuing degrees. A true-cost calculation worksheet and a strategy for making true costs salient to students (projecting the number of…

  7. True bug (Heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity.

    PubMed

    Yede; Babin, R; Djieto-Lordon, C; Cilas, C; Dibog, L; Mahob, R; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-08-01

    The real impact of true bug damage on cocoa pods has never been assessed precisely. We conducted a 2-yr study on 1,080 cocoa trees on 36 farms in Cameroon to assess the contribution of true bugs to fruit mortality and production loss. The cocoa fruiting cycle, fruit mortality, and damage caused by true bugs as well as other pests and diseases were monitored on a weekly basis. True bug damage also was described on 2,500 ripe pods per year. Pod weight, bean number, and bean weight were measured and compared for different degrees and types of damage on the ripe pods. Our results showed that true bugs were the main external cause of young fruit abortion. They reduced the abundance of young fruit by up to 10%. In contrast, although one-third of the ripe pods sampled had true bug lesions, only 4% were moderately to heavily damaged. The mean weight of ripe pods was reduced by 12% when there was medium to heavy damage. While the mean weight of wet beans was reduced significantly (by 3-10%), the number of beans per pod was not changed by damage. Despite the reduction in mean weight, the overall weight of beans for the pods sampled was reduced by <2%. Therefore, our study confirmed the common assumption that the economic impact of true bug damage on mature pods is negligible on cocoa farms in Cameroon. However, true bugs have a significant impact on young fruit mortality.

  8. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  9. Discovering a "True" Map of the World--Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    "True" maps of the world, as seen from the perspective of the time in which they were produced, remain an ethnocentric visual language in modern times. Students can gain insight into such "true" maps by studying maps produced in the great traditions of the West and East. Teachers can determine a map's appropriateness by identifying its title,…

  10. Natural products from true mangrove flora: source, chemistry and bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Xiao, Qiang; Xu, Jing; Li, Min-Yi; Pan, Jian-Yu; Yang, Mei-hua

    2008-10-01

    The mangrove flora is a diverse group of salt-tolerant plants growing in tropical and subtropical intertidal estuarine zones. This review summarizes the source, chemistry and bioactivities of natural products from true mangrove species worldwide. It includes 349 metabolites and 150 references. The molecular phylogeny and chemotaxonomy of true mangrove plants is discussed.

  11. True color blood flow imaging using a high-speed laser photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Sun, Yung-Nien; Ho, Chung-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Chi

    2012-10-01

    Physiological changes in the retinal vasculature are commonly indicative of such disorders as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Thus, various methods have been developed for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics. However, to the best of our knowledge, current ophthalmic instruments do not provide a true color blood flow imaging capability. Accordingly, we propose a new method for the true color imaging of blood flow using a high-speed pulsed laser photography system. In the proposed approach, monochromatic images of the blood flow are acquired using a system of three cameras and three color lasers (red, green, and blue). A high-quality true color image of the blood flow is obtained by assembling the monochromatic images by means of image realignment and color calibration processes. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by imaging the flow of mouse blood within a microfluidic channel device. The experimental results confirm the proposed system provides a high-quality true color blood flow imaging capability, and therefore has potential for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics.

  12. True color scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography handheld probe.

    PubMed

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A

    2014-09-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (SLOs) are able to achieve superior contrast and axial sectioning capability compared to fundus photography. However, SLOs typically use monochromatic illumination and are thus unable to extract color information of the retina. Previous color SLO imaging techniques utilized multiple lasers or narrow band sources for illumination, which allowed for multiple color but not "true color" imaging as done in fundus photography. We describe the first "true color" SLO, handheld color SLO, and combined color SLO integrated with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. To achieve accurate color imaging, the SLO was calibrated with a color test target and utilized an achromatizing lens when imaging the retina to correct for the eye's longitudinal chromatic aberration. Color SLO and OCT images from volunteers were then acquired simultaneously with a combined power under the ANSI limit. Images from this system were then compared with those from commercially available SLOs featuring multiple narrow-band color imaging.

  13. All the Vice Chancellor’s Neuroscientists: Unity to Achieve Success in Solving Malaysia’s Diseases via Upgrading Clinical Services and Neuroscience Research

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2013-01-01

    President Obama of the United States of America announced this April the Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN for short) investment, while Professor Henry Markram’s team based in the European Union will spend over a billion euros on the Human Brain Project, breaking through the unknowns in the fifth science of the decade: Neuroscience. Malaysia's growth in the same field needs to be augmented, and thus the Universiti Sains Malaysia’s vision is to excel in the field of clinical brain sciences, mind sciences and neurosciences. This will naturally bring up the level of research in the country simultaneously. Thus, a center was recently established to coordinate this venture. The four-year Integrated Neuroscience Program established recently will be a sustainable source of neuroscientists for the country. We hope to establish ourselves by 2020 as a global university with neurosciences research as an important flagship. PMID:23966818

  14. Verification of dosimetric accuracy on the TrueBeam STx: Rounded leaf effect of the high definition MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Kielar, Kayla N.; Mok, Ed; Hsu, Annie; Wang Lei; Luxton, Gary

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system is determined during commissioning and is used to model the effect of the rounded leaf-end of the multileaf collimator (MLC). This parameter attempts to model the physical difference between the radiation and light field and account for inherent leakage between leaf tips. With the increased use of single fraction high dose treatments requiring larger monitor units comes an enhanced concern in the accuracy of leakage calculations, as it accounts for much of the patient dose. This study serves to verify the dosimetric accuracy of the algorithm used to model the rounded leaf effect for the TrueBeam STx, and describes a methodology for determining best-practice parameter values, given the novel capabilities of the linear accelerator such as flattening filter free (FFF) treatments and a high definition MLC (HDMLC). Methods: During commissioning, the nominal MLC position was verified and the DLG parameter was determined using MLC-defined field sizes and moving gap tests, as is common in clinical testing. Treatment plans were created, and the DLG was optimized to achieve less than 1% difference between measured and calculated dose. The DLG value found was tested on treatment plans for all energies (6 MV, 10 MV, 15 MV, 6 MV FFF, 10 MV FFF) and modalities (3D conventional, IMRT, conformal arc, VMAT) available on the TrueBeam STx. Results: The DLG parameter found during the initial MLC testing did not match the leaf gap modeling parameter that provided the most accurate dose delivery in clinical treatment plans. Using the physical leaf gap size as the DLG for the HDMLC can lead to 5% differences in measured and calculated doses. Conclusions: Separate optimization of the DLG parameter using end-to-end tests must be performed to ensure dosimetric accuracy in the modeling of the rounded leaf ends for the Eclipse treatment planning system. The difference in leaf gap modeling versus physical

  15. Characterization of true stress-true strain curves obtained by hot deformation of different types of steels

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.E.S.; Ruzzante, J.E. . Grupo Deformacion en Caliente CNEA, Buenos Aires . Dept. Materials)

    1993-10-01

    The results of hot torsion tests in order to characterize the true stress-true strain curves at a high temperature for six different types of steel (carbon, free-cutting and alloyed), were presented in a previous work, and from those results, an expression was proposed to calculate the peak strain [bar [epsilon

  16. Similar Clinical and Surgical Outcomes Achieved with Early Compared to Late Anti-TNF Induction in Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, Darryl K.; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Halloran, Brendan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha are effective in the management of ulcerative colitis (UC), but their use is often postponed until after failure of other treatment modalities. Objectives. We aim to determine if earlier treatment with infliximab or adalimumab alters clinical and surgical outcomes in UC patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating UC outpatients treated with infliximab or adalimumab from 2003 to 2014. Patients were stratified by time to first anti-TNF exposure; early initiation was defined as starting treatment within three years of diagnosis. Primary outcomes were colectomy, UC-related hospitalization, and clinical secondary loss of response. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess time to the primary outcomes. Results. 115 patients were included (78 infliximab, 37 adalimumab). Median follow-up was 175.6 weeks (IQR 72.4–228.4 weeks). Fifty-seven (49.6%) patients received early anti-TNF therapy; median time to treatment in this group was 38.1 (23.3–91.0) weeks compared to 414.0 (254.0–561.3) weeks in the late initiator cohort (p < 0.0001). Patients treated with early anti-TNF therapy had more severe endoscopic disease at induction (mean Mayo endoscopy subscore 2.46 (SD ± 0.66) versus 1.86 (±0.67), p < 0.001) and trended towards increased risk of colectomy (17.5% versus 8.6%, p = 0.16) and UC-related hospitalization (43.9% versus 27.6%, p = 0.07). In multivariate regression analysis, early anti-TNF induction was not associated with colectomy (HR 2.02 [95% CI: 0.57–7.20]), hospitalization (HR 1.66 [0.84–3.30]), or secondary loss of response (HR 0.86 [0.52–1.42]). Conclusions. Anti-TNF therapy is initiated earlier in patients with severe UC but earlier treatment does not prevent hospitalization, colectomy, or secondary loss of response. PMID:27478817

  17. Cultural Influences on Gifted Gender Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joan

    2004-01-01

    In Britain, and reflected in other countries, the academic achievements of gifted girls in school are surpassing those of gifted boys in almost all areas of study and at all ages. This is not true in every country. The British evidence suggests two major reasons for this surge by the gifted girls. Emotionally, British girls are now showing greater…

  18. Implant-supported overdenture manufactured using CAD/CAM techniques to achieve horizontal path insertion between the primary and secondary structure: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gomar-Vercher, Sonia; Ferreiroa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the case of an edentulous patient with an atrophic maxilla and severe class III malocclusion. Prosthetic rehabilitation was performed using CAD/CAM techniques for manufacturing an implant-supported overdenture with horizontal insertion. A vestibulo-lingual insertion overdenture is a precision prosthesis with a fixation system affording a good fit between the primary and secondary structure. Both structures exhibit passive horizontal adjustment. This treatment option requires the same number of implants as implant-supported fixed dentures. The horizontal assembly system prevents the prosthesis from loosening or moving in response to axial and non-axial forces. The technique was used to rehabilitate a patient presenting an atrophic upper maxilla, with the insertion of 8 implants. No complications were reported at follow-up 3, 6 and 12 months after fitting of the prosthesis. This system offers solutions to the clinical and laboratory complications associated with hybrid prostheses, concealing emergence of the chimneys and improving implant-prosthesis hygiene. PMID:26140179

  19. [Achievement of therapeutic target in subjects on statin treatment in clinical practice. Results of the STAR (Statins Target Assessment in Real practice) study].

    PubMed

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Arca, Marcello; Vigna, Giovanni B; Budal, Stefano; Degli Esposti, Ezio

    2011-12-01

    The primary aim of the STAR Study (Statins Target Assessment in Real practice) was to determine the LDL-cholesterol reduction and to analyse patient's and therapeutic factors associated to LDL-cholesterol target attainment in newly treated subjects with statins in an unselected population in clinical practice setting. Administrative databases (including pharmaceutical prescriptions and hospital admissions) and laboratory test databases (including LDL-cholesterol values) of five local health units, distributed in Emilia Romagna, Toscana and Umbria, were linked. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and all subjects aged > or =18 years with a first prescription for statins (newly treated subjects) between January 1st, 2007 and June 30th, 2008 were included. All statin prescriptions over a 12 months follow-up period were considered and used to calculate adherence to treatment. Baseline and follow-up LDL-cholesterol, respectively, were defined according to the nearest determination to the first prescription for statins and to the end of the follow-up period. A total of 3.232 subjects was included, 1.516 males (47%) and 1.716 females (53%), with an average age equal to 65.9 +/- 11.3 years. Among included subjects, 22.,6% had a gap to LDL-cholesterol target <10%, 30.0% between 10 and 29%, 20.7% between 30 and 49%, and 26.7% . or =50%. Among those with a gap to target > or =50%, 30-49%, and 10-29%, respectively, LDL-cholesterol target was attained by 7.1%, 41.8%, and 62.% of subjects. LDL-cholesterol target attainment was associated to gap to target, adherence with treatment, and type of statin. PMID:22567731

  20. Nonperturbative True Muonium on the Light Front with TMSWIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamm, Henry; Lebed, Richard F.

    2016-08-01

    The true muonium {(μbar{μ})} bound state presents an interesting test of light-cone quantization techniques. In addition to exhibiting the standard problems of handling non-perturbative calculations, true muonium requires correct treatment of {ebar{e}} Fock-state contributions. Having previously produced a crude model of true muonium using the method of iterated resolvents, our current work has focused on the inclusion of the box diagrams to improve the cutoff-dependent issues of the model. Further, a parallel computer code, TMSWIFT, allowing for smaller numerical uncertainties, has been developed. This work focuses on the current state of these efforts to develop a model of true muonium that is testable at near-term experiments.

  1. True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcoma) of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Stephen, J; Batsakis, J G; Luna, M A; von der Heyden, U; Byers, R M

    1986-06-01

    True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcomas) of salivary glands are of a high grade of malignancy and are distinguishable from the more frequently occurring carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma. Having a putative origin from a benign pleomorphic adenoma, the true malignant mixed tumor is an aggressive, often rapidly lethal neoplasm in which the sarcomatous element is most often a chondrosarcoma and the epithelial element is most often a ductal carcinoma. The twelve cases in this report represent the largest recorded series to date.

  2. Separate class true discovery rate degree of association sets for biomarker identification.

    PubMed

    Crager, Michael R; Ahmed, Murat

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Efron showed that biological features in a high-dimensional study can be divided into classes and a separate false discovery rate (FDR) analysis can be conducted in each class using information from the entire set of features to assess the FDR within each class. We apply this separate class approach to true discovery rate degree of association (TDRDA) set analysis, which is used in clinical-genomic studies to identify sets of biomarkers having strong association with clinical outcome or state while controlling the FDR. Careful choice of classes based on prior information can increase the identification power of the separate class analysis relative to the overall analysis.

  3. Multi-Gigahertz True-Time-Delay with Optical Coherent Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Mingzhen; Reibel, Randy; Babbitt, Wm. Randall

    2001-03-01

    Operation of mutli-element phased array antenna systems with broadband (multi-gigahertz) signals without beam squint requires novel true time-delay devices. Optical coherent transient technology could provide thousands of delays in a compact volume by exploiting the space and frequency dimensions of inhomogeneously broadened absorbers. We have demonstrated broadband true-time-delay using optical coherent transient techniques in a Tm3+:YAG crystal at 4K, which offers delays up to a microsecond on signals having several tens of GHz bandwidth with sub-picosecond delay resolution. The desired delay was programmed in the crystal as a spatial-spectral grating by repeated application of two 30 picosecond pulses. The demonstrated bandwidth was over 3 GHz and the retrieved data showed good fidelity. Delay accuracy of 1 picosecond and delay resolution of 7 picoseconds (measurement limit) were achieved. The bandwidth achieved is 1000 times greater than previous demonstrations of optical coherent transient true-time-delay. We thank the Office of Naval Research and the University of Colorado for supporting this work.

  4. SU-E-T-327: The Update of a XML Composing Tool for TrueBeam Developer Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y; Mao, W; Jiang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor. In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.

  5. Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

    2013-12-01

    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief.

  6. Image reconstruction for hybrid true-color micro-CT.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiong; Yu, Hengyong; Bennett, James; He, Peng; Zainon, Rafidah; Doesburg, Robert; Opie, Alex; Walsh, Mike; Shen, Haiou; Butler, Anthony; Butler, Phillip; Mou, Xuanqin; Wang, Ge

    2012-06-01

    X-ray micro-CT is an important imaging tool for biomedical researchers. Our group has recently proposed a hybrid "true-color" micro-CT system to improve contrast resolution with lower system cost and radiation dose. The system incorporates an energy-resolved photon-counting true-color detector into a conventional micro-CT configuration, and can be used for material decomposition. In this paper, we demonstrate an interior color-CT image reconstruction algorithm developed for this hybrid true-color micro-CT system. A compressive sensing-based statistical interior tomography method is employed to reconstruct each channel in the local spectral imaging chain, where the reconstructed global gray-scale image from the conventional imaging chain served as the initial guess. Principal component analysis was used to map the spectral reconstructions into the color space. The proposed algorithm was evaluated by numerical simulations, physical phantom experiments, and animal studies. The results confirm the merits of the proposed algorithm, and demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid true-color micro-CT system. Additionally, a "color diffusion" phenomenon was observed whereby high-quality true-color images are produced not only inside the region of interest, but also in neighboring regions. It appears harnessing that this phenomenon could potentially reduce the color detector size for a given ROI, further reducing system cost and radiation dose.

  7. XX true hermaphroditism in southern African blacks: an enigma of primary sexual differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, M; Bernstein, R; Zwane, E; Page, D C; Jenkins, T

    1988-01-01

    A high incidence of 46,XX true hermaphroditism exists among southern African blacks. The gonadal distribution and clinical presentation of 38 patients are described. The aim of our study on 11 families with histologically proven XX true hermaphroditism was to determine whether a common genetic or environmental etiology could be identified. Pedigree analysis excluded the presence of a simple inheritance pattern, and no constant environmental factors could be implicated. Hybridization studies with Y chromosome--specific probes (pDP132, pDP61, pDP105, pDP31, pDP97, and pY431-HinfA) excluded the presence of a large portion of Yp in these patients. It is possible that smaller portions of the Y chromosome or one or more X-linked or autosomal mutations, either interacting and/or with incomplete penetrance, are present. Images Figure 2 PMID:3163890

  8. Blocking Mimicry Makes True and False Smiles Look the Same

    PubMed Central

    Rychlowska, Magdalena; Cañadas, Elena; Wood, Adrienne; Krumhuber, Eva G.; Fischer, Agneta; Niedenthal, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that facial mimicry underlies accurate interpretation of subtle facial expressions. In three experiments, we manipulated mimicry and tested its role in judgments of the genuineness of true and false smiles. Experiment 1 used facial EMG to show that a new mouthguard technique for blocking mimicry modifies both the amount and the time course of facial reactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants rated true and false smiles either while wearing mouthguards or when allowed to freely mimic the smiles with or without additional distraction, namely holding a squeeze ball or wearing a finger-cuff heart rate monitor. Results showed that blocking mimicry compromised the decoding of true and false smiles such that they were judged as equally genuine. Together the experiments highlight the role of facial mimicry in judging subtle meanings of facial expressions. PMID:24670316

  9. True polar wander and plate-driving forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. M.; Solomon, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of net torques applied to the lithosphere by ridge and trench forces as implied by the absence of recent true polar wander is explored. The 'ridge push' and 'trench pull' forces and the potential net torques on the global lithosphere contributed by each of these forces are discussed. It is shown that the relative magnitudes of the net torques contributed by ridge and trench forces are constrained by the absence of true polar wander during the Cenozoic and by the magnitudes of basal shear stresses on the faster moving plates. It is suggested that the lack of recent true polar wander may be due at least in part to the coincidence of a near cancellation of net torques contributed by ridge and trench forces.

  10. NASA Has Joined America True's Design Mission for 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    1999-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Lewis Research Center will support the America True design team led by America s Cup innovator Phil Kaiko. The joint effort between NASA and America True is encouraged by Mission HOME, the official public awareness campaign of the U.S. space community. NASA Lewis and America True have entered into a Space Act Agreement to focus on the interaction between the airfoil and the large deformation of the pretensioned sails and rigs along with the dynamic motions related to the boat motions. This work will require a coupled fluid and structural simulation. Included in the simulation will be both a steadystate capability, to capture the quasi-state interactions between the air loads and sail geometry and the lift and drag on the boat, and a transient capability, to capture the sail/mast pumping effects resulting from hull motions.

  11. Blocking mimicry makes true and false smiles look the same.

    PubMed

    Rychlowska, Magdalena; Cañadas, Elena; Wood, Adrienne; Krumhuber, Eva G; Fischer, Agneta; Niedenthal, Paula M

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that facial mimicry underlies accurate interpretation of subtle facial expressions. In three experiments, we manipulated mimicry and tested its role in judgments of the genuineness of true and false smiles. Experiment 1 used facial EMG to show that a new mouthguard technique for blocking mimicry modifies both the amount and the time course of facial reactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants rated true and false smiles either while wearing mouthguards or when allowed to freely mimic the smiles with or without additional distraction, namely holding a squeeze ball or wearing a finger-cuff heart rate monitor. Results showed that blocking mimicry compromised the decoding of true and false smiles such that they were judged as equally genuine. Together the experiments highlight the role of facial mimicry in judging subtle meanings of facial expressions.

  12. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  13. Software for determining the true displacement of faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Fuentes, R.; Nieto-Samaniego, Á. F.; Xu, S.-S.; Alaniz-Álvarez, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important parameters of faults is the true (or net) displacement, which is measured by restoring two originally adjacent points, called “piercing points”, to their original positions. This measurement is not typically applicable because it is rare to observe piercing points in natural outcrops. Much more common is the measurement of the apparent displacement of a marker. Methods to calculate the true displacement of faults using descriptive geometry, trigonometry or vector algebra are common in the literature, and most of them solve a specific situation from a large amount of possible combinations of the fault parameters. True displacements are not routinely calculated because it is a tedious and tiring task, despite their importance and the relatively simple methodology. We believe that the solution is to develop software capable of performing this work. In a previous publication, our research group proposed a method to calculate the true displacement of faults by solving most combinations of fault parameters using simple trigonometric equations. The purpose of this contribution is to present a computer program for calculating the true displacement of faults. The input data are the dip of the fault; the pitch angles of the markers, slickenlines and observation lines; and the marker separation. To prevent the common difficulties involved in switching between operative systems, the software is developed using the Java programing language. The computer program could be used as a tool in education and will also be useful for the calculation of the true fault displacement in geological and engineering works. The application resolves the cases with known direction of net slip, which commonly is assumed parallel to the slickenlines. This assumption is not always valid and must be used with caution, because the slickenlines are formed during a step of the incremental displacement on the fault surface, whereas the net slip is related to the finite slip.

  14. Mood-congruent true and false memory: effects of depression.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Malone, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm was used to investigate the effect of depression on true and false recognition. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls. These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance.

  15. [Usefulness of Determining Acquisition Time by True Count Rate Measurement Method for Delivery 18F-FDG PET/CT].

    PubMed

    Miura, Shota; Odashima, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    A stable quality of delivery 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) requires suitable acquisition time, which can be obtained from an accurate true count of 18F-FDG. However, the true count is influenced by body mass index (BMI) and attenuation of 18F-FDG. In order to remove these influences, we have developed a new method (actual measurement method) to measure the actual true count rate based on sub-pubic thigh, which allows us to calculate a suitable acquisition time. In this study, we aimed to verify the acquisition count through our new method in terms of two categories: (1) the accuracy of acquisition count and (2) evaluation of clinical images using physical index. Our actual measurement method was designed to obtain suitable acquisition time through the following procedure. A true count rate of sub-pubic thigh was measured through detector of PET, and used as a standard true count rate. Finally, the obtained standard count rate was processed to acquisition time. This method was retrospectively applied to 150 patients, receiving 18F-FDG administration from 109.7 to 336.8 MBq, and whose body weight ranged from 37 to 95.4 kg. The accuracy of true count was evaluated by comparing relationships of true count, relative to BMI or to administered dose of 18F-FDG. The PET/CT images obtained by our actual measurement method were assessed using physical index. Our new method resulted in accurate true count, which was not influenced by either BMI or administered dose of 18F-FDG, as well as satisfied PET/CT images with recommended criteria of physical index in all patients.

  16. Will true 3d display devices aid geologic interpretation. [Mirage

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.R. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    A description is given of true 3D display devices and techniques that are being evaluated in various research laboratories around the world. These advances are closely tied to the expected application of 3D display devices as interpretational tools for explorationists. 34 refs.

  17. True/False Test: Enhancing Its Power through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Felix B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses how modifying the true-or-false (T/F) test, by requiring written explanations, reveals major weaknesses and hazards of the simple (unexplained) T/F tests popular among teachers. But, more important, the modification transforms the test into a very efficient formative assessment tool. It opens a window that allows a teacher to…

  18. Molecular characterization of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 247 true morels (Morchella spp.) was made from 10 different provinces of Turkey during the 2007-2008 growing season. This collection was analyzed for species diversity using phylogenetic analyses of partial Ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase I (RPB1) and nuclear ribosomal large subuni...

  19. The Full and True Value of Campus Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elefante, Carl

    2011-01-01

    To gain a full and true understanding of the value of campus heritage requires shifting perspective. On many campuses, heritage resources are perceived to have no relevance whatsoever to the challenges of sustainability. This results largely from a profound misconception about what may constitute a sustainable future and what steps may be needed…

  20. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  1. Shrinkage Estimation of Linear Combinations of True Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated that, in the presence of population information, a linear combination of true scores can be estimated more efficiently than by the same linear combination of the observed scores. Three criteria for optimality are discussed, but they yield the same solution, described as a multivariate shrinkage estimator. (Author/SLD)

  2. Educators' Ability to Detect True and False Bullying Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Saykaly, Christine; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research investigating children's lie-telling behavior has focused on lay people and legal professionals' abilities to detect deception. Fewer researchers have assessed educators' abilities to evaluate the veracity of children's reports of bullying. In this study, educators' abilities to detect true and false accounts of bullying…

  3. Using Story Contexts to Bias Children's True and False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Wilkinson, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The effects of embedding standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists into stories whose context biased interpretation either toward or away from the overall themes of the DRM lists on both true and false recognition were investigated with 7- and 11-year-olds. These biased story contexts were compared with the same children's susceptibility to…

  4. Neural correlates of true and false belief reasoning.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Sodian, Beate; Meinhardt, Jörg; Thoermer, Claudia; Hajak, Göran

    2007-04-15

    Belief reasoning plays a central role in making inferences about other people's mental states. The ability to reason about false beliefs is considered as a critical test for having a Theory of Mind (ToM). There is some controversy as to whether it is the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) or the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) that is centrally involved in belief reasoning. According to developmental studies of belief reasoning we conducted an fMRI experiment with a carefully controlled paradigm (Sally Anne scenario). We compared false belief reasoning with true belief reasoning in parallel tasks, using a series of cartoon stories depicting transfer of an object unbeknownst to the protagonist (false belief) or with the protagonist witnessing (true belief). The false belief versus true belief contrast revealed activation of the dorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), the right lateral rostral prefrontal cortex and the right TPJ associated with false belief. We suggest that the activation of the dACC and the lateral PFC might be associated with action monitoring and stimulus-independent cognitive processing whereas the activation of the TPJ might be related to the computation of mental representations that create perspective differences, such as a person's false belief that contrasts with reality and therefore might be centrally involved in the decoupling mechanism. Additionally we found common patterns of activation for true and false belief reasoning, including inferior parietal and precuneus activation, but we found no activation of the MPFC or the TPJ in general belief reasoning.

  5. Estimating true color imagery for GOES-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossberg, Michael D.; Shahriar, Fazlul; Gladkova, Irina; Alabi, Paul K.; Hillger, Donald W.; Miller, Steven D.

    2011-06-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R will help NOAA's objective of engaging and educating the public on environmental issues by providing near real-time imagery of the earth-atmosphere system. True color satellite images are beneficial to the public, as well as to scientists, who use these images as an important "decision aid" and visualization tool. Unfortunately, ABI only has two visible bands (cyan and red) and does not directly produce the three bands (blue, green, and red) used to create true color imagery. We have developed an algorithm that will produce quantitative true color imagery from ABI. Our algorithm estimates the three tristimulus values of the international standard CIE 1931 XYZ colorspace for each pixel of the ABI image, and thus is compatible with a wide range of software packages and hardware devices. Our algorithm is based on a non-linear statistical regression framework that incorporate both classification and local multispectral regression using training data. We have used training data from the hyper-spectral imager Hyperion. Our algorithm to produce true color images from the ABI is not specific to ABI and may be applicable to other satellites which, like the ABI, do not have the ability to directly produce RGB imagery.

  6. A comprehensive EPID-based 3D validation technique for TrueBeam-delivered VMAT plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansbacher, W.; Gagne, I. M.; Swift, C.-L.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a pre-treatment EPI dosimetry method on Varian TrueBeam linacs using continuous imaging, with reconstruction in a 3D cylindrical phantom geometry. Methods: Delivery of VMAT plans with continuous imaging is currently possible only in Research Mode on TrueBeam linacs, with images acquired in a proprietary format. An earlier technique was adapted to take advantage of technical improvements in EPID delivery, and was tested under various acquisition conditions. The dosimetry of VMAT plans was evaluated at isocentre and within patient volumes that had been transferred to the virtual phantom. Results: Approximately 60 portal image projections per arc were found to be adequate for 3D reconstruction in phantom volumes of 28cm diameter. Twelve prostate, CNS and Head & Neck deliveries were evaluated in Research mode relative to the corresponding Eclipse (v.10) treatment plans, and to measurements on an ArcCheck device in Treatment mode. Mean dose differences at isocentre were within 2% for the three-way comparison, and in PTV volumes were within 1% (s.d. 1%). However, some discrepancies were observed in ArcCheck results that may be related to the small dimensions of certain VMAT apertures. Conclusions: EPI dosimetry with 3D dose reconstruction is an accurate, comprehensive and efficient pre-treatment validation technique for VMAT delivery. Although currently limited to a research mode on TrueBeam, it has the potential to be implemented for clinical use.

  7. Stratification of pseudoprogression and true progression of glioblastoma multiform based on longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging without segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaohua; Tan, Hua; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Weilin; Chan, Michael D.; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Pseudoprogression (PsP) can mimic true tumor progression (TTP) on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with glioblastoma multiform (GBM). The phenotypical similarity between PsP and TTP makes it a challenging task for physicians to distinguish these entities. So far, no approved biomarkers or computer-aided diagnosis systems have been used clinically for this purpose. Methods: To address this challenge, the authors developed an objective classification system for PsP and TTP based on longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging. A novel spatio-temporal discriminative dictionary learning scheme was proposed to differentiate PsP and TTP, thereby avoiding segmentation of the region of interest. The authors constructed a novel discriminative sparse matrix with the classification-oriented dictionary learning approach by excluding the shared features of two categories, so that the pooled features captured the subtle difference between PsP and TTP. The most discriminating features were then identified from the pooled features by their feature scoring system. Finally, the authors stratified patients with GBM into PsP and TTP by a support vector machine approach. Tenfold cross-validation (CV) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) were used to assess the robustness of the developed system. Results: The average accuracy and AUC values after ten rounds of tenfold CV were 0.867 and 0.92, respectively. The authors also assessed the effects of different methods and factors (such as data types, pooling techniques, and dimensionality reduction approaches) on the performance of their classification system which obtained the best performance. Conclusions: The proposed objective classification system without segmentation achieved a desirable and reliable performance in differentiating PsP from TTP. Thus, the developed approach is expected to advance the clinical research and diagnosis of PsP and TTP. PMID:27806598

  8. Investigating true and false confessions within a novel experimental paradigm.

    PubMed

    Russano, Melissa B; Meissner, Christian A; Narchet, Fadia M; Kassin, Saul M

    2005-06-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to develop a novel experimental paradigm with which to study the influence of psychologically based interrogation techniques on the likelihood of true and false confessions. The paradigm involves guilty and innocent participants being accused of intentionally breaking an experimental rule, or "cheating." In the first demonstration of this paradigm, we explored the influence of two common police interrogation tactics: minimization and an explicit offer of leniency, or a "deal." Results indicated that guilty persons were more likely to confess than innocent persons, and that the use of minimization and the offer of a deal increased the rate of both true and false confessions. Police investigators are encouraged to avoid interrogation techniques that imply or directly promise leniency, as they appear to reduce the diagnostic value of any confession that is elicited. PMID:15943675

  9. A rare case of true carcinosarcoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Accurso, Antonello; Ciancia, Giuseppe; Della Corte, Gianni Antonio; Reale, Paola; Accardo, Giuseppe; Salerno, Carmela; Bordoni, Daniele; Falco, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background True carcinosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare condition, accounting for 0.08–0.2% of all breast malignancies. The correct definition of this tumor requires both a carcinomatous component and a malignant non-epithelial component of mesenchymal origin, without evidence of a transition zone between the two elements. Case presentation We present a case of a 49-year-old woman presenting with a 4 cm mass at the level of her left breast upper-outer quadrant with a histologic diagnosis of true carcinosarcoma of the breast. Discussion The most appropriate therapeutic regimens for breast carcinosarcoma are still unclear because of the rarity of this condition, but Breast Conserving Treatment (BCT) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy seems to provide a prognosis equalling that of usual Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the breast. PMID:26978126

  10. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications. PMID:26390033

  11. Sarcoma with true epithelial differentiation secondary to irradiated glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, J.; Marques, J.; Pereira, P.; Roque, L.; Martins, C.; Campos, A.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme rarely shows true, immunohistochemically confirmed, epithelial differentiation. Furthermore, radiotherapy may induce cerebral sarcomatous tumors, and postsurgery glioblastoma irradiation may give rise to secondary gliosarcomas. We report a case of a 48-year-old male operated on a primary glioblastoma, followed by radiotherapy. A local recurrence occurred 23 months later that was operated too, and a second diagnosis of a fibrosarcoma with true epithelial differentiation was made. Primary systemic neoplasms were largely excluded. The patient died shortly after, and postmortem showed another cerebral dural-attached mass corresponding to a sarcoma without epithelial differentiation, and leptomeningeal seeding composed of malignant epithelial elements only. Cytogenetics, however, disclosed the second tumor to be similar to the primary one.

  12. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications.

  13. True scale model of the Solar System in Hermanus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Villiers, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    The Hermanus Centre (HAC) has recently constructed a true scale model of the solar system along the Cliff Path in Hermanus, stretching from the amphitheatre near the Old Harbour to the end of the Cliff Path at Grotto Beach. Equating the actual distance 3 867.133 m from the Sun model to the Pluto model to the astronomical equivalent of 5 907 171 120 km fixes the scale of the model.

  14. Wing motion measurement and aerodynamics of hovering true hoverflies.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiao Lei; Liu, Yan Peng; Sun, Mao

    2011-09-01

    Most hovering insects flap their wings in a horizontal plane (body having a large angle from the horizontal), called `normal hovering'. But some of the best hoverers, e.g. true hoverflies, hover with an inclined stroke plane (body being approximately horizontal). In the present paper, wing and body kinematics of four freely hovering true hoverflies were measured using three-dimensional high-speed video. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces of the insects. The stroke amplitude of the hoverflies was relatively small, ranging from 65 to 85 deg, compared with that of normal hovering. The angle of attack in the downstroke (∼50 deg) was much larger that in the upstroke (∼20 deg), unlike normal-hovering insects, whose downstroke and upstroke angles of attack are not very different. The major part of the weight-supporting force (approximately 86%) was produced in the downstroke and it was contributed by both the lift and the drag of the wing, unlike the normal-hovering case in which the weight-supporting force is approximately equally contributed by the two half-strokes and the lift principle is mainly used to produce the force. The mass-specific power was 38.59-46.3 and 27.5-35.4 W kg(-1) in the cases of 0 and 100% elastic energy storage, respectively. Comparisons with previously published results of a normal-hovering true hoverfly and with results obtained by artificially making the insects' stroke planes horizontal show that for the true hoverflies, the power requirement for inclined stroke-plane hover is only a little (<10%) larger than that of normal hovering. PMID:21832126

  15. Wing motion measurement and aerodynamics of hovering true hoverflies.

    PubMed

    Mou, Xiao Lei; Liu, Yan Peng; Sun, Mao

    2011-09-01

    Most hovering insects flap their wings in a horizontal plane (body having a large angle from the horizontal), called `normal hovering'. But some of the best hoverers, e.g. true hoverflies, hover with an inclined stroke plane (body being approximately horizontal). In the present paper, wing and body kinematics of four freely hovering true hoverflies were measured using three-dimensional high-speed video. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces of the insects. The stroke amplitude of the hoverflies was relatively small, ranging from 65 to 85 deg, compared with that of normal hovering. The angle of attack in the downstroke (∼50 deg) was much larger that in the upstroke (∼20 deg), unlike normal-hovering insects, whose downstroke and upstroke angles of attack are not very different. The major part of the weight-supporting force (approximately 86%) was produced in the downstroke and it was contributed by both the lift and the drag of the wing, unlike the normal-hovering case in which the weight-supporting force is approximately equally contributed by the two half-strokes and the lift principle is mainly used to produce the force. The mass-specific power was 38.59-46.3 and 27.5-35.4 W kg(-1) in the cases of 0 and 100% elastic energy storage, respectively. Comparisons with previously published results of a normal-hovering true hoverfly and with results obtained by artificially making the insects' stroke planes horizontal show that for the true hoverflies, the power requirement for inclined stroke-plane hover is only a little (<10%) larger than that of normal hovering.

  16. Analog time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing inside scattering media with high power gain (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Focusing light deep inside scattering media plays a key role in such biomedical applications as high resolution optical imaging, control, and therapy. In recent years, wavefront shaping technologies have come a long way in controlling light propagation in complex media. A prominent example is time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing, which allows noninvasive introduction of "guide stars" inside biological tissue to guide light focusing. By measuring the optical wavefront emanating from an ultrasound focus created at the target location, TRUE determines the desired wavefront non-iteratively, and achieves focusing at the target position via a subsequent optical time reversal. Compared to digital counterparts that employ slow electronic spatial light modulators and cameras, analog TRUE focusing relies on nonlinear photorefractive crystals that inherently accommodate more spatial modes and eliminate the troublesome alignment and data transfer required by digital approaches. However, analog TRUE focusing suffers from its small gain, defined as the energy or power ratio between the focusing and probing beams in the focal volume. Here, by implementing a modified analog TRUE focusing scheme that squeezes the duration of the time-reversed photon packet below the carrier-recombination-limited hologram decay time of the crystal, we demonstrated a photon flux amplification much greater than unity at a preset focal voxel in between two scattering layers. Although the energy gain was still below unity, the unprecedented power gain will nevertheless benefit new biomedical applications.

  17. True color scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography handheld probe

    PubMed Central

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (SLOs) are able to achieve superior contrast and axial sectioning capability compared to fundus photography. However, SLOs typically use monochromatic illumination and are thus unable to extract color information of the retina. Previous color SLO imaging techniques utilized multiple lasers or narrow band sources for illumination, which allowed for multiple color but not “true color” imaging as done in fundus photography. We describe the first “true color” SLO, handheld color SLO, and combined color SLO integrated with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. To achieve accurate color imaging, the SLO was calibrated with a color test target and utilized an achromatizing lens when imaging the retina to correct for the eye’s longitudinal chromatic aberration. Color SLO and OCT images from volunteers were then acquired simultaneously with a combined power under the ANSI limit. Images from this system were then compared with those from commercially available SLOs featuring multiple narrow-band color imaging. PMID:25401032

  18. CD10 immunoreactivity in sarcomatoid carcinomas: comparison with true sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Vennapusa, Bharathi; Fischer, Edgar G; Wick, Mark R; Cerilli, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    CD10 is a cell surface-related neutral endopeptidase that is involved in cleaving cytokine peptides; it may also play a role in the proliferation of tumor cells and their acquisition of invasiveness. On account of its association with other overtly epithelial neoplasms, we hypothesized that CD10 might be preferentially expressed in the sarcoma-like components of sarcomatoid carcinomas as compared with true sarcomas. Immunohistochemical labeling for CD10 was assessed in various sarcomas and sarcomatoid carcinomas. An aggregate score was generated using both the intensity and extent of staining throughout the neoplasms. Overall, CD10 was expressed more often in true sarcomas (27 of 33 cases) as contrasted with sarcomatoid carcinomas (22 of 34 cases), but with no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Uterine "carcinosarcomas" expressed CD10 with accentuation in periglandular tumor cells. The sarcoma-like components in squamous cell carcinoma of the respiratory tract (larynx and lung), tongue, bladder, skin, and penis also expressed CD10 consistently. In the final analysis, there was no difference in CD10 expression between sarcomatoid carcinomas and true sarcomas. This marker seems to have little, if any, differential diagnostic value in the specified histopathologic context.

  19. Disc outflows and high-luminosity true type 2 AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Moshe; Netzer, Hagai

    2016-06-01

    The absence of intrinsic broad-line emission has been reported in a number of active galactic nuclei (AGN), including some with high Eddington ratios. Such `true type 2 AGN' are inherent to the disc-wind scenario for the broad-line region: broad-line emission requires a minimal column density, implying a minimal outflow rate and thus a minimal accretion rate. Here we perform a detailed analysis of the consequences of mass conservation in the process of accretion through a central disc. The resulting constraints on luminosity are consistent with all the cases where claimed detections of true type 2 AGN pass stringent criteria, and predict that intrinsic broad-line emission can disappear at luminosities as high as ˜4 × 1046 erg s-1 and any Eddington ratio, though more detections can be expected at Eddington ratios below ˜1 per cent. Our results are applicable to every disc outflow model, whatever its details and whether clumpy or smooth, irrespective of the wind structure and its underlying dynamics. While other factors, such as changes in spectral energy distribution or covering factor, can affect the intensities of broad emission lines, within this scenario they can only produce true type 2 AGN of higher luminosity then those prescribed by mass conservation.

  20. True bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) as psyllid predators (Hemiptera, Psylloidea)

    PubMed Central

    Jerinić-Prodanović, Dušanka; Protić, Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Data on natural enemies of psyllids are rare and can usually be found in papers about economically significant species. During an investigation of psyllid fauna in Serbia, natural enemies were investigated, too. True bugs were the most numerous among them. From 28 psyllid species, 21 species of true bugs from families Anthocoridae and Miridae were reared. Seven species of Anthocoridae were identified: Anthocoris amplicollis (Horváth, 1839), Anthocoris confusus Reuter, 1884, Anthocoris nemoralis (Fabricius, 1794), Anthocoris nemorum (Linnaeus, 1761), Orius majusculus Reuter, 1884, Orius minutus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Orius niger Wolff, 1811. The following 14 species of Miridae were identified: Atractotomus mali Meyer-Dür, 1843, Campylomma verbasci (Meyer-Dür, 1843), Deraeocoris flavilinea (A. Costa, 1862), Deraeocoris ruber (Linnaeus, 1758), Deraeocoris lutescens (Schilling, 1836), Heterocordylus genistae (Scopoli, 1763), Hypseloecus visci (Puton, 1888), Malacocoris chlorizans Panzer, 1794, Miris striatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Orthotylus marginalis Reuter, 1884, Psallus assimilis Stichel, 1956, Psallus quercus Kirschbaum, 1856, Psallus flavellus Stichel, 1933 and Pseudoloxops coccinea (Meyer-Dür, 1843). The aim of the research was to provide list of true bugs recorded as predators of psyllids in order to preserve their diversity and significance, especially on cultivated plants. PMID:24003311

  1. Commissioning and dosimetric characteristics of TrueBeam system: Composite data of three TrueBeam machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Zheng; Wu Qiuwen; Adamson, Justus; Ren Lei; Bowsher, James; Yan Hui; Thomas, Andrew; Yin Fangfang

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: A TrueBeam linear accelerator (TB-LINAC) is designed to deliver traditionally flattened and flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams. Although it has been widely adopted in many clinics for patient treatment, limited information is available related to commissioning of this type of machine. In this work, commissioning data of three units were measured, and multiunit comparison was presented to provide valuable insights and reliable evaluations on the characteristics of the new treatment system. Methods: The TB-LINAC is equipped with newly designed waveguide, carousel assembly, monitoring control, and integrated imaging systems. Each machine in this study has 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 MV flattened photon beams, and 6 MV and 10 MV FFF photon beams as well as 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, and 22 MeV electron beams. Dosimetric characteristics of the three new TB-LINAC treatment units are systematically measured for commissioning. High-resolution diode detectors and ion chambers were used to measure dosimetric data for a range of field sizes from 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 to 400 Multiplication-Sign 400 mm{sup 2}. The composite dosimetric data of the three units are presented in this work. The commissioning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), image-guided radiation therapy, and gating systems are also illustrated. Critical considerations of P{sub ion} of FFF photon beams and small field dosimetric measurements were investigated. Results: The authors found all PDDs and profiles matched well among the three machines. Beam data were quantitatively compared and combined through average to yield composite beam data. The discrepancies among the machines were quantified using standard deviation (SD). The mean SD of the PDDs among the three units is 0.12%, and the mean SD of the profiles is 0.40% for 10 MV FFF open fields. The variations of P{sub ion} of the chamber CC13 is 1.2 {+-} 0.1% under 6 MV FFF and 2.0 {+-} 0.5% under 10 MV FFF from dmax to

  2. A Pilot Study on Culottes versus Crossover Single Stenting for True Coronary Bifurcation Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Zhong, Wenliang; Luo, Yukun; Chen, Lianglong

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to compare clinical and angiographic outcomes of planned culottes technique with that of provisional crossover single stenting in the treatment of true coronary bifurcation lesions (CBL) with drug-eluting stent (DES). Methods True CBL patients (n = 104) were randomly assigned to either the provisional stenting of the side branch (crossover group) or the culottes group. Additional side branch (SB) stenting in the crossover group was required if there was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow ≤ 1 flow). The primary end point was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at nine months, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target lesion/vessel revascularization and in-stent thrombosis. The secondary end point was angiographic in-segment restenosis at nine months. Results The rate of MACE at nine months was similar between the crossover and culottes groups (7.7% vs. 7.7%, p = 1.000). Additional SB stenting in the crossover group was required in 3.8% of patients. There was one procedural occlusion of SB in the crossover group. At nine months, the rate of in-segment restenosis was similar in the parent main vessel (0% vs. 1.9%, p = 1.000), main branch (1.9% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.363) and SB (17.3% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.250) between the crossover and culottes groups, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated that there is no significant difference in cumulative MACE or in-segment restenosis between crossover and culottes groups. Larger randomized clinical trials are warranted to re-evaluate the outcomes of the provisional crossover stenting versus the culottes stenting techniques utilizing DES for true CBL. PMID:27471358

  3. Method of achieving ultra-wideband true-time-delay beam steering for active electronically scanned arrays

    DOEpatents

    Loui, Hung; Brock, Billy C.

    2016-10-25

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to beam steering an array antenna by modifying intermediate frequency (IF) waveforms prior to conversion to RF signals. For each channel, a direct digital synthesis (DDS) component can be utilized to generate a waveform or modify amplitude, timing and phase of a waveform relative to another waveform, whereby the generation/modification can be performed prior to the IF input port of a mixer on each channel. A local oscillator (LO) signal can be utilized to commonly drive each of the mixers. After conversion at the RF output port of each of the mixers, each RF signal can be transmitted by a respective antenna element in the antenna array. Initiation of transmission of each RF signal can be performed simultaneously at each antenna. The process can be reversed during receive whereby timing, amplitude, and phase of the received can be modified digitally post ADC conversion.

  4. True three-dimensional dose computations for megavoltage x-ray therapy: a role for the superposition principle.

    PubMed

    Battista, J J; Sharpe, M B

    1992-12-01

    The objective of radiation therapy is to concentrate a prescribed radiation dose accurately within a target volume in the patient. Major advances in imaging technology have greatly improved our ability to plan radiation treatments in three dimensions (3D) and to verify the treatment geometrically, but there is a concomitant need to improve dosimetric accuracy. It has been recommended that radiation doses should be computed with an accuracy of 3% within the target volume and in radiosensitive normal tissues. We review the rationale behind this recommendation, and describe a new generation of 3D dose algorithms which are capable of achieving this goal. A true 3D dose calculation tracks primary and scattered radiations in 3D space while accounting for tissue inhomogeneities. In the past, dose distributions have been computed in a 2D transverse slice with the assumption that the anatomy of the patient dose not change abruptly in nearby slices. We demonstrate the importance of computing 3D scatter contributions to dose from photons and electrons correctly, and show the magnitude of dose errors caused by using traditional 2D methods. The Monte Carlo technique is the most general and rigorous approach since individual primary and secondary particle tracks are simulated. However, this approach is too time-consuming for clinical treatment planning. We review an approach that is based on the superposition principle and achieves a reasonable compromise between the speed of computation and accuracy in dose. In this approach, dose deposition is separated into two steps. Firstly, the attenuation of incident photons interacting in the absorber is computed to determine the total energy released in the material (TERMA). This quantity is treated as an impulse at each irradiated point. Secondly, the transport of energy by scattered photons and electrons is described by a point dose spread kernel. The dose distribution is the superposition of the kernels, weighted by the magnitude of

  5. On the True Indium Content of In-Filled Skutterudites.

    PubMed

    Visnow, Eduard; Heinrich, Christophe P; Schmitz, Andreas; de Boor, Johannes; Leidich, Patrick; Klobes, Benedikt; Hermann, Raphael P; Müller, Wolf Eckhard; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-08-17

    The incongruently melting single-filled skutterudite InxCo4Sb12 is known as a promising bulk thermoelectric material. However, the products of current bulk syntheses contain always impurities of InSb, Sb, CoSb, or CoSb2, which prevent an unbiased determination of its thermoelectric properties. We report a new two-step synthesis of high-purity InxCo4Sb12 with nominal compositions x = 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, and 0.20 that separates the kieftite (CoSb3) formation from the topotactic filler insertion. This approach allows conducting the reactions at lower temperatures with shorter reaction times and circumventing the formation of impurity phases. The synthesis can be extended to other filled skutterudites. High-density (>98%) pellets for thermoelectric characterization were prepared by current-assisted short-time sintering. Sample homogeneity was demonstrated by potential and Seebeck microprobe measurements of the complete pellet surfaces. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction showed a purity of 99.9% product with traces (≤0.1%) of InSb in samples of nominal composition In0.18Co4Sb12 and In0.20Co4Sb12. Rietveld refinements revealed a linear correlation between the true In occupancy and the lattice parameter a. This allows the determination of the true In filling in skutterudites and predicting the In content of unknown AxCo4Sb12. The high purity of InxCo4Sb12 allowed studying the transport properties without bias from side phases. A figure of merit close to unity at 420 °C was obtained for a sample of a true composition of In0.160(2)Co4Sb12 (nominal composition In0.18Co4Sb12). The lower degree of In filling has a dramatic effect on the thermoelectric properties as demonstrated by the sample of nominal composition In0.20Co4Sb12. The presence of InSb in amounts of ∼0.1 vol% led to a substantially lower degree of interstitial site filling of 0.144, and the figure of merit zT decreased by 18%, which demonstrates the significance of the true filler atom content in skutterudite

  6. [True place of simple sugars in the cause of caries].

    PubMed

    Julien, M G

    1991-02-01

    A recent leaflet published for dental patients by the Canadian Association of Confectioners promotes the consumption of sweets, considering them on an equal basis, in regard to caries, as any other foods containing simple sugars, such as: fruits, vegetables, bread or pasta. This article intends to demistify such inference. While it is true that most foods containing simple sugars can lower plaque pH when considered alone, in the context of a total diet, the relationship between simple sugars and caries is much more complex. Also, in regard to total health, one can not equate all simple sugars since they differ considerably in terms of nutritional value. PMID:1869698

  7. Optical Monte Carlo modeling of a true portwine stain anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Welch, Ashley J.; Smithies, Derek J.; Nelson, Jerry; van Gemert, Martin J.

    1998-04-01

    A unique Monte Carlo program capable of accommodating an arbitrarily complex geometry was used to determine the energy deposition in a true port wine stain anatomy. Serial histologic sections taken from a biopsy of a dark red, laser therapy resistant stain were digitized and used to create the program input for simulation at wavelengths of 532 and 585 nm. At both wavelengths, the greatest energy deposition occurred in the superficial blood vessels, and subsequently decreased with depth as the laser beam was attenuated. However, more energy was deposited in the epidermis and superficial blood vessels at 532 nm than at 585 nm.

  8. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  9. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  10. True Neutrality as a New Type of Flavour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2016-06-01

    A classification of leptonic currents with respect to C-operation requires the separation of elementary particles into the two classes of vector C-even and axial-vector C-odd character. Their nature has been created so that to each type of lepton corresponds a kind of neutrino. Such pairs are united in families of a different C-parity. Unlike the neutrino of a vector type, any C-noninvariant Dirac neutrino must have his Majorana neutrino. They constitute the purely neutrino families. We discuss the nature of a corresponding mechanism responsible for the availability in all types of axial-vector particles of a kind of flavour which distinguishes each of them from others by a true charge characterized by a quantum number conserved at the interactions between the C-odd fermion and the field of emission of the corresponding types of gauge bosons. This regularity expresses the unidenticality of truly neutral neutrino and antineutrino, confirming that an internal symmetry of a C-noninvariant particle is described by an axial-vector space. Thereby, a true flavour together with the earlier known lepton flavour predicts the existence of leptonic strings and their birth in single and double beta decays as a unity of flavour and gauge symmetry laws. Such a unified principle explains the availability of a flavour symmetrical mode of neutrino oscillations.

  11. Experimental and analytical studies of a true airspeed sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Shen, J. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A true airspeed sensor based on the precession of a vortex whistle for sensing airspeeds up to 321.9 km/hr (200 mph). In an attempt to model the complicated fluid mechanics of the vortex precession, three dimensional, inviscid, unsteady, incompressible fluid flow was studied by using the hydrodynamical linearized stability theory. The temporal stability approach was used to derive the relationship between the true airspeed and frequency response. The results show that the frequency response is linearly proportional to the airspeed. A computer program was developed to obtain the numerical solution. Computational results for various parameters were obtained. The designed sensor basically consisted of a vortex tube, a swirler, and a transducer system. A microphone converted the audible tone to an electronic frequency signal. Measurements for both the closed conduit tests and wind tunnel tests were recorded. For a specific flow rate or airspeed, larger exit swirler angles produced higher frequencies. For a smaller cross sectional area in the precessional flow region, the frequency was higher. It was observed that as the airspeed was increased the Strouhal number remained constant.

  12. Deep Brain Stimulation, Continuity over Time, and the True Self.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, Sven; O'Neill, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    One of the topics that often comes up in ethical discussions of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the question of what impact DBS has, or might have, on the patient's self. This is often understood as a question of whether DBS poses a threat to personal identity, which is typically understood as having to do with psychological and/or narrative continuity over time. In this article, we argue that the discussion of whether DBS is a threat to continuity over time is too narrow. There are other questions concerning DBS and the self that are overlooked in discussions exclusively focusing on psychological and/or narrative continuity. For example, it is also important to investigate whether DBS might sometimes have a positive (e.g., a rehabilitating) effect on the patient's self. To widen the discussion of DBS, so as to make it encompass a broader range of considerations that bear on DBS's impact on the self, we identify six features of the commonly used concept of a person's "true self." We apply these six features to the relation between DBS and the self. And we end with a brief discussion of the role DBS might play in treating otherwise treatment-refractory anorexia nervosa. This further highlights the importance of discussing both continuity over time and the notion of the true self. PMID:27634716

  13. Achieving Cannabis Cessation - Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment (ACCENT): Design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Sonne, Susan C.; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ghitza, Udi E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Matthews, Abigail G.; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Levin, Frances R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J.; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S.; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18–50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587

  14. Achieving cannabis cessation -- evaluating N-acetylcysteine treatment (ACCENT): design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M; Ghitza, Udi E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Matthews, Abigail G; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G; Levin, Frances R; Weiss, Roger D; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18-50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders.

  15. TRANSLATIONAL PAIN RESEARCH: ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jianren

    2009-01-01

    The achievements in both preclinical and clinical pain research over the past four decades have led to significant progresses in clinical pain management. However, pain research still faces enormous challenges and there remain many obstacles in the treatment of clinical pain, particularly chronic pain. Translational pain research needs to involve a number of important areas including a) bridging the gap between pain research and clinical pain management, b) developing objective pain assessment tools, c) analyzing current theories of pain mechanisms and their relevance to clinical pain, d) exploring new tools for both preclinical and clinical pain research, and e) coordinating research efforts among basic scientists, clinical investigators, and pain medicine practitioners. These issues are discussed in this article in light of the achievements and challenges of translational pain research. PMID:19628433

  16. High viscosity environments: an unexpected route to obtain true atomic resolution with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan A L; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Brosnan, Timothy M; Jarvis, Suzanne P; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2014-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in liquid environments, where true atomic resolution at the solid-liquid interface can now be routinely achieved. It is generally expected that AFM operation in more viscous environments results in an increased noise contribution from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, viscous fluids such as ionic and organic liquids have been generally avoided for high-resolution AFM studies despite their relevance to, e.g. energy applications. Here, we investigate the thermal noise limitations of dynamic AFM operation in both low and high viscosity environments theoretically, deriving expressions for the amplitude, phase and frequency noise resulting from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby defining the performance limits of amplitude modulation, phase modulation and frequency modulation AFM. We show that the assumption of a reduced SNR in viscous environments is not inherent to the technique and demonstrate that SNR values comparable to ultra-high vacuum systems can be obtained in high viscosity environments under certain conditions. Finally, we have obtained true atomic resolution images of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and mica surfaces, thus revealing the potential of high-resolution imaging in high viscosity environments.

  17. High viscosity environments: an unexpected route to obtain true atomic resolution with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan A L; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Brosnan, Timothy M; Jarvis, Suzanne P; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2014-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in liquid environments, where true atomic resolution at the solid-liquid interface can now be routinely achieved. It is generally expected that AFM operation in more viscous environments results in an increased noise contribution from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, viscous fluids such as ionic and organic liquids have been generally avoided for high-resolution AFM studies despite their relevance to, e.g. energy applications. Here, we investigate the thermal noise limitations of dynamic AFM operation in both low and high viscosity environments theoretically, deriving expressions for the amplitude, phase and frequency noise resulting from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby defining the performance limits of amplitude modulation, phase modulation and frequency modulation AFM. We show that the assumption of a reduced SNR in viscous environments is not inherent to the technique and demonstrate that SNR values comparable to ultra-high vacuum systems can be obtained in high viscosity environments under certain conditions. Finally, we have obtained true atomic resolution images of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and mica surfaces, thus revealing the potential of high-resolution imaging in high viscosity environments. PMID:24717916

  18. High viscosity environments: an unexpected route to obtain true atomic resolution with atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Stefan A. L.; Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Brosnan, Timothy M.; Jarvis, Suzanne P.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2014-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in liquid environments, where true atomic resolution at the solid-liquid interface can now be routinely achieved. It is generally expected that AFM operation in more viscous environments results in an increased noise contribution from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, viscous fluids such as ionic and organic liquids have been generally avoided for high-resolution AFM studies despite their relevance to, e.g. energy applications. Here, we investigate the thermal noise limitations of dynamic AFM operation in both low and high viscosity environments theoretically, deriving expressions for the amplitude, phase and frequency noise resulting from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby defining the performance limits of amplitude modulation, phase modulation and frequency modulation AFM. We show that the assumption of a reduced SNR in viscous environments is not inherent to the technique and demonstrate that SNR values comparable to ultra-high vacuum systems can be obtained in high viscosity environments under certain conditions. Finally, we have obtained true atomic resolution images of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and mica surfaces, thus revealing the potential of high-resolution imaging in high viscosity environments.

  19. Challenges in the development of high-speed true 600-dpi thermal ink-jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, May F.; Keefe, Brian

    1996-03-01

    Hewlett-Packard Company recently introduced a line of thermal ink jet printers which delivers 6 to 8 pages per minute laser parity text throughput with true 600 X 600 dpi resolution. In the development of this technology, we achieved major breakthrough in many key areas in the design of the HP 51645A ink jet print cartridge. In order to print at true 600 dpi resolution, the dot size has to be reduced proportionally from the previous 300 dpi resolution. To increase the print engine throughput to meet customer needs, firing frequency of the drop generator has to be higher than any previous thermal ink jet designs. As a result of the need to improve print quality and throughput, all fluidic dimensions in the vicinity of the ink jet drop generator have to be redesigned and scaled down. This geometric redesigning and scaling poses significant challenges to the capabilities of our manufacturing processes, leading to the redesign of the orifice plate. Major development work in ink formulation has resulted in significant improvements in printer performance as well. The pigmented ink designed for this new generation of ink jet printers provides the highest optical density and media independency to meet customer's print quality needs. The ink formulation also improves dry time so as to meet the pages per minute throughput design objective.

  20. A Monte Carlo approach to validation of FFF VMAT treatment plans for the TrueBeam linac

    SciTech Connect

    Gete, Ermias; Duzenli, Cheryl; Bergman, Alanah Mary; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Mestrovic, Ante; Hyde, Derek; Teke, Tony

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To commission and benchmark a vendor-supplied (Varian Medical Systems) Monte Carlo phase-space data for the 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) energy mode on a TrueBeam linear accelerator for the purpose of quality assurance of clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans. A method for rendering the phase-space data compatible with BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc simulation software package is presented. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to benchmark the TrueBeam 6 MV FFF phase space data that have been released by the Varian MC Research team. The simulations to benchmark the phase space data were done in three steps. First, the original phase space which was created on a cylindrical surface was converted into a format that was compatible with BEAMnrc. Second, BEAMnrc was used to create field size specific phase spaces located underneath the jaws. Third, doses were calculated with DOSXYZnrc in a water phantom for fields ranging from 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 to 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2}. Calculated percent depth doses (PDD), transverse profiles, and output factors were compared with measurements for all the fields simulated. After completing the benchmarking study, three stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) VMAT plans created with the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) were calculated with Monte Carlo. Ion chamber and film measurements were also performed on these plans. 3D gamma analysis was used to compare Monte Carlo calculation with TPS calculations and with film measurement. Results: For the benchmarking study, MC calculated and measured values agreed within 1% and 1.5% for PDDs and in-field transverse profiles, respectively, for field sizes >1 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2}. Agreements in the 80%-20% penumbra widths were better than 2 mm for all the fields that were compared. With the exception of the 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2} field, the agreement between measured and calculated output factors was within

  1. People think about what is true for conditionals, not what is false: only true possibilities prime the comprehension of "if".

    PubMed

    Espino, Orlando; Santamaria, Carlos; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2009-06-01

    We report the results of two priming experiments that examine the comprehension of conditionals--for example, "if there are apples then there are oranges"--and biconditionals--for example, "if and only if there are apples then there are oranges". The first experiment showed that participants read a biconditional faster when it was primed by a true possibility, "there were apples and there were oranges" than when it was primed by a false possibility, "there were no apples and there were oranges"; a conditional was primed equally by both possibilities. The second experiment showed that participants read the negated-antecedent conjunction faster when it was primed by a conditional than when it was primed by a biconditional; the affirmative conjunction was primed equally by both connectives. The experiments show that (a) when people understand "if A then B", they access the true possibilities, "A and B", and "not-A and B", and (b) when they understand "if and only if A then B" they access "A and B", but they do not access "not-A and B". We discuss their implications for current theories of reasoning.

  2. True MRI assessment of stem cell chondrogenesis in a tissue engineered matrix.

    PubMed

    Pothirajan, Padmabharathi; Dorcemus, Deborah; Nukavarapu, Syam; Kotecha, Mrignayani

    2014-01-01

    Developing a non-invasive method to monitor the growth of tissue-engineered cartilage is of utmost importance for tracking the progress and predicting the success or failure of tissue-engineering approaches. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a leading non-invasive technique suitable for follow-through in preclinical and clinical stages. As complex tissue-engineering approaches are being developed for cartilage tissue engineering, it is important to develop strategies for true non-invasive MRI monitoring that can take into account contributions of the scaffold, cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) using MR parameters. In the current study, we present the preliminary MRI assessment of chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow derived stem cells seeded onto a specially designed osteochondral matrix system. We performed water relaxation times (T1 and T2) MRI measurements at 7, 14 and 28 days after cell seeding. The MRI experiments were performed for the tissue-engineered cartilage as well as for acellular scaffolds. We identified that the contribution of the scaffold is the dominant contribution in MR parameters of engineered cartilage and that it hinders observation of the tissue growth. An attempt is made to filter out this contribution, for the first time, in order to make a true observation of tissue growth using MRI. PMID:25570852

  3. Comparison of True and Smoothed Puff Profile Replication on Smoking Behavior and Mainstream Smoke Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To estimate exposures to smokers from cigarettes, smoking topography is typically measured and programmed into a smoking machine to mimic human smoking, and the resulting smoke emissions are tested for relative levels of harmful constituents. However, using only the summary puff data—with a fixed puff frequency, volume, and duration—may underestimate or overestimate actual exposure to smoke toxins. In this laboratory study, we used a topography-driven smoking machine that faithfully reproduces a human smoking session and individual human topography data (n = 24) collected during previous clinical research to investigate if replicating the true puff profile (TP) versus the mathematically derived smoothed puff profile (SM) resulted in differences in particle size distributions and selected toxic/carcinogenic organic compounds from mainstream smoke emissions. Particle size distributions were measured using an electrical low pressure impactor, the masses of the size-fractionated fine and ultrafine particles were determined gravimetrically, and the collected particulate was analyzed for selected particle-bound, semivolatile compounds. Volatile compounds were measured in real time using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer. By and large, TP levels for the fine and ultrafine particulate masses as well as particle-bound organic compounds were slightly lower than the SM concentrations. The volatile compounds, by contrast, showed no clear trend. Differences in emissions due to the use of the TP and SM profiles are generally not large enough to warrant abandoning the procedures used to generate the simpler smoothed profile in favor of the true profile. PMID:25536227

  4. Churned-Up Rocky Debris and Dust (True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has been analyzing sulfur-rich rocks and surface materials in the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater on Mars. This image shows rocky debris and dust, which planetary scientists call 'regolith' or 'soil,' that has been churned up by the rover wheels. This 40-centimeter-wide (16-inch-wide) patch of churned-up dirt, nicknamed 'Paso Robles,' contains brighter patches measured to be high in sulfur by Spirit's alpha particle X-ray Spectrometer. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on martian day, or sol, 400 (Feb. 16, 2005). The image represents the panoramic camera team's best current attempt at generating a true color view of what this scene would look like if viewed by a human on Mars. The image was generated from a combination of six calibrated, left-eye images acquired through filters ranging from 430-nanometer to 750-nanometer wavelengths.

  5. True covariance simulation of the EUVE update filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Harman, R. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a covariance analysis of the performance and sensitivity of the attitude determination Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) used by the On Board Computer (OBC) of the Extreme Ultra Violet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft. The linearized dynamics and measurement equations of the error states are used in formulating the 'truth model' describing the real behavior of the systems involved. The 'design model' used by the OBC EKF is then obtained by reducing the order of the truth model. The covariance matrix of the EKF which uses the reduced order model is not the correct covariance of the EKF estimation error. A 'true covariance analysis' has to be carried out in order to evaluate the correct accuracy of the OBC generated estimates. The results of such analysis are presented which indicate both the performance and the sensitivity of the OBC EKF.

  6. True covariance simulation of the EUVE update filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, R. R.

    1989-01-01

    A covariance analysis of the performance and sensitivity of the attitude determination Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) used by the On Board Computer (OBC) of the Extreme Ultra Violet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft is presented. The linearized dynamics and measurement equations of the error states are derived which constitute the truth model describing the real behavior of the systems involved. The design model used by the OBC EKF is then obtained by reducing the order of the truth model. The covariance matrix of the EKF which uses the reduced order model is not the correct covariance of the EKF estimation error. A true covariance analysis has to be carried out in order to evaluate the correct accuracy of the OBC generated estimates. The results of such analysis are presented which indicate both the performance and the sensitivity of the OBC EKF.

  7. The sweet taste of true synergy: positive allosteric modulation of the human sweet taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Servant, Guy; Tachdjian, Catherine; Li, Xiaodong; Karanewsky, Donald S

    2011-11-01

    A diet low in carbohydrates helps to reduce the amount of ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. With this in mind, food and beverage companies have reformulated a large number of their products, replacing sugar or high fructose corn syrup with several different types of zero-calorie sweeteners to decrease or even totally eliminate their caloric content. A challenge remains, however, with the level of acceptance of some of these products in the market-place. Many consumers believe that zero-calorie sweeteners simply do not taste like sugar. A recent breakthrough reveals that positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor, small molecules that enhance the receptor activity and sweetness perception, could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products without compromising on the true taste of sugar. A unique mechanism of action at the receptor level could explain the robust synergy achieved with these new modulators.

  8. Bias-free true random number generation using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuhao; Zhang, Weijun; Zhou, Hui; You, Lixing; Lv, Chaolin; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Sijing; Ren, Min; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a bias-free true random number generator (TRNG) based on single photon detection using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). By comparing the photon detection signals of two consecutive laser pulses and extracting the random bits by the von Neumann correction method, we achieved a random number generation efficiency of 25% (a generation rate of 3.75 Mbit s-1 at a system clock rate of 15 MHz). Using a multi-channel superconducting nanowire single photon detector system with controllable pulse signal amplitudes, we detected the single photons with photon number resolution and positional sensitivity, which could further increase the random number generation efficiency. In a three-channel SNSPD system, the random number bit generation efficiency was improved to 75%, corresponding to a generation rate of 7.5 Mbit s-1 with a 10 MHz system clock rate. All of the generated random numbers successfully passed the statistical test suite.

  9. Bias-free true random number generation using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuhao; Zhang, Weijun; Zhou, Hui; You, Lixing; Lv, Chaolin; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Sijing; Ren, Min; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a bias-free true random number generator (TRNG) based on single photon detection using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). By comparing the photon detection signals of two consecutive laser pulses and extracting the random bits by the von Neumann correction method, we achieved a random number generation efficiency of 25% (a generation rate of 3.75 Mbit s‑1 at a system clock rate of 15 MHz). Using a multi-channel superconducting nanowire single photon detector system with controllable pulse signal amplitudes, we detected the single photons with photon number resolution and positional sensitivity, which could further increase the random number generation efficiency. In a three-channel SNSPD system, the random number bit generation efficiency was improved to 75%, corresponding to a generation rate of 7.5 Mbit s‑1 with a 10 MHz system clock rate. All of the generated random numbers successfully passed the statistical test suite.

  10. Murder and robbery by vehicular impact: true vehicular homicide.

    PubMed

    Nadesan, K

    2000-06-01

    True vehicular homicides are defined as those occurrences in which a motor vehicle is intentionally used as a weapon in taking of a life. A case is presented in which the deceased was traveling in the front passenger seat of a motor car that was deliberately rammed by a heavy jeep that came in the opposite direction, resulting in a serious frontal collision. Immediately after the impact, while the occupants of the car were lying in a dazed condition, the two persons riding in the jeep escaped with a bag containing money that was in the car, leaving the jeep behind. The impact mainly involved the driver's sides of both vehicles. The driver of the car sustained serious injuries but was found to be alive, whereas the front-seat passenger, who did not show any serious external injuries, was found to be in a collapsed state and was pronounced dead on admission to the hospital within 30 minutes of the accident. The autopsy revealed that death was caused by closed hemopericardium from a ruptured right atrium. The evaluation of the external and internal injuries confirmed that the fatal injury and a few serious internal injuries were caused by the seat belt (tertiary-impact injuries). The ruptured right atrium was attributed to blunt abdominal trauma by impacting against the lap belt. The case was a true vehicular homicide in which a motor vehicle had been used as a weapon to kill a person. Various aspects pertaining to road accidents, the safety of the occupants, and the advantage and disadvantage of the safety devices are discussed.

  11. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J

    2016-03-24

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  12. A true polar wander model for Neoproterozoic plate motions

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperdan, R.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Recent paleogeographic reconstructions for the interval 750--500 Ma (Neoproterozoic to Late Cambrian) require rapid rates of plate motion and/or rotation around an equatorial Euler pole to accommodate reconstructions for the Early Paleozoic. Motions of this magnitude appear to be very uncommon during the Phanerozoic. A model for plate motions based on the hypothesis that discrete intervals of rapid true polar wander (RTPW) occurred during the Neoproterozoic can account for the paleogeographic changes with minimum amounts of plate motion. The model uses the paleogeographic reconstructions of Hoffman (1991). The following constraints were applied during derivation of the model: (1) relative motions between major continental units were restricted to be combinations of great circle or small circle translations with Euler poles of rotation = spin axis; (2) maximum rates of relative translational plate motion were 0.2 m/yr. Based on these constraints, two separate sets of synthetic plate motion trajectories were determined. The sequence of events in both can be summarized as: (1) A rapid true polar wander event of ca 90[degree] rafting a supercontinent to the spin axis; (2) breakup of the polar supercontinent into two fragments, one with the Congo, West Africa, Amazonia, and Baltica cratons, the other with the Laurentia, East Gondwana, and Kalahari cratons; (3) great circle motion of the blocks towards the equator; (4) small circle motion leading to amalgamation of Gondwana and separation of Laurentia and Baltica. In alternative 1, rifting initiates between East Antarctica and Laurentia and one episode of RTPW is required. Alternative 2 requires two episodes of RTPW; and that rifting occurred first along the eastern margin and later along the western margin of Laurentia. Synthetic plate motion trajectories are compared to existing paleomagnetic and geological data, and implications of the model for paleoclimatic changes during the Neoproterozoic are discussed.

  13. Tunable Optical True-Time Delay Devices Would Exploit EIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; DiDomenico, Leo; Lee, Hwang

    2004-01-01

    Tunable optical true-time delay devices that would exploit electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been proposed. Relative to prior true-time delay devices (for example, devices based on ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials) and electronically controlled phase shifters, the proposed devices would offer much greater bandwidths. In a typical envisioned application, an optical pulse would be modulated with an ultra-wideband radio-frequency (RF) signal that would convey the information that one seeks to communicate, and it would be required to couple differently delayed replicas of the RF signal to the radiating elements of a phased-array antenna. One or more of the proposed devices would be used to impose the delays and/or generate the delayed replicas of the RF-modulated optical pulse. The beam radiated or received by the antenna would be steered by use of a microprocessor-based control system that would adjust operational parameters of the devices to tune the delays to the required values. EIT is a nonlinear quantum optical interference effect that enables the propagation of light through an initially opaque medium. A suitable medium must have, among other properties, three quantum states (see Figure 1): an excited state (state 3), an upper ground state (state 2), and a lower ground state (state 1). These three states must form a closed system that exhibits no decays to other states in the presence of either or both of two laser beams: (1) a probe beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 1; and (2) a coupling beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 2. The probe beam is the one that is pulsed and modulated with an RF signal.

  14. It's time to make management a true profession.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rakesh; Nohria, Nitin

    2008-10-01

    In the face of the recent institutional breakdown of trust in business, managers are losing legitimacy. To regain public trust, management needs to become a true profession in much the way medicine and law have, argue Khurana and Nohria of Harvard Business School. True professions have codes, and the meaning and consequences of those codes are taught as part of the formal education required of their members. Through these codes, professional institutions forge an implicit social contract with society: Trust us to control and exercise jurisdiction over an important occupational category, and, in return, we will ensurethat the members of our profession are worthy of your trust--that they will not only be competent to perform the tasks entrusted to them, but that they will also conduct themselves with high standardsand great integrity. The authors believe that enforcing educational standards and a code of ethics is unlikely to choke entrepreneurial creativity. Indeed, if the field of medicine is any indication, a code may even stimulate creativity. The main challenge in writing a code lies in reaching a broad consensus on the aims and social purpose of management. There are two deeply divided schools of thought. One school argues that management's aim should simply be to maximize shareholder wealth; the other argues that management's purpose is to balance the claims of all the firm's stakeholders. Any code will have to steer a middle course in order to accommodate both the value-creating impetus of the shareholder value concept and the accountability inherent in the stakeholder approach.

  15. It's time to make management a true profession.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rakesh; Nohria, Nitin

    2008-10-01

    In the face of the recent institutional breakdown of trust in business, managers are losing legitimacy. To regain public trust, management needs to become a true profession in much the way medicine and law have, argue Khurana and Nohria of Harvard Business School. True professions have codes, and the meaning and consequences of those codes are taught as part of the formal education required of their members. Through these codes, professional institutions forge an implicit social contract with society: Trust us to control and exercise jurisdiction over an important occupational category, and, in return, we will ensurethat the members of our profession are worthy of your trust--that they will not only be competent to perform the tasks entrusted to them, but that they will also conduct themselves with high standardsand great integrity. The authors believe that enforcing educational standards and a code of ethics is unlikely to choke entrepreneurial creativity. Indeed, if the field of medicine is any indication, a code may even stimulate creativity. The main challenge in writing a code lies in reaching a broad consensus on the aims and social purpose of management. There are two deeply divided schools of thought. One school argues that management's aim should simply be to maximize shareholder wealth; the other argues that management's purpose is to balance the claims of all the firm's stakeholders. Any code will have to steer a middle course in order to accommodate both the value-creating impetus of the shareholder value concept and the accountability inherent in the stakeholder approach. PMID:18822673

  16. [Particular clinical situations in the glaucoma patient. True or false deterioration of the visual field?].

    PubMed

    Nordmann, J-P

    2004-06-01

    Measurement errors, correction errors, head position errors, changes in strategy, fluctuations. There are many parameters influencing the results of visual field measurement. When in doubt, it is indispensable to repeat the examination before concluding that the results have deteriorated. In addition to the qualitative assessment, the analysis of global indices can pinpoint the degree of visual field deterioration. PMID:15319754

  17. Effects of calcium feeding strategy on true ileal phosphorus digestibility and true phosphorus retention determined with growing broilers.

    PubMed

    Perryman, K R; Masey O'Neill, H V; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2016-05-01

    An experiment utilizing 960 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers was conducted to determine the effects of Ca feeding strategy on true ileal (prececal) P digestibility (TIPD) and true P retention (TPR) of corn. Experimental diets were formulated with 1 of 3 dietary Ca feeding strategies (0.95%, 0.13%, or variable Ca concentrations to maintain a 2.1:1 Ca:P ratio) and contain 0, 25, 50, or 75% corn. A practical corn-soybean meal diet (1.4:1 Ca:P ratio) was fed as a control. After receiving a common starter diet, experimental diets were fed from 19 to 26 d of age. After a 48-h dietary adaptation period, a 48-h retention assay was conducted. At 25 and 26 d of age, ileal digesta were collected from 8 birds per cage. Broilers consuming the control diet had higher (P<0.001) BW gain, feed intake, digesta P, and excreta P than broilers consuming the corn titration diets. Digesta and excreta P increased (linear, P<0.05) with graded increases of corn. True ileal P digestibility and TPR were highest (P<0.05) for diets with 0.13% Ca (57.3 and 69.5%, respectively) compared with diets formulated with a 2.1:1 Ca:P ratio (41.2 and 37.8%, respectively) or 0.95% Ca (25.4 and 39.0%, respectively). Values for TPR were higher (P<0.05) than those for TIPD except when the dietary Ca:P ratio was fixed. Additionally, negative endogenous P losses were predicted by regression equations when TPR was estimated for birds fed titration diets with the fixed Ca:P ratio. Changing the Ca concentration of the diets to maintain a fixed Ca:P ratio influenced (P<0.001) apparent P retention, which affected the estimate for TPR due to the prediction of negative endogenous P losses. These data demonstrated that regression analysis may have limitations when estimating the TIPD or TPR of corn when formulating diets with different Ca feeding strategies. More research is necessary to elucidate the factors that contributed to regression equations predicting negative endogenous P losses.

  18. Measures of Discrimination Among Achievement Levels in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Smith, Douglas U.

    Eight discriminators were identified and data were obtained from the records of 80 graduate students who attained one of four achievement levels at the conclusion of a beginning course in educational statistics. Although the internal discriminatory power of the set of eight measures was very high, estimates of the true power were discouragingly…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  17. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  18. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  19. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  20. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  1. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  2. Achievement Motivation and the Adolescent Musician: A Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatt, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation plays a role in nearly all human decision-making processes. Regardless of the situation, little may be achieved without the appropriate harnessing of motivation. The same is true in the music classroom. Research appears to indicate that motivation plays a crucial role in human development and achievement. The achievement motivation…

  3. Use of TrueBeam developer mode for imaging QA.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Gilmer; Morin, Olivier; Valenciaga, Yanisley; Kirby, Niel; Pouliot, Jean; Chuang, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to automate regular Imaging QA procedures to become more efficient and accurate. Daily and monthly imaging QA for SRS and SBRT protocols were fully automated on a Varian linac. A three-step paradigm where the data are automatically acquired, processed, and analyzed was defined. XML scripts were written and used in developer mode in a TrueBeam linac to automatically acquire data. MATLAB R013B was used to develop an interface that could allow the data to be processed and analyzed. Hardware was developed that allowed the localization of several phantoms simultaneously on the couch. 14 KV CBCTs from the Emma phantom were obtained using a TrueBeam onboard imager as example of data acquisition and analysis. The images were acquired during two months. Artifacts were artificially introduced in the images during the reconstruction process using iTool reconstructor. Support vector machine algorithms to automatically identify each artifact were written using the Machine Learning MATLAB R2011 Toolbox. A daily imaging QA test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 14.3 ± 2.4 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 4.2 ± 0.7 min. In the same manner, a monthly imaging QA could be performed by a physicist in 70.7 ± 8.0 min and, if fully automated, in 21.8 ± 0.6 min. Additionally, quantitative data analysis could be automatically performed by Machine Learning Algorithms that could remove the subjectivity of data interpretation in the QA process. For instance, support vector machine algorithms could correctly identify beam hardening, rings and scatter artifacts. Traditional metrics, as well as metrics that describe texture, are needed for the classification. Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging capabilities that are used for patient alignment, substantially improving IGRT treatment accuracy. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA

  4. Use of TrueBeam developer mode for imaging QA.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Gilmer; Morin, Olivier; Valenciaga, Yanisley; Kirby, Niel; Pouliot, Jean; Chuang, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to automate regular Imaging QA procedures to become more efficient and accurate. Daily and monthly imaging QA for SRS and SBRT protocols were fully automated on a Varian linac. A three-step paradigm where the data are automatically acquired, processed, and analyzed was defined. XML scripts were written and used in developer mode in a TrueBeam linac to automatically acquire data. MATLAB R013B was used to develop an interface that could allow the data to be processed and analyzed. Hardware was developed that allowed the localization of several phantoms simultaneously on the couch. 14 KV CBCTs from the Emma phantom were obtained using a TrueBeam onboard imager as example of data acquisition and analysis. The images were acquired during two months. Artifacts were artificially introduced in the images during the reconstruction process using iTool reconstructor. Support vector machine algorithms to automatically identify each artifact were written using the Machine Learning MATLAB R2011 Toolbox. A daily imaging QA test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 14.3 ± 2.4 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 4.2 ± 0.7 min. In the same manner, a monthly imaging QA could be performed by a physicist in 70.7 ± 8.0 min and, if fully automated, in 21.8 ± 0.6 min. Additionally, quantitative data analysis could be automatically performed by Machine Learning Algorithms that could remove the subjectivity of data interpretation in the QA process. For instance, support vector machine algorithms could correctly identify beam hardening, rings and scatter artifacts. Traditional metrics, as well as metrics that describe texture, are needed for the classification. Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging capabilities that are used for patient alignment, substantially improving IGRT treatment accuracy. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA

  5. Improving Dose Determination Accuracy in Nonstandard Fields of the Varian TrueBeam Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Megan A.

    In recent years, the use of flattening-filter-free (FFF) linear accelerators in radiation-based cancer therapy has gained popularity, especially for hypofractionated treatments (high doses of radiation given in few sessions). However, significant challenges to accurate radiation dose determination remain. If physicists cannot accurately determine radiation dose in a clinical setting, cancer patients treated with these new machines will not receive safe, accurate and effective treatment. In this study, an extensive characterization of two commonly used clinical radiation detectors (ionization chambers and diodes) and several potential reference detectors (thermoluminescent dosimeters, plastic scintillation detectors, and alanine pellets) has been performed to investigate their use in these challenging, nonstandard fields. From this characterization, reference detectors were identified for multiple beam sizes, and correction factors were determined to improve dosimetric accuracy for ionization chambers and diodes. A validated computational (Monte Carlo) model of the TrueBeam(TM) accelerator, including FFF beam modes, was also used to calculate these correction factors, which compared favorably to measured results. Small-field corrections of up to 18 % were shown to be necessary for clinical detectors such as microionization chambers. Because the impact of these large effects on treatment delivery is not well known, a treatment planning study was completed using actual hypofractionated brain, spine, and lung treatments that were delivered at the UW Carbone Cancer Center. This study demonstrated that improperly applying these detector correction factors can have a substantial impact on patient treatments. This thesis work has taken important steps toward improving the accuracy of FFF dosimetry through rigorous experimentally and Monte-Carlo-determined correction factors, the validation of an important published protocol (TG-51) for use with FFF reference fields, and a

  6. Clinically and/or Serologically Misleading Findings Surrounding Immune Haemolytic Anaemias.

    PubMed

    Salama, Abdulgabar

    2015-09-01

    Autoimmune haemolytic anaemias (AIHAs) are well-characterized disorders. They can be differentiated from one another and from other non-immune haemolytic anaemias by clinical, laboratory and serological testing. However, several misleading clinical presentations and/or serological findings may result in misinterpretation, delay and/or misdiagnosis. Such failures are avoidable by adequate clinical and serological experience of the responsible physicians and serologists or, at least, by an optimised bidirectional communication. As long as this has not been achieved, unpleasant failures are to be expected. A true diagnosis of AIHA can neither be verified by clinical nor serological findings alone. Thus, a collective clinical and serological picture remains obligatory for fulfilling the criteria of optimal diagnosis and therapy. Ultimately, the majority of pioneer scientific and practical work in this field stems from scientists who were simultaneously involved in both the clinic and serology.

  7. Linguistic Determinants of the Difficulty of True-False Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1976-01-01

    Adults read a prose passage and responded to passages based on it which were either true or false and were phrased either affirmatively or negatively. True negatives yielded most errors, followed in order by false negatives, true affirmatives, and false affirmatives. (Author/RC)

  8. 77 FR 33794 - True Product ID, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION True Product ID, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 5, 2012. It appears to the Securities... securities of True Product ID, Inc. (``True Product'') because it has not filed a periodic report since...

  9. Having One's Cake and Eating It, Too: Combining True Experiments with Regression Discontinuity Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Marvin B.

    2008-01-01

    Both true experiments and regression discontinuity (RD) designs produce unbiased estimates of effects. However, true experiments are, of course, often criticized on equity grounds, whereas RD designs entail sacrifices in terms of statistical precision. In this article, a hybrid of true experiments and RD designs is considered. This hybrid entails…

  10. Linear Prediction of a True Score from a Direct Estimate and Several Derived Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Qian, Jiahe

    2007-01-01

    Statistical prediction problems often involve both a direct estimate of a true score and covariates of this true score. Given the criterion of mean squared error, this study determines the best linear predictor of the true score given the direct estimate and the covariates. Results yield an extension of Kelley's formula for estimation of the true…

  11. True unipolar ECG machine for Wilson Central Terminal measurements.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D

    2015-01-01

    Since its invention (more than 80 years ago), modern electrocardiography has employed a supposedly stable voltage reference (with little variation during the cardiac cycle) for half of the signals. This reference, known by the name of "Wilson Central Terminal" in honor of its inventor, is obtained by averaging the three active limb electrode voltages measured with respect to the return ground electrode. However, concerns have been raised by researchers about problems (biasing and misdiagnosis) associated with the ambiguous value and behavior of this reference voltage, which requires perfect and balanced contact of at least four electrodes to work properly. The Wilson Central Terminal has received scant research attention in the last few decades even though consideration of recent widespread medical practice (limb electrodes are repositioned closer to the torso for resting electrocardiography) has also sparkled concerns about the validity and diagnostic fitness of leads not referred to the Wilson Central Terminal. Using a true unipolar electrocardiography device capable of precisely measuring the Wilson Central Terminal, we show its unpredictable variability during the cardiac cycle and confirm that the integrity of cardinal leads is compromised as well as the Wilson Central Terminal when limb electrodes are placed close to the torso. PMID:26495303

  12. Type I restriction endonucleases are true catalytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Piero R; Xu, Cuiling; Chi, Min

    2009-06-01

    Type I restriction endonucleases are intriguing, multifunctional complexes that restrict DNA randomly, at sites distant from the target sequence. Restriction at distant sites is facilitated by ATP hydrolysis-dependent, translocation of double-stranded DNA towards the stationary enzyme bound at the recognition sequence. Following restriction, the enzymes are thought to remain associated with the DNA at the target site, hydrolyzing copious amounts of ATP. As a result, for the past 35 years type I restriction endonucleases could only be loosely classified as enzymes since they functioned stoichiometrically relative to DNA. To further understand enzyme mechanism, a detailed analysis of DNA cleavage by the EcoR124I holoenzyme was done. We demonstrate for the first time that type I restriction endonucleases are not stoichiometric but are instead catalytic with respect to DNA. Further, the mechanism involves formation of a dimer of holoenzymes, with each monomer bound to a target sequence and, following cleavage, each dissociates in an intact form to bind and restrict subsequent DNA molecules. Therefore, type I restriction endonucleases, like their type II counterparts, are true enzymes. The conclusion that type I restriction enzymes are catalytic relative to DNA has important implications for the in vivo function of these previously enigmatic enzymes.

  13. Blood flow estimation in gastroscopic true-color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Raffael S.; Herpers, Rainer; Zwiebel, Franz M.; Englmeier, Karl-Hans

    1995-05-01

    The assessment of blood flow in the gastrointestinal mucosa might be an important factor for the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases such as ulcers, gastritis, colitis, or early cancer. The quantity of blood flow is roughly estimated by computing the spatial hemoglobin distribution in the mucosa. The presented method enables a practical realization by calculating approximately the hemoglobin concentration based on a spectrophotometric analysis of endoscopic true-color images, which are recorded during routine examinations. A system model based on the reflectance spectroscopic law of Kubelka-Munk is derived which enables an estimation of the hemoglobin concentration by means of the color values of the images. Additionally, a transformation of the color values is developed in order to improve the luminance independence. Applying this transformation and estimating the hemoglobin concentration for each pixel of interest, the hemoglobin distribution can be computed. The obtained results are mostly independent of luminance. An initial validation of the presented method is performed by a quantitative estimation of the reproducibility.

  14. Characterizing the True Background Corona with SDO/AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napier, Kate; Winebarger, Amy; Alexander, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the nature of the solar coronal background would enable scientists to more accurately determine plasma parameters, and may lead to a better understanding of the coronal heating problem. Because scientists study the 3D structure of the Sun in 2D, any line of sight includes both foreground and background material, and thus, the issue of background subtraction arises. By investigating the intensity values in and around an active region, using multiple wavelengths collected from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) over an eight-hour period, this project aims to characterize the background as smooth or structured. Different methods were employed to measure the true coronal background and create minimum intensity images. These were then investigated for the presence of structure. The background images created were found to contain long-lived structures, including coronal loops, that were still present in all of the wavelengths, 193 Angstroms,171 Angstroms,131 Angstroms, and 211 Angstroms. The intensity profiles across the active region indicate that the background is much more structured than previously thought.

  15. The quest for a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Godfroid, J; DeBolle, X; Roop, R M; O'Callaghan, D; Tsolis, R M; Baldwin, C; Santos, R L; McGiven, J; Olsen, S; Nymo, I H; Larsen, A; Al Dahouk, S; Letesson, J J

    2014-08-01

    One Health is an interdisciplinary collaboration that aims at mitigating risks to human health arising from microorganisms present in non-human animal species, which have the potential to be transmitted and cause disease in humans. Different degrees of scientific collaboration and sectoral integration are needed for different types of zoonotic diseases, depending on the health and associated economic gains that can be expected from a One Health approach. Indeed, mitigating zoonotic risks related to emerging diseases with pandemic potential is different from mitigating risks related to endemic zoonotic diseases like brucellosis. Likewise, management of brucellosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in wildlife conservation areas is in essence different from mitigating transmission of a given Brucella species within its preferential host species, which in turn is different from mitigating the spillover of a given Brucella species to non-preferential host species, humans included. Brucellosis economic models often oversimplify and/or wrongly assess transmission between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts. Moreover,they may not properly value non-market outcomes, such as avoidance of human disease, consumer confidence and conservation biology issues. As a result, uncertainty is such that the economic predictions of these models can be questionable. Therefore, understanding the infection biology of Brucella species is a prerequisite. This paper reviews and highlights important features of the infection biology of Brucella species and the changing epidemiology of brucellosis that need to be integrated into a true One Health perspective of brucellosis. PMID:25707181

  16. The quest for a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Godfroid, J; DeBolle, X; Roop, R M; O'Callaghan, D; Tsolis, R M; Baldwin, C; Santos, R L; McGiven, J; Olsen, S; Nymo, I H; Larsen, A; Al Dahouk, S; Letesson, J J

    2014-08-01

    One Health is an interdisciplinary collaboration that aims at mitigating risks to human health arising from microorganisms present in non-human animal species, which have the potential to be transmitted and cause disease in humans. Different degrees of scientific collaboration and sectoral integration are needed for different types of zoonotic diseases, depending on the health and associated economic gains that can be expected from a One Health approach. Indeed, mitigating zoonotic risks related to emerging diseases with pandemic potential is different from mitigating risks related to endemic zoonotic diseases like brucellosis. Likewise, management of brucellosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in wildlife conservation areas is in essence different from mitigating transmission of a given Brucella species within its preferential host species, which in turn is different from mitigating the spillover of a given Brucella species to non-preferential host species, humans included. Brucellosis economic models often oversimplify and/or wrongly assess transmission between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts. Moreover,they may not properly value non-market outcomes, such as avoidance of human disease, consumer confidence and conservation biology issues. As a result, uncertainty is such that the economic predictions of these models can be questionable. Therefore, understanding the infection biology of Brucella species is a prerequisite. This paper reviews and highlights important features of the infection biology of Brucella species and the changing epidemiology of brucellosis that need to be integrated into a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

  17. Crawford Williamson Long: The True Pioneer of Surgical Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Prado, Roberto; Schadegg-Peña, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesia and analgesia are as old as mankind itself. However, we now know that the true pioneer of surgical anesthesia through inhalation of ether was Doctor Crawford Williamson Long (1815-1878), who endeavored to help his profession and mankind without pursuing any reward or honor. Crawford Williamson Long was a great and beloved American surgeon. He was a well-educated and elegant man with an outstanding personality. Crawford was born in Danielsville, Georgia, in the United States and was the son of James Long and Elizabeth Ware Long. He married Mary Caroline Swain Long and gave birth to 12 children. Long proved the effectiveness of ether after painlessly removing a tumor from the neck. In 1847, a rivalry broke out among Horace Wells, Charles Thomas Jackson, and William Thomas Green Morton for the primacy as regards the discovery of anesthesia. The US Congress offered itself to arbitrate the case of the so called "ether controversy." Finally, a few years after the end of the North American Civil War, while taking care of a patient, Crawford passed away, presumably after suffering a stroke. PMID:26268419

  18. Topographic evidence of True Polar Wander on Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajeddine, R.; Soderlund, K. M.; Thomas, P.; Helfenstein, P.; Schenk, P.; Hedman, M. M.; Burns, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The peculiar presence of the active hotspot at Enceladus' south pole raises the question of whether it formed in situor if the satellite reoriented over time and moved the hotspot there from a different location. Here we extend a spherical harmonic reconstruction of Enceladus' shape to order 16 by combining Cassini limb profile data with the positions of a large, globally distributed collection of surface control points. We have discovered an aligned arrangement of deep topographic lows that define a circumglobal valley lying along a non-equatorial great circle across Enceladus' surface. In addition, we have found two antipodal basins located about 90 degrees from the great circle. We argue that these structures are evidence of True Polar Wander of an angle 75 to 90 degrees, where the great circle and the antipodal regions are remnants of old equator and poles, respectively. Modeling of heat transport in Enceladus' sub-surface ocean suggests that heat flux along the ice-ocean interface is strongest and weakest at high and low latitudes, respectively. The resulting basal melt/freeze distribution may produce latitudinal variations in ice shell thickness and density that can create the topographic depressions apparent at the surface through isostatic adjustment. Our hypothesis also agrees well with the surface geological features visible in Cassini images.

  19. [Isolated true aneurysm of the deep femoral artery].

    PubMed

    Salomon du Mont, L; Holzer, T; Kazandjian, C; Saucy, F; Corpataux, J M; Rinckenbach, S; Déglise, S

    2016-07-01

    Aneurysms of the deep femoral artery, accounting for 5% of all femoral aneurysms, are uncommon. There is a serious risk of rupture. We report the case of an 83-year-old patient with a painless pulsatile mass in the right groin due to an aneurysm of the deep femoral artery. History taking revealed no cardiovascular risk factors and no other aneurysms at other localizations. The etiology remained unclear because no recent history of local trauma or puncture was found. ACT angiography was performed, revealing a true isolated aneurysm of the deep femoral artery with a diameter of 90mm, beginning 1cm after its origin. There were no signs of rupture or distal emboli. Due to unsuitable anatomy for an endovascular approach, the patient underwent open surgery, with exclusion of the aneurysm and interposition of an 8-mm Dacron graft to preserve deep femoral artery flow. Due to their localization, the diagnosis and the management of aneurysms of the deep femoral artery can be difficult. Options are surgical exclusion or an endovascular approach in the absence of symptoms or as a bridging therapy. If possible, blood flow to the distal deep femoral artery should be maintained, the decision depending also on the patency of the superficial femoral artery. In case of large size, aneurysms of the deep femoral artery should be treated without any delay.

  20. Gender dysphoria in a child with true hermaphroditism.

    PubMed

    Zucker, K J; Bradley, S J; Hughes, H E

    1987-10-01

    This case report describes the psychosexual development of a child with true hermaphroditism who was assigned to the male sex at birth, but reassigned to the female sex at age two months. Given this child's excessive exposure to male sex hormone in utero, relative to physically normal females, one would predict a biological predisposition to behave in a masculine manner. This has occurred since two years of age. In addition, this child has had periodic episodes of gender disturbance, dysphoria, and ambivalence. In contrast, a physically normal fraternal twin sister has been conventionally feminine. A number of psychosocial factors appeared to have exacerbated the biologic predisposition to behave in a masculine manner, and thus may have been responsible for "pushing" this child into varying degrees of gender identity conflict. These included a closer father-daughter than mother-daughter relationship, parental tolerance of cross-gender behavior, and a mother who has been psychologically disturbed since the birth of her children. The heuristic value of this case will be discussed in relation to contemporary models of psychosexual development which emphasize the interaction of biological and psychosocial factors.

  1. True-personality-assisted self-awareness expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Laleuf, M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on psychoanalytic theory, the Who am I expert system explains in simple terms the individual's true personality, even it its unconscious or hidden aspects. Our overt personality traits are deeply rooted. The Who am I expert system gives access to an individual's primary personality, starting from his habitual everyday-life behavior: (1) describes the individual's basic personality, (2) explains this personality through the individual's deeply rooted experience and motivation, and (3) makes links with other people with a similar profile. The following are the primary features of the system: easy individual access, results in <20 minutes, and guaranteed confidentiality. Business applications include the following: (1) Individual training: Self-awareness improves a person's ability to fit in and to succeed within the group. (2) Communication: a homogeneous team has a better chance of success. (3) Human reliability: A close-knit team remains reliable even when faced with serious difficulties. (4) Recruitment: This technique enables the selection of individuals who will fit an existing homogeneous team. The system also enables a psychological diagnosis to be confirmed.

  2. True Unipolar ECG Machine for Wilson Central Terminal Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D.

    2015-01-01

    Since its invention (more than 80 years ago), modern electrocardiography has employed a supposedly stable voltage reference (with little variation during the cardiac cycle) for half of the signals. This reference, known by the name of “Wilson Central Terminal” in honor of its inventor, is obtained by averaging the three active limb electrode voltages measured with respect to the return ground electrode. However, concerns have been raised by researchers about problems (biasing and misdiagnosis) associated with the ambiguous value and behavior of this reference voltage, which requires perfect and balanced contact of at least four electrodes to work properly. The Wilson Central Terminal has received scant research attention in the last few decades even though consideration of recent widespread medical practice (limb electrodes are repositioned closer to the torso for resting electrocardiography) has also sparkled concerns about the validity and diagnostic fitness of leads not referred to the Wilson Central Terminal. Using a true unipolar electrocardiography device capable of precisely measuring the Wilson Central Terminal, we show its unpredictable variability during the cardiac cycle and confirm that the integrity of cardinal leads is compromised as well as the Wilson Central Terminal when limb electrodes are placed close to the torso. PMID:26495303

  3. Sulfur-Rich Rocks and Dirt (True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rover Spirit has been analyzing sulfur-rich rocks and surface materials in the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater on Mars. This image of a very soft, nodular, layered rock nicknamed 'Peace' in honor of Martin Luther King Jr. shows a 4.5-centimeter-wide (1.8-inch-wide) hole Spirit ground into the surface with the rover's rock abrasion tool. The high sulfur content of the rock measured by Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and its softness measured by the abrasion tool are probably evidence of past alteration by water. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on martian day, or sol, 381 (Jan. 27, 2005). The image represents the panoramic camera team's best current attempt at generating a true color view of what this scene would look like if viewed by a human on Mars. The image was generated from a combination of six calibrated, left-eye Pancam images acquired through filters ranging from 430-nanometer to 750-nanometer wavelengths.

  4. True metabolizable energy of moist-soil seeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Checkett, J.M.; Drobney, R.D.; Petrie, M.J.; Graber, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl are often established by converting population energy demands into an equivalent measure of foraging habitat. In some areas, seeds produced from moist-soil plants provide a significant proportion of the energy available to waterfowl. To accurately establish habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl, managers must estimate seed production from moist-soil plants and have information on metabolizable energy (ME) of moist-soil seeds. Although methods for estimating seed production have been developed, ME has been determined for few natural seeds. We determined true metabolizable energy (TME) of 10 moist-soil seeds commonly consumed by wintering and migrating ducks. TME estimates were similar (P>0.05) for hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis; 3.09 kcal/g), little hairy crabgrass (D. ischaemum; 3.10 kcal/g), pigweed (Amaranthus spp.; 2.97 kcal/g), yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens; 2.88 kcal/g), fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum; 2.75 kcal/g), curly dock (Rumex crispus; 2.68 kcal/g), and wild millet (Echinochloa crusgalli; 2.61 kcal/g), but less (P<0.05) for beakrush (Rynchospora corniculata; 1.86 kcal/g), paspalum (Paspalum laeve; 1.57 kcal/g), and nodding or curltop ladysthumb smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium; 1.52 kcal/g). TME values determined for moist-soil seeds in this study will allow managers to accurately estimate carrying capacity of waterfowl habitats.

  5. True Partnerships: The Key to Technology Infrastructure Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Bruce A.

    1998-01-01

    Colleges and universities must build and maintain a robust, comprehensive technology infrastructure to provide needed services today and in the future. Significant financial, technical, and human resource challenges inhibit achievement of this infrastructure. Rider University (New Jersey) solved the problem by forming a partnership with Bell…

  6. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  7. Does a Claims Diagnosis of Autism Mean a True Case?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, James P.; Jain, Anjali; Yang, Wenya; Kelly, Jonathan P.; Kaiser, Marygrace; Becker, Laura; Lawer, Lindsay; Newschaffer, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate autism spectrum disorder cases identified through claims-based case identification algorithms against a clinical review of medical charts. Charts were reviewed for 432 children who fell into one of the three following groups: (a) more than or equal to two claims with an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis…

  8. Commissioning measurements for photon beam data on three TrueBeam linear accelerators, and comparison with Trilogy and Clinac 2100 linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Gloria P

    2013-01-07

    in the profile shapes at a distance greater than 20 cm from the central axis, and this was more notable for the 15 MV energy. Output factor differences were found primarily at the ends of the field size spectrum, with observed differences of less than 2% as compared to the other linear accelerators. The TrueBeam's output factor varied less as a function of field size than the output factors for the previous models; this was especially true for the 6 MV. Photon beam data were found to be reproducible between different TrueBeam linear accelerators well within the accepted clinical tolerance of ± 2%. The results indicate reproducibility in the TrueBeam machine head construction and a potential for beam matching between these types of linear accelerators. Photon beam data (6 MV and 15 MV) from the Trilogy and Clinac 2100 showed several similarities and some small variations when compared to the same data measured on the TrueBeam linear accelerator. The differences found could affect small field data and also very large field sizes in beam matching considerations between the TrueBeam and previous linear accelerator models from the same manufacturer, but should be within the accepted clinical tolerance for standard field sizes and standard treatments.

  9. Hydrodynamic perception in true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae).

    PubMed

    Hanke, Wolf; Wieskotten, Sven; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2013-06-01

    Pinnipeds, that is true seals (Phocidae), eared seals (Otariidae), and walruses (Odobenidae), possess highly developed vibrissal systems for mechanoreception. They can use their vibrissae to detect and discriminate objects by direct touch. At least in Phocidae and Otariidae, the vibrissae can also be used to detect and analyse water movements. Here, we review what is known about this ability, known as hydrodynamic perception, in pinnipeds. Hydrodynamic perception in pinnipeds developed convergently to the hydrodynamic perception with the lateral line system in fish and the sensory hairs in crustaceans. So far two species of pinnipeds, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) representing the Phocidae and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) representing the Otariidae, have been studied for their ability to detect local water movements (dipole stimuli) and to follow hydrodynamic trails, that is the water movements left behind by objects that have passed by at an earlier point in time. Both species are highly sensitive to dipole stimuli and can follow hydrodynamic trails accurately. In the individuals tested, California sea lions were clearly more sensitive to dipole stimuli than harbour seals, and harbour seals showed a superior trail following ability as compared to California sea lions. Harbour seals have also been shown to derive additional information from hydrodynamic trails, such as motion direction, size and shape of the object that caused the trail (California sea lions have not yet been tested). The peculiar undulated shape of the harbour seals' vibrissae appears to play a crucial role in trail following, as it suppresses self-generated noise while the animal is swimming. PMID:23180048

  10. True RGB line scan camera for color machine vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemstrom, Guy F.

    1994-11-01

    In this paper a true RGB 3-chip color line scan camera is described. The camera was mainly developed for accurate color measuring in industrial applications. Due to the camera's modularity it's also possible to use it as a B/W-camera. The color separation is made with a RGB-beam splitter. The CCD linear arrays are fixed with a high accuracy to the beam splitters output in order to match the pixels of the three different CCDs on each other. This makes the color analyses simple compared to color line arrays where line or pixel matching has to be done. The beam splitter can be custom made to separate spectral components other than standard RGB. The spectral range is from 200 to 1000 nm for most CCDs and two or three spectral areas can be separately measured with the beam splitter. The camera is totally digital and has a 16-bit parallel computer interface to communicate with a signal processing board. Because of the open architecture of the camera it's possible for the customer to design a board with some special functions handling the preprocessing of the data (for example RGB - HSI conversion). The camera can also be equipped with a high speed CPU-board with enough local memory to do some image processing inside the camera before sending the data forward. The camera has been used in real industrial applications and has proven that its high resolution and high dynamic range can be used to measure color differences of small amounts to separate or grade objects such as minerals, food or other materials that can't be measured with a black and white camera.

  11. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    PubMed

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented. PMID:26666973

  12. Larval nervous systems: true larval and precocious adult.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Claus

    2015-02-15

    The apical organ of ciliated larvae of cnidarians and bilaterians is a true larval organ that disappears before or at metamorphosis. It appears to be sensory, probably involved in metamorphosis, but knowledge is scant. The ciliated protostome larvae show ganglia/nerve cords that are retained as the adult central nervous system (CNS). Two structures can be recognized, viz. a pair of cerebral ganglia, which form the major part of the adult brain, and a blastoporal (circumblastoporal) nerve cord, which becomes differentiated into a perioral loop, paired or secondarily fused ventral nerve cords and a small perianal loop. The anterior loop becomes part of the brain. This has been well documented through cell-lineage studies in a number of spiralians, and homologies with similar structures in the ecdysozoans are strongly indicated. The deuterostomes are generally difficult to interpret, and the nervous systems of echinoderms and enteropneusts appear completely enigmatic. The ontogeny of the chordate CNS can perhaps be interpreted as a variation of the ontogeny of the blastoporal nerve cord of the protostomes, and this is strongly supported by patterns of gene expression. The presence of 'deuterostomian' blastopore fates both in an annelid and in a mollusk, which are both placed in families with the 'normal' spiralian gastrulation type, and in the chaetognaths demonstrates that the chordate type of gastrulation could easily have evolved from the spiralian type. This indicates that the latest common ancestor of the deuterostomes was very similar to the latest common pelago-benthic ancestor of the protostomes as described by the trochaea theory, and that the neural tube of the chordates is morphologically ventral.

  13. True Niacin Deficiency in Quinolinic Acid Phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Pyridine nucleotide coenzymes (PNCs) are involved in over 500 enzyme reactions. PNCs are biosynthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan (L-Trp), as well as the vitamin niacin. Hence, "true" niacin-deficient animals cannot be "created" using nutritional techniques. We wanted to establish a truly niacin-deficient model animal using a protocol that did not involve manipulating dietary L-Trp. We generated mice that are missing the quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) gene. QPRT activity was not detected in qprt(-/-)mice. The qprt(+/+), qprt(+/-) or qprt(-/-) mice (8 wk old) were fed a complete diet containing 30 mg nicotinic acid (NiA) and 2.3 g L-Trp/kg diet or an NiA-free diet containing 2.3 g L-Trp/kg diet for 23 d. When qprt(-/-)mice were fed a complete diet, food intake and body weight gain did not differ from those of the qprt(+/+) and the qprt(+/-) mice. On the other hand, in the qprt(-/-) mice fed the NiA-free diet, food intake and body weight were reduced to 60% (p<0.01) and 70% (p<0.05) of the corresponding values for the qprt(-/-) mice fed the complete diet at day 23, respectively. The nutritional levels of niacin such as blood and liver NAD concentrations were also lower in the qprt(-/-) mice than in the qprt(+/+) and the qprt(+/-) mice. Urinary excretion of quinolinic acid was greater in the qprt(-/-) mice than in the qprt(+/+) and the qprt(+/-) mice (p<0.01). These data suggest that we generated truly niacin-deficient mice. PMID:26598832

  14. E4 True and false color hot spot mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color views of Jupiter from NASA's Galileo spacecraft show an equatorial 'hotspot' on Jupiter. These images cover an area 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles). The top mosaic combines the violet and near infrared continuum filter images to create an image similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundances of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The bottom mosaic uses Galileo's three near-infrared wavelengths displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Bluish clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are low, and white clouds are high and thick. The dark blue hotspot in the center is a hole in the deep cloud with an overlying thin haze. The light blue region to the left is covered by a very high haze layer. The multicolored region to the right has overlapping cloud layers of different heights. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes 1 to 10 degrees and is centered at longitude 336 degrees west. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on December 17, 1996, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers (about 930,000 miles) by the Solid State Imaging camera system aboard Galileo. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  15. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    PubMed

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented.

  16. [Multimedia (visual collaboration) brings true nature of human life].

    PubMed

    Tomita, N

    2000-03-01

    Videoconferencing system, high-quality visual collaboration, is bringing Multimedia into a society. Multimedia, high quality media such as TV broadcast, looks expensive because it requires broadband network with 100-200 Mpbs bandwidth or 3,700 analog telephone lines. However, thanks to the existing digital-line called N-ISDN (Narrow Integrated Service Digital Network) and PictureTel's audio/video compression technologies, it becomes far less expensive. N-ISDN provides 128 Kbps bandwidth, over twice wider than analog line. PictureTel's technology instantly compress audio/video signal into 1/1,000 in size. This means, with ISDN and PictureTel technology. Multimedia is materialized over even single ISDN line. This will allow doctor to remotely meet face-to-face with a medical specialist or patients to interview, conduct physical examinations, review records, and prescribe treatments. Bonding multiple ISDN lines will further improve video quality that enables remote surgery. Surgeon can perform an operation on internal organ by projecting motion video from Endoscope's CCD camera to large display monitor. Also, PictureTel provides advanced technologies of eliminating background noise generated by surgical knives or scalpels during surgery. This will allow sound of the breath or heartbeat be clearly transmitted to the remote site. Thus, Multimedia eliminates the barrier of distance, enabling people to be just at home, to be anywhere in the world, to undergo up-to-date medical treatment by expertise. This will reduce medical cost and allow people to live in the suburbs, in less pollution, closer to the nature. People will foster more open and collaborative environment by participating in local activities. Such community-oriented life-style will atone for mass consumption, materialistic economy in the past, then bring true happiness and welfare into our life after all.

  17. Adding Seabed True Color to the Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplan, J.; Ryan, W. B.; Jenkins, C. J.; Lotti Bond, R.; Arko, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Since the late 1940’s thousands of sediment cores have been extracted from the global ocean floor. In the process of describing these cores, the color of the sediment has often been recorded using the Munsell Soil color scheme. This observation has been routine for >14,000 cores in the Deep-Sea Sample Repository at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. The text descriptions were parsed and processed to extract the Munsell code for the uppermost sediment layer in each core. The code was then converted to red, green, blue triplets so that a dot at the location of each seabed sample could be colored in map view on a computer monitor. The sediment color has also been extracted from thousands of other samples in the dbSEABED database and USGS databases. Sediment color is influenced by many parameters, but most notably by the carbonate content, the level of dissolved oxygen in the bottom water and the burial rate. The carbonate content has been measured in a substantial subset of the core tops, and a global grid at 1 degree node spacing is available to assist the interpolation of the seabed color onto a uniform grid. The seabed dissolved oxygen content has also been gridded from physical oceanographic stations. Using these and other proxies (e.g., seafloor depth, slope, physiographic boundaries, carbonate lysocline, surface ocean productivity, seafloor age, etc.), we have begun to construct a comprehensive image of the seabed in its true color for our GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean tiles. The color of the seabed will ultimately compliment the color of the land accomplished by JPL/NASA in their Blue Marble tile set. The steps taken, problems encountered and the preliminary results will be presented in the poster.

  18. Hydrodynamic perception in true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae).

    PubMed

    Hanke, Wolf; Wieskotten, Sven; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2013-06-01

    Pinnipeds, that is true seals (Phocidae), eared seals (Otariidae), and walruses (Odobenidae), possess highly developed vibrissal systems for mechanoreception. They can use their vibrissae to detect and discriminate objects by direct touch. At least in Phocidae and Otariidae, the vibrissae can also be used to detect and analyse water movements. Here, we review what is known about this ability, known as hydrodynamic perception, in pinnipeds. Hydrodynamic perception in pinnipeds developed convergently to the hydrodynamic perception with the lateral line system in fish and the sensory hairs in crustaceans. So far two species of pinnipeds, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) representing the Phocidae and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) representing the Otariidae, have been studied for their ability to detect local water movements (dipole stimuli) and to follow hydrodynamic trails, that is the water movements left behind by objects that have passed by at an earlier point in time. Both species are highly sensitive to dipole stimuli and can follow hydrodynamic trails accurately. In the individuals tested, California sea lions were clearly more sensitive to dipole stimuli than harbour seals, and harbour seals showed a superior trail following ability as compared to California sea lions. Harbour seals have also been shown to derive additional information from hydrodynamic trails, such as motion direction, size and shape of the object that caused the trail (California sea lions have not yet been tested). The peculiar undulated shape of the harbour seals' vibrissae appears to play a crucial role in trail following, as it suppresses self-generated noise while the animal is swimming.

  19. The role of true polar wander on the Jurassic palaeoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesia Llanos, María Paula; Prezzi, Claudia Beatriz

    2013-04-01

    From the Late Carboniferous until the Middle Jurassic, continents were assembled in a quasi-rigid supercontinent called Pangea. The first palaeomagnetic data of South America indicated that the continent remained stationary in similar present-day latitudes during most of the Mesozoic and even the Palaeozoic. However, new palaeomagnetic data suggest that such a scenario is not likely, at least for the Jurassic. In order to test the stationary versus the dynamic-continent model, we studied the Jurassic apparent polar wander paths of the major continents, that is, Eurasia, Africa and North America that all in all show the same shape and chronology of the tracks with respect to those from South America. We thus present a master path that could be useful for the Jurassic Pangea. One of the most remarkable features observed in the path is the change in pole positions at ~197 Ma (Early Jurassic), which denotes the cessation of the counter-clockwise rotation of Pangea and commencement of a clockwise rotation that brought about changes in palaeolatitude and orientation until the end of the Early Jurassic (185 Ma). Here, we analyse a number of phenomena that could have triggered the polar shift between 197 and 185 Ma and conclude that true polar wander is the most likely. In order to do this, we used Morgan's (Tectonophysics 94:123-139, 1983) grid of hotspots and performed "absolute" palaeogeographical reconstructions of Pangea for the Late Triassic and Jurassic. The palaeolatitudes changes that we observe from our palaeomagnetic data are very well sustained by diverse palaeoclimatic proxies derived from geological and palaeoecological data at this time of both the southern and northern hemispheres.

  20. True Niacin Deficiency in Quinolinic Acid Phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Pyridine nucleotide coenzymes (PNCs) are involved in over 500 enzyme reactions. PNCs are biosynthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan (L-Trp), as well as the vitamin niacin. Hence, "true" niacin-deficient animals cannot be "created" using nutritional techniques. We wanted to establish a truly niacin-deficient model animal using a protocol that did not involve manipulating dietary L-Trp. We generated mice that are missing the quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) gene. QPRT activity was not detected in qprt(-/-)mice. The qprt(+/+), qprt(+/-) or qprt(-/-) mice (8 wk old) were fed a complete diet containing 30 mg nicotinic acid (NiA) and 2.3 g L-Trp/kg diet or an NiA-free diet containing 2.3 g L-Trp/kg diet for 23 d. When qprt(-/-)mice were fed a complete diet, food intake and body weight gain did not differ from those of the qprt(+/+) and the qprt(+/-) mice. On the other hand, in the qprt(-/-) mice fed the NiA-free diet, food intake and body weight were reduced to 60% (p<0.01) and 70% (p<0.05) of the corresponding values for the qprt(-/-) mice fed the complete diet at day 23, respectively. The nutritional levels of niacin such as blood and liver NAD concentrations were also lower in the qprt(-/-) mice than in the qprt(+/+) and the qprt(+/-) mice. Urinary excretion of quinolinic acid was greater in the qprt(-/-) mice than in the qprt(+/+) and the qprt(+/-) mice (p<0.01). These data suggest that we generated truly niacin-deficient mice.

  1. [Inversion of True Protein Content in Milk Based on Hyperspectral Data].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-qian; Tan, Kun

    2015-12-01

    As an indispensable drink of people's daily life, milk's quality has been also increasingly concerned by consumers. Rapid and accurate detection of milk and its products is the indispensable step for improving the quality of milk and daily products in production. However, traditional methods cannot meet the need. In this paper, rapid quantitative detection of true protein in pure milk was studied by using visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy (350-2500 nm). The spectral data and the protein content data of the pure milk samples were collected by ASD spectrometer and CEM rapid protein analyzer, respectively. Based on the analysis and comparison of different spectrum preprocessing methods and band selection methods, the feature bands were determined. Finally, using the Principle Component Regression (PCR) and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) model, the regression models between the reflectance spectroscopy and the protein content in milk were presented for pure milk samples and the predictive ability was also analyzed. In this way, the optimal inversion model for true protein content in milk was established. The results were shown as follows: (1) In the process of spectral pretreatment, the combination of multiple scatter correction and second derivative achieved a better result; (2) Compared with the modeling of whole spectral, appropriate variable optimization models had the ability to improve the accuracy of the inversion results and reduce the modeling time; (3) The analysis results between PCR model and LS-SVM model demonstrated that the prediction accuracy of LS-SVM model was better than PCR model. The coefficient of determination (R(P)²) of PCR and LS-SVM were 0.952 2 and 0.958 0 respectively, and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of PCR and LS-SVM were 0.048 7 and 0.048 2 respectively. The result of this research is expected to provide a novel method for nondestructive and rapid detection of true protein in milk

  2. True Local Recurrences after Breast Conserving Surgery have Poor Prognosis in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarsenov, Dauren; Ilgun, Serkan; Ordu, Cetin; Alco, Gul; Bozdogan, Atilla; Elbuken, Filiz; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Agacayak, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Eralp, Yesim; Dincer, Maktav

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed at investigating clinical and histopathologic features of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and their effects on survival after breast conservation therapy. Methods: 1,400 patients who were treated between 1998 and 2007 and had breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for early breast cancer (cT1-2/N0-1/M0) were evaluated. Demographic and pathologic parameters, radiologic data, treatment, and follow-up related features of the patients were recorded. Results: 53 patients (3.8%) had IBTR after BCS within a median follow-up of 70 months. The mean age was 45.7 years (range, 27-87 years), and 22 patients (41.5%) were younger than 40 years. 33 patients (62.3%) had true recurrence (TR) and 20 were classified as new primary (NP). The median time to recurrence was shorter in TR group than in NP group (37.0 (6-216) and 47.5 (11-192) months respectively; p = 0.338). Progesterone receptor positivity was significantly higher in the NP group (p = 0.005). The overall 5-year survival rate in the NP group (95.0%) was significantly higher than that of the TR group (74.7%, p < 0.033). Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (<40 years), large tumor size (>20 mm), high grade tumor and triple-negative molecular phenotype along with developing TR negatively affected overall survival (hazard ratios were 4.2 (CI 0.98-22.76), 4.6 (CI 1.07-13.03), 4.0 (CI 0.68-46.10), 6.5 (CI 0.03-0.68), and 6.5 (CI 0.02- 0.80) respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the local recurrences after BCS in our study were true recurrences, which resulted in a poorer outcome as compared to new primary tumors. Moreover, younger age (<40), large tumor size (>2 cm), high grade, triple negative phenotype, and having true recurrence were identified as independent prognostic factors with a negative impact on overall survival in this dataset of patients with recurrent breast cancer. In conjunction with a more intensive follow-up program, the role of adjuvant therapy

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of True Thyroid Dysfunction Among Pediatric Referrals for Abnormal Thyroid Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lahoti, Amit; Klein, Jason; Schumaker, Tiffany; Vuguin, Patricia; Frank, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Abnormalities in thyroid function tests (TFTs) are a common referral reason for pediatric endocrine evaluation. However, a sizable proportion of these laboratory abnormalities do not warrant therapy or endocrine follow-up. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the prevalence of true thyroid dysfunction among pediatric endocrinology referrals for abnormal TFTs; (b) to identify the historical, clinical, and laboratory characteristics that predict decision to treat. Methods. This was a retrospective chart review of patients evaluated in pediatric endocrinology office during a weekly clinic designated for new referrals for abnormal TFTs in 2010. Results. A total of 230 patients were included in the study. Median age at referral was 12 years (range = 2-18); 56% were females. Routine screening was cited as the reason for performing TFTs by 33% patients. Majority was evaluated for hypothyroidism (n = 206). Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone was the most common referral reason (n = 140). A total of 41 out of 206 patients were treated for hypothyroidism. Conclusions. Prevalence of hypothyroidism was 20%. Thyroid follow-up was not recommended for nearly one third of the patients. Among all the factors analyzed, an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level and antithyroglobulin antibodies strongly correlated with the decision to treat (P < .005). PMID:27336020

  4. Prevalence and Determinants of True Thyroid Dysfunction Among Pediatric Referrals for Abnormal Thyroid Function Tests.

    PubMed

    Lahoti, Amit; Klein, Jason; Schumaker, Tiffany; Vuguin, Patricia; Frank, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Abnormalities in thyroid function tests (TFTs) are a common referral reason for pediatric endocrine evaluation. However, a sizable proportion of these laboratory abnormalities do not warrant therapy or endocrine follow-up. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the prevalence of true thyroid dysfunction among pediatric endocrinology referrals for abnormal TFTs; (b) to identify the historical, clinical, and laboratory characteristics that predict decision to treat. Methods. This was a retrospective chart review of patients evaluated in pediatric endocrinology office during a weekly clinic designated for new referrals for abnormal TFTs in 2010. Results. A total of 230 patients were included in the study. Median age at referral was 12 years (range = 2-18); 56% were females. Routine screening was cited as the reason for performing TFTs by 33% patients. Majority was evaluated for hypothyroidism (n = 206). Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone was the most common referral reason (n = 140). A total of 41 out of 206 patients were treated for hypothyroidism. Conclusions. Prevalence of hypothyroidism was 20%. Thyroid follow-up was not recommended for nearly one third of the patients. Among all the factors analyzed, an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level and antithyroglobulin antibodies strongly correlated with the decision to treat (P < .005).

  5. Does true Gleason pattern 3 merit its cancer descriptor?

    PubMed

    Miah, Saiful; Ahmed, Hashim U; Freeman, Alex; Emberton, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Nearly five decades following its conception, the Gleason grading system remains a cornerstone in the prognostication and management of patients with prostate cancer. In the past few years, a debate has been growing whether Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 prostate cancer is a clinically significant disease. Clinical, molecular and genetic research is addressing the question whether well characterized Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease has the ability to affect the morbidity and quality of life of an individual in whom it is diagnosed. The consequences of treatment of Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease are considerable; few men get through their treatments without sustaining some harm. Further modification of the classification of prostate cancer and dropping the label cancer for Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease might be warranted.

  6. Does true Gleason pattern 3 merit its cancer descriptor?

    PubMed

    Miah, Saiful; Ahmed, Hashim U; Freeman, Alex; Emberton, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Nearly five decades following its conception, the Gleason grading system remains a cornerstone in the prognostication and management of patients with prostate cancer. In the past few years, a debate has been growing whether Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 prostate cancer is a clinically significant disease. Clinical, molecular and genetic research is addressing the question whether well characterized Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease has the ability to affect the morbidity and quality of life of an individual in whom it is diagnosed. The consequences of treatment of Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease are considerable; few men get through their treatments without sustaining some harm. Further modification of the classification of prostate cancer and dropping the label cancer for Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease might be warranted. PMID:27530265

  7. The "Clinical" Masters Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Baron; Lane, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Discusses issues surrounding the clinical master's degree: the belief that the only true psychologist is a PhD, public confusion between doctoral and subdoctoral psychologists, training guidelines, role responsibility, employment, licensing and competency, accreditation, and supervision. Suggests an APA sponsored conference to discuss and resolve…

  8. Continuous angle steering of an optically- controlled phased array antenna based on differential true time delay constituted by micro-optical components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Hou, Peipei; Cai, Haiwen; Sun, Jianfeng; Wang, Shunan; Wang, Lijuan; Yang, Fei

    2015-04-01

    We propose an optically controlled phased array antenna (PAA) based on differential true time delay constructed optical beamforming network (OBFN). Differential true time delay is realized by stack integrated micro-optical components. Optically-controlled angle steering of radio frequency (RF) beams are realized and demonstrated by this configuration. Experimental results demonstrate that OBFN based PAA can accomplish RF-independent broadband beam steering without beam squint effect and can achieve continuous angle steering. In addition, multi-beams for different steering angles are acquired synchronously. PMID:25968773

  9. The Double-Blind Stick-and-Swap Technique for True Lumen Reentry After Subintimal Crossing of Coronary Chronic Total Occlusions.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Georgios; Kotsia, Anna P; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2015-09-01

    Subintimal dissection and reentry techniques are widely used in chronic total occlusion (CTO) interventions; however, inability to reenter into the distal true lumen is a common cause of failure. In some patients, subintimal hematoma may develop, compressing the lumen and hindering reentry. We describe 3 CTO cases in which the distal vessel could not be visualized after subintimal crossing, in spite of attempts to decompress the subintimal hematoma. Bidirectional "blind" puncture was performed with the Stingray wire through both ports of the Stingray balloon, followed by exchange of the Stingray wire for a Pilot 200 guidewire (the "double-blind stick-and-swap" technique) achieving distal true lumen reentry. PMID:26332885

  10. Continuous angle steering of an optically- controlled phased array antenna based on differential true time delay constituted by micro-optical components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Hou, Peipei; Cai, Haiwen; Sun, Jianfeng; Wang, Shunan; Wang, Lijuan; Yang, Fei

    2015-04-01

    We propose an optically controlled phased array antenna (PAA) based on differential true time delay constructed optical beamforming network (OBFN). Differential true time delay is realized by stack integrated micro-optical components. Optically-controlled angle steering of radio frequency (RF) beams are realized and demonstrated by this configuration. Experimental results demonstrate that OBFN based PAA can accomplish RF-independent broadband beam steering without beam squint effect and can achieve continuous angle steering. In addition, multi-beams for different steering angles are acquired synchronously.

  11. True Polar Wander of Enceladus From Topographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Soderlund, Krista M.; Thomas, Peter C.; Helfenstein, Paul; Hedman, Matthew M.; Burns, Joseph A.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2016-10-01

    Besides the relative motion of lithospheric plates, the Earth as a whole moves with respect to its rotation pole, as shown by paleomagnetic, astrometric and geodetic measurements [1]. Such so-called true polar wander (TPW) occurs because our planet's moments of inertia change temporally owing to internal thermal convection and to the redistribution of surficial mass during ice ages. Thus, to conserve angular momentum while losing rotational energy, Earth's axis of maximum moment of inertia aligns with its spin axis. Theoreticians suspect similar reorientations of other celestial bodies but supporting evidence is fragmentary, at best [2]. Here we report the discovery of a global series of topographic lows on Saturn's satellite Enceladus indicating that this synchronously locked moon has undergone reorientation by ~55°. We use improved topographic data from spherical harmonic expansion of Cassini limb [3,4,5] and stereogrammetric [5,6,7] measurements to characterize regional topography over the surface of Enceladus. We identify a group of nearly antipodal basins orthogonal to a topographic basin chain tracing a non-equatorial circumglobal belt across Enceladus' surface. We argue that the belt and the antipodal regions are fossil remnants of old equator and poles, respectively. These lows are argued to arise from isostasic compensation [7,8] with their pattern reflecting variations in internal dynamics of the ice shell. Our hypothesis is consistent with many geological features visible in Cassini images [9].References:[1] Mitrovica, J.X. & Wahr, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 39, 577-616 (2011).[2] Matsuyama, I. et al. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 42, 605-634 (2014).[3] Thomas, P.C. et al. Icarus, 190, 573-584 (2007).[4] Thomas, P.C. Icarus, 208, 395-401 (2010).[5] Thomas, P.C. et al. Icarus, 264, 37-47 (2016).[6] Edwards, K. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 53, 1219-1222 (1987).[7] Schenk, P.M. & McKinnon, W. B

  12. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  13. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  14. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  15. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  16. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  17. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  18. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  19. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  20. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  1. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  2. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  3. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  4. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  5. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  6. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  7. Adjusted drug treatment is superior to renal sympathetic denervation in patients with true treatment-resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fadl Elmula, Fadl Elmula M; Hoffmann, Pavel; Larstorp, Anne C; Fossum, Eigil; Brekke, Magne; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Gjønnæss, Eyvind; Hjørnholm, Ulla; Kjaer, Vibeke N; Rostrup, Morten; Os, Ingrid; Stenehjem, Aud; Høieggen, Aud

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to investigate for the first time the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) versus clinically adjusted drug treatment in true treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) after excluding patients with confounding poor drug adherence. Patients with apparent TRH (n=65) were referred for RDN, and those with secondary and spurious hypertension (n=26) were excluded. TRH was defined as office systolic BP (SBP) >140 mm Hg, despite maximally tolerated doses of ≥3 antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic. In addition, ambulatory daytime SBP >135 mm Hg after witnessed intake of antihypertensive drugs was required, after which 20 patients had normalized BP and were excluded. Patients with true TRH were randomized and underwent RDN (n=9) performed with Symplicity Catheter System versus clinically adjusted drug treatment (n=10). The study was stopped early for ethical reasons because RDN had uncertain BP-lowering effect. Office SBP and diastolic BP in the drug-adjusted group changed from 160±14/88±13 mm Hg (±SD) at baseline to 132±10/77±8 mm Hg at 6 months (P<0.0005 and P=0.02, SBP and diastolic BP, respectively) and in the RDN group from 156±13/91±15 to 148±7/89±8 mm Hg (P=0.42 and P=0.48, SBP and diastolic BP, respectively). SBP and diastolic BP were significantly lower in the drug-adjusted group at 6 months (P=0.002 and P=0.004, respectively), and absolute changes in SBP were larger in the drug-adjusted group (P=0.008). Ambulatory BPs changed in parallel to office BPs. Our data suggest that adjusted drug treatment has superior BP lowering effects compared with RDN in patients with true TRH. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01673516.

  8. Motivation and academic achievement in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Yousefy, Alireza; Ghassemi, Gholamreza; Firouznia, Samaneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students’ academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007–2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. Results: Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. Conclusion: In view of our observations, students’ academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation. PMID:23555107

  9. Preparing for the true risks of ICD-10.

    PubMed

    Hinderks, Jackie; Vagle, Jessica; Wolf, Jill

    2014-02-01

    Rice Memorial Hospital assessed its financial risk posed by the transition to ICD-10 by reviewing records, analyzing subsets of claims in all risk categories, and ten-coding at-risk claims to identify documentation deficiencies. An important step was an in-depth review and validation of the original ICD-9 coding and resulting DRG assignment for each of the 250 inpatient medical records included in the assessment. Through the assessment, Rice Memorial identified opportunities for clinical documentation improvement (CDI) and developed a CDI road map.

  10. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (Approximate True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    to identify rocks and features investigated by Spirit during the Chinese New Year celebration period. In ancient Chinese myth, FuYi was the first great emperor and lived in the east. He explained the theory of 'Yin' and 'Yang' to his people, invented the net to catch fish, was the first to use fire to cook food, and invented a musical instrument known as the 'Se' to accompany his peoples' songs and dances. Other rocks and features are being informally named for Chinese gods, warriors, inventors, and scientists, as well as rivers, lakes, and mountains.

    Spirit took this image on the rover's Martian day, or sol, 731 (Jan. 23, 2006). This is an approximate true color rendering combining images taken with the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  11. Supercontinents, True Polar Wander, and Paleogeography of the Slave Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Ross Nelson

    The supercontinent cycle, which may have been operational throughout most of Earth history, describes not only the kinematics associated with the suturing and rifting of continents via plate tectonics but also the wholesale organization of mantle convection patterns, which has consequences for long-term geodynamics and true polar wander (TPW). Based on both newly acquired paleomagnetic data and regional or global syntheses, this thesis generates paleogeographic maps spanning 2 billion years and evaluates how such empirical constraints inform plate kinematics and TPW. Prior to Pangea, the latest supercontinent, paleomagnetism is the only quantitative method for reconstructing continents. Comparing high-quality data from continents considered central to Nuna, possibly Earth's first supercontinent, reconstructs the core of the hypothesized Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent for the first time. A global paleomagnetic synthesis spanning the past three supercontinents yields evidence for periods of oscillatory TPW following each supercontinent that can be used to infer a geometric pattern to supercontinent cycles and constrain absolute paleolongitude. Relative to post-Pangea oscillations, large-amplitude TPW is implied for older events if evidence for early TPW is to be believed. Possibly the last large (˜60°) TPW event occurred during the Cambrian explosion of animal life. A new detailed Early Cambrian magnetostratigraphy from the Amadeus Basin of Australia indicates a rapid Early Cambrian rotation of Gondwana, still permitting the possibility that at least one large-amplitude TPW event occurred in Phanerozoic time. Investigating earlier and even larger possible TPW episodes, several cases are identified where interpreting large paleomagnetic oscillations as TPW permits regional geologic interpretations to be honored. Allowing for only minor tectonic motion of Laurentia and large-scale TPW, large amounts of paleomagnetic motion observed can be reconciled with

  12. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  13. Diabetic Kidney Disease and Hypertension: A True Love Story

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anand; Vyas, Sony; Agarwal, Abhishek; Abbas, Shahid; Agarwal, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes Mellitus (DM) remains one of the commonest causes of structural and functional kidney abnormalities leading to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The next most common cause is hypertension. It is utmost important to investigate the association between diabetic nephropathy and hypertension because it is a major causal factor of end-stage kidney failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between albuminuria, hypertension and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a prospective cohort of T2DM patients in a developing country. Materials and Methods A total of 824 patients were enrolled from a tertiary healthcare center in central India. This study was performed in three groups: normal controls (232), type 2 diabetics without nephropathy (185) and type 2 diabetics with nephropathy (407). Diabetic nephropathy was clinically defined by the presence of persistent proteinuria of > 500mg/day in a diabetic patient in the absence of clinical or laboratory evidence of other kidney or urinary tract disease. Hypertension was categorized based on JNC 7 classification. Detailed clinical history was obtained from all subjects. Student’s t-test was applied to see the difference in mean values of quantitative data in two groups. Chi-Square test was applied to see the difference in frequency of discrete variables in two groups. Results A 66.3% diabetic nephropathy patients and 51.9% type 2 diabetics without nephropathy were found hypertensive in present study; In contrast only 14.7% controls had hypertension. No association of hypertension was found with age and gender in either group. Serum creatinine and eGFR was found significantly different in hypertensive diabetic nephropathy patients than normotensive (p=0.002 and <0.0001 respectively). Conclusion Our study found that hypertension was an independent risk factor for the Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD). Along with this, a proportional

  14. [Let Us to Know the Post-Marketing Clinical Studies and Critical Situation of Study Groups -- Now We Should Talk about How to Achieve the Safe and Most Effective Treatment for Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Maki

    2016-04-01

    Not to leave something to be regretted in the life of patients and their family, it is important to find the best way during and after treatment for cancer. We, cancer survivors association, propose a corporated actions among patients, administration, medical stuffs, and enterprises to solve the problems of clinical studies. And we express our opinion on the present problems and to do for patients and citizens. PMID:27220802

  15. [Let Us to Know the Post-Marketing Clinical Studies and Critical Situation of Study Groups -- Now We Should Talk about How to Achieve the Safe and Most Effective Treatment for Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Maki

    2016-04-01

    Not to leave something to be regretted in the life of patients and their family, it is important to find the best way during and after treatment for cancer. We, cancer survivors association, propose a corporated actions among patients, administration, medical stuffs, and enterprises to solve the problems of clinical studies. And we express our opinion on the present problems and to do for patients and citizens.

  16. Be a true listener, rather than a good conversationalist

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Itrat; Al-Bahrani, Bassim Jaffar

    2013-01-01

    Oncology patient care is an ever evolving field both as a science and a clinical art. We evaluate, diagnose, and treat cancer patients daily. We break the bad and the good news to them. We are the hope on which their life and dreams hang on. We, as practitioners, have to assess each patient as an intelligent observer. We have to devise our strategy to break heartbreaking news to them in a tailored and personalized fashion according to the physical, psychological, emotional, and social status of the patient. The process has to be gentle, perceptive, pragmatic, yet truthful. These need to be reasonably good observational, listening, comprehending, and delivering potentials; which are sharpened by experience and skills. PMID:24455663

  17. Be a true listener, rather than a good conversationalist.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Itrat; Al-Bahrani, Bassim Jaffar

    2013-10-01

    Oncology patient care is an ever evolving field both as a science and a clinical art. We evaluate, diagnose, and treat cancer patients daily. We break the bad and the good news to them. We are the hope on which their life and dreams hang on. We, as practitioners, have to assess each patient as an intelligent observer. We have to devise our strategy to break heartbreaking news to them in a tailored and personalized fashion according to the physical, psychological, emotional, and social status of the patient. The process has to be gentle, perceptive, pragmatic, yet truthful. These need to be reasonably good observational, listening, comprehending, and delivering potentials; which are sharpened by experience and skills.

  18. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  19. Optical focusing deep inside dynamic scattering media with near-infrared time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) light.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Lai, Puxiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Grabar, Alexander A; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-01-01

    Focusing light deep inside living tissue has not been achieved despite its promise to play a central role in biomedical imaging, optical manipulation and therapy. To address this challenge, internal-guide-star-based wavefront engineering techniques--for example, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing--were developed. The speeds of these techniques, however, were limited to no greater than 1 Hz, preventing them from in vivo applications. Here we improve the speed of optical focusing deep inside scattering media by two orders of magnitude, and focus diffuse light inside a dynamic scattering medium having a speckle correlation time as short as 5.6 ms, typical of living tissue. By imaging a target, we demonstrate the first focusing of diffuse light inside a dynamic scattering medium containing living tissue. Since the achieved focusing speed approaches the tissue decorrelation rate, this work is an important step towards in vivo deep tissue noninvasive optical imaging, optogenetics and photodynamic therapy. PMID:25556918

  20. Optical focusing deep inside dynamic scattering media with near-infrared time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) light

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Lai, Puxiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Grabar, Alexander A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing light deep inside living tissue has not been achieved despite its promise to play a central role in biomedical imaging, optical manipulation and therapy. To address this challenge, internal-guide-star-based wavefront engineering techniques—for example, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing—were developed. The speeds of these techniques, however, were limited to no greater than 1 Hz, preventing them from in vivo applications. Here we improve the speed of optical focusing deep inside scattering media by two orders of magnitude, and focus diffuse light inside a dynamic scattering medium having a speckle correlation time as short as 5.6 ms, typical of living tissue. By imaging a target, we demonstrate the first focusing of diffuse light inside a dynamic scattering medium containing living tissue. Since the achieved focusing speed approaches the tissue decorrelation rate, this work is an important step towards in vivo deep tissue noninvasive optical imaging, optogenetics and photodynamic therapy. PMID:25556918

  1. Motivation and approach to creating true color temperature low light level V-NIR source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopatz, Stephen D.; Mazzetta, Jason A.; Ennerson, Fred A.

    2010-04-01

    With the continuing innovation in night vision and multispectral imaging technologies, the requirements for more sophisticated test systems continue to increase. Various manufacturers of Visible and Near Infrared (V-NIR) cameras and detection systems need to verify the lowest detectable light level and check system performance at very low light levels as well as recovery from exposure to typical daytime light levels. Typical low level requirements are in the range of 10-4 to 10-6 foot-lamberts, equivalent to starlight radiance levels; typical daytime light levels are 103 foot-lamberts. There is a relatively straightforward approach to producing low light level output using "neutral" density filters to reduce the light to the proper level. Although neutral density filters are not spectrally neutral over the entire V-NIR wavelength range. For some test applications the loss of spectral fidelity is unacceptable for tests of sensor response. The challenge was to create an adjustable output V-NIR source that maintains the color temperature setting over the entire output range. This paper explains how the requirement of True Color Temperature Low Light Level source is met and the benefits compared to prior methods. In addition how the daylight level is also met with the same source. Once the high and low light levels are achieved in a stable and repeatable manner and are calibrated; the unique tests that can be performed with this source are discussed.

  2. Does choice of estimators influence conclusions from true metabolizable energy feeding trials?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Kirkpatrick, R.L.; Webb, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    True metabolizable energy (TME) is a measure of avian dietary quality that accounts for metabolic fecal and endogenous urinary energy losses (EL) of non-dietary origin. The TME is calculated using a bird fed the test diet and an estimate of EL derived from another bird (Paired Bird Correction), the same bird (Self Correction), or several other birds (Group Mean Correction). We evaluated precision of these estimators by using each to calculate TME of three seed diets in blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The TME varied by <2% among estimators for all three diets, and Self Correction produced the least variable TMEs for each. The TME did not differ between estimators in nine paired comparisons within diets, but variation between estimators within individual birds was sufficient to be of practical consequence. Although differences in precision among methods were slight, Self Correction required the lowest sample size to achieve a given precision. Feeding trial methods that minimize variation among individuals have several desirable properties, including higher precision of TME estimates and more rigorous experimental control. Consequently, we believe that Self Correction is most likely to accurately represent nutritional value of food items and should be considered the standard method for TME feeding trials. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005.

  3. True molecular solutions of natural cellulose in the binary ionic liquid-containing solvent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rein, Dmitry M; Khalfin, Rafail; Szekely, Noemi; Cohen, Yachin

    2014-11-01

    Evidence is presented for the first time of true molecular dissolution of cellulose in binary mixtures of common polar organic solvents with ionic liquid. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, small-angle neutron-, X-ray- and static light scattering were used to investigate the structure of cellulose solutions in mixture of dimethyl formamide and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Structural information on the dissolved chains (average molecular weight ∼ 5 × 10(4)g/mol; gyration radius ∼ 36 nm, persistence length ∼ 4.5 nm), indicate the absence of significant aggregation of the dissolved chains and the calculated value of the second virial coefficient ∼ 2.45 × 10(-2)mol ml/g(2) indicates that this solvent system is a good solvent for cellulose. More facile dissolution of cellulose could be achieved in solvent mixtures that exhibit the highest electrical conductivity. Highly concentrated cellulose solution in pure ionic liquid (27 wt.%) prepared according to novel method, utilizing the rapid evaporation of a volatile co-solvent in binary solvent mixtures at superheated conditions, shows insignificant cellulose molecular aggregation. PMID:25129726

  4. True molecular solutions of natural cellulose in the binary ionic liquid-containing solvent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rein, Dmitry M; Khalfin, Rafail; Szekely, Noemi; Cohen, Yachin

    2014-11-01

    Evidence is presented for the first time of true molecular dissolution of cellulose in binary mixtures of common polar organic solvents with ionic liquid. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, small-angle neutron-, X-ray- and static light scattering were used to investigate the structure of cellulose solutions in mixture of dimethyl formamide and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Structural information on the dissolved chains (average molecular weight ∼ 5 × 10(4)g/mol; gyration radius ∼ 36 nm, persistence length ∼ 4.5 nm), indicate the absence of significant aggregation of the dissolved chains and the calculated value of the second virial coefficient ∼ 2.45 × 10(-2)mol ml/g(2) indicates that this solvent system is a good solvent for cellulose. More facile dissolution of cellulose could be achieved in solvent mixtures that exhibit the highest electrical conductivity. Highly concentrated cellulose solution in pure ionic liquid (27 wt.%) prepared according to novel method, utilizing the rapid evaporation of a volatile co-solvent in binary solvent mixtures at superheated conditions, shows insignificant cellulose molecular aggregation.

  5. Bi-color near infrared thermoreflectometry: a method for true temperature field measurement.

    PubMed

    Sentenac, Thierry; Gilblas, Rémi; Hernandez, Daniel; Le Maoult, Yannick

    2012-12-01

    In a context of radiative temperature field measurement, this paper deals with an innovative method, called bicolor near infrared thermoreflectometry, for the measurement of true temperature fields without prior knowledge of the emissivity field of an opaque material. This method is achieved by a simultaneous measurement, in the near infrared spectral band, of the radiance temperature fields and of the emissivity fields measured indirectly by reflectometry. The theoretical framework of the method is introduced and the principle of the measurements at two wavelengths is detailed. The crucial features of the indirect measurement of emissivity are the measurement of bidirectional reflectivities in a single direction and the introduction of an unknown variable, called the "diffusion factor." Radiance temperature and bidirectional reflectivities are then merged into a bichromatic system based on Kirchhoff's laws. The assumption of the system, based on the invariance of the diffusion factor for two near wavelengths, and the value of the chosen wavelengths, are then discussed in relation to a database of several material properties. A thermoreflectometer prototype was developed, dimensioned, and evaluated. Experiments were carried out to outline its trueness in challenging cases. First, experiments were performed on a metallic sample with a high emissivity value. The bidirectional reflectivity was then measured from low signals. The results on erbium oxide demonstrate the power of the method with materials with high emissivity variations in near infrared spectral band.

  6. Ultra-compact optical true time delay device for wideband phased array radars.

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rabb, David J.; Cowan, William D.; McCray, David L.; Rowe, Delton, J.; Flannery, Martin R.; Yi, Allen Y.; Ho, James G.; Anderson, Betty Lise

    2010-02-01

    An ultra-compact optical true time delay device is demonstrated that can support 112 antenna elements with better than six bits of delay in a volume 16-inch x 5-inch x 4-inch including the box and electronics. Free-space beams circulate in a White cell, overlapping in space to minimize volume. The 18 mirrors are slow-tool diamond turned on two substrates, one at each end, to streamline alignment. Pointing accuracy of better than 10 {micro}rad is achieved, with surface roughness {approx}45 nm rms. A MEMS tip-style mirror array selects among the paths for each beam independently, requiring {approx}100 {micro}s to switch the whole array. The micromirrors have 1.4{sup o} tip angle and three stable states (east, west, and flat). The input is a fiber-and-microlens array, whose output spots are re-imaged multiple times in the White cell, striking a different area of the single MEMS chip in each of 10 bounces. The output is converted to RF by an integrated InP wideband optical combiner detector array. Delays were accurate to within 4% (shortest delay) to 0.03% (longest mirror train). The fiber-to-detector insertion loss is 7.82 dB for the shortest delay path.

  7. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  8. Comparison of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Blood Cultures as a True Bacteremia Agent and Contaminant in Terms of Slime Production and Methicillin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah; Yazgi, Halil; Ozden, Kemalettin; Erdil, Zeynep; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the species distribution, slime activity, and methicillin resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from blood cultures as either contaminants or true bacteremia agents. Materials and Methods: In this study, 13.268 blood culture samples sent to our laboratory from various clinics during a two-year period were examined in terms of the presence of CoNS to clarify whether the isolates are true bacteremia agents, as defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. The slime activities of true bacteremia agents (58 CoNS strains) and contaminants (50 randomly selected CoNS strains) were investigated by the Christensen method. The methicillin susceptibilities of the strains were determined by the disk diffusion method. Results: Although the frequency of slime production was 39.7% among the true bacteremia CoNS agents, it was 18% in CoNS that were judged to be contaminants (p<0.05). S. epidermidis was the most frequently isolated species for both the true bacteremia agent group (56.9%) and contaminant group (74%). Additionally, S. epidermidis was the bacterium most frequently characterized as slime producing in both groups. The methicillin resistance of slime-producing CoNS was determined to be 82.6% for the true bacteremia agent group and 77.8% for the contaminant group. Conclusion: The presence of slime activity in CoNS isolated from blood culture samples is supportive evidence that they are most likely the agents of true bacteremia cases. PMID:25610309

  9. HIV-1 functional cure: will the dream come true?

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Ma, Xiancai; Liu, Bingfeng; Chen, Cancan; Zhang, Hui

    2015-11-20

    The reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a long-lived pool of latently infected cells harboring replication-competent viruses, is the major obstacle to curing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Although the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can successfully suppress HIV-1 viremia and significantly delay the progression of the disease, it cannot eliminate the viral reservoir and the patient must continue to take anti-viral medicines for life. Currently, the appearance of the 'Berlin patient', the 'Boston patients', and the 'Mississippi baby' have inspired many therapeutic strategies for HIV-1 aimed at curing efforts. However, the specific eradication of viral latency and the recovery and optimization of the HIV-1-specific immune surveillance are major challenges to achieving such a cure. Here, we summarize recent studies addressing the mechanisms underlying the viral latency and define two categories of viral reservoir: 'shallow' and 'deep'. We also present the current strategies and recent advances in the development of a functional cure for HIV-1, focusing on full/partial replacement of the immune system, 'shock and kill', and 'permanent silencing' approaches.

  10. HIV-1 functional cure: will the dream come true?

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Ma, Xiancai; Liu, Bingfeng; Chen, Cancan; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a long-lived pool of latently infected cells harboring replication-competent viruses, is the major obstacle to curing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Although the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can successfully suppress HIV-1 viremia and significantly delay the progression of the disease, it cannot eliminate the viral reservoir and the patient must continue to take anti-viral medicines for life. Currently, the appearance of the 'Berlin patient', the 'Boston patients', and the 'Mississippi baby' have inspired many therapeutic strategies for HIV-1 aimed at curing efforts. However, the specific eradication of viral latency and the recovery and optimization of the HIV-1-specific immune surveillance are major challenges to achieving such a cure. Here, we summarize recent studies addressing the mechanisms underlying the viral latency and define two categories of viral reservoir: 'shallow' and 'deep'. We also present the current strategies and recent advances in the development of a functional cure for HIV-1, focusing on full/partial replacement of the immune system, 'shock and kill', and 'permanent silencing' approaches. PMID:26588898

  11. True-Time-Delay Adaptive Array Processing Using Photorefractive Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriehn, G. R.; Wagner, K.

    Radio frequency (RF) signal processing has proven to be a fertile application area when using photorefractive-based, optical processing techniques. This is due to a photorefractive material's capability to record gratings and diffract off these gratings with optically modulated beams that contain a wide RF bandwidth, and include applications such as the bias-free time-integrating correlator [1], adaptive signal processing, and jammer excision, [2, 3, 4]. Photorefractive processing of signals from RF antenna arrays is especially appropriate because of the massive parallelism that is readily achievable in a photorefractive crystal (in which many resolvable beams can be incident on a single crystal simultaneously—each coming from an optical modulator driven by a separate RF antenna element), and because a number of approaches for adaptive array processing using photorefractive crystals have been successfully investigated [5, 6]. In these types of applications, the adaptive weight coefficients are represented by the amplitude and phase of the holographic gratings, and many millions of such adaptive weights can be multiplexed within the volume of a photorefractive crystal. RF modulated optical signals from each array element are diffracted from the adaptively recorded photorefractive gratings (which can be multiplexed either angularly or spatially), and are then coherently combined with the appropriate amplitude weights and phase shifts to effectively steer the angular receptivity pattern of the antenna array toward the desired arriving signal. Likewise, the antenna nulls can also be rotated toward unwanted narrowband jammers for extinction, thereby optimizing the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio.

  12. Biofibre hair implant: what is new, what is true?

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Sheta, M; Rahoui, M; Chokoeva, A A; Wollina, U; Maximov, G K; Patterson, J W; Fioranelli, M; Roccia, M G; Ananiev, J; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring the safety of hair implant fibers is essential. At the same time, good aesthetic quality and durability should also be considered in order to maintain expected result over the years. The main features required are biocompatibility, resistance to traction, absence of capillarity, resistance to physical-chemical stress, and low tissue trauma, in addition to good aesthetics. Biofibre® medical hair prosthetic fibers meet all the biocompatibility and safety requirements established by international standards for medical devices. They are available in 13 colors, with different lengths (15, 30 or 45 cm) and various shapes (straight, wavy, curly and afro). Biofibre® hair implants are indicated for diffuse hair loss or hair thinning in cases where an immediate aesthetic result is required, when patients request minor surgery without hospitalization, both for male and female patients, in combination with other hair restoration techniques to improve the final aesthetic result, to correct scars or scalp burns and in cases of poor donor areas. Biofibre® Hair Implant is in fact a minor surgery technique, performed under local anesthesia by either a manual implanter or an automatic machine which enables an immediate aesthetic result and the desired quantity of hair without pain or hospitalization. Clinical and histological studies have demonstrated that Biofibre® hair Implants are safe and well tolerated by patients and can be totally reversible if the need arises. This technique requires good after-care, periodical check-ups and yearly implant re-touches to maintain the best cosmetic result.

  13. True and false recall and dissociation among maltreated children: the role of self-schema.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2008-01-01

    The current investigation addresses the manner through which trauma affects basic memory and self-system processes. True and false recall for self-referent stimuli were assessed in conjunction with dissociative symptomatology among abused (N=76), neglected (N=92), and nonmaltreated (N=116) school-aged children. Abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children did not differ in the level of processing self-schema effect or in the occurrence and frequency of false recall. Rather, differences in the affective valence of false recall emerged as a function of maltreatment subtype and age. Regarding dissociation, the abused children displayed higher levels of dissociative symptomatology than did the nonmaltreated children. Although abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children did not exhibit differences in the valence of their self-schemas, positive and negative self-schemas were related to self-integration differently among the subgroups of maltreatment. Negative self-schemas were associated with increased dissociation among the abused children, whereas positive self-schemas were related to increased dissociation for the neglected children. Thus, positive self-schemas displayed by the younger neglected children were related to higher dissociation, suggestive of defensive self-processing. Implications for clinical intervention are underscored.

  14. The true stellar parameters of the Kepler target list

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, R.; Kolb, U.; Norton, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Using population synthesis tools we create a synthetic Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC) and subject it to the Kepler Stellar Classification Program (SCP) method for determining stellar parameters such as the effective temperature Teff and surface gravity g. We achieve a satisfactory match between the synthetic KIC and the real KIC in the log g versus log Teff diagram, while there is a significant difference between the actual physical stellar parameters and those derived by the SCP of the stars in the synthetic sample. We find a median difference ΔTeff = +500 K and ˜Δlog g = -0.2 dex for main-sequence (MS) stars, and ˜ΔTeff = +50 K and Δlog g = -0.5 dex for giants, although there is a large variation across parameter space. For a MS star the median difference in g would equate to a ˜3 per cent increase in stellar radius and a consequent ˜3 per cent overestimate of the radius for any transiting exoplanet. We find no significant difference between ΔTeff and Δlog g for single stars and the primary star in a binary system. We also re-created the Kepler target selection method and found that the binary fraction is unchanged by the target selection. Binaries are selected in similar proportions to single star systems; the fraction of MS dwarfs in the sample increases from about 75 to 80 per cent, and the giant star fraction decreases from 25 to 20 per cent.

  15. Dynamic phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography at a true kilohertz frame-rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Nair, Achuth; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic optical coherence elastography (OCE) techniques have rapidly emerged as a noninvasive way to characterize the biomechanical properties of tissue. However, clinical applications of the majority of these techniques have been unfeasible due to the extended acquisition time because of multiple temporal OCT acquisitions (M-B mode). Moreover, multiple excitations, large datasets, and prolonged laser exposure prohibit their translation to the clinic, where patient discomfort and safety are critical criteria. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of noncontact true kilohertz frame-rate dynamic optical coherence elastography by directly imaging a focused air-pulse induced elastic wave with a home-built phase-sensitive OCE system. The OCE system was based on a 4X buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked swept source laser with an A-scan rate of ~1.5 MHz, and imaged the elastic wave propagation at a frame rate of ~7.3 kHz. Because the elastic wave directly imaged, only a single excitation was utilized for one line scan measurement. Rather than acquiring multiple temporal scans at successive spatial locations as with previous techniques, here, successive B-scans were acquired over the measurement region (B-M mode). Preliminary measurements were taken on tissue-mimicking agar phantoms of various concentrations, and the results showed good agreement with uniaxial mechanical compression testing. Then, the elasticity of an in situ porcine cornea in the whole eye-globe configuration at various intraocular pressures was measured. The results showed that this technique can acquire a depth-resolved elastogram in milliseconds. Furthermore, the ultra-fast acquisition ensured that the laser safety exposure limit for the cornea was not exceeded.

  16. Biofibre hair implant: what is new, what is true?

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Sheta, M; Rahoui, M; Chokoeva, A A; Wollina, U; Maximov, G K; Patterson, J W; Fioranelli, M; Roccia, M G; Ananiev, J; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring the safety of hair implant fibers is essential. At the same time, good aesthetic quality and durability should also be considered in order to maintain expected result over the years. The main features required are biocompatibility, resistance to traction, absence of capillarity, resistance to physical-chemical stress, and low tissue trauma, in addition to good aesthetics. Biofibre® medical hair prosthetic fibers meet all the biocompatibility and safety requirements established by international standards for medical devices. They are available in 13 colors, with different lengths (15, 30 or 45 cm) and various shapes (straight, wavy, curly and afro). Biofibre® hair implants are indicated for diffuse hair loss or hair thinning in cases where an immediate aesthetic result is required, when patients request minor surgery without hospitalization, both for male and female patients, in combination with other hair restoration techniques to improve the final aesthetic result, to correct scars or scalp burns and in cases of poor donor areas. Biofibre® Hair Implant is in fact a minor surgery technique, performed under local anesthesia by either a manual implanter or an automatic machine which enables an immediate aesthetic result and the desired quantity of hair without pain or hospitalization. Clinical and histological studies have demonstrated that Biofibre® hair Implants are safe and well tolerated by patients and can be totally reversible if the need arises. This technique requires good after-care, periodical check-ups and yearly implant re-touches to maintain the best cosmetic result. PMID:27373131

  17. Achieving effective supervision.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, David J; Spence, Susan H; Wilson, Jill; Crow, Natasha

    2002-09-01

    Supervision probably does have benefits both for the maintenance and improvement of clinical skills and for job satisfaction, but the data are very thin and almost non-existent in the area of alcohol and other drugs services. Because of the potential complexity of objectives and roles in supervision, a structured agreement appears to be an important part of the effective supervision relationship. Because sessions can degenerate easily into unstructured socialization, agendas and session objectives may also be important. While a working alliance based on mutual respect and trust is an essential base for the supervision relationship, procedures for direct observation of clinical skills, demonstration of new procedures and skills practice with detailed feedback appear critical to supervision's impact on practice. To ensure effective supervision, there needs not only to be a minimum of personnel and resources, but also a compatibility with the values and procedures of management and staff, access to supervision training and consultation and sufficient incentives to ensure it continues. PMID:12270075

  18. Thine Own Self: True Self-Concept Accessibility and Meaning in Life

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Rebecca J.; Hicks, Joshua A.; Arndt, Jamie; King, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    A number of philosophical and psychological theories suggest the true self is an important contributor to well-being. The present research examined whether the cognitive accessibility of the true self-concept would predict the experience of meaning in life. To ensure that any observed effects were due to the true self-concept rather than the self-concept more generally, we utilized actual self-concept accessibility as a control variable in all studies. True and actual self-concepts were defined as including those traits which are enacted around close others versus most others (Studies 1 through 3) or as traits that refer to “who you really are” vs. “who you are during most of your activities” (Studies 4 and 5), respectively. Studies 1 and 2 showed that individual differences in true self-concept accessibility, but not differences in actual self-concept accessibility, predicted meaning in life. Study 3 showed that priming traits related to the true self led to enhanced meaning in life. Studies 4 and 5 provided correlational and experimental support for the role of true self-concept accessibility in meaning in life, even when traits were defined without reference to social relationships and when state self-esteem and self-reported authenticity were controlled. Implications for the study of the true self-concept and authenticity are discussed. PMID:19159144

  19. A unique case of right-sided Poland syndrome with true dextrocardia and total situs inversus.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Halil I; Yavuz, Taner; Altunrende, Sevil; Guven, Melih; Kılıcgun, Ali; Polat, Omer; Yesiller, Erkan; Duzenli, Selma

    2013-02-01

    Poland syndrome has been reported to be associated with true dextrocardia, but not with true situs inversus. In this report, we describe the first patient with total situs inversus in medical literature and try to highlight the syndrome's probable etiology and pathogenetic mechanisms in utero.

  20. An Evaluation of Forced-Choice and True-False Item Formats in Personality Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; And Others

    In a comparative evaluation of a standard true-false format for personality assessment and a forced-choice format, subjects from college residential units were assigned randomly to respond either to the forced-choice or standard true-false form of the Personality Research Form (PRF). All subjects also rated themselves and the members of their…

  1. Power and Reliability: The Case of Homogeneous True Score Regression across Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisicaro, Sebastiano A.; Lautenschlager, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    An equation derived by W. A. Nicewander and J. M. Price relating statistical power to reliability of dependent variable measures when true score regression is homogeneous across treatment conditions is enhanced through overcoming the problem of directly estimating the squared linear correlation between true scores for X and Y. (SLD)

  2. The cortical basis of true memory and false memory for motion.

    PubMed

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that false memory, like true memory, can be rich in sensory detail. By contrast, there is fMRI evidence that true memory for visual information produces greater activity in earlier visual regions than false memory, which suggests true memory is associated with greater sensory detail. However, false memory in previous fMRI paradigms may have lacked sufficient sensory detail to recruit earlier visual processing regions. To investigate this possibility in the present fMRI study, we employed a paradigm that produced feature-specific false memory with a high degree of visual detail. During the encoding phase, moving or stationary abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During the retrieval phase, shapes from encoding were presented at fixation and participants classified each item as previously "moving" or "stationary" within each visual field. Consistent with previous fMRI findings, true memory but not false memory for motion activated motion processing region MT+, while both true memory and false memory activated later cortical processing regions. In addition, false memory but not true memory for motion activated language processing regions. The present findings indicate that true memory activates earlier visual regions to a greater degree than false memory, even under conditions of detailed retrieval. Thus, the dissociation between previous behavioral findings and fMRI findings do not appear to be task dependent. Future work will be needed to assess whether the same pattern of true memory and false memory activity is observed for different sensory modalities.

  3. Latent Variable Modeling of Cognitive Processes in True and False Recognition of Words: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at testing theoretical predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory about true and false recognition. The effects of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on true and false recognition of words from Deese, Roediger, McDermott lists (J. Deese, 1959; D. R. Read, 1996; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995) were evaluated in 7-…

  4. Interval Estimation for True Raw and Scale Scores under the Binomial Error Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Won-Chan; Brennan, Robert L.; Kolen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Assuming errors of measurement are distributed binomially, this article reviews various procedures for constructing an interval for an individual's true number-correct score; presents two general interval estimation procedures for an individual's true scale score (i.e., normal approximation and endpoints conversion methods); compares various…

  5. Samarium Hexaboride: The First True 3D Topological Insulator?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgast, Steven G.

    systematic scratching or sanding results in a counter-intuitive increase in the electrical conduction due to the unique surface-conducting property of TIs, strengthening the building case for SmB 6's topological nature. This material is attractive as a TI because its bulk is fully insulating at a readily achieved 2 K, but it presents a large number of scientific mysteries and experimental challenges for future research.

  6. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  7. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  8. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  9. Meal replacements and fibre supplement as a strategy for weight loss. Proprietary PGX® meal replacement and PGX® fibre supplement in addition to a calorie-restricted diet to achieve weight loss in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Reimer, Raylene A; Kacinik, Veronica; Pal, Sebely; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Meal replacements and viscous soluble fibre represent safe and sustainable aids for weight loss. Our purpose was to determine if PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre complex in combination with a calorie-restricted diet would aid in weight loss in a clinical setting. Fifty-two overweight and obese participants (49 women, 3 men; average age 47.1 years) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) consumed 57 g of proprietary PGX® meal replacement product at breakfast and another 57 g at lunch for 12 weeks. In addition to the meal replacements, they were also asked to consume 5 g/day of PGX® fibre in the form of granules, powder or capsules together with 250 mlwater. A registered dietician recommended low-fat, low-glycaemic-index foods for snacks and the dinner menus such that each volunteer was consuming a total of 1200 kcal/day. All participants (n = 52) lost a significant amount of weight from baseline (-4.69 ± 3.73 kg), which was further reflected in the reductions in their waist (-7.11 ± 6.35 cm) and hip circumference (-5.59 ± 3.58 cm) over the 12-week study (p < 0.0001). BMI scores (n = 51) were reduced by 1.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2). The use of PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre along with a controlled dietary caloric intake is of benefit for short-term weight loss.

  10. Meal replacements and fibre supplement as a strategy for weight loss. Proprietary PGX® meal replacement and PGX® fibre supplement in addition to a calorie-restricted diet to achieve weight loss in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Ronald G; Reimer, Raylene A; Kacinik, Veronica; Pal, Sebely; Gahler, Roland J; Wood, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Meal replacements and viscous soluble fibre represent safe and sustainable aids for weight loss. Our purpose was to determine if PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre complex in combination with a calorie-restricted diet would aid in weight loss in a clinical setting. Fifty-two overweight and obese participants (49 women, 3 men; average age 47.1 years) with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 33.8 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) consumed 57 g of proprietary PGX® meal replacement product at breakfast and another 57 g at lunch for 12 weeks. In addition to the meal replacements, they were also asked to consume 5 g/day of PGX® fibre in the form of granules, powder or capsules together with 250 mlwater. A registered dietician recommended low-fat, low-glycaemic-index foods for snacks and the dinner menus such that each volunteer was consuming a total of 1200 kcal/day. All participants (n = 52) lost a significant amount of weight from baseline (-4.69 ± 3.73 kg), which was further reflected in the reductions in their waist (-7.11 ± 6.35 cm) and hip circumference (-5.59 ± 3.58 cm) over the 12-week study (p < 0.0001). BMI scores (n = 51) were reduced by 1.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2). The use of PGX® meal replacements and PGX(®) fibre along with a controlled dietary caloric intake is of benefit for short-term weight loss. PMID:24568282

  11. [Clinical research=design*measurements*statistical analyses].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Toshiaki

    2012-06-01

    A clinical study must address true endpoints that matter for the patients and the doctors. A good clinical study starts with a good clinical question. Formulating a clinical question in the form of PECO can sharpen one's original question. In order to perform a good clinical study one must have a knowledge of study design, measurements and statistical analyses: The first is taught by epidemiology, the second by psychometrics and the third by biostatistics.

  12. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  13. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  14. Age-Related True Exfoliation of the Lens Capsule: Phacoemulsification Surgery Results

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Alex Lap Ki; Marcet, Marcus M.; Lai, Jimmy S.M.; Yeung, Jane C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Historically associated with glassblowers, true exfoliation of the crystalline lens involves a splitting or delamination of the capsule. We reviewed the phacoemulsification records of a single surgeon for patients with true exfoliation of the lens capsule. The incidence in our series was 2.2% (6 in 278 cases). The average age was 85.0 years. All patients had successful phacoemulsification outcomes, which may have been due to accurate recognition of the condition and appropriate surgical planning. Our findings support the notion that true exfoliation may be more often associated with advanced age rather than infrared radiation. PMID:26955340

  15. Construction of Chained True Score Equipercentile Equatings under the Kernel Equating (KE) Framework and Their Relationship to Levine True Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-09-24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Haiwen; Holland, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new chained equipercentile equating procedure for the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design under the assumptions of the classical test theory model. This new equating is named chained true score equipercentile equating. We also apply the kernel equating framework to this equating design, resulting in a…

  16. A Retrospective Analysis of Urine Drugs of Abuse Immunoassay True Positive Rates at a National Reference Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L; Sadler, Aaron J; Genzen, Jonathan R

    2016-03-01

    Urine drug screens are commonly performed to identify drug use or monitor adherence to drug therapy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the true positive and false positive rates of one of our in-house urine drug screen panels. The urine drugs of abuse panel studied consists of screening by immunoassay then positive immunoassay results were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Reagents from Syva and Microgenics were used for the immunoassay screen. The screen was performed on a Beckman AU5810 random access automated clinical analyzer. The percent of true positives for each immunoassay was determined. Agreement with previously validated GC-MS or LC-MS-MS confirmatory methods was also evaluated. There were 8,825 de-identified screening results for each of the drugs in the panel, except for alcohol (N = 2,296). The percent of samples that screened positive were: 10.0% for amphetamine/methamphetamine/3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 12.8% for benzodiazepines, 43.7% for opiates (including oxycodone) and 20.3% for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The false positive rate for amphetamine/methamphetamine was ∼14%, ∼34% for opiates (excluding oxycodone), 25% for propoxyphene and 100% for phencyclidine and MDMA immunoassays. Based on the results from this retrospective study, the true positive rate for THC drug use among adults were similar to the rate of illicit drug use in young adults from the 2013 National Survey; however, our positivity rate for cocaine was higher than the National Survey. PMID:26668238

  17. Benefits of Reiki Therapy for a Severely Neutropenic Patient with Associated Influences on a True Random Number Generator

    PubMed Central

    Beem, Lance W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Reiki therapy is documented for relief of pain and stress. Energetic healing has been documented to alter biologic markers of illness such as hematocrit. True random number generators are reported to be affected by energy healers and spiritually oriented conscious awareness. Methods The patient was a then 54-year-old severely ill man who had hepatitis C types 1 and 2 and who did not improve with conventional therapy. He also suffered from obesity, the metabolic syndrome, asthma, and hypertension. He was treated with experimental high-dose interferon/riboviron therapy with resultant profound anemia and neutropenia. Energetic healing and Reiki therapy was administered initially to enhance the patient's sense of well-being and to relieve anxiety. Possible effects on the patient's absolute neutrophil count and hematocrit were incidentally noted. Reiki therapy was then initiated at times of profound neutropenia to assess its possible effect on the patient's absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Reiki and other energetic healing sessions were monitored with a true random number generator (RNG). Results Statistically significant relationships were documented between Reiki therapy, a quieting of the electronically created white noise of the RNG during healing sessions, and improvement in the patient's ANC. The immediate clinical result was that the patient could tolerate the high-dose interferon regimen without missing doses because of absolute neutropenia. The patient was initially a late responder to interferon and had been given a 5% chance of clearing the virus. He remains clear of the virus 1 year after treatment. Conclusions The association between changes in the RNG, Reiki therapy, and a patient's ANC is the first to the authors' knowledge in the medical literature. Future studies assessing the effects of energetic healing on specific biologic markers of disease are anticipated. Concurrent use of a true RNG may prove to correlate with the

  18. Point mutation instability (PIN) mutator phenotype as model for true back mutations seen in hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 - a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Etresia; Pretorius, Pieter J

    2012-05-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT1) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), the last enzyme in the tyrosine catabolism pathway. The liver mosaicism observed in HT1 patients is due to the reversion to the wild type of one allele of the original point mutation in fah. It is generally accepted that these reversions are true back mutations; however, the mechanism is still unresolved. Previous reports excluded intragenic recombination, mitotic recombination, or homologous recombination with a pseudogene as possible mechanisms of mutation reversion in HT1. Sequence analysis did not reveal DNA motifs, tandem repeats or other sequence peculiarities that may be involved in mutation reversion. We propose the hypothesis that a point mutation instability mutator (PIN) phenotype brought about by the sustained stress environment created by the accumulating metabolites in the cell is the driver of the true back mutations in HT1. The metabolites accumulating in HT1 create a sustained stress environment by activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT survival pathways, inducing aberrant mitosis and development of death resistant cells, depleting glutathione, and impairing DNA ligase IV and possibly DNA polymerases δ and ε. This continual production of proliferative and stress-related survival signals in the cellular environment coupled with the mutagenicity of FAA, may instigate a mutator phenotype and could end in tumorigenesis and/or mutation reversion. The establishment of a PIN-mutator phenotype therefore not only seems to be a possible mechanism underlying the true back mutations, but also contributes to explaining the clinical heterogeneity seen in hereditary tyrosinemia type 1.

  19. Using contrast patterns between true complexes and random subgraphs in PPI networks to predict unknown protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quanzhong; Song, Jiangning; Li, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    Most protein complex detection methods utilize unsupervised techniques to cluster densely connected nodes in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, in spite of the fact that many true complexes are not dense subgraphs. Supervised methods have been proposed recently, but they do not answer why a group of proteins are predicted as a complex, and they have not investigated how to detect new complexes of one species by training the model on the PPI data of another species. We propose a novel supervised method to address these issues. The key idea is to discover emerging patterns (EPs), a type of contrast pattern, which can clearly distinguish true complexes from random subgraphs in a PPI network. An integrative score of EPs is defined to measure how likely a subgraph of proteins can form a complex. New complexes thus can grow from our seed proteins by iteratively updating this score. The performance of our method is tested on eight benchmark PPI datasets and compared with seven unsupervised methods, two supervised and one semi-supervised methods under five standards to assess the quality of the predicted complexes. The results show that in most cases our method achieved a better performance, sometimes significantly. PMID:26868667

  20. Using contrast patterns between true complexes and random subgraphs in PPI networks to predict unknown protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quanzhong; Song, Jiangning; Li, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    Most protein complex detection methods utilize unsupervised techniques to cluster densely connected nodes in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, in spite of the fact that many true complexes are not dense subgraphs. Supervised methods have been proposed recently, but they do not answer why a group of proteins are predicted as a complex, and they have not investigated how to detect new complexes of one species by training the model on the PPI data of another species. We propose a novel supervised method to address these issues. The key idea is to discover emerging patterns (EPs), a type of contrast pattern, which can clearly distinguish true complexes from random subgraphs in a PPI network. An integrative score of EPs is defined to measure how likely a subgraph of proteins can form a complex. New complexes thus can grow from our seed proteins by iteratively updating this score. The performance of our method is tested on eight benchmark PPI datasets and compared with seven unsupervised methods, two supervised and one semi-supervised methods under five standards to assess the quality of the predicted complexes. The results show that in most cases our method achieved a better performance, sometimes significantly.

  1. True and false chirality, {ital CP} violation, and the breakdown of microscopic reversibility in chiral molecular and elementary particle processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, L.D.

    1996-07-01

    The concept of chirality is extended to cover systems that exhibit enantiomorphism on account of motion. This is achieved by applying time reversal in addition to space inversion and leads to a more precise definition of a chiral system. Although spatial enantiomorphism is sufficient to guarantee chirality in a stationary system such as a finite helix, enantiomorphous systems are not necessarily chiral when motion is involved, which leads to the concept of true and false chirality associated with time-invariant and time-noninvariant enantiomorphism, respectively. Only a truly chiral influence can induce an enantiomeric excess in a reaction that has reached true thermodynamic equilibrium (i.e., when all possible interconversion pathways have equilibrated); however, false chirality can suffice in a reaction under kinetic control due to a breakdown of microscopic reversibility analogous to that observed in particle-antiparticle processes involving the neutral K-meason as a result of {ital CP} violation, with the apparently contradictory kinetic and thermodynamic aspects being reconciled by an appeal to unitarity. This reveals that {ital CP} violation is analogous to chemical catalysis since it affects the rates of certain particle-antiparticle interconversion pathways without affecting the initial and final particle energies and hence the equilibrium thermodynamics. Consideration of falsely chiral influences, including the {open_quote}ratchet effect{close_quote} arising from the associated breakdown in microscopic reversibility, greatly enlarges the range of possible chiral advantage factors in prebiotic chemical processes if far from equilibrium. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors are polyphenotypic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation.

    PubMed

    Irving, Julie A; Carinelli, Silvestro; Prat, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypic characteristics of five cases of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors and three cases of endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, with emphasis on immunohistochemical markers of sex cord differentiation. The mean patient age was 42 years (range 19-69 years), and vaginal bleeding was the most common clinical presentation. The tumors were usually polypoid masses arising in the uterine fundus, with a mean tumor size of 6.7 cm. Sex cord patterns in uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors, including anastomosing cords, trabeculae, small nests, tubules, and in one case, a striking retiform architecture with Leydig-like cells, comprised from 70 to 100% of the tumor volume. All uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were positive for two or more markers of sex cord differentiation; all five cases showed strong immunoreactivity for calretinin, with coexpression of CD99 (four cases), Melan-A (two cases), and inhibin (two cases). Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements were less frequently positive for markers of sex cord differentiation, with each case positive for one marker (calretinin, two cases; CD99, one case). In addition, all eight cases were frequently positive for cytokeratin, CD10, vimentin, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor; desmin immunoreactivity, when present, was limited to minor foci of smooth muscle. Overall, the morphologic and immunohistochemical findings in uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors strongly support that these unusual uterine tumors are polyphenotypic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation.

  3. How Children Report True and Fabricated Stressful and Non-Stressful Events1

    PubMed Central

    Brunet, Megan K.; Evans, Angela D.; Talwar, Victoria; Bala, Nicholas; Lindsay, Rod C. L.; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    As children can be victims or witnesses to crimes and may be required to testify about their experiences in court, the ability to differentiate between children’s true and fabricated accounts of victimization is an important issue. This study used automated linguistic analysis software to detect linguistic patterns in order to differentiate between children’s true and false stressful bullying reports and reports of non-stressful events. Results revealed that children displayed different linguistic patterns when reporting true and false stressful and non-stressful stories, with non-stressful stories being more accurately discriminated based on linguistic patterns. Results suggest that it is difficult to discriminate accurately and consistently between children’s true and false stories of victimization. PMID:24659903

  4. How Children Report True and Fabricated Stressful and Non-Stressful Events.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Megan K; Evans, Angela D; Talwar, Victoria; Bala, Nicholas; Lindsay, Rod C L; Lee, Kang

    2013-11-01

    As children can be victims or witnesses to crimes and may be required to testify about their experiences in court, the ability to differentiate between children's true and fabricated accounts of victimization is an important issue. This study used automated linguistic analysis software to detect linguistic patterns in order to differentiate between children's true and false stressful bullying reports and reports of non-stressful events. Results revealed that children displayed different linguistic patterns when reporting true and false stressful and non-stressful stories, with non-stressful stories being more accurately discriminated based on linguistic patterns. Results suggest that it is difficult to discriminate accurately and consistently between children's true and false stories of victimization. PMID:24659903

  5. Steam Technical Brief: How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractice Steam Technical Brief helps you calculate the true cost of steam. Knowing the correct cost is important for many reasons and all of them have to do with improving the company's bottom line.

  6. Feeling like you know who you are: perceived true self-knowledge and meaning in life.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Rebecca J; Hicks, Joshua A; King, Laura A; Arndt, Jamie

    2011-06-01

    The essence of who a person really is has been labeled the "true self," and an emerging area of research suggests that this self-concept plays an important role in the creation of a fulfilling existence. Three studies investigate the role of the subjective feeling that one possesses knowledge of one's true self in meaning in life judgments. Consistently, the perception of availability of true self-knowledge (operationalized as the metacognitive experience of ease in describing one's true self) predicted meaning in life judgments over and above other potentially related constructs such as mood and self-esteem. Conversely, the subjective availability of knowledge of how one actually behaves (i.e., one's actual self) was unrelated to meaning in life judgments. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  8. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  9. True Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Air filters perform an important function in commercial and institutional facilities. Because indoor air typically is two to five times more polluted than outdoor air, air filters are needed to remove respirable particles such as microorganisms, dust and allergens from the breathing air. In fact, air filters provide the primary defense for…

  10. True North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jo-Anne Mary

    2007-01-01

    For Americans wanting to explore beyond their frontiers, their neighbor to the north is an ideal destination. Much of Canada's population is concentrated near the shared border, mostly in Ontario and Quebec. While nature is an obvious draw, Canada's dynamic urban centers present their own sophisticated enticements, and the country's ten provinces…

  11. True Colors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn-Nabrit, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Presents the story of how institutionalized racism prompted one African American couple to home school their three sons, who 10 years later, found themselves at Ivy League schools. The move to home schooling came after the boys were expelled from a mostly white, private school for what the parents insisted were racial reasons, asserting that skin…

  12. True Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattise, M. Christine

    2004-01-01

    Traditional interventions (small group, individual counseling, classroom guidance, parent conferences) were obviously having little or no effect to stop bullying among children. The bullies had stuck with their project relentlessly, using snide looks, vicious whispering and a systematic plan to totally isolate one child on the playground. These…

  13. Accurate decisions in an uncertain world: collective cognition increases true positives while decreasing false positives

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Max; Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Ward, Ashley J. W.; Krause, Stefan; Krause, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In a wide range of contexts, including predator avoidance, medical decision-making and security screening, decision accuracy is fundamentally constrained by the trade-off between true and false positives. Increased true positives are possible only at the cost of increased false positives; conversely, decreased false positives are associated with decreased true positives. We use an integrated theoretical and experimental approach to show that a group of decision-makers can overcome this basic limitation. Using a mathematical model, we show that a simple quorum decision rule enables individuals in groups to simultaneously increase true positives and decrease false positives. The results from a predator-detection experiment that we performed with humans are in line with these predictions: (i) after observing the choices of the other group members, individuals both increase true positives and decrease false positives, (ii) this effect gets stronger as group size increases, (iii) individuals use a quorum threshold set between the average true- and false-positive rates of the other group members, and (iv) individuals adjust their quorum adaptively to the performance of the group. Our results have broad implications for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of group-living animals and lend themselves for applications in the human domain such as the design of improved screening methods in medical, forensic, security and business applications. PMID:23407830

  14. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  15. A fast real time measurement system to track in and out of plane optical retardation/ birefringence, true stress, and true strain during biaxial stretching of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmak, M.; Hassan, M.; Unsal, E.; Martins, C.

    2012-12-01

    An instrumented and highly integrated biaxial stretching system was designed and constructed to obtain true stress, true strain, and optical behavior of polymeric films during biaxial stretching. With programmable drive motors, any form of temporally varying biaxial deformation profiles, including linear, exponential, logarithmic as well as cyclic, can be applied to a square-shaped films. This machine allows the investigation of mechano-optical behavior of films under profiles captured in industrial processes. To overcome the edge effects, the samples are painted with a dot pattern that is imaged using a high speed video capture system. This system accurately determines the locations of the each dot matrix in subsequent images acquired and calculates the true strains in both directions. The in-plane optical retardation is determined using spectral birefringence method that uses polarized white light and optical spectrometer in the optical train. This is carried out automatically at less than 10 nm in retardation resolution with the light beam passing through the symmetry center of the sample. Out of plane retardation is measured with an identical optical train tilted 45° to the plane of the film with its light beam going through the same spot on the sample as 0° beam. The true stress and birefringences are calculated with the determined instantaneous thickness of the film. With this system, the stress optical behavior of PET's is determined up to very large deformation levels at moderate to high deformation rates. Beyond the initial linear stress optical behavior, these films exhibit sudden positive deviation from linearity and this start of nonlinearity was directly associated with the stress induced crystallization.

  16. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  17. PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS IN THE SCHOOLS.

    PubMed

    Maccurdy, J T

    1916-12-01

    The purpose of this important paper by Doctor MacCurdy is to point out why psychiatric clinics in the schools may offer reasonable hope of reducing insanity in the later life of the pupils. And since it is undoubtedly true that the next problem of public health administration will be concerned with mental disorders, where better to begin than with the school child?

  18. Efficacy of a typing scheme for Campylobacter based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR.

    PubMed

    de Cárdenas, Inés; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; de la Cruz, María-Luisa; Domínguez, Lucas; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Gómez-Barrero, Susana

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates an improved scheme for Campylobacter genotyping based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) elements. A total of 180 Campylobacter strains (Campylobacter jejuni n=93 and Campylobacter coli n=87), isolated from neck skin and caecal content of broilers, poultry meat and sewage water were analysed. Another 97 C. jejuni DNA samples from cases of human campylobacteriosis were assessed. Sixty-three genotypes were found in C. jejuni considering only true CRISPR, and 16 additional genotypes were identified when questionable CRISPR were also taken into account. Likewise in C. coli the number of genotypes increased from eight for only true CRISPR to 14 after including questionable CRISPR elements. The number of typeable C. jejuni and C. coli isolates was 115 (60.5%) and 17 (19.5%) respectively considering only true CRISPR. These percentages increased to 92.7% (n=176) and 39.1% (n=34) respectively when both true and questionable CRISPR were considered. 60.9% of the C. coli isolates were non-typeable by CRISPR due to the lack of any PCR amplifiable CRISPR loci, which raises questions about CRISPR analysis as an appropriate method for C. coli typing. However the assessment of true and questionable CRISPR has proved to be fairly useful for typing C. jejuni due to its high discriminatory power (Simpson's index=0.960) and typeability (92.7%) values. The results of the present work show that our genotyping method based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR elements may be used as a suitable complementary tool to existing C. jejuni genotyping methods.

  19. Reliability and Levels of Difficulty of Objective Test Items in a Mathematics Achievement Test: A Study of Ten Senior Secondary Schools in Five Local Government Areas of Akure, Ondo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebule, S. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and difficult indices of Multiple Choice (MC) and True or False (TF) types of objective test items in a Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). The instruments used were two variants- 50-items Mathematics achievement test based on the multiple choice and true or false test formats. A total of five hundred (500)…

  20. Developmental Pathways from Parental Substance Use to Childhood Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Saar, Naomi S.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the pathways to childhood academic achievement in 209 African American and Puerto Rican children and their mothers. There were three pathways to childhood academic achievement: (a) the mother-child relationship and the child’s personality mediated between parental substance use and childhood academic achievement; (b) the child’s personality mediated between parental education and childhood academic achievement; and (c) there was a direct relationship between the child’s gender and childhood academic achievement. Policy and clinical implications suggest the importance of increasing educational opportunities for all parents, providing substance use treatment and self-esteem workshops, and altering the school curriculum. PMID:20525035

  1. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  2. Skin tears: achieving positive clinical and financial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stephen-Haynes, Jackie

    2012-03-01

    Skin tears are one of the most common wounds found among frail, older individuals, and are considered to be largely preventable. Skin tears occur frequently in those with fragile skin, in neonates and the elderly; particularly those with comorbidities affecting their balance, e.g. postural hypotension, motor neurone disease, diabetes and cerebral vascular accident (CVA). Those taking oral medications including steroids and anticoagulants are also at risk of developing skin tears. The increase in the population of older people is likely to produce a concurrent rise in the number of skin tears. Health professionals and health care assistants have a significant role to play in skin tear prevention, assessment and management.

  3. True enamel covering in teeth of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Satchell, P G; Shuler, C F; Diekwisch, T G

    2000-01-01

    Lungfish are a unique order of sarcopterygian fish cleidographically positioned between tetrapods and fish. An uninterrupted 400-million-year-old fossil record has documented lungfish skeletal elements to remain virtually unchanged since the Early Devonian. In the current study we investigated the enamel layer of lungfish teeth in order to determine whether there was evidence for higher vertebrate "true" enamel in the Australian lungfish. Juvenile lungfish from the Brisbane River were processed for light and electron microscopy and analyzed for parameters indicative of true enamel formation. Using anti-amelogenin primary antibodies for immunodetection and Western blots, enamel protein epitopes were detected in developing lungfish teeth. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis, long and parallel-oriented hydroxyapatite crystals were observed in lungfish outer tooth coverings. Our findings indicate that Australian lungfish teeth are covered by a layer of true enamel. Based on the lungfish fossil record we conclude that features of true enamel formation may be as old as 400 million years. Based on taxonomic classification we confirm that true enamel is found not only in tetrapods but also in the sarcopterygian clade of the Gnathostomata.

  4. True-time-delay photonic beamformer for an L-band phased array radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmuda, Henry; Toughlian, Edward N.; Payson, Paul M.; Malowicki, John E.

    1995-10-01

    The problem of obtaining a true-time-delay photonic beamformer has recently been a topic of great interest. Many interesting and novel approaches to this problem have been studied. This paper examines the design, construction, and testing of a dynamic optical processor for the control of a 20-element phased array antenna operating at L-band (1.2-1.4 GHz). The approach taken here has several distinct advantages. The actual optical control is accomplished with a class of spatial light modulator known as a segmented mirror device (SMD). This allows for the possibility of controlling an extremely large number (tens of thousands) of antenna elements using integrated circuit technology. The SMD technology is driven by the HDTV and laser printer markets so ultimate cost reduction as well as technological improvements are expected. Optical splitting is efficiently accomplished using a diffractive optical element. This again has the potential for use in antenna array systems with a large number of radiating elements. The actual time delay is achieved using a single acousto-optic device for all the array elements. Acousto-optic device technologies offer sufficient delay as needed for a time steered array. The topological configuration is an optical heterodyne system, hence high, potentially millimeter wave center frequencies are possible by mixing two lasers of slightly differing frequencies. Finally, the entire system is spatially integrated into a 3D glass substrate. The integrated system provides the ruggedness needed in most applications and essentially eliminates the drift problems associated with free space optical systems. Though the system is presently being configured as a beamformer, it has the ability to operate as a general photonic signal processing element in an adaptive (reconfigurable) transversal frequency filter configuration. Such systems are widely applicable in jammer/noise canceling systems, broadband ISDN, and for spread spectrum secure communications

  5. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  6. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  7. The Effects of Repetition on Children’s True and False Reports

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Angela D.; Brunet, Megan K.; Talwar, Victoria; Bala, Nicholas; Lindsay, Rod C.L.; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    As children are often called upon to provide testimony in court proceedings, determining the veracity of their statements is an important issue. In the course of investigation by police and social workers, children are often repeatedly interviewed about their experiences, though the impact of this repetition on children’s true and false statements remains largely unexamined. The current study analysed semantic differences in children’s truthful and fabricated statements about an event they had or had not participated in. Results revealed that children’s truthful and fabricated reports differed in linguistic content, and that their language also varied with repetition. Discriminant analyses revealed that with repetition, children’s true and false reports became increasingly difficult to differentiate using linguistic markers, though true reports were consistently classified correctly at higher rates than false reports. The implications of these findings for legal procedures concerning child witnesses are discussed. PMID:24265592

  8. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Associated with Osteosarcoma in a True Malignant Mixed Tumor of the Submandibular Region

    PubMed Central

    Marcotullio, Dario; de Vincentiis, Marco; Iannella, Giannicola; Cerbelli, Bruna; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. True malignant mixed tumor, also known as carcinosarcoma, is a rare tumor of the salivary gland composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal elements. Frequently carcinosarcoma arises in the background of a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma; however, if no evidence of benign mixed tumor is present, the lesion is known as carcinosarcoma “de novo.” We reported the first case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland composed of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Caucasian male came to our department complaining of the appearance of an asymptomatic left submandibular neoformation progressively increasing in size over 3 months. We opted for surgical treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma with the coexistence of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, in the true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma has never been previously reported. PMID:26600963

  9. A qubit coupled with confined phonons: The interplay between true and fake decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Pouthier, Vincent

    2013-08-07

    The decoherence of a qubit coupled with the phonons of a finite-size lattice is investigated. The confined phonons no longer behave as a reservoir. They remain sensitive to the qubit so that the origin of the decoherence is twofold. First, a qubit-phonon entanglement yields an incomplete true decoherence. Second, the qubit renormalizes the phonon frequency resulting in fake decoherence when a thermal average is performed. To account for the initial thermalization of the lattice, the qua- ntum Langevin theory is applied so that the phonons are viewed as an open system coupled with a thermal bath of harmonic oscillators. Consequently, it is shown that the finite lifetime of the phonons does not modify fake decoherence but strongly affects true decoherence. Depending on the values of the model parameters, the interplay between fake and true decoherence yields a very rich dynamics with various regimes.

  10. True left-sided gallbladder with variations of bile duct and cholecystic vein.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akinori; Onishi, Mie; Takao, Koji; Maruyama, Takahiro; Taiyoh, Hiroaki; Araki, Yasunobu; Shimizu, Takeshi; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamane, Tetsuro

    2015-06-01

    A left-sided gallbladder without a right-sided round ligament, which is called a true left-sided gallbladder, is extremely rare. A 71-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a gallbladder polyp. Computed tomography (CT) revealed not only a gallbladder polyp but also the gallbladder located to the left of the round ligament connected to the left umbilical portion. CT portography revealed that the main portal vein diverged into the right posterior portal vein and the common trunk of the left portal vein and right anterior portal vein. CT cholangiography revealed that the infraportal bile duct of segment 2 joined the common bile duct. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed for a gallbladder polyp, and the intraoperative finding showed that the cholecystic veins joined the round ligament. A true left-sided gallbladder is closely associated with several anomalies; therefore, surgeons encountering a true left-sided gallbladder should be aware of the potential for these anomalies.

  11. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Associated with Osteosarcoma in a True Malignant Mixed Tumor of the Submandibular Region.

    PubMed

    Marcotullio, Dario; de Vincentiis, Marco; Iannella, Giannicola; Cerbelli, Bruna; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. True malignant mixed tumor, also known as carcinosarcoma, is a rare tumor of the salivary gland composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal elements. Frequently carcinosarcoma arises in the background of a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma; however, if no evidence of benign mixed tumor is present, the lesion is known as carcinosarcoma "de novo." We reported the first case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland composed of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Caucasian male came to our department complaining of the appearance of an asymptomatic left submandibular neoformation progressively increasing in size over 3 months. We opted for surgical treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma with the coexistence of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, in the true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma has never been previously reported.

  12. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  13. True status of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis defaulters in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Kruyt, M. L.; Kruyt, N. D.; Boeree, M. J.; Harries, A. D.; Salaniponi, F. M.; van Noord, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    The article reports the results of a study to determine the true outcome of 8 months of treatment received by smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Mlambe Mission Hospital (MMH), Blantyre, Malawi. The treatment outcomes were documented from the tuberculosis registers of all patients registered between 1 October 1994 and 30 September 1995. The true treatment outcome for patients who had been registered as defaulters was determined by making personal inquiries at the treatment units and the residences of patients or relatives and, in a few cases, by writing to the appropriate postal address. Interviews were carried out with patients who had defaulted and were still alive and with matched, fully compliant PTB patients who had successfully completed the treatment to determine the factors associated with defaulter status. Of the 1099 patients, 126 (11.5%) had been registered as defaulters, and the true treatment outcome was determined for 101 (80%) of the latter; only 22 were true defaulters, 31 had completed the treatment, 31 had died during the treatment period, and 17 had left the area. A total of 8 of the 22 true defaulters were still alive and were compared with the compliant patients. Two significant characteristics were associated with the defaulters; they were unmarried; and they did not know the correct duration of antituberculosis treatment. Many of the smear-positive tuberculosis patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Blantyre district were found to have different treatment outcomes, without defaulting. The quality of reporting in the health facilities must therefore be improved in order to exclude individuals who are not true defaulters. PMID:10361755

  14. True status of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis defaulters in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kruyt, M L; Kruyt, N D; Boeree, M J; Harries, A D; Salaniponi, F M; van Noord, P A

    1999-01-01

    The article reports the results of a study to determine the true outcome of 8 months of treatment received by smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Mlambe Mission Hospital (MMH), Blantyre, Malawi. The treatment outcomes were documented from the tuberculosis registers of all patients registered between 1 October 1994 and 30 September 1995. The true treatment outcome for patients who had been registered as defaulters was determined by making personal inquiries at the treatment units and the residences of patients or relatives and, in a few cases, by writing to the appropriate postal address. Interviews were carried out with patients who had defaulted and were still alive and with matched, fully compliant PTB patients who had successfully completed the treatment to determine the factors associated with defaulter status. Of the 1099 patients, 126 (11.5%) had been registered as defaulters, and the true treatment outcome was determined for 101 (80%) of the latter; only 22 were true defaulters, 31 had completed the treatment, 31 had died during the treatment period, and 17 had left the area. A total of 8 of the 22 true defaulters were still alive and were compared with the compliant patients. Two significant characteristics were associated with the defaulters; they were unmarried; and they did not know the correct duration of antituberculosis treatment. Many of the smear-positive tuberculosis patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Blantyre district were found to have different treatment outcomes, without defaulting. The quality of reporting in the health facilities must therefore be improved in order to exclude individuals who are not true defaulters.

  15. Emerging technologies for electronic monitoring of adherence, inhaler competence, and true adherence.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, John N; Nicholls, Clare

    2015-04-01

    Despite the availability of effective treatments for respiratory disorders, disease control is often suboptimal, due in part to the failure of patients to adhere to prescribed regimens, or to demonstrate competence with the often complex steps in the administration of inhaled medications. The cost of poor true adherence, a combined measure of adherence and inhaler competence, is considerable, both economically and in terms of health-related impact. While patient education is recognized as essential, there exist many barriers to healthcare professional-led monitoring and promotion of true adherence. Successful intervention remains a challenging task, dependent upon understanding and addressing the distinct issues associated with poor adherence and inhaler competence, and lessening the perceived burden on healthcare professionals. Electronic monitors provide an accurate and objective indication of adherence and may also be of value in assessing inhaler competence. The information provided by such devices is a helpful aid to understanding the challenging nature of true adherence, and may be crucial to the development and assessment of true adherence promoting interventions. This article provides a background to the impact of suboptimal adherence and inhaler competence, and the challenges associated with the promotion of true adherence, with an emphasis on respiratory therapies. Contemporary electronic monitors of adherence and inhaler competence are critically reviewed, and case studies of emerging technologies are provided to illustrate the use of innovative monitoring devices in the promotion of true adherence in practice. Potential future directions, including increased targeting and individualization, enhanced coordination of care, and a greater focus on inhaler competence are considered to be important additions to currently available technologies in this rapidly evolving field.

  16. True Triaxial Strength and Failure Modes of Cubic Rock Specimens with Unloading the Minor Principal Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xibing; Du, Kun; Li, Diyuan

    2015-11-01

    True triaxial tests have been carried out on granite, sandstone and cement mortar using cubic specimens with the process of unloading the minor principal stress. The strengths and failure modes of the three rock materials are studied in the processes of unloading σ 3 and loading σ 1 by the newly developed true triaxial test system under different σ 2, aiming to study the mechanical responses of the rock in underground excavation at depth. It shows that the rock strength increases with the raising of the intermediate principal stress σ 2 when σ 3 is unloaded to zero. The true triaxial strength criterion by the power-law relationship can be used to fit the testing data. The "best-fitting" material parameters A and n ( A > 1.4 and n < 1.0) are almost located in the same range as expected by Al-Ajmi and Zimmerman (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 563 42(3):431-439, 2005). It indicates that the end effect caused by the height-to-width ratio of the cubic specimens will not significantly affect the testing results under true triaxial tests. Both the strength and failure modes of cubic rock specimens under true triaxial unloading condition are affected by the intermediate principal stress. When σ 2 increases to a critical value for the strong and hard rocks (R4, R5 and R6), the rock failure mode may change from shear to slabbing. However, for medium strong and weak rocks (R3 and R2), even with a relatively high intermediate principal stress, they tend to fail in shear after a large amount of plastic deformation. The maximum extension strain criterion Stacey (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 651 18(6):469-474, 1981) can be used to explain the change of failure mode from shear to slabbing for strong and hard rocks under true triaxial unloading test condition.

  17. Comparison of measured Varian Clinac 21EX and TrueBeam accelerator electron field characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Samantha A M; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Gagne, Isabelle M

    2015-07-08

    Dosimetric comparisons of radiation fields produced by Varian's newest linear accelerator, the TrueBeam, with those produced by older Varian accelerators are of interest from both practical and research standpoints. While photon fields have been compared in the literature, similar comparisons of electron fields have not yet been reported. In this work, electron fields produced by the TrueBeam are compared with those produced by Varian's Clinac 21EX accelerator. Diode measurements were taken of fields shaped with electron applicators and delivered at 100 cm SSD, as well as those shaped with photon MLCs without applicators and delivered at 70 cm SSD for field sizes ranging from 5 × 5 to 25 × 25 cm² at energies between 6 and 20 MeV. Additionally, EBT2 and EBT3 radio-chromic film measurements were taken of an MLC-shaped aperture with closed leaf pairs delivered at 70 cm SSD using 6 and 20 MeV electrons. The 6 MeV fields produced by the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX were found to be almost indistinguishable. At higher energies, TrueBeam fields shaped by electron applicators were generally flatter and had less photon contamination compared to the Clinac 21EX. Differences in PDDs and profiles fell within 3% and 3 mm for the majority of measurements. The most notable differences for open fields occurred in the profile shoulders for the largest applicator field sizes. In these cases, the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX data differed by as much as 8%. Our data indicate that an accurate electron beam model of the Clinac 21EX could be used as a starting point to simulate electron fields that are dosimetrically equivalent to those produced by the TrueBeam. Given that the Clinac 21EX shares head geometry with Varian's iX, Trilogy, and Novalis TX accelerators, our findings should also be applicable to these machines.

  18. Comparison of measured Varian Clinac 21EX and TrueBeam accelerator electron field characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Samantha A M; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Gagne, Isabelle M

    2015-01-01

    Dosimetric comparisons of radiation fields produced by Varian's newest linear accelerator, the TrueBeam, with those produced by older Varian accelerators are of interest from both practical and research standpoints. While photon fields have been compared in the literature, similar comparisons of electron fields have not yet been reported. In this work, electron fields produced by the TrueBeam are compared with those produced by Varian's Clinac 21EX accelerator. Diode measurements were taken of fields shaped with electron applicators and delivered at 100 cm SSD, as well as those shaped with photon MLCs without applicators and delivered at 70 cm SSD for field sizes ranging from 5 × 5 to 25 × 25 cm² at energies between 6 and 20 MeV. Additionally, EBT2 and EBT3 radio-chromic film measurements were taken of an MLC-shaped aperture with closed leaf pairs delivered at 70 cm SSD using 6 and 20 MeV electrons. The 6 MeV fields produced by the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX were found to be almost indistinguishable. At higher energies, TrueBeam fields shaped by electron applicators were generally flatter and had less photon contamination compared to the Clinac 21EX. Differences in PDDs and profiles fell within 3% and 3 mm for the majority of measurements. The most notable differences for open fields occurred in the profile shoulders for the largest applicator field sizes. In these cases, the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX data differed by as much as 8%. Our data indicate that an accurate electron beam model of the Clinac 21EX could be used as a starting point to simulate electron fields that are dosimetrically equivalent to those produced by the TrueBeam. Given that the Clinac 21EX shares head geometry with Varian's iX, Trilogy, and Novalis TX accelerators, our findings should also be applicable to these machines. PMID:26219015

  19. An Evaluation of a Natural Language Processing Tool for Identifying and Encoding Allergy Information in Emergency Department Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Foster R.; Plasek, Joseph M.; Lau, Jason J.; Seger, Diane L.; Chang, Frank Y.; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits due to allergic reactions are common. Allergy information is often recorded in free-text provider notes; however, this domain has not yet been widely studied by the natural language processing (NLP) community. We developed an allergy module built on the MTERMS NLP system to identify and encode food, drug, and environmental allergies and allergic reactions. The module included updates to our lexicon using standard terminologies, and novel disambiguation algorithms. We developed an annotation schema and annotated 400 ED notes that served as a gold standard for comparison to MTERMS output. MTERMS achieved an F-measure of 87.6% for the detection of allergen names and no known allergies, 90% for identifying true reactions in each allergy statement where true allergens were also identified, and 69% for linking reactions to their allergen. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility using NLP to extract and encode allergy information from clinical notes. PMID:25954363

  20. Optical focusing deep inside dynamic scattering media with near-infrared time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Lai, Puxiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Grabar, Alexander A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing light deep inside living tissue has not been achieved despite its promise to play a central role in biomedical imaging, optical manipulation and therapy. To address this challenge, internal-guide-star-based wavefront engineering techniques—for example, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing—were developed. The speeds of these techniques, however, were limited to no greater than 1 Hz, preventing them from in vivo applications. Here we improve the speed of optical focusing deep inside scattering media by two orders of magnitude, and focus diffuse light inside a dynamic scattering medium having a speckle correlation time as short as 5.6 ms, typical of living tissue. By imaging a target, we demonstrate the first focusing of diffuse light inside a dynamic scattering medium containing living tissue. Since the achieved focusing speed approaches the tissue decorrelation rate, this work is an important step towards in vivo deep tissue noninvasive optical imaging, optogenetics and photodynamic therapy.

  1. The true cost of cardiovascular imaging: focusing on downstream, indirect, and environmental costs.

    PubMed

    Braga, Larissa; Vinci, Bruna; Leo, Carlo G; Picano, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    To develop a more realistic assessment of costs, herein named "true" costs, the extra-cancer from medical radiation, environmental damage from imaging paraphernalia and radioactive wastes must be included as long-term costs from imaging examinations. It is urgent to define the "true" costs across imaging modalities as it interferes on physicians' decision to request an exam and on research projects such as cost-effectiveness analysis. Cardiology is the specialty that most will benefit from the outcome as cardiovascular exams represent almost 30% of the total exams acquired annually worldwide. PMID:23594829

  2. The effectiveness of family planning programs evaluated with true experimental designs.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the magnitude of effects for family planning programs evaluated with true experimental designs. METHODS: Studies that used true experimental designs to evaluate family planning programs were identified and their results subjected to meta-analysis. RESULTS: For the 14 studies with the information needed to calculate effect size, the Pearson r between program and effect variables ranged from -.08 to .09 and averaged .08. CONCLUSIONS: The programs evaluated in the studies considered have had, on average, smaller effects than many would assume and desire. PMID:9146451

  3. Sustained Acceleration of Achievement in Reading Comprehension: The New Zealand Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mei Kuin; McNaughton, Stuart; Amituanai-Toloa, Meaola; Turner, Rolf; Hsiao, Selena

    2009-01-01

    Schools with primarily indigenous and ethnic minorities in low socioeconomic areas have long been associated with low levels of achievement, particularly in literacy. This is true for New Zealand despite high levels of reading comprehension by international comparisons (e.g., PISA). Recent reviews of schooling improvement suggest small gains over…

  4. Quantifying the Consequences of Missing School: Linking School Nurses to Student Absences to Standardized Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Parents, policymakers, and researchers uphold that missing school has negative implications on schooling success, particularly for students in urban schools. However, it has thus far been an empirical challenge within educational research to estimate the true effect that absences have on achievement outcomes. This study…

  5. A Correlational Study of Building Principal Emotional Intelligence and the Connection to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, James

    2012-01-01

    While student achievement is only one indicator of a building principal's effectiveness, it is widely considered to be one of the most important. This is especially true in regard to the current climate of accountability surrounding education. Multiple studies have yielded results concerning the behaviors and characteristics of building…

  6. The Development of Product Parity Sensitivity in Children with Mathematics Learning Disability and in Typical Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Parity helps us determine whether an arithmetic equation is true or false. The current research examines the development of sensitivity to parity cues in multiplication in typically achieving (TA) children (grades 2, 3, 4 and 6) and in children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD, grades 6 and 8), via a verification task. In TA children…

  7. The evaluation and comparison of kidney length obtained from axial cuts in spiral CT scan with its true length

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Mehdi; Rahimi, Farshad; Tajadini, Mohammadhasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased size of kidney is the main symptom of pyelonephritis and renal ischemia in children. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scan methods are the imaging methods for evaluating the urogenital system. The aim of this study is to compare the kidney length obtained from spiral CT scan with the true length obtained from multi-slice CT. Materials and Methods: From 100 patients 200 kidneys were examined in Alzahra Hospital in 2012. Multi-slice CT was used to obtain coronal and sagittal cuts to find the length of kidneys. Results: The mean values of true size of axial sections of the right and left kidneys were 108.37 ± 12.3 mm and 109.74 ± 13.6 mm, respectively. The mean difference of axial sections’ lengths in the right and left kidneys was 1.37 ± 1.22 mm. The mean values of length in the spiral CT scan of the right and left kidneys were 98.61 ± 15.8 mm and 103.11 ± 15.9 mm, respectively. The difference in the estimated size by multi-slice CT scan in oblique and axial images was significant (9.77 ± 1.19 mm and 6.63 ± 0.8 mm for the right and left kidneys, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The average size of both kidneys determined in axial images was smaller than the actual size. The estimation of kidney size in axial images is not reliable, and to obtain the actual size, it is required to have the coronal and sagittal cuts with proper quality, which could be achieved by multi-slice method. PMID:25709984

  8. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  9. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  10. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  11. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  12. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  14. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  15. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  17. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  18. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  19. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  20. Gender Issues in Gifted Achievement: Are Girls Making Inroads While Boys Fall Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm, Sylvia B.

    2015-01-01

    School and life achievement patterns for girls and women differ from those of boys and men. While girls have made dramatic progress in school, they need to be inspired to connect to lifelong achievement. Both research and clinical work at the Ohio-based Family Achievement Clinic find that more boys than girls underachieve in school. There is much…

  1. Kothmale Community Radio Interorg Project: True Community Radio or Feel-Good Propaganda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey-Carter, Liz

    2009-01-01

    The Kothmale Community Radio and Interorg project in Sri Lanka has been hailed as an example of how a community radio initiative should function in a developing nation. However, there is some question about whether the Kothmale Community Interorg Project is a true community radio initiative that empowers local communities to access ICT services…

  2. Properties of true quaternary fission of nuclei with allowance for its multistep and sequential character

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G. Titova, L. V.; Bulychev, A. O.

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of basicmechanisms of binary and ternary fission of nuclei led to the conclusion that true ternary and quaternary fission of nuclei has a sequential two-step (three-step) character, where, at the first step, a fissile nucleus emits a third light particle (third and fourth light particles) under shakeup effects associated with a nonadiabatic character of its collective deformation motion, whereupon the residual nucleus undergoes fission to two fission fragments. Owing to this, the formulas derived earlier for the widths with respect to sequential two- and three-step decays of nuclei in constructing the theory of two-step twoproton decays and multistep decays in chains of genetically related nuclei could be used to describe the relative yields and angular and energy distributions of third and fourth light particles emitted in (α, α), (t, t), and (α, t) pairs upon the true quaternary spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf and thermal-neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U target nuclei. Mechanisms that explain a sharp decrease in the yield of particles appearing second in time and entering into the composition of light-particle pairs that originate from true quaternary fission of nuclei in relation to the yields of analogous particles in true ternary fission of nuclei are proposed.

  3. Searching for the True Diet of Marine Predators: Incorporating Bayesian Priors into Stable Isotope Mixing Models

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, André; Forero, Manuela G.; McInnes, Julie C.; Ramírez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the diet of top marine predators is of great significance in several key areas of applied ecology, requiring accurate estimation of their true diet. However, from conventional stomach content analysis to recent stable isotope and DNA analyses, no one method is bias or error free. Here, we evaluated the accuracy of recent methods to estimate the actual proportion of a controlled diet fed to a top-predator seabird, the Little penguin (Eudyptula minor). We combined published DNA data of penguins scats with blood plasma δ15N and δ13C values to reconstruct the diet of individual penguins fed experimentally. Mismatch between controlled (true) ingested diet and dietary estimates obtained through the separately use of stable isotope and DNA data suggested some degree of differences in prey assimilation (stable isotope) and digestion rates (DNA analysis). In contrast, combined posterior isotope mixing model with DNA Bayesian priors provided the closest match to the true diet. We provided the first evidence suggesting that the combined use of these complementary techniques may provide better estimates of the actual diet of top marine predators- a powerful tool in applied ecology in the search for the true consumed diet. PMID:24667296

  4. Observed Score and True Score Equating Procedures for Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossman, Bradley Grant

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop observed score and true score equating procedures to be used in conjunction with the Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) framework. Currently, MIRT scale linking procedures exist to place item parameter estimates and ability estimates on the same scale after separate calibrations are conducted.…

  5. An Evaluation of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Richard W.; Arnau, Randolph C.; Archer, Robert P.; Dandy, Kristina L.

    2006-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (MMPI-2) True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) scales are measures of acquiescence and nonacquiescence included among the standard validity scales on these instruments. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  6. Confidence Intervals for True Scores Using the Skew-Normal Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    A recent comparative analysis of alternative interval estimation approaches and procedures has shown that confidence intervals (CIs) for true raw scores determined with the Score method--which uses the normal approximation to the binomial distribution--have actual coverage probabilities that are closest to their nominal level. It has also recently…

  7. Simulation of a true-triaxial deformation test on anisotropic gneiss using FLAC3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shenghua; Sehizadeh, Mehdi; Nasseri, Mohammad; Young, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A series of true-triaxial experiments have been carried out at the University of Toronto's Rock Fracture Dynamics Laboratory. Isotropic pegmatite and gneiss have been used to systematically study the effect of anisotropy on the strength, behaviour and seismic response. Samples were loaded under true-triaxial stress conditions and subjected to complex loading and unloading histories associated with rock deformation around underground openings. The results show expected patterns of weakness from preferentially oriented samples and highlight the importance of unloading history under true-triaxial conditions on the deformation and seismic response of the samples. These tests have been used to validate a synthetic simulation using the Itasca FLAC3D numerical code. The paper describes the FLAC3D simulations of the complex true-triaxial loading and unloading history of the different anisotropic samples. Various parameters were created to describe the physico-mechanical properties of the synthetic rock samples. Foliation planes of preferential orientations with respect to the primary loading direction were added to the synthetic rock samples to reflect the anisotropy of the gneiss. These synthetic rock samples were subjected to the same loading and unloading paths as the real rock samples, and failed in the same mechanism as what was observed from the experiments, and thus it proved the validity of this numerical simulation with FLAC3D.

  8. Two Sources of Evidence on the Non-Automaticity of True and False Belief Ascription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Elisa; Apperly, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    A recent study by Apperly et al. (2006) found evidence that adults do not automatically infer false beliefs while watching videos that afford such inferences. This method was extended to examine true beliefs, which are sometimes thought to be ascribed by "default" (e.g., Leslie & Thaiss, 1992). Sequences of pictures were presented in which the…

  9. A note on the relations between true and eccentric anomalies in the two-body problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.; Cefola, P.

    1973-01-01

    Two remarkably simple formulas are proposed for relating the eccentric and true anomalies in the two-body problem at no numerical trouble, no matter what the values of the angles are. The problem of the maximum difference between the two angles is also considered.

  10. Stochastic Processes as True-Score Models for Highly Speeded Mental Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William E.

    The previous theoretical development of the Poisson process as a strong model for the true-score theory of mental tests is discussed, and additional theoretical properties of the model from the standpoint of individual examinees are developed. The paper introduces the Erlang process as a family of test theory models and shows in the context of…

  11. No Evidence for True Training and Transfer Effects after Inhibitory Control Training in Young Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enge, Sören; Behnke, Alexander; Fleischhauer, Monika; Küttler, Lena; Kliegel, Matthias; Strobel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reported that training of working memory may improve performance in the trained function and beyond. Other executive functions, however, have been rarely or not yet systematically examined. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of inhibitory control (IC) training to produce true training-related function improvements…

  12. The Development of Automatic and Controlled Inhibitory Retrieval Processes in True and False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Lauren M.; Howe, Mark L.; Wimmer, Marina C.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the role of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false memory development in children and adults. Experiment 1 incorporated a directed forgetting task to examine controlled retrieval inhibition. Experiments 2 and 3 used a part-set cue and retrieval practice task to examine…

  13. True to the Language Game: African American Discourse, Cultural Politics, and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilyard, Keith

    2011-01-01

    In "True to the Language Game", Keith Gilyard, one of the major African American figures to emerge in language and cultural studies, makes his most seminal work available in one volume. This collection of new and previously published essays contains Gilyard's most relevant scholarly contributions to deliberations about linguistic diversity,…

  14. A multigene molecular phylogenetic assessment of true morels (Morchella) in turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 247 true morels (Morchella spp.) primarily from the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions of Southern Turkey, were analyzed for species diversity using partial RNA polymerase I (RPB1) and nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) rDNA gene sequences. Based on the result of this initial scree...

  15. Multiple-Choice and True/False Tests: Myths and Misapprehensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Examiners seeking guidance on multiple-choice and true/false tests are likely to encounter various faulty or questionable ideas. Twelve of these are discussed in detail, having to do mainly with the effects on test reliability of test length, guessing and scoring method (i.e. number-right scoring or negative marking). Some misunderstandings could…

  16. Osteochondrosis Can Lead to Formation of Pseudocysts and True Cysts in the Subchondral Bone of Horses.

    PubMed

    Olstad, K; Østevik, L; Carlson, C S; Ekman, S

    2015-09-01

    Osteochondrosis arises as a result of focal failure of the blood supply to growth cartilage. The current aim was to examine the pathogenesis of pseudocysts and true cysts in subchondral bone following failure of the blood supply to the articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex in horses. Cases were recruited based on identification of lesions (n = 17) that were considered likely to progress to or to represent pseudocysts or true cysts in epiphyseal bone in histological sections and included 10 horses ranging in age from 48 days to 5 years old. Cases comprised 3 warmbloods, 3 Standardbreds, 1 Quarter horse and 1 Arabian with spontaneous lesions and 2 Fjord ponies with experimentally induced lesions. Seven lesions consisted of areas of ischemic chondronecrosis and were compatible with pseudocysts. Two lesions were located at intermediate depth in epiphyseal growth cartilage, 2 lesions were located in the ossification front, 2 lesions were located in epiphyseal bone and 1 lesion was located in the metaphyseal growth plate (physis). Ten lesions contained dilated blood vessels and were compatible with true cysts. In 2 lesions the dilated blood vessels were located within the lumina of failed cartilage canals. In the 8 remaining lesions areas of ischemic chondronecrosis were associated with granulation tissue in the subjacent bone and dilated vessels were located within this granulation tissue. Failure of the blood supply and ischemic chondronecrosis can lead to formation of pseudocysts or dilatation of blood vessels and formation of true cysts in the epiphyseal bone of horses.

  17. Osteochondrosis Can Lead to Formation of Pseudocysts and True Cysts in the Subchondral Bone of Horses.

    PubMed

    Olstad, K; Østevik, L; Carlson, C S; Ekman, S

    2015-09-01

    Osteochondrosis arises as a result of focal failure of the blood supply to growth cartilage. The current aim was to examine the pathogenesis of pseudocysts and true cysts in subchondral bone following failure of the blood supply to the articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex in horses. Cases were recruited based on identification of lesions (n = 17) that were considered likely to progress to or to represent pseudocysts or true cysts in epiphyseal bone in histological sections and included 10 horses ranging in age from 48 days to 5 years old. Cases comprised 3 warmbloods, 3 Standardbreds, 1 Quarter horse and 1 Arabian with spontaneous lesions and 2 Fjord ponies with experimentally induced lesions. Seven lesions consisted of areas of ischemic chondronecrosis and were compatible with pseudocysts. Two lesions were located at intermediate depth in epiphyseal growth cartilage, 2 lesions were located in the ossification front, 2 lesions were located in epiphyseal bone and 1 lesion was located in the metaphyseal growth plate (physis). Ten lesions contained dilated blood vessels and were compatible with true cysts. In 2 lesions the dilated blood vessels were located within the lumina of failed cartilage canals. In the 8 remaining lesions areas of ischemic chondronecrosis were associated with granulation tissue in the subjacent bone and dilated vessels were located within this granulation tissue. Failure of the blood supply and ischemic chondronecrosis can lead to formation of pseudocysts or dilatation of blood vessels and formation of true cysts in the epiphyseal bone of horses. PMID:25428408

  18. A Qualitative Assessment of the My True Body Bariatric Surgery Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Tracy; Mamary, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background: The My True Body (MTB) group intervention incorporates cognitive restructuring and social support into bariatric surgery preparation. Purpose: To identify and describe program components that support long-term behavioral modifications and influence confidence in healthy weight maintenance. Methods: Semistructured telephone interviews…

  19. Standard Error Estimation of 3PL IRT True Score Equating with an MCMC Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuming; Schulz, E. Matthew; Yu, Lei

    2008-01-01

    A Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and a bootstrap method were compared in the estimation of standard errors of item response theory (IRT) true score equating. Three test form relationships were examined: parallel, tau-equivalent, and congeneric. Data were simulated based on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary tests of the Iowa Tests of…

  20. Asymptotic Standard Errors for Item Response Theory True Score Equating of Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cher Wong, Cheow

    2015-01-01

    Building on previous works by Lord and Ogasawara for dichotomous items, this article proposes an approach to derive the asymptotic standard errors of item response theory true score equating involving polytomous items, for equivalent and nonequivalent groups of examinees. This analytical approach could be used in place of empirical methods like…

  1. How well do ITS rDNA sequences differentiate species of true morels (Morchella)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arguably more mycophiles hunt true morels (Morchella) during their brief fruiting season each spring in the Northern Hemisphere than any other wild edible fungus. Concerns about overharvesting by individual collectors and commercial enterprises make it essential that science-based management practic...

  2. The Relationship Between True Colors Temperament Types of Primary Caregivers and Literacy Development: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the "True Colors" temperament type of the primary caregiver and the readiness to involve her child in the social context of extracurricular reading activities (a summer reading program) intended to promote literacy development. Finds that the "Gold" and "Blue" types involved their children in organized, structured…

  3. A Maximum NEC Criterion for Compton Collimation to Accurately Identify True Coincidences in PET

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, Garry; Levin, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new method to increase the accuracy of identifying true coincidence events for positron emission tomography (PET). This approach requires 3-D detectors with the ability to position each photon interaction in multi-interaction photon events. When multiple interactions occur in the detector, the incident direction of the photon can be estimated using the Compton scatter kinematics (Compton Collimation). If the difference between the estimated incident direction of the photon relative to a second, coincident photon lies within a certain angular range around colinearity, the line of response between the two photons is identified as a true coincidence and used for image reconstruction. We present an algorithm for choosing the incident photon direction window threshold that maximizes the noise equivalent counts of the PET system. For simulated data, the direction window removed 56%–67% of random coincidences while retaining > 94% of true coincidences from image reconstruction as well as accurately extracted 70% of true coincidences from multiple coincidences. PMID:21317079

  4. Can Maltreated Children Inhibit True and False Memories for Emotional Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined 284 maltreated and nonmaltreated children's (6- to 12-year-olds) ability to inhibit true and false memories for neutral and emotional information using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Children studied either emotional or neutral DRM lists in a control condition or were given directed-remembering or…

  5. Right and Righteous: Children's Incipient Understanding and Evaluation of True and False Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.; Carrick, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined young children's early understanding and evaluation of truth telling and lying and the role that factuality plays in their judgments. Study 1 (one hundred four 2- to 5-year-olds) found that even the youngest children reliably accepted true statements and rejected false statements and that older children's ability to…

  6. Nurses Behave Differentially to Neonates in Terms of Their True Gender Compared to Their Ascribed Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Albert R.; And Others

    Response patterns of 24 female nurses to 2-day-old neonates who had been arbitrarily labeled male or female were studied. A total of 17 reliable behaviors of nurses were scored from videotapes of nurse-infant interaction. Nurses responded differentially to neonates based on true gender rather than ascribed gender. Nurses held boys more by their…

  7. Robust Scale Transformation Methods in IRT True Score Equating under Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…

  8. Assessing Class-Wide Consistency and Randomness in Responses to True or False Questions Administered Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Andrew; Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Peterson, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed simple data-mining algorithms to assess the consistency and the randomness of student responses to problems consisting of multiple true or false statements. In this paper we describe the algorithms and use them to analyze data from introductory physics courses. We investigate statements that emerge as outliers because the class…

  9. Properties of true quaternary fission of nuclei with allowance for its multistep and sequential character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadmensky, S. G.; Titova, L. V.; Bulychev, A. O.

    2015-07-01

    An analysis of basicmechanisms of binary and ternary fission of nuclei led to the conclusion that true ternary and quaternary fission of nuclei has a sequential two-step (three-step) character, where, at the first step, a fissile nucleus emits a third light particle (third and fourth light particles) under shakeup effects associated with a nonadiabatic character of its collective deformation motion, whereupon the residual nucleus undergoes fission to two fission fragments. Owing to this, the formulas derived earlier for the widths with respect to sequential two- and three-step decays of nuclei in constructing the theory of two-step twoproton decays and multistep decays in chains of genetically related nuclei could be used to describe the relative yields and angular and energy distributions of third and fourth light particles emitted in ( α, α), ( t, t), and ( α, t) pairs upon the true quaternary spontaneous fission of 252Cf and thermal-neutron-induced fission of 235U and 233U target nuclei. Mechanisms that explain a sharp decrease in the yield of particles appearing second in time and entering into the composition of light-particle pairs that originate from true quaternary fission of nuclei in relation to the yields of analogous particles in true ternary fission of nuclei are proposed.

  10. A Comparison of Three Methods of Scoring True-False Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1979-01-01

    Though the Paired-Item-Score (Eakin and Long) (EJ 174 780) method of scoring true-false tests has certain advantages over the traditional scoring methods (percentage right and right minus wrong), these advantages are attained at the cost of a larger risk of misranking the examinees. (Author/BW)

  11. On a Method of Eliciting True/False Judgments from Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Peter; Donaldson, Margaret

    1976-01-01

    Experiments in eliciting true/false judgments from young children aged 3-5 used a "talking doll," a toy panda with a speaker installed. The procedure has been used in studies of language comprehension, communication skills, and free conversation experiments. (CHK)

  12. True orbit simulation of piecewise linear and linear fractional maps of arbitrary dimension using algebraic numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Asaki; Yasutomi, Shin-ichi; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Ito, Shunji

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a true orbit generation method enabling exact simulations of dynamical systems defined by arbitrary-dimensional piecewise linear fractional maps, including piecewise linear maps, with rational coefficients. This method can generate sufficiently long true orbits which reproduce typical behaviors (inherent behaviors) of these systems, by properly selecting algebraic numbers in accordance with the dimension of the target system, and involving only integer arithmetic. By applying our method to three dynamical systems—that is, the baker's transformation, the map associated with a modified Jacobi-Perron algorithm, and an open flow system—we demonstrate that it can reproduce their typical behaviors that have been very difficult to reproduce with conventional simulation methods. In particular, for the first two maps, we show that we can generate true orbits displaying the same statistical properties as typical orbits, by estimating the marginal densities of their invariant measures. For the open flow system, we show that an obtained true orbit correctly converges to the stable period-1 orbit, which is inherently possessed by the system.

  13. True orbit simulation of piecewise linear and linear fractional maps of arbitrary dimension using algebraic numbers.

    PubMed

    Saito, Asaki; Yasutomi, Shin-ichi; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Ito, Shunji

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a true orbit generation method enabling exact simulations of dynamical systems defined by arbitrary-dimensional piecewise linear fractional maps, including piecewise linear maps, with rational coefficients. This method can generate sufficiently long true orbits which reproduce typical behaviors (inherent behaviors) of these systems, by properly selecting algebraic numbers in accordance with the dimension of the target system, and involving only integer arithmetic. By applying our method to three dynamical systems-that is, the baker's transformation, the map associated with a modified Jacobi-Perron algorithm, and an open flow system-we demonstrate that it can reproduce their typical behaviors that have been very difficult to reproduce with conventional simulation methods. In particular, for the first two maps, we show that we can generate true orbits displaying the same statistical properties as typical orbits, by estimating the marginal densities of their invariant measures. For the open flow system, we show that an obtained true orbit correctly converges to the stable period-1 orbit, which is inherently possessed by the system.

  14. Why should correction values be better known than the measurand true value?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavese, Franco

    2013-09-01

    Since the beginning of the history of modern measurement science, the experimenters faced the problem of dealing with systematic effects, as distinct from, and opposed to, random effects. Two main schools of thinking stemmed from the empirical and theoretical exploration of the problem, one dictating that the two species should be kept and reported separately, the other indicating ways to combine the two species into a single numerical value for the total uncertainty (often indicated as 'error'). The second way of thinking was adopted by the GUM, and, generally, adopts the method of assuming that their expected value is null by requiring, for all systematic effects taken into account in the model, that corresponding 'corrections' are applied to the measured values before the uncertainty analysis is performed. On the other hand, about the value of the measurand intended to be the object of measurement, classical statistics calls it 'true value', admitting that a value should exist objectively (e.g. the value of a fundamental constant), and that any experimental operation aims at obtaining an ideally exact measure of it. However, due to the uncertainty affecting every measurement process, this goal can be attained only approximately, in the sense that nobody can ever know exactly how much any measured value differs from the true value. The paper discusses the credibility of the numerical value attributed to an estimated correction, compared with the credibility of the estimate of the location of the true value, concluding that the true value of a correction should be considered as imprecisely evaluable as the true value of any 'input quantity', and of the measurand itself. From this conclusion, one should derive that the distinction between 'input quantities' and 'corrections' is not justified and not useful.

  15. Molecular analysis in true hermaphrodites with different karyotypes and similar phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, L.; Cervantes, A.; Kofman-Alfaro, S.

    1996-05-17

    True hermaphroditism is characterized by the development of ovarian and testicular tissue in the same individual. Muellerian and Wolffian structures are usually present, and external genitalia are often ambiguous. The most frequent karyotype in these patients is 46,XX or various forms of mosaicism, whereas 46,XY is very rarely found. The phenotype in all these subjects is similar. We studied 10 true hermaphrodites. Six of them had a 46,XX chromosomal complement: 3 had been reared as males and 3 as females. The other 4 patients were mosaics: 3 were 46,XX/46,XY and one had a 46,XX/47,XXY karyotype. One of the 46,XX/46,XY mosaics was reared as a female, whereas the other 3 mosaics were reared as males. The sex of assignment in the 10 patients depended only on labio-scrotal differentiation. Molecular studies in 46,XX subjects documented the absence of Y centromeric sequences in all cases, arguing against hidden mosaicism. One patient presented Yp sequences (ZFY+, SRY+), which contrast with South African black 46,XX true hermaphrodites in whom no Y sequences were found. Molecular analysis in the subjects with mosaicism demonstrated the presence of Y centromeric and Yp sequences confirming the presence of a Y chromosome. Gonadal development, endocrine function, and phenotype in the 10 patients did not correlate with the presence of a Y chromosome or Y-derived sequences in the genome, confirming that true hermaphroditism is a heterogeneous condition. Both Mexican and non-South African 46,XX true hermaphrodites may be SRY positive. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  17. Pharmacodynamics of Voriconazole in Children: Further Steps along the Path to True Individualized Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huurneman, Luc J.; Neely, Michael; Veringa, Anette; Docobo Pérez, Fernando; Ramos-Martin, Virginia; Tissing, Wim J.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole is the agent of choice for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in children at least 2 years of age. The galactomannan index is a routinely used diagnostic marker for invasive aspergillosis and can be useful for following the clinical response to antifungal treatment. The aim of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) mathematical model that links the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole with the galactomannan readout in children. Twelve children receiving voriconazole for treatment of proven, probable, and possible invasive fungal infections were studied. A previously published population PK model was used as the Bayesian prior. The PK-PD model was used to estimate the average area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) in each patient and the resultant galactomannan-time profile. The relationship between the ratio of the AUC to the concentration of voriconazole that induced half maximal killing (AUC/EC50) and the terminal galactomannan level was determined. The voriconazole concentration-time and galactomannan-time profiles were both highly variable. Despite this variability, the fit of the PK-PD model was good, enabling both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to be described in individual children. (AUC/EC50)/15.4 predicted terminal galactomannan (P = 0.003), and a ratio of >6 suggested a lower terminal galactomannan level (P = 0.07). The construction of linked PK-PD models is the first step in developing control software that enables not only individualized voriconazole dosages but also individualized concentration targets to achieve suppression of galactomannan levels in a timely and optimally precise manner. Controlling galactomannan levels is a first critical step to maximizing clinical response and survival. PMID:26833158

  18. Second primary tumors (SPT) of head and neck: distinguishing of "true" SPT from micrometastasis by LOH analysis of selected chromosome regions.

    PubMed

    Giefing, M; Rydzanicz, M; Szukala, K; Wozniak, A; Wierzbicka, M; Szyfter, K; Kujawski, M

    2005-01-01

    The reason of treatment failures in head and neck tumors is often connected with the appearance of second primary tumors (SPT). Three mechanisms of SPT development of clonal or non clonal secondary tumors were described: 1. via micrometastases (clonal); 2. from a common carcinogenic field - Second Field Tumors (SFT - partially clonal); 3. via independent events (from different carcinogenic fields - "true" SPT - not clonal). Assessing the clonality of diagnosed tumors carries important clinical implications including chemoprevention, radiotherapy and general patient management. In this study a set of 12 microsatellite markers was used to find similarities and/or differences in allelic imbalance patterns between 22 pairs of tumors (the first tumor designate as index and SPT). The aim of the study was to identify a potential clonal origin and progression within given pairs of tumors. The results indicate that within the tumors diagnosed by clinical examination as SPT at least two mechanisms mentioned above should be taken into account as 6/23 (26%) were clonally unrelated ("true" SPT) and 3/23 (13%) carried clonal genetic changes (formation by micrometastasis or SFT). In 14/23 (61%) cases the results were insufficient or ambiguous to determine the clonality status. The final results indicate the complexity of carcinogenesis in these tumors and thus stress that clinical diagnosis of second primary tumors should be considered carefully.

  19. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  20. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  1. Mastery Achievement of Intellectual Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, Richard J.; White, Richard T.

    1979-01-01

    Mastery learning techniques were improved through mathematics instruction based on a validated learning hierarchy, presenting tasks in a sequence consistent with the requirements of the hierarchy, and requiring learners to demonstrate achievement before being allowed to proceed. (Author/GDC)

  2. Achieving Standards through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Most states do not have the time or resources to develop environmental education standards from scratch. Highlights the role that environmental education and its interdisciplinary nature can play in helping students achieve. (DDR)

  3. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  4. Monte Carlo validation of the TrueBeam 10XFFF phase–space files for applications in lung SABR

    SciTech Connect

    Teke, Tony; Duzenli, Cheryl; Bergman, Alanah; Viel, Francis; Atwal, Parmveer; Gete, Ermias

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To establish the clinical acceptability of universal Monte Carlo phase–space data for the 10XFFF (flattening filter free) photon beam on the Varian TrueBeam Linac, including previously unreported data for small fields, output factors, and inhomogeneous media. The study was particularly aimed at confirming the suitability for use in simulations of lung stereotactic ablative radiotherapy treatment plans. Methods: Monte Carlo calculated percent depth doses (PDDs), transverse profiles, and output factors for the TrueBeam 10 MV FFF beam using generic phase–space data that have been released by the Varian MC research team were compared with in-house measurements and published data from multiple institutions (ten Linacs from eight different institutions). BEAMnrc was used to create field size specific phase–spaces located underneath the jaws. Doses were calculated with DOSXYZnrc in a water phantom for fields ranging from 1 × 1 to 40 × 40 cm{sup 2}. Particular attention was paid to small fields (down to 1 × 1 cm{sup 2}) and dose per pulse effects on dosimeter response for high dose rate 10XFFF beams. Ion chamber measurements were corrected for changes in ion collection efficiency (P{sub ion}) with increasing dose per pulse. MC and ECLIPSE ANISOTROPIC ANALYTICAL ALGORITHM (AAA) calculated PDDs were compared to Gafchromic film measurement in inhomogeneous media (water, bone, lung). Results: Measured data from all machines agreed with Monte Carlo simulations within 1.0% and 1.5% for PDDs and in-field transverse profiles, respectively, for field sizes >1 × 1 cm{sup 2} in a homogeneous water phantom. Agreements in the 80%–20% penumbra widths were better than 2 mm for all the fields that were compared. For all the field sizes considered, the agreement between their measured and calculated output factors was within 1.1%. Monte Carlo results for dose to water at water/bone, bone/lung, and lung/water interfaces as well as within lung agree with film

  5. A True Eddy Accumulation - Eddy Covariance hybrid for measurements of turbulent trace gas fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebicke, Lukas

    2016-04-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) is state-of-the-art in directly and continuously measuring turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide and water vapor. However, low signal-to-noise ratios, high flow rates and missing or complex gas analyzers limit it's application to few scalars. True eddy accumulation, based on conditional sampling ideas by Desjardins in 1972, requires no fast response analyzers and is therefore potentially applicable to a wider range of scalars. Recently we showed possibly the first successful implementation of True Eddy Accumulation (TEA) measuring net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide of a grassland. However, most accumulation systems share the complexity of having to store discrete air samples in physical containers representing entire flux averaging intervals. The current study investigates merging principles of eddy accumulation and eddy covariance, which we here refer to as "true eddy accumulation in transient mode" (TEA-TM). This direct flux method TEA-TM combines true eddy accumulation with continuous sampling. The TEA-TM setup is simpler than discrete accumulation methods while avoiding the need for fast response gas analyzers and high flow rates required for EC. We implemented the proposed TEA-TM method and measured fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O) above a mixed beech forest at the Hainich Fluxnet and ICOS site, Germany, using a G2301 laser spectrometer (Picarro Inc., USA). We further simulated a TEA-TM sampling system using measured high frequency CO2 time series from an open-path gas analyzer. We operated TEA-TM side-by-side with open-, enclosed- and closed-path EC flux systems for CO2, H2O and CH4 (LI-7500, LI-7200, LI-6262, LI-7700, Licor, USA, and FGGA LGR, USA). First results show that TEA-TM CO2 fluxes were similar to EC fluxes. Remaining differences were similar to those between the three eddy covariance setups (open-, enclosed- and closed-path gas analyzers). Measured TEA-TM CO2 fluxes from our physical

  6. Commissioning of the Varian TrueBeam linear accelerator: A multi-institutional study

    SciTech Connect

    Glide-Hurst, C.; Bellon, M.; Wen, N.; Zhao, B.; Chetty, I. J.; Foster, R.; Speiser, M.; Solberg, T.; Altunbas, C.; Westerly, D.; Miften, M.; Altman, M.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Latest generation linear accelerators (linacs), i.e., TrueBeam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and its stereotactic counterpart, TrueBeam STx, have several unique features, including high-dose-rate flattening-filter-free (FFF) photon modes, reengineered electron modes with new scattering foil geometries, updated imaging hardware/software, and a novel control system. An evaluation of five TrueBeam linacs at three different institutions has been performed and this work reports on the commissioning experience. Methods: Acceptance and commissioning data were analyzed for five TrueBeam linacs equipped with 120 leaf (5 mm width) MLCs at three different institutions. Dosimetric data and mechanical parameters were compared. These included measurements of photon beam profiles (6X, 6XFFF, 10X, 10XFFF, 15X), photon and electron percent depth dose (PDD) curves (6, 9, 12 MeV), relative photon output factors (Scp), electron cone factors, mechanical isocenter accuracy, MLC transmission, and dosimetric leaf gap (DLG). End-to-end testing and IMRT commissioning were also conducted. Results: Gantry/collimator isocentricity measurements were similar (0.27-0.28 mm), with overall couch/gantry/collimator values of 0.46-0.68 mm across the three institutions. Dosimetric data showed good agreement between machines. The average MLC DLGs for 6, 10, and 15 MV photons were 1.33 {+-} 0.23, 1.57 {+-} 0.24, and 1.61 {+-} 0.26 mm, respectively. 6XFFF and 10XFFF modes had average DLGs of 1.16 {+-} 0.22 and 1.44 {+-} 0.30 mm, respectively. MLC transmission showed minimal variation across the three institutions, with the standard deviation <0.2% for all linacs. Photon and electron PDDs were comparable for all energies. 6, 10, and 15 MV photon beam quality, %dd(10){sub x} varied less than 0.3% for all linacs. Output factors (Scp) and electron cone factors agreed within 0.27%, on average; largest variations were observed for small field sizes (1.2% coefficient of variation, 10 MV, 2

  7. Validation of a chart to estimate true Schistosoma mansoni prevalences from simple egg counts.

    PubMed

    De Vlas, S J; Engels, D; Rabello, A L; Oostburg, B F; Van Lieshout, L; Polderman, A M; Van Oortmarssen, G J; Habbema, J D; Gryseels, B

    1997-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni egg counts by faecal examination vary considerably and are not very sensitive, so prevalences are underestimated. The distribution of egg counts can adequately be described by a stochastic model which distinguishes variation in counts between persons and variation in repeated counts within a person. Based on this model a pocket chart has been developed which predicts the proportion of individuals harbouring at least 1 S. mansoni worm pair-the 'true prevalence'-from a simple single survey prevalence and geometric mean egg count (using common duplicate 25 mg Kato-Katz smears). The current paper describes the validation of this chart by comparing predicted true prevalences with prevalences observed after 5-7 repeated Kato-Katz faecal examinations (Burundi), by examination of a large quantity of stool using the Visser filter (Brazil) or a selective sedimentation-filtration method (Surinam). Because 5-7 repeated examinations do not suffice to measure all infections, predictions have been made of the cumulative proportion positives over 5-7 surveys-the 'approximate true prevalence'-as well. After dividing the data into age groups, 12 different subsets were considered for validation. In all 12 cases, predicted true prevalences (or approximate true prevalences for the Burundi data) agree well with those observed. The overall agreement depends only slightly on the assumed relationship between worm numbers and mean egg counts, with a good fit for a productivity between 0.8 and 4.4 eggs per gramme faeces (EPG) per worm pair (WP). This interval includes the most plausible value from the literature, i.e. 1.0 EPG/WP, which has been applied in the initial pocket chart. These findings support the validity of the chart to predict true prevalences for a wide range of productivity assumptions, and reinforces the applicability of its underlying stochastic model to describe egg count variation. However, as predictions appear to vary importantly when using only part

  8. Achieving high-value cardiac imaging: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wiener, David H

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac imaging is under intense scrutiny as a contributor to health care costs, with multiple initiatives under way to reduce and eliminate inappropriate testing. Appropriate use criteria are valuable guides to selecting imaging studies but until recently have focused on the test rather than the patient. Patient-centered means are needed to define the true value of imaging for patients in specific clinical situations. This article provides a definition of high-value cardiac imaging. A paradigm to judge the efficacy of echocardiography in the absence of randomized controlled trials is presented. Candidate clinical scenarios are proposed in which echocardiography constitutes high-value imaging, as well as stratagems to increase the likelihood that high-value cardiac imaging takes place in those circumstances.

  9. Modeling the influence of investigator bias on the elicitation of true and false confessions.

    PubMed

    Narchet, Fadia M; Meissner, Christian A; Russano, Melissa B

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to model various social and cognitive processes believed to be associated with true and false confessions by exploring the link between investigative biases and what occurs in the interrogation room. Using the Russano et al. (Psychol Sci 16:481-486, 2005) paradigm, this study explored how perceptions of guilt influenced the frequency and type of interrogation tactics used, suspect's perceptions of the interrogation process, the likelihood of confession, and investigator's resulting perceptions of culpability. Results suggested that investigator bias led to the increased use of minimization tactics and thereby increased the likelihood of false confessions by innocent participants. In contrast, the manipulation of investigator bias had no direct or indirect influence on guilty participants. These findings confirm the important role of investigator bias and improve our understanding of the decision-making process associated with true and false confessions. PMID:21161571

  10. A geometrical model for the Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Sempau, J.; Fogliata, A.; Cozzi, L.; Sauerwein, W.; Brualla, L.

    2015-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of linear accelerators (linacs) depends on the accurate geometrical description of the linac head. The geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac is not available to researchers. Instead, the company distributes phase-space files of the flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams tallied at a plane located just upstream of the jaws. Yet, Monte Carlo simulations based on third-party tallied phase spaces are subject to limitations. In this work, an experimentally based geometry developed for the simulation of the FFF beams of the Varian TrueBeam linac is presented. The Monte Carlo geometrical model of the TrueBeam linac uses information provided by Varian that reveals large similarities between the TrueBeam machine and the Clinac 2100 downstream of the jaws. Thus, the upper part of the TrueBeam linac was modeled by introducing modifications to the Varian Clinac 2100 linac geometry. The most important of these modifications is the replacement of the standard flattening filters by ad hoc thin filters. These filters were modeled by comparing dose measurements and simulations. The experimental dose profiles for the 6 MV and 10 MV FFF beams were obtained from the Varian Golden Data Set and from in-house measurements performed with a diode detector for radiation fields ranging from 3  ×  3 to 40  ×  40 cm2 at depths of maximum dose of 5 and 10 cm. Indicators of agreement between the experimental data and the simulation results obtained with the proposed geometrical model were the dose differences, the root-mean-square error and the gamma index. The same comparisons were performed for dose profiles obtained from Monte Carlo simulations using the phase-space files distributed by Varian for the TrueBeam linac as the sources of particles. Results of comparisons show a good agreement of the dose for the ansatz geometry similar to that obtained for the simulations with the TrueBeam phase-space files for all fields and depths considered, except for the

  11. A geometrical model for the Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam linac.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Sempau, J; Fogliata, A; Cozzi, L; Sauerwein, W; Brualla, L

    2015-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of linear accelerators (linacs) depends on the accurate geometrical description of the linac head. The geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac is not available to researchers. Instead, the company distributes phase-space files of the flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams tallied at a plane located just upstream of the jaws. Yet, Monte Carlo simulations based on third-party tallied phase spaces are subject to limitations. In this work, an experimentally based geometry developed for the simulation of the FFF beams of the Varian TrueBeam linac is presented. The Monte Carlo geometrical model of the TrueBeam linac uses information provided by Varian that reveals large similarities between the TrueBeam machine and the Clinac 2100 downstream of the jaws. Thus, the upper part of the TrueBeam linac was modeled by introducing modifications to the Varian Clinac 2100 linac geometry. The most important of these modifications is the replacement of the standard flattening filters by ad hoc thin filters. These filters were modeled by comparing dose measurements and simulations. The experimental dose profiles for the 6 MV and 10 MV FFF beams were obtained from the Varian Golden Data Set and from in-house measurements performed with a diode detector for radiation fields ranging from 3  ×  3 to 40  ×  40 cm(2) at depths of maximum dose of 5 and 10 cm. Indicators of agreement between the experimental data and the simulation results obtained with the proposed geometrical model were the dose differences, the root-mean-square error and the gamma index. The same comparisons were performed for dose profiles obtained from Monte Carlo simulations using the phase-space files distributed by Varian for the TrueBeam linac as the sources of particles. Results of comparisons show a good agreement of the dose for the ansatz geometry similar to that obtained for the simulations with the TrueBeam phase-space files for all fields and depths considered, except for

  12. Reported serial positions of true and illusory memories in the Deese/Roediger/McDermott paradigm.

    PubMed

    Prohaska, Vincent; DelValle, Debbie; Toglia, Michael P; Pittman, Anna E

    2016-08-01

    One of the easiest ways to induce illusory memories in the laboratory is to use the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) word-list paradigm. Researchers have used this paradigm not only to study people's memories of stimuli that were not actually presented, but also to study the phenomenological qualities of these illusions. In four experiments, the current investigation explored a phenomenological quality of illusory memories that has received almost no attention, specifically, temporality. A serial position task was incorporated into the DRM paradigm to examine temporal attributes of participants' true and false memories. Effects of list strength, presentation order, and types of warnings were examined. Results showed consistent serial position responses for true and false memories. However, only responses for illusory memories were affected by manipulations at study. The current findings thus lend support to encoding-based explanations of false recollections.

  13. Word-Synchronous Optical Sampling of Periodically Repeated OTDM Data Words for True Waveform Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkler, Erik; Telle, Harald R.

    2007-06-01

    An improved phase-locked loop (PLL) for versatile synchronization of a sampling pulse train to an optical data stream is presented. It enables optical sampling of the true waveform of repetitive high bit-rate optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) data words such as pseudorandom bit sequences. Visualization of the true waveform can reveal details, which cause systematic bit errors. Such errors cannot be inferred from eye diagrams and require word-synchronous sampling. The programmable direct-digital-synthesis circuit used in our novel PLL approach allows flexible adaption of virtually any problem-specific synchronization scenario, including those required for waveform sampling, for jitter measurements by slope detection, and for classical eye-diagrams. Phase comparison of the PLL is performed at 10-GHz OTDM base clock rate, leading to a residual synchronization jitter of less than 70 fs.

  14. Detecting children's lies: comparing true accounts about highly stressful injuries with unprepared, prepared, and coached lies.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kelly L; Dodd, Elyse; Raynor, Graham; Peterson, Carole

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation, 514 university students judged whether children were telling the truth about highly emotional events. Eight children (half female, half 8-9 and the remainder 12-14 years old) had been injured seriously enough to require emergency room treatment and were interviewed a few days later. Each was yoked to three other children matched in age and gender who fabricated accounts under one of three conditions: lies that were unprepared, prepared (24 hours to prepare), and coached by parents. Participants were at chance when judging true accounts as well as unprepared and prepared lies. However, 74% of the coached lies were judged as true. Participants' confidence in their judgments, age, experience with children, and relevant coursework/training did not improve judgments. PMID:22566366

  15. Inflation of small true vacuum bubble by quantization of Einstein-Hilbert action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, DongShan; Cai, QingYu

    2015-07-01

    We study the quantization of the Einstein-Hilbert action for a small true vacuum bubble without matter or scalar field. The quantization of action induces an extra term of potential called quantum potential in Hamilton-Jacobi equation, which gives expanding solutions, including the exponential expansion solutions of the scalar factor a for the bubble. We show that exponential expansion of the bubble continues with a short period, no matter whether the bubble is closed, flat, or open. The exponential expansion ends spontaneously when the bubble becomes large, that is, the scalar factor a of the bubble approaches a Planck length l p. We show that it is the quantum potential of the small true vacuum bubble that plays the role of the scalar field potential suggested in the slow-roll inflation model. With the picture of quantum tunneling, we calculate particle creation rate during inflation, which shows that particles created by inflation have the capability of reheating the universe.

  16. True digestible phosphorus requirement for forty- to eighty-kilogram pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Adeola, O

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the true digestible P requirement of 40- to 60-kg (Exp. 1) and 60- to 80-kg (Exp. 2) pigs by broken-line analysis of growth performance data using 6 levels of true digestible P. In each 3-wk experiment, 108 barrows and gilts were used, and 6 levels of monocalcium phosphate were added to a corn-soybean meal-based diet to establish 6 graded levels of true total tract digestible P ranging from 1.26 to 3.98 g/kg of diet in Exp. 1 or from 1.21 to 3.31 g/kg in Exp. 2. The true digestible P content was calculated using true total tract digestibility of 40.53%, 35.96%, and 84.31% for P in corn, soybean meal, and monocalcium phosphate, respectively. Limestone was added accordingly to maintain a constant Ca level across all diets of each experiment. The results of Exp. 1 showed that with graded supplementation of monocalcium phosphate, ADG linearly increased ( < 0.001) in wk 1 and both linearly and quadratically increased ( < 0.01) in wk 2, wk 3, and wk 0 to 3, and G:F linearly improved ( < 0.001) in wk 1, quadratically improved ( < 0.05) in wk 3, and both linearly and quadratically improved ( < 0.05) in wk 2 and wk 0 to 3 ( < 0.05). In Exp. 2, ADG linearly increased ( < 0.001) in wk 1 and both linearly and quadratically increased ( < 0.05) in wk 2, wk 3, and wk 0 to 3, with the graded supplementation of monocalcium phosphate, and G:F linearly improved ( < 0.01) in wk 1 and wk 3 and both linearly and quadratically improved ( < 0.001) in wk 2 and wk 0 to 3. In Exp. 1, the true digestible P requirement was estimated to be 2.66, 2.79, and 2.51 g/kg of diet (884 g DM/kg) for pigs of mixed sex, barrows, and gilts, respectively, on the basis of broken-line regression of ADG data for wk 0 to 3 against 6 true digestible P levels. Using G:F, the P requirement estimate was correspondingly 2.67, 2.51, and 2.93 g/kg of diet. In Exp. 2, the true digestible P requirement was estimated to be 2.29, 2.20, and 2.39 g/kg of diet (884 g DM/kg) using

  17. Comparison of activation level between true and false items in the DRM paradigm.

    PubMed

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Sergi, Ida; Iachini, Tina

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the activation levels of true and false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. For this purpose, we used a lexical decision task (LDT) that can be considered a relative pure measure of activation. Participants had to study a list of words that were semantically associated to a critical non-presented word (CI), and afterwards had to classify the actually studied words, the CI and new words in the LDT. Results indicated that the classification latency of the CI was the same as actually studied words and shorter than new words. The results might be interpreted as evidence that the false and true memory items have the same activation level and that the false memory effect can be based on the indirect activation of the CI at the encoding.

  18. [Clinical pathology].

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Jovan

    2006-05-01

    the organ for transplantation is carried out and ensures a reliable evaluation of the condition of the transplanted organ, enabling appropriate therapy. Autoimmune, hereditary diseases are almost impossible to recognise unless a biopsy is performed as in the examples given. In this work, the 30-year-long results of the cooperation between clinical doctors and pathologists are presented and compared with similar results from modern literature, together with numerous examples that represent significant experiences and achievements of our medicine. PMID:16796169

  19. Pseudorandom number generation using chaotic true orbits of the Bernoulli map.

    PubMed

    Saito, Asaki; Yamaguchi, Akihiro

    2016-06-01

    We devise a pseudorandom number generator that exactly computes chaotic true orbits of the Bernoulli map on quadratic algebraic integers. Moreover, we describe a way to select the initial points (seeds) for generating multiple pseudorandom binary sequences. This selection method distributes the initial points almost uniformly (equidistantly) in the unit interval, and latter parts of the generated sequences are guaranteed not to coincide. We also demonstrate through statistical testing that the generated sequences possess good randomness properties.

  20. True random number generator based on discretized encoding of the time interval between photons.

    PubMed

    Li, Shen; Wang, Long; Wu, Ling-An; Ma, Hai-Qiang; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2013-01-01

    We propose an approach to generate true random number sequences based on the discretized encoding of the time interval between photons. The method is simple and efficient, and can produce a highly random sequence several times longer than that of other methods based on threshold or parity selection, without the need for hashing. A proof-of-principle experiment has been performed, showing that the system could be easily integrated and applied to quantum cryptography and other fields. PMID:23456008