Science.gov

Sample records for achieve true clinical

  1. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22753040

  2. Teriparatide: A Novel Means to Ultimately Achieve True Regeneration!!!

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Harpreet Singh; Luthra, Shailly; Maroo, Shruti

    2013-01-01

    “Perioceutics” or the use of the pharmacological agents which are specifically developed to manage periodontitis, is an interesting and an emerging aid in the management of periodontal diseases, along with mechanical debridement. Host modulation therapies are being proposed and developed to bring down excessive levels of enzymes, cytokines, prostanoids, as well modulate osteoclast functions. Over the past two decades, many drugs have been investigated for their host modulating properties in both animal and early human clinical studies. These agents include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, sub antimicrobial dose doxycycline and systemic bisphosphonates. Recently, a new drug has been added to the list, namely, teriparatide, which is a bone forming drug. It is a biosynthetic human parathyroid hormone. Multiple clinical trials have shown that teriparatide is associated with increased bone mineral density. This review has focused on the mechanism of action of teriparatide and its potential role in the treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:24086927

  3. Achieving clinical integration.

    PubMed

    Redding, John

    2013-11-01

    To develop an effective and sustainable clinically integrated network (CIN) that positions a healthcare organization for value-based payment and other effects of healthcare reform, leaders of CIN initiatives should: Embrace progress rather than perfection; Constrain the development timeline by project managing in reverse; Ensure that physician leaders play an oversight role in the development process. PMID:24340650

  4. True challenges of disposable optical fiber sensors for clinical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Éric; Hamel, Caroline

    2007-07-01

    Medical applications represent a unique chance of expansion for the optical fiber sensors (OFS) market that was confined so far mostly in niche applications where higher technological costs were justified by OFS distinctive advantages. Single use medical devices integrating OFS could however generate a significant growth for this type of technology. Thanks to cost reductions derived from the success of optical fiber used in the telecom industry, it is now possible to produce competitive disposable OFS for clinical environment. Cost reduction is nevertheless not the only challenge for this type of application: materials bio-compatibility and sterilization resistance, packaging issues, design considerations for end-user acceptance and operational simplicity, technology reliability including connectivity and sensor performances, manufacturing process monitoring and outstanding quality control, are among few of the problems that have to be considered to address correctly the complex medical market with successful disposable OFS devices. With a clear understanding of the needs and challenges of clinical applications, it is easier to respond to this reality and to offer commercially suitable solutions.

  5. True 3D chemical dosimetry (gels, plastics): Development and clinical role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of volumetric chemical dosimetry with Fricke gel dosimeters in the 1980s, three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry has been a promising technique for the clinic, since it provides a unique methodology for 3D dose measurement of the complex conformal dose distributions achieved by modern techniques such as Intensity Modulated and Volumetric Arc Radiation Therapy. In the last decade, the potential for improved clinical applicability has been advanced by the development of improved 3D dosimeters such as normoxic polymer gel systems, radiochromic plastics (such as PRESAGE) and, recently, newer radiochromic gel dosimeters. Some of these new 3D dosimetry systems were enabled by the availability of optical computed tomography imaging systems for fast dose readout. However, despite its promise, true 3D dosimetry is still not widely practiced in the community. Its use has been confined primarily to select centres of expertise and to specialised quality assurance or commissioning roles where other dosimetry techniques are difficult to implement. In this paper I review some of the current 3D chemical dosimeters available, discuss the requirements for their use and briefly review the roles that these systems can provide to complement the other dose delivery validation approaches available in the clinic. I conclude by describing two roles that may be uniquely served by 3D chemical dosimetry in end-to-end process testing and validation in the complex environment coming into play with the development of Image Guided Adaptive Radiation Therapy.

  6. Prediction of Achievement in Clinical Pharmacy Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Lee S.

    1978-01-01

    A study sought to identify student characteristics which account for academic achievement in clinical pharmacy courses. Preclinical grade point average was the best predictor. Subscales of the California Personality Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, work experience, sex, and age were the other predictor variables. (SW)

  7. Cooperative Learning (CL) and Academic Achievement of Asian Students: A True Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanh, Pham Thi Hong; Gillies, Robyn; Renshaw, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews research examining the effects of CL strategies on the academic achievement of Asian students. Fourteen studies are included in the review. Sample characteristics, measures, findings, and effects are reported in a table. Achievement outcomes are found mixed with 50 per cent of the studies reporting neutral and negative findings…

  8. Graduate Medical Education: Its Role in Achieving a True Medical Education Continuum.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrener, Carol A; Ast, Cori; Kirch, Darrell G

    2015-09-01

    Nearly half a century ago, Lowell T. Coggeshall recommended, through what has come to be known as the Coggeshall Report, that physician education-medical school (or undergraduate medical education [UME]), residency training (or graduate medical education [GME]), and continuing medical education (CME)-be "planned and provided as a continuum." While the dream of a true continuum remains unfulfilled, recent innovations focused on defining and assessing meaningful outcomes at last offer the anchor for the creation of a seamless, flexible, and ongoing pathway for the preparation of physicians. Recent innovations, including a widely accepted competency framework and entrustable professional activities (EPAs), provide key tools for creating a continuum. The competency framework is being leveraged in UME, GME, and CME and is serving as the foundation for the continuum. Learners and those who assess them are increasingly relying on observable behaviors (e.g., EPAs) to determine progress. The GME community in the United States and Canada has played-and continues to play-a leading role in the creation of these tools and a true medical education continuum. Despite some systemic challenges to implementation (e.g., premedical learner formation, time-in-step requirements), the GME community is already operationalizing these tools as a basis for other innovations that are improving transitions across the continuum (e.g., competency-based progression of residents). The medical education community's greatest responsibility in the years ahead will be to build on these efforts in GME-joining together to learn from one another and develop a continuum that serves the public and the profession. PMID:26177531

  9. Discriminating between true-positive and false-positive clinical mastitis alerts from automatic milking systems.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; van der Gaag, L C; Ouweltjes, W; Mollenhorst, H; Hogeveen, H

    2010-06-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) generate alert lists reporting cows likely to have clinical mastitis (CM). Dutch farmers indicated that they use non-AMS cow information or the detailed alert information from the AMS to decide whether to check an alerted cow for CM. However, it is not yet known to what extent such information can be used to discriminate between true-positive and false-positive alerts. The overall objective was to investigate whether selection of the alerted cows that need further investigation for CM can be made. For this purpose, non-AMS cow information and detailed alert information were used. During a 2-yr study period, 11,156 alerts for CM, including 159 true-positive alerts, were collected at one farm in The Netherlands. Non-AMS cow information on parity, days in milk, season of the year, somatic cell count history, and CM history was added to each alert. In addition, 6 alert information variables were defined. These were the height of electrical conductivity, the alert origin (electrical conductivity, color, or both), whether or not a color alert for mastitic milk was given, whether or not a color alert for abnormal milk was given, deviation from the expected milk yield, and the number of alerts of the cow in the preceding 12 to 96 h. Subsequently, naive Bayesian networks (NBN) were constructed to compute the posterior probability of an alert being truly positive based only on non-AMS cow information, based on only alert information, or based on both types of information. The NBN including both types of information had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC; 0.78), followed by the NBN including only alert information (AUC=0.75) and the NBN including only non-AMS cow information (AUC=0.62). By combining the 2 types of information and by setting a threshold on the computed probabilities, the number of false-positive alerts on a mastitis alert list was reduced by 35%, and 10% of the true-positive alerts would not

  10. Clinical evaluation of a true percutaneous technique for antegrade femoral nailing.

    PubMed

    Ziran, Bruce H; Smith, Wade R; Zlotolow, D A; Manion, C; Grosskreuz, R; Agudelo, Juan F; Morgan, Steven J

    2005-10-01

    From July 1997 to March 2001, 209 consecutive patients with 215 femoral shaft fractures amenable to antegrade femoral nailing were enrolled. A true percutaneous insertion technique was performed using a stab wound incision. One hundred ninety-seven (92%) fractures achieved primary union with anatomic or near anatomic alignment. Eighteen (8%) healing problems and two deep infections (1%) responded to repeat interventions. There was one iatrogenic complication related to an anterior starting point. External blood loss was minimal (generally <100 cc). Incisions averaged 16 mm and healed uneventfully. At one-year follow-up only 10% of patients had hip abductor pain. The percutaneous technique appears to be a safe and effective alternative to the standard technique. Hip pain at one year appears decreased compared to reports using a traditional approach. PMID:16237882

  11. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  12. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Simulated and True Clinical Throat Swab Specimens by Nanorod Array-Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hennigan, Suzanne L.; Driskell, Jeremy D.; Dluhy, Richard A.; Zhao, Yiping; Tripp, Ralph A.; Waites, Ken B.; Krause, Duncan C.

    2010-01-01

    The prokaryote Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of respiratory disease in humans, accounting for 20% of all community-acquired pneumonia and the leading cause of pneumonia in older children and young adults. The limitations of existing options for mycoplasma diagnosis highlight a critical need for a new detection platform with high sensitivity, specificity, and expediency. Here we evaluated silver nanorod arrays (NA) as a biosensing platform for detection and differentiation of M. pneumoniae in culture and in spiked and true clinical throat swab samples by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Three M. pneumoniae strains were reproducibly differentiated by NA-SERS with 95%–100% specificity and 94–100% sensitivity, and with a lower detection limit exceeding standard PCR. Analysis of throat swab samples spiked with M. pneumoniae yielded detection in a complex, clinically relevant background with >90% accuracy and high sensitivity. In addition, NA-SERS correctly classified with >97% accuracy, ten true clinical throat swab samples previously established by real-time PCR and culture to be positive or negative for M. pneumoniae. Our findings suggest that the unique biochemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, combined with reproducible spectral enhancement by silver NA, holds great promise as a superior platform for rapid and sensitive detection and identification of M. pneumoniae, with potential for point-of-care application. PMID:21049032

  13. Improving International Research with Clinical Specimens: 5 Achievable Objectives

    PubMed Central

    LaBaer, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Our increased interest in translational research has created a large demand for blood, tissue and other clinical samples, which find use in a broad variety of research including genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested internationally on the collection, storage and distribution of samples. Nevertheless, many researchers complain in frustration about their inability to obtain relevant and/or useful samples for their research. Lack of access to samples, poor condition of samples, and unavailability of appropriate control samples have slowed our progress in the study of diseases and biomarkers. In this editorial, I focus on five major challenges that thwart clinical sample use for translational research and propose near term objectives to address them. They include: (1) defining our biobanking needs; (2) increasing the use of and access to standard operating procedures; (3) mapping inter-observer differences for use in normalizing diagnoses; (4) identifying natural internal protein controls; and (5) redefining the clinical sample paradigm by building partnerships with the public. In each case, I believe that we have the tools at hand required to achieve the objective within 5 years. Potential paths to achieve these objectives are explored. However we solve these problems, the future of proteomics depends on access to high quality clinical samples, collected under standardized conditions, accurately annotated and shared under conditions that promote the research we need to do. PMID:22998582

  14. Different clinical electrodes achieve similar electrical nerve conduction block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, Adam; Bhadra, Narendra; Gustafson, Kenneth J.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. We aim to evaluate the suitability of four electrodes previously used in clinical experiments for peripheral nerve electrical block applications. Approach. We evaluated peripheral nerve electrical block using three such clinical nerve cuff electrodes (the Huntington helix, the Case self-sizing Spiral and the flat interface nerve electrode) and one clinical intramuscular electrode (the Memberg electrode) in five cats. Amplitude thresholds for the block using 12 or 25 kHz voltage-controlled stimulation, onset response, and stimulation thresholds before and after block testing were determined. Main results. Complete nerve block was achieved reliably and the onset response to blocking stimulation was similar for all electrodes. Amplitude thresholds for the block were lowest for the Case Spiral electrode (4 ± 1 Vpp) and lower for the nerve cuff electrodes (7 ± 3 Vpp) than for the intramuscular electrode (26 ± 10 Vpp). A minor elevation in stimulation threshold and reduction in stimulus-evoked urethral pressure was observed during testing, but the effect was temporary and did not vary between electrodes. Significance. Multiple clinical electrodes appear suitable for neuroprostheses using peripheral nerve electrical block. The freedom to choose electrodes based on secondary criteria such as ease of implantation or cost should ease translation of electrical nerve block to clinical practice.

  15. Identification of Synergistic, Clinically Achievable, Combination Therapies for Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Diana; Kahen, Elliot; Cubitt, Christopher L.; McGuire, Jeremy; Kreahling, Jenny; Lee, Jae; Altiok, Soner; Lynch, Conor C.; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Reed, Damon R.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic therapy has improved osteosarcoma event-free and overall survival, but 30–50% of patients originally diagnosed will have progressive or recurrent disease, which is difficult to cure. Osteosarcoma has a complex karyotype, with loss of p53 in the vast majority of cases and an absence of recurrent, targetable pathways. In this study, we explored 54 agents that are clinically approved for other oncologic indications, agents in active clinical development, and others with promising preclinical data in osteosarcoma at clinically achievable concentrations in 5 osteosarcoma cell lines. We found significant single-agent activity of multiple agents and tested 10 drugs in all permutations of two-drug combinations to define synergistic combinations by Chou and Talalay analysis. We then evaluated order of addition to choose the combinations that may be best to translate to the clinic. We conclude that the repurposing of chemotherapeutics in osteosarcoma by using an in vitro system may define novel drug combinations with significant in vivo activity. In particular, combinations of proteasome inhibitors with histone deacetylase inhibitors and ixabepilone and MK1775 demonstrated excellent activity in our assays. PMID:26601688

  16. True alignment of preclinical and clinical research to enhance success in CNS drug development: a review of the current evidence.

    PubMed

    Goetghebeur, Pascal Jd; Swartz, Jina E

    2016-07-01

    Central nervous system pharmacological research and development has reached a critical turning point. Patients suffering from disorders afflicting the central nervous system are numerous and command significant attention from the pharmaceutical industry. However, given the numerous failures of promising drugs, many companies are no longer investing in or, indeed, are divesting from this therapeutic area. Central nervous system drug development must change in order to develop effective therapies to treat these patients. Preclinical research is a cornerstone of drug development; however, it is frequently criticised for its lack of predictive validity. Animal models and assays can be shown to be more predictive than reported and, on many occasions, the lack of thorough preclinical testing is potentially to blame for some of the clinical failures. Important factors such as translational aspects, nature of animal models, variances in acute versus chronic dosing, development of add-on therapies and understanding of the full dose-response relationship are too often neglected. Reducing the attrition rate in central nervous system drug development could be achieved by addressing these important questions before novel compounds enter the clinical phase. This review illustrates the relevance of employing these criteria to translational central nervous system research, better to ensure success in developing new drugs in this therapeutic area. PMID:27147593

  17. Achieving clinical equality in an influenza pandemic: patent realities.

    PubMed

    Kane, Eileen M

    2009-01-01

    pharmaceutical interventions. The national and international public health authorities are slowly integrating intellectual property considerations into pandemic planning. Further integration will anticipate the emergence of patent claims, identify any relevant patents, encourage access norms, and consider the use of legal mechanisms that could alleviate patent-mediated obstacles to the availability of critical products and methods that may be patented. Pandemic management must also co-exist with existing efforts to control seasonal influenza outbreaks. The article analyzes the intersection of patent nodes relevant to vaccine development and to antiviral distribution during a global influenza pandemic, identifying where such patents may facilitate or inhibit the availability of pharmaceutical countermeasures, and offers preliminary observations on the emerging novel H1N1 pandemic. The goal of international clinical equality is essential for the eradication of an influenza pandemic, and strategies for its achievement can also be applied to other diseases. PMID:20718133

  18. Achieving the World Health Organization's vision for clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jennifer H; Henry, David; Gray, Jean; Day, Richard; Bochner, Felix; Ferro, Albert; Pirmohamed, Munir; Mörike, Klaus; Schwab, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology is a medical specialty whose practitioners teach, undertake research, frame policy, give information and advice about the actions and proper uses of medicines in humans and implement that knowledge in clinical practice. It involves a combination of several activities: drug discovery and development, training safe prescribers, providing objective and evidence-based therapeutic information to ethics, regulatory and pricing bodies, supporting patient care in an increasingly subspecialized arena where co-morbidities, polypharmacy, altered pharmacokinetics and drug interactions are common and developing and contributing to medicines policies for Governments. Clinical pharmacologists must advocate drug quality and they must also advocate for sustainability of the Discipline. However for this they need appropriate clinical service and training support. This Commentary discusses strategies to ensure the Discipline is supported by teaching, training and policy organizations, to communicate the full benefits of clinical pharmacology services, put a monetary value on clinical pharmacology services and to grow the clinical pharmacology workforce to support a growing clinical, academic and regulatory need. PMID:26466826

  19. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this "knowing" or "being better at judging" is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts. PMID:27256848

  20. Feedback and assessment for clinical placements: achieving the right balance

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Annette; Mellis, Craig

    2015-01-01

    During clinical placements, the provision of feedback forms an integral part of the learning process and enriches students’ learning experiences. The purpose of feedback is to improve the learner’s knowledge, skills, or behavior. Receipt of accurate feedback can help to narrow the gap between actual and desired performance. Effective and regular feedback has the potential to reinforce good practice and motivate the learner toward the desired outcome. Despite the obvious role of feedback in effective teaching and learning, a common complaint from students is that they do not receive adequate feedback. Unfortunately, skills in giving and receiving feedback are rarely taught to students or clinicians. This study aims to provide an understanding of the role of feedback within the learning process, consider consequences of inadequate or poorly given feedback, consider the barriers to the feedback process, provide practical guidelines for providing feedback, and consider the need for student and faculty development in feedback skills. PMID:26056511

  1. True User Involvement by People Living With HIV is Possible: Description of a User-driven HIV Clinic in Norway.

    PubMed

    Berg, Rigmor C; Gamst, Are; Said, Maryan; Aas, Kristin Bårdsen; Songe, Solveig Helene; Fangen, Kim; Rysstad, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The Greater Involvement of People Living with or Affected by HIV principle highlights the various contributions HIV-infected people can make in HIV program development and implementation. We present a unique example of how service users' involvement led to a complete organizational redesign of an outpatient HIV clinic in Southern Norway. We applied a user-driven, case study method, which showed that establishing a user board laid the foundation for the redesign process, as the board provided a clear infrastructure of user involvement and developed a set of user-defined targets for services. The main targets-optimal health, holistic care and treatment, and empowerment-were operationalized as a set of action points, such as establishing HIV nurse coordinators. While there is no single method for user involvement, we offer useful ideas that can help others develop an involvement project that is effective and sustainable. PMID:26255897

  2. Moving toward true inclusion of racial/ethnic minorities in federally funded studies. A key step for achieving respiratory health equality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Burchard, Esteban G; Oh, Sam S; Foreman, Marilyn G; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-03-01

    A key objective of the 1993 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act was to ensure inclusion of minorities in clinical research. We conducted a literature search for the period from 1993 to 2013 to examine whether racial/ethnic minorities are adequately represented in published research studies of pulmonary diseases, particularly NIH-funded studies. We found a marked underrepresentation of minorities in published clinical research on pulmonary diseases. Over the last 20 years, inclusion of members of racial or ethnic minority groups was reported (in MeSH terms, journal titles, and MEDLINE fields) in less than 5% of all NIH-funded published studies of respiratory diseases. Although a secondary analysis revealed that a larger proportion of NIH-funded studies included any minorities, this proportional increment mostly resulted from studies including relatively small numbers of minorities (which precludes robust race- or ethnic-specific analyses). Underrepresentation or exclusion of minorities from NIH-funded studies is likely due to multiple reasons, including insufficient education and training on designing and implementing population-based studies of minorities, inadequate motivation or incentives to overcome challenges in the recruitment and retention of sufficient numbers of members of racial/ethnic minorities, underrepresentation of minorities among respiratory scientists in academic medical centers, and a dearth of successful partnerships between academic medical centers and underrepresented communities. This problem could be remedied by implementing short-, medium-, and long-term strategies, such as creating incentives to conduct minority research, ensuring fair review of grant applications focusing on minorities, developing the careers of minority scientists, and facilitating and valuing research on minorities by investigators of all backgrounds. PMID:25584658

  3. Moving toward True Inclusion of Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Federally Funded Studies. A Key Step for Achieving Respiratory Health Equality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sam S.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    A key objective of the 1993 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act was to ensure inclusion of minorities in clinical research. We conducted a literature search for the period from 1993 to 2013 to examine whether racial/ethnic minorities are adequately represented in published research studies of pulmonary diseases, particularly NIH-funded studies. We found a marked underrepresentation of minorities in published clinical research on pulmonary diseases. Over the last 20 years, inclusion of members of racial or ethnic minority groups was reported (in MeSH terms, journal titles, and MEDLINE fields) in less than 5% of all NIH-funded published studies of respiratory diseases. Although a secondary analysis revealed that a larger proportion of NIH-funded studies included any minorities, this proportional increment mostly resulted from studies including relatively small numbers of minorities (which precludes robust race- or ethnic-specific analyses). Underrepresentation or exclusion of minorities from NIH-funded studies is likely due to multiple reasons, including insufficient education and training on designing and implementing population-based studies of minorities, inadequate motivation or incentives to overcome challenges in the recruitment and retention of sufficient numbers of members of racial/ethnic minorities, underrepresentation of minorities among respiratory scientists in academic medical centers, and a dearth of successful partnerships between academic medical centers and underrepresented communities. This problem could be remedied by implementing short-, medium-, and long-term strategies, such as creating incentives to conduct minority research, ensuring fair review of grant applications focusing on minorities, developing the careers of minority scientists, and facilitating and valuing research on minorities by investigators of all backgrounds. PMID:25584658

  4. A True Metasurface Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Badawe, Mohamed El; Almoneef, Thamer S.; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a true metasurface antenna based on electrically-small resonators. The resonators are placed on a flat surface and connected to one feed point using corporate feed. Unlike conventional array antennas where the distance between adjacent antennas is half wavelength to reduce mutual coupling between adjacent antennas, here the distance between the radiating elements is electrically very small to affect good impedance matching of each resonator to its feed. A metasurface antenna measuring 1.2λ × 1.2λ and designed to operate at 3 GHz achieved a gain of 12 dBi. A prototype was fabricated and tested showing good agreement between numerical simulations and experimental results. Through numerical simulation, we show that the metasurface antenna has the ability to provide beam steering by phasing all the resonators appropriately. PMID:26759177

  5. A True Metasurface Antenna.

    PubMed

    El Badawe, Mohamed; Almoneef, Thamer S; Ramahi, Omar M

    2016-01-01

    We present a true metasurface antenna based on electrically-small resonators. The resonators are placed on a flat surface and connected to one feed point using corporate feed. Unlike conventional array antennas where the distance between adjacent antennas is half wavelength to reduce mutual coupling between adjacent antennas, here the distance between the radiating elements is electrically very small to affect good impedance matching of each resonator to its feed. A metasurface antenna measuring 1.2λ × 1.2λ and designed to operate at 3 GHz achieved a gain of 12 dBi. A prototype was fabricated and tested showing good agreement between numerical simulations and experimental results. Through numerical simulation, we show that the metasurface antenna has the ability to provide beam steering by phasing all the resonators appropriately. PMID:26759177

  6. A True Metasurface Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawe, Mohamed El; Almoneef, Thamer S.; Ramahi, Omar M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a true metasurface antenna based on electrically-small resonators. The resonators are placed on a flat surface and connected to one feed point using corporate feed. Unlike conventional array antennas where the distance between adjacent antennas is half wavelength to reduce mutual coupling between adjacent antennas, here the distance between the radiating elements is electrically very small to affect good impedance matching of each resonator to its feed. A metasurface antenna measuring 1.2λ × 1.2λ and designed to operate at 3 GHz achieved a gain of 12 dBi. A prototype was fabricated and tested showing good agreement between numerical simulations and experimental results. Through numerical simulation, we show that the metasurface antenna has the ability to provide beam steering by phasing all the resonators appropriately.

  7. Graduate-Entry Medical Student Variables that Predict Academic and Clinical Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Ian; Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah

    2004-01-01

    A hypothetical model was formulated to explore factors that influenced academic and clinical achievement for graduate-entry medical students completing their third year of university studies. Nine latent variables were considered including the students' background, previous successes with their undergraduate and postgraduate studies and their…

  8. Undergraduate Nurse Variables that Predict Academic Achievement and Clinical Competence in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Ian; Hall, Margaret; Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah.

    2007-01-01

    A hypothetical model was formulated to explore factors that influenced academic and clinical achievement for undergraduate nursing students. Sixteen latent variables were considered including the students' background, gender, type of first language, age, their previous successes with their undergraduate nursing studies and status given for…

  9. Cultural Competency and Achieving Styles in Clinical Social Work: A Conceptual and Empirical Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yuhwa Eva; Lum, Doman; Chen, Sheying

    2001-01-01

    A study explored the relationship between linguistic/cultural differences and individual achieving styles among 900 clinical social workers, including Asian Americans, Latinos, American Indians, African Americans, Jewish Americans, and Whites. Findings are related to a model of cultural competency in which cross-cultural counselor-client…

  10. High-fidelity simulation: Assessment of student nurses' team achievements of clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    Hallin, Karin; Bäckström, Britt; Häggström, Marie; Kristiansen, Lisbeth

    2016-07-01

    Nursing educators have the challenge of preparing nursing students to handle complex patient care situations in real life, but much remains unknown about the ability to make clinical judgments. In this study, high-fidelity simulation (HFS) was used at a Swedish university to find answers about pre-licensure nursing students' success in clinical judgment in terms of team ability and relationships with theoretical achievements, and personal and scenario circumstances. The matrix Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) was used to analyze and score the students' ability in teams to notice, interpret and respond to complex care situations. Overall, the results showed the student teams in their first meeting with HFS in a complex care situation achieved low clinical judgment points; most teams were in the stages of Beginning and Developing. For attaining high team achievements the majority of the students in the team should theoretically be "high performance". Being observers and having HFS experience before nursing education was significant too. However, age, health care experience, and assistant nurse degrees were of secondary importance. Further research at universities regionally, nationally, and internationally is needed. PMID:27428686

  11. Generalized method for computation of true thickness and x-ray intensity information in highly blurred sub-millimeter bone features in clinical CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakdel, Amirreza; Robert, Normand; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Maloul, Asmaa; Whyne, Cari

    2012-12-01

    In clinical computed tomography (CT) images, cortical bone features with sub-millimeter (sub-mm) thickness are substantially blurred, such that their thickness is overestimated and their intensity appears underestimated. Therefore, any inquiry of the geometry or the density of such bones based on these images is severely error prone. We present a model-based method for estimating the true thickness and intensity magnitude of cortical and trabecular bone layers at localized regions of complex shell bones down to 0.25 mm. The method also computes the width of the corresponding point spread function. This approach is applicable on any CT image data, and does not rely on any scanner-specific parameter inputs beyond what is inherently available in the images themselves. The method applied on CT intensity profiles of custom phantoms mimicking shell-bones produced average cortical thickness errors of 0.07 ± 0.04 mm versus an average error of 0.47 ± 0.29 mm in the untreated cases (t(55) = 10.92, p ≪ 0.001)). Similarly, the average error of intensity magnitude estimates of the method were 22 ± 2.2 HU versus an error of 445 ± 137 HU in the untreated cases (t(55) = 26.48, p ≪ 0.001)). The method was also used to correct the CT intensity profiles from a cadaveric specimen of the craniofacial skeleton (CFS) in 15 different regions. There was excellent agreement between the corrections and µCT intensity profiles of the same regions used as a ‘gold standard’ measure. These results set the groundwork towards restoring cortical bone geometry and intensity information in entire image data sets. This information is essential for the generation of finite element models of the CFS that can accurately describe the biomechanical behavior of its complex thin bone structures.

  12. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  13. Clinical decision support systems for improving diagnostic accuracy and achieving precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Castaneda, Christian; Nalley, Kip; Mannion, Ciaran; Bhattacharyya, Pritish; Blake, Patrick; Pecora, Andrew; Goy, Andre; Suh, K Stephen

    2015-01-01

    As research laboratories and clinics collaborate to achieve precision medicine, both communities are required to understand mandated electronic health/medical record (EHR/EMR) initiatives that will be fully implemented in all clinics in the United States by 2015. Stakeholders will need to evaluate current record keeping practices and optimize and standardize methodologies to capture nearly all information in digital format. Collaborative efforts from academic and industry sectors are crucial to achieving higher efficacy in patient care while minimizing costs. Currently existing digitized data and information are present in multiple formats and are largely unstructured. In the absence of a universally accepted management system, departments and institutions continue to generate silos of information. As a result, invaluable and newly discovered knowledge is difficult to access. To accelerate biomedical research and reduce healthcare costs, clinical and bioinformatics systems must employ common data elements to create structured annotation forms enabling laboratories and clinics to capture sharable data in real time. Conversion of these datasets to knowable information should be a routine institutionalized process. New scientific knowledge and clinical discoveries can be shared via integrated knowledge environments defined by flexible data models and extensive use of standards, ontologies, vocabularies, and thesauri. In the clinical setting, aggregated knowledge must be displayed in user-friendly formats so that physicians, non-technical laboratory personnel, nurses, data/research coordinators, and end-users can enter data, access information, and understand the output. The effort to connect astronomical numbers of data points, including '-omics'-based molecular data, individual genome sequences, experimental data, patient clinical phenotypes, and follow-up data is a monumental task. Roadblocks to this vision of integration and interoperability include ethical, legal

  14. Using Visual and Narrative Methods to Achieve Fair Process in Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has targeted patient-centeredness as an important area of quality improvement. A major dimension of patient-centeredness is respect for patient's values, preferences, and expressed needs. Yet specific approaches to gaining this understanding and translating it to quality care in the clinical setting are lacking. From a patient perspective quality is not a simple concept but is best understood in terms of five dimensions: technical outcomes; decision-making efficiency; amenities and convenience; information and emotional support; and overall patient satisfaction. Failure to consider quality from this five-pronged perspective results in a focus on medical outcomes, without considering the processes central to quality from the patient's perspective and vital to achieving good outcomes. In this paper, we argue for applying the concept of fair process in clinical settings. Fair process involves using a collaborative approach to exploring diagnostic issues and treatments with patients, explaining the rationale for decisions, setting expectations about roles and responsibilities, and implementing a core plan and ongoing evaluation. Fair process opens the door to bringing patient expertise into the clinical setting and the work of developing health care goals and strategies. This paper provides a step by step illustration of an innovative visual approach, called photovoice or photo-elicitation, to achieve fair process in clinical work with acquired brain injury survivors and others living with chronic health conditions. Applying this visual tool and methodology in the clinical setting will enhance patient-provider communication; engage patients as partners in identifying challenges, strengths, goals, and strategies; and support evaluation of progress over time. Asking patients to bring visuals of their lives into the clinical interaction can help to illuminate gaps in clinical knowledge, forge better therapeutic relationships with patients living

  15. Using visual and narrative methods to achieve fair process in clinical care.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Laura S; Chilingerian, Jon A

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has targeted patient-centeredness as an important area of quality improvement. A major dimension of patient-centeredness is respect for patient's values, preferences, and expressed needs. Yet specific approaches to gaining this understanding and translating it to quality care in the clinical setting are lacking. From a patient perspective quality is not a simple concept but is best understood in terms of five dimensions: technical outcomes; decision-making efficiency; amenities and convenience; information and emotional support; and overall patient satisfaction. Failure to consider quality from this five-pronged perspective results in a focus on medical outcomes, without considering the processes central to quality from the patient's perspective and vital to achieving good outcomes. In this paper, we argue for applying the concept of fair process in clinical settings. Fair process involves using a collaborative approach to exploring diagnostic issues and treatments with patients, explaining the rationale for decisions, setting expectations about roles and responsibilities, and implementing a core plan and ongoing evaluation. Fair process opens the door to bringing patient expertise into the clinical setting and the work of developing health care goals and strategies. This paper provides a step by step illustration of an innovative visual approach, called photovoice or photo-elicitation, to achieve fair process in clinical work with acquired brain injury survivors and others living with chronic health conditions. Applying this visual tool and methodology in the clinical setting will enhance patient-provider communication; engage patients as partners in identifying challenges, strengths, goals, and strategies; and support evaluation of progress over time. Asking patients to bring visuals of their lives into the clinical interaction can help to illuminate gaps in clinical knowledge, forge better therapeutic relationships with patients living

  16. Diabetic gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy: current status and new achievements for everyday clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gatopoulou, A; Papanas, N; Maltezos, E

    2012-09-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms occur frequently among patients with diabetes mellitus and are associated with considerable morbidity. Diabetic gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy represents a complex disorder with multifactorial pathogenesis, which is still not well understood. It appears to involve a spectrum of metabolic and cellular changes that affect gastrointestinal motor and sensory control. It may affect any organ in the digestive system. Clinical manifestations are often underestimated, and therefore autonomic neuropathy should be suspected in all diabetic patients with unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms. Advances in technology have now enabled assessment of gastrointestinal motor function. Moreover, novel pharmacological approaches, along with endoscopic and surgical treatment options, contribute to improved outcomes. This review summarises the progress achieved in diabetic gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy during the last years, focusing on clinical issues of practical importance to the everyday clinician. PMID:22863425

  17. Achieving consensus for clinical trials: the REiNS International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Scott R; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Dombi, Eva; Fisher, Michael J; Hanemann, C Oliver; Walsh, Karin S; Wolters, Pamela L; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2013-11-19

    The neurofibromatoses (NF)--including neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis--are related tumor-suppressor syndromes characterized by a predisposition to multiple tumor types and other disease manifestations, which often result in functional disability, reduced quality of life, pain, and, in some cases, malignancy. With increasing knowledge of the biology and pathogenesis of NF, clinical trials with targeted agents directed at NF tumors have become available. Most clinical trials for patients with NF have used designs and endpoints similar to oncology trials. However, differences in the disease manifestations and natural history of NF (compared to cancers) require the development of new designs and endpoints to perform meaningful NF clinical trials. The Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration was established in 2011 at the Children's Tumor Foundation meeting to achieve consensus within the NF community about the design of future clinical trials, with a specific emphasis on endpoints. The REiNS Collaboration includes 7 working groups that focus on imaging of tumor response; functional, visual, patient-reported, and neurocognitive outcomes; whole-body MRI; and disease biomarkers. This supplement includes the first series of recommendations by the REiNS Collaboration. The hope is that these recommendations will be used by members of the group and by researchers outside of the REiNS International Collaboration to standardize the measurement of outcomes and thus improve clinical trials for patients with NF. Ultimately, we plan to engage industry partners and national regulatory agencies in this process to facilitate the approval of drugs for patients with NF. PMID:24249801

  18. A Pharmacist-Staffed, Virtual Gout Management Clinic for Achieving Target Serum Uric Acid Levels: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldfien, Robert; Pressman, Alice; Jacobson, Alice; Ng, Michele; Avins, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Context: Relatively few patients with gout receive appropriate treatment. Objective: To determine whether a pharmacist-staffed gout management program is more effective than usual care in achieving target serum uric acid (sUA) levels in gout patients. Design: A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of a pharmacist-staffed, telephone-based program for managing hyperuricemia vs usual care. Trial duration was 26 weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measure was achieving sUA levels at or below 6 mg/dL at the 26-week visit. Secondary outcome was mean change in sUA levels in the control and intervention groups. Participants were adults with recurrent gout and sUA levels above 6.0 mg/dL. Participants were randomly assigned to management by a clinical pharmacist following protocol or to monitoring of sUA levels but management of their gout by their usual treating physician. Results: Of 102 patients who met eligibility criteria, 77 subjects obtained a baseline sUA measurement and were entered into the trial. Among 37 participants in the intervention group, 13 (35%) had sUA levels at or below 6.0 mg/dL at 26 weeks, compared with 5 (13%) of 40 participants in the control group (risk ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1 to 7.1, p = 0.03). The mean change in sUA levels among controls was +0.1 mg/dL compared with −1.5 mg/dL in the intervention group (sUA difference = −1.6, 95% CI = −0.9 to −2.4, p < 0.001). Conclusions: A structured pharmacist-staffed program was more effective than usual care for achieving target sUA levels. These results suggest a structured program could greatly improve gout management. PMID:27352414

  19. The relationship between medical students’ epistemological beliefs and achievement on a clinical performance examination

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sun-A; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong; Kevin, Deiter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was to explore the relationship between clinical performance examination (CPX) achievement and epistemological beliefs to investigate the potentials of epistemological beliefs in ill-structured medical problem solving tasks. Methods: We administered the epistemological beliefs questionnaire (EBQ) to fourth-year medical students and correlated the results with their CPX scores. The EBQ comprised 61 items reflecting five belief systems: certainty of knowledge, source of knowledge, rigidity of learning, ability to learn, and speed of knowledge acquisition. The CPX included scores for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Results: The higher epistemological beliefs group obtained significantly higher scores on the CPX with regard to history taking and patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores on certainty of knowledge and source of knowledge were significantly positively correlated with patient-physician interaction. The epistemological beliefs scores for ability to learn were significantly positively correlated with those for history taking, physical examination, and patient-physician interaction. Conclusion: Students with more sophisticated and advanced epistemological beliefs stances used more comprehensive and varied approaches in the patient-physician interaction. Therefore, educational efforts that encourage discussions pertaining to epistemological views should be considered to improve clinical reasoning and problem-solving competence in the clinic setting. PMID:26838566

  20. Pre-operative Thresholds for Achieving Meaningful Clinical Improvement after Arthroscopic Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement

    PubMed Central

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U.; Fields, Kara G.; Nawabi, Danyal H.; Kelly, Bryan T.; Ranawat, Anil S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge of the thresholds and determinants for successful femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) treatment is evolving. The primary purpose of this study was to define pre-operative outcome score thresholds that can be used to predict patients most likely to achieve meaningful clinically important difference (MCID) after arthroscopic FAI treatment. Secondarily determinants of achieving MCID were evaluated. Methods: A prospective institutional hip arthroscopy registry was reviewed to identify patients with FAI treated with arthroscopic labral surgery, acetabular rim trimming, and femoral osteochondroplasty. The modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) and the international Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) tools were administered at baseline and at one year post-operatively. MCID was calculated using a distribution-based method. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate cohort-based threshold values predictive of achieving MCID. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to define predictive ability (strength of association) with AUC >0.7 considered acceptably predictive. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to analyze demographic, radiographic and intra-operative factors associated with achieving MCID. Results: There were 374 patients (mean + SD age, 32.9 + 10.5) and 56.4% were female. The MCID for mHHS, HOS activities of daily living (HOS-ADL), HOS Sports, and iHOT-33 was 8.2, 8.4,14.5, and 12.0 respectively. ROC analysis (threshold, % achieving MCID, strength of association) for these tools in our population was: mHHS (61.6, 78%, 0.68), HOS-ADL (83.8, 68%, 0.84), HOS-Sports (63.9, 64%, 0.74), and iHOT-33 (54.3, 82%, 0.65). Likelihood for achieving MCID declined above and increased below these thresholds. In univariate analysis female sex, femoral version, lower acetabular outerbridge score and increasing CT sagittal center edge angle (CEA) were predictive of achieving MCID. In multivariable analysis

  1. The True Scholar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellah, Robert N.

    2000-01-01

    This essay argues for ethical inquiry as the essence of true scholarship. Individual sections address: pure reason versus ethics, the current "age of money" in the university, rational choice theory, and the fatal flaw in rational choice theory that all human actions cannot be explained by it. (DB)

  2. Adalimumab induction and maintenance therapy achieve clinical remission and response in Chinese patients with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Zhi Hua; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Minhu; Zhong, Jie; Sheng, Jian-Qiu; Kamm, Michael A; Travis, Simon; Wallace, Kori; Mostafa, Nael M; Shapiro, Marisa; Li, Yao; Thakkar, Roopal B; Robinson, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims This was a Phase 2 study (NCT02015793) to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of adalimumab in Chinese patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Methods Thirty, adult Chinese patients with CD (CD Activity Index [CDAI] 220–450; high-sensitivity [hs]-C-reactive protein [CRP] ≥3 mg/L) received double-blind adalimumab 160/80 mg or 80/40 mg at weeks 0/2, followed by 40 mg at weeks 4 and 6. An open-label extension period occurred from weeks 8–26; patients received 40 mg adalimumab every other week. Serum adalimumab concentration and change from baseline in fecal calprotectin (FC) were measured during the double-blind period. Clinical remission (CDAI <150), response (decrease in CDAI ≥70 points from baseline), and change from baseline in hs-CRP were assessed through week 26. Nonresponder imputation was used for missing categorical data and last observation carried forward for missing hs-CRP/FC values. No formal hypothesis was tested. Adverse events were monitored. Results Mean adalimumab serum concentrations during the induction phase were 13.9–18.1 µg/mL (160/80 mg group) and 7.5−9.5 µg/mL (80/40 mg group). During the double-blind period, higher remission/response rates and greater reductions from baseline in hs-CRP and FC were observed with adalimumab 160/80 mg compared to that with 80/40 mg. Adverse event rates were similar among all treatment groups. Conclusions Adalimumab serum concentrations in Chinese patients with CD were comparable to those observed previously in Western and Japanese patients. Clinically meaningful remission rates and improvement in inflammatory markers were achieved with both dosing regimens; changes occurred rapidly with adalimumab 160/80 mg induction therapy. No new safety signals were reported. PMID:27175116

  3. TrueImage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kübel, C.; Thust, A.

    The basic principles of focal-series reconstruction in high-resolution TEM are introduced. The paraboloid (PAM) and the maximum-likelihood (MAL) algorithms, which are implemented in TrueImage, are explained. Two application examples are shown to illustrate the benefits of focal-series reconstruction for atomic resolution imaging. Furthermore, a short introduction into linear imaging theory is given as background information.

  4. [Clinical efficacy and achievement of a complete remission in depression: increasing interest in treatment with escitalopram].

    PubMed

    Favré, P

    2012-02-01

    Such a prevalent disease as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), associated with prominent impairment in physical and social functioning, implies as well an increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatments are required due to the frequent occurrence of relapses. Patient compliance is a core factor in both acute and continuation treatment, closely related to tolerability issues. We have partially reviewed the literature published on PubMed since 2004 which assess the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and comparator antidepressants in adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants. These analyses are in favor of a superior efficacy and tolerability of long-term escitalopram treatment (10 to 20mg/day) compared with active controls, including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (paroxetine, citalopram, bupropion, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline), serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (venlafaxine, milnacipran and duloxetine) and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) (mirtazapine). Cipriani et al. (2009) have performed a network meta-analysis of 12 new generation antidepressants. They have shown that clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants for both efficacy and acceptability in favor of escitalopram and sertraline in acute treatment, defined as 8-week treatment. Kasper et al. (2009) conducted a post-hoc pooled analysis of data from two 6-month randomized controlled trials that revealed superior efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram when compared with paroxetine. The pooled analysis of four randomized, double-blind, active comparator, 6-month trials in MDD, by Wade et al. (2009), showed that short-term outcomes may predict long-term treatment compliance and outcomes. A higher probability of achieving remission was associated with responding

  5. Clinically achievable plasma deferoxamine concentrations are therapeutic in a rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Merali, S; Chin, K; Del Angel, L; Grady, R W; Armstrong, M; Clarkson, A B

    1995-01-01

    The iron-chelating drug deferoxamine (DFO) has been shown to be active in animal models of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), with effective daily intraperitoneal bolus dosages being 400 and 1,000 mg of DFO mesylate kg of body weight-1 in mouse and rat models, respectively. Continuous infusion produced a moderately improved response in a rat model. The data reported here demonstrate that the response achieved by continuous infusion of 195 and 335 mg of DFO mesylate kg-1 day-1 in the rat model is associated with mean concentrations in plasma of 1.3 and 2.5 micrograms of DFO ml-1 and mean concentrations in lung tissue of 4.9 and 6.0 micrograms of DFO g of lung tissue-1, respectively. Since current clinical use of DFO mesylate for the treatment of iron overload produces higher concentrations in the plasma of patients, DFO may prove to be a useful anti-PCP treatment. The 2.4- to 3.8-fold higher DFO concentration observed in lung tissue compared with that observed in plasma may be important in the response of PCP to DFO. PMID:8540710

  6. True heterotopic bone in the paralyzed patient

    SciTech Connect

    Blane, C.E.; Perkash, I.

    1981-10-01

    In past years the clinical and radiologic presentation of true heterotopic bone in the paralyzed patient has been confused with osteomyelitis, neoplasm, trauma, and thrombophlebitis. We reviewed 376 paralyzed patients' roentgenographic files and found 78 patients with soft tissue ossification unassociated with infection, neoplasm, or underlying fractures, which we called true heterotopic bone. From this population the usual spectrum of radiologic findings is described, so that the radiologist may separate roentgenographically a group of patients from other types of ectopic ossification.

  7. Is there an added clinical value of "true"whole body(18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging in patients with malignant melanoma?

    PubMed

    Tan, Julie C; Chatterton, Barry E

    2012-01-01

    Accurate and reliable staging of disease extent in patients with malignant MM is essential to ensure appropriate treatment planning. The detection of recurrent or residual malignancy after primary treatment is important to allow for early intervention and to optimise patient survival. 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET or PET computed tomography (PET/CT) is indicated for surveillance of malignant MM due to its high sensitivity and specificity for soft-tissue or nodal recurrences and metastases. It has been claimed that including lower extremities and skull in addition to 'eyes to thigh' images in PET/CT evaluation of metastatic MM routinely is warranted. We have studied retrospectively the reports of whole-body PET/CT scans in all patients with MM scanned in our Department from April 2005 to December 2010. All PET abnormalities in the brain/scalp and lower extremities were tabulated by location and whether they were 'expected' or 'unexpected'. Findings were correlated with pathology, other imaging studies, and clinical follow-up. In this study, 398 PET/CT examinations in 361 patients with MM were included. Results showed that twelve of the 398 (3%) scans had brain/scalp abnormalities, with only 4 (1.0%) showing unexpected abnormalities. Twenty nine of the 398 (7.2%) scans showed lower extremity abnormalities, with only 5 (1.2%) showing unexpected abnormalities. In no case was an isolated unexpected malignant lesion identified in the brain/scalp or lower extremities. In conclusion, whole body PET/CT scan showed about 1% unexpected primary or metastatic MM lesions involving the head or lower extremities, which seldom offered significant additional clinical benefit and were unlikely to change clinical management. No clinically significant change in staging would have occurred. Routine 'eyes to thighs' images were adequate for this subset of patients. PMID:23106051

  8. Achieving progress through clinical governance? A national study of health care managers' perceptions in the NHS in England

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, T; Walshe, K

    2004-01-01

    Background: A national cross sectional study was undertaken to explore the perceptions concerning the importance of, and progress in, aspects of clinical governance among board level and directorate managers in English acute, ambulance, and mental health/learning disabilities (MH/LD) trusts. Participants: A stratified sample of acute, ambulance, and mental health/learning disabilities trusts in England (n = 100), from each of which up to 10 board level and 10 directorate level managers were randomly sampled. Methods: Fieldwork was undertaken between April and July 2002 using the Organisational Progress in Clinical Governance (OPCG) schedule to explore managers' perceptions of the importance of, and organisational achievement in, 54 clinical governance competency items in five aggregated domains: improving quality; managing risks; improving staff performance; corporate accountability; and leadership and collaboration. The difference between ratings of importance and achievement was termed a shortfall. Results: Of 1916 individuals surveyed, 1177 (61.4%) responded. The competency items considered most important and recording highest perceived achievement related to corporate accountability structures and clinical risks. The highest shortfalls between perceived importance and perceived achievement were reported in joint working across local health communities, feedback of performance data, and user involvement. When aggregated into domains, greatest achievement was perceived in the assurance related areas of corporate accountability and risk management, with considerably less perceived achievement and consequently higher shortfalls in quality improvement and leadership and collaboration. Directorate level managers' perceptions of achievement were found to be significantly lower than those of their board level colleagues on all domains other than improving performance. No differences were found in perceptions of achievement between different types of trusts, or between

  9. Achievable Convergence Angle and the Effect of Preparation Design on the Clinical Outcome of Full Veneer Crowns in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Soukup, Jason W.; Snyder, Christopher J.; Karls, Tina L.; Riehl, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Summary It is widely accepted that the convergence angle of a full veneer crown preparation should be as close to parallel as possible to attain adequate retention/resistance. The shape of the dog’s canine tooth limits the veterinary dentists’ ability to achieve the recommended convergence angle. However, the clinically achievable convergence angle of the canine tooth in dogs has not been evaluated. In addition, the convergence angle and other physical properties of a preparation, such as height and base diameter, have been shown to affect the retention/resistance of full veneer crowns, in vitro. This effect has not been evaluated clinically in the dog. Physical properties of 32 stone dies from full veneer crowns of canine teeth were studied to evaluate the clinically achievable convergence angle and the potential effect physical properties of the preparation had on the clinical outcome of the restoration. The clinically achievable convergence angle was much higher than the current recommendation. There was an association, albeit not statistically significant, between physical properties of a preparation (convergence angle, height, base diameter) and the clinical outcome of the restoration. PMID:21916370

  10. Tracked ultrasound elastography (TRUE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Pezhman

    Medical ultrasound research has experienced a renaissance in the past decade leading to innovations in flow mapping, elasticity and thermal imaging, measurement of optical properties, beamforming, and image enhancement. In this thesis, we focus on ultrasound elastography, an emerging imaging modality with great potential to become a part of several ultrasound diagnostic applications. Elastography images the stiffness of soft tissue by applying a mechanical stimulus and estimating the disturbance created by this stimulus. In freehand elastography, soft tissue is palpated by hand using the ultrasound transducer. The elastography image is generated by comparing the pre- and post-compression images to form a displacement map which is then differentiated to produce the final strain map. To achieve the best result in freehand elastography, the sonographer must compress and decompress the tissue uniformly in a specific direction with adequate compression. This can be a difficult task even for trained users. A small rotational or out-of-plane motion in the collected ultrasound frames can render them unusable for elastography. This has made freehand elastography highly qualitative and user-dependent. We tackle this issue by incorporating the extra information from a position sensor attached to the ultrasound transducer. Our aim is to show that the localization information of ultrasound images may be utilized to improve the quality and reliability of freehand elastography. For this purpose, we have developed a frame selection scheme that finds pairs of images with optimal compression and minimal lateral and out-of-plane displacement. Relying on the localization information, our algorithm merges multiple strain images computed from the selected frame pairs. This method is applicable to both 2D and 3D elastography. Our 3D elastography does not require for the transducer to be held still during the acquisition of each volume. Instead, the sonographer freely palpates the tissue

  11. True Colors Shining Through

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic illustrates how scientists use the color calibration targets (upper left) located on both Mars Exploration Rovers to fine-tune the rovers' sense of color. In the center, spectra, or light signatures, acquired in the laboratory of the colored chips on the targets are shown as lines. Actual data from Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera is mapped on top of these lines as dots. The plot demonstrates that the observed colors of Mars match the colors of the chips, and thus approximate the red planet's true colors. This finding is further corroborated by the picture taken on Mars of the calibration target, which shows the colored chips as they would appear on Earth.

  12. Evaluation of preceptors and skills achievement by clinical pharmacy clerkship students during their clinical rotations at University of Gondar, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Getachew, Henok; Tefera, Yonas Getaye

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate the overall experiences of clinical pharmacy students during their clinical attachments and to understand the breadth and depth of clinical skills provided by their preceptors. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire containing 34 items to obtain feedback from the clerkship students from June to July 2015. Data analysis was performed to calculate mean, standard deviation, percentages, and multiple logistic regression using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software Version 22. Statistical significance was set at P<0.01. Results All 58 clerkship students actively participated in the study, yielding a response rate of 100%. While students ranked their clerkship experience as moderate, >15% remarked that they did not receive enough opportunities to hone their pharmaceutical care documentation skills. A relatively high percentage of students (32.8%) strongly agreed that their preceptors had provided ample opportunity to discuss the patient problems at the bedside and encouraged them to express their opinions regarding patients’ drug therapeutic issues. This study also revealed that students’ continuity in developing their therapeutic and disease process knowledge was significantly associated with the preceptor’s ability to provide adequate training and orientation (P =0.01), engagement in clinical pharmacy activities (P =0.01), regular review of students’ work (P =0.01), and instruction to students before entering clinical sites (P =0.00). Conclusion The findings of this study reveal that a majority of the students were moderately satisfied with the clinical training program and preceptors need to demonstrate effective pharmaceutical care processes in their clinical sites. PMID:27099540

  13. Failure of Ivermectin per Rectum to Achieve Clinically Meaningful Serum Levels in Two Cases of Strongyloides Hyperinfection

    PubMed Central

    Bogoch, Isaac I.; Khan, Kamran; Abrams, Howard; Nott, Caroline; Leung, Elizabeth; Fleckenstein, Lawrence; Keystone, Jay S.

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of Strongyloides hyperinfection are presented. Ivermectin was initially administered orally and per rectum pending the availability of subcutaneous (SC) preparations. In neither case did rectal suppositories of ivermectin achieve clinically meaningful serum values. Clinicians should use SC preparations of ivermectin as early as possible in Strongyloides hyperinfection and dissemination. PMID:25918215

  14. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Kids > Diabetes: ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  15. Paving the critical path: how can clinical pharmacology help achieve the vision?

    PubMed

    Lesko, L J

    2007-02-01

    It has been almost 3 years since the launch of the FDA critical path initiative following the publication of the paper "Innovation or Stagnation: Challenges and Opportunities on the Critical Path of New Medical Product Development." The initiative was intended to create an urgency with the drug development enterprise to address the so-called "productivity problem" in modern drug development. Clinical pharmacologists are strategically aligned with solutions designed to reduce late phase clinical trial failures to show adequate efficacy and/or safety. This article reviews some of the ways that clinical pharmacologists can lead and implement change in the drug development process. It includes a discussion of model-based, semi-mechanistic drug development, drug/disease models that facilitate informed clinical trial designs and optimal dosing, the qualification process and criteria for new biomarkers and surrogate endpoints, approaches to streamlining clinical trials and new types of interaction between industry and FDA such as the end-of-phase 2A and voluntary genomic data submission meetings respectively. PMID:17259944

  16. Nursing Students Achieving Community Health Competencies through Undergraduate Clinical Experiences: A Gap Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pijl-Zieber, Em M; Barton, Sylvia; Awosoga, Oluwagbohunmi A; Konkin, Jill

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, it is widely believed that nursing practice and health care will move from acute care into the community. At the same time, increasing numbers of nursing students are engaged in non-traditional clinical experiences for their community health rotation. These clinical experiences occur at agencies not organizationally affiliated with the health care system and typically do not employ registered nurses (RNs). What has yet to be established is the degree to which nursing students are actually being prepared for community health nursing roles through their community health clinical rotations. In this paper we report the findings of a mixed method study that explored the gap between desired and observed levels of competence in community health of senior nursing students and new graduates. The gap was quantified and then the nature of the gap further explored through focus groups. PMID:26461843

  17. WISC-III and CAS: Which Correlates Higher with Achievement for a Clinical Sample?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; De Lauder, Brianna Y.; Goldstein, Sam; Schwebech, Adam

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) and the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS) with the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement (WJ-III) were examined for a sample of 119 children (87 males and 32 females) ages 6 to 16. The sample was comprised of children who were referred to a specialty clinic…

  18. A true case story

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Hanne Bjørg

    2012-01-01

    Autism is not generally recognized as a condition which can be bio-medically influenced. As of today, there are no biomarkers for autism that are recognized by traditional medicine. Treating autism medically is a difficult and hopeless task according to official guidelines (even though it is seldom written in official documents). Parents of many children who have or had an ASD diagnosis have witnessed significant improvements in their children after dietary interventions as well as after interventions with vitamins, minerals and biogene substances which can be bought over the counter. The parents of individual children are their best observers. With a high degree of certainty, they are able to see which substances improve or weaken their children. Their observations are usually accurate, but their rationale for why is often wrong. Observations from parents can often be of greater importance for the child than advice from so called experts. This is a true story about a girl whose parents lost contact with her when she was only 6 months old. In her first 14 days she lost her ability to roll over, to babble and make sounds. She did not look at her parents any more – just stared up at the roof. At 9 months she did not respond to words such as, ‘look at mommy’. Through the parents own experiences with her older siblings and 4 months of frantic searching for a diet that would agree with the child, she made a remarkable journey from 10 months of age to 18 months. There is one thing worth mentioning – she refused to eat solid food throughout this time. The story does not end there. Today she is 12 years old and has had to be regulated with diet and biogene substances every day since she was 4 years old. During the last 5 months she has shown more stability and can even go a day or two without biogene substances as long as she keeps to her dietary plan. If you had just met her and spent a day with her, you would never know. PMID:23990822

  19. Nuclear imaging of the breast: Translating achievements in instrumentation into clinical use

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Carrie B.; O'Connor, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Approaches to imaging the breast with nuclear medicine and/or molecular imaging methods have been under investigation since the late 1980s when a technique called scintimammography was first introduced. This review charts the progress of nuclear imaging of the breast over the last 20 years, covering the development of newer techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging, molecular breast imaging, and positron emission mammography. Key issues critical to the adoption of these technologies in the clinical environment are discussed, including the current status of clinical studies, the efforts at reducing the radiation dose from procedures associated with these technologies, and the relevant radiopharmaceuticals that are available or under development. The necessary steps required to move these technologies from bench to bedside are also discussed. PMID:23635248

  20. Nuclear imaging of the breast: Translating achievements in instrumentation into clinical use

    SciTech Connect

    Hruska, Carrie B.; O'Connor, Michael K.

    2013-05-15

    Approaches to imaging the breast with nuclear medicine and/or molecular imaging methods have been under investigation since the late 1980s when a technique called scintimammography was first introduced. This review charts the progress of nuclear imaging of the breast over the last 20 years, covering the development of newer techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging, molecular breast imaging, and positron emission mammography. Key issues critical to the adoption of these technologies in the clinical environment are discussed, including the current status of clinical studies, the efforts at reducing the radiation dose from procedures associated with these technologies, and the relevant radiopharmaceuticals that are available or under development. The necessary steps required to move these technologies from bench to bedside are also discussed.

  1. Towards Achieving the Full Clinical Potential of Proton Therapy by Inclusion of LET and RBE Models

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Bleddyn

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing use of proton therapy (PBT), several systematic literature reviews show limited gains in clinical outcomes, with publications mostly devoted to recent technical developments. The lack of randomised control studies has also hampered progress in the acceptance of PBT by many oncologists and policy makers. There remain two important uncertainties associated with PBT, namely: (1) accuracy and reproducibility of Bragg peak position (BPP); and (2) imprecise knowledge of the relative biological effect (RBE) for different tissues and tumours, and at different doses. Incorrect BPP will change dose, linear energy transfer (LET) and RBE, with risks of reduced tumour control and enhanced toxicity. These interrelationships are discussed qualitatively with respect to the ICRU target volume definitions. The internationally accepted proton RBE of 1.1 was based on assays and dose ranges unlikely to reveal the complete range of RBE in the human body. RBE values are not known for human (or animal) brain, spine, kidney, liver, intestine, etc. A simple efficiency model for estimating proton RBE values is described, based on data of Belli et al. and other authors, which allows linear increases in α and β with LET, with a gradient estimated using a saturation model from the low LET α and β radiosensitivity parameter input values, and decreasing RBE with increasing dose. To improve outcomes, 3-D dose-LET-RBE and bio-effectiveness maps are required. Validation experiments are indicated in relevant tissues. Randomised clinical studies that test the invariant 1.1 RBE allocation against higher values in late reacting tissues, and lower tumour RBE values in the case of radiosensitive tumours, are also indicated. PMID:25790470

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 12: Implementation of a Clinical Lung Tumour High Dose Containment Verification Procedure using Respiratory Cone-Beam CT (4DCBCT) on a Varian TrueBeam Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudry, J.; Bergman, A.

    2014-08-15

    Lung tumours move due to respiratory motion. This is managed during planning by acquiring a 4DCT and capturing the excursion of the GTV (gross tumour volume) throughout the breathing cycle within an IGTV (Internal Gross Tumour Volume) contour. Patients undergo a verification cone-beam CT (CBCT) scan immediately prior to treatment. 3D reconstructed images do not consider tumour motion, resulting in image artefacts, such as blurring. This may lead to difficulty in identifying the tumour on reconstructed images. It would be valuable to create a 4DCBCT reconstruction of the tumour motion to confirm that does indeed remain within the planned IGTV. CBCT projections of a Quasar Respiratory Motion Phantom are acquired in Treatment mode (half-fan scan) on a Varian TrueBeam accelerator. This phantom contains a mobile, low-density lung insert with an embedded 3cm diameter tumour object. It is programmed to create a 15s periodic, 2cm (sup/inf) displacement. A Varian Real-time Position Management (RPM) tracking-box is placed on the phantom breathing platform. Breathing phase information is automatically integrated into the projection image files. Using in-house Matlab programs and RTK (Reconstruction Tool Kit) open-source toolboxes, the projections are re-binned into 10 phases and a 4DCBCT scan reconstructed. The planning IGTV is registered to the 4DCBCT and the tumour excursion is verified to remain within the planned contour. This technique successfully reconstructs 4DCBCT images using clinical modes for a breathing phantom. UBC-BCCA ethics approval has been obtained to perform 4DCBCT reconstructions on lung patients (REB#H12-00192). Clinical images will be accrued starting April 2014.

  3. Fostering Dental Students' Academic Achievements and Reflection Skills Through Clinical Peer Assessment and Feedback.

    PubMed

    Tricio, Jorge A; Woolford, Mark J; Escudier, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Peer assessment is increasingly being encouraged to enhance dental students' learning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the educational impact in terms of academic achievements and reflective thinking of a formative prospective peer assessment and feedback protocol. Volunteer final-year dental students at King's College London Dental Institute, UK, received training on peer assessment, peer feedback, and self-reflection. At the beginning (baseline) and end (resultant) of the 2012-13 academic year, 86 students (55% of the year group) completed a reflection questionnaire (RQ). Sixty-eight of those students used a modified Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) as a framework for peer assessment and peer feedback during a complete academic year. End-of-year, high-stakes examination grades and RQ scores from the participants and nonparticipants were statistically compared. The participants completed 576 peer DOPS. Those 22 students who peer assessed each other ≥10 times exhibited highly statistically significant differences and powerful positive effect sizes in their high-stakes exam grades (p=0.0001, d=0.74) and critical reflection skills (p=0.005, d=1.41) when compared to those who did not assess one another. Furthermore, only the same 22 students showed a statistically significant increase and positive effect size in their critical reflection skills from baseline to resultant (p=0.003, d=1.04). The results of this study suggest that the protocol used has the potential to impact dental students' academic and reflection skills, provided it is practiced in ten or more peer encounters and ensuring peer feedback is provided followed by self-reflection. PMID:27480702

  4. Laser thermokeratoplasty: analysis of in-vitro results and refractive changes achieved in a first clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkmann, Ralf; Geerling, Gerd; Kampmeier, Juergen; Koop, Norbert; Radt, Benno; Birngruber, Reginald

    1997-12-01

    Laser thermokeratoplasty (LTK) is a minimally invasive method to correct hyperopia and astigmatism. A cw mid-IR laser diode emitting at wavelengths around 1.86 micrometers was used to perform LTK on a first clinical trial. The coagulations were applied to the cornea by means of a specially designed focusing handpiece which was introduced into a corneal application mask fixed by a suction ring. Coagulation patterns consisting of 8 spots per ring were performed with a laser power between 100 - 150 mW and an irradiation time of 10 seconds both on single and on double rings. Significant refractive changes up to 19 D could initially be achieved followed by a strong regression within the first month. Three months post LTK, refractive changes achieved with the single and double ring have stabilized, yielding 1.2 and 1.8 D on the average, respectively. The method reveals only little adverse effects limited to the first days post-op. Force measurements were performed on corneal stripes, which were submerged for 10 s into an oil bath of constant temperature in order to investigate the absolute temperatures required for corneal collagen contraction. Only temperatures exceeding 90 degree(s)C induced a significant force. Analyzing the clinically used LTK parameters by temperature calculations revealed that only a small part of the heated stromal volume experienced sufficient high temperatures to induce significant collagen shrinkage.

  5. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > For Teens > Diabetes: ... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ...

  6. A True Training Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowack, Kenneth M.

    1991-01-01

    Employees often want training in areas that are irrelevant to their jobs or inconsistent with organizational objectives. A well-designed questionnaire can weed out training wants to uncover an employee's true training needs. (Author)

  7. Exemplary Care and Learning Sites: A Model for Achieving Continual Improvement in Care and Learning in the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ogrinc, Greg; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Stevenson, Katherine M.; Shalaby, Marc; Beard, Albertine S.; Thörne, Karin E.; Coleman, Mary T.; Baum, Karyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Problem Current models of health care quality improvement do not explicitly describe the role of health professions education. The authors propose the Exemplary Care and Learning Site (ECLS) model as an approach to achieving continual improvement in care and learning in the clinical setting. Approach From 2008–2012, an iterative, interactive process was used to develop the ECLS model and its core elements—patients and families informing process changes; trainees engaging both in care and the improvement of care; leaders knowing, valuing, and practicing improvement; data transforming into useful information; and health professionals competently engaging both in care improvement and teaching about care improvement. In 2012–2013, a three-part feasibility test of the model, including a site self-assessment, an independent review of each site’s ratings, and implementation case stories, was conducted at six clinical teaching sites (in the United States and Sweden). Outcomes Site leaders reported the ECLS model provided a systematic approach toward improving patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. Most sites found it challenging to incorporate the patients and families element. The trainee element was strong at four sites. The leadership and data elements were self-assessed as the most fully developed. The health professionals element exhibited the greatest variability across sites. Next Steps The next test of the model should be prospective, linked to clinical and educa tional outcomes, to evaluate whether it helps care delivery teams, educators, and patients and families take action to achieve better patient (and population) outcomes, system performance, and professional development. PMID:26760058

  8. True aneurysm of brachial artery.

    PubMed

    Hudorović, Narcis; Lovričević, Ivo; Franjić, Dario Bjorn; Brkić, Petar; Tomas, Davor

    2010-10-01

    True upper extremity peripheral artery aneurysms are a rarely encountered arterial disorder. Following computer-tomography angiographic (CT-a) imaging examination, true saccular aneurysm, originating from the left brachial artery was diagnosed in the 77-year-old female without history of trauma. The aneurysm was resected by surgical intervention, and primary repair of the brachial artery was performed by interposition of a part of great saphenous vein harvested from the left groin and creation of two end-to-end anastomoses between interposition graft and previously resected part of brachial artery. No complication was observed during the follow-up. Surgical intervention for upper extremity aneurysms should be initiated without delay. Factors combined with minimal morbidity associated with repair suggest that surgical repair should be performed routinely for true upper extremity arterial aneurysms. PMID:20865459

  9. Noncontact true temperature measurement, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Allen, James L.

    1988-01-01

    A laser pyrometer was developed for acquiring the true temperature of a levitated sample. The reflectivity is measured by first expanding the laser beam to cover the entire cross-sectional surface of the diffuse target. The reflectivity calibration of this system is determined from the surface emissivity of a target with a blackbody cavity. The emissivity of the real target can then be calculated. The overall system constant is obtained by passively measuring the radiance of the blackbody cavity (emissivity = 1.0) at a known, arbitrary temperature. Since the photosensor used is highly linear over the entire operating temperature range, the true temperature of the target can then be computed. The latest results available from this on-going research indicate that true temperatures thus obtained are in very good quantitative agreement with thermocouple measured temperatures.

  10. Two Flavonolignans from Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Inhibit CYP2C9-Mediated Warfarin Metabolism at Clinically Achievable Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Scott J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Kroll, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a popular herbal product used for hepatoprotection and chemoprevention. Two commercially available formulations are the crude extract, silymarin, and the semipurified product, silibinin. Silymarin consists of at least seven flavonolignans, of which the most prevalent are the diastereoisomers silybin A and silybin B; silibinin consists only of silybin A and silybin B. Based on a recent clinical study showing an interaction between a silymarin product and the CYP2C9 substrate losartan, the CYP2C9 inhibition properties of silybin A and silybin B and corresponding regioisomers, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, were evaluated using human liver microsomes (HLMs), recombinant CYP2C9 (rCYP2C9) enzymes, and the clinically relevant probe, (S)-warfarin. Silybin B was the most potent inhibitor in HLMs, followed by silybin A, isosilybin B, and isosilybin A (IC50 of 8.2, 18, 74, and >100 μM, respectively). Next, silybin A and silybin B were selected for further characterization. As with HLMs, silybin B was more potent than silybin A toward rCYP2C9*1 (6.7 versus 12 μM), rCYP2C9*2 (9.3 versus 19 μM), and rCYP2C9*3 (2.4 versus 9.3 μM). Using a matrix of five substrate (1–15 μM) and six inhibitor (1–80 μM) concentrations and HLMs, both diastereoisomers inhibited (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in a manner described best by a mixed-type inhibition model (Ki values of 4.8 and 10 μM for silybin B and silybin A, respectively). These observations, combined with the high systemic silibinin concentrations (>5–75 μM) achieved in a phase I study involving prostate cancer patients, prompt clinical evaluation of a potential warfarin-milk thistle interaction. PMID:19934397

  11. Two flavonolignans from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) inhibit CYP2C9-mediated warfarin metabolism at clinically achievable concentrations.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Scott J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Kroll, David J; Paine, Mary F

    2010-03-01

    Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is a popular herbal product used for hepatoprotection and chemoprevention. Two commercially available formulations are the crude extract, silymarin, and the semipurified product, silibinin. Silymarin consists of at least seven flavonolignans, of which the most prevalent are the diastereoisomers silybin A and silybin B; silibinin consists only of silybin A and silybin B. Based on a recent clinical study showing an interaction between a silymarin product and the CYP2C9 substrate losartan, the CYP2C9 inhibition properties of silybin A and silybin B and corresponding regioisomers, isosilybin A and isosilybin B, were evaluated using human liver microsomes (HLMs), recombinant CYP2C9 (rCYP2C9) enzymes, and the clinically relevant probe, (S)-warfarin. Silybin B was the most potent inhibitor in HLMs, followed by silybin A, isosilybin B, and isosilybin A (IC(50) of 8.2, 18, 74, and >100 microM, respectively). Next, silybin A and silybin B were selected for further characterization. As with HLMs, silybin B was more potent than silybin A toward rCYP2C9 1 (6.7 versus 12 microM), rCYP2C9 2 (9.3 versus 19 microM), and rCYP2C9 3 (2.4 versus 9.3 microM). Using a matrix of five substrate (1-15 microM) and six inhibitor (1-80 microM) concentrations and HLMs, both diastereoisomers inhibited (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylation in a manner described best by a mixed-type inhibition model (K(i) values of 4.8 and 10 microM for silybin B and silybin A, respectively). These observations, combined with the high systemic silibinin concentrations (>5-75 microM) achieved in a phase I study involving prostate cancer patients, prompt clinical evaluation of a potential warfarin-milk thistle interaction. PMID:19934397

  12. Multiple True-False Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, G. C.; Woods, G. T.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of objective questions are compared: the multiple choice item, in which one and only one of several stated alternatives is correct for a given initial statement, and the multiple true-false item, where the stem is followed by several completions of which one or more can be correct. (DT)

  13. The true value of the TRUE Test for allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T; Kreilgård, B; Maibach, H I

    2001-07-01

    The development of the thin layer rapid use epicutaneous (TRUE) Test is a history of cooperation between scientists from academia and industry covering several disciplines: medicine, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacology, and statistics. The TRUE Test is today a patch test system with documented stability and allergen content. Allergens are incorporated in a dried-in-gel vehicle, which is coated onto a polyester backing to form a patch. Applied to the skin, the allergens are released when the gel becomes moisturized by transepidermal water. This may seem to be a simple technique, but its development required laborious research and solutions to stability and dosage problems. The test has been clinically standardized with serial dilution tests on sensitized patients and validated in comparative multicenter tests. The test is a significant step towards higher reliability of patch testing. Fifteen years of experience and critical investigations are discussed in this article, as are possible improvements such as expansion of the test with new allergens. PMID:11892053

  14. True anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jia-yue; Zhang, Wei; An, Ji-long; Sun, Ya-peng; Ding, Wen-yuan; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) surgery in the treatment of degenerative disc disease of lumbar spine in spinal surgery highlights the gradual decrease in the use of traditional pedicle screw insertion technology. This study aims to analyze the accuracy of the true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery, compare it with conventional pedicle screw insertion technology, and discuss its clinical application value. Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing true anteroposterior view (group A) and 87 patients undergoing conventional pedicle screw insertion (group B) were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis. Time for screw placement, intraoperative irradiation exposure, accuracy rate of pedicle screw insertion, and incidence of neurovascular injury were compared between the two groups. Results The time for screw placement and intraoperative irradiation exposure was significantly less in group A. Penetration rates of the paries lateralis of vertebral pedicle, medial wall of vertebral pedicle, and anterior vertebral wall were 1.44%, 0%, and 2.40%, respectively, all of which were significantly lower than that in group B. No additional serious complications caused by the placement of screw were observed during the follow-up period in patients in group A, but two patients with medial penetration underwent revision for unbearable radicular pain. Conclusion The application of true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery shortens time for screw placement and reduces the intraoperative irradiation exposure along with a higher accuracy rate of screw placement, which makes it a safe, accurate, and efficient technique. PMID:27418828

  15. Achieving standardized medication data in clinical research studies: two approaches and applications for implementing RxNorm.

    PubMed

    Richesson, Rachel L; Smith, Susan B; Malloy, Jamie; Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2010-08-01

    The National Institutes of Health has proposed a roadmap for clinical research. Test projects of this roadmap include centralized data management for distributed research, the harmonization of clinical and research data, and the use of data standards throughout the research process. In 2003, RxNorm was named as a standard for codifying clinical drugs. Clinical researchers looking to implement RxNorm have few template implementation plans. Epidemiological studies and clinical trials (types of clinical research) have different requirements for model standards and best implementation tools. This paper highlights two different (epidemiological and intervention) clinical research projects, their unique requirements for a medication standard, the suitability of RxNorm as a standard for each, and application and process requirements for implementation. It is hoped that our experience of selecting and implementing the RxNorm standard to address varying study requirements in both domestic and international settings will be of value to other efforts. PMID:20703919

  16. Mendel had no "true" monohybrids.

    PubMed

    Corcos, A; Monaghan, F

    1984-01-01

    Mendel's experiments in hybridizing peas started in 1856 and ended in 1863. When one attempts to fit the described experiments--in the sequence indicated in the paper--into those limits some serious implications emerge with regard to parental types needed and the scheduling of the experiments. If Mendel had to develop the parental types of his monohybrid and dihybrid crosses and then do the experiments he described, 8 years would not have been a sufficient amount of time. We believe that his original true-breeding varieties differed in more than one trait on the basis of a logical analysis of breeding relationships. It follows first that his "monohybrid" experiments were performed with varieties in several traits but that in each offering he concentrated his attention on only one, second that he had the parental lines for his dihybrid and trihybrid experiments on hand before he started those experiments. PMID:6392411

  17. Cercignani's Conjecture is Sometimes True and Always Almost True

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Cédric

    We establish several new functional inequalities comparing Boltzmann's entropy production functional with the relative H functional. First we prove a longstanding conjecture by Cercignani under the nonphysical assumption that the Boltzmann collision kernel is superquadratic at infinity. The proof rests on the method introduced in [39] combined with a novel use of the Blachman-Stam inequality. If the superquadraticity assumption is not satisfied, then it is known that Cercignani's conjecture is not true; however we establish a slightly weakened version of it for all physically relevant collision kernels, thus extending previous results from [39]. Finally, we consider the entropy-entropy production version of Kac's spectral gap problem and obtain estimates about the dependence of the constants with respect to the dimension. The first two results are sharp in some sense, and the third one is likely to be, too; they contain all previously known entropy estimates as particular cases. This gives a first coherent picture of the study of entropy production, according to a program started by Carlen and Carvalho [12] ten years ago. These entropy inequalities are one step in our study of the trend to equilibrium for the Boltzmann equation, in both its spatially homogeneous and spatially inhomogeneous versions.

  18. True pubertas praecox in a girl; onset at nineteen months.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, F; Didato, M; Albeggiani, A; Perino, A; Campesi, G

    1976-12-01

    The authors report a case of true pubertas praecox in a girl with onset at 19 months; they describe the principal histopathologic, clinical and laboratory features and discuss problems of etiopathogenesis and differential diagnosis, as well as the prognosis and treatment of this disorder. PMID:1026001

  19. Mars in True Color (almost)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 14 November 2003

    This spectacular view of the sunlit cliffs and basaltic sand dunes in southern Melas Chasma shows Mars in a way rarely seen: in full, realistic color. The colorization is the result of a collaboration between THEMIS team members at Cornell University and space artist Don Davis, who is an expert on true-color renderings of planetary and astronomical objects. Davis began with calibrated and co-registered THEMIS VIS multi-band radiance files produced by the Cornell group. Using as a guide true-color imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope and his own personal experience at Mt. Wilson and other observatories, he performed a manual color balance to match more closely the colors of previous visual Mars observations. He also did some manual smoothing and other image processing to minimize the effects of residual scattered light in the images. The result is a view of Mars that invites comparisons to Earth; a scene that one might observe out the window on a flight over the southwest United States, but not quite. The basaltic dunes are commonplace on Mars but a rare feature on Earth. The rounded knobs and elongated mesas on the canyon floor show an erosional style as exotic as Utah's Bryce Canyon but wholly familiar on Mars. Although the inhospitable Martian atmosphere cannot be seen, the magnificent Martian landscape on display in this image beckons space-suited human explorers and the sightseers who will follow.

    Initial image processing and calibration by THEMIS team members J. Bell, T. McConnochie, and D. Savransky at Cornell University; additional processing and final color balance by space artist Don Davis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.7, Longitude 288.6 East (71.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed

  20. True amplitude prestack depth migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Feng

    Reliable analysis of amplitude variation with offset (or with angle) requires accurate amplitudes from prestack migration. In routine seismic data processing, amplitude balancing and automatic gain control are often used to reduce amplitude lateral variations. However, these methods are empirical and lack a solid physical basis; thus, there are uncertainties that might produce erroneous conclusions, and hence cause economic loss. During wavefield propagation, geometrical spreading, intrinsic attenuation, transmission losses and the energy conversion significantly distort the wavefield amplitude. Most current true-amplitude migrations usually compensate only for geometrical spreading. A new prestack depth migration based on the framework of reverse-time migration in the time-space domain was developed in this dissertation with the aim of compensating all of the propagation effects in one integrated algorithm. Geometrical spreading is automatically included because of the use of full two-way wave extrapolation. Viscoelastic wave equations are solved to handle the intrinsic attenuation with a priori quality factor. Transmission losses for both up- and down-going waves are compensated using a two-pass, recursive procedure based on extracting the angle-dependent reflection/transmission coefficients from prestack migration. The losses caused by the conversion of energy from one elastic model to another are accounted for through elastic wave extrapolation; the influence of the S wave velocity contrast on the P wave reflection coefficient is implicitly included by using the Zoeppritz equations to describe the reflection and transmission at an elastic interface. Only smooth background models are assumed to be known. The contrasts/ratios of the model parameters can be estimated by fitting the compensated angle-dependent reflection coefficients obtained from data for multiple sources. This is one useful by-product of the algorithm. Numerical tests on both 2D and 3D scalar

  1. Enhanced loading regimen of teicoplanin is necessary to achieve therapeutic pharmacokinetics levels for the improvement of clinical outcomes in patients with renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ueda, T; Takesue, Y; Nakajima, K; Ichiki, K; Doita, A; Wada, Y; Tsuchida, T; Takahashi, Y; Ishihara, M; Ikeuchi, H; Uchino, M; Kimura, T

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of teicoplanin according to the pharmacokinetics (PK) therapeutic level achieved in patients with renal dysfunction. Target trough concentration (Cmin) was ≥15-30 μg/ml which has been recommended in patients with normal renal function. Adult patients (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) who were treated by teicoplanin were included in the study. We adopted two types of regimen for the initial 3 days: the conventional regimen, and the enhanced loading regimen (10 mg/kg twice daily on the 1st day, followed by 6.7-10 mg/kg once daily for the 2nd and 3rd days]. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients were evaluated for safety, and 106 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections were evaluated for clinical efficacy. A significantly higher success rate was obtained in patients who achieved the target initial Cmin compared with those that did not (75.0 % vs 50.0 %, p = 0.008). In a multivariate analysis, initial Cmin ≥15 μg/ml was an independent factor for clinical success (adjusted odds ratio: 4.20, 95 % confidence interval: 1.34-13.15). In patients with 15-30 μg/ml of maximal Cmin during therapy, nephrotoxicity occurred in 13.1 %, and hepatotoxicity in 2.6 %, and these incidences were not significantly higher compared with those patients with <15 μg/ml. In conclusion, achievement of Cmin of 15-30 μg/ml without delay was necessary to improve clinical outcomes for the treatment by teicoplanin in patients with renal dysfunction. Further investigation is required regarding the optimal loading regimen to achieve the therapeutic levels in those patients. PMID:27278654

  2. Clinically significant responses achieved with romidepsin across disease compartments in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ellen J.; Kim, Youn H.; Rook, Alain H.; Lerner, Adam; Duvic, Madeleine; Reddy, Sunil; Robak, Tadeusz; Becker, Jürgen C.; Samtsov, Alexey; McCulloch, William; Waksman, Joel; Whittaker, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a rare heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas that arises in the skin but can progress to systemic disease (lymph nodes, blood, viscera). Historically, in clinical trials of CTCL there has been little consistency in how responses were defined in each disease “compartment”; some studies only assessed responses in the skin. The histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of CTCL in patients who have received at least one prior systemic therapy. Phase II studies that led to approval used rigorous composite end points that incorporated disease assessments in all compartments. The objective of this analysis was to thoroughly examine the activity of romidepsin within each disease compartment in patients with CTCL. Romidepsin was shown to have clinical activity across disease compartments and is suitable for use in patients with CTCL having skin involvement only, erythroderma, lymphadenopathy and/or blood involvement. PMID:25791237

  3. True reference nanosensor realized with silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, A; Wipf, M; Bedner, K; Kurz, J; Fu, W; Guzenko, V A; Knopfmacher, O; Stoop, R L; Calame, M; Schönenberger, C

    2012-06-26

    Conventional gate oxide layers (e.g., SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), or HfO(2)) in silicon field-effect transistors (FETs) provide highly active surfaces, which can be exploited for electronic pH sensing. Recently, great progress has been achieved in pH sensing using compact integrateable nanowire FETs. However, it has turned out to be much harder to realize a true reference electrode, which--while sensing the electrostatic potential--does not respond to the proton concentration. In this work, we demonstrate a highly effective reference sensor, a so-called reference FET, whose proton sensitivity is suppressed by as much as 2 orders of magnitude. To do so, the Al(2)O(3) surface of a nanowire FET was passivated with a self-assembled monolayer of silanes with a long alkyl chain. We have found that a full passivation can be achieved only after an extended period of self-assembling lasting several days at 80 °C. We use this slow process to measure the number of active proton binding sites as a function of time by a quantitative comparison of the measured nonlinear pH-sensitivities to a theoretical model (site-binding model). Furthermore, we have found that a partially passivated surface can sense small changes in the number of active binding sites reaching a detection limit of δN(s) ≈ 170 μm(-2) Hz(-1/2) at 10 Hz and pH 3. PMID:22631046

  4. Rapid cycling with true potato seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid generation cycling via true seed production can increase the efficiency of potato breeding programs and genetics studies. This study was carried out to determine the fruit ripening and seed treatment conditions needed for generating true potato seed (TPS) with a high germination rate in a shor...

  5. Assessing eating disorder risk: the pivotal role of achievement anxiety, depression and female gender in non-clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Fragkos, Konstantinos C; Frangos, Christos C

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865) consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food) questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ≥2) were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public) educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders. PMID:23482057

  6. Tip-based nanofabrication: an approach to true nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloschock, Kristen P.; Schofield, Adam R.; Kenny, Thomas W.

    2011-06-01

    True nanotechnology, defined as the ability to reliably and repeatably fabricate nanostructures with controlled differences in size, shape, and orientation at precise substrate locations, currently does not exist. There are many examples demonstrating the capability to grow, deposit, and manipulate nanometer-sized features, but typically these techniques do not allow for controllable manufacturing of individual structures. To bridge this gap and to unlock the true potential of nanotechnology for defense sensing applications, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) launched the Tip-Based Nanofabrication (TBN) research program with the intent of achieving controlled manufacturing of nanostructures using functionalized AFM cantilevers and tips. This work describes the background, goals, and recent advances achieved during the multi-year TBN program.

  7. Primary TKA Patients with Quantifiably Balanced Soft-Tissue Achieve Significant Clinical Gains Sooner than Unbalanced Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gustke, Kenneth A.; Golladay, Gregory J.; Roche, Martin W.; Elson, Leah C.; Anderson, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Although total knee arthroplasty has a high success rate, poor outcomes and early revision are associated with ligament imbalance. This multicenter evaluation was performed in order to provide 1-year followup of a previously reported group of patients who had sensor-assisted TKA, comparing the clinical outcomes of quantitatively balanced versus unbalanced patients. At 1 year, the balanced cohort scored 179.3 and 10.4 in KSS and WOMAC, respectively; the unbalanced cohort scored 156.1 and 17.9 in KSS and WOMAC (P < 0.001; P = 0.085). The average activity level scores of quantitatively balanced patients were 68.6 (corresponding to tennis, light jogging, and heavy yard work), while the average activity level of unbalanced patients was 46.7 (corresponding to light housework, and limited walking distances) (P = 0.015). Out of all confounding variables, a balanced articulation was the most significant contributing factor to improved postoperative outcomes (P < 0.001). PMID:25210632

  8. The myth of the true self.

    PubMed

    Anscombe, R

    1989-05-01

    The true self is a central construct of psychotherapy, but its status as fact or fiction is uncertain. Much of the plausibility of the true self comes from the concept's ambiguity, since it encompasses several different kinds of mental entity. It may be construed as a person's belief about himself or herself, as the experience of the working of the mind, or as a characterological essence. The true self is composed of qualities borrowed from these quite disparate kinds of self, none of which, considered singly, readily fits the description. However, if the true self is viewed as a fantasy, grounded on fact, of whom the patient might become, it is an instrument that gives coherence and direction to psychotherapy. PMID:2734420

  9. True Cervicothoracic Meningocele: A Rare and Benign Condition

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Bruno L.; Lima, Yara

    2015-01-01

    Cervical meningoceles are rare spinal dysraphism, accounting for approximately 7% of all cystic spinal dysraphism. In spite of the rarity, the clinical course is most of the times benign. The surgical treatment includes resection of the lesion and untethering, when presented. We present a 14-day-old female child with true meningoceles who underwent to surgical excision and dura-mater repair. Retrospect analysis of the literature concerning true cervical meningocele is performed. By reporting this illustrative case, we focus on its classification and its differentiation from other types of cervical spinal dysraphism, such as myelocystocele and myelomeningocele. Although its course is benign, it is mandatory a continuum follow up with periodic magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord, since late neurological deterioration has been described. PMID:26788266

  10. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the true vocal fold.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Nilantha; Sandler, Belinda; Amonoo-Kuofi, Kwame; Swamy, Rajiv; Kothari, Prasad; Mochloulis, George

    2012-08-01

    We report a rare case of extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) of the true vocal fold. Our patient, a 62-year-old woman, presented with dysphonia. On workup, fiberoptic laryngoscopy detected a lesion arising from the anterior half of her left true vocal fold. No evidence of other pathology was noted. The patient underwent radical radiotherapy, and the lesion resolved. Follow-up revealed no sign of recurrence. A type of myeloma, EMP is rare, especially in the larynx. To the best of our knowledge, our patient represents the sixth case of glottic EMP to be reported in the literature. PMID:22930090

  11. Translational proteomics: what can you do for true patients?

    PubMed

    Belda-Iniesta, Cristobal; de Castro, Javier; Perona, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Matching the right medical strategy to the right patient is the key for modern clinical oncology. To this aim, we have many delicate drugs designed to target in elegant ways critical proteins identified in cancer cells. However, clinical oncologists and multidisciplinary groups devoted to treating patients in an integrative fashion have histology and an TNM staging system as the most relevant biomarkers to decide therapeutic approaches for our patients. In addition, the most used drugs are classical chemotherapeutic compounds such as cisplatin, epirrubicin, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and so on. Thus, new targeted therapies, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy will live together causing a duality for the immediate future. We will try to delineate unmet needs for clinical oncologists that would add value for cancer proteomics in terms of true patients. PMID:20977278

  12. Automated balance for determining true mass

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.E.

    1982-08-08

    An automated weighing system utilizing a precision electronic balance and a small desktop computer is described. An example of a computer program demonstrating some of the capabilities attainable with this system is included. The program demonstrates a substitution weighing technique with true mass determination for the object being weighed.

  13. Radiometer gives true absorption and emission coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Novel radiometer, unaffected by scattering and polarization, measures true absorption and emmission coefficients for arbitrary mixture of gases and polluting particles. It has potential astronomical, meteorological, and environmental applications, such as determination of radiative heat budget, aerosol relative concentration, and morphology of cloud, haze, and fog formations. Data and temperature can be coupled directly to small computer for online calculation of radiation coefficients.

  14. How to Make Their Dreams Come True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    The beginning of January--a fresh start. This presents a brand new opportunity to help students plan a bright future. This article provides a step-by-step guide to ensure a student's dreams come true. Each new year gives students another chance to get it right. The author provides the following 12 steps to ensure students' success in achieving…

  15. Effectiveness of Music Education for the Improvement of Reading Skills and Academic Achievement in Young Poor Readers: A Pragmatic Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; de Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão; Ploubidis, George B.; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Difficulties in word-level reading skills are prevalent in Brazilian schools and may deter children from gaining the knowledge obtained through reading and academic achievement. Music education has emerged as a potential method to improve reading skills because due to a common neurobiological substratum. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of music education for the improvement of reading skills and academic achievement among children (eight to 10 years of age) with reading difficulties. Method 235 children with reading difficulties in 10 schools participated in a five-month, randomized clinical trial in cluster (RCT) in an impoverished zone within the city of São Paulo to test the effects of music education intervention while assessing reading skills and academic achievement during the school year. Five schools were chosen randomly to incorporate music classes (n = 114), and five served as controls (n = 121). Two different methods of analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention: The standard method was intention-to-treat (ITT), and the other was the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) estimation method, which took compliance status into account. Results The ITT analyses were not very promising; only one marginal effect existed for the rate of correct real words read per minute. Indeed, considering ITT, improvements were observed in the secondary outcomes (slope of Portuguese = 0.21 [p<0.001] and slope of math = 0.25 [p<0.001]). As for CACE estimation (i.e., complier children versus non-complier children), more promising effects were observed in terms of the rate of correct words read per minute [β = 13.98, p<0.001] and phonological awareness [β = 19.72, p<0.001] as well as secondary outcomes (academic achievement in Portuguese [β = 0.77, p<0.0001] and math [β = 0.49, p<0.001] throughout the school year). Conclusion The results may be seen as promising, but they are not, in themselves

  16. Tip-based nanofabrication: an approach to true nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Adam R.; Bloschock, Kristen P.; Kenny, Thomas W.

    2010-03-01

    In order to unlock the true potential of nanotechnology, the development of controlled nanomanufacturing techniques for individual structures is critical. While the capability to grow, deposit, and manipulate nanostructures currently exists, the ability to reliably fabricate these devices with controlled differences in size, shape, and orientation at various substrate positions does not exist. To bridge this gap, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) launched the Tip-Based Nanofabrication (TBN) research program with the intent of achieving controlled nanomanufacturing of nanowires, nanotubes and quantum dots using functionalized AFM cantilevers and tips. This work describes the background, goals, and current approaches being explored during the multi-year TBN program.

  17. PCIF: An Algorithm for Lossless True Color Image Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcucci, Elena; Brlek, Srecko; Brocchi, Stefano

    An efficient algorithm for compressing true color images is proposed. The technique uses a combination of simple and computationally cheap operations. The three main steps consist of predictive image filtering, decomposition of data, and data compression through the use of run length encoding, Huffman coding and grouping the values into polyominoes. The result is a practical scheme that achieves good compression while providing fast decompression. The approach has performance comparable to, and often better than, competing standards such JPEG 2000 and JPEG-LS.

  18. Numerical Validation of Analytical Biaxial True Stress—True Strain Curves from the Bulge Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetic, M.; Bouguecha, A.; Peshekhodov, I.; Götze, T.; Huinink, T.; Friebe, H.; Möller, T.; Behrens, B.-A.

    2011-08-01

    The present investigation deals with the validation of the experimentally obtained biaxial true stress—true strain curves of the HCT 780 C sheet material from the bulge test with the help of the FEA. Furthermore the investigation handles the consideration of the bending influence via the blank curvature evaluation with an optical measurement system Gom ARAMIS.

  19. True hallucination as conversion symptom--a case report.

    PubMed

    Zain, A M

    1990-03-01

    The concept of conversion hallucination is a relatively new one, however there have been several articles written on this phenomena, some attesting to it being a special form of hallucination while others dismissing it altogether. But currently this concept is slowly being accepted among psychiatrists and as such it is important for us to understand some of the concepts. In this case report, the patient presented with clear conversion hallucinations. The case is followed by a discussion on true and pseudo-hallucinations, previous case reports and finally a discussion of conversion hallucinations, viz. the clinical features and the conversion hypothesis. PMID:2152073

  20. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Romidepsin Induces HIV Expression in CD4 T Cells from Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy at Concentrations Achieved by Clinical Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Datsen George; Chiang, Vicki; Fyne, Elizabeth; Balakrishnan, Mini; Barnes, Tiffany; Graupe, Michael; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Irrinki, Alivelu; Murry, Jeffrey P.; Stepan, George; Stray, Kirsten M.; Tsai, Angela; Yu, Helen; Spindler, Jonathan; Kearney, Mary; Spina, Celsa A.; McMahon, Deborah; Lalezari, Jacob; Sloan, Derek; Mellors, John; Geleziunas, Romas; Cihlar, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Persistent latent reservoir of replication-competent proviruses in memory CD4 T cells is a major obstacle to curing HIV infection. Pharmacological activation of HIV expression in latently infected cells is being explored as one of the strategies to deplete the latent HIV reservoir. In this study, we characterized the ability of romidepsin (RMD), a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphomas, to activate the expression of latent HIV. In an in vitro T-cell model of HIV latency, RMD was the most potent inducer of HIV (EC50 = 4.5 nM) compared with vorinostat (VOR; EC50 = 3,950 nM) and other histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in clinical development including panobinostat (PNB; EC50 = 10 nM). The HIV induction potencies of RMD, VOR, and PNB paralleled their inhibitory activities against multiple human HDAC isoenzymes. In both resting and memory CD4 T cells isolated from HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a 4-hour exposure to 40 nM RMD induced a mean 6-fold increase in intracellular HIV RNA levels, whereas a 24-hour treatment with 1 µM VOR resulted in 2- to 3-fold increases. RMD-induced intracellular HIV RNA expression persisted for 48 hours and correlated with sustained inhibition of cell-associated HDAC activity. By comparison, the induction of HIV RNA by VOR and PNB was transient and diminished after 24 hours. RMD also increased levels of extracellular HIV RNA and virions from both memory and resting CD4 T-cell cultures. The activation of HIV expression was observed at RMD concentrations below the drug plasma levels achieved by doses used in patients treated for T-cell lymphomas. In conclusion, RMD induces HIV expression ex vivo at concentrations that can be achieved clinically, indicating that the drug may reactivate latent HIV in patients on suppressive cART. PMID:24722454

  1. True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum.

    PubMed

    Jofre, M; Curty, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V

    2011-10-10

    Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices. PMID:21997077

  2. Analytical description of true stress-true strain curves for neutron-irradiated stainless austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Gussev, Maxim N; Byun, Thak Sang; Busby, Jeremy T

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an investigation for the deformation hardening behaviors of neutron-irradiated stainless steels in terms of true stress( ) true strain( ) curves. It is commonly accepted that the - curves are more informative for describing plastic flow, but there are few papers devoted to using the true curves for describing constitutive behaviors of materials. This study uses the true curves obtained from stainless steel samples irradiated to doses in the range of 0 55 dpa by various means: finite element calculation, optic extensomentry, and recalculation of engineering curves. It is shown that for the strain range 0 0.6 the true curves can be well described by the Swift equation: =k ( - 0)0.5. The influence of irradiation on the parameters of the Swift equation is investigated in detail. It is found that in most cases the k-parameter of this equation is not changed significantly by irradiation. Since large data scattering was observed for the 0-parameter, a modified Swift equation =k*( - 0 2/k2)0.5 was proposed and evaluated. This equation is based on the concept of zero stress, which is, in general, close to yield stress. The relationships among k, 0, and damage dose are discussed in detail, so as to more accurately describe the true curves for irradiated stainless steels.

  3. [True color accuracy in digital forensic photography].

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, Frank; Birngruber, Christoph G; Kröll, Ann-Katrin; Kettner, Mattias; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2016-01-01

    Forensic photographs not only need to be unaltered and authentic and capture context-relevant images, along with certain minimum requirements for image sharpness and information density, but color accuracy also plays an important role, for instance, in the assessment of injuries or taphonomic stages, or in the identification and evaluation of traces from photos. The perception of color not only varies subjectively from person to person, but as a discrete property of an image, color in digital photos is also to a considerable extent influenced by technical factors such as lighting, acquisition settings, camera, and output medium (print, monitor). For these reasons, consistent color accuracy has so far been limited in digital photography. Because images usually contain a wealth of color information, especially for complex or composite colors or shades of color, and the wavelength-dependent sensitivity to factors such as light and shadow may vary between cameras, the usefulness of issuing general recommendations for camera capture settings is limited. Our results indicate that true image colors can best and most realistically be captured with the SpyderCheckr technical calibration tool for digital cameras tested in this study. Apart from aspects such as the simplicity and quickness of the calibration procedure, a further advantage of the tool is that the results are independent of the camera used and can also be used for the color management of output devices such as monitors and printers. The SpyderCheckr color-code patches allow true colors to be captured more realistically than with a manual white balance tool or an automatic flash. We therefore recommend that the use of a color management tool should be considered for the acquisition of all images that demand high true color accuracy (in particular in the setting of injury documentation). PMID:27386623

  4. True reason for Zipf's law in language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahui, Wang; Menghui, Li; Zengru, Di

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of word frequency have historically used data that included English, French, or other language, data typically described by Zipf's law. Using data on traditional and modern Chinese literatures, we show here that Chinese character frequency stroked Zipf's law based on literature before Qin dynasty; however, it departed from Zipf's law based on literature after Qin dynasty. Combined with data about English dictionaries and Chinese dictionaries, we show that the true reason for Zipf's Law in language is that growth and preferential selection mechanism of word or character in given language.

  5. A comprehensive study on urban true orthorectification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, G.; Chen, W.; Kelmelis, J.A.; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2005-01-01

    To provide some advanced technical bases (algorithms and procedures) and experience needed for national large-scale digital orthophoto generation and revision of the Standards for National Large-Scale City Digital Orthophoto in the National Digital Orthophoto Program (NDOP), this paper presents a comprehensive study on theories, algorithms, and methods of large-scale urban orthoimage generation. The procedures of orthorectification for digital terrain model (DTM)-based and digital building model (DBM)-based orthoimage generation and their mergence for true orthoimage generation are discussed in detail. A method of compensating for building occlusions using photogrammetric geometry is developed. The data structure needed to model urban buildings for accurately generating urban orthoimages is presented. Shadow detection and removal, the optimization of seamline for automatic mosaic, and the radiometric balance of neighbor images are discussed. Street visibility analysis, including the relationship between flight height, building height, street width, and relative location of the street to the imaging center, is analyzed for complete true orthoimage generation. The experimental results demonstrated that our method can effectively and correctly orthorectify the displacements caused by terrain and buildings in urban large-scale aerial images. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  6. A Comparison of Multiple-Choice Tests and True-False Tests Used in Evaluating Student Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasdemir, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at comparing the difficulty levels, discrimination powers and powers of testing achievement of multiple choice tests and true-false tests, and thus revealing the rightness or wrongness of the commonly believed hypothesis that multiple choice tests don't bear the same properties as true-false tests. The research was performed with…

  7. True dynamic imaging and image composition by the optical translational projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, F.; Liu, Y.; He, S.

    2016-04-01

    Based on transformation optics, a novel shell (an optical translational projector (OTP)) that can be utilized for true dynamic imaging is designed. Our OTP has several notable features: Firstly OTP can form an image without a scanning process, which results in fast imaging. Secondly, the object to be imaged by the OTP can move inside the OTP, which means that we can achieve dynamic real-time imaging. Thirdly, we can achieve an image composition effect by using two OTPs that form two images in a common spatial region. The OTP will lead a new way to future true 3D volumetric display technologies.

  8. In Search of the True Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2013-11-01

    1. The nineteenth century's last five years; Part I. The Import of Theoretical Tools: 2. An overview; 3. Conclusions based on principles; 4. Conclusions based on a premise; 5. Conclusions based on calculations; 6. Asking the right questions, accepting limited answers; Part II. A National Plan Shaping the Universe We Perceive: 7. A new order and the new universe it produced; 8. Where did the chemical elements arise?; 9. Landscapes; 10. The evolution of astrophysical theory after 1960; 11. Turmoils of leadership; 12. Cascades and shocks that shape astrophysics; 13. Astrophysical discourse and persuasion; Part III. The Cost of Discerning the True Universe: 14. Organization and functioning of the astronomical community; 15. Language and astrophysical stability; 16. An economically viable astronomical program; Epilogue.

  9. In Search of the True Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2014-01-01

    1. The nineteenth century's last five years; Part I. The Import of Theoretical Tools: 2. An overview; 3. Conclusions based on principles; 4. Conclusions based on a premise; 5. Conclusions based on calculations; 6. Asking the right questions, accepting limited answers; Part II. A National Plan Shaping the Universe We Perceive: 7. A new order and the new universe it produced; 8. Where did the chemical elements arise?; 9. Landscapes; 10. The evolution of astrophysical theory after 1960; 11. Turmoils of leadership; 12. Cascades and shocks that shape astrophysics; 13. Astrophysical discourse and persuasion; Part III. The Cost of Discerning the True Universe: 14. Organization and functioning of the astronomical community; 15. Language and astrophysical stability; 16. An economically viable astronomical program; Epilogue.

  10. Kepler's winding Path to true Heliocentrism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, Volker

    The paper concerns the evolution of concepts by Johannes Kepler from Aristotelian conception of the Universe to Heliocentrism. Already as young Magister in Tubingen Kepler has taken an active part in Physical disputations of the candidates and has defended the doctrines of Copernik (1). In the Mysterium Cosmographicum he refers the planetary distances no longer to the center of the earth's orbit, but to the center of the true sun. But just by working out his Astronomia Nova Kepler succeeds in creating a strictly heliocentric astronomy as his handwriting Manuscripts give detailed information (2). Notes: 1) fragmentum orations de motu terrae. In Keppler Gesammelte werke Vol. 20.1, Munich 1988, p. 147-149 2) Commentaria in Theoriam Martis. Edition in: Kepler Gessamelete Werke Vol. 20.2 (in preparation)

  11. Geometric characterization of true quantum decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayser, Julius; Luoma, Kimmo; Strunz, Walter T.

    2015-11-01

    Surprisingly often decoherence is due to classical fluctuations of ambient fields and may thus be described in terms of random unitary (RU) dynamics. However, there are decoherence channels where such a representation cannot exist. Based on a simple and intuitive geometric measure for the distance of an extremal channel to the convex set of RU channels we are able to characterize the set of true quantum phase-damping channels. Remarkably, using the Caley-Menger determinant, our measure may be assessed directly from the matrix representation of the channel. We find that the channel of maximum quantumness is closely related to a symmetric, informationally complete positive operator-valued measure on the environment. Our findings are in line with numerical results based on the entanglement of assistance.

  12. Easier patch testing with TRUE Test.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T; Maibach, H I

    1989-03-01

    TRUE Test, a standardized, ready-to-apply patch test system, is made from polyester covered with a film of allergens incorporated in a hydrophilic polymer. The patches are mounted on nonwoven cellulose tape with acrylic adhesive, covered with siliconized plastic, and packed in an air-tight and light-impermeable envelope. When the test strip is taped on the skin, perspiration hydrates the film and transforms it to a gel, which causes the allergen to be released. The first panel of 12 allergens and allergen mixes is standardized and tested for stability in vitro and in vivo. The accuracy of the test panel has been certified in international multicenter studies by comparing it with present patch test techniques. A second panel of 11 more allergens was completed in 1988. The two test panels include the full standard panel of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group. PMID:2918115

  13. True ternary fission of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, V. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Greiner, Walter

    2010-04-15

    True ternary fission with formation of a heavy third fragment is quite possible for superheavy nuclei because of the strong shell effects leading to a three-body clusterization with the two doubly magic tinlike cores. The simplest way to discover this phenomenon in the decay of excited superheavy nuclei is a detection of two tinlike clusters with appropriate kinematics in low-energy collisions of medium-mass nuclei with actinide targets. The three-body quasi-fission process could be even more pronounced for giant nuclear systems formed in collisions of heavy actinide nuclei. In this case a three-body clusterization might be proved experimentally by the detection of two coincident leadlike fragments in low-energy U + U collisions.

  14. Uranus in True and False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    These two pictures of Uranus -- one in true color (left) and the other in false color -- were compiled from images returned Jan. 17, 1986, by the narrow-angle camera of Voyager 2. The spacecraft was 9.1 million kilometers (5.7 million miles) from the planet, several days from closest approach. The picture at left has been processed to show Uranus as human eyes would see it from the vantage point of the spacecraft. The picture is a composite of images taken through blue, green and orange filters. The darker shadings at the upper right of the disk correspond to the day-night boundary on the planet. Beyond this boundary lies the hidden northern hemisphere of Uranus, which currently remains in total darkness as the planet rotates. The blue-green color results from the absorption of red light by methane gas in Uranus' deep, cold and remarkably clear atmosphere. The picture at right uses false color and extreme contrast enhancement to bring out subtle details in the polar region of Uranus. Images obtained through ultraviolet, violet and orange filters were respectively converted to the same blue, green and red colors used to produce the picture at left. The very slight contrasts visible in true color are greatly exaggerated here. In this false-color picture, Uranus reveals a dark polar hood surrounded by a series of progressively lighter concentric bands. One possible explanation is that a brownish haze or smog, concentrated over the pole, is arranged into bands by zonal motions of the upper atmosphere. The bright orange and yellow strip at the lower edge of the planet's limb is an artifact of the image enhancement. In fact, the limb is dark and uniform in color around the planet. The Voyager project is manages for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. A Study of the Pre-Licensure Nursing Students' Perception of the Simulation Learning Environment as Helpful in Achieving Clinical Competencies and Their Perception of the Impact of the Level of Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crary, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    The research question of this study was: to what degree do nursing students perceive using the High Fidelity Simulation (HFS) learning environment to be helpful in their ability to achieve clinical competency. The research sub-questions (7) explored the students' demographics as an influence on rating of reality and helpfulness and the…

  16. Time-resolved Non-contrast Enhanced 4-D Dynamic MRA using Multi-bolus TrueFISP based Spin Tagging with Alternating Radiofrequency (True-STAR)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lirong; Salamon, Noriko; Wang, Danny JJ

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of the present study was to introduce a new non-contrast enhanced 4D dynamic MR angiography (dMRA) technique termed multi-bolus TrueFISP based spin tagging with alternating radiofrequency (TrueSTAR). Methods Multi-bolus TrueSTAR was developed by taking advantage of the phenomenon that the steady-state signal of TrueFISP is minimally disturbed by periodically inserted magnetization preparations (e.g., spin tagging) that are sandwiched by 2 α/2 RF pulses. Both theoretical analysis and experimental studies were carried out to optimize the proposed method which was compared with both pulsed and pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) based dMRA in healthy volunteers. Optimized multi-bolus dMRA was also applied in a patient with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) to demonstrate its potential clinical utility. Results Multi-bolus dMRA offered a prolonged tagging bolus compared to the standard single-bolus dMRA, and allowed improved visualization of the draining veins in the AVM patient. Compared to pCASL based dMRA, multi-bolus dMRA provided visualization of the full passage of the labeled blood with the flexibility for both static and dynamic MRA. Conclusion By combining the benefits of pulsed and pCASL based dMRA, multi-bolus TrueSTAR can prolong and enhance the tagging bolus without sacrificing imaging speed or temporal resolution. PMID:23440649

  17. Finding economies of scale and coordination of care along the continuum to achieve true system integration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Maura

    2014-01-01

    Is it time to reduce hospitals and replace them with digitally enabled distributed specialty service delivery channels that focus on ambulatory care, urgent care, and patient reactivation? Is delivery system integration immaterial if care is standardized and supported by integrated information systems? Maybe Lean methodology needs to be applied across the entire delivery systems, not just within its component functions and processes. Comments are offered on each of these perspectives. PMID:25671876

  18. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

  19. Placebo: the lie that comes true?

    PubMed

    Justman, Stewart

    2013-04-01

    Over the decades of experimentation on the placebo effect, it has become clear that it is driven largely by expectation, and that strong expectations of efficacy are more likely to give rise to the experience of benefit. No wonder the placebo effect has come to resemble a self-fulfilling prophecy. However, this resemblance is considerably exaggerated. The placebo effect does not work as strongly as it is advertised to do in some efforts to elicit it. Half-truths about the placebo effect are now in circulation, reinforced by a number of other equivocations that it seems to attract. As the deceptive use of placebos has fallen into discredit, the use of half-truths and exaggerations-neither of which is technically a deception-becomes an ever more inviting possibility. However, there are risks and costs associated with the half-truth that the doctor possesses the power to make his or her words come true by the alchemy of the placebo effect. PMID:23250230

  20. True Aneurysm of the Proximal Brachial Artery

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Pinjala; Mahapatra, Sandeep; Rajesh, Ratna

    2013-01-01

    A 35-year-old farmer presented with complaints of pain in the right upper limb for 1 month and bluish discoloration of the right-hand finger tips with tingling and numbness. He sustained injury to the right upper limb while lifting a heavy object 1 mo previously. There was an ovoid swelling of 4 × 2 cm on the medial aspect of the right arm, 12 cm above the medial epicondyle at the level of the armpit with visible pulsations. There was distal neurovascular deficit. Duplex scan of the right upper limb arterial system revealed a pseudoaneurysm of the proximal right brachial artery, with dampened monophasic flow in the ulnar artery and no flow in the radial artery. Spiral computed tomography angiogram showed the presence of an echogenic periarterial lesion in the proximal brachial artery suggestive of pseudoaneurysm or an extrinsic compression by hematoma. Distal brachial artery was found to have filled with thrombus, with non-opacification of the radial and the distal ulnar artery. The patient was posted for excision of the aneurysmal arterial segment. A 5-cm-long reversed segment of vein graft was interposed in between the cut ends of the brachial artery. Histopathology: Specimen shows a part of the vessel wall composed of intimal, medial, and adventitial layers with intraluminal thrombus showing evidence of recanalization suggestive of true aneurysm of the brachial artery. PMID:26798692

  1. True Color of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Roughly true color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter as taken by the Galileo imaging system on June 26, 1996. Because the Galileo imaging system's wavelength sensitivities go beyond those of the human eye, this is only an approximation of what a human observer would have seen in place of the Galileo spacecraft. To simulate red as our eyes see it, the near-infrared filter (756 nm) image was used. To simulate blue as our eyes see it, the violet filter (410 nm) image was used. Finally, to simulate green as our eyes see it, a combination of 2/3 violet and 1/3 near-infrared was used. The result is an image that is similar in color to that seen when looking through a telescope at Jupiter with your eye, but allowing detail about 100 times finer to be visible! The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. Mechanisms for oscillatory true polar wander.

    PubMed

    Creveling, J R; Mitrovica, J X; Chan, N-H; Latychev, K; Matsuyama, I

    2012-11-01

    Palaeomagnetic studies of Palaeoproterozoic to Cretaceous rocks propose a suite of large and relatively rapid (tens of degrees over 10 to 100 million years) excursions of the rotation pole relative to the surface geography, or true polar wander (TPW). These excursions may be linked in an oscillatory, approximately coaxial succession about the centre of the contemporaneous supercontinent. Within the framework of a standard rotational theory, in which a delayed viscous adjustment of the rotational bulge acts to stabilize the rotation axis, geodynamic models for oscillatory TPW generally appeal to consecutive, opposite loading phases of comparable magnitude. Here we extend a nonlinear rotational stability theory to incorporate the stabilizing effect of TPW-induced elastic stresses in the lithosphere. We demonstrate that convectively driven inertia perturbations acting on a nearly prolate, non-hydrostatic Earth with an effective elastic lithospheric thickness of about 10 kilometres yield oscillatory TPW paths consistent with palaeomagnetic inferences. This estimate of elastic thickness can be reduced, even to zero, if the rotation axis is stabilized by long-term excess ellipticity in the plane of the TPW. We speculate that these sources of stabilization, acting on TPW driven by a time-varying mantle flow field, provide a mechanism for linking the distinct, oscillatory TPW events of the past few billion years. PMID:23135471

  3. Class Rank Weighs Down True Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    The process of determining class rank does not help students achieve more or reach higher levels of proficiency. Evidence indicates ranking students may diminish students' motivation. High school educators argue that they are compelled to rank-order graduating students because selective colleges and universities require information about…

  4. Nathan Watt: A True American Idol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Diana

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles her son Nathan Watt, a 14-year-old who was born with Spina Bifida, who does not allow setbacks to keep him from achieving his goals and dreams in the areas of writing, recording, and performing his own music. He has also opened a business website and turned his story, "Anything is Possible," into a color story…

  5. A unilocular thymic cyst associated with true thymic hyperplasia: a challenging diagnosis especially in a child

    PubMed Central

    Mlika, Mona; Gattoufi, Walid; Zribi, Hazem; Braham, Emna; Marghli, Adel; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2015-01-01

    We report a new case of a mediastinal mass in a 19-year-old patient corresponding microscopically to an association of unilocular thymic cyst and true thymic hyperplasia. Our aim is to highlight the absence of specificity of clinical and radiological findings and the necessity of a thorough sampling of the tumor in order to establish the diagnosis. PMID:26445562

  6. Real-time Interpolation for True 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Image Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Songbai; Roberts, David W.; Hartov, Alex; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    We compared trilinear interpolation to voxel nearest neighbor and distance-weighted algorithms for fast and accurate processing of true 3-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) image volumes. In this study, the computational efficiency and interpolation accuracy of the 3 methods were compared on the basis of a simulated 3DUS image volume, 34 clinical 3DUS image volumes from 5 patients, and 2 experimental phantom image volumes. We show that trilinear interpolation improves interpolation accuracy over both the voxel nearest neighbor and distance-weighted algorithms yet achieves real-time computational performance that is comparable to the voxel nearest neighbor algrorithm (1–2 orders of magnitude faster than the distance-weighted algorithm) as well as the fastest pixel-based algorithms for processing tracked 2-dimensional ultrasound images (0.035 seconds per 2-dimesional cross-sectional image [76,800 pixels interpolated, or 0.46 ms/1000 pixels] and 1.05 seconds per full volume with a 1-mm3 voxel size [4.6 million voxels interpolated, or 0.23 ms/1000 voxels]). On the basis of these results, trilinear interpolation is recommended as a fast and accurate interpolation method for rectilinear sampling of 3DUS image acquisitions, which is required to facilitate subsequent processing and display during operating room procedures such as image-guided neurosurgery. PMID:21266563

  7. Cyclic additional optical true time delay for microwave beam steering with spectral filtering.

    PubMed

    Cao, Z; Lu, R; Wang, Q; Tessema, N; Jiao, Y; van den Boom, H P A; Tangdiongga, E; Koonen, A M J

    2014-06-15

    Optical true time delay (OTTD) is an attractive way to realize microwave beam steering (MBS) due to its inherent features of broadband, low-loss, and compactness. In this Letter, we propose a novel OTTD approach named cyclic additional optical true time delay (CAO-TTD). It applies additional integer delays of the microwave carrier frequency to achieve spectral filtering but without disturbing the spatial filtering (beam steering). Based on such concept, a broadband MBS scheme for high-capacity wireless communication is proposed, which allows the tuning of both spectral filtering and spatial filtering. The experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis. PMID:24978496

  8. True beam commissioning experience at Nordland Hospital Trust, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daci, Lulzime; Malkaj, Partizan

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the measured of all photon beam data of first Varian True Beam version 2.0 slim model, recently commissioned at Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø. To compare and evaluate the possibility of beam matching with the Clinac2300, for the energies of 6MV and 15 MV. Materials/Methods: Measurements of PDD, OAR, and Output factors were realized with the IBA Blue-phantom with different detectors and evaluated between them for all photon energies: 6MV, 15MV, 6MV FFF and 10MV FFF. The ionization chambers used were Pin Point CC01, CC04, Semiflex CC13 and photon diode by Iba dosimetry. The data were processed using Beizer algorithm with a resolution of 1 mm. The measured depth dose curves, diagonals, OAR, and output factors were imported into Eclipse in order to calculate beam data for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA version 10.0.28) for both the dataset measured with CC04 and CC13 and compared. The model head of 23EX was selected as the most near model to True Beam as a restriction of our version of Aria. It was seen that better results were achieved with the CC04 measured data as a result of better resolution. For the biggest field after 10 cm depth a larger difference is seen between measured and calculated for both dataset, but it is within the criteria for acceptance. Results: The Beam analysis criteria of 2 mm at 50% dose is achieved for all the fields accept for 40x40 that is within 3%. Depth difference at maximum dose is within 1 mm for all the fields and dose difference at 100 mm and 200 mm is lower than 1% for or all the fields. The PDD between two machines for all the fields differ after Dmax with less than 1%. For profiles in the field zone and outside field the difference is within 1% for all the fields. In the penumbra region the difference is from 2% up to 12% for big fields. As for diagonals they differ as a result of the head construction at the edge of the field and the penumbra region. The output factors differ for big fields within 5% and

  9. Locating True North in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankenier, D. W.

    2009-08-01

    Archaeological discoveries from the Chinese Bronze Age have demonstrated a dominant concern with achieving cardinal orientation that persisted throughout the Xià, Shāng, and Zhōdu dynasties (ca. 2000 -- 300 BCE). It has long been understood that cardinality is an index of the paradigmatic roles of ``the center'' and ``the four quarters'', both core organizing principles of early Chinese cosmological thinking. Here, however, I focus on a very early practical technique used to identify the location of the pole in the absence of a pole star. This method takes advantage of the unique orientation of the Great Square of Pegasus (known as Ding} in early China) and offers insight into a fundamental mindset that figured importantly in the formation of early Chinese Civilization.

  10. Positive Predictive Value of True Bacteremia according to the Number of Positive Culture Sets in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kitaura, Tsuyoshi; Chikumi, Hiroki; Fujiwara, Hiromitsu; Okada, Kensaku; Hayabuchi, Tatsuya; Nakamoto, Masaki; Takata, Miyako; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Burioka, Naoto; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Background Performing multiple blood culture sets simultaneously is a standard blood culture methodology, although it is often difficult to distinguish true bacteremia from contamination when only one of several blood culture sets is positive. This study clarified the relationship between the number of positive blood culture sets and clinical significance in patients with positive blood culture. Methods Patients aged 18 years and over with at least 1 positive blood culture were enrolled. Positive blood culture episodes were categorized from clinical records as true bacteremia, contamination, or unknown clinical significance. The associations among episodes of true bacteremia, isolated bacteria, the number of positive blood culture sets from among the performed sets, and the clinical background of patients were analyzed. Results Among a total of 407 episodes, 262, 67 and 78 were true bacteremia, contamination and unknown clinical significance, respectively. The positive predictive values (PPVs) of 1 out of 1, 1 out of 2 and 2 out of 2 positive sets in cases of Staphylococcus aureus, were 81.3%, 50% and 100% respectively; those in cases of coagulase-negative Staphylococci were 20.5%, 10.8% and 63.5%, respectively. Almost all cases of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella species and Candida species were true bacteremia. The probability of true bacteremia was strongly associated with recent surgery in multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). Conclusion The probability of true bacteremia based on the number of positive culture sets from among the performed sets varies by microorganism. Therefore, PPVs calculated using this method may help physicians distinguish true bacteremia from contamination. PMID:25901103

  11. Mid-stage intervention achieves similar efficacy as conventional early-stage treatment using gene therapy in a pre-clinical model of retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Wert, Katherine J.; Sancho-Pelluz, Javier; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    Deficiencies in rod-specific cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) are the third most common cause of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Previously, viral gene therapy approaches on pre-clinical models with mutations in PDE6 have demonstrated that the photoreceptor cell survival and visual function can be rescued when the gene therapy virus is delivered into the subretinal space before the onset of disease. However, no studies have currently been published that analyze rescue effects after disease onset, a time when human RP patients are diagnosed by a clinician and would receive the treatment. We utilized the AAV2/8(Y733F)-Rho-Pde6α gene therapy virus and injected it into a pre-clinical model of RP with a mutation within the alpha subunit of PDE6: Pde6αD670G. These mice were previously shown to have long-term photoreceptor cell rescue when this gene therapy virus was delivered before the onset of disease. Now, we have determined that subretinal transduction of this rod-specific transgene at post-natal day (P) 21, when approximately half of the photoreceptor cells have undergone degeneration, is more efficient in rescuing cone than rod photoreceptor function long term. Therefore, AAV2/8(Y733F)-Rho-Pde6α is an effective gene therapy treatment that can be utilized in the clinical setting, in human patients who have lost portions of their peripheral visual field and are in the mid-stage of disease when they first present to an eye-care professional. PMID:24101599

  12. Mid-stage intervention achieves similar efficacy as conventional early-stage treatment using gene therapy in a pre-clinical model of retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Wert, Katherine J; Sancho-Pelluz, Javier; Tsang, Stephen H

    2014-01-15

    Deficiencies in rod-specific cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) are the third most common cause of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Previously, viral gene therapy approaches on pre-clinical models with mutations in PDE6 have demonstrated that the photoreceptor cell survival and visual function can be rescued when the gene therapy virus is delivered into the subretinal space before the onset of disease. However, no studies have currently been published that analyze rescue effects after disease onset, a time when human RP patients are diagnosed by a clinician and would receive the treatment. We utilized the AAV2/8(Y733F)-Rho-Pde6α gene therapy virus and injected it into a pre-clinical model of RP with a mutation within the alpha subunit of PDE6: Pde6α(D670G). These mice were previously shown to have long-term photoreceptor cell rescue when this gene therapy virus was delivered before the onset of disease. Now, we have determined that subretinal transduction of this rod-specific transgene at post-natal day (P) 21, when approximately half of the photoreceptor cells have undergone degeneration, is more efficient in rescuing cone than rod photoreceptor function long term. Therefore, AAV2/8(Y733F)-Rho-Pde6α is an effective gene therapy treatment that can be utilized in the clinical setting, in human patients who have lost portions of their peripheral visual field and are in the mid-stage of disease when they first present to an eye-care professional. PMID:24101599

  13. Non-syndromic occurrence of true generalized microdontia with mandibular mesiodens - a rare case

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abnormalities in size of teeth and number of teeth are occasionally recorded in clinical cases. True generalized microdontia is rare case in which all the teeth are smaller than normal. Mesiodens is commonly located in maxilary central incisor region and uncommon in the mandible. In the present case a 12 year-old boy was healthy; normal in appearance and the medical history was noncontributory. The patient was examined and found to have permanent teeth that were smaller than those of the average adult teeth. The true generalized microdontia was accompanied by mandibular mesiodens. This is a unique case report of non-syndromic association of mandibular hyperdontia with true generalized microdontia. PMID:22035324

  14. Chaos in social learning with multiple true states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Aili; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Jiuhua; Wang, Xiaofan

    2013-11-01

    Most existing social learning models assume that there is only one underlying true state. In this work, we consider a social learning model with multiple true states, in which agents in different groups receive different signal sequences generated by their corresponding underlying true states. Each agent updates his belief by combining his rational self-adjustment based on the external signals he received and the influence of his neighbors according to their communication. We observe chaotic oscillation in the belief evolution, which implies that neither true state could be learnt correctly by calculating the largest Lyapunov exponents and Hurst exponents.

  15. Long-Term (Six Years) Clinical Outcome Discrimination of Patients in the Vegetative State Could be Achieved Based on the Operational Architectonics EEG Analysis: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are increasingly used to evaluate patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) or assess their prognosis outcome in the short-term perspective. However, there is a lack of information concerning the effectiveness of EEG in classifying long-term (many years) outcome in chronic DOC patients. Here we tested whether EEG operational architectonics parameters (geared towards consciousness phenomenon detection rather than neurophysiological processes) could be useful for distinguishing a very long-term (6 years) clinical outcome of DOC patients whose EEGs were registered within 3 months post-injury. The obtained results suggest that EEG recorded at third month after sustaining brain damage, may contain useful information on the long-term outcome of patients in vegetative state: it could discriminate patients who remain in a persistent vegetative state from patients who reach a minimally conscious state or even recover a full consciousness in a long-term perspective (6 years) post-injury. These findings, if confirmed in further studies, may be pivotal for long-term planning of clinical care, rehabilitative programs, medical-legal decisions concerning the patients, and policy makers. PMID:27347266

  16. FPGA Implementation of Metastability-Based True Random Number Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Hisashi; Ichikawa, Shuichi

    True random number generators (TRNGs) are important as a basis for computer security. Though there are some TRNGs composed of analog circuit, the use of digital circuits is desired for the application of TRNGs to logic LSIs. Some of the digital TRNGs utilize jitter in free-running ring oscillators as a source of entropy, which consume large power. Another type of TRNG exploits the metastability of a latch to generate entropy. Although this kind of TRNG has been mostly implemented with full-custom LSI technology, this study presents an implementation based on common FPGA technology. Our TRNG is comprised of logic gates only, and can be integrated in any kind of logic LSI. The RS latch in our TRNG is implemented as a hard-macro to guarantee the quality of randomness by minimizing the signal skew and load imbalance of internal nodes. To improve the quality and throughput, the output of 64-256 latches are XOR'ed. The derived design was verified on a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA (XC4VFX20), and passed NIST statistical test suite without post-processing. Our TRNG with 256 latches occupies 580 slices, while achieving 12.5Mbps throughput.

  17. Creating the Business Case for Achieving Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Chin, Marshall H

    2016-07-01

    Health care organizations have increasingly acknowledged the presence of health care disparities across race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, but significantly fewer have made health equity for diverse patients a true priority. Lack of financial incentives is a major barrier to achieving health equity. To create a business case for equity, governmental and private payors can: 1) Require health care organizations to report clinical performance data stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. 2) Incentivize preventive care and primary care. Implement more aggressive shared savings plans, update physician relative value unit fee schedules, and encourage partnerships across clinical and non-clinical sectors. 3) Incentivize the reduction of health disparities with equity accountability measures in payment programs. 4) Align equity accountability measures across public and private payors. 5) Assist safety-net organizations. Provide adequate Medicaid reimbursement, risk-adjust clinical performance scores for sociodemographic characteristics of patients, provide support for quality improvement efforts, and calibrate cuts to Disproportionate Share Hospital (DSH) payments to the pace of health insurance expansion. 6) Conduct demonstration projects to test payment and delivery system reform interventions to reduce disparities. Commitment to social justice is essential to achieve health equity, but insufficient without a strong business case that makes interventions financially feasible. PMID:26883523

  18. [Neurological Signs and Symptoms of True Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Mana; Konoeda, Fumie; Sonoo, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but many aspects of its pathology, including its definition, has been disputed. True neurogenic TOS (TN-TOS) is a rare but well-defined clinical condition. TN-TOS results from the compression of the C8/T1 roots (dominant for the T1 root) or the proximal lower trunk of the brachial plexus by a fibrous band. The band extends from the first rib to either the tip of an elongated C7 transverse process or a rudimentary cervical rib. The most common presenting symptoms of TN-TOS are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digit flexors. Nerve conduction studies demonstrate pathognomonic findings: severely attenuated compound muscle action potential of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, and usually, loss of the sensory nerve action potential of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Numbness and sensory loss are typically observed, mainly in the medial forearm, although they are usually mild, and may be absent in some patients. Severe pain or paresthesia proximal to the elbow is not observed. The classical concept of TOS underlie nonspecific neurogenic TOS. It has been primarily diagnosed using provocative maneuvers. However, there is controversy regarding its pathological conceptualization and existence, as objective evidence of the disease is still lacking. PMID:27156505

  19. Material Properties Test to Determine Ultimate Strain and True Stress-True Strain Curves for High Yield Steels

    SciTech Connect

    K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

    2003-04-01

    This testing was undertaken to develop material true stress-true strain curves for elastic-plastic material behavior for use in performing transient analysis. Based on the conclusions of this test, the true stress-true strain curves derived herein are valid for use in elastic-plastic finite element analysis for structures fabricated from these materials. In addition, for the materials tested herein, the ultimate strain values are greater than those values cited as the limits for the elastic-plastic strain acceptance criteria for transient analysis.

  20. Does contemporary vancomycin dosing achieve therapeutic targets in a heterogeneous clinical cohort of critically ill patients? Data from the multinational DALI study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in ICU patients and to examine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing results in concentrations that have been associated with favourable response. Methods The Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive Care (DALI) study was a prospective, multicentre pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. Antibiotic dosing was as per the treating clinician either by intermittent bolus or continuous infusion. Target trough concentration was defined as ≥15 mg/L and target pharmacodynamic index was defined as an area under the concentration-time curve over a 24-hour period divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration of the suspected bacteria (AUC0–24/MIC ratio) >400 (assuming MIC ≤1 mg/L). Results Data of 42 patients from 26 ICUs were eligible for analysis. A total of 24 patients received vancomycin by continuous infusion (57%). Daily dosage of vancomycin was 27 mg/kg (interquartile range (IQR) 18 to 32), and not different between patients receiving intermittent or continuous infusion. Trough concentrations were highly variable (median 27, IQR 8 to 23 mg/L). Target trough concentrations were achieved in 57% of patients, but more frequently in patients receiving continuous infusion (71% versus 39%; P = 0.038). Also the target AUC0–24/MIC ratio was reached more frequently in patients receiving continuous infusion (88% versus 50%; P = 0.008). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment by the propensity score could not confirm continuous infusion as an independent predictor of an AUC0–24/MIC >400 (odds ratio (OR) 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2 to 12.0) or a Cmin ≥15 mg/L (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.4 to 8.5). Conclusions This study demonstrated large interindividual variability in vancomycin pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic target attainment in ICU patients. These data suggests that a re-evaluation of current vancomycin dosing recommendations in

  1. True color blood flow imaging using a high-speed laser photography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Sun, Yung-Nien; Ho, Chung-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Chi

    2012-10-01

    Physiological changes in the retinal vasculature are commonly indicative of such disorders as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Thus, various methods have been developed for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics. However, to the best of our knowledge, current ophthalmic instruments do not provide a true color blood flow imaging capability. Accordingly, we propose a new method for the true color imaging of blood flow using a high-speed pulsed laser photography system. In the proposed approach, monochromatic images of the blood flow are acquired using a system of three cameras and three color lasers (red, green, and blue). A high-quality true color image of the blood flow is obtained by assembling the monochromatic images by means of image realignment and color calibration processes. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by imaging the flow of mouse blood within a microfluidic channel device. The experimental results confirm the proposed system provides a high-quality true color blood flow imaging capability, and therefore has potential for noninvasive clinical evaluation of ocular hemodynamics.

  2. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  3. Discovering a "True" Map of the World--Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    "True" maps of the world, as seen from the perspective of the time in which they were produced, remain an ethnocentric visual language in modern times. Students can gain insight into such "true" maps by studying maps produced in the great traditions of the West and East. Teachers can determine a map's appropriateness by identifying its title,…

  4. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  5. Similar Clinical and Surgical Outcomes Achieved with Early Compared to Late Anti-TNF Induction in Mild-to-Moderate Ulcerative Colitis: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fedorak, Darryl K.; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Halloran, Brendan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha are effective in the management of ulcerative colitis (UC), but their use is often postponed until after failure of other treatment modalities. Objectives. We aim to determine if earlier treatment with infliximab or adalimumab alters clinical and surgical outcomes in UC patients. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating UC outpatients treated with infliximab or adalimumab from 2003 to 2014. Patients were stratified by time to first anti-TNF exposure; early initiation was defined as starting treatment within three years of diagnosis. Primary outcomes were colectomy, UC-related hospitalization, and clinical secondary loss of response. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess time to the primary outcomes. Results. 115 patients were included (78 infliximab, 37 adalimumab). Median follow-up was 175.6 weeks (IQR 72.4–228.4 weeks). Fifty-seven (49.6%) patients received early anti-TNF therapy; median time to treatment in this group was 38.1 (23.3–91.0) weeks compared to 414.0 (254.0–561.3) weeks in the late initiator cohort (p < 0.0001). Patients treated with early anti-TNF therapy had more severe endoscopic disease at induction (mean Mayo endoscopy subscore 2.46 (SD ± 0.66) versus 1.86 (±0.67), p < 0.001) and trended towards increased risk of colectomy (17.5% versus 8.6%, p = 0.16) and UC-related hospitalization (43.9% versus 27.6%, p = 0.07). In multivariate regression analysis, early anti-TNF induction was not associated with colectomy (HR 2.02 [95% CI: 0.57–7.20]), hospitalization (HR 1.66 [0.84–3.30]), or secondary loss of response (HR 0.86 [0.52–1.42]). Conclusions. Anti-TNF therapy is initiated earlier in patients with severe UC but earlier treatment does not prevent hospitalization, colectomy, or secondary loss of response. PMID:27478817

  6. Neural processing associated with true and false memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig

    2003-12-01

    We investigated the neural bases for false memory with fMRI by examining neural activity during retrieval processes that yielded true or false memories. We used a reality monitoring paradigm in which participants saw or imagined pictures of concrete objects. (A subsequent misinformation task was also used to increase false memory rates.) At test, fMRI data were collected as the participants determined whether they had seen or had only imagined the object at study. True memories were of seen pictures accurately endorsed as seen, and for false memories were of imagined pictures falsely endorsed as seen. Three distinct patterns of activity were observed: Left frontal and parietal activity was not different for true and for false memories, whereas activity was greater for true than for false memories in occipital visual regions and posterior portions of the parahippocampal gyrus, and activity was greater for false than for true memories in right anterior cingulate gyrus. Possible interpretations are discussed. PMID:15040552

  7. Implant-supported overdenture manufactured using CAD/CAM techniques to achieve horizontal path insertion between the primary and secondary structure: A clinical case report

    PubMed Central

    Agustín-Panadero, Rubén; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Gomar-Vercher, Sonia; Ferreiroa, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the case of an edentulous patient with an atrophic maxilla and severe class III malocclusion. Prosthetic rehabilitation was performed using CAD/CAM techniques for manufacturing an implant-supported overdenture with horizontal insertion. A vestibulo-lingual insertion overdenture is a precision prosthesis with a fixation system affording a good fit between the primary and secondary structure. Both structures exhibit passive horizontal adjustment. This treatment option requires the same number of implants as implant-supported fixed dentures. The horizontal assembly system prevents the prosthesis from loosening or moving in response to axial and non-axial forces. The technique was used to rehabilitate a patient presenting an atrophic upper maxilla, with the insertion of 8 implants. No complications were reported at follow-up 3, 6 and 12 months after fitting of the prosthesis. This system offers solutions to the clinical and laboratory complications associated with hybrid prostheses, concealing emergence of the chimneys and improving implant-prosthesis hygiene. PMID:26140179

  8. Verification of dosimetric accuracy on the TrueBeam STx: Rounded leaf effect of the high definition MLC

    SciTech Connect

    Kielar, Kayla N.; Mok, Ed; Hsu, Annie; Wang Lei; Luxton, Gary

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The dosimetric leaf gap (DLG) in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system is determined during commissioning and is used to model the effect of the rounded leaf-end of the multileaf collimator (MLC). This parameter attempts to model the physical difference between the radiation and light field and account for inherent leakage between leaf tips. With the increased use of single fraction high dose treatments requiring larger monitor units comes an enhanced concern in the accuracy of leakage calculations, as it accounts for much of the patient dose. This study serves to verify the dosimetric accuracy of the algorithm used to model the rounded leaf effect for the TrueBeam STx, and describes a methodology for determining best-practice parameter values, given the novel capabilities of the linear accelerator such as flattening filter free (FFF) treatments and a high definition MLC (HDMLC). Methods: During commissioning, the nominal MLC position was verified and the DLG parameter was determined using MLC-defined field sizes and moving gap tests, as is common in clinical testing. Treatment plans were created, and the DLG was optimized to achieve less than 1% difference between measured and calculated dose. The DLG value found was tested on treatment plans for all energies (6 MV, 10 MV, 15 MV, 6 MV FFF, 10 MV FFF) and modalities (3D conventional, IMRT, conformal arc, VMAT) available on the TrueBeam STx. Results: The DLG parameter found during the initial MLC testing did not match the leaf gap modeling parameter that provided the most accurate dose delivery in clinical treatment plans. Using the physical leaf gap size as the DLG for the HDMLC can lead to 5% differences in measured and calculated doses. Conclusions: Separate optimization of the DLG parameter using end-to-end tests must be performed to ensure dosimetric accuracy in the modeling of the rounded leaf ends for the Eclipse treatment planning system. The difference in leaf gap modeling versus physical

  9. [Achievement of therapeutic target in subjects on statin treatment in clinical practice. Results of the STAR (Statins Target Assessment in Real practice) study].

    PubMed

    Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Arca, Marcello; Vigna, Giovanni B; Budal, Stefano; Degli Esposti, Ezio

    2011-12-01

    The primary aim of the STAR Study (Statins Target Assessment in Real practice) was to determine the LDL-cholesterol reduction and to analyse patient's and therapeutic factors associated to LDL-cholesterol target attainment in newly treated subjects with statins in an unselected population in clinical practice setting. Administrative databases (including pharmaceutical prescriptions and hospital admissions) and laboratory test databases (including LDL-cholesterol values) of five local health units, distributed in Emilia Romagna, Toscana and Umbria, were linked. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and all subjects aged > or =18 years with a first prescription for statins (newly treated subjects) between January 1st, 2007 and June 30th, 2008 were included. All statin prescriptions over a 12 months follow-up period were considered and used to calculate adherence to treatment. Baseline and follow-up LDL-cholesterol, respectively, were defined according to the nearest determination to the first prescription for statins and to the end of the follow-up period. A total of 3.232 subjects was included, 1.516 males (47%) and 1.716 females (53%), with an average age equal to 65.9 +/- 11.3 years. Among included subjects, 22.,6% had a gap to LDL-cholesterol target <10%, 30.0% between 10 and 29%, 20.7% between 30 and 49%, and 26.7% . or =50%. Among those with a gap to target > or =50%, 30-49%, and 10-29%, respectively, LDL-cholesterol target was attained by 7.1%, 41.8%, and 62.% of subjects. LDL-cholesterol target attainment was associated to gap to target, adherence with treatment, and type of statin. PMID:22567731

  10. Characterization of true stress-true strain curves obtained by hot deformation of different types of steels

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.E.S.; Ruzzante, J.E. . Grupo Deformacion en Caliente CNEA, Buenos Aires . Dept. Materials)

    1993-10-01

    The results of hot torsion tests in order to characterize the true stress-true strain curves at a high temperature for six different types of steel (carbon, free-cutting and alloyed), were presented in a previous work, and from those results, an expression was proposed to calculate the peak strain [bar [epsilon

  11. Rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin in achieving lipid goals in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease in clinical practice: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study (DISCOVERY Alpha study)

    PubMed Central

    Binbrek, Azan S.; Elis, Avishay; Al-Zaibag, Muayed; Eha, Jaan; Keber, Irena; Cuevas, Ada M.; Mukherjee, Swati; Miller, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The majority of clinical trials investigating the clinical benefits of lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs) have focused on North American or western and nothern European populations. Therefore, it is timely to confirm the efficacy of these agents in other patient populations in routine clinical practice. Objective: The aim of the Direct Statin COmparison of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) Values: an Evaluation of Rosuvastatin therapY (DISCOVERY) Alpha study was to compare the effects of rosuvastatin 10 mg with those of atorvastatin 10 mg in achieving LDL-C goals in the Third Joint Task Force of European and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice guidelines. Methods: This randomized, open-label, parallel-group study was conducted at 93 centers in eastern Europe (Estonia, Latvia, Romania, Russia, Slovenia), Central and South America (Chile, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama), and the Middle East (Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates). Male and female patients aged ≥18 years with primary hypercholesterolemia (LDL-C level, >135 mg/dL if LLT-naive or ≥120 mg/dL if switching statins; triglyceride [TG] level, <400 mg/dL) and a 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk >20% or a history of CHD or other established atherosclerotic disease were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive rosuvastatin 10-mg or atorvastatin 10-mg tablets QD for 12 weeks. No formal statistical analyses or comparisons were performed on lipid changes between switched and LLT-naive patients because of the different lipid inclusion criteria for these patients. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving 1998 European LDL-C goals after 12 weeks of treatment. A subanalysis was performed to assess the effects of statins in patients who had received previous statin treatment versus those who were LLT-naive. Tolerability was assessed using

  12. Embryonal tumors with abundant neuropil and true rosettes: a distinctive CNS primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    PubMed

    Gessi, Marco; Giangaspero, Felice; Lauriola, Libero; Gardiman, Marina; Scheithauer, Bernd W; Halliday, William; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rosenblum, Marc K; Burger, Peter C; Eberhart, Charles G

    2009-02-01

    Embryonal neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) generally arise in the early years of life and behave in a clinically aggressive manner, but vary somewhat in their microscopic appearance. Several groups have reported examples of an embryonal tumor with combined histologic features of ependymoblastoma and neuroblastoma, a lesion referred to as "embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes" (ETANTR). Herein, we present 22 new cases, and additional clinical follow-up on our 7 initially reported cases, to better define the histologic features and clinical behavior of this distinctive neoplasm. It affects infants and arises most often in cerebral cortex, the cerebellum and brainstem being less frequent sites. Unlike other embryonal tumors of the CNS, girls are more commonly affected than boys. On neuroimaging, the tumors appear as large, demarcated, solid masses featuring patchy or no contrast enhancement. Five of our cases (18%) were at least partly cystic. Distinctive microscopic features include a prominent background of mature neuropil punctuated by true rosettes formed of pseudo-stratified embryonal cells circumferentially disposed about a central lumen (true rosettes). Of the 25 cases with available follow-up, 19 patients have died, their median survival being 9 months. Performed on 2 cases, cytogenetic analysis revealed extra copies of chromosome 2 in both. We believe that the ETANTR represents a histologically distinctive form of CNS embryonal tumor. PMID:18987548

  13. Cultural Influences on Gifted Gender Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Joan

    2004-01-01

    In Britain, and reflected in other countries, the academic achievements of gifted girls in school are surpassing those of gifted boys in almost all areas of study and at all ages. This is not true in every country. The British evidence suggests two major reasons for this surge by the gifted girls. Emotionally, British girls are now showing greater…

  14. A Human Achievement: Mathematics without Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzioglu, Tosun

    This paper describes three fundamental principles, dictated by Wilhelm von Humboldt, that were widely adapted as the basic philosophy of higher education in the United States, and proposes to revise the unfulfilled dream of von Humboldt to make it come true. This paper stresses the achievements of humanity not only in technology, health, or the…

  15. Nonperturbative True Muonium on the Light Front with TMSWIFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamm, Henry; Lebed, Richard F.

    2016-08-01

    The true muonium {(μbar{μ})} bound state presents an interesting test of light-cone quantization techniques. In addition to exhibiting the standard problems of handling non-perturbative calculations, true muonium requires correct treatment of {ebar{e}} Fock-state contributions. Having previously produced a crude model of true muonium using the method of iterated resolvents, our current work has focused on the inclusion of the box diagrams to improve the cutoff-dependent issues of the model. Further, a parallel computer code, TMSWIFT, allowing for smaller numerical uncertainties, has been developed. This work focuses on the current state of these efforts to develop a model of true muonium that is testable at near-term experiments.

  16. Measurement of the True Dynamic and Static Pressures in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiel, Georg

    1939-01-01

    In this report, two reliable methods are presented, with the aid of which the undisturbed flight dynamic pressure and the true static pressure may be determined without error. These problems were solved chiefly through practical flight tests.

  17. Achieving Goal Blood Pressure.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Both monotherapy and combination therapy options are appropriate for antihypertensive therapy according to the 2013 European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. Most patients require more than one agent to achieve blood pressure (BP) control, and adding a second agent is more effective than doubling the dose of existing therapy. The addition of a third agent may be required to achieve adequate BP reductions in some patients. Single-pill fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) allow multiple-drug regimens to be delivered without any negative impact on patient compliance or persistence with therapy. FDCs also have documented beneficial clinical effects and use of FDCs containing two or three agents is recommended by the 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines. PMID:26002423

  18. True and false memories, parietal cortex, and confidence judgments.

    PubMed

    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Smith, Christine N; Squire, Larry R

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory). Accordingly, it has often been difficult to know whether a finding is related to memory confidence or memory accuracy. In the current study, participants made recognition memory judgments with confidence ratings in response to previously studied scenes and novel scenes. The left hippocampus and 16 other brain regions distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were different for the two conditions. Only three regions (all in the parietal cortex) distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were equated. These findings illustrate the utility of taking confidence ratings into account when identifying brain regions associated with true and false memories. Neural correlates of true and false memories are most easily interpreted when confidence ratings are similar for the two kinds of memories. PMID:26472645

  19. SU-E-T-327: The Update of a XML Composing Tool for TrueBeam Developer Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y; Mao, W; Jiang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor. In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.

  20. True story about HIV: theory of viral sequestration and reserve infection.

    PubMed

    Barasa, Simon Situma

    2011-01-01

    Radical cure of infectious disease lies in the principle that the contagion is eliminated and its propagation within the body is stopped. By understanding the true mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, effective cure is possible. Vertical research in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has produced much advanced data about its nature without discovering a true cure, implying that the infective concept may have been missed. Overall, current interventions have had a significant impact on the pandemic, but they definitely have not achieved a cure. Given that modern research has already provided almost all significant data on HIV/AIDS, this inevitably means that understanding of the HIV and AIDS mechanism in the human body and population is less than sufficient. This paper advances a new concept using the available scientific data in an attempt to open a new frontier in HIV research. PMID:22267945

  1. Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

    2013-12-01

    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief. PMID:23489589

  2. Evaluating and improving multiple choice papers: true-false questions in public health medicine.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R A

    1994-09-01

    The quality of a multiple true-false (MTF) examination paper in public health medicine for 149 clinical medical students was evaluated using predefined performance criteria to offer guidelines for improvement of such a paper. There were 35 questions, each with five true-false branches, and the performance of the overall best 25% of candidates was compared for individual items with that of the overall worst 25%. To improve discrimination between best and worst candidates, 60% of items needed changes, and several indicators were used to identify how, usually because the branch was too easy (26%), unpopular (16%) or too hard (10%). A number of guidelines for writing good MTF questions and for improving them are suggested. The inequity is illustrated of marking systems which do not allocate a negative mark for incorrect answers equal in size to the positive mark for correct ones, with zero for unanswered questions or 'don't know' answers. PMID:7845259

  3. Noncontact true temperature measurement. [of levitated sample using laser pyrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.; Allen, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A laser pyrometer has been developed for acquiring the true temperature of a levitated sample. The laser beam is first expanded to cover the entire cross-sectional surface of the target. For calibration of such a system, the reflectivity signal of an ideal 0.95 cm diameter gold-coated sphere (reflectivity = 0.99) is used as the reference for any other real targets. The emissivity of the real target can then be calculated. The overall system constant is obtained by passively measuring the radiance of a blackbody furnace (emissivity = 1.0) at a known, arbitrary temperature. Since the photo sensor used is highly linear over the entire operating temperature range, the true temperature of the target can then be computed. Preliminary results indicate that true temperatures thus obtained are in excellent correlation with thermocouple measured temperatures.

  4. NASA Has Joined America True's Design Mission for 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    1999-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Lewis Research Center will support the America True design team led by America s Cup innovator Phil Kaiko. The joint effort between NASA and America True is encouraged by Mission HOME, the official public awareness campaign of the U.S. space community. NASA Lewis and America True have entered into a Space Act Agreement to focus on the interaction between the airfoil and the large deformation of the pretensioned sails and rigs along with the dynamic motions related to the boat motions. This work will require a coupled fluid and structural simulation. Included in the simulation will be both a steadystate capability, to capture the quasi-state interactions between the air loads and sail geometry and the lift and drag on the boat, and a transient capability, to capture the sail/mast pumping effects resulting from hull motions.

  5. Blocking Mimicry Makes True and False Smiles Look the Same

    PubMed Central

    Rychlowska, Magdalena; Cañadas, Elena; Wood, Adrienne; Krumhuber, Eva G.; Fischer, Agneta; Niedenthal, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that facial mimicry underlies accurate interpretation of subtle facial expressions. In three experiments, we manipulated mimicry and tested its role in judgments of the genuineness of true and false smiles. Experiment 1 used facial EMG to show that a new mouthguard technique for blocking mimicry modifies both the amount and the time course of facial reactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants rated true and false smiles either while wearing mouthguards or when allowed to freely mimic the smiles with or without additional distraction, namely holding a squeeze ball or wearing a finger-cuff heart rate monitor. Results showed that blocking mimicry compromised the decoding of true and false smiles such that they were judged as equally genuine. Together the experiments highlight the role of facial mimicry in judging subtle meanings of facial expressions. PMID:24670316

  6. True polar wander and plate-driving forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. M.; Solomon, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of net torques applied to the lithosphere by ridge and trench forces as implied by the absence of recent true polar wander is explored. The 'ridge push' and 'trench pull' forces and the potential net torques on the global lithosphere contributed by each of these forces are discussed. It is shown that the relative magnitudes of the net torques contributed by ridge and trench forces are constrained by the absence of true polar wander during the Cenozoic and by the magnitudes of basal shear stresses on the faster moving plates. It is suggested that the lack of recent true polar wander may be due at least in part to the coincidence of a near cancellation of net torques contributed by ridge and trench forces.

  7. A cerebral functional imaging study by positron emission tomography in healthy volunteers receiving true or sham acupuncture needling.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xinsheng; Zhang, Guifeng; Huang, Yong; Tang, Chunzhi; Yang, Junjun; Wang, Shuxia; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2009-03-13

    Our recent studies have demonstrated that needling in Baihui, Shuigou and Shenmen enhances glucose metabolism in the frontal lobes, thalamus, temporal lobe, and the lentiform nucleus in vascular dementia. This study examined the effect of true, sham and overt needling in Waiguan (TE5) on cerebral changes by positron emission tomography (PET) technique. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive overt control, true or sham needling therapy. To manipulate true needling, a needle was inserted into 15+/-2mm into Waiguan and "deqi" was achieved by proper needle manipulation. For sham needling, needles with a blunt tip were pushed against the skin as the shaft moved into the handle, giving an illusion of insertion. For overt placebo, blunt needles were used and subjects did not receive any needling penetration. The tracer used was (18)fluoride-deoxygluocse. PET images obtained were processed and analyzed by the SPM2 software. Compared with overt needling, brain areas BA7, 13, 18, 19, 21, 22, 27, 38, 40, 42 and 45 in Waiguan true needling group were significantly activated and areas BA4, 6, 7, 19, 22 and 41 in sham needling group showed obvious activation. Compared to sham needling group, marked activation points were found in the areas of BA13 and 42 and left cerebellum in true needling group. Our study revealed a marked difference in brain metabolic changes between true and sham needling in Waiguan. Further studies are needed to explore the cerebral changes in patients with acupuncture and the pathological implications. PMID:19383438

  8. Software for determining the true displacement of faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Fuentes, R.; Nieto-Samaniego, Á. F.; Xu, S.-S.; Alaniz-Álvarez, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important parameters of faults is the true (or net) displacement, which is measured by restoring two originally adjacent points, called “piercing points”, to their original positions. This measurement is not typically applicable because it is rare to observe piercing points in natural outcrops. Much more common is the measurement of the apparent displacement of a marker. Methods to calculate the true displacement of faults using descriptive geometry, trigonometry or vector algebra are common in the literature, and most of them solve a specific situation from a large amount of possible combinations of the fault parameters. True displacements are not routinely calculated because it is a tedious and tiring task, despite their importance and the relatively simple methodology. We believe that the solution is to develop software capable of performing this work. In a previous publication, our research group proposed a method to calculate the true displacement of faults by solving most combinations of fault parameters using simple trigonometric equations. The purpose of this contribution is to present a computer program for calculating the true displacement of faults. The input data are the dip of the fault; the pitch angles of the markers, slickenlines and observation lines; and the marker separation. To prevent the common difficulties involved in switching between operative systems, the software is developed using the Java programing language. The computer program could be used as a tool in education and will also be useful for the calculation of the true fault displacement in geological and engineering works. The application resolves the cases with known direction of net slip, which commonly is assumed parallel to the slickenlines. This assumption is not always valid and must be used with caution, because the slickenlines are formed during a step of the incremental displacement on the fault surface, whereas the net slip is related to the finite slip.

  9. High-speed time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing inside dynamic scattering media at 793 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Lai, Puxiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Suzuki, Yuta; Grabar, Alexander A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing is an emerging technique that focuses light deep into scattering media by phase-conjugating ultrasonically encoded diffuse light. In previous work, the speed of TRUE focusing was limited to no faster than 1 Hz by the response time of the photorefractive phase conjugate mirror, or the data acquisition and streaming speed of the digital camera; photorefractive-crystal-based TRUE focusing was also limited to the visible spectral range. These time-consuming schemes prevent this technique from being applied in vivo, since living biological tissue has a speckle decorrelation time on the order of a millisecond. In this work, using a Tedoped Sn2P2S6 photorefractive crystal at a near-infrared wavelength of 793 nm, we achieved TRUE focusing inside dynamic scattering media having a speckle decorrelation time as short as 7.7 ms. As the achieved speed approaches the tissue decorrelation rate, this work is an important step forward toward in vivo applications of TRUE focusing in deep tissue imaging, photodynamic therapy, and optical manipulation.

  10. True chondroma of the mandibular condyle: A rare case

    PubMed Central

    Dhirawani, Rajesh B.; Anand, Kavneet; Lalwani, Gaurav; Pathak, Sanyog; Thakkar, Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    Chondroma of the mandibular condyle is a rare benign tumor, with just a handful of cases reported in the literature. Chondromas are rare in the maxillofacial region, but are quite common in the bones of the hands and feet. So far only eight cases of true chondroma have been reported. Here, we present a case of true chondroma of the mandibular condyle of the right side, for which condylectomy was done. No signs of recurrence are noted at 2 years follow-up. PMID:25593880

  11. [Usefulness of Determining Acquisition Time by True Count Rate Measurement Method for Delivery 18F-FDG PET/CT].

    PubMed

    Miura, Shota; Odashima, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    A stable quality of delivery 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) requires suitable acquisition time, which can be obtained from an accurate true count of 18F-FDG. However, the true count is influenced by body mass index (BMI) and attenuation of 18F-FDG. In order to remove these influences, we have developed a new method (actual measurement method) to measure the actual true count rate based on sub-pubic thigh, which allows us to calculate a suitable acquisition time. In this study, we aimed to verify the acquisition count through our new method in terms of two categories: (1) the accuracy of acquisition count and (2) evaluation of clinical images using physical index. Our actual measurement method was designed to obtain suitable acquisition time through the following procedure. A true count rate of sub-pubic thigh was measured through detector of PET, and used as a standard true count rate. Finally, the obtained standard count rate was processed to acquisition time. This method was retrospectively applied to 150 patients, receiving 18F-FDG administration from 109.7 to 336.8 MBq, and whose body weight ranged from 37 to 95.4 kg. The accuracy of true count was evaluated by comparing relationships of true count, relative to BMI or to administered dose of 18F-FDG. The PET/CT images obtained by our actual measurement method were assessed using physical index. Our new method resulted in accurate true count, which was not influenced by either BMI or administered dose of 18F-FDG, as well as satisfied PET/CT images with recommended criteria of physical index in all patients. PMID:27000670

  12. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  13. Two-photon interference with true thermal light

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Yanhua; Zhang Da; Wu Lingan; Chen Xihao

    2005-10-15

    Two-photon interference and 'ghost' imaging with entangled light have attracted much attention since the last century because of features such as nonlocality and subwavelength effects. Recently, it has been found that pseudothermal light can mimic certain effects of entangled light. We report here the first observation of two-photon interference with true thermal light.

  14. Using Story Contexts to Bias Children's True and False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Wilkinson, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The effects of embedding standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists into stories whose context biased interpretation either toward or away from the overall themes of the DRM lists on both true and false recognition were investigated with 7- and 11-year-olds. These biased story contexts were compared with the same children's susceptibility to…

  15. Molecular characterization of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 247 true morels (Morchella spp.) was made from 10 different provinces of Turkey during the 2007-2008 growing season. This collection was analyzed for species diversity using phylogenetic analyses of partial Ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase I (RPB1) and nuclear ribosomal large subuni...

  16. True or False: Do 5-Year-Olds Understand Belief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabricius, William V.; Boyer, Ty W.; Weimer, Amy A.; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds…

  17. Reliability of True Cutting Scores for Rasch Calibrated Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    This paper provides formulas for expected true-score measures and reliability of binary items as a function of their Rasch difficulty parameters when the trait distribution is normal or logistic. With the proposed formula, one can evaluate the theoretical values of classical reliability indexes for norm-referenced and criterion-referenced…

  18. True airspeed measured by airborne laser Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, R.; Mocker, H. W.; Koehler, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    Velocimeter utilizing carbon dioxide laser measures true airspeed of aircraft. Results of flight tests indicate that clear-weather airspeeds can be measured with accuracy better than 0.1% at altitudes up to 3000 meters; measurements can be made at much greater altitudes in cloudy or turbid air.

  19. The Full and True Value of Campus Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elefante, Carl

    2011-01-01

    To gain a full and true understanding of the value of campus heritage requires shifting perspective. On many campuses, heritage resources are perceived to have no relevance whatsoever to the challenges of sustainability. This results largely from a profound misconception about what may constitute a sustainable future and what steps may be needed…

  20. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of the true morels (Morchella)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    True morels (Morchella) are among the most charismatic of all edible macrofungi. Contributing to their allure is their short and sporadic fruiting season during the spring. Most species are distributed in temperate forests of the northern hemisphere, which suggests that they evolved in Laurasia. ...

  1. Shrinkage Estimation of Linear Combinations of True Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    1997-01-01

    It is demonstrated that, in the presence of population information, a linear combination of true scores can be estimated more efficiently than by the same linear combination of the observed scores. Three criteria for optimality are discussed, but they yield the same solution, described as a multivariate shrinkage estimator. (Author/SLD)

  2. Will true 3d display devices aid geologic interpretation. [Mirage

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.R. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    A description is given of true 3D display devices and techniques that are being evaluated in various research laboratories around the world. These advances are closely tied to the expected application of 3D display devices as interpretational tools for explorationists. 34 refs.

  3. Educators' Ability to Detect True and False Bullying Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Saykaly, Christine; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research investigating children's lie-telling behavior has focused on lay people and legal professionals' abilities to detect deception. Fewer researchers have assessed educators' abilities to evaluate the veracity of children's reports of bullying. In this study, educators' abilities to detect true and false accounts of bullying…

  4. True/False Test: Enhancing Its Power through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Felix B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses how modifying the true-or-false (T/F) test, by requiring written explanations, reveals major weaknesses and hazards of the simple (unexplained) T/F tests popular among teachers. But, more important, the modification transforms the test into a very efficient formative assessment tool. It opens a window that allows a teacher to…

  5. Meaningful Movement for Children: Stay True to Their Natures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgarten, Sam

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the meaningful movement for children. In this article, the author discusses "roots" in the "physical education garden" which, when thoroughly examined, reveal tried and true insights about children and their natures. By revisiting these natures or characteristics, one will have a clearer picture of what is meaningful to…

  6. Towards true carbaporphyrinoids: synthesis of 21-carba-23-thiaporphyrin.

    PubMed

    Berlicka, Anna; Dutka, Paweł; Szterenberg, Ludmiła; Latos-Grażyński, Lechosław

    2014-05-01

    In the search for porphyrinoids with a built-in cyclopentadienyl moiety (true carbaporphyrins), a rational synthesis of carbathiaporphyrin, the synthons, has been elaborated. The donors (C,N,S,N) in the porphyrinic core of carbathiaporphyrinoids are potentially of fundamental importance for generating organometallic complexes, as exemplified through formation of the palladium(II) complex. PMID:24590576

  7. Using story contexts to bias children's true and false memories.

    PubMed

    Howe, Mark L; Wilkinson, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The effects of embedding standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists into stories whose context biased interpretation either toward or away from the overall themes of the DRM lists on both true and false recognition were investigated with 7- and 11-year-olds. These biased story contexts were compared with the same children's susceptibility to false memory illusions using the standard DRM list presentation paradigm. The results showed the usual age effects for true and false memories in the standard DRM list paradigm, where 11-year-olds exhibited higher rates of both true and false recognition compared with the 7-year-olds. Importantly, when DRM lists were embedded in stories, these age effects disappeared for true recognition. For false recognition, although developmental differences were attenuated, older children were still more susceptible to false memory illusions than younger children. These findings are discussed in terms of current theories of children's false memories as well as the role of themes and elaboration in children's memory development. PMID:20678778

  8. Estimating true color imagery for GOES-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossberg, Michael D.; Shahriar, Fazlul; Gladkova, Irina; Alabi, Paul K.; Hillger, Donald W.; Miller, Steven D.

    2011-06-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R will help NOAA's objective of engaging and educating the public on environmental issues by providing near real-time imagery of the earth-atmosphere system. True color satellite images are beneficial to the public, as well as to scientists, who use these images as an important "decision aid" and visualization tool. Unfortunately, ABI only has two visible bands (cyan and red) and does not directly produce the three bands (blue, green, and red) used to create true color imagery. We have developed an algorithm that will produce quantitative true color imagery from ABI. Our algorithm estimates the three tristimulus values of the international standard CIE 1931 XYZ colorspace for each pixel of the ABI image, and thus is compatible with a wide range of software packages and hardware devices. Our algorithm is based on a non-linear statistical regression framework that incorporate both classification and local multispectral regression using training data. We have used training data from the hyper-spectral imager Hyperion. Our algorithm to produce true color images from the ABI is not specific to ABI and may be applicable to other satellites which, like the ABI, do not have the ability to directly produce RGB imagery.

  9. Sensitizations to allergens of TRUE test in 864 consecutive eczema patients in Israel.

    PubMed

    Magen, Eli; Mishal, Joseph; Schlesinger, Menachem

    2006-12-01

    The TRUE test is a widespread diagnostic tool for initial patch testing of patients with contact dermatitis (CD). From 2002 to 2005, 864 patients with eczema were patch-tested using TRUE test in one Israeli allergology clinic. 547 (63.3%) patients were female and 317 (36.7%) were male. 346 (40%) patients had > or =1 positive patch test reactions. The most common allergens were nickel sulfate for 114 (13.2%) patients, potassium dichromate 111 (12.8%), fragrance mix 59 (6.8%), cobalt chloride 12 (1.4%), ethylenediamine dihydrochloride 11 (1.3%), epoxy resin 11 (1.3%), balsam of Peru 9 (1.0%), carba mix 7 (0.8%), thiomersal 6 (0.7%), wool alcohol 5 (0.6%), black rubber (PPD) mix 5 (0.6%), neomycin 4 (0.5%); Kathon CG, Colophony and Quaternium 15 - each 2 (0.2%), other allergens - each 1 (0.1%). In male patients, carba mix, black rubber (PPD) mix and epoxy resin sensitivity was more frequent, whereas nickel sulfate, fragrance mix, ethylenediamine dihydrochloride and cobalt chloride sensitivity was significantly more frequent in female patients. Our results are in general agreement with previously published reports, excluding the low sensitivity rates to cobalt, which maybe is missed by TRUE test. PMID:17101019

  10. A comprehensive EPID-based 3D validation technique for TrueBeam-delivered VMAT plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansbacher, W.; Gagne, I. M.; Swift, C.-L.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a pre-treatment EPI dosimetry method on Varian TrueBeam linacs using continuous imaging, with reconstruction in a 3D cylindrical phantom geometry. Methods: Delivery of VMAT plans with continuous imaging is currently possible only in Research Mode on TrueBeam linacs, with images acquired in a proprietary format. An earlier technique was adapted to take advantage of technical improvements in EPID delivery, and was tested under various acquisition conditions. The dosimetry of VMAT plans was evaluated at isocentre and within patient volumes that had been transferred to the virtual phantom. Results: Approximately 60 portal image projections per arc were found to be adequate for 3D reconstruction in phantom volumes of 28cm diameter. Twelve prostate, CNS and Head & Neck deliveries were evaluated in Research mode relative to the corresponding Eclipse (v.10) treatment plans, and to measurements on an ArcCheck device in Treatment mode. Mean dose differences at isocentre were within 2% for the three-way comparison, and in PTV volumes were within 1% (s.d. 1%). However, some discrepancies were observed in ArcCheck results that may be related to the small dimensions of certain VMAT apertures. Conclusions: EPI dosimetry with 3D dose reconstruction is an accurate, comprehensive and efficient pre-treatment validation technique for VMAT delivery. Although currently limited to a research mode on TrueBeam, it has the potential to be implemented for clinical use.

  11. A novel proximal end stenting technique for assisting embolization of a complex true posterior communicating aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Jianmin; Ge, Jiajia; Li, Zi-Fu; Tian, Chun-Ou; Han, Jingfeng; Zhao, Rui; Hong, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Stent-assisted coiling has been widely used for endovascular treatment in recent years with satisfying clinical outcomes. The implantation of a stent using the regular approach, however, may not be safe or effective for certain aneurysms with complex structures. In this study, we report a novel stenting technique utilizing the proximal end of the stent for assisting embolization of a wide-neck irregular true posterior communicating aneurysm. This new method is a potential treatment strategy for wide-neck aneurysms located at the origin of a tortuous and thin vessel. PMID:26906925

  12. True versus mild hyperthermia during isolated hepatic perfusion: effects on melphalan pharmacokinetics and liver function.

    PubMed

    Pilati, Pierluigi; Mocellin, Simone; Rossi, Carlo R; Ori, Carlo; Innocente, Federico; Scalerta, Romano; Ceccherini, Mauro; Da Pian, Pier Paolo; Nitti, Donato; Lise, Mario

    2004-08-01

    Hyperthermic antiblastic isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) with melphalan has been recently proposed as an alternative therapeutic option for patients with unresectable liver tumors. Although melphalan-heat antiblastic synergism is at a maximum at temperatures higher than 41 degrees C, IHP has so far been performed in humans at lower temperatures. In this experimental work, we compared IHP under mild versus true hyperthermic conditions in terms of drug pharmacokinetics and liver function. Ten pigs were submitted to IHP with melphalan 1.5 mg/kg at a mean temperature of 40 degrees C (group A, n = 5) or 42 degrees C (group B, n = 5). After a 60-minute perfusion, a 15-minute washout was performed. Perfusate-to-plasma leakage was monitored using scintigraphy. Throughout perfusion, samples from the systemic blood, perfusate, and liver parenchyma were obtained to measure melphalan concentrations. Liver function was assessed using standard blood tests and the indocyanine green-based test. No deaths related to the IHP procedure were recorded. All animals had transient liver function impairment, with all liver function test results returning to normal within the observation period. At histologic examination, liver damage was similar under both hyperthermic conditions. Melphalan levels in the perfusate were not significantly different in the two study groups (the mean perfusate/plasma area under the curve from 0 to 60 minutes ratios were 463 and 501, respectively). These results correlated well with those obtained using the scintigraphic method. Liver drug concentrations remained unchanged after true hyperthermia IHP. Under true hyperthermic conditions, neither an increase in liver parenchyma toxicity nor changes in melphalan pharmacokinetics were observed. These findings support the use of true hyperthermia in the clinical setting to exploit fully the antitumor synergism between melphalan and heat. PMID:15457357

  13. Aggressiveness features and outcomes of true interval cancers: comparison between screen-detected and symptom-detected cancers.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Laia; Blanch, Jordi; Servitja, Sònia; Corominas, Josep Maria; Murta-Nascimento, Cristiane; Rueda, Antonio; Redondo, Maximino; Castells, Xavier; Sala, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether screen detection confers an additional survival benefit in breast cancer is unclear and subject to several biases. Our aim was to examine the role of the diagnostic method (screen-detected, symptom-detected, and true interval cancers) and the clinical-pathological features in relapse-free survival and overall survival in breast cancer patients. We included 228 invasive breast cancers diagnosed in Barcelona from 1996 to 2008 among women aged 50-69 years. Ninety-seven patients were screen detected within the screening, 34 truly arose between 2-year screening mammograms (true interval cancers), and 97 were symptom detected outside the screening. The clinical-pathological features at diagnosis were compared. The overall and disease-free survival probabilities were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard models were applied, with adjustment by clinical-pathological variables. At diagnosis, symptom-detected and true interval cancers were in more advanced stages and were less differentiated. The highest proportion of triple-negative cancers was detected among true interval cancers (P=0.002). At 5 years of follow-up, the disease-free survival rates for screen-detected, true interval, and symptom-detected cancers were 87.5% (95% confidence interval, 80.5-95.2%), 64.1% (46.4-88.5%), and 79.4% (71.0-88.8%), respectively, and the overall survival rates were 94.5% (89.3-99.9%), 65.5% (47.1-91.2%), and 85.6% (78.3-93.6%), respectively. True interval cancers had the highest hazard ratio for relapse prediction (1.89; 0.67-5.31) and a hazard ratio of death of 5.55 (1.61-19.15) after adjustment for tumor-node-metastasis stage and phenotype. Clinically detected tumors, especially true interval cancers, more frequently showed biological features related to worse prognosis and were associated with poorer survival even after adjustment for clinical-pathological characteristics. PMID:22584215

  14. A rare case of true carcinosarcoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Accurso, Antonello; Ciancia, Giuseppe; Della Corte, Gianni Antonio; Reale, Paola; Accardo, Giuseppe; Salerno, Carmela; Bordoni, Daniele; Falco, Giuseppe; Rocco, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Background True carcinosarcoma of the breast is an extremely rare condition, accounting for 0.08–0.2% of all breast malignancies. The correct definition of this tumor requires both a carcinomatous component and a malignant non-epithelial component of mesenchymal origin, without evidence of a transition zone between the two elements. Case presentation We present a case of a 49-year-old woman presenting with a 4 cm mass at the level of her left breast upper-outer quadrant with a histologic diagnosis of true carcinosarcoma of the breast. Discussion The most appropriate therapeutic regimens for breast carcinosarcoma are still unclear because of the rarity of this condition, but Breast Conserving Treatment (BCT) followed by adjuvant chemotherapy seems to provide a prognosis equalling that of usual Invasive Ductal Carcinoma of the breast. PMID:26978126

  15. Commercialized VCSEL components fabricated at TrueLight Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jin-Shan; Lin, Yung-Sen; Li, Chao-Fang A.; Chang, C. H.; Wu, Jack; Lee, Bor-Lin; Chuang, Y. H.; Tu, S. L.; Wu, Calvin; Huang, Kai-Feng

    2001-05-01

    TrueLight Corporation was found in 1997 and it is the pioneer of VCSEL components supplier in Taiwan. We specialize in the production and distribution of VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser) and other high-speed PIN-detector devices and components. Our core technology is developed to meet blooming demand of fiber optic transmission. Our intention is to diverse the device application into data communication, telecommunication and industrial markets. One mission is to provide the high performance, highly reliable and low-cost VCSEL components for data communication and sensing applications. For the past three years, TrueLight Corporation has entered successfully into the Gigabit Ethernet and the Fiber Channel data communication area. In this paper, we will focus on the fabrication of VCSEL components. We will present you the evolution of implanted and oxide-confined VCSEL process, device characterization, also performance in Gigabit data communication and the most important reliability issue

  16. Investigating true and false confessions within a novel experimental paradigm.

    PubMed

    Russano, Melissa B; Meissner, Christian A; Narchet, Fadia M; Kassin, Saul M

    2005-06-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to develop a novel experimental paradigm with which to study the influence of psychologically based interrogation techniques on the likelihood of true and false confessions. The paradigm involves guilty and innocent participants being accused of intentionally breaking an experimental rule, or "cheating." In the first demonstration of this paradigm, we explored the influence of two common police interrogation tactics: minimization and an explicit offer of leniency, or a "deal." Results indicated that guilty persons were more likely to confess than innocent persons, and that the use of minimization and the offer of a deal increased the rate of both true and false confessions. Police investigators are encouraged to avoid interrogation techniques that imply or directly promise leniency, as they appear to reduce the diagnostic value of any confession that is elicited. PMID:15943675

  17. Sarcoma with true epithelial differentiation secondary to irradiated glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, J.; Marques, J.; Pereira, P.; Roque, L.; Martins, C.; Campos, A.

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme rarely shows true, immunohistochemically confirmed, epithelial differentiation. Furthermore, radiotherapy may induce cerebral sarcomatous tumors, and postsurgery glioblastoma irradiation may give rise to secondary gliosarcomas. We report a case of a 48-year-old male operated on a primary glioblastoma, followed by radiotherapy. A local recurrence occurred 23 months later that was operated too, and a second diagnosis of a fibrosarcoma with true epithelial differentiation was made. Primary systemic neoplasms were largely excluded. The patient died shortly after, and postmortem showed another cerebral dural-attached mass corresponding to a sarcoma without epithelial differentiation, and leptomeningeal seeding composed of malignant epithelial elements only. Cytogenetics, however, disclosed the second tumor to be similar to the primary one.

  18. ID-Check: Online Concealed Information Test Reveals True Identity.

    PubMed

    Verschuere, Bruno; Kleinberg, Bennett

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these moderators, this study investigated the full potential of the online ID-check. Participants (n = 101) tried to hide their identity and claimed a false identity in a reaction time-based Concealed Information Test. Half of the participants were presented with personal details (e.g., first name, last name, birthday), whereas the others only saw irrelevant details. Results showed that participants' true identity could be detected with high accuracy (AUC = 0.98; overall accuracy: 86-94%). Online memory detection can reliably and validly detect whether someone is hiding their true identity. This suggests that online memory detection might become a valuable tool for forensic applications. PMID:26390033

  19. Jumping in simulated and true microgravity: response to maximal efforts with three landing types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Andrea, Susan E.; Perusek, Gail P.; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Perry, Julie; Davis, Brian L.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise is a promising countermeasure to the physiological deconditioning experienced in microgravity, but has not proven effective in eliminating the ongoing loss of bone mineral, most likely due to the lack of high-impact forces and loading rates during in-flight activity. We wanted to determine lower-extremity response to high-impact jumping exercises in true and simulated microgravity and establish if 1-G force magnitudes can be achieved in a weightless environment. METHODS: Jumping experiments were performed in a ground-based zero-gravity simulator (ZGS) in 1 G, and during parabolic flight with a gravity-replacement system. There were 12 subjects who participated in the study, with 4 subjects common to both conditions. Force, loading rates, jump height, and kinematics were analyzed during jumps with three distinct landings: two-footed toe-heel, one-footed toe-heel, and flat-footed. Gravity replacement loads of 45%, 60%, 75%, and 100% bodyweight were used in the ZGS; because of time constraints, these loads were limited to 60% and 75% bodyweight in parabolic flight. RESULTS: Average peak ground-reaction forces during landing ranged between 1902+/-607 and 2631+/-663 N in the ZGS and between 1683+/-807 and 2683+/-1174 N in the KC-135. No significant differences were found between the simulated and true microgravity conditions, but neither condition achieved the magnitudes found in 1 G. CONCLUSION: Data support the hypothesis that jumping exercises can impart high-impact forces during weightlessness and that the custom-designed ZGS will replicate what is experienced in true microgravity.

  20. Is EETA79001 Lithology B A True Melt Composition?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arauza, S. J.; Jones, John H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Le, L.

    2010-01-01

    EETA79001 is a member of the SNC (shergottite, nakhlite, chassignite) group of Martian meteorites. Most SNC meteorites are cumulates or partial cumulates [1] inhibiting calculation of parent magma compositions; only two (QUE94201 and Y- 980459) have been previously identified as true melt compositions. The goal of this study is to test whether EETA79001-B may also represent an equilibrium melt composition, which could potentially expand the current understanding of martian petrology.

  1. Temporomandibular joint: true sagittal computed tomography with meniscus visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Sartorix, D.J.; Neumann, C.H.; Riley, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Accessory patient support equipment was constructed that allows patient positioning for true sagittal projection of the temporomandibular joint using a GE 8800 CT/T scanner. Range of motion abnormalities, osseous alterations of the mandibular condyle and temporal bone, joint-space narrowing, and meniscal configuration may be demonstrated. The technique has potential advantages over other CT projections and sagittal reconstruction for evaluation of temporomandibular joint dysfunction.

  2. Disc outflows and high-luminosity true type 2 AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitzur, Moshe; Netzer, Hagai

    2016-06-01

    The absence of intrinsic broad-line emission has been reported in a number of active galactic nuclei (AGN), including some with high Eddington ratios. Such `true type 2 AGN' are inherent to the disc-wind scenario for the broad-line region: broad-line emission requires a minimal column density, implying a minimal outflow rate and thus a minimal accretion rate. Here we perform a detailed analysis of the consequences of mass conservation in the process of accretion through a central disc. The resulting constraints on luminosity are consistent with all the cases where claimed detections of true type 2 AGN pass stringent criteria, and predict that intrinsic broad-line emission can disappear at luminosities as high as ˜4 × 1046 erg s-1 and any Eddington ratio, though more detections can be expected at Eddington ratios below ˜1 per cent. Our results are applicable to every disc outflow model, whatever its details and whether clumpy or smooth, irrespective of the wind structure and its underlying dynamics. While other factors, such as changes in spectral energy distribution or covering factor, can affect the intensities of broad emission lines, within this scenario they can only produce true type 2 AGN of higher luminosity then those prescribed by mass conservation.

  3. Analog time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing inside scattering media with high power gain (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Focusing light deep inside scattering media plays a key role in such biomedical applications as high resolution optical imaging, control, and therapy. In recent years, wavefront shaping technologies have come a long way in controlling light propagation in complex media. A prominent example is time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing, which allows noninvasive introduction of "guide stars" inside biological tissue to guide light focusing. By measuring the optical wavefront emanating from an ultrasound focus created at the target location, TRUE determines the desired wavefront non-iteratively, and achieves focusing at the target position via a subsequent optical time reversal. Compared to digital counterparts that employ slow electronic spatial light modulators and cameras, analog TRUE focusing relies on nonlinear photorefractive crystals that inherently accommodate more spatial modes and eliminate the troublesome alignment and data transfer required by digital approaches. However, analog TRUE focusing suffers from its small gain, defined as the energy or power ratio between the focusing and probing beams in the focal volume. Here, by implementing a modified analog TRUE focusing scheme that squeezes the duration of the time-reversed photon packet below the carrier-recombination-limited hologram decay time of the crystal, we demonstrated a photon flux amplification much greater than unity at a preset focal voxel in between two scattering layers. Although the energy gain was still below unity, the unprecedented power gain will nevertheless benefit new biomedical applications.

  4. Commissioning and dosimetric characteristics of TrueBeam system: Composite data of three TrueBeam machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Zheng; Wu Qiuwen; Adamson, Justus; Ren Lei; Bowsher, James; Yan Hui; Thomas, Andrew; Yin Fangfang

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: A TrueBeam linear accelerator (TB-LINAC) is designed to deliver traditionally flattened and flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams. Although it has been widely adopted in many clinics for patient treatment, limited information is available related to commissioning of this type of machine. In this work, commissioning data of three units were measured, and multiunit comparison was presented to provide valuable insights and reliable evaluations on the characteristics of the new treatment system. Methods: The TB-LINAC is equipped with newly designed waveguide, carousel assembly, monitoring control, and integrated imaging systems. Each machine in this study has 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 MV flattened photon beams, and 6 MV and 10 MV FFF photon beams as well as 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, and 22 MeV electron beams. Dosimetric characteristics of the three new TB-LINAC treatment units are systematically measured for commissioning. High-resolution diode detectors and ion chambers were used to measure dosimetric data for a range of field sizes from 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 to 400 Multiplication-Sign 400 mm{sup 2}. The composite dosimetric data of the three units are presented in this work. The commissioning of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), image-guided radiation therapy, and gating systems are also illustrated. Critical considerations of P{sub ion} of FFF photon beams and small field dosimetric measurements were investigated. Results: The authors found all PDDs and profiles matched well among the three machines. Beam data were quantitatively compared and combined through average to yield composite beam data. The discrepancies among the machines were quantified using standard deviation (SD). The mean SD of the PDDs among the three units is 0.12%, and the mean SD of the profiles is 0.40% for 10 MV FFF open fields. The variations of P{sub ion} of the chamber CC13 is 1.2 {+-} 0.1% under 6 MV FFF and 2.0 {+-} 0.5% under 10 MV FFF from dmax to

  5. A Pilot Study on Culottes versus Crossover Single Stenting for True Coronary Bifurcation Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Zhong, Wenliang; Luo, Yukun; Chen, Lianglong

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of our study was to compare clinical and angiographic outcomes of planned culottes technique with that of provisional crossover single stenting in the treatment of true coronary bifurcation lesions (CBL) with drug-eluting stent (DES). Methods True CBL patients (n = 104) were randomly assigned to either the provisional stenting of the side branch (crossover group) or the culottes group. Additional side branch (SB) stenting in the crossover group was required if there was thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow ≤ 1 flow). The primary end point was the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at nine months, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, target lesion/vessel revascularization and in-stent thrombosis. The secondary end point was angiographic in-segment restenosis at nine months. Results The rate of MACE at nine months was similar between the crossover and culottes groups (7.7% vs. 7.7%, p = 1.000). Additional SB stenting in the crossover group was required in 3.8% of patients. There was one procedural occlusion of SB in the crossover group. At nine months, the rate of in-segment restenosis was similar in the parent main vessel (0% vs. 1.9%, p = 1.000), main branch (1.9% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.363) and SB (17.3% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.250) between the crossover and culottes groups, respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated that there is no significant difference in cumulative MACE or in-segment restenosis between crossover and culottes groups. Larger randomized clinical trials are warranted to re-evaluate the outcomes of the provisional crossover stenting versus the culottes stenting techniques utilizing DES for true CBL. PMID:27471358

  6. Intraoperative patient registration using volumetric true 3D ultrasound without fiducials

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Songbai; Roberts, David W.; Hartov, Alex; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate patient registration is crucial for effective image-guidance in open cranial surgery. Typically, it is accomplished by matching skin-affixed fiducials manually identified in the operating room (OR) with their counterparts in the preoperative images, which not only consumes OR time and personnel resources but also relies on the presence (and subsequent fixation) of the fiducials during the preoperative scans (until the procedure begins). In this study, the authors present a completely automatic, volumetric image-based patient registration technique that does not rely on fiducials by registering tracked (true) 3D ultrasound (3DUS) directly with preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images. Methods: Multistart registrations between binary 3DUS and MR volumes were first executed to generate an initial starting point without incorporating prior information on the US transducer contact point location or orientation for subsequent registration between grayscale 3DUS and MR via maximization of either mutual information (MI) or correlation ratio (CR). Patient registration was then computed through concatenation of spatial transformations. Results: In ten (N = 10) patient cases, an average fiducial (marker) distance error (FDE) of 5.0 mm and 4.3 mm was achieved using MI or CR registration (FDE was smaller with CR vs MI in eight of ten cases), which are comparable to values reported for typical fiducial- or surface-based patient registrations. The translational and rotational capture ranges were found to be 24.0 mm and 27.0° for binary registrations (up to 32.8 mm and 36.4°), 12.2 mm and 25.6° for MI registrations (up to 18.3 mm and 34.4°), and 22.6 mm and 40.8° for CR registrations (up to 48.5 mm and 65.6°), respectively. The execution time to complete a patient registration was 12–15 min with parallel processing, which can be significantly reduced by confining the 3DUS transducer location to the center of craniotomy in MR before registration (an

  7. True three-dimensional dose computations for megavoltage x-ray therapy: a role for the superposition principle.

    PubMed

    Battista, J J; Sharpe, M B

    1992-12-01

    The objective of radiation therapy is to concentrate a prescribed radiation dose accurately within a target volume in the patient. Major advances in imaging technology have greatly improved our ability to plan radiation treatments in three dimensions (3D) and to verify the treatment geometrically, but there is a concomitant need to improve dosimetric accuracy. It has been recommended that radiation doses should be computed with an accuracy of 3% within the target volume and in radiosensitive normal tissues. We review the rationale behind this recommendation, and describe a new generation of 3D dose algorithms which are capable of achieving this goal. A true 3D dose calculation tracks primary and scattered radiations in 3D space while accounting for tissue inhomogeneities. In the past, dose distributions have been computed in a 2D transverse slice with the assumption that the anatomy of the patient dose not change abruptly in nearby slices. We demonstrate the importance of computing 3D scatter contributions to dose from photons and electrons correctly, and show the magnitude of dose errors caused by using traditional 2D methods. The Monte Carlo technique is the most general and rigorous approach since individual primary and secondary particle tracks are simulated. However, this approach is too time-consuming for clinical treatment planning. We review an approach that is based on the superposition principle and achieves a reasonable compromise between the speed of computation and accuracy in dose. In this approach, dose deposition is separated into two steps. Firstly, the attenuation of incident photons interacting in the absorber is computed to determine the total energy released in the material (TERMA). This quantity is treated as an impulse at each irradiated point. Secondly, the transport of energy by scattered photons and electrons is described by a point dose spread kernel. The dose distribution is the superposition of the kernels, weighted by the magnitude of

  8. Where Does Your Authority Come From?: Empowering the Library Media Specialist as a True Partner in Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmuda, Allison

    2006-01-01

    The library media center has long been a beloved and specialized learning environment for students, a place rich with opportunities to pursue specialized inquiries, interests, and ideas. In recent years, state and national standards for information literacy and technology have delineated a framework for what students are expected to know and be…

  9. Achieving Cannabis Cessation - Evaluating N-acetylcysteine Treatment (ACCENT): Design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; Sonne, Susan C.; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ghitza, Udi E.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Matthews, Abigail G.; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G.; Levin, Frances R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J.; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S.; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18–50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587

  10. Achieving cannabis cessation -- evaluating N-acetylcysteine treatment (ACCENT): design and implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled study in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Winhusen, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M; Ghitza, Udi E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Matthews, Abigail G; Sharma, Gaurav; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Vandrey, Ryan G; Levin, Frances R; Weiss, Roger D; Lindblad, Robert; Allen, Colleen; Mooney, Larissa J; Haynes, Louise; Brigham, Gregory S; Sparenborg, Steve; Hasson, Albert L; Gray, Kevin M

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorders, effect sizes remain modest, and few individuals achieve long-term abstinence. One strategy to enhance outcomes is the addition of pharmacotherapy to complement behavioral treatment, but to date no efficacious medications targeting cannabis use disorders in adults through large, randomized controlled trials have been identified. The National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) is currently conducting a study to test the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) versus placebo (PBO), added to contingency management, for cannabis cessation in adults (ages 18-50). This study was designed to replicate positive findings from a study in cannabis-dependent adolescents that found greater odds of abstinence with NAC compared to PBO. This paper describes the design and implementation of an ongoing 12-week, intent-to-treat, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with one follow-up visit four weeks post-treatment. Approximately 300 treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent adults will be randomized to NAC or PBO across six study sites in the United States. The primary objective of this 12-week study is to evaluate the efficacy of twice-daily orally-administered NAC (1200 mg) versus matched PBO, added to contingency management, on cannabis abstinence. NAC is among the first medications to demonstrate increased odds of abstinence in a randomized controlled study among cannabis users in any age group. The current study will assess the cannabis cessation efficacy of NAC combined with a behavioral intervention in adults, providing a novel and timely contribution to the evidence base for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25179587

  11. 'True' Color Mosaic of Jupiter's Belt-Zone Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Pseudo-true color mosaic of a belt-zone boundary near Jupiter's equator. The images that make up the four quadrants of this mosaic were taken within a few minutes of each other. Galileo observes Jupiter's atmosphere in violet and near-infrared light because these wavelengths give information about composition and altitude. While these wavelengths do not allow a true-color image to be constructed (one would need red, green and blue), a pseudo-true color image can be made. Violet light (415 nanometers) is displayed in blue and near-infrared light (757 nanometers) is displayed in red. A combination of violet and near-infrared light is displayed in green. There is unique information in color images because they simultaneously show how regions of the atmosphere interact with several different wavelengths of light. Clouds that appear white reflect light equally at the different wavelengths. Concentrations of certain chemicals or types of cloud particles give a reddish tint to other areas.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes -13 to +3 degrees and is centered at longitude 282 degrees West. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on November 5th, 1996, at a range of 1.2 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web Galileo mission home page at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http:// www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  12. Non-contact true temperature measurements in the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Mansoor A.; Allemand, Charly; Eagar, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    The theory developed is shown to be capable of calculating true temperature of any material from radiance measurements at a number of different wavelengths. This theory was also shown to be capable of predicting the uncertainty in these calculated temperatures. An additional advantage of these techniques is that they can estimate the emissivity of the target simultaneously with the temperature. This aspect can prove to be very important when a fast method of generating reflectivity vs. wavelength or emissivity vs. wavelength data is required. Experiments performed on various materials over a range of temperatures and experimental conditions were used to verify the accuracy of this theory.

  13. Observation of "True" Optical Vortices in a Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barland, S.; Caboche, E.; Genevet, P.; Hachair, X.; Giudici, M.; Pedaci, F.; Tredicce, J. R.

    We briefly review a series of experiments performed at the Institut Nonlineaire de Nice on localized structures in semiconductor optical devices. We concentrate our attention on the observation of localized single addressable optical vortices. This type of optical vortices, predicted theoretically more than 30 years ago, have been only observed recently in a system formed by two vertical cavity surface emitter lasers (VCSELs) in a face-to-face configuration. We describe the experimental setup and we discuss the results and the reasons for which such a system is able to display "true" optical vortices.

  14. Measurements of True Leak Rates of MEMS Packages

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bongtae

    2012-01-01

    Gas transport mechanisms that characterize the hermetic behavior of MEMS packages are fundamentally different depending upon which sealing materials are used in the packages. In metallic seals, gas transport occurs through a few nanoscale leak channels (gas conduction) that are produced randomly during the solder reflow process, while gas transport in polymeric seals occurs through the bulk material (gas diffusion). In this review article, the techniques to measure true leak rates of MEMS packages with the two sealing materials are described and discussed: a Helium mass spectrometer based technique for metallic sealing and a gas diffusion based model for polymeric sealing. PMID:22736994

  15. True polyandry and pseudopolyandry: why does a monandrous fly remate?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rate of female remating can have important impacts on a species, from affecting conflict and cooperation within families, to population viability and gene flow. However, determining the level of polyandry in a species can be difficult, with information on the mating system of many species being based on a single experiment, or completely absent. Here we investigate the mating system of the fruit fly Drosophila subobscura. Reports from England, Spain and Canada suggest D. subobscura is entirely monandrous, with no females remating. However, work in Greece suggests that 23% of females remate. We examine the willingness of female D. subobscura to remate in the laboratory in a range of conditions, using flies from both Greece and England. We make a distinction between pseudopolyandry, where a female remates after an ineffective first mating that is incapable of fertilising her eggs, and true polyandry, where a female remates even though she has received suitable sperm from a previous mating. Results We find a low rate of true polyandry by females (4%), with no difference between populations. The rate of true polyandry is affected by temperature, but not starvation. Pseudopolyandry is three times as common as true polyandry, and most females showing pseudopolyandry mated at their first opportunity after their first failed mating. However, despite the lack of differences in polyandry between the populations, we do find differences in the way males respond to exposure to other males prior to mating. In line with previous work, English flies responded to one or more rivals by increasing their copulation duration, a response previously thought to be driven by sperm competition. Greek males only show increased copulation duration when exposed to four or more rival males. This suggests that the response to rivals in D. subobscura is not related to sperm competition, because sperm competition is rare, and there is no correlation of response to rivals and mating

  16. On the True Indium Content of In-Filled Skutterudites.

    PubMed

    Visnow, Eduard; Heinrich, Christophe P; Schmitz, Andreas; de Boor, Johannes; Leidich, Patrick; Klobes, Benedikt; Hermann, Raphael P; Müller, Wolf Eckhard; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-08-17

    The incongruently melting single-filled skutterudite InxCo4Sb12 is known as a promising bulk thermoelectric material. However, the products of current bulk syntheses contain always impurities of InSb, Sb, CoSb, or CoSb2, which prevent an unbiased determination of its thermoelectric properties. We report a new two-step synthesis of high-purity InxCo4Sb12 with nominal compositions x = 0.12, 0.15, 0.18, and 0.20 that separates the kieftite (CoSb3) formation from the topotactic filler insertion. This approach allows conducting the reactions at lower temperatures with shorter reaction times and circumventing the formation of impurity phases. The synthesis can be extended to other filled skutterudites. High-density (>98%) pellets for thermoelectric characterization were prepared by current-assisted short-time sintering. Sample homogeneity was demonstrated by potential and Seebeck microprobe measurements of the complete pellet surfaces. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction showed a purity of 99.9% product with traces (≤0.1%) of InSb in samples of nominal composition In0.18Co4Sb12 and In0.20Co4Sb12. Rietveld refinements revealed a linear correlation between the true In occupancy and the lattice parameter a. This allows the determination of the true In filling in skutterudites and predicting the In content of unknown AxCo4Sb12. The high purity of InxCo4Sb12 allowed studying the transport properties without bias from side phases. A figure of merit close to unity at 420 °C was obtained for a sample of a true composition of In0.160(2)Co4Sb12 (nominal composition In0.18Co4Sb12). The lower degree of In filling has a dramatic effect on the thermoelectric properties as demonstrated by the sample of nominal composition In0.20Co4Sb12. The presence of InSb in amounts of ∼0.1 vol% led to a substantially lower degree of interstitial site filling of 0.144, and the figure of merit zT decreased by 18%, which demonstrates the significance of the true filler atom content in skutterudite

  17. Measuring Achievement Goal Orientations of Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Muthart, Thomas; Khan, Ghous M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To measure the achievement goal orientations of pharmacy students attending a 3-year (accelerated) doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Methods. A 16-item survey based on the Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) was administered to first-year (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students at the Appalachian College of Pharmacy (ACP). Students were instructed to indicate to what degree each statement was true for them using a 7-point Likert scale (1=not true of me, 7=very true of me). Results. One hundred twenty of the 155 students (77%) completed the survey. Most students had mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and/or performance-avoidance goal orientations; few had work-avoidance goal orientations. Second-year students and male students had higher work-avoidance mean scores than did P1 students and female students (p<0.05). Conclusion. Pharmacy students were mastery- and performance-oriented learners, and most did not have work-avoidance goal orientations. Male students and P2 students had higher work-avoidance than did female students and P1 students, respectively. More longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24761015

  18. Neural Correlates of True Memory, False Memory, and Deception

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Jiro; Suzuki, Maki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Mori, Etsuro; Tsukada, Minoru; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2008-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether neural activity can differentiate between true memory, false memory, and deception. Subjects heard a series of semantically related words and were later asked to make a recognition judgment of old words, semantically related nonstudied words (lures for false recognition), and unrelated new words. They were also asked to make a deceptive response to half of the old and unrelated new words. There were 3 main findings. First, consistent with the notion that executive function supports deception, 2 types of deception (pretending to know and pretending not to know) recruited prefrontal activity. Second, consistent with the sensory reactivation hypothesis, the difference between true recognition and false recognition was found in the left temporoparietal regions probably engaged in the encoding of auditorily presented words. Third, the left prefrontal cortex was activated during pretending to know relative to correct rejection and false recognition, whereas the right anterior hippocampus was activated during false recognition relative to correct rejection and pretending to know. These findings indicate that fMRI can detect the difference in brain activity between deception and false memory despite the fact that subjects respond with “I know” to novel events in both processes. PMID:18372290

  19. Development of an automultiscopic true 3D display (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Russell M.; Pradhan, Ranjit D.; Aye, Tin M.; Yu, Kevin H.; Okorogu, Albert O.; Chua, Kang-Bin; Tun, Nay; Win, Tin; Schindler, Axel

    2005-05-01

    True 3D displays, whether generated by volume holography, merged stereopsis (requiring glasses), or autostereoscopic methods (stereopsis without the need for special glasses), are useful in a great number of applications, ranging from training through product visualization to computer gaming. Holography provides an excellent 3D image but cannot yet be produced in real time, merged stereopsis results in accommodation-convergence conflict (where distance cues generated by the 3D appearance of the image conflict with those obtained from the angular position of the eyes) and lacks parallax cues, and autostereoscopy produces a 3D image visible only from a small region of space. Physical Optics Corporation is developing the next step in real-time 3D displays, the automultiscopic system, which eliminates accommodation-convergence conflict, produces 3D imagery from any position around the display, and includes true image parallax. Theory of automultiscopic display systems is presented, together with results from our prototype display, which produces 3D video imagery with full parallax cues from any viewing direction.

  20. Neuroanatomical substrates involved in true and false memories for face.

    PubMed

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Kawaguchi, Jun; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-08-01

    We often mistake an unknown person for a familiar person because of the similarities in facial features. This phenomenon, known as false memory, has been investigated mainly using words, pictures, and shapes. Previous neuroimaging studies on false memory have shown that both true and false memories trigger a similar activation in the medial temporal lobe, suggesting that it plays a common role in both. However, no study to date has investigated neural substrates of false memories for faces. In the present fMRI study, we applied a modified version of the standard false memory paradigm, using morphed pictures of faces, to induce false memory in an MRI environment. We found that activity in the amygdala and orbital cortices was associated with the degree of familiarity of items. In particular, false responses to "lure" items evoked a level of activity in the amygdala between that evoked for correct or incorrect responses to "true" items. This indicates a possible role of the amygdala in false memory. A specific region in the anterior cingulate cortex was involved in false recognition; the activity being correlated to reaction times for the response types. These results suggest that the amygdala is involved in determining the relevance of items; therefore, ambiguousness of lure items in terms of familiarity and novelty may be related to decreased activity in the amygdala. The anterior cingulate activity in false memory may be caused not only by increased effort and motor demand but also by higher mnemonic processing of lure items. PMID:22575420

  1. Experimental and analytical studies of a true airspeed sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Shen, J. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A true airspeed sensor based on the precession of a vortex whistle for sensing airspeeds up to 321.9 km/hr (200 mph). In an attempt to model the complicated fluid mechanics of the vortex precession, three dimensional, inviscid, unsteady, incompressible fluid flow was studied by using the hydrodynamical linearized stability theory. The temporal stability approach was used to derive the relationship between the true airspeed and frequency response. The results show that the frequency response is linearly proportional to the airspeed. A computer program was developed to obtain the numerical solution. Computational results for various parameters were obtained. The designed sensor basically consisted of a vortex tube, a swirler, and a transducer system. A microphone converted the audible tone to an electronic frequency signal. Measurements for both the closed conduit tests and wind tunnel tests were recorded. For a specific flow rate or airspeed, larger exit swirler angles produced higher frequencies. For a smaller cross sectional area in the precessional flow region, the frequency was higher. It was observed that as the airspeed was increased the Strouhal number remained constant.

  2. True Neutrality as a New Type of Flavour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2016-06-01

    A classification of leptonic currents with respect to C-operation requires the separation of elementary particles into the two classes of vector C-even and axial-vector C-odd character. Their nature has been created so that to each type of lepton corresponds a kind of neutrino. Such pairs are united in families of a different C-parity. Unlike the neutrino of a vector type, any C-noninvariant Dirac neutrino must have his Majorana neutrino. They constitute the purely neutrino families. We discuss the nature of a corresponding mechanism responsible for the availability in all types of axial-vector particles of a kind of flavour which distinguishes each of them from others by a true charge characterized by a quantum number conserved at the interactions between the C-odd fermion and the field of emission of the corresponding types of gauge bosons. This regularity expresses the unidenticality of truly neutral neutrino and antineutrino, confirming that an internal symmetry of a C-noninvariant particle is described by an axial-vector space. Thereby, a true flavour together with the earlier known lepton flavour predicts the existence of leptonic strings and their birth in single and double beta decays as a unity of flavour and gauge symmetry laws. Such a unified principle explains the availability of a flavour symmetrical mode of neutrino oscillations.

  3. True digestible phosphorus requirement of 10- to 20-kg pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhai, H; Adeola, O

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the true digestible P requirement of 10- to 20-kg pigs by broken-line regression analysis of growth performance using 6 levels of true total-tract digestible P. In Exp. 1, 48 barrows were used to determine the true total-tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in monocalcium phosphate using the regression method. The dietary treatments included a negative control (3.30 g/kg total P) and 7 additional dietary treatments with incremental addition of 0.74 g/kg P through monocalcium phosphate, resulting in a dietary range of 3.30 to 8.45 g/kg total P. Limestone was added accordingly to maintain a constant Ca to P ratio of 1.25:1 across all diets. A 5-d adjustment period preceded a 5-d total collection of feces. Ferric oxide was used to time the initiation and termination of fecal collection. In Exp. 2, 108 barrows and gilts were used in a 3-wk growth performance study. Monocalcium phosphate was added to a corn-soybean meal-based diet to set up 6 levels of TTTD-based digestible P, ranging from 1.55 to 4.21 g/kg at an increment of 0.53 g/kg digestible P. Limestone was added accordingly to maintain a constant Ca level across all diets. The results of Exp.1 showed dietary P intake, fecal P output, and digested P increased linearly (P < 0.001) with the increasing P level, whereas the apparent total-tract digestibility of P increased both linearly and quadratically (P < 0.01). The regression of daily digested P against daily P intake gave a TTTD of 67.5% for P in monocalcium phosphate. In Exp. 2, ADG increased linearly (P < 0.001) with the increasing P level in wk 1. In wk 2, wk 3, and the overall 3-wk duration, both linear and quadratic effects of P level (P < 0.05) were observed for ADG. Average daily feed intake increased with the addition of monocalcium phosphate linearly in wk 2 (P < 0.05) and during the overall period (P < 0.001) and both linearly (P < 0.001) and quadratically (P < 0.05) in wk 3. For any period, the G:F was improved

  4. Teacher Licensing Examinations--True Progress or an Illusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libman, Zipora

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, public criticism of student achievement has been accompanied by a multitude of educational reforms, most of which emphasized the importance of setting national standards for student achievement and for the level and quality of teaching. The demand for frameworks to assess the extent to which students and teachers met the…

  5. In search of the true self: a clinical journey through the vale of soul-making.

    PubMed

    Wilkin, P

    2006-02-01

    Once a person accepts any form of mainstream mental health care, she is faced with the paradox of disabling caring. Every time an emotionally distressed individual is professionally rescued, she forfeits a golden opportunity to discover and utilize her own healing potential. Yet within a mental health service that is heavily medicalized and investing more and more in time-limited therapies, can it ever be otherwise? Drawing on the developmental theory of Donald Winnicott, together with the poet John Keats' concept of 'Soul-making', this case study provides an account of therapy delivered from outside the parameters of a health-illness model of caring. It acknowledges human suffering as a natural and inevitable part of life and, whilst acknowledging the value of therapeutic companionship, proclaims the mentally distressed person as best placed to navigate her own recovery. PMID:16441388

  6. [Particular clinical situations in the glaucoma patient. True or false deterioration of the visual field?].

    PubMed

    Nordmann, J-P

    2004-06-01

    Measurement errors, correction errors, head position errors, changes in strategy, fluctuations. There are many parameters influencing the results of visual field measurement. When in doubt, it is indispensable to repeat the examination before concluding that the results have deteriorated. In addition to the qualitative assessment, the analysis of global indices can pinpoint the degree of visual field deterioration. PMID:15319754

  7. High viscosity environments: an unexpected route to obtain true atomic resolution with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan A L; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Brosnan, Timothy M; Jarvis, Suzanne P; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2014-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in liquid environments, where true atomic resolution at the solid-liquid interface can now be routinely achieved. It is generally expected that AFM operation in more viscous environments results in an increased noise contribution from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, viscous fluids such as ionic and organic liquids have been generally avoided for high-resolution AFM studies despite their relevance to, e.g. energy applications. Here, we investigate the thermal noise limitations of dynamic AFM operation in both low and high viscosity environments theoretically, deriving expressions for the amplitude, phase and frequency noise resulting from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby defining the performance limits of amplitude modulation, phase modulation and frequency modulation AFM. We show that the assumption of a reduced SNR in viscous environments is not inherent to the technique and demonstrate that SNR values comparable to ultra-high vacuum systems can be obtained in high viscosity environments under certain conditions. Finally, we have obtained true atomic resolution images of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and mica surfaces, thus revealing the potential of high-resolution imaging in high viscosity environments. PMID:24717916

  8. High viscosity environments: an unexpected route to obtain true atomic resolution with atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Stefan A. L.; Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Brosnan, Timothy M.; Jarvis, Suzanne P.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2014-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in liquid environments, where true atomic resolution at the solid-liquid interface can now be routinely achieved. It is generally expected that AFM operation in more viscous environments results in an increased noise contribution from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, viscous fluids such as ionic and organic liquids have been generally avoided for high-resolution AFM studies despite their relevance to, e.g. energy applications. Here, we investigate the thermal noise limitations of dynamic AFM operation in both low and high viscosity environments theoretically, deriving expressions for the amplitude, phase and frequency noise resulting from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby defining the performance limits of amplitude modulation, phase modulation and frequency modulation AFM. We show that the assumption of a reduced SNR in viscous environments is not inherent to the technique and demonstrate that SNR values comparable to ultra-high vacuum systems can be obtained in high viscosity environments under certain conditions. Finally, we have obtained true atomic resolution images of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and mica surfaces, thus revealing the potential of high-resolution imaging in high viscosity environments.

  9. Three-dimensional true color topographical analysis of the pulmonary airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Melissa J.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Sonka, Milan; Higgins, William E.; Hoffman, Eric A.; McLennan, Geoffrey

    2004-04-01

    The development of pulmonary airway disease is characterized by mucosal color and topographical changes. Traditionally subjective visual interpretation of a bronchoscope procedure defines the identification of pulmonary airway disease however we have developed an optical imaging system used in conjunction with CT images to potentially quantify and classify these subtle variations. This paper presents a method for the construction of true color 3D images of the pulmonary airways from both optical and CT image data. Shape from Shading methods in the past decade have continually strived to achieve this goal by extracting 3D information from captured 2D images however these attempts have been severely limited in their application to bronchoscope images. Conversely the utilization of CT scans provides a sound tool for determining the gross structural anatomy of the airways however the accuracy of the rendered topographical surface maps is limited due to the resolution of the CT image data. Through integration of both the optical and CT imaging modalities we hope to create high resolution true color 3D images providing the necessary color and texture information to aid in future detection and classification of possible pulmonary airway disease. Preliminary combined color and texture results associated with various pulmonary airway diseases are presented highlighting the usefulness of this analysis technique.

  10. A Monte Carlo approach to validation of FFF VMAT treatment plans for the TrueBeam linac

    SciTech Connect

    Gete, Ermias; Duzenli, Cheryl; Bergman, Alanah Mary; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Mestrovic, Ante; Hyde, Derek; Teke, Tony

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To commission and benchmark a vendor-supplied (Varian Medical Systems) Monte Carlo phase-space data for the 6 MV flattening filter free (FFF) energy mode on a TrueBeam linear accelerator for the purpose of quality assurance of clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans. A method for rendering the phase-space data compatible with BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc simulation software package is presented. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to benchmark the TrueBeam 6 MV FFF phase space data that have been released by the Varian MC Research team. The simulations to benchmark the phase space data were done in three steps. First, the original phase space which was created on a cylindrical surface was converted into a format that was compatible with BEAMnrc. Second, BEAMnrc was used to create field size specific phase spaces located underneath the jaws. Third, doses were calculated with DOSXYZnrc in a water phantom for fields ranging from 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 to 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2}. Calculated percent depth doses (PDD), transverse profiles, and output factors were compared with measurements for all the fields simulated. After completing the benchmarking study, three stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) VMAT plans created with the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) were calculated with Monte Carlo. Ion chamber and film measurements were also performed on these plans. 3D gamma analysis was used to compare Monte Carlo calculation with TPS calculations and with film measurement. Results: For the benchmarking study, MC calculated and measured values agreed within 1% and 1.5% for PDDs and in-field transverse profiles, respectively, for field sizes >1 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2}. Agreements in the 80%-20% penumbra widths were better than 2 mm for all the fields that were compared. With the exception of the 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2} field, the agreement between measured and calculated output factors was within

  11. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  12. Very Low Ventricular Pacing Rates Can Be Achieved Safely in a Heterogeneous Pacemaker Population and Provide Clinical Benefits: The CANadian Multi-Centre Randomised Study-Spontaneous AtrioVEntricular Conduction pReservation (CAN-SAVE R) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Bernard; Ducharme, Anique; Baranchuk, Adrian; Dubuc, Marc; Dyrda, Katia; Guerra, Peter G; Macle, Laurent; Mondésert, Blandine; Rivard, Léna; Roy, Denis; Talajic, Mario; Andrade, Jason; Nitzsché, Rémi; Khairy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well recognized that right ventricular apical pacing can have deleterious effects on ventricular function. We performed a head-to-head comparison of the SafeR pacing algorithm versus DDD pacing with a long atrioventricular delay in a heterogeneous population of patients with dual-chamber pacemakers. Methods and Results In a multicenter prospective double-blinded randomized trial conducted at 10 centers in Canada, 373 patients, age 71±11 years, with indications for dual chamber DC pacemakers were randomized 1:1 to SafeR or DDD pacing with a long atrioventricular delay (250 ms). The primary objective was twofold: (1) reduction in the proportion of ventricular paced beats at 1 year; and (2) impact on atrial fibrillation burden at 3 years, defined as the ratio between cumulative duration of mode-switches divided by follow-up time. Statistical significance of both co-primary end points was required for the trial to be considered positive. At 1 year of follow-up, the median proportion of ventricular-paced beats was 4.0% with DDD versus 0% with SafeR (P<0.001). At 3 years of follow-up, the atrial fibrillation burden was not significantly reduced with SafeR versus DDD (median 0.00%, interquartile range [0.00% to 0.23%] versus median 0.01%, interquartile range [0.00% to 0.44%], respectively, P=0.178]), despite a persistent reduction in the median proportion of ventricular-paced beats (10% with DDD compared to 0% with SafeR). Conclusions A ventricular-paced rate <1% was safely achieved with SafeR in a population with a wide spectrum of indications for dual-chamber pacing. However, the lower percentage of ventricular pacing did not translate into a significant reduction in atrial fibrillation burden. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique identifier: NCT01219621. PMID:26206737

  13. People think about what is true for conditionals, not what is false: only true possibilities prime the comprehension of "if".

    PubMed

    Espino, Orlando; Santamaria, Carlos; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2009-06-01

    We report the results of two priming experiments that examine the comprehension of conditionals--for example, "if there are apples then there are oranges"--and biconditionals--for example, "if and only if there are apples then there are oranges". The first experiment showed that participants read a biconditional faster when it was primed by a true possibility, "there were apples and there were oranges" than when it was primed by a false possibility, "there were no apples and there were oranges"; a conditional was primed equally by both possibilities. The second experiment showed that participants read the negated-antecedent conjunction faster when it was primed by a conditional than when it was primed by a biconditional; the affirmative conjunction was primed equally by both connectives. The experiments show that (a) when people understand "if A then B", they access the true possibilities, "A and B", and "not-A and B", and (b) when they understand "if and only if A then B" they access "A and B", but they do not access "not-A and B". We discuss their implications for current theories of reasoning. PMID:19165652

  14. Varieties of Achievement Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukla, Andre; Scher, Hal

    1986-01-01

    A recent article by Nicholls on achievement motivation is criticized on three points: (1) definitions of achievement motives are ambiguous; (2) behavioral consequences predicted do not follow from explicit theoretical assumptions; and (3) Nicholls's account of the relation between his theory and other achievement theories is factually incorrect.…

  15. Motivation and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.; Archer, Jennifer

    Addressing the question, "What can be done to promote school achievement?", this paper summarizes the literature on motivation relating to classroom achievement and school effectiveness. Particular attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns impinge on classroom performance and serve to enhance motivation to achieve.…

  16. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  17. PASS and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive cognitive processes) theory of intelligence in predicting reading achievement scores of normally achieving children and distinguishing children with reading disabilities from normally achieving children. The first study dealt with predicting…

  18. Comparison of True and Smoothed Puff Profile Replication on Smoking Behavior and Mainstream Smoke Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To estimate exposures to smokers from cigarettes, smoking topography is typically measured and programmed into a smoking machine to mimic human smoking, and the resulting smoke emissions are tested for relative levels of harmful constituents. However, using only the summary puff data—with a fixed puff frequency, volume, and duration—may underestimate or overestimate actual exposure to smoke toxins. In this laboratory study, we used a topography-driven smoking machine that faithfully reproduces a human smoking session and individual human topography data (n = 24) collected during previous clinical research to investigate if replicating the true puff profile (TP) versus the mathematically derived smoothed puff profile (SM) resulted in differences in particle size distributions and selected toxic/carcinogenic organic compounds from mainstream smoke emissions. Particle size distributions were measured using an electrical low pressure impactor, the masses of the size-fractionated fine and ultrafine particles were determined gravimetrically, and the collected particulate was analyzed for selected particle-bound, semivolatile compounds. Volatile compounds were measured in real time using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer. By and large, TP levels for the fine and ultrafine particulate masses as well as particle-bound organic compounds were slightly lower than the SM concentrations. The volatile compounds, by contrast, showed no clear trend. Differences in emissions due to the use of the TP and SM profiles are generally not large enough to warrant abandoning the procedures used to generate the simpler smoothed profile in favor of the true profile. PMID:25536227

  19. Liquid crystal thermography and true-colour digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiek, J.; Stasiek, A.; Jewartowski, M.; Collins, M. W.

    2006-06-01

    In the last decade thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC) and true-colour digital image processing have been successfully used in non-intrusive technical, industrial and biomedical studies and applications. Thin coatings of TLCs at surfaces are utilized to obtain detailed temperature distributions and heat transfer rates for steady or transient processes. Liquid crystals also can be used to make visible the temperature and velocity fields in liquids by the simple expedient of directly mixing the liquid crystal material into the liquid (water, glycerol, glycol, and silicone oils) in very small quantities to use as thermal and hydrodynamic tracers. In biomedical situations e.g., skin diseases, breast cancer, blood circulation and other medical application, TLC and image processing are successfully used as an additional non-invasive diagnostic method especially useful for screening large groups of potential patients. The history of this technique is reviewed, principal methods and tools are described and some examples are also presented.

  20. The cognitive neuroscience of true and false memories.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marcia K; Raye, Carol L; Mitchell, Karen J; Ankudowich, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Of central relevance to the recovered/false memory debate is understanding the factors that cause us to believe that a mental experience is a memory of an actual past experience. According to the source monitoring framework (SMF), memories are attributions that we make about our mental experiences based on their subjective qualities, our prior knowledge and beliefs, our motives and goals, and the social context. From this perspective, we discuss cognitive behavioral studies using both objective (e.g., recognition, source memory) and subjective (e.g., ratings of memory characteristics) measures that provide much information about the encoding, revival and monitoring processes that yield both true and false memories. The chapter also considers how neuroimaging findings, especially from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, are contributing to our understanding of the relation between memory and reality. PMID:22303763

  1. Bias-free true random-number generator.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Guo, Hong

    2009-06-15

    We propose what we believe to be a new approach to nondeterministic random-number generation. The randomness originated from the uncorrelated nature of consecutive laser pulses with Poissonian photon statistics and that of photon number detections is used to generate random bit, and the von Neumann correction method is used to extract the final random bit. This method is proved to be bias free in randomness generation, provided that the single photon detections are mutually independent. Further, it has the advantage in fast random bit generation, since no postprocessing is needed. A true random-number generator based on this method is realized, and its randomness is tested and guaranteed using three statistical test batteries. PMID:19529733

  2. True covariance simulation of the EUVE update filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, R. R.

    1989-01-01

    A covariance analysis of the performance and sensitivity of the attitude determination Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) used by the On Board Computer (OBC) of the Extreme Ultra Violet Explorer (EUVE) spacecraft is presented. The linearized dynamics and measurement equations of the error states are derived which constitute the truth model describing the real behavior of the systems involved. The design model used by the OBC EKF is then obtained by reducing the order of the truth model. The covariance matrix of the EKF which uses the reduced order model is not the correct covariance of the EKF estimation error. A true covariance analysis has to be carried out in order to evaluate the correct accuracy of the OBC generated estimates. The results of such analysis are presented which indicate both the performance and the sensitivity of the OBC EKF.

  3. True Color of Mars - Pathfinder Sol 39 Sunrise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sunrise, sol 39. This true color, pre-sunrise image (approximately 0530LST) is composed of six images extending 30 o in azimuth and 45 o in elevation and shows the brownish gray predawn sky. A description of the techniques used to generate this color image from IMP data can be found in Maki et al., 1999. Note: a calibrated output device is required accurately reproduce the correct colors.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal investigator.

  4. The hyponatramia of multiple myeloma is true and not pseudohyponatramia.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Jeffrey; Fredman, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The hyponatremia found in multiple myeloma and which is associated with a reduced anion gap (ag) is considered to be pseudohyponatremia due to the displacement of water by the high globulin content in the blood. Serum proteins participate in acid-base balance. Stewart and other authors in their approach to acid-base interpretation acknowledge electrical neutrality as a fundamental characteristic of body fluids. Furthermore, they have shown that both the strong ion difference (SID) and protein, specifically, negatively-charged albumin affect hydrogen ion concentration (H(+)) in the body--i.e., for example an increase in SID leads to a decrease in H(+) and a decrease in albumin leads to a similar effect. The M proteins of multiple myeloma are positively charged. As a result they cause a decrease in sodium levels and the anion gap and thus a true hyponatremia. PMID:16707230

  5. A true polar wander model for Neoproterozoic plate motions

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperdan, R.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Recent paleogeographic reconstructions for the interval 750--500 Ma (Neoproterozoic to Late Cambrian) require rapid rates of plate motion and/or rotation around an equatorial Euler pole to accommodate reconstructions for the Early Paleozoic. Motions of this magnitude appear to be very uncommon during the Phanerozoic. A model for plate motions based on the hypothesis that discrete intervals of rapid true polar wander (RTPW) occurred during the Neoproterozoic can account for the paleogeographic changes with minimum amounts of plate motion. The model uses the paleogeographic reconstructions of Hoffman (1991). The following constraints were applied during derivation of the model: (1) relative motions between major continental units were restricted to be combinations of great circle or small circle translations with Euler poles of rotation = spin axis; (2) maximum rates of relative translational plate motion were 0.2 m/yr. Based on these constraints, two separate sets of synthetic plate motion trajectories were determined. The sequence of events in both can be summarized as: (1) A rapid true polar wander event of ca 90[degree] rafting a supercontinent to the spin axis; (2) breakup of the polar supercontinent into two fragments, one with the Congo, West Africa, Amazonia, and Baltica cratons, the other with the Laurentia, East Gondwana, and Kalahari cratons; (3) great circle motion of the blocks towards the equator; (4) small circle motion leading to amalgamation of Gondwana and separation of Laurentia and Baltica. In alternative 1, rifting initiates between East Antarctica and Laurentia and one episode of RTPW is required. Alternative 2 requires two episodes of RTPW; and that rifting occurred first along the eastern margin and later along the western margin of Laurentia. Synthetic plate motion trajectories are compared to existing paleomagnetic and geological data, and implications of the model for paleoclimatic changes during the Neoproterozoic are discussed.

  6. Tunable Optical True-Time Delay Devices Would Exploit EIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; DiDomenico, Leo; Lee, Hwang

    2004-01-01

    Tunable optical true-time delay devices that would exploit electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been proposed. Relative to prior true-time delay devices (for example, devices based on ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials) and electronically controlled phase shifters, the proposed devices would offer much greater bandwidths. In a typical envisioned application, an optical pulse would be modulated with an ultra-wideband radio-frequency (RF) signal that would convey the information that one seeks to communicate, and it would be required to couple differently delayed replicas of the RF signal to the radiating elements of a phased-array antenna. One or more of the proposed devices would be used to impose the delays and/or generate the delayed replicas of the RF-modulated optical pulse. The beam radiated or received by the antenna would be steered by use of a microprocessor-based control system that would adjust operational parameters of the devices to tune the delays to the required values. EIT is a nonlinear quantum optical interference effect that enables the propagation of light through an initially opaque medium. A suitable medium must have, among other properties, three quantum states (see Figure 1): an excited state (state 3), an upper ground state (state 2), and a lower ground state (state 1). These three states must form a closed system that exhibits no decays to other states in the presence of either or both of two laser beams: (1) a probe beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 1; and (2) a coupling beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 2. The probe beam is the one that is pulsed and modulated with an RF signal.

  7. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Siegler, M A; Miller, R S; Keane, J T; Laneuville, M; Paige, D A; Matsuyama, I; Lawrence, D J; Crotts, A; Poston, M J

    2016-03-24

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury's poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the Moon

  8. It's time to make management a true profession.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Rakesh; Nohria, Nitin

    2008-10-01

    In the face of the recent institutional breakdown of trust in business, managers are losing legitimacy. To regain public trust, management needs to become a true profession in much the way medicine and law have, argue Khurana and Nohria of Harvard Business School. True professions have codes, and the meaning and consequences of those codes are taught as part of the formal education required of their members. Through these codes, professional institutions forge an implicit social contract with society: Trust us to control and exercise jurisdiction over an important occupational category, and, in return, we will ensurethat the members of our profession are worthy of your trust--that they will not only be competent to perform the tasks entrusted to them, but that they will also conduct themselves with high standardsand great integrity. The authors believe that enforcing educational standards and a code of ethics is unlikely to choke entrepreneurial creativity. Indeed, if the field of medicine is any indication, a code may even stimulate creativity. The main challenge in writing a code lies in reaching a broad consensus on the aims and social purpose of management. There are two deeply divided schools of thought. One school argues that management's aim should simply be to maximize shareholder wealth; the other argues that management's purpose is to balance the claims of all the firm's stakeholders. Any code will have to steer a middle course in order to accommodate both the value-creating impetus of the shareholder value concept and the accountability inherent in the stakeholder approach. PMID:18822673

  9. Lunar true polar wander inferred from polar hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegler, M. A.; Miller, R. S.; Keane, J. T.; Laneuville, M.; Paige, D. A.; Matsuyama, I.; Lawrence, D. J.; Crotts, A.; Poston, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    The earliest dynamic and thermal history of the Moon is not well understood. The hydrogen content of deposits near the lunar poles may yield insight into this history, because these deposits (which are probably composed of water ice) survive only if they remain in permanent shadow. If the orientation of the Moon has changed, then the locations of the shadowed regions will also have changed. The polar hydrogen deposits have been mapped by orbiting neutron spectrometers, and their observed spatial distribution does not match the expected distribution of water ice inferred from present-day lunar temperatures. This finding is in contrast to the distribution of volatiles observed in similar thermal environments at Mercury’s poles. Here we show that polar hydrogen preserves evidence that the spin axis of the Moon has shifted: the hydrogen deposits are antipodal and displaced equally from each pole along opposite longitudes. From the direction and magnitude of the inferred reorientation, and from analysis of the moments of inertia of the Moon, we hypothesize that this change in the spin axis, known as true polar wander, was caused by a low-density thermal anomaly beneath the Procellarum region. Radiogenic heating within this region resulted in the bulk of lunar mare volcanism and altered the density structure of the Moon, changing its moments of inertia. This resulted in true polar wander consistent with the observed remnant polar hydrogen. This thermal anomaly still exists and, in part, controls the current orientation of the Moon. The Procellarum region was most geologically active early in lunar history, which implies that polar wander initiated billions of years ago and that a large portion of the measured polar hydrogen is ancient, recording early delivery of water to the inner Solar System. Our hypothesis provides an explanation for the antipodal distribution of lunar polar hydrogen, and connects polar volatiles to the geologic and geophysical evolution of the

  10. Bias-free true random number generation using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuhao; Zhang, Weijun; Zhou, Hui; You, Lixing; Lv, Chaolin; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Sijing; Ren, Min; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a bias-free true random number generator (TRNG) based on single photon detection using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). By comparing the photon detection signals of two consecutive laser pulses and extracting the random bits by the von Neumann correction method, we achieved a random number generation efficiency of 25% (a generation rate of 3.75 Mbit s‑1 at a system clock rate of 15 MHz). Using a multi-channel superconducting nanowire single photon detector system with controllable pulse signal amplitudes, we detected the single photons with photon number resolution and positional sensitivity, which could further increase the random number generation efficiency. In a three-channel SNSPD system, the random number bit generation efficiency was improved to 75%, corresponding to a generation rate of 7.5 Mbit s‑1 with a 10 MHz system clock rate. All of the generated random numbers successfully passed the statistical test suite.

  11. Reconfigurable liquid metal fiber-optic mirror for continuous, widely-tunable true-time-delay.

    PubMed

    Schermer, Ross T; Villarruel, Carl A; Bucholtz, Frank; McLaughlin, Colin V

    2013-02-11

    This paper reports the demonstration of a widely-translatable fiber-optic mirror based on the motion of liquid metal through the hollow core of a photonic bandgap fiber. By moving a liquid metal mirror within the hollow core of an optical fiber, large, continuous changes in optical path length are achieved in a comparatively small package. A fiber-optic device is demonstrated which provided a continuously-variable optical path length of over 3.6 meters, without the use of free-space optics or resonant optical techniques (i.e. slow light). This change in path length corresponds to a continuously-variable true-time delay of over 12 ns, or 120 periods at a modulation frequency of 10 GHz. Wavelength dependence was shown to be negligible across the C and L bands. PMID:23481731

  12. SU-E-T-585: Commissioning of Electron Monte Carlo in Eclipse Treatment Planning System for TrueBeam

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X; Lasio, G; Zhou, J; Lin, M; Yi, B; Guerrero, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To commission electron Monte Carlo (eMC) algorithm in Eclipse Treatment Planning System (TPS) for TrueBeam Linacs, including the evaluation of dose calculation accuracy for small fields and oblique beams and comparison with the existing eMC model for Clinacs. Methods: Electron beam percent-depth-dose (PDDs) and profiles with and without applicators, as well as output factors, were measured from two Varian TrueBeam machines. Measured data were compared against the Varian TrueBeam Representative Beam Data (VTBRBD). The selected data set was transferred into Eclipse for beam configuration. Dose calculation accuracy from eMC was evaluated for open fields, small cut-out fields, and oblique beams at different incident angles. The TrueBeam data was compared to the existing Clinac data and eMC model to evaluate the differences among Linac types. Results: Our measured data indicated that electron beam PDDs from our TrueBeam machines are well matched to those from our Varian Clinac machines, but in-air profiles, cone factors and open-filed output factors are significantly different. The data from our two TrueBeam machines were well represented by the VTBRBD. Variations of TrueBeam PDDs and profiles were within the 2% /2mm criteria for all energies, and the output factors for fields with and without applicators all agree within 2%. Obliquity factor for two clinically relevant applicator sizes (10×10 and 15×15 cm{sup 2}) and three oblique angles (15, 30, and 45 degree) were measured for nominal R100, R90, and R80 of each electron beam energy. Comparisons of calculations using eMC of obliquity factors and cut-out factors versus measurements will be presented. Conclusion: eMC algorithm in Eclipse TPS can be configured using the VTBRBD. Significant differences between TrueBeam and Clinacs were found in in-air profiles and open field output factors. The accuracy of the eMC algorithm was evaluated for a wide range of cut-out factors and oblique incidence.

  13. True Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery for Early–Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Christopher Q.; Stine, Munkholm-Larsen; Yan, Tristan D.

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception, minimally invasive surgery has made a dramatic impact on all branches of surgery. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was first described in the early 1990s and has since become popular in a number of tertiary referral centers. Proponents of this relatively new procedure cite a number of potentially favorable perioperative outcomes, possibly due to reduced surgical trauma and stress. However, a significant proportion of the cardiothoracic community remains skeptical, as there is still a paucity of robust clinical data on long-term survival and recurrence rates. The definition of ‘true’ VATS has also been under scrutiny, with a number of previous studies being considered ‘mini-thoracotomy lobectomy’ rather than VATS lobectomy. We hereby examine the literature on true VATS lobectomy, with a particular focus on comparative studies that directly compared VATS lobectomy with conventional open lobectomy. PMID:22263000

  14. The effects of several oligosaccharides on true amino acid digestibility and true metabolizable energy in cecectomized and conventional roosters.

    PubMed

    Biggs, P; Parsons, C M

    2007-06-01

    Prebiotics, such as indigestible oligosaccharides, are considered to be possible dietary alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry. The effects of indigestible oligosaccharides on nutrient digestibility in poultry are largely unknown. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of several oligosaccharides on amino acid digestibility and TMEn in roosters. The dietary treatments consisted of a corn-isolated soy protein control diet or that diet supplemented with 4 or 8 g/kg of inulin, oligofructose, mannanoligosaccharide (MOS), short-chain fructooligosaccharide, or transgalactooligosaccharide (TOS). Each of the 11 diets was tube-fed (30 g) to 4 cecectomized and 4 intact Single Comb White Leghorn roosters that had been fasted for 24 h. Excreta were then collected for the following 48 h, freeze-dried, and analyzed for amino acid content. The true digestibility of lysine and valine was increased (P<0.05) in cecectomized roosters fed 8 g/kg of MOS or TOS when compared with roosters fed the control diet. In addition, methionine digestibility was improved (P<0.05) in cecectomized roosters fed 4 g/kg of MOS or short-chain fructooligosaccharide and by 8 g/kg of oligofructose or TOS. The true digestibility of isoleucine was increased (P<0.05) in cecectomized roosters fed 8 g/kg of MOS or 4 or 8 g/kg of TOS. The magnitude of the increases in amino acid digestibility coefficients for cecectomized roosters ranged from 3 to 9 percentage units. Feeding either 4 or 8 g/kg of inulin to intact roosters decreased (P<0.05) the true digestibility of methionine. The oligosaccharides generally had no significant effect on TMEn. The results of this study indicated that the indigestible oligosaccharides had no significant effect on the digestibility of most amino acids in a corn-isolated soy protein diet. The digestibility of a few amino acids, however, was increased by some oligosaccharides in cecectomized roosters but not in intact roosters. PMID:17495087

  15. Effects of calcium feeding strategy on true ileal phosphorus digestibility and true phosphorus retention determined with growing broilers.

    PubMed

    Perryman, K R; Masey O'Neill, H V; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2016-05-01

    An experiment utilizing 960 Ross × Ross 708 male broilers was conducted to determine the effects of Ca feeding strategy on true ileal (prececal) P digestibility (TIPD) and true P retention (TPR) of corn. Experimental diets were formulated with 1 of 3 dietary Ca feeding strategies (0.95%, 0.13%, or variable Ca concentrations to maintain a 2.1:1 Ca:P ratio) and contain 0, 25, 50, or 75% corn. A practical corn-soybean meal diet (1.4:1 Ca:P ratio) was fed as a control. After receiving a common starter diet, experimental diets were fed from 19 to 26 d of age. After a 48-h dietary adaptation period, a 48-h retention assay was conducted. At 25 and 26 d of age, ileal digesta were collected from 8 birds per cage. Broilers consuming the control diet had higher (P<0.001) BW gain, feed intake, digesta P, and excreta P than broilers consuming the corn titration diets. Digesta and excreta P increased (linear, P<0.05) with graded increases of corn. True ileal P digestibility and TPR were highest (P<0.05) for diets with 0.13% Ca (57.3 and 69.5%, respectively) compared with diets formulated with a 2.1:1 Ca:P ratio (41.2 and 37.8%, respectively) or 0.95% Ca (25.4 and 39.0%, respectively). Values for TPR were higher (P<0.05) than those for TIPD except when the dietary Ca:P ratio was fixed. Additionally, negative endogenous P losses were predicted by regression equations when TPR was estimated for birds fed titration diets with the fixed Ca:P ratio. Changing the Ca concentration of the diets to maintain a fixed Ca:P ratio influenced (P<0.001) apparent P retention, which affected the estimate for TPR due to the prediction of negative endogenous P losses. These data demonstrated that regression analysis may have limitations when estimating the TIPD or TPR of corn when formulating diets with different Ca feeding strategies. More research is necessary to elucidate the factors that contributed to regression equations predicting negative endogenous P losses. PMID:26908892

  16. Improving Dose Determination Accuracy in Nonstandard Fields of the Varian TrueBeam Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Megan A.

    In recent years, the use of flattening-filter-free (FFF) linear accelerators in radiation-based cancer therapy has gained popularity, especially for hypofractionated treatments (high doses of radiation given in few sessions). However, significant challenges to accurate radiation dose determination remain. If physicists cannot accurately determine radiation dose in a clinical setting, cancer patients treated with these new machines will not receive safe, accurate and effective treatment. In this study, an extensive characterization of two commonly used clinical radiation detectors (ionization chambers and diodes) and several potential reference detectors (thermoluminescent dosimeters, plastic scintillation detectors, and alanine pellets) has been performed to investigate their use in these challenging, nonstandard fields. From this characterization, reference detectors were identified for multiple beam sizes, and correction factors were determined to improve dosimetric accuracy for ionization chambers and diodes. A validated computational (Monte Carlo) model of the TrueBeam(TM) accelerator, including FFF beam modes, was also used to calculate these correction factors, which compared favorably to measured results. Small-field corrections of up to 18 % were shown to be necessary for clinical detectors such as microionization chambers. Because the impact of these large effects on treatment delivery is not well known, a treatment planning study was completed using actual hypofractionated brain, spine, and lung treatments that were delivered at the UW Carbone Cancer Center. This study demonstrated that improperly applying these detector correction factors can have a substantial impact on patient treatments. This thesis work has taken important steps toward improving the accuracy of FFF dosimetry through rigorous experimentally and Monte-Carlo-determined correction factors, the validation of an important published protocol (TG-51) for use with FFF reference fields, and a

  17. Use of TrueBeam developer mode for imaging QA.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Gilmer; Morin, Olivier; Valenciaga, Yanisley; Kirby, Niel; Pouliot, Jean; Chuang, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to automate regular Imaging QA procedures to become more efficient and accurate. Daily and monthly imaging QA for SRS and SBRT protocols were fully automated on a Varian linac. A three-step paradigm where the data are automatically acquired, processed, and analyzed was defined. XML scripts were written and used in developer mode in a TrueBeam linac to automatically acquire data. MATLAB R013B was used to develop an interface that could allow the data to be processed and analyzed. Hardware was developed that allowed the localization of several phantoms simultaneously on the couch. 14 KV CBCTs from the Emma phantom were obtained using a TrueBeam onboard imager as example of data acquisition and analysis. The images were acquired during two months. Artifacts were artificially introduced in the images during the reconstruction process using iTool reconstructor. Support vector machine algorithms to automatically identify each artifact were written using the Machine Learning MATLAB R2011 Toolbox. A daily imaging QA test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 14.3 ± 2.4 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 4.2 ± 0.7 min. In the same manner, a monthly imaging QA could be performed by a physicist in 70.7 ± 8.0 min and, if fully automated, in 21.8 ± 0.6 min. Additionally, quantitative data analysis could be automatically performed by Machine Learning Algorithms that could remove the subjectivity of data interpretation in the QA process. For instance, support vector machine algorithms could correctly identify beam hardening, rings and scatter artifacts. Traditional metrics, as well as metrics that describe texture, are needed for the classification. Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging capabilities that are used for patient alignment, substantially improving IGRT treatment accuracy. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA

  18. Apparent Versus True Carrier Multiplication Yields in Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, John A.; Sykora, Milan; Joo, Jin; Pietryga, Jeffrey M.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2010-05-11

    Generation of multiple electron-hole pairs (excitons) by single photons, known as carrier multiplication (CM), has the potential to appreciably improve the performance of solar photovoltaics. In semiconductor nanocrystals, this effect usually has been detected using a distinct dynamical signature of multiexcitons associated with their fast Auger recombination. Here, we show that uncontrolled photocharging of the nanocrystal core can lead to exaggeration of the Auger decay component and, as a result, significant deviations of the apparent CM efficiencies from their true values. Specifically, we observe that for the same sample, apparent multiexciton yields can differ by a factor of ~3 depending on whether the nanocrystal solution is static or stirred. We show that this discrepancy is consistent with photoinduced charging of the nanocrystals in static solutions, the effect of which is minimized in the stirred case where the charged nanocrystals are swept from the excitation volume between sequential excitation pulses. Using side-by-side measurements of CM efficiencies and nanocrystal charging, we show that the CM results obtained under static conditions converge to the values measured for stirred solutions after we accurately account for the effects of photocharging. This study helps to clarify the recent controversy over CM in nanocrystals and highlights some of the issues that must be carefully considered in spectroscopic studies of this process.

  19. [Maternity in adolescence: a dream come true and future expectation].

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Paula Rosenberg; Ribeiro, Circéa Amalia; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    This qualitative study aimed at describing the reasons that motivate an adolescent to get pregnant and her expectations about the future after the child's birth. Symbolic Interactionism was used as theoretical framework and Grounded Theory as the methodological one. Eight adolescent mothers aged between 15 and 19 years who lived the experience of caring for their children took part in the study. Data collection tools were observant participation and semi-structured interviews. Data analysis revealed that becoming a mother is an experience that might be desired and even planned. Furthermore, data showed that after the child's birth, the adolescent continues to have expectations of self-realization in order to provide a better future for herself and for her child, as revealed by the categories: Making a dream come true and Having expectations about the future. The full understanding of this experience will contribute to the practice of all professionals that provide assistance to pregnant and adolescent mothers at different levels of healthcare. PMID:20586209

  20. Phylogenetic relationships among the true porpoises (Cetacea:Phocoenidae).

    PubMed

    Rosel, P E; Haygood, M G; Perrin, W F

    1995-12-01

    Portions of the cytochrome b gene and control region of the mitochondrial DNA molecule were sequenced to investigate systematic relationships among the six extant species of true porpoises, (Cetacea: Phocoenidae). Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences support a close relationship between Burmeister's porpoise, Phocoena spinipinnis, and the vaquita, Phocoena sinus, and the association of these two species with the spectacled porpoise, Australophocaena dioptrica. The latter result is not in concordance with a recent morphological reclassification which groups A. dioptrica with Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, in the subfamily Phocoenoidinae. The molecular analysis found no support for this grouping. A. dioptrica was originally described as a member of the genus Phocoena, and our results support returning it to that genus at this time. Finally, the data suggest that the tropical species Neophocaena phocaenoides, the finless porpoise, may represent the most basal member of the family. The control region sequences corroborated the relationships among the closely related taxa P. sinus, P. spinipinnis, and A. dioptrica, but were unable to resolve the deeper branches of the tree, probably as a result of a high level of saturation of these sequences. PMID:8747302

  1. Characterizing the True Background Corona with SDO/AIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napier, Kate; Winebarger, Amy; Alexander, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the nature of the solar coronal background would enable scientists to more accurately determine plasma parameters, and may lead to a better understanding of the coronal heating problem. Because scientists study the 3D structure of the Sun in 2D, any line of sight includes both foreground and background material, and thus, the issue of background subtraction arises. By investigating the intensity values in and around an active region, using multiple wavelengths collected from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) over an eight-hour period, this project aims to characterize the background as smooth or structured. Different methods were employed to measure the true coronal background and create minimum intensity images. These were then investigated for the presence of structure. The background images created were found to contain long-lived structures, including coronal loops, that were still present in all of the wavelengths, 193 Angstroms,171 Angstroms,131 Angstroms, and 211 Angstroms. The intensity profiles across the active region indicate that the background is much more structured than previously thought.

  2. Optical true time delay unit for multi-beamforming.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingwei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Pan, Shilong

    2015-04-20

    An optical true time delay (TTD) unit capable of adding independent time delays to multiple RF signals is proposed, which can be used for multi-beamforming in both transmit and receive modes. In the proposed unit, N RF signals with different center frequencies are modulated on an optical frequency comb (OFC). After transmission through a dispersive element, the RF-modulated OFC is split into N paths. In each path, a comb line is selected by a tunable optical filter. Thanks to the chromatic dispersion of the dispersive element, independently-controllable TTDs can be obtained in all paths. Then, a microwave photonic filter (MPF) is incorporated in each path, allowing a designated RF signal to undergo the TTD in that path. A proof-of-concept experiment is carried out. A two-path unit with a low-pass MPF in one path and a high-pass MPF in the other path is built. Controllable TTDs up to ~1.4 ns with a step of ~69 ps are demonstrated based on a 25-GHz-spacing OFC. In addition, a wideband multi-beam phased-array antenna system that can work in both transmit and receive modes is designed using the proposed TTD unit. PMID:25969041

  3. Blood flow estimation in gastroscopic true-color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacoby, Raffael S.; Herpers, Rainer; Zwiebel, Franz M.; Englmeier, Karl-Hans

    1995-05-01

    The assessment of blood flow in the gastrointestinal mucosa might be an important factor for the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases such as ulcers, gastritis, colitis, or early cancer. The quantity of blood flow is roughly estimated by computing the spatial hemoglobin distribution in the mucosa. The presented method enables a practical realization by calculating approximately the hemoglobin concentration based on a spectrophotometric analysis of endoscopic true-color images, which are recorded during routine examinations. A system model based on the reflectance spectroscopic law of Kubelka-Munk is derived which enables an estimation of the hemoglobin concentration by means of the color values of the images. Additionally, a transformation of the color values is developed in order to improve the luminance independence. Applying this transformation and estimating the hemoglobin concentration for each pixel of interest, the hemoglobin distribution can be computed. The obtained results are mostly independent of luminance. An initial validation of the presented method is performed by a quantitative estimation of the reproducibility.

  4. Is 3D true non linear traveltime tomography reasonable ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, A.; Virieux, J.

    2003-04-01

    The data sets requiring 3D analysis tools in the context of seismic exploration (both onshore and offshore experiments) or natural seismicity (micro seismicity surveys or post event measurements) are more and more numerous. Classical linearized tomographies and also earthquake localisation codes need an accurate 3D background velocity model. However, if the medium is complex and a priori information not available, a 1D analysis is not able to provide an adequate background velocity image. Moreover, the design of the acquisition layouts is often intrinsically 3D and renders difficult even 2D approaches, especially in natural seismicity cases. Thus, the solution relies on the use of a 3D true non linear approach, which allows to explore the model space and to identify an optimal velocity image. The problem becomes then practical and its feasibility depends on the available computing resources (memory and time). In this presentation, we show that facing a 3D traveltime tomography problem with an extensive non-linear approach combining fast travel time estimators based on level set methods and optimisation techniques such as multiscale strategy is feasible. Moreover, because management of inhomogeneous inversion parameters is more friendly in a non linear approach, we describe how to perform a jointly non-linear inversion for the seismic velocities and the sources locations.

  5. True 3D displays for avionics and mission crewstations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholler, Elizabeth A.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Lucente, Mark E.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1997-07-01

    3D threat projection has been shown to decrease the human recognition time for events, especially for a jet fighter pilot or C4I sensor operator when the advantage of realization that a hostile threat condition exists is the basis of survival. Decreased threat recognition time improves the survival rate and results from more effective presentation techniques, including the visual cue of true 3D (T3D) display. The concept of 'font' describes the approach adopted here, but whereas a 2D font comprises pixel bitmaps, a T3D font herein comprises a set of hologram bitmaps. The T3D font bitmaps are pre-computed, stored, and retrieved as needed to build images comprising symbols and/or characters. Human performance improvement, hologram generation for a T3D symbol font, projection requirements, and potential hardware implementation schemes are described. The goal is to employ computer-generated holography to create T3D depictions of a dynamic threat environments using fieldable hardware.

  6. True Unipolar ECG Machine for Wilson Central Terminal Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D.

    2015-01-01

    Since its invention (more than 80 years ago), modern electrocardiography has employed a supposedly stable voltage reference (with little variation during the cardiac cycle) for half of the signals. This reference, known by the name of “Wilson Central Terminal” in honor of its inventor, is obtained by averaging the three active limb electrode voltages measured with respect to the return ground electrode. However, concerns have been raised by researchers about problems (biasing and misdiagnosis) associated with the ambiguous value and behavior of this reference voltage, which requires perfect and balanced contact of at least four electrodes to work properly. The Wilson Central Terminal has received scant research attention in the last few decades even though consideration of recent widespread medical practice (limb electrodes are repositioned closer to the torso for resting electrocardiography) has also sparkled concerns about the validity and diagnostic fitness of leads not referred to the Wilson Central Terminal. Using a true unipolar electrocardiography device capable of precisely measuring the Wilson Central Terminal, we show its unpredictable variability during the cardiac cycle and confirm that the integrity of cardinal leads is compromised as well as the Wilson Central Terminal when limb electrodes are placed close to the torso. PMID:26495303

  7. True Color of Mars - Pathfinder Sol 10 at noon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The true color of Mars based upon three filters with the sky set to aluminance of 60. The color of the Pathfinder landing site is yellowish brown with only subtle variations. These colors are identical to the measured colors of the Viking landing sites reported by Huck et al. [1977]. This image was taken near local noon on Sol 10. A description of the techniques used to generate this color image from IMP data can be found in Maki et al., 1999. Note: a calibrated output device is required accurately reproduce the correct colors.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  8. True Color of Mars - Pathfinder Sol 24 at 4 PM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The brownish gray sky as it would be seen by an observer on Mars in this four-frame, true color mosaic taken on sol 24 (at approximately 1610 LST). The twin peaks can be seen on the horizon. The sky near the sun is a pale blue color. Azimuth extent is 60o and elevation extent is approximately 12odegrees. A description of the techniques used to generate this color image from IMP data can be found in Maki et al., 1999 (see full reference in Image Note). Note: a calibrated output device is required accurately reproduce the correct colors.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal investigator.

  9. [Isolated true aneurysm of the deep femoral artery].

    PubMed

    Salomon du Mont, L; Holzer, T; Kazandjian, C; Saucy, F; Corpataux, J M; Rinckenbach, S; Déglise, S

    2016-07-01

    Aneurysms of the deep femoral artery, accounting for 5% of all femoral aneurysms, are uncommon. There is a serious risk of rupture. We report the case of an 83-year-old patient with a painless pulsatile mass in the right groin due to an aneurysm of the deep femoral artery. History taking revealed no cardiovascular risk factors and no other aneurysms at other localizations. The etiology remained unclear because no recent history of local trauma or puncture was found. ACT angiography was performed, revealing a true isolated aneurysm of the deep femoral artery with a diameter of 90mm, beginning 1cm after its origin. There were no signs of rupture or distal emboli. Due to unsuitable anatomy for an endovascular approach, the patient underwent open surgery, with exclusion of the aneurysm and interposition of an 8-mm Dacron graft to preserve deep femoral artery flow. Due to their localization, the diagnosis and the management of aneurysms of the deep femoral artery can be difficult. Options are surgical exclusion or an endovascular approach in the absence of symptoms or as a bridging therapy. If possible, blood flow to the distal deep femoral artery should be maintained, the decision depending also on the patency of the superficial femoral artery. In case of large size, aneurysms of the deep femoral artery should be treated without any delay. PMID:27289256

  10. Sulfur-Rich Rocks and Dirt (True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rover Spirit has been analyzing sulfur-rich rocks and surface materials in the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater on Mars. This image of a very soft, nodular, layered rock nicknamed 'Peace' in honor of Martin Luther King Jr. shows a 4.5-centimeter-wide (1.8-inch-wide) hole Spirit ground into the surface with the rover's rock abrasion tool. The high sulfur content of the rock measured by Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and its softness measured by the abrasion tool are probably evidence of past alteration by water. Spirit's panoramic camera took this image on martian day, or sol, 381 (Jan. 27, 2005). The image represents the panoramic camera team's best current attempt at generating a true color view of what this scene would look like if viewed by a human on Mars. The image was generated from a combination of six calibrated, left-eye Pancam images acquired through filters ranging from 430-nanometer to 750-nanometer wavelengths.

  11. True metabolizable energy of moist-soil seeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Checkett, J.M.; Drobney, R.D.; Petrie, M.J.; Graber, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl are often established by converting population energy demands into an equivalent measure of foraging habitat. In some areas, seeds produced from moist-soil plants provide a significant proportion of the energy available to waterfowl. To accurately establish habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl, managers must estimate seed production from moist-soil plants and have information on metabolizable energy (ME) of moist-soil seeds. Although methods for estimating seed production have been developed, ME has been determined for few natural seeds. We determined true metabolizable energy (TME) of 10 moist-soil seeds commonly consumed by wintering and migrating ducks. TME estimates were similar (P>0.05) for hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis; 3.09 kcal/g), little hairy crabgrass (D. ischaemum; 3.10 kcal/g), pigweed (Amaranthus spp.; 2.97 kcal/g), yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens; 2.88 kcal/g), fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum; 2.75 kcal/g), curly dock (Rumex crispus; 2.68 kcal/g), and wild millet (Echinochloa crusgalli; 2.61 kcal/g), but less (P<0.05) for beakrush (Rynchospora corniculata; 1.86 kcal/g), paspalum (Paspalum laeve; 1.57 kcal/g), and nodding or curltop ladysthumb smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium; 1.52 kcal/g). TME values determined for moist-soil seeds in this study will allow managers to accurately estimate carrying capacity of waterfowl habitats.

  12. Crawford Williamson Long: The True Pioneer of Surgical Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Prado, Roberto; Schadegg-Peña, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesia and analgesia are as old as mankind itself. However, we now know that the true pioneer of surgical anesthesia through inhalation of ether was Doctor Crawford Williamson Long (1815-1878), who endeavored to help his profession and mankind without pursuing any reward or honor. Crawford Williamson Long was a great and beloved American surgeon. He was a well-educated and elegant man with an outstanding personality. Crawford was born in Danielsville, Georgia, in the United States and was the son of James Long and Elizabeth Ware Long. He married Mary Caroline Swain Long and gave birth to 12 children. Long proved the effectiveness of ether after painlessly removing a tumor from the neck. In 1847, a rivalry broke out among Horace Wells, Charles Thomas Jackson, and William Thomas Green Morton for the primacy as regards the discovery of anesthesia. The US Congress offered itself to arbitrate the case of the so called "ether controversy." Finally, a few years after the end of the North American Civil War, while taking care of a patient, Crawford passed away, presumably after suffering a stroke. PMID:26268419

  13. Identifying True Cortical Interactions in MEG using the Nulling Beamformer

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Hua Brian; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Bressler, Steven L.; Leahy, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Modeling functional brain interaction networks using non-invasive EEG and MEG data is more challenging than using intracranial recording data. This is because most interaction measures are not robust to the cross-talk (interference) between cortical regions, which may arise due to the limited spatial resolution of EEG/MEG inverse procedures. In this paper we describe a modified beam-forming approach to accurately measure cortical interactions from EEG/MEG data, designed to suppress cross-talk between cortical regions. We estimate interaction measures from the output of the modified beamformer and test for statistical significance using permutation tests. Since the underlying neuronal sources and their interactions are unknown in real MEG data, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed beamforming method in a novel simulation scheme, where intracranial recordings from a macaque monkey are used as neural sources to simulate realistic MEG signals. The advantage of this approach is that local field potentials are more realistic representations of true neuronal sources than simulation models and therefore are more suitable to indicate the performance of our nulling beamforming method. PMID:19896541

  14. True-personality-assisted self-awareness expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Laleuf, M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on psychoanalytic theory, the Who am I expert system explains in simple terms the individual's true personality, even it its unconscious or hidden aspects. Our overt personality traits are deeply rooted. The Who am I expert system gives access to an individual's primary personality, starting from his habitual everyday-life behavior: (1) describes the individual's basic personality, (2) explains this personality through the individual's deeply rooted experience and motivation, and (3) makes links with other people with a similar profile. The following are the primary features of the system: easy individual access, results in <20 minutes, and guaranteed confidentiality. Business applications include the following: (1) Individual training: Self-awareness improves a person's ability to fit in and to succeed within the group. (2) Communication: a homogeneous team has a better chance of success. (3) Human reliability: A close-knit team remains reliable even when faced with serious difficulties. (4) Recruitment: This technique enables the selection of individuals who will fit an existing homogeneous team. The system also enables a psychological diagnosis to be confirmed.

  15. Topographic evidence of True Polar Wander on Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajeddine, R.; Soderlund, K. M.; Thomas, P.; Helfenstein, P.; Schenk, P.; Hedman, M. M.; Burns, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The peculiar presence of the active hotspot at Enceladus' south pole raises the question of whether it formed in situor if the satellite reoriented over time and moved the hotspot there from a different location. Here we extend a spherical harmonic reconstruction of Enceladus' shape to order 16 by combining Cassini limb profile data with the positions of a large, globally distributed collection of surface control points. We have discovered an aligned arrangement of deep topographic lows that define a circumglobal valley lying along a non-equatorial great circle across Enceladus' surface. In addition, we have found two antipodal basins located about 90 degrees from the great circle. We argue that these structures are evidence of True Polar Wander of an angle 75 to 90 degrees, where the great circle and the antipodal regions are remnants of old equator and poles, respectively. Modeling of heat transport in Enceladus' sub-surface ocean suggests that heat flux along the ice-ocean interface is strongest and weakest at high and low latitudes, respectively. The resulting basal melt/freeze distribution may produce latitudinal variations in ice shell thickness and density that can create the topographic depressions apparent at the surface through isostatic adjustment. Our hypothesis also agrees well with the surface geological features visible in Cassini images.

  16. The quest for a true One Health perspective of brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Godfroid, J; DeBolle, X; Roop, R M; O'Callaghan, D; Tsolis, R M; Baldwin, C; Santos, R L; McGiven, J; Olsen, S; Nymo, I H; Larsen, A; Al Dahouk, S; Letesson, J J

    2014-08-01

    One Health is an interdisciplinary collaboration that aims at mitigating risks to human health arising from microorganisms present in non-human animal species, which have the potential to be transmitted and cause disease in humans. Different degrees of scientific collaboration and sectoral integration are needed for different types of zoonotic diseases, depending on the health and associated economic gains that can be expected from a One Health approach. Indeed, mitigating zoonotic risks related to emerging diseases with pandemic potential is different from mitigating risks related to endemic zoonotic diseases like brucellosis. Likewise, management of brucellosis at the wildlife-livestock interface in wildlife conservation areas is in essence different from mitigating transmission of a given Brucella species within its preferential host species, which in turn is different from mitigating the spillover of a given Brucella species to non-preferential host species, humans included. Brucellosis economic models often oversimplify and/or wrongly assess transmission between reservoir hosts and spillover hosts. Moreover,they may not properly value non-market outcomes, such as avoidance of human disease, consumer confidence and conservation biology issues. As a result, uncertainty is such that the economic predictions of these models can be questionable. Therefore, understanding the infection biology of Brucella species is a prerequisite. This paper reviews and highlights important features of the infection biology of Brucella species and the changing epidemiology of brucellosis that need to be integrated into a true One Health perspective of brucellosis. PMID:25707181

  17. Linear Prediction of a True Score from a Direct Estimate and Several Derived Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Qian, Jiahe

    2007-01-01

    Statistical prediction problems often involve both a direct estimate of a true score and covariates of this true score. Given the criterion of mean squared error, this study determines the best linear predictor of the true score given the direct estimate and the covariates. Results yield an extension of Kelley's formula for estimation of the true…

  18. 77 FR 33794 - True Product ID, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION True Product ID, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading June 5, 2012. It appears to the Securities... securities of True Product ID, Inc. (``True Product'') because it has not filed a periodic report since...

  19. Having One's Cake and Eating It, Too: Combining True Experiments with Regression Discontinuity Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Marvin B.

    2008-01-01

    Both true experiments and regression discontinuity (RD) designs produce unbiased estimates of effects. However, true experiments are, of course, often criticized on equity grounds, whereas RD designs entail sacrifices in terms of statistical precision. In this article, a hybrid of true experiments and RD designs is considered. This hybrid entails…

  20. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  1. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  2. States Address Achievement Gaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Kathy

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes 2 state initiatives to address the achievement gap: North Carolina's report by the Advisory Commission on Raising Achievement and Closing Gaps, containing an 11-point strategy, and Kentucky's legislation putting in place 10 specific processes. The North Carolina report is available at www.dpi.state.nc.us.closingthegap; Kentucky's…

  3. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  4. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  5. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Idaho

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  10. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  12. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. Honoring Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Is the concept of "honor roll" obsolete? The honor roll has always been a way for schools to recognize the academic achievement of their students. But does it motivate students? In this article, several elementary school principals share their views about honoring student achievement. Among others, Virginia principal Nancy Moga said that students…

  19. Aiming at Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Paul

    The Raising Quality and Achievement Program is a 3-year initiative to support further education (FE) colleges in the United Kingdom in their drive to improve students' achievement and the quality of provision. The program offers the following: (1) quality information and advice; (2) onsite support for individual colleges; (3) help with…

  20. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  1. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. Achievement-Based Resourcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Mike; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This collection of seven articles examines achievement-based resourcing (ABR), the concept that the funding of educational institutions should be linked to their success in promoting student achievement, with a focus on the application of ABR to postsecondary education in the United Kingdom. The articles include: (1) "Introduction" (Mick…

  4. How I Learned the Value of a True PLC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brig, Leane

    2014-01-01

    Two Colorado math teachers attribute their participation in a professional learning community to their ability to achieve the highest growth scores of any tested level (3rd through 10th grade) in the three tested subjects (reading, writing, and math) in their 22,000-student school district.

  5. Achievement Motivation and the Adolescent Musician: A Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatt, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation plays a role in nearly all human decision-making processes. Regardless of the situation, little may be achieved without the appropriate harnessing of motivation. The same is true in the music classroom. Research appears to indicate that motivation plays a crucial role in human development and achievement. The achievement motivation…

  6. Does a Claims Diagnosis of Autism Mean a True Case?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, James P.; Jain, Anjali; Yang, Wenya; Kelly, Jonathan P.; Kaiser, Marygrace; Becker, Laura; Lawer, Lindsay; Newschaffer, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate autism spectrum disorder cases identified through claims-based case identification algorithms against a clinical review of medical charts. Charts were reviewed for 432 children who fell into one of the three following groups: (a) more than or equal to two claims with an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis…

  7. True RGB line scan camera for color machine vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemstrom, Guy F.

    1994-11-01

    In this paper a true RGB 3-chip color line scan camera is described. The camera was mainly developed for accurate color measuring in industrial applications. Due to the camera's modularity it's also possible to use it as a B/W-camera. The color separation is made with a RGB-beam splitter. The CCD linear arrays are fixed with a high accuracy to the beam splitters output in order to match the pixels of the three different CCDs on each other. This makes the color analyses simple compared to color line arrays where line or pixel matching has to be done. The beam splitter can be custom made to separate spectral components other than standard RGB. The spectral range is from 200 to 1000 nm for most CCDs and two or three spectral areas can be separately measured with the beam splitter. The camera is totally digital and has a 16-bit parallel computer interface to communicate with a signal processing board. Because of the open architecture of the camera it's possible for the customer to design a board with some special functions handling the preprocessing of the data (for example RGB - HSI conversion). The camera can also be equipped with a high speed CPU-board with enough local memory to do some image processing inside the camera before sending the data forward. The camera has been used in real industrial applications and has proven that its high resolution and high dynamic range can be used to measure color differences of small amounts to separate or grade objects such as minerals, food or other materials that can't be measured with a black and white camera.

  8. Adding Seabed True Color to the Virtual Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplan, J.; Ryan, W. B.; Jenkins, C. J.; Lotti Bond, R.; Arko, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    Since the late 1940’s thousands of sediment cores have been extracted from the global ocean floor. In the process of describing these cores, the color of the sediment has often been recorded using the Munsell Soil color scheme. This observation has been routine for >14,000 cores in the Deep-Sea Sample Repository at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. The text descriptions were parsed and processed to extract the Munsell code for the uppermost sediment layer in each core. The code was then converted to red, green, blue triplets so that a dot at the location of each seabed sample could be colored in map view on a computer monitor. The sediment color has also been extracted from thousands of other samples in the dbSEABED database and USGS databases. Sediment color is influenced by many parameters, but most notably by the carbonate content, the level of dissolved oxygen in the bottom water and the burial rate. The carbonate content has been measured in a substantial subset of the core tops, and a global grid at 1 degree node spacing is available to assist the interpolation of the seabed color onto a uniform grid. The seabed dissolved oxygen content has also been gridded from physical oceanographic stations. Using these and other proxies (e.g., seafloor depth, slope, physiographic boundaries, carbonate lysocline, surface ocean productivity, seafloor age, etc.), we have begun to construct a comprehensive image of the seabed in its true color for our GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean tiles. The color of the seabed will ultimately compliment the color of the land accomplished by JPL/NASA in their Blue Marble tile set. The steps taken, problems encountered and the preliminary results will be presented in the poster.

  9. E4 True and false color hot spot mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color views of Jupiter from NASA's Galileo spacecraft show an equatorial 'hotspot' on Jupiter. These images cover an area 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles). The top mosaic combines the violet and near infrared continuum filter images to create an image similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundances of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The bottom mosaic uses Galileo's three near-infrared wavelengths displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Bluish clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are low, and white clouds are high and thick. The dark blue hotspot in the center is a hole in the deep cloud with an overlying thin haze. The light blue region to the left is covered by a very high haze layer. The multicolored region to the right has overlapping cloud layers of different heights. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes 1 to 10 degrees and is centered at longitude 336 degrees west. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on December 17, 1996, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers (about 930,000 miles) by the Solid State Imaging camera system aboard Galileo. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  10. True Density Prediction of Garlic Slices Dehydrated by Convection.

    PubMed

    López-Ortiz, Anabel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Méndez-Lagunas, Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Physiochemical parameters with constant values are employed for the mass-heat transfer modeling of the air drying process. However, structural properties are not constant under drying conditions. Empirical, semi-theoretical, and theoretical models have been proposed to describe true density (ρp). These models only consider the ideal behavior and assume a linear relationship between ρp and moisture content (X); nevertheless, some materials exhibit a nonlinear behavior of ρp as a function of X with a tendency toward being concave-down. This comportment, which can be observed in garlic and carrots, has been difficult to model mathematically. This work proposes a semi-theoretical model for predicting ρp values, taking into account the concave-down comportment that occurs at the end of the drying process. The model includes the ρs dependency on external conditions (air drying temperature (Ta)), the inside temperature of the garlic slices (Ti ), and the moisture content (X) obtained from experimental data on the drying process. Calculations show that the dry solid density (ρs ) is not a linear function of Ta, X, and Ti . An empirical correlation for ρs is proposed as a function of Ti and X. The adjustment equation for Ti is proposed as a function of Ta and X. The proposed model for ρp was validated using experimental data on the sliced garlic and was compared with theoretical and empirical models that are available in the scientific literature. Deviation between the experimental and predicted data was determined. An explanation of the nonlinear behavior of ρs and ρp in the function of X, taking into account second-order phase changes, are then presented. PMID:26666973

  11. Hydrodynamic perception in true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae).

    PubMed

    Hanke, Wolf; Wieskotten, Sven; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2013-06-01

    Pinnipeds, that is true seals (Phocidae), eared seals (Otariidae), and walruses (Odobenidae), possess highly developed vibrissal systems for mechanoreception. They can use their vibrissae to detect and discriminate objects by direct touch. At least in Phocidae and Otariidae, the vibrissae can also be used to detect and analyse water movements. Here, we review what is known about this ability, known as hydrodynamic perception, in pinnipeds. Hydrodynamic perception in pinnipeds developed convergently to the hydrodynamic perception with the lateral line system in fish and the sensory hairs in crustaceans. So far two species of pinnipeds, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) representing the Phocidae and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) representing the Otariidae, have been studied for their ability to detect local water movements (dipole stimuli) and to follow hydrodynamic trails, that is the water movements left behind by objects that have passed by at an earlier point in time. Both species are highly sensitive to dipole stimuli and can follow hydrodynamic trails accurately. In the individuals tested, California sea lions were clearly more sensitive to dipole stimuli than harbour seals, and harbour seals showed a superior trail following ability as compared to California sea lions. Harbour seals have also been shown to derive additional information from hydrodynamic trails, such as motion direction, size and shape of the object that caused the trail (California sea lions have not yet been tested). The peculiar undulated shape of the harbour seals' vibrissae appears to play a crucial role in trail following, as it suppresses self-generated noise while the animal is swimming. PMID:23180048

  12. True vertical validation in facial orthognathic surgery planning

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Navarro, Maria B.; Barrera-Mora, José M.; Llamas-Carreras, José M.; Puigdollers-Pérez, Andreu; Ayala-Puente, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To validate the effectiveness of the original standards of True Vertical (TV) Subnasal Line in orthognatic surgery planning. The present study evaluates the changes occurring in patients with skeletal Class II alterations programmed for orthognathic surgery with a view to improving their facial profile. Study design: We showed a series of black profiles (composed by a first control group of subjects with normal occlusion, and another two additional groups comprised patients before –Group 2- and after orthognatic surgical correction of Class II malocclusion -Group 3-) for three groups of observers (orthodontists, surgeons and laypeople). The facial images became black silhouettes in order to determine a series of parameters (including aesthetic assessment) by means of the observers. Their observation were assessed using a 5-point Likert scale. Results: The sample was composed of 52 profile’s subjects who were tested for a total of 72 observers. Aesthetic assessment yielded mean scores of 2.57, 1.67 and 2.46 for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.001) between group 1 versus group 2. There were no significant differences in terms of observer assessment of aesthetics, with the exception of a wider perception range among the orthodontists. Regarding the studied profile measures, significant differences were recorded for point B’ and Pg’ (p<0.02) between groups 2 and 3 (i.e., pre- versus post-surgery). Conclusions: The results of our study suggest the subnasale vertical and sagittal measures of the lower third of the face are decisive in facial aesthetics, and therefore also for the planning of orthognathic surgery. Consequently, these aesthetic parameters can be used as an objective tool for the planning of orthodontic treatment. Key words:Facial profile, Class II, orthognathic surgery, cephalometric analysis, facial soft tissue, subnasale vertical. PMID:24455088

  13. The role of true polar wander on the Jurassic palaeoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesia Llanos, María Paula; Prezzi, Claudia Beatriz

    2013-04-01

    From the Late Carboniferous until the Middle Jurassic, continents were assembled in a quasi-rigid supercontinent called Pangea. The first palaeomagnetic data of South America indicated that the continent remained stationary in similar present-day latitudes during most of the Mesozoic and even the Palaeozoic. However, new palaeomagnetic data suggest that such a scenario is not likely, at least for the Jurassic. In order to test the stationary versus the dynamic-continent model, we studied the Jurassic apparent polar wander paths of the major continents, that is, Eurasia, Africa and North America that all in all show the same shape and chronology of the tracks with respect to those from South America. We thus present a master path that could be useful for the Jurassic Pangea. One of the most remarkable features observed in the path is the change in pole positions at ~197 Ma (Early Jurassic), which denotes the cessation of the counter-clockwise rotation of Pangea and commencement of a clockwise rotation that brought about changes in palaeolatitude and orientation until the end of the Early Jurassic (185 Ma). Here, we analyse a number of phenomena that could have triggered the polar shift between 197 and 185 Ma and conclude that true polar wander is the most likely. In order to do this, we used Morgan's (Tectonophysics 94:123-139, 1983) grid of hotspots and performed "absolute" palaeogeographical reconstructions of Pangea for the Late Triassic and Jurassic. The palaeolatitudes changes that we observe from our palaeomagnetic data are very well sustained by diverse palaeoclimatic proxies derived from geological and palaeoecological data at this time of both the southern and northern hemispheres.

  14. [Inversion of True Protein Content in Milk Based on Hyperspectral Data].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-qian; Tan, Kun

    2015-12-01

    As an indispensable drink of people's daily life, milk's quality has been also increasingly concerned by consumers. Rapid and accurate detection of milk and its products is the indispensable step for improving the quality of milk and daily products in production. However, traditional methods cannot meet the need. In this paper, rapid quantitative detection of true protein in pure milk was studied by using visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy (350-2500 nm). The spectral data and the protein content data of the pure milk samples were collected by ASD spectrometer and CEM rapid protein analyzer, respectively. Based on the analysis and comparison of different spectrum preprocessing methods and band selection methods, the feature bands were determined. Finally, using the Principle Component Regression (PCR) and Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) model, the regression models between the reflectance spectroscopy and the protein content in milk were presented for pure milk samples and the predictive ability was also analyzed. In this way, the optimal inversion model for true protein content in milk was established. The results were shown as follows: (1) In the process of spectral pretreatment, the combination of multiple scatter correction and second derivative achieved a better result; (2) Compared with the modeling of whole spectral, appropriate variable optimization models had the ability to improve the accuracy of the inversion results and reduce the modeling time; (3) The analysis results between PCR model and LS-SVM model demonstrated that the prediction accuracy of LS-SVM model was better than PCR model. The coefficient of determination (R(P)²) of PCR and LS-SVM were 0.952 2 and 0.958 0 respectively, and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of PCR and LS-SVM were 0.048 7 and 0.048 2 respectively. The result of this research is expected to provide a novel method for nondestructive and rapid detection of true protein in milk

  15. Achieving lipid goals with rosuvastatin compared with simvastatin in high risk patients in real clinical practice: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center study: the DISCOVERY-Beta study.

    PubMed

    Laks, Toivo; Keba, Ester; Leiner, Mariann; Merilind, Eero; Petersen, Mall; Reinmets, Sirje; Väli, Sille; Sööt, Terje; Otter, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this multi-center, open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial was to compare the efficacy of rosuvastatin with that of simvastatin in achieving the 1998 European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) lipid treatment goals. 504 patients (> or =18 years) with primary hypercholesterolemia and a 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk >20% or history of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other established atherosclerotic disease were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive rosuvastatin 10 mg or simvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 weeks. A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved 1998 EAS low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared to simvastatin 20 mg (64 vs 51.5%, p < 0.01). Similarly, significantly more patients achieved the 1998 EAS total cholesterol (TC) goal and the 2003 EAS LDL-C and TC goals (p < 0.001) with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared with simvastatin 20 mg. The incidence of adverse events and the proportion of patients who discontinued study treatment were similar between treatment groups. In conclusion, in the DISCOVERY-Beta Study in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia greater proportion of patients in the rosuvastatin 10 mg group achieved the EAS LDL-C treatment goal compared with the simvastatin 20 mg group. Drug tolerability was similar across both treatment groups. PMID:19337553

  16. Achieving lipid goals with rosuvastatin compared with simvastatin in high risk patients in real clinical practice: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center study: the DISCOVERY-Beta study

    PubMed Central

    Laks, Toivo; Keba, Ester; Leiner, Mariann; Merilind, Eero; Petersen, Mall; Reinmets, Sirje; Väli, Sille; Sööt, Terje; Otter, Karin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this multi-center, open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial was to compare the efficacy of rosuvastatin with that of simvastatin in achieving the 1998 European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) lipid treatment goals. 504 patients (≥18 years) with primary hypercholesterolemia and a 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk >20% or history of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other established atherosclerotic disease were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive rosuvastatin 10 mg or simvastatin 20 mg once daily for 12 weeks. A significantly higher proportion of patients achieved 1998 EAS low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal after 12 weeks of treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared to simvastatin 20 mg (64 vs 51.5%, p < 0.01). Similarly, significantly more patients achieved the 1998 EAS total cholesterol (TC) goal and the 2003 EAS LDL-C and TC goals (p < 0.001) with rosuvastatin 10 mg compared with simvastatin 20 mg. The incidence of adverse events and the proportion of patients who discontinued study treatment were similar between treatment groups. In conclusion, in the DISCOVERY-Beta Study in patients with primary hypercholesterolemia greater proportion of patients in the rosuvastatin 10 mg group achieved the EAS LDL-C treatment goal compared with the simvastatin 20 mg group. Drug tolerability was similar across both treatment groups. PMID:19337553

  17. Muscular (hypertrophic) subaortic stenosis (hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy): the evidence for true obstruction to left ventricular outflow.

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, E. D.; Henderson, M.; Rakowski, H.; Wilansky, S.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical and haemodynamic significance of the subaortic pressure gradient in patients with muscular (hypertrophic) subaortic stenosis (hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy) has long been debated. In this report we summarize the evidence which indicates that true obstruction to left ventricular outflow exists in these patients. Rapid left ventricular ejection, through an outflow tract narrowed by ventricular septal hypertrophy, results in Venturi forces causing systolic anterior motion of the anterior (or posterior) mitral leaflets. Mitral leaflet-septal contact results in obstruction to outflow and the accompanying mitral regurgitation. The time of onset of mitral leaflet-septal contact determines the magnitude of the pressure gradient and the severity of the mitral regurgitation, as well as the degree of prolongation of left ventricular ejection time and the percentage of left ventricular stroke volume that is ejected in the presence of an obstructive pressure gradient. Early and prolonged mitral leaflet-septal contact results in a large pressure gradient, significant mitral regurgitation, as well as dramatic prolongation of the ejection time and a large percentage of left ventricular stroke volume being obstructed. Late and short mitral leaflet-septal contact results in little haemodynamic perturbation. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients with obstructive pressure gradients are significantly more symptomatic than those without. Thus the obstructive pressure gradients in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are of clinical as well as haemodynamic significance. To deny the existence of obstruction to outflow in patients with muscular subaortic stenosis is to deny these patients appropriate medical and surgical therapy. PMID:3774688

  18. Prevalence and Determinants of True Thyroid Dysfunction Among Pediatric Referrals for Abnormal Thyroid Function Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lahoti, Amit; Klein, Jason; Schumaker, Tiffany; Vuguin, Patricia; Frank, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Abnormalities in thyroid function tests (TFTs) are a common referral reason for pediatric endocrine evaluation. However, a sizable proportion of these laboratory abnormalities do not warrant therapy or endocrine follow-up. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the prevalence of true thyroid dysfunction among pediatric endocrinology referrals for abnormal TFTs; (b) to identify the historical, clinical, and laboratory characteristics that predict decision to treat. Methods. This was a retrospective chart review of patients evaluated in pediatric endocrinology office during a weekly clinic designated for new referrals for abnormal TFTs in 2010. Results. A total of 230 patients were included in the study. Median age at referral was 12 years (range = 2-18); 56% were females. Routine screening was cited as the reason for performing TFTs by 33% patients. Majority was evaluated for hypothyroidism (n = 206). Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone was the most common referral reason (n = 140). A total of 41 out of 206 patients were treated for hypothyroidism. Conclusions. Prevalence of hypothyroidism was 20%. Thyroid follow-up was not recommended for nearly one third of the patients. Among all the factors analyzed, an elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level and antithyroglobulin antibodies strongly correlated with the decision to treat (P < .005). PMID:27336020

  19. Comparative study of Finn Chambers and T.R.U.E. test methodologies in detecting the relevant allergens inducing contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Suneja, T; Belsito, D V

    2001-12-01

    T.R.U.E. Test is a ready-to-use patch test system, which contains 23 allergens and is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved source of allergens currently commercially available in the United States. Previously, allergens dispersed in either petrolatum or water and designed to be applied utilizing Finn Chambers were also commercially available in the United States. During a 5-year study at the University of Kansas Medical Center, 167 patients were patch tested using both Finn Chamber and T.R.U.E. Test methodologies. Discordant positive reactions were examined for clinical relevance. The Finn Chamber methodology was superior in detecting clinically relevant allergies to fragrance mix, balsam of Peru, and thiuram mix. T.R.U.E. Test performed somewhat better than the Finn Chamber in detecting relevant allergic reactions to nickel, neomycin, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Neither T.R.U.E. Test nor Finn Chamber methodologies performed optimally in detecting relevant allergies to formaldehyde and carbamates. Practitioners limited to only the T.R.U.E. Test methodology need to be aware that relevant reactions to fragrances, rubber accelerators/pesticides (carbamates and thiurams), and formaldehyde may be missed with this system. PMID:11712026

  20. Does true Gleason pattern 3 merit its cancer descriptor?

    PubMed

    Miah, Saiful; Ahmed, Hashim U; Freeman, Alex; Emberton, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Nearly five decades following its conception, the Gleason grading system remains a cornerstone in the prognostication and management of patients with prostate cancer. In the past few years, a debate has been growing whether Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 prostate cancer is a clinically significant disease. Clinical, molecular and genetic research is addressing the question whether well characterized Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease has the ability to affect the morbidity and quality of life of an individual in whom it is diagnosed. The consequences of treatment of Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease are considerable; few men get through their treatments without sustaining some harm. Further modification of the classification of prostate cancer and dropping the label cancer for Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 disease might be warranted. PMID:27530265

  1. [Single-acupoint electroacupuncture based on traditional acupuncture becomes true].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tang-Yi; Yang, Hua-Yuan; Gao, Ming; Xu, Gang; Tang, Wen-Chao

    2010-10-01

    [ In current clinical acupuncture practice, many exiting problems including changes in the treated region, simultaneous covering two meridians of the two stimulating electrodes (acupuncture needles), inability to realize the reinforcing-reducing functions of the traditional acupuncture, etc. during application of electroacupuncture (EA) could be found, which may affect the therapeutic results or lead to failure in playing EA's functions. For this reason, the authors of the present paper put forward a concept of "single acupoint EA". Base on the design of "double electrodes of two acupuncture needles" of the conventional EA therapeutic apparatus, a "single acupoint EA therapy" was put forward and a single acupoint EA electronic apparatus (stimulating needle electrode) was manufactured. It not only realizes single acupoint stimulation, but also corresponds to the features of traditional EA therapy, avoiding some problems in currently-used EA therapy. It may be helpful to raising clinical therapeutic effect. PMID:21235069

  2. Predicting Achievement and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uguroglu, Margaret; Walberg, Herbert J.

    1986-01-01

    Motivation and nine other factors were measured for 970 students in grades five through eight in a study of factors predicting achievement and predicting motivation. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  3. Attractiveness and School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvia, John; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationship between rated attractiveness and two measures of school performance. Attractive children received significantly higher report cards and, to some degree, higher achievement test scores than their unattractive peers. (Author)

  4. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  5. True Local Recurrences after Breast Conserving Surgery have Poor Prognosis in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarsenov, Dauren; Ilgun, Serkan; Ordu, Cetin; Alco, Gul; Bozdogan, Atilla; Elbuken, Filiz; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Agacayak, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Eralp, Yesim; Dincer, Maktav

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed at investigating clinical and histopathologic features of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTR) and their effects on survival after breast conservation therapy. Methods: 1,400 patients who were treated between 1998 and 2007 and had breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for early breast cancer (cT1-2/N0-1/M0) were evaluated. Demographic and pathologic parameters, radiologic data, treatment, and follow-up related features of the patients were recorded. Results: 53 patients (3.8%) had IBTR after BCS within a median follow-up of 70 months. The mean age was 45.7 years (range, 27-87 years), and 22 patients (41.5%) were younger than 40 years. 33 patients (62.3%) had true recurrence (TR) and 20 were classified as new primary (NP). The median time to recurrence was shorter in TR group than in NP group (37.0 (6-216) and 47.5 (11-192) months respectively; p = 0.338). Progesterone receptor positivity was significantly higher in the NP group (p = 0.005). The overall 5-year survival rate in the NP group (95.0%) was significantly higher than that of the TR group (74.7%, p < 0.033). Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (<40 years), large tumor size (>20 mm), high grade tumor and triple-negative molecular phenotype along with developing TR negatively affected overall survival (hazard ratios were 4.2 (CI 0.98-22.76), 4.6 (CI 1.07-13.03), 4.0 (CI 0.68-46.10), 6.5 (CI 0.03-0.68), and 6.5 (CI 0.02- 0.80) respectively, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Most of the local recurrences after BCS in our study were true recurrences, which resulted in a poorer outcome as compared to new primary tumors. Moreover, younger age (<40), large tumor size (>2 cm), high grade, triple negative phenotype, and having true recurrence were identified as independent prognostic factors with a negative impact on overall survival in this dataset of patients with recurrent breast cancer. In conjunction with a more intensive follow-up program, the role of adjuvant therapy

  6. True Vertigo Patients in Emergency Department; an Epidemiologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahrami, Ali; Norouzi, Mehdi; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Arhami Dolatabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vertigo prevalence is estimated to be 1.8% among young adults and more than 30% in the elderly. 13-38% of the referrals of patients over 65 years old in America are due to vertigo. Vertigo does not increase the risk of mortality but it can affect the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of vertigo patients referred to the emergency department (ED). Methods: In this 6-month retrospective cross-sectional study, the profiles of all vertigo patients referred to the ED of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from October 2013 to March 2014 were evaluated. Demographic data and baseline characteristics of the patients were recorded and then patients were divided into central and peripheral vertigo. The correlation of history and clinical examination with vertigo type was evaluated and screening performance characteristics of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were determined. Results: 379 patients with the mean age of 50.69 ± 11.94 years (minimum 18 and maximum 86) were enrolled (58.13% female). There was no sex difference in vertigo incidence (p = 0.756). A significant correlation existed between older age and increase in frequency of central cases (p < 0.001). No significant difference was detected between the treatment protocols regarding ED length of stay (p = 0.72). There was a significant overlap between the initial diagnosis and the final decision based on imaging and neurologist’s final opinion (p < 0.001). In the end, 361 (95.3%) patients were discharged from ED, while 18 were disposed to the neurology ward. No case of mortality was reported. Conclusion: Sensitivity and specificity of history and clinical examination in differentiating central and peripheral vertigo were 99 (95% CI: 57-99) and 99 (95% CI: 97-99), respectively PMID:26862546

  7. [Let Us to Know the Post-Marketing Clinical Studies and Critical Situation of Study Groups -- Now We Should Talk about How to Achieve the Safe and Most Effective Treatment for Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Maki

    2016-04-01

    Not to leave something to be regretted in the life of patients and their family, it is important to find the best way during and after treatment for cancer. We, cancer survivors association, propose a corporated actions among patients, administration, medical stuffs, and enterprises to solve the problems of clinical studies. And we express our opinion on the present problems and to do for patients and citizens. PMID:27220802

  8. Assessing the ability of swab data to determine the true burden of infection for the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Clare, Frances; Daniel, Olivia; Garner, Trent; Fisher, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a pathogenic fungus which causes the disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians by infecting the animals' epidermis. The most commonly applied method for the detection of Bd is the use of a sterile swab, rubbed over the keratinized areas of an amphibian and then processed to yield DNA for detection by qPCR. This method has been used to infer a threshold of lethal infection in some species; however, how reliable and reproducible the swabbing method is at detecting the true burden of infection suffered by individuals is not known. European midwife toads, Alytes obstetricans, are susceptible to chytridiomycosis and are highly parasitised by Bd across Europe. By quantifying Bd-load throughout the entire skin and comparing this to swab results taken from the same individual, we determined whether epidermal swabs provide a quantifiable and accurate indication of the true fungal burden suffered. Further, we examined whether we could infer a threshold for lethal infection based on comparison of swab data taken from infected A. obstetricans exhibiting different clinical states. From swab data, we detected significantly higher fungal burdens from moribund metamorphs compared to visually healthy individuals; however, the ability of these swab data to provide an accurate indication of the true fungal burden was not reliable. These data suggest that fungal load dynamics play an important role in disease-induced mortality in A. obstetricans at these sites, but that using swab data to infer an exact threshold for Bd-associated mortality might be inappropriate and misleading. PMID:27060065

  9. Outcome of a second patch test reading of TRUE Tests® on D6/7.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2013-02-01

    Background. Two readings of patch test reactions are recommended. Objectives. To evaluate the outcome of a second patch test reading of TRUE Test® allergens on D6/7 in relation to negative or doubtful reactions on D3/4. Methods. This was a retrospective investigation of patch test data from January 1992 to October 2011 from consecutive eczema patients tested with the TRUE Test® panels. Results. In the period of nearly 20 years, a total of 9997 patients were tested. The total number of positive reactions to the 29 allergens was 6509; 4.4% were positive on D6/7 and negative on D3/4; and 9.1% were positive on D6/7 after a doubtful (?+) reaction on D3/4. Neomycin was the most frequent allergen giving delayed positive reactions (57%), followed by budesonide (42%) and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate (31%). Conclusion. A total of 4.4% of positive TRUE Test® reactions would be missed, and 9.1% might be missed, if only one reading was performed on D3/4. The results emphasize that many doubtful reactions at D3/4 may develop into positive reactions at a later reading. This may have important implications for evaluation of the clinical relevance of the test result. PMID:23289880

  10. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (Approximate True Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    to identify rocks and features investigated by Spirit during the Chinese New Year celebration period. In ancient Chinese myth, FuYi was the first great emperor and lived in the east. He explained the theory of 'Yin' and 'Yang' to his people, invented the net to catch fish, was the first to use fire to cook food, and invented a musical instrument known as the 'Se' to accompany his peoples' songs and dances. Other rocks and features are being informally named for Chinese gods, warriors, inventors, and scientists, as well as rivers, lakes, and mountains.

    Spirit took this image on the rover's Martian day, or sol, 731 (Jan. 23, 2006). This is an approximate true color rendering combining images taken with the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  11. Supercontinents, True Polar Wander, and Paleogeography of the Slave Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Ross Nelson

    The supercontinent cycle, which may have been operational throughout most of Earth history, describes not only the kinematics associated with the suturing and rifting of continents via plate tectonics but also the wholesale organization of mantle convection patterns, which has consequences for long-term geodynamics and true polar wander (TPW). Based on both newly acquired paleomagnetic data and regional or global syntheses, this thesis generates paleogeographic maps spanning 2 billion years and evaluates how such empirical constraints inform plate kinematics and TPW. Prior to Pangea, the latest supercontinent, paleomagnetism is the only quantitative method for reconstructing continents. Comparing high-quality data from continents considered central to Nuna, possibly Earth's first supercontinent, reconstructs the core of the hypothesized Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent for the first time. A global paleomagnetic synthesis spanning the past three supercontinents yields evidence for periods of oscillatory TPW following each supercontinent that can be used to infer a geometric pattern to supercontinent cycles and constrain absolute paleolongitude. Relative to post-Pangea oscillations, large-amplitude TPW is implied for older events if evidence for early TPW is to be believed. Possibly the last large (˜60°) TPW event occurred during the Cambrian explosion of animal life. A new detailed Early Cambrian magnetostratigraphy from the Amadeus Basin of Australia indicates a rapid Early Cambrian rotation of Gondwana, still permitting the possibility that at least one large-amplitude TPW event occurred in Phanerozoic time. Investigating earlier and even larger possible TPW episodes, several cases are identified where interpreting large paleomagnetic oscillations as TPW permits regional geologic interpretations to be honored. Allowing for only minor tectonic motion of Laurentia and large-scale TPW, large amounts of paleomagnetic motion observed can be reconciled with

  12. Diabetic Kidney Disease and Hypertension: A True Love Story

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anand; Vyas, Sony; Agarwal, Abhishek; Abbas, Shahid; Agarwal, Devi Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes Mellitus (DM) remains one of the commonest causes of structural and functional kidney abnormalities leading to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). The next most common cause is hypertension. It is utmost important to investigate the association between diabetic nephropathy and hypertension because it is a major causal factor of end-stage kidney failure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between albuminuria, hypertension and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a prospective cohort of T2DM patients in a developing country. Materials and Methods A total of 824 patients were enrolled from a tertiary healthcare center in central India. This study was performed in three groups: normal controls (232), type 2 diabetics without nephropathy (185) and type 2 diabetics with nephropathy (407). Diabetic nephropathy was clinically defined by the presence of persistent proteinuria of > 500mg/day in a diabetic patient in the absence of clinical or laboratory evidence of other kidney or urinary tract disease. Hypertension was categorized based on JNC 7 classification. Detailed clinical history was obtained from all subjects. Student’s t-test was applied to see the difference in mean values of quantitative data in two groups. Chi-Square test was applied to see the difference in frequency of discrete variables in two groups. Results A 66.3% diabetic nephropathy patients and 51.9% type 2 diabetics without nephropathy were found hypertensive in present study; In contrast only 14.7% controls had hypertension. No association of hypertension was found with age and gender in either group. Serum creatinine and eGFR was found significantly different in hypertensive diabetic nephropathy patients than normotensive (p=0.002 and <0.0001 respectively). Conclusion Our study found that hypertension was an independent risk factor for the Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD). Along with this, a proportional

  13. Be a true listener, rather than a good conversationalist

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Itrat; Al-Bahrani, Bassim Jaffar

    2013-01-01

    Oncology patient care is an ever evolving field both as a science and a clinical art. We evaluate, diagnose, and treat cancer patients daily. We break the bad and the good news to them. We are the hope on which their life and dreams hang on. We, as practitioners, have to assess each patient as an intelligent observer. We have to devise our strategy to break heartbreaking news to them in a tailored and personalized fashion according to the physical, psychological, emotional, and social status of the patient. The process has to be gentle, perceptive, pragmatic, yet truthful. These need to be reasonably good observational, listening, comprehending, and delivering potentials; which are sharpened by experience and skills. PMID:24455663

  14. Single lead atrial synchronous ventricular pacing: a dream come true.

    PubMed

    Antonioli, G E

    1994-09-01

    Single lead, atrial synchronous pacing systems were developed in the late 1970s. Clinical experience has demonstrated the need to position the "floating" atrial electrode in the mid-to-high right atrium and the need for a specially designed pulse generator (with very high atrial sensitivity) to provide a high quality and amplitude atrial electrogram for consistent sensing. A 12-year experience with different electrode configurations, from the first unipolar designed in 1980 to the most recent atrial bipolar electrodes, has confirmed the validity of the original concept and the long-term reliability of the single lead atrial synchronous pacing system, which can reliably produce long-term atrial sensing and ventricular stimulation in the presence of normal sinoatrial function. PMID:7991425

  15. Innovative Drugs to Treat Depression: Did Animal Models Fail to Be Predictive or Did Clinical Trials Fail to Detect Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A careful analysis of the literature reveals that both statements are true. Indeed, in some cases, clinical efficacy has been predicted on the basis of inappropriate animal models, although the contrary is also true, as some clinical trials have not targeted the appropriate dose or clinical population. On the one hand, refinement of animal models requires using species that have better homological validity, designing models that rely on experimental manipulations inducing pathological features, and trying to model subtypes of depression. On the other hand, clinical research should consider carefully the results from preclinical studies, in order to study these compounds at the correct dose, in the appropriate psychiatric nosological entity or symptomatology, in relevant subpopulations of patients characterized by specific biomarkers. To achieve these goals, translational research has to strengthen the dialogue between basic and clinical science. PMID:24345817

  16. Innovative drugs to treat depression: did animal models fail to be predictive or did clinical trials fail to detect effects?

    PubMed

    Belzung, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    Over recent decades, encouraging preclinical evidence using rodent models pointed to innovative pharmacological targets to treat major depressive disorder. However, subsequent clinical trials have failed to show convincing results. Two explanations for these rather disappointing results can be put forward, either animal models of psychiatric disorders have failed to predict the clinical effectiveness of treatments or clinical trials have failed to detect the effects of these new drugs. A careful analysis of the literature reveals that both statements are true. Indeed, in some cases, clinical efficacy has been predicted on the basis of inappropriate animal models, although the contrary is also true, as some clinical trials have not targeted the appropriate dose or clinical population. On the one hand, refinement of animal models requires using species that have better homological validity, designing models that rely on experimental manipulations inducing pathological features, and trying to model subtypes of depression. On the other hand, clinical research should consider carefully the results from preclinical studies, in order to study these compounds at the correct dose, in the appropriate psychiatric nosological entity or symptomatology, in relevant subpopulations of patients characterized by specific biomarkers. To achieve these goals, translational research has to strengthen the dialogue between basic and clinical science. PMID:24345817

  17. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  18. Achieving health care affordability.

    PubMed

    Payson, Norman C

    2002-10-01

    Not all plans are jumping headlong into the consumer-centric arena. In this article, the CEO of Oxford Health Plans discusses how advanced managed care can achieve what other consumer-centric programs seek to do--provide affordable, quality health care. PMID:12391815

  19. Issues in Achievement Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    This booklet is intended to help school personnel, parents, students, and members of the community understand concepts and research relating to achievement testing in public schools. The paper's sections include: (1) test use with direct effects on students (test of certification, selection, and placement); (2) test use with indirect effects on…

  20. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  1. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  2. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  3. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  4. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  5. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  6. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  7. Advancing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    For the last half century, higher spending and many modern reforms have failed to raise the achievement of students in the United States to the levels of other economically advanced countries. A possible explanation, says Herbert Walberg, is that much current education theory is ill informed about scientific psychology, often drawing on fads and…

  8. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  9. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  10. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  11. Schools Achieving Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revis, Emma

    This guide is designed to assist teachers presenting the Schools Achieving Gender Equity (SAGE) curriculum for vocational education students, which was developed to align gender equity concepts with the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). Included in the guide are lesson plans for classes on the following topics: legal issues of gender equity,…

  12. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  13. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  14. Minority Achievement Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This report summarizes the achievements of Prince George's Community College (PGCC) with regard to minority outcomes. Table 1 summarizes the undergraduate enrollment trends for African Americans as well as total minorities from fall 1994 through fall 1998. Both the headcount number of African American students and the proportion of African…

  15. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  16. Optical focusing deep inside dynamic scattering media with near-infrared time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) light

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Lai, Puxiang; Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Grabar, Alexander A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing light deep inside living tissue has not been achieved despite its promise to play a central role in biomedical imaging, optical manipulation and therapy. To address this challenge, internal-guide-star-based wavefront engineering techniques—for example, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing—were developed. The speeds of these techniques, however, were limited to no greater than 1 Hz, preventing them from in vivo applications. Here we improve the speed of optical focusing deep inside scattering media by two orders of magnitude, and focus diffuse light inside a dynamic scattering medium having a speckle correlation time as short as 5.6 ms, typical of living tissue. By imaging a target, we demonstrate the first focusing of diffuse light inside a dynamic scattering medium containing living tissue. Since the achieved focusing speed approaches the tissue decorrelation rate, this work is an important step towards in vivo deep tissue noninvasive optical imaging, optogenetics and photodynamic therapy. PMID:25556918

  17. Parallel Emergence of True Handedness in the Evolution of Marsupials and Placentals.

    PubMed

    Giljov, Andrey; Karenina, Karina; Ingram, Janeane; Malashichev, Yegor

    2015-07-20

    Recent studies have demonstrated a close resemblance between some handedness patterns in great apes and humans. Despite this, comparative systematic investigations of manual lateralization in non-primate mammals are very limited. Among mammals, robust population-level handedness is still considered to be a distinctive human trait. Nevertheless, the comprehensive understanding of handedness evolution in mammals cannot be achieved without considering the other large mammalian lineage, marsupials. This study was designed to investigate manual lateralization in non-primate mammals using the methodological approach applied in primate studies. Here we show that bipedal macropod marsupials display left-forelimb preference at the population level in a variety of behaviors in the wild. In eastern gray and red kangaroos, we found consistent manual lateralization across multiple behaviors. This result challenges the notion that in mammals the emergence of strong "true" handedness is a unique feature of primate evolution. The robust lateralization in bipedal marsupials stands in contrast to the relatively weak forelimb preferences in marsupial quadrupeds, emphasizing the role of postural characteristics in the evolution of manual lateralization as previously suggested for primates. Comparison of forelimb preferences in seven marsupial species leads to the conclusion that the interspecies differences in manual lateralization cannot be explained by phylogenetic relations, but rather are shaped by ecological adaptations. Species' postural characteristics, especially bipedality, are argued to be instrumental in the origin of handedness in mammals. PMID:26096972

  18. Does choice of estimators influence conclusions from true metabolizable energy feeding trials?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Kirkpatrick, R.L.; Webb, K.E., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    True metabolizable energy (TME) is a measure of avian dietary quality that accounts for metabolic fecal and endogenous urinary energy losses (EL) of non-dietary origin. The TME is calculated using a bird fed the test diet and an estimate of EL derived from another bird (Paired Bird Correction), the same bird (Self Correction), or several other birds (Group Mean Correction). We evaluated precision of these estimators by using each to calculate TME of three seed diets in blue-winged teal (Anas discors). The TME varied by <2% among estimators for all three diets, and Self Correction produced the least variable TMEs for each. The TME did not differ between estimators in nine paired comparisons within diets, but variation between estimators within individual birds was sufficient to be of practical consequence. Although differences in precision among methods were slight, Self Correction required the lowest sample size to achieve a given precision. Feeding trial methods that minimize variation among individuals have several desirable properties, including higher precision of TME estimates and more rigorous experimental control. Consequently, we believe that Self Correction is most likely to accurately represent nutritional value of food items and should be considered the standard method for TME feeding trials. ?? Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2005.

  19. Motivation and approach to creating true color temperature low light level V-NIR source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopatz, Stephen D.; Mazzetta, Jason A.; Ennerson, Fred A.

    2010-04-01

    With the continuing innovation in night vision and multispectral imaging technologies, the requirements for more sophisticated test systems continue to increase. Various manufacturers of Visible and Near Infrared (V-NIR) cameras and detection systems need to verify the lowest detectable light level and check system performance at very low light levels as well as recovery from exposure to typical daytime light levels. Typical low level requirements are in the range of 10-4 to 10-6 foot-lamberts, equivalent to starlight radiance levels; typical daytime light levels are 103 foot-lamberts. There is a relatively straightforward approach to producing low light level output using "neutral" density filters to reduce the light to the proper level. Although neutral density filters are not spectrally neutral over the entire V-NIR wavelength range. For some test applications the loss of spectral fidelity is unacceptable for tests of sensor response. The challenge was to create an adjustable output V-NIR source that maintains the color temperature setting over the entire output range. This paper explains how the requirement of True Color Temperature Low Light Level source is met and the benefits compared to prior methods. In addition how the daylight level is also met with the same source. Once the high and low light levels are achieved in a stable and repeatable manner and are calibrated; the unique tests that can be performed with this source are discussed.

  20. Bi-color near infrared thermoreflectometry: a method for true temperature field measurement.

    PubMed

    Sentenac, Thierry; Gilblas, Rémi; Hernandez, Daniel; Le Maoult, Yannick

    2012-12-01

    In a context of radiative temperature field measurement, this paper deals with an innovative method, called bicolor near infrared thermoreflectometry, for the measurement of true temperature fields without prior knowledge of the emissivity field of an opaque material. This method is achieved by a simultaneous measurement, in the near infrared spectral band, of the radiance temperature fields and of the emissivity fields measured indirectly by reflectometry. The theoretical framework of the method is introduced and the principle of the measurements at two wavelengths is detailed. The crucial features of the indirect measurement of emissivity are the measurement of bidirectional reflectivities in a single direction and the introduction of an unknown variable, called the "diffusion factor." Radiance temperature and bidirectional reflectivities are then merged into a bichromatic system based on Kirchhoff's laws. The assumption of the system, based on the invariance of the diffusion factor for two near wavelengths, and the value of the chosen wavelengths, are then discussed in relation to a database of several material properties. A thermoreflectometer prototype was developed, dimensioned, and evaluated. Experiments were carried out to outline its trueness in challenging cases. First, experiments were performed on a metallic sample with a high emissivity value. The bidirectional reflectivity was then measured from low signals. The results on erbium oxide demonstrate the power of the method with materials with high emissivity variations in near infrared spectral band. PMID:23278013

  1. True molecular solutions of natural cellulose in the binary ionic liquid-containing solvent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Rein, Dmitry M; Khalfin, Rafail; Szekely, Noemi; Cohen, Yachin

    2014-11-01

    Evidence is presented for the first time of true molecular dissolution of cellulose in binary mixtures of common polar organic solvents with ionic liquid. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, small-angle neutron-, X-ray- and static light scattering were used to investigate the structure of cellulose solutions in mixture of dimethyl formamide and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Structural information on the dissolved chains (average molecular weight ∼ 5 × 10(4)g/mol; gyration radius ∼ 36 nm, persistence length ∼ 4.5 nm), indicate the absence of significant aggregation of the dissolved chains and the calculated value of the second virial coefficient ∼ 2.45 × 10(-2)mol ml/g(2) indicates that this solvent system is a good solvent for cellulose. More facile dissolution of cellulose could be achieved in solvent mixtures that exhibit the highest electrical conductivity. Highly concentrated cellulose solution in pure ionic liquid (27 wt.%) prepared according to novel method, utilizing the rapid evaporation of a volatile co-solvent in binary solvent mixtures at superheated conditions, shows insignificant cellulose molecular aggregation. PMID:25129726

  2. Reproduction of nearby sources by imposing true interaural differences on a sound field control approach.

    PubMed

    Badajoz, Javier; Chang, Ji-Ho; Agerkvist, Finn T

    2015-10-01

    In anechoic conditions, the Interaural Level Difference (ILD) is the most significant auditory cue to judge the distance to a sound source located within 1 m of the listener's head. This is due to the unique characteristics of a point source in its near field, which result in exceptionally high, distance dependent ILDs. When reproducing the sound field of sources located near the head with line or circular arrays of loudspeakers, the reproduced ILDs are generally lower than expected, due to physical limitations. This study presents an approach that combines a sound field reproduction method, known as Pressure Matching (PM), and a binaural control technique. While PM aims at reproducing the incident sound field, the objective of the binaural control technique is to ensure a correct reproduction of interaural differences. The combination of these two approaches gives rise to the following features: (i) an accurate reproduction of ILDs is achieved at the head positions considered by the method, (ii) the ILD variations in the vicinity of those positions are smoothed, thus lowering the ILD error, and (iii) the true wavefront is preserved. Given the properties of the presented method, intended distance and directional perception is expected. PMID:26520320

  3. Ultra-compact optical true time delay device for wideband phased array radars.

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rabb, David J.; Cowan, William D.; McCray, David L.; Rowe, Delton, J.; Flannery, Martin R.; Yi, Allen Y.; Ho, James G.; Anderson, Betty Lise

    2010-02-01

    An ultra-compact optical true time delay device is demonstrated that can support 112 antenna elements with better than six bits of delay in a volume 16-inch x 5-inch x 4-inch including the box and electronics. Free-space beams circulate in a White cell, overlapping in space to minimize volume. The 18 mirrors are slow-tool diamond turned on two substrates, one at each end, to streamline alignment. Pointing accuracy of better than 10 {micro}rad is achieved, with surface roughness {approx}45 nm rms. A MEMS tip-style mirror array selects among the paths for each beam independently, requiring {approx}100 {micro}s to switch the whole array. The micromirrors have 1.4{sup o} tip angle and three stable states (east, west, and flat). The input is a fiber-and-microlens array, whose output spots are re-imaged multiple times in the White cell, striking a different area of the single MEMS chip in each of 10 bounces. The output is converted to RF by an integrated InP wideband optical combiner detector array. Delays were accurate to within 4% (shortest delay) to 0.03% (longest mirror train). The fiber-to-detector insertion loss is 7.82 dB for the shortest delay path.

  4. Ultra-compact optical true time delay device for wideband phased array radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Betty Lise; Ho, James G.; Cowan, William D.; Spahn, Olga B.; Yi, Allen Y.; Flannery, Martin R.; Rowe, Delton J.; McCray, David L.; Rabb, David J.; Chen, Peter

    2010-04-01

    An ultra-compact optical true time delay device is demonstrated that can support 112 antenna elements with better than six bits of delay in a volume 16"×5"×4" including the box and electronics. Free-space beams circulate in a White cell, overlapping in space to minimize volume. The 18 mirrors are slow-tool diamond turned on two substrates, one at each end, to streamline alignment. Pointing accuracy of better than 10μrad is achieved, with surface roughness ~45 nm rms. A MEMS tip-style mirror array selects among the paths for each beam independently, requiring ~100 μs to switch the whole array. The micromirrors have 1.4° tip angle and three stable states (east, west, and flat). The input is a fiber-and-microlens array, whose output spots are re-imaged multiple times in the White cell, striking a different area of the single MEMS chip in each of 10 bounces. The output is converted to RF by an integrated InP wideband optical combiner detector array. Delays were accurate to within 4% (shortest delay) to 0.03% (longest mirror train). The fiber-to-detector insertion loss is 7.82 dB for the shortest delay path.

  5. Towards a true aerosol-and-cloud retrieval scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gareth; Poulsen, Caroline; Povey, Adam; McGarragh, Greg; Jerg, Matthias; Siddans, Richard; Grainger, Don

    2014-05-01

    The Optimal Retrieval of Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC) - formally the Oxford-RAL Aerosol and Cloud retrieval - offers a framework that can provide consistent and well characterised properties of both aerosols and clouds from a range of imaging satellite instruments. Several practical issues stand in the way of achieving the potential of this combined scheme however; in particular the sometimes conflicting priorities and requirements of aerosol and cloud retrieval problems, and the question of the unambiguous identification of aerosol and cloud pixels. This presentation will present recent developments made to the ORAC scheme for both aerosol and cloud, and detail how these are being integrated into a single retrieval framework. The implementation of a probabilistic method for pixel identification will also be presented, for both cloud detection and aerosol/cloud type selection. The method is based on Bayesian methods applied the optimal estimation retrieval output of ORAC and is particularly aimed at providing additional information in the so-called "twilight zone", where pixels can't be unambiguously identified as either aerosol or cloud and traditional cloud or aerosol products do not provide results.

  6. Extremal black holes, nilpotent orbits and the true fake superpotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossard, Guillaume; Michel, Yann; Pioline, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Dimensional reduction along time offers a powerful way to study stationary solutions of 4D symmetric supergravity models via group-theoretical methods. We apply this approach systematically to extremal, BPS and non-BPS, spherically symmetric black holes, and obtain their “fake superpotential” W. The latter provides first order equations for the radial problem, governs the mass and entropy formula and gives the semi-classical approximation to the radial wave function. To achieve this goal, we note that the Noether charge for the radial evolution must lie in a certain Lagrangian submanifold of a nilpotent orbit of the 3D continuous duality group, and construct a suitable parametrization of this Lagrangian. For general non-BPS extremal black holes in mathcal{N} = 8 supergravity, W is obtained by solving a non-standard diagonalization problem, which reduces to a sextic polynomial in W 2 whose coefficients are SU(8) invariant functions of the central charges. By consistent truncation we obtain W for other supergravity models with a symmetric moduli space. In particular, for the one-modulus S 3 model, W 2 is given explicitely as the root of a cubic polynomial. The STU model is investigated in detail and the nilpotency of the Noether charge is checked on explicit solutions.

  7. Comparison of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Blood Cultures as a True Bacteremia Agent and Contaminant in Terms of Slime Production and Methicillin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah; Yazgi, Halil; Ozden, Kemalettin; Erdil, Zeynep; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the species distribution, slime activity, and methicillin resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from blood cultures as either contaminants or true bacteremia agents. Materials and Methods: In this study, 13.268 blood culture samples sent to our laboratory from various clinics during a two-year period were examined in terms of the presence of CoNS to clarify whether the isolates are true bacteremia agents, as defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. The slime activities of true bacteremia agents (58 CoNS strains) and contaminants (50 randomly selected CoNS strains) were investigated by the Christensen method. The methicillin susceptibilities of the strains were determined by the disk diffusion method. Results: Although the frequency of slime production was 39.7% among the true bacteremia CoNS agents, it was 18% in CoNS that were judged to be contaminants (p<0.05). S. epidermidis was the most frequently isolated species for both the true bacteremia agent group (56.9%) and contaminant group (74%). Additionally, S. epidermidis was the bacterium most frequently characterized as slime producing in both groups. The methicillin resistance of slime-producing CoNS was determined to be 82.6% for the true bacteremia agent group and 77.8% for the contaminant group. Conclusion: The presence of slime activity in CoNS isolated from blood culture samples is supportive evidence that they are most likely the agents of true bacteremia cases. PMID:25610309

  8. Workplace irritant exposures: do they produce true occupational asthma?

    PubMed

    Banks, D E

    2001-04-01

    The recognition that irritant exposures can cause asthma is not new. Many investigators turn towards the gassings of soldiers in World War I as the first examples of this, while Brooks, in 1985, reported this in detail in workers and called it 'Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS)'. There is considerable overlap with RADS and occupational asthma as both share respiratory symptoms which can be described as 'asthmatic', yet RADS is the result of an acute excessive exposure, while occupational asthma occurs due to a series of sensitizing exposures. Yet, a clear understanding of RADS has been limited by the lack of epidemiologic studies; rather the disease has been described by case series. This report contrasts RADS and occupational asthma and finds that although there may be some difference in lung pathology, reports for the past years since Brooks' initial reports have shown that the line separating occupational asthma and RADS has become increasingly blurred, rather than increasingly distinct, with considerable overlap in the clinical symptoms with the perspective that these described entities are a part of a continuum. Perhaps the development of animal models for RADS may hasten further understanding. PMID:11964685

  9. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  10. The true stellar parameters of the Kepler target list

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, R.; Kolb, U.; Norton, A. J.

    2013-08-01

    Using population synthesis tools we create a synthetic Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC) and subject it to the Kepler Stellar Classification Program (SCP) method for determining stellar parameters such as the effective temperature Teff and surface gravity g. We achieve a satisfactory match between the synthetic KIC and the real KIC in the log g versus log Teff diagram, while there is a significant difference between the actual physical stellar parameters and those derived by the SCP of the stars in the synthetic sample. We find a median difference ΔTeff = +500 K and ˜Δlog g = -0.2 dex for main-sequence (MS) stars, and ˜ΔTeff = +50 K and Δlog g = -0.5 dex for giants, although there is a large variation across parameter space. For a MS star the median difference in g would equate to a ˜3 per cent increase in stellar radius and a consequent ˜3 per cent overestimate of the radius for any transiting exoplanet. We find no significant difference between ΔTeff and Δlog g for single stars and the primary star in a binary system. We also re-created the Kepler target selection method and found that the binary fraction is unchanged by the target selection. Binaries are selected in similar proportions to single star systems; the fraction of MS dwarfs in the sample increases from about 75 to 80 per cent, and the giant star fraction decreases from 25 to 20 per cent.

  11. Optimizing nonrigid registration performance between volumetric true 3D ultrasound images in image-guided neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Songbai; Fan, Xiaoyao; Roberts, David W.; Hartov, Alex; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2011-03-01

    Compensating for brain shift as surgery progresses is important to ensure sufficient accuracy in patient-to-image registration in the operating room (OR) for reliable neuronavigation. Ultrasound has emerged as an important and practical imaging technique for brain shift compensation either by itself or through computational modeling that estimates whole-brain deformation. Using volumetric true 3D ultrasound (3DUS), it is possible to nonrigidly (e.g., based on B-splines) register two temporally different 3DUS images directly to generate feature displacement maps for data assimilation in the biomechanical model. Because of a large amount of data and number of degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) involved, however, a significant computational cost may be required that can adversely influence the clinical feasibility of the technique for efficiently generating model-updated MR (uMR) in the OR. This paper parametrically investigates three B-splines registration parameters and their influence on the computational cost and registration accuracy: number of grid nodes along each direction, floating image volume down-sampling rate, and number of iterations. A simulated rigid body displacement field was employed as a ground-truth against which the accuracy of displacements generated from the B-splines nonrigid registration was compared. A set of optimal parameters was then determined empirically that result in a registration computational cost of less than 1 min and a sub-millimetric accuracy in displacement measurement. These resulting parameters were further applied to a clinical surgery case to demonstrate their practical use. Our results indicate that the optimal set of parameters result in sufficient accuracy and computational efficiency in model computation, which is important for future application of the overall biomechanical modeling to generate uMR for image-guidance in the OR.

  12. Dynamic phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography at a true kilohertz frame-rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Nair, Achuth; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic optical coherence elastography (OCE) techniques have rapidly emerged as a noninvasive way to characterize the biomechanical properties of tissue. However, clinical applications of the majority of these techniques have been unfeasible due to the extended acquisition time because of multiple temporal OCT acquisitions (M-B mode). Moreover, multiple excitations, large datasets, and prolonged laser exposure prohibit their translation to the clinic, where patient discomfort and safety are critical criteria. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of noncontact true kilohertz frame-rate dynamic optical coherence elastography by directly imaging a focused air-pulse induced elastic wave with a home-built phase-sensitive OCE system. The OCE system was based on a 4X buffered Fourier Domain Mode Locked swept source laser with an A-scan rate of ~1.5 MHz, and imaged the elastic wave propagation at a frame rate of ~7.3 kHz. Because the elastic wave directly imaged, only a single excitation was utilized for one line scan measurement. Rather than acquiring multiple temporal scans at successive spatial locations as with previous techniques, here, successive B-scans were acquired over the measurement region (B-M mode). Preliminary measurements were taken on tissue-mimicking agar phantoms of various concentrations, and the results showed good agreement with uniaxial mechanical compression testing. Then, the elasticity of an in situ porcine cornea in the whole eye-globe configuration at various intraocular pressures was measured. The results showed that this technique can acquire a depth-resolved elastogram in milliseconds. Furthermore, the ultra-fast acquisition ensured that the laser safety exposure limit for the cornea was not exceeded.

  13. Biofibre hair implant: what is new, what is true?

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Sheta, M; Rahoui, M; Chokoeva, A A; Wollina, U; Maximov, G K; Patterson, J W; Fioranelli, M; Roccia, M G; Ananiev, J; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring the safety of hair implant fibers is essential. At the same time, good aesthetic quality and durability should also be considered in order to maintain expected result over the years. The main features required are biocompatibility, resistance to traction, absence of capillarity, resistance to physical-chemical stress, and low tissue trauma, in addition to good aesthetics. Biofibre® medical hair prosthetic fibers meet all the biocompatibility and safety requirements established by international standards for medical devices. They are available in 13 colors, with different lengths (15, 30 or 45 cm) and various shapes (straight, wavy, curly and afro). Biofibre® hair implants are indicated for diffuse hair loss or hair thinning in cases where an immediate aesthetic result is required, when patients request minor surgery without hospitalization, both for male and female patients, in combination with other hair restoration techniques to improve the final aesthetic result, to correct scars or scalp burns and in cases of poor donor areas. Biofibre® Hair Implant is in fact a minor surgery technique, performed under local anesthesia by either a manual implanter or an automatic machine which enables an immediate aesthetic result and the desired quantity of hair without pain or hospitalization. Clinical and histological studies have demonstrated that Biofibre® hair Implants are safe and well tolerated by patients and can be totally reversible if the need arises. This technique requires good after-care, periodical check-ups and yearly implant re-touches to maintain the best cosmetic result. PMID:27373131

  14. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski. PMID:20624042

  15. A Structural Model of Medical Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, T. Joseph; Sanford, Keat

    1990-01-01

    The theoretical model of medical student performance begins with 38 measures, reduced to 18 without loss of information. These measures are shown to reflect five underlying theoretical interrelated variables: medical knowledge; clinical performance; science aptitude; college achievement; and attitudes and values. Results should be useful in…

  16. The Effective Clinical Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wink, Diane M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the common problems with clinical conferences and suggests approaches to maximize student learning. Suggests that an effective clinical conference has three characteristics: (1) it is a group event; (2) it contributes to the achievement of course and clinical objectives; and (3) it provides a setting for students to explore personal…

  17. Samarium Hexaboride: The First True 3D Topological Insulator?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgast, Steven G.

    systematic scratching or sanding results in a counter-intuitive increase in the electrical conduction due to the unique surface-conducting property of TIs, strengthening the building case for SmB 6's topological nature. This material is attractive as a TI because its bulk is fully insulating at a readily achieved 2 K, but it presents a large number of scientific mysteries and experimental challenges for future research.

  18. True and False DRM Memories: Differences Detected with an Implicit Task

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Maddalena; Agosta, Sara; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Barba, Gianfranco Dalla; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Memory is prone to illusions. When people are presented with lists of words associated with a non-presented critical lure, they produce a high level of false recognitions (false memories) for non-presented related stimuli indistinguishable, at the explicit level, from presented words (DRM paradigm). We assessed whether true and false DRM memories can be distinguished at the implicit level by using the autobiographical IAT (aIAT), a novel method based on indirect measures that permits to detect true autobiographical events encoded in the respondent’s mind/brain. In our experiment, after a DRM task participants performed two aIATs: the first aimed at testing implicit memory for presented words (true-memories aIAT) and the second aimed at evaluating implicit memory for critical lures (false-memories aIAT). Specifically, the two aIATs assessed the association of presented words and critical lures with the logical dimension “true.” Results showed that the aIAT detected a greater association of presented words than critical lures with the logical dimension “true.” This result indicates that although true and false DRM memories are indistinguishable at the explicit level a different association of the true and false DRM memories with the logical dimension “true” can be detected at the implicit level, and suggests that the aIAT may be a sensitive instrument to detect differences between true and false DRM memories. PMID:22969740

  19. Developmentally Invariant Dissociations in Children's True and False Memories: Not All Relatedness Is Created Equal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.

    2006-01-01

    The role of categorical versus associative relations in 5-, 7-, and 11-year-old children's true and false memories was examined using the Deese--Roediger--McDermott (DRM) paradigm and categorized lists of pictures or words with or without category labels as primes. For true items, recall increased with age and categorized lists were better…

  20. Power and Reliability: The Case of Homogeneous True Score Regression across Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisicaro, Sebastiano A.; Lautenschlager, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    An equation derived by W. A. Nicewander and J. M. Price relating statistical power to reliability of dependent variable measures when true score regression is homogeneous across treatment conditions is enhanced through overcoming the problem of directly estimating the squared linear correlation between true scores for X and Y. (SLD)

  1. Children's False Memory and True Disclosure in the Face of Repeated Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Jennifer M.; Alexander, Kristen Weede; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate children's memory and suggestibility for events differing in valence (positive or negative) and veracity (true or false). A total of 82 3- and 5-year-olds were asked repeated questions about true and false events, either in a grouped order (i.e., all questions about a certain event asked consecutively)…

  2. An Evaluation of Forced-Choice and True-False Item Formats in Personality Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Douglas N.; And Others

    In a comparative evaluation of a standard true-false format for personality assessment and a forced-choice format, subjects from college residential units were assigned randomly to respond either to the forced-choice or standard true-false form of the Personality Research Form (PRF). All subjects also rated themselves and the members of their…

  3. The Accuracy and Consistency of a Series of IRT True Score Equatings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Deping; Jiang, Yanlin; von Davier, Alina A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a sequence of item response theory (IRT) true score equatings based on various scale transformation approaches and evaluates equating accuracy and consistency over time. The results show that the biases and sample variances for the IRT true score equating (both direct and indirect) are quite small (except for the mean/sigma…

  4. Thine Own Self: True Self-Concept Accessibility and Meaning in Life

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, Rebecca J.; Hicks, Joshua A.; Arndt, Jamie; King, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    A number of philosophical and psychological theories suggest the true self is an important contributor to well-being. The present research examined whether the cognitive accessibility of the true self-concept would predict the experience of meaning in life. To ensure that any observed effects were due to the true self-concept rather than the self-concept more generally, we utilized actual self-concept accessibility as a control variable in all studies. True and actual self-concepts were defined as including those traits which are enacted around close others versus most others (Studies 1 through 3) or as traits that refer to “who you really are” vs. “who you are during most of your activities” (Studies 4 and 5), respectively. Studies 1 and 2 showed that individual differences in true self-concept accessibility, but not differences in actual self-concept accessibility, predicted meaning in life. Study 3 showed that priming traits related to the true self led to enhanced meaning in life. Studies 4 and 5 provided correlational and experimental support for the role of true self-concept accessibility in meaning in life, even when traits were defined without reference to social relationships and when state self-esteem and self-reported authenticity were controlled. Implications for the study of the true self-concept and authenticity are discussed. PMID:19159144

  5. Interval Estimation for True Raw and Scale Scores under the Binomial Error Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Won-Chan; Brennan, Robert L.; Kolen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Assuming errors of measurement are distributed binomially, this article reviews various procedures for constructing an interval for an individual's true number-correct score; presents two general interval estimation procedures for an individual's true scale score (i.e., normal approximation and endpoints conversion methods); compares various…

  6. Latent Variable Modeling of Cognitive Processes in True and False Recognition of Words: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouwmeester, Samantha; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed at testing theoretical predictions of the fuzzy-trace theory about true and false recognition. The effects of semantic relatedness and study opportunity on true and false recognition of words from Deese, Roediger, McDermott lists (J. Deese, 1959; D. R. Read, 1996; H. L. Roediger & K. B. McDermott, 1995) were evaluated in 7-…

  7. Achieving Magnet status.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beckie; Gates, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Magnet has become the gold standard for nursing excellence. It is the symbol of effective and safe patient care. It evaluates components that inspire safe care, including employee satisfaction and retention, professional education, and effective interdisciplinary collaboration. In an organization whose mission focuses on excellent patient care, Banner Thunderbird Medical Center found that pursuing Magnet status was clearly the next step. In this article, we will discuss committee selection, education, team building, planning, and the discovery process that define the Magnet journey. The road to obtaining Magnet status has permitted many opportunities to celebrate our achievements. PMID:16056158

  8. Programmable multiple true-time-delay elements based on a Fourier-domain optical processor.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaoke; Li, Liwei; Huang, Thomas X H; Minasian, Robert A

    2012-02-15

    A new technique to realize an array of multiple true-time-delay elements, which can be independently and continuously tuned, is reported. It is based on a WDM parallel signal processing approach in conjunction with a diffraction-based Fourier-domain optical signal processor. Programmable linear optical phase transfer functions are realized to obtain different electrical true-time delays. The technique can scale to a large number of wideband true-time-delay lines, with continuously tunable programmable delay. Results demonstrate multiple true-time-delay elements with independent tuning control and verify the concept by tuning the free spectral range of a microwave photonic notch filter. To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of multiple independently controllable true-time-delay lines for microwave photonic systems. PMID:22344122

  9. Recognizing outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speiss, Fred

    One function of any professional society is to provide an objective, informed means for recognizing outstanding achievements in its field. In AGU's Ocean Sciences section we have a variety of means for carrying out this duty. They include recognition of outstanding student presentations at our meetings, dedication of special sessions, nomination of individuals to be fellows of the Union, invitations to present Sverdrup lectures, and recommendations for Macelwane Medals, the Ocean Sciences Award, and the Ewing Medal.Since the decision to bestow these awards requires initiative and judgement by members of our section in addition to a deserving individual, it seems appropriate to review the selection process for each and to urge you to identify those deserving of recognition.

  10. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  11. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  12. Benefits of Reiki Therapy for a Severely Neutropenic Patient with Associated Influences on a True Random Number Generator

    PubMed Central

    Beem, Lance W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Reiki therapy is documented for relief of pain and stress. Energetic healing has been documented to alter biologic markers of illness such as hematocrit. True random number generators are reported to be affected by energy healers and spiritually oriented conscious awareness. Methods The patient was a then 54-year-old severely ill man who had hepatitis C types 1 and 2 and who did not improve with conventional therapy. He also suffered from obesity, the metabolic syndrome, asthma, and hypertension. He was treated with experimental high-dose interferon/riboviron therapy with resultant profound anemia and neutropenia. Energetic healing and Reiki therapy was administered initially to enhance the patient's sense of well-being and to relieve anxiety. Possible effects on the patient's absolute neutrophil count and hematocrit were incidentally noted. Reiki therapy was then initiated at times of profound neutropenia to assess its possible effect on the patient's absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Reiki and other energetic healing sessions were monitored with a true random number generator (RNG). Results Statistically significant relationships were documented between Reiki therapy, a quieting of the electronically created white noise of the RNG during healing sessions, and improvement in the patient's ANC. The immediate clinical result was that the patient could tolerate the high-dose interferon regimen without missing doses because of absolute neutropenia. The patient was initially a late responder to interferon and had been given a 5% chance of clearing the virus. He remains clear of the virus 1 year after treatment. Conclusions The association between changes in the RNG, Reiki therapy, and a patient's ANC is the first to the authors' knowledge in the medical literature. Future studies assessing the effects of energetic healing on specific biologic markers of disease are anticipated. Concurrent use of a true RNG may prove to correlate with the

  13. A Retrospective Analysis of Urine Drugs of Abuse Immunoassay True Positive Rates at a National Reference Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L; Sadler, Aaron J; Genzen, Jonathan R

    2016-03-01

    Urine drug screens are commonly performed to identify drug use or monitor adherence to drug therapy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the true positive and false positive rates of one of our in-house urine drug screen panels. The urine drugs of abuse panel studied consists of screening by immunoassay then positive immunoassay results were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Reagents from Syva and Microgenics were used for the immunoassay screen. The screen was performed on a Beckman AU5810 random access automated clinical analyzer. The percent of true positives for each immunoassay was determined. Agreement with previously validated GC-MS or LC-MS-MS confirmatory methods was also evaluated. There were 8,825 de-identified screening results for each of the drugs in the panel, except for alcohol (N = 2,296). The percent of samples that screened positive were: 10.0% for amphetamine/methamphetamine/3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 12.8% for benzodiazepines, 43.7% for opiates (including oxycodone) and 20.3% for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The false positive rate for amphetamine/methamphetamine was ∼14%, ∼34% for opiates (excluding oxycodone), 25% for propoxyphene and 100% for phencyclidine and MDMA immunoassays. Based on the results from this retrospective study, the true positive rate for THC drug use among adults were similar to the rate of illicit drug use in young adults from the 2013 National Survey; however, our positivity rate for cocaine was higher than the National Survey. PMID:26668238

  14. Evaluation of "true" creatinine clearance in rats reveals extensive renal secretion.

    PubMed

    Darling, I M; Morris, M E

    1991-10-01

    The renal clearance of endogenous creatinine is widely used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal function in animal investigations. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the extent of renal secretion of endogenous creatinine in rats and the effect of probenecid, the classical inhibitor of organic anion transport, on creatinine clearance. Ten female Lewis rats received 3H-inulin (5-muCi i.v. bolus followed by 5 muCi/hr) throughout a 6-hr period. Three hours after initiation of the inulin infusion, probenecid was administered (92.4-mg/kg i.v. bolus followed by 0.59 mg/min/kg). Steady-state serum concentrations of about 500 micrograms/ml probenecid were achieved. Renal clearance was assessed between 1 and 3 hr (control) and between 4 and 6 hr (probenecid treatment). A preliminary study in seven rats demonstrated no time-dependent change in inulin or creatinine clearance between these two study intervals. Creatinine clearances were determined by an alkaline picrate assay which incorporated Fuller's earth (Lloyd reagent) to remove interfering noncreatinine chromogens from serum samples and these values were compared with those using a nonspecific picrate assay. "True" clearance ratios of creatinine to inulin (Clcr/CLin) were greater than unity (2.33 +/- 0.83, mean +/- SD) and were significantly decreased after probenecid treatment (1.26 +/- 0.28, P less than 0.01). Probenecid had no effect on GFR, as assessed by inulin clearance. Using the nonspecific picrate assay, CLcr/CLin was 1.12 +/- 0.41, which was not significantly different from unity and which decreased to 0.53 +/- 0.12 after probenecid treatment. Therefore, creatinine undergoes extensive renal secretion in female Lewis rats. PMID:1796052

  15. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate. PMID:12287775

  16. Improving IQ measurement in intellectual disabilities using true deviation from population norms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by global cognitive deficits, yet the very IQ tests used to assess ID have limited range and precision in this population, especially for more impaired individuals. Methods We describe the development and validation of a method of raw z-score transformation (based on general population norms) that ameliorates floor effects and improves the precision of IQ measurement in ID using the Stanford Binet 5 (SB5) in fragile X syndrome (FXS; n = 106), the leading inherited cause of ID, and in individuals with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 205). We compared the distributional characteristics and Q-Q plots from the standardized scores with the deviation z-scores. Additionally, we examined the relationship between both scoring methods and multiple criterion measures. Results We found evidence that substantial and meaningful variation in cognitive ability on standardized IQ tests among individuals with ID is lost when converting raw scores to standardized scaled, index and IQ scores. Use of the deviation z- score method rectifies this problem, and accounts for significant additional variance in criterion validation measures, above and beyond the usual IQ scores. Additionally, individual and group-level cognitive strengths and weaknesses are recovered using deviation scores. Conclusion Traditional methods for generating IQ scores in lower functioning individuals with ID are inaccurate and inadequate, leading to erroneously flat profiles. However assessment of cognitive abilities is substantially improved by measuring true deviation in performance from standardization sample norms. This work has important implications for standardized test development, clinical assessment, and research for which IQ is an important measure of interest in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and other forms of cognitive impairment. PMID:26491488

  17. True and false chirality, {ital CP} violation, and the breakdown of microscopic reversibility in chiral molecular and elementary particle processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, L.D.

    1996-07-01

    The concept of chirality is extended to cover systems that exhibit enantiomorphism on account of motion. This is achieved by applying time reversal in addition to space inversion and leads to a more precise definition of a chiral system. Although spatial enantiomorphism is sufficient to guarantee chirality in a stationary system such as a finite helix, enantiomorphous systems are not necessarily chiral when motion is involved, which leads to the concept of true and false chirality associated with time-invariant and time-noninvariant enantiomorphism, respectively. Only a truly chiral influence can induce an enantiomeric excess in a reaction that has reached true thermodynamic equilibrium (i.e., when all possible interconversion pathways have equilibrated); however, false chirality can suffice in a reaction under kinetic control due to a breakdown of microscopic reversibility analogous to that observed in particle-antiparticle processes involving the neutral K-meason as a result of {ital CP} violation, with the apparently contradictory kinetic and thermodynamic aspects being reconciled by an appeal to unitarity. This reveals that {ital CP} violation is analogous to chemical catalysis since it affects the rates of certain particle-antiparticle interconversion pathways without affecting the initial and final particle energies and hence the equilibrium thermodynamics. Consideration of falsely chiral influences, including the {open_quote}ratchet effect{close_quote} arising from the associated breakdown in microscopic reversibility, greatly enlarges the range of possible chiral advantage factors in prebiotic chemical processes if far from equilibrium. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Using contrast patterns between true complexes and random subgraphs in PPI networks to predict unknown protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Quanzhong; Song, Jiangning; Li, Jinyan

    2016-01-01

    Most protein complex detection methods utilize unsupervised techniques to cluster densely connected nodes in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, in spite of the fact that many true complexes are not dense subgraphs. Supervised methods have been proposed recently, but they do not answer why a group of proteins are predicted as a complex, and they have not investigated how to detect new complexes of one species by training the model on the PPI data of another species. We propose a novel supervised method to address these issues. The key idea is to discover emerging patterns (EPs), a type of contrast pattern, which can clearly distinguish true complexes from random subgraphs in a PPI network. An integrative score of EPs is defined to measure how likely a subgraph of proteins can form a complex. New complexes thus can grow from our seed proteins by iteratively updating this score. The performance of our method is tested on eight benchmark PPI datasets and compared with seven unsupervised methods, two supervised and one semi-supervised methods under five standards to assess the quality of the predicted complexes. The results show that in most cases our method achieved a better performance, sometimes significantly. PMID:26868667

  19. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  20. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  1. Steam Technical Brief: How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractice Steam Technical Brief helps you calculate the true cost of steam. Knowing the correct cost is important for many reasons and all of them have to do with improving the company's bottom line.

  2. How Children Report True and Fabricated Stressful and Non-Stressful Events.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Megan K; Evans, Angela D; Talwar, Victoria; Bala, Nicholas; Lindsay, Rod C L; Lee, Kang

    2013-11-01

    As children can be victims or witnesses to crimes and may be required to testify about their experiences in court, the ability to differentiate between children's true and fabricated accounts of victimization is an important issue. This study used automated linguistic analysis software to detect linguistic patterns in order to differentiate between children's true and false stressful bullying reports and reports of non-stressful events. Results revealed that children displayed different linguistic patterns when reporting true and false stressful and non-stressful stories, with non-stressful stories being more accurately discriminated based on linguistic patterns. Results suggest that it is difficult to discriminate accurately and consistently between children's true and false stories of victimization. PMID:24659903

  3. On-line Learning of Unlearnable True Teacher through Mobile Ensemble Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirama, Takeshi; Hukushima, Koji

    2008-09-01

    The on-line learning of a hierarchical learning model is studied by a method based on statistical mechanics. In our model, a student of a simple perceptron learns from not a true teacher directly, but ensemble teachers who learn from a true teacher with a perceptron learning rule. Since the true teacher and ensemble teachers are expressed as nonmonotonic and simple perceptrons, respectively, the ensemble teachers go around the unlearnable true teacher with the distance between them fixed in an asymptotic steady state. The generalization performance of the student is shown to exceed that of the ensemble teachers in a transient state, as was shown in similar ensemble-teachers models. Furthermore, it is found that moving the ensemble teachers even in the steady state, in contrast to the fixed ensemble teachers, is efficient for the performance of the student.

  4. True-orthophoto generation from UAV images: Implementation of a combined photogrammetric and computer vision approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, L.; Brumana, R.; Oreni, D.; Previtali, M.; Roncoroni, F.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a photogrammetric methodology for true-orthophoto generation with images acquired from UAV platforms. The method is an automated multistep workflow made up of three main parts: (i) image orientation through feature-based matching and collinearity equations / bundle block adjustment, (ii) dense matching with correlation techniques able to manage multiple images, and true-orthophoto mapping for 3D model texturing. It allows automated data processing of sparse blocks of convergent images in order to obtain a final true-orthophoto where problems such as self-occlusions, ghost effects, and multiple texture assignments are taken into consideration. The different algorithms are illustrated and discussed along with a real case study concerning the UAV flight over the Basilica di Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila (Italy). The final result is a rigorous true-orthophoto used to inspect the roof of the Basilica, which was seriously damaged by the earthquake in 2009.

  5. Ultimate DWDM format in fiber-true bit-parallel solitons on WDM beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, C.; Bergman, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    Whether true solitons can exist on WDM beams (and in what form) is a question that is generally unknown. This paper will discuss an answer to this question and a demonstration of the bit-parallel WDM transmission.

  6. True Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Air filters perform an important function in commercial and institutional facilities. Because indoor air typically is two to five times more polluted than outdoor air, air filters are needed to remove respirable particles such as microorganisms, dust and allergens from the breathing air. In fact, air filters provide the primary defense for…

  7. True Colors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn-Nabrit, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Presents the story of how institutionalized racism prompted one African American couple to home school their three sons, who 10 years later, found themselves at Ivy League schools. The move to home schooling came after the boys were expelled from a mostly white, private school for what the parents insisted were racial reasons, asserting that skin…

  8. True North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jo-Anne Mary

    2007-01-01

    For Americans wanting to explore beyond their frontiers, their neighbor to the north is an ideal destination. Much of Canada's population is concentrated near the shared border, mostly in Ontario and Quebec. While nature is an obvious draw, Canada's dynamic urban centers present their own sophisticated enticements, and the country's ten provinces…

  9. True Blue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattise, M. Christine

    2004-01-01

    Traditional interventions (small group, individual counseling, classroom guidance, parent conferences) were obviously having little or no effect to stop bullying among children. The bullies had stuck with their project relentlessly, using snide looks, vicious whispering and a systematic plan to totally isolate one child on the playground. These…

  10. Accurate decisions in an uncertain world: collective cognition increases true positives while decreasing false positives

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Max; Kurvers, Ralf H. J. M.; Ward, Ashley J. W.; Krause, Stefan; Krause, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In a wide range of contexts, including predator avoidance, medical decision-making and security screening, decision accuracy is fundamentally constrained by the trade-off between true and false positives. Increased true positives are possible only at the cost of increased false positives; conversely, decreased false positives are associated with decreased true positives. We use an integrated theoretical and experimental approach to show that a group of decision-makers can overcome this basic limitation. Using a mathematical model, we show that a simple quorum decision rule enables individuals in groups to simultaneously increase true positives and decrease false positives. The results from a predator-detection experiment that we performed with humans are in line with these predictions: (i) after observing the choices of the other group members, individuals both increase true positives and decrease false positives, (ii) this effect gets stronger as group size increases, (iii) individuals use a quorum threshold set between the average true- and false-positive rates of the other group members, and (iv) individuals adjust their quorum adaptively to the performance of the group. Our results have broad implications for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of group-living animals and lend themselves for applications in the human domain such as the design of improved screening methods in medical, forensic, security and business applications. PMID:23407830

  11. Organ-specific Differences in Achieving Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Madariaga, Maria Lucia L.; Kreisel, Daniel; Madsen, Joren C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review When it comes to tolerance induction, kidney allografts behave differently from heart allografts which behave differently from lung allografts. Here, we examine how and why different organ allografts respond differently to the same tolerance induction protocol. Recent findings Allograft tolerance has been achieved in experimental and clinical kidney transplantation. However, inducing tolerance in experimental recipients of heart and lung allografts has proven to be more challenging. New protocols being developed in nonhuman primates based on mixed chimerism and co-transplantation of tolerogenic organs may provide mechanistic insights to help overcome these challenges. Summary Tolerance induction protocols that are successful in patients transplanted with “tolerance-prone” organs such as kidneys and livers will most likely not succeed in recipients of “tolerance-resistant” organs such as hearts and lungs. Separate clinical trials using more robust tolerance protocols will be required to achieve tolerance in heart and lung recipients. PMID:26147678

  12. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  13. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  14. Predicting Mathematics Achievement: The Influence of Prior Achievement and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Grootenboer, Peter; Kay, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Achievement in mathematics is inextricably linked to future career opportunities, and therefore, understanding those factors that influence achievement is important. This study sought to examine the relationships among attitude towards mathematics, ability and mathematical achievement. This examination was also supported by a focus on gender…

  15. A fast real time measurement system to track in and out of plane optical retardation/ birefringence, true stress, and true strain during biaxial stretching of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmak, M.; Hassan, M.; Unsal, E.; Martins, C.

    2012-12-01

    An instrumented and highly integrated biaxial stretching system was designed and constructed to obtain true stress, true strain, and optical behavior of polymeric films during biaxial stretching. With programmable drive motors, any form of temporally varying biaxial deformation profiles, including linear, exponential, logarithmic as well as cyclic, can be applied to a square-shaped films. This machine allows the investigation of mechano-optical behavior of films under profiles captured in industrial processes. To overcome the edge effects, the samples are painted with a dot pattern that is imaged using a high speed video capture system. This system accurately determines the locations of the each dot matrix in subsequent images acquired and calculates the true strains in both directions. The in-plane optical retardation is determined using spectral birefringence method that uses polarized white light and optical spectrometer in the optical train. This is carried out automatically at less than 10 nm in retardation resolution with the light beam passing through the symmetry center of the sample. Out of plane retardation is measured with an identical optical train tilted 45° to the plane of the film with its light beam going through the same spot on the sample as 0° beam. The true stress and birefringences are calculated with the determined instantaneous thickness of the film. With this system, the stress optical behavior of PET's is determined up to very large deformation levels at moderate to high deformation rates. Beyond the initial linear stress optical behavior, these films exhibit sudden positive deviation from linearity and this start of nonlinearity was directly associated with the stress induced crystallization.

  16. An Evaluation of a Natural Language Processing Tool for Identifying and Encoding Allergy Information in Emergency Department Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Foster R.; Plasek, Joseph M.; Lau, Jason J.; Seger, Diane L.; Chang, Frank Y.; Zhou, Li

    2014-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits due to allergic reactions are common. Allergy information is often recorded in free-text provider notes; however, this domain has not yet been widely studied by the natural language processing (NLP) community. We developed an allergy module built on the MTERMS NLP system to identify and encode food, drug, and environmental allergies and allergic reactions. The module included updates to our lexicon using standard terminologies, and novel disambiguation algorithms. We developed an annotation schema and annotated 400 ED notes that served as a gold standard for comparison to MTERMS output. MTERMS achieved an F-measure of 87.6% for the detection of allergen names and no known allergies, 90% for identifying true reactions in each allergy statement where true allergens were also identified, and 69% for linking reactions to their allergen. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility using NLP to extract and encode allergy information from clinical notes. PMID:25954363

  17. True Percutaneous Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Case Illustrations, Surgical Technique, and Limitations.

    PubMed

    Syed, Hasan; Voyadzis, Jean-Marc

    2016-07-01

    Objective The last decade has seen significant advances in minimally invasive techniques for lumbar interbody fusion that have reduced approach-related morbidity. Percutaneous lumbar interbody fusion involves a posterior transforaminal approach to the disk space with a minimal access port through the Kambin triangle. This technique obviates the need for the facetectomy or laminectomy required in a traditional transforaminal approach. This article describes the surgical technique, potential advantages and limitations, and representative case illustrations. Methods Percutaneous transforaminal interbody fusion was performed on two patients with axial back and leg pain as a result of degenerative disk disease. Diskectomy and interbody cage insertion were completed through a tubular dilator placed onto the disk space in the Kambin triangle. Posterior fixation was achieved with percutaneous transfacet screws. Clinical outcome and postoperative complications are discussed. Results Both patients demonstrated significant clinical improvement after surgery with > 1 year follow-up despite experiencing transient neurologic symptoms. Conclusion Although this report demonstrates the feasibility and advantages of the approach, the technique is limited by the potential for nerve root injury and pseudoarthrosis. PMID:26291889

  18. True-time delay line with separate carrier tuning using dual-parallel MZM and stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhu, Ning Hua; Wang, Li Xian; Wang, Jia Sheng; Liu, Jian Guo; Liu, Yu; Qi, Xiao Qiong; Xie, Liang; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xin; Han, Wei

    2011-06-20

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel tunable true-time delay line with separate carrier tuning using dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator and stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light. The phase of the optical carrier can be continuously and precisely controlled by simply adjusting the dc bias of the dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. In addition, both the slow light and single-sideband modulation can be simultaneously achieved in the stimulated Brillouin scattering process with three types of configuration. Finally, the true-time delay technique is clearly verified by a two-tap incoherent microwave photonic filter as the free spectral range of the filter is changed. PMID:21716468

  19. [Research Reports on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latts, Sander; And Others

    1969-01-01

    Four counselors studied the relation between achievement and choice of major, achievement and motivation, counseling and motivation, and achievement and employment. To see if those with definite majors or career choices in mind did better than those without, 300 students were tested according to the certainty of their choice. No significant…

  20. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  1. Reliability and Levels of Difficulty of Objective Test Items in a Mathematics Achievement Test: A Study of Ten Senior Secondary Schools in Five Local Government Areas of Akure, Ondo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebule, S. O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and difficult indices of Multiple Choice (MC) and True or False (TF) types of objective test items in a Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). The instruments used were two variants- 50-items Mathematics achievement test based on the multiple choice and true or false test formats. A total of five hundred (500)…

  2. Limitations of True Score Variance to Measure Discriminating Power: Psychometric Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seung Suk; MacDonald, Angus W.

    2010-01-01

    Demonstrating a specific cognitive deficit usually involves comparing patients’ performance on two or more tests. The psychometric confound occurs if the psychometric properties of these tests lead patients to show greater cognitive deficits in one domain. One way to avoid the psychometric confound is to use tests with a similar level of discriminating power, which is a test’s ability to index true individual differences in classic psychometric theory. One suggested way to measure discriminating power is to calculate true score variance (Chapman & Chapman, 1978). Despite the centrality of these formulations, there is no systematic examination of the relationship between the observable property of true score variance and the latent property of discriminating power. We simulated administrations of free response tests and forced choice tests by creating different replicable ability scores for two groups, across a wide ranges of various psychometric properties (i.e., difficulty, reliability, observed variance, and number of items), and computing an ideal index of discriminating power. Simulation results indicated that true score variance had only limited ability to predict discriminating power (explained about 10 % of variance in replicable ability scores). Furthermore, the ability varied across tests with wide ranges of psychometric variables, such as difficulty, observed variance, reliability, and number of items. Discriminating power depends upon a complicated interaction of psychometric properties that is not well estimated solely by a test’s true score variance. PMID:20455603

  3. Developmental Pathways from Parental Substance Use to Childhood Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Saar, Naomi S.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the pathways to childhood academic achievement in 209 African American and Puerto Rican children and their mothers. There were three pathways to childhood academic achievement: (a) the mother-child relationship and the child’s personality mediated between parental substance use and childhood academic achievement; (b) the child’s personality mediated between parental education and childhood academic achievement; and (c) there was a direct relationship between the child’s gender and childhood academic achievement. Policy and clinical implications suggest the importance of increasing educational opportunities for all parents, providing substance use treatment and self-esteem workshops, and altering the school curriculum. PMID:20525035

  4. True-time-delay photonic beamformer for an L-band phased array radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmuda, Henry; Toughlian, Edward N.; Payson, Paul M.; Malowicki, John E.

    1995-10-01

    The problem of obtaining a true-time-delay photonic beamformer has recently been a topic of great interest. Many interesting and novel approaches to this problem have been studied. This paper examines the design, construction, and testing of a dynamic optical processor for the control of a 20-element phased array antenna operating at L-band (1.2-1.4 GHz). The approach taken here has several distinct advantages. The actual optical control is accomplished with a class of spatial light modulator known as a segmented mirror device (SMD). This allows for the possibility of controlling an extremely large number (tens of thousands) of antenna elements using integrated circuit technology. The SMD technology is driven by the HDTV and laser printer markets so ultimate cost reduction as well as technological improvements are expected. Optical splitting is efficiently accomplished using a diffractive optical element. This again has the potential for use in antenna array systems with a large number of radiating elements. The actual time delay is achieved using a single acousto-optic device for all the array elements. Acousto-optic device technologies offer sufficient delay as needed for a time steered array. The topological configuration is an optical heterodyne system, hence high, potentially millimeter wave center frequencies are possible by mixing two lasers of slightly differing frequencies. Finally, the entire system is spatially integrated into a 3D glass substrate. The integrated system provides the ruggedness needed in most applications and essentially eliminates the drift problems associated with free space optical systems. Though the system is presently being configured as a beamformer, it has the ability to operate as a general photonic signal processing element in an adaptive (reconfigurable) transversal frequency filter configuration. Such systems are widely applicable in jammer/noise canceling systems, broadband ISDN, and for spread spectrum secure communications

  5. Students' Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement.

    PubMed

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  6. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  7. A qubit coupled with confined phonons: The interplay between true and fake decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Pouthier, Vincent

    2013-08-07

    The decoherence of a qubit coupled with the phonons of a finite-size lattice is investigated. The confined phonons no longer behave as a reservoir. They remain sensitive to the qubit so that the origin of the decoherence is twofold. First, a qubit-phonon entanglement yields an incomplete true decoherence. Second, the qubit renormalizes the phonon frequency resulting in fake decoherence when a thermal average is performed. To account for the initial thermalization of the lattice, the qua- ntum Langevin theory is applied so that the phonons are viewed as an open system coupled with a thermal bath of harmonic oscillators. Consequently, it is shown that the finite lifetime of the phonons does not modify fake decoherence but strongly affects true decoherence. Depending on the values of the model parameters, the interplay between fake and true decoherence yields a very rich dynamics with various regimes.

  8. Does subgroup membership information lead to better estimation of true subscores?

    PubMed

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip

    2013-11-01

    Haberman (2008) suggested a method to determine if subtest scores have added value over the total score. The method is based on classical test theory and considers the estimation of the true subscores. Performance of subgroups, for example, those based on gender or ethnicity, on subtests is often of interest. Researchers such as Stricker (1993) and Livingston and Rupp (2004) found that the difference in performance between the subgroups often varies over the different subtests. We suggest a method to examine whether the knowledge of the subgroup membership of the examinees leads to a better estimation of the true subscores. We apply our suggested method to data from two operational testing programmes. The knowledge of the subgroup membership of the examinees does not lead to a better estimation of the true subscore for the data sets. PMID:23106170

  9. Isolated True Surface Wave in a Radiative Band on a Surface of a Stressed Auxetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzupek, D.; Zieliński, P.

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate that a surface resonance (pseudosurface wave) may transform into a true surface wave, i.e., acquire an infinite lifetime, at a single isolated point within a bulk band (radiative region) in a model of a stressed auxetic material. In contrast with the secluded supersonic elastic surface waves, the one found here does not belong to a dispersion line of true surface waves. Therefore we propose to call it an isolated true surface wave (ITSW). The ITSW manifests itself by a deltalike peak in the local density of states and by anomalies in reflection coefficients. The phenomenon may be useful in redirecting energy and/or information from the bulk to the surface in devices supporting guided acoustic waves.

  10. Median Hetero-Associative Memories Applied to the Categorization of True-Color Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Roberto A.; Sossa, Humberto

    Median associative memories (MED-AMs) are a special type of associative memory based on the median operator. This type of associative model has been applied to the restoration of gray scale images and provides better performance than other models, such as morphological associative memories, when the patterns are altered with mixed noise. Despite of his power, MED-AMs have not been applied in problems involving true-color patterns. In this paper we describe how a median hetero-associative memory (MED-HAM) could be applied in problems that involve true-color patterns. A complete study of the behavior of this associative model in the restoration of true-color images is performed using a benchmark of 14400 images altered by different type of noises. Furthermore, we describe how this model can be applied to an image categorization problem.

  11. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  12. Do Intelligence and Sustained Attention Interact in Predicting Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Ziegler, Mattias; Trauble, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Research in clinical samples suggests that the relationship between intelligence and academic achievement might be moderated by sustained attention. The present study aimed to explore whether this interaction could be observed in a non-clinical sample. We investigated a sample of 11th and 12th grade students (N = 231). An overall performance score…

  13. True status of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis defaulters in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Kruyt, M. L.; Kruyt, N. D.; Boeree, M. J.; Harries, A. D.; Salaniponi, F. M.; van Noord, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    The article reports the results of a study to determine the true outcome of 8 months of treatment received by smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Mlambe Mission Hospital (MMH), Blantyre, Malawi. The treatment outcomes were documented from the tuberculosis registers of all patients registered between 1 October 1994 and 30 September 1995. The true treatment outcome for patients who had been registered as defaulters was determined by making personal inquiries at the treatment units and the residences of patients or relatives and, in a few cases, by writing to the appropriate postal address. Interviews were carried out with patients who had defaulted and were still alive and with matched, fully compliant PTB patients who had successfully completed the treatment to determine the factors associated with defaulter status. Of the 1099 patients, 126 (11.5%) had been registered as defaulters, and the true treatment outcome was determined for 101 (80%) of the latter; only 22 were true defaulters, 31 had completed the treatment, 31 had died during the treatment period, and 17 had left the area. A total of 8 of the 22 true defaulters were still alive and were compared with the compliant patients. Two significant characteristics were associated with the defaulters; they were unmarried; and they did not know the correct duration of antituberculosis treatment. Many of the smear-positive tuberculosis patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Blantyre district were found to have different treatment outcomes, without defaulting. The quality of reporting in the health facilities must therefore be improved in order to exclude individuals who are not true defaulters. PMID:10361755

  14. Comparison of measured Varian Clinac 21EX and TrueBeam accelerator electron field characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Samantha A M; Zavgorodni, Sergei; Gagne, Isabelle M

    2015-01-01

    Dosimetric comparisons of radiation fields produced by Varian's newest linear accelerator, the TrueBeam, with those produced by older Varian accelerators are of interest from both practical and research standpoints. While photon fields have been compared in the literature, similar comparisons of electron fields have not yet been reported. In this work, electron fields produced by the TrueBeam are compared with those produced by Varian's Clinac 21EX accelerator. Diode measurements were taken of fields shaped with electron applicators and delivered at 100 cm SSD, as well as those shaped with photon MLCs without applicators and delivered at 70 cm SSD for field sizes ranging from 5 × 5 to 25 × 25 cm² at energies between 6 and 20 MeV. Additionally, EBT2 and EBT3 radio-chromic film measurements were taken of an MLC-shaped aperture with closed leaf pairs delivered at 70 cm SSD using 6 and 20 MeV electrons. The 6 MeV fields produced by the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX were found to be almost indistinguishable. At higher energies, TrueBeam fields shaped by electron applicators were generally flatter and had less photon contamination compared to the Clinac 21EX. Differences in PDDs and profiles fell within 3% and 3 mm for the majority of measurements. The most notable differences for open fields occurred in the profile shoulders for the largest applicator field sizes. In these cases, the TrueBeam and Clinac 21EX data differed by as much as 8%. Our data indicate that an accurate electron beam model of the Clinac 21EX could be used as a starting point to simulate electron fields that are dosimetrically equivalent to those produced by the TrueBeam. Given that the Clinac 21EX shares head geometry with Varian's iX, Trilogy, and Novalis TX accelerators, our findings should also be applicable to these machines. PMID:26219015

  15. True Triaxial Strength and Failure Modes of Cubic Rock Specimens with Unloading the Minor Principal Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xibing; Du, Kun; Li, Diyuan

    2015-11-01

    True triaxial tests have been carried out on granite, sandstone and cement mortar using cubic specimens with the process of unloading the minor principal stress. The strengths and failure modes of the three rock materials are studied in the processes of unloading σ 3 and loading σ 1 by the newly developed true triaxial test system under different σ 2, aiming to study the mechanical responses of the rock in underground excavation at depth. It shows that the rock strength increases with the raising of the intermediate principal stress σ 2 when σ 3 is unloaded to zero. The true triaxial strength criterion by the power-law relationship can be used to fit the testing data. The "best-fitting" material parameters A and n ( A > 1.4 and n < 1.0) are almost located in the same range as expected by Al-Ajmi and Zimmerman (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 563 42(3):431-439, 2005). It indicates that the end effect caused by the height-to-width ratio of the cubic specimens will not significantly affect the testing results under true triaxial tests. Both the strength and failure modes of cubic rock specimens under true triaxial unloading condition are affected by the intermediate principal stress. When σ 2 increases to a critical value for the strong and hard rocks (R4, R5 and R6), the rock failure mode may change from shear to slabbing. However, for medium strong and weak rocks (R3 and R2), even with a relatively high intermediate principal stress, they tend to fail in shear after a large amount of plastic deformation. The maximum extension strain criterion Stacey (Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 651 18(6):469-474, 1981) can be used to explain the change of failure mode from shear to slabbing for strong and hard rocks under true triaxial unloading test condition.

  16. Design of True Random One-Time Pads in DNA XOR Cryptosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Miki; Kojima, Hiroaki; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    We present a new model to realize true random one-time pad (OTP) encryption using DNA self-assembly. OTP is an unbreakable cryptosystem if the pad (random key) is truly random, never reused, and kept secret. Mathematical algorithms can generate pseudo-random numbers only. "True" random numbers can be generated from a physical process such as thermal noise. In this work, we propose a new tile-colony algorithm that can utilize the DNA hybridization process as an effective source for the random key construction, and discuss the error tolerance of this method. Our results indicate that the molecular computation using DNA motifs will provide promising OTP applications.

  17. The true cost of cardiovascular imaging: focusing on downstream, indirect, and environmental costs.

    PubMed

    Braga, Larissa; Vinci, Bruna; Leo, Carlo G; Picano, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    To develop a more realistic assessment of costs, herein named "true" costs, the extra-cancer from medical radiation, environmental damage from imaging paraphernalia and radioactive wastes must be included as long-term costs from imaging examinations. It is urgent to define the "true" costs across imaging modalities as it interferes on physicians' decision to request an exam and on research projects such as cost-effectiveness analysis. Cardiology is the specialty that most will benefit from the outcome as cardiovascular exams represent almost 30% of the total exams acquired annually worldwide. PMID:23594829

  18. The effectiveness of family planning programs evaluated with true experimental designs.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper describes the magnitude of effects for family planning programs evaluated with true experimental designs. METHODS: Studies that used true experimental designs to evaluate family planning programs were identified and their results subjected to meta-analysis. RESULTS: For the 14 studies with the information needed to calculate effect size, the Pearson r between program and effect variables ranged from -.08 to .09 and averaged .08. CONCLUSIONS: The programs evaluated in the studies considered have had, on average, smaller effects than many would assume and desire. PMID:9146451

  19. Gender Issues in Gifted Achievement: Are Girls Making Inroads While Boys Fall Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm, Sylvia B.

    2015-01-01

    School and life achievement patterns for girls and women differ from those of boys and men. While girls have made dramatic progress in school, they need to be inspired to connect to lifelong achievement. Both research and clinical work at the Ohio-based Family Achievement Clinic find that more boys than girls underachieve in school. There is much…

  20. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  1. Unmet Promise: Raising Minority Achievement. The Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert C.; Viadero, Debra

    2000-01-01

    This first in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps persist discusses how to raise minority achievement. It explains how earlier progress in closing the gap has stalled, while at the same time, the greater diversity of student populations and the rapid growth of the Hispanic population and of other ethnic groups have reshaped the…

  2. To Achieve or Not to Achieve: The Question of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Beatrice

    Questionnaire and projective data from 323 women aged 18 to 50 were analyzed in order to study the relationships of need achievement and motive to avoid success to age, sex role ideology, and stage in the family cycle. Family background and educational variables were also considered. Level of need achievement was found to be significantly related…

  3. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  4. Affective Processes and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Feshbach, Seymour

    1987-01-01

    Data indicate that for girls, affective dispositional factors (empathy, depressive affectivity, aggression, and self-concept) are intimately linked to cognitive development and academic achievement. (PCB)

  5. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  6. Covert Treatment in Psychiatry: Do No Harm, True, But Also Dare to Care

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.

    2008-01-01

    disputes this contention by arguing that although uncooperative patients of schizophrenia (and related psychoses) apparently retain capacity, it is limited, in fact distorted, since they lack insight. It presents the concept of insight-unconsciousness in a patient of psychosis. Just as an unconscious patient has to be given covert medical/surgical treatment, similarly an insight-unconscious patient with one of the different psychoses (in the acute phase or otherwise) may also have to be given covert treatment till he regains at least partial insight. It helps control psychotic symptoms and assists the patient in regaining enough insight to realize he needs treatment. Another argument against covert treatment is that people with schizophrenia have the capacity to learn and therefore can learn that they are required to take medications, but if medications are given covertly it may well fuel their paranoia. However, it should be noted that the patient who has lack of insight cannot learn unless he regains that insight, and he may need covert treatment to facilitate this process. Covert treatment can fuel the paranoia, true, but it can also control the psychotic symptoms sufficiently so that regular treatment can be initiated. In a patient who refuses to accept that he is sick and when involuntary commitment is not an option to be considered, covert treatment is the only option, apart from physical restraint. Ultimately, a choice has to be made between a larger beneficence (control of symptoms and start of therapy) and a smaller malevolence (necessary therapy, but without the patient's knowledge and consent). A number of practical clinical scenarios are outlined wherein the psychiatrist should adopt covert treatment in the best interests of the patient. Ethical issues of autonomy, power, secrecy and malafide intent arise; each of these can be countered only by non-malfeasance (above all, do no harm) under the overarch of beneficence (even above that, dare to care). An advance

  7. The Development of Product Parity Sensitivity in Children with Mathematics Learning Disability and in Typical Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    Parity helps us determine whether an arithmetic equation is true or false. The current research examines the development of sensitivity to parity cues in multiplication in typically achieving (TA) children (grades 2, 3, 4 and 6) and in children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD, grades 6 and 8), via a verification task. In TA children…

  8. A Correlational Study of Building Principal Emotional Intelligence and the Connection to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, James

    2012-01-01

    While student achievement is only one indicator of a building principal's effectiveness, it is widely considered to be one of the most important. This is especially true in regard to the current climate of accountability surrounding education. Multiple studies have yielded results concerning the behaviors and characteristics of building…

  9. Academic Goals, Achievement, and Age at First Sexual Intercourse: Longitudinal, Bidirectional Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schvaneveldt, Paul L.; Miller, Brent C.; Berry, E. Helen; Lee, Thomas R.

    2001-01-01

    Data from the National Survey of Children were used to test the hypothesis that lower educational goals and achievement is associated with initiating sexual intercourse at a younger age. Adolescents who had lower educational goals and who performed at lower academic levels were more likely to engage in sexual intercourse earlier. This was true for…

  10. Quantifying the Consequences of Missing School: Linking School Nurses to Student Absences to Standardized Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Parents, policymakers, and researchers uphold that missing school has negative implications on schooling success, particularly for students in urban schools. However, it has thus far been an empirical challenge within educational research to estimate the true effect that absences have on achievement outcomes. This study…

  11. Infrapopliteal arterial recanalization: A true advance for limb salvage in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Pernès, J-M; Auguste, M; Borie, H; Kovarsky, S; Bouchareb, A; Despujole, C; Coppé, G

    2015-05-01

    The world is facing an epidemic of diabetes; consequently in the next years, critical limb ischemia (CLI) due to diabetic arterial disease, characterized by multiple and long occlusions of below-the-knee (BTK) vessels, will become a major issue for vascular operators. Revascularization is a key therapy in these patients as restoring adequate blood supply to the wound is essential for healing, thus avoiding major amputations. Endoluminal therapy for BTK arteries is now a key part of the vascular specialist armamentarium. Tibial artery endovascular approaches have been shown to achieve high limb salvage rates with low morbidity and mortality and endovascular interventions one should now consider to be the first line treatment in the majority of CLI patients, especially in those with associated medical comorbidities. To do so, the vascular specialist requires detailed knowledge of the BTK endovascular techniques and devices. The first step decision in tibial endovascular therapy is access. In this context, the anterograde ipsilateral approach is generally preferred. The next critical decision is the choice of the vessel(s) to be approached in order to achieve successful limb salvage. Obtaining pulsatile flow to the correct portion of the foot is the paramount for ulcer healing. As such, a good understanding of the current angiosome model should enhance clinical results. The devices used should be carefully selected and optimal choice of guide wire is also extremely important and should be based on the characteristics of the lesion (location, length, and stenosis/occlusion) together with the characteristics of the guide wire itself (tip load, stiffness, hydrophilic/hydrophobic coating, flexibility, torque transmission, trackability, and pushability). Passing through chronic total occlusions can be quite challenging. The vascular interventional radiologist needs therefore to master the techniques that have been recently described: anterograde approaches, including the

  12. Multigene molecular phylogenetics reveals true morels (Morchella) are especially species-rich in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in China was estimated by initially analyzing nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences from 361 specimens collected in 21 provinces during the 2003-2011 growing seasons, together with six collections obtained on loan fro...

  13. Standard Error Estimation of 3PL IRT True Score Equating with an MCMC Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuming; Schulz, E. Matthew; Yu, Lei

    2008-01-01

    A Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and a bootstrap method were compared in the estimation of standard errors of item response theory (IRT) true score equating. Three test form relationships were examined: parallel, tau-equivalent, and congeneric. Data were simulated based on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary tests of the Iowa Tests of…

  14. 79 FR 38809 - Definition of Real Estate Investment True Real Property; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-07-09

    ..., 2014 (79 FR 27508), that clarify the definition of real property for purposes of the real estate... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BM05 Definition of Real Estate Investment True Real... 79 FR 27508, May 14, 2014, are still being accepted and must be received by August 12, 2014....

  15. Stochastic Processes as True-Score Models for Highly Speeded Mental Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, William E.

    The previous theoretical development of the Poisson process as a strong model for the true-score theory of mental tests is discussed, and additional theoretical properties of the model from the standpoint of individual examinees are developed. The paper introduces the Erlang process as a family of test theory models and shows in the context of…

  16. On a Method of Eliciting True/False Judgments from Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Peter; Donaldson, Margaret

    1976-01-01

    Experiments in eliciting true/false judgments from young children aged 3-5 used a "talking doll," a toy panda with a speaker installed. The procedure has been used in studies of language comprehension, communication skills, and free conversation experiments. (CHK)

  17. Simulation of a true-triaxial deformation test on anisotropic gneiss using FLAC3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shenghua; Sehizadeh, Mehdi; Nasseri, Mohammad; Young, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A series of true-triaxial experiments have been carried out at the University of Toronto's Rock Fracture Dynamics Laboratory. Isotropic pegmatite and gneiss have been used to systematically study the effect of anisotropy on the strength, behaviour and seismic response. Samples were loaded under true-triaxial stress conditions and subjected to complex loading and unloading histories associated with rock deformation around underground openings. The results show expected patterns of weakness from preferentially oriented samples and highlight the importance of unloading history under true-triaxial conditions on the deformation and seismic response of the samples. These tests have been used to validate a synthetic simulation using the Itasca FLAC3D numerical code. The paper describes the FLAC3D simulations of the complex true-triaxial loading and unloading history of the different anisotropic samples. Various parameters were created to describe the physico-mechanical properties of the synthetic rock samples. Foliation planes of preferential orientations with respect to the primary loading direction were added to the synthetic rock samples to reflect the anisotropy of the gneiss. These synthetic rock samples were subjected to the same loading and unloading paths as the real rock samples, and failed in the same mechanism as what was observed from the experiments, and thus it proved the validity of this numerical simulation with FLAC3D.

  18. Properties of true quaternary fission of nuclei with allowance for its multistep and sequential character

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G. Titova, L. V.; Bulychev, A. O.

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of basicmechanisms of binary and ternary fission of nuclei led to the conclusion that true ternary and quaternary fission of nuclei has a sequential two-step (three-step) character, where, at the first step, a fissile nucleus emits a third light particle (third and fourth light particles) under shakeup effects associated with a nonadiabatic character of its collective deformation motion, whereupon the residual nucleus undergoes fission to two fission fragments. Owing to this, the formulas derived earlier for the widths with respect to sequential two- and three-step decays of nuclei in constructing the theory of two-step twoproton decays and multistep decays in chains of genetically related nuclei could be used to describe the relative yields and angular and energy distributions of third and fourth light particles emitted in (α, α), (t, t), and (α, t) pairs upon the true quaternary spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf and thermal-neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U and {sup 233}U target nuclei. Mechanisms that explain a sharp decrease in the yield of particles appearing second in time and entering into the composition of light-particle pairs that originate from true quaternary fission of nuclei in relation to the yields of analogous particles in true ternary fission of nuclei are proposed.

  19. The Relationship Between True Colors Temperament Types of Primary Caregivers and Literacy Development: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the "True Colors" temperament type of the primary caregiver and the readiness to involve her child in the social context of extracurricular reading activities (a summer reading program) intended to promote literacy development. Finds that the "Gold" and "Blue" types involved their children in organized, structured…

  20. Can Maltreated Children Inhibit True and False Memories for Emotional Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Toth, Sheree L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined 284 maltreated and nonmaltreated children's (6- to 12-year-olds) ability to inhibit true and false memories for neutral and emotional information using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Children studied either emotional or neutral DRM lists in a control condition or were given directed-remembering or…

  1. Molecular analysis in true hermaphrodites with different karyotypes and similar phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Torres, L; López, M; Méndez, J P; Canto, P; Cervantes, A; Alfaro, G; Pérez-Palacios, G; Erickson, R P; Kofman-Alfaro, S

    1996-05-17

    True hermaphroditism is characterized by the development of ovarian and testicular tissue in the same individual. Müllerian and Wolffian structures are usually present, and external genitalia are often ambiguous. The most frequent karyotype in these patients is 46,XX or various forms of mosaicism, whereas 46,XX is very rarely found. The phenotype in all these subjects is similar. We studied 10 true hermaphrodites. Six of them had a 46,XX chromosomal complement: 3 had been reared as males and 3 as females. The other 4 patients were mosaics: 3 were 46,XX/46,XY and one had a 46,XX/47,XXY karyotype. One of the 46,XX/46,XY mosaics was reared as a female, whereas the other 3 mosaics were reared as males. The sex of assignment in the 10 patients depended only on labio-scrotal differentiation. Molecular studies in 46,XX subjects documented the absence of Y centromeric sequences in all cases, arguing against hidden mosaicism. One patient presented Yp sequences (ZFY+, SRY+), which contrast with South African black 46,XX true hermaphrodites in whom no Y sequences were found. Molecular analysis in the subjects with mosaicism demonstrated the presence of Y centromeric and Yp sequences confirming the presence of a Y chromosome. Gonadal development, endocrine function, and phenotype in the 10 patients did not correlate with the presence of a Y chromosome or Y-derived sequences in the genome, confirming that true hermaphroditism is a heterogeneous condition. PMID:8725784

  2. True ileal digestible trypotophan to lysine ratios in 90 to 125 kg barrows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the optimal true ileal digestible (TID) tryptophen:lysime (Trp:Lys) ratio for 90 to 125 kg barrows. Basal diets contained 0.55% TID Lys and were either corn (Exp. 1) or corn-soybean meal (Exp. 2 and 3) based diets supplemented with crystalline amino aci...

  3. How well do ITS rDNA sequences differentiate species of true morels (Morchella)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arguably more mycophiles hunt true morels (Morchella) during their brief fruiting season each spring in the Northern Hemisphere than any other wild edible fungus. Concerns about overharvesting by individual collectors and commercial enterprises make it essential that science-based management practic...

  4. A multigene molecular phylogenetic assessment of true morels (Morchella) in turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A collection of 247 true morels (Morchella spp.) primarily from the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions of Southern Turkey, were analyzed for species diversity using partial RNA polymerase I (RPB1) and nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) rDNA gene sequences. Based on the result of this initial scree...

  5. True Scores, Latent Variables, and Constructs: A Comment on Schmidt and Hunter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    2002-01-01

    Makes the case that the arguments of F. Schmidt and J. Hunter in favor of the correction for attenuation in theory testing are based on mistaken assumptions. Outlines arguments against the routine use of correction for attenuation, focusing on the relationship between true scores and construct scores. (SLD)

  6. Two Sources of Evidence on the Non-Automaticity of True and False Belief Ascription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Elisa; Apperly, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    A recent study by Apperly et al. (2006) found evidence that adults do not automatically infer false beliefs while watching videos that afford such inferences. This method was extended to examine true beliefs, which are sometimes thought to be ascribed by "default" (e.g., Leslie & Thaiss, 1992). Sequences of pictures were presented in which the…

  7. Osteochondrosis Can Lead to Formation of Pseudocysts and True Cysts in the Subchondral Bone of Horses.

    PubMed

    Olstad, K; Østevik, L; Carlson, C S; Ekman, S

    2015-09-01

    Osteochondrosis arises as a result of focal failure of the blood supply to growth cartilage. The current aim was to examine the pathogenesis of pseudocysts and true cysts in subchondral bone following failure of the blood supply to the articular-epiphyseal cartilage complex in horses. Cases were recruited based on identification of lesions (n = 17) that were considered likely to progress to or to represent pseudocysts or true cysts in epiphyseal bone in histological sections and included 10 horses ranging in age from 48 days to 5 years old. Cases comprised 3 warmbloods, 3 Standardbreds, 1 Quarter horse and 1 Arabian with spontaneous lesions and 2 Fjord ponies with experimentally induced lesions. Seven lesions consisted of areas of ischemic chondronecrosis and were compatible with pseudocysts. Two lesions were located at intermediate depth in epiphyseal growth cartilage, 2 lesions were located in the ossification front, 2 lesions were located in epiphyseal bone and 1 lesion was located in the metaphyseal growth plate (physis). Ten lesions contained dilated blood vessels and were compatible with true cysts. In 2 lesions the dilated blood vessels were located within the lumina of failed cartilage canals. In the 8 remaining lesions areas of ischemic chondronecrosis were associated with granulation tissue in the subjacent bone and dilated vessels were located within this granulation tissue. Failure of the blood supply and ischemic chondronecrosis can lead to formation of pseudocysts or dilatation of blood vessels and formation of true cysts in the epiphyseal bone of horses. PMID:25428408

  8. True to the Language Game: African American Discourse, Cultural Politics, and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilyard, Keith

    2011-01-01

    In "True to the Language Game", Keith Gilyard, one of the major African American figures to emerge in language and cultural studies, makes his most seminal work available in one volume. This collection of new and previously published essays contains Gilyard's most relevant scholarly contributions to deliberations about linguistic diversity,…

  9. Assessing Class-Wide Consistency and Randomness in Responses to True or False Questions Administered Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Andrew; Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Peterson, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed simple data-mining algorithms to assess the consistency and the randomness of student responses to problems consisting of multiple true or false statements. In this paper we describe the algorithms and use them to analyze data from introductory physics courses. We investigate statements that emerge as outliers because the class…

  10. Observed Score and True Score Equating Procedures for Multidimensional Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brossman, Bradley Grant

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop observed score and true score equating procedures to be used in conjunction with the Multidimensional Item Response Theory (MIRT) framework. Currently, MIRT scale linking procedures exist to place item parameter estimates and ability estimates on the same scale after separate calibrations are conducted.…

  11. Asymptotic Standard Errors for Item Response Theory True Score Equating of Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cher Wong, Cheow

    2015-01-01

    Building on previous works by Lord and Ogasawara for dichotomous items, this article proposes an approach to derive the asymptotic standard errors of item response theory true score equating involving polytomous items, for equivalent and nonequivalent groups of examinees. This analytical approach could be used in place of empirical methods like…

  12. A preliminary assessment of the true morels (Morchella) in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary assessment of true morels (Morchella) from Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) was obtained by using DNA sequence data from portions of three genes to identify 20 collections from Newfoundland and one from a remote location in Labrador. To place this work in a broader context, data on 25 co...

  13. Nurses Behave Differentially to Neonates in Terms of Their True Gender Compared to Their Ascribed Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Albert R.; And Others

    Response patterns of 24 female nurses to 2-day-old neonates who had been arbitrarily labeled male or female were studied. A total of 17 reliable behaviors of nurses were scored from videotapes of nurse-infant interaction. Nurses responded differentially to neonates based on true gender rather than ascribed gender. Nurses held boys more by their…

  14. Right and Righteous: Children's Incipient Understanding and Evaluation of True and False Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.; Carrick, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined young children's early understanding and evaluation of truth telling and lying and the role that factuality plays in their judgments. Study 1 (one hundred four 2- to 5-year-olds) found that even the youngest children reliably accepted true statements and rejected false statements and that older children's ability to…

  15. A Qualitative Assessment of the My True Body Bariatric Surgery Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Tracy; Mamary, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background: The My True Body (MTB) group intervention incorporates cognitive restructuring and social support into bariatric surgery preparation. Purpose: To identify and describe program components that support long-term behavioral modifications and influence confidence in healthy weight maintenance. Methods: Semistructured telephone interviews…

  16. The Development of Automatic and Controlled Inhibitory Retrieval Processes in True and False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Lauren M.; Howe, Mark L.; Wimmer, Marina C.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the role of automatic and controlled inhibitory retrieval processes in true and false memory development in children and adults. Experiment 1 incorporated a directed forgetting task to examine controlled retrieval inhibition. Experiments 2 and 3 used a part-set cue and retrieval practice task to examine…

  17. No Evidence for True Training and Transfer Effects after Inhibitory Control Training in Young Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enge, Sören; Behnke, Alexander; Fleischhauer, Monika; Küttler, Lena; Kliegel, Matthias; Strobel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reported that training of working memory may improve performance in the trained function and beyond. Other executive functions, however, have been rarely or not yet systematically examined. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of inhibitory control (IC) training to produce true training-related function improvements…

  18. Searching for the True Diet of Marine Predators: Incorporating Bayesian Priors into Stable Isotope Mixing Models

    PubMed Central

    Chiaradia, André; Forero, Manuela G.; McInnes, Julie C.; Ramírez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the diet of top marine predators is of great significance in several key areas of applied ecology, requiring accurate estimation of their true diet. However, from conventional stomach content analysis to recent stable isotope and DNA analyses, no one method is bias or error free. Here, we evaluated the accuracy of recent methods to estimate the actual proportion of a controlled diet fed to a top-predator seabird, the Little penguin (Eudyptula minor). We combined published DNA data of penguins scats with blood plasma δ15N and δ13C values to reconstruct the diet of individual penguins fed experimentally. Mismatch between controlled (true) ingested diet and dietary estimates obtained through the separately use of stable isotope and DNA data suggested some degree of differences in prey assimilation (stable isotope) and digestion rates (DNA analysis). In contrast, combined posterior isotope mixing model with DNA Bayesian priors provided the closest match to the true diet. We provided the first evidence suggesting that the combined use of these complementary techniques may provide better estimates of the actual diet of top marine predators- a powerful tool in applied ecology in the search for the true consumed diet. PMID:24667296

  19. True stress-strain curve acquisition for irradiated stainless steel including the range exceeding necking strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki; Kitsunai, Yuji; Koshiishi, Masato

    2015-10-01

    True stress-strain curves were obtained for irradiated 316L stainless steel by a tensile test and by a curve estimation procedure. In the tensile test, the digital image correlation technique together with iterative finite element analysis was applied in order to identify curves for strain larger than the necking strain. The true stress-strain curves were successfully obtained for the strain of more than 0.4 whereas the necking strain was about 0.2 in the minimum case. The obtained true stress-strain curves were approximated well with the Swift-type equation including the post-necking strain even if the exponential constant n was fixed to 0.5. Then, the true stress-strain curves were estimated by a curve estimation procedure, which was referred to as the K-fit method. Material properties required for the K-fit method were the yield and ultimate strengths or only the yield strength. Some modifications were made for the K-fit method in order to improve estimation accuracy for irradiated stainless steels.

  20. Kothmale Community Radio Interorg Project: True Community Radio or Feel-Good Propaganda?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey-Carter, Liz

    2009-01-01

    The Kothmale Community Radio and Interorg project in Sri Lanka has been hailed as an example of how a community radio initiative should function in a developing nation. However, there is some question about whether the Kothmale Community Interorg Project is a true community radio initiative that empowers local communities to access ICT services…

  1. Robust Scale Transformation Methods in IRT True Score Equating under Common-Item Nonequivalent Groups Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Common test items play an important role in equating multiple test forms under the common-item nonequivalent groups design. Inconsistent item parameter estimates among common items can lead to large bias in equated scores for IRT true score equating. Current methods extensively focus on detection and elimination of outlying common items, which…

  2. An Evaluation of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handel, Richard W.; Arnau, Randolph C.; Archer, Robert P.; Dandy, Kristina L.

    2006-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (MMPI-2) True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) scales are measures of acquiescence and nonacquiescence included among the standard validity scales on these instruments. The goals of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of…

  3. Confidence Intervals for True Scores Using the Skew-Normal Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    A recent comparative analysis of alternative interval estimation approaches and procedures has shown that confidence intervals (CIs) for true raw scores determined with the Score method--which uses the normal approximation to the binomial distribution--have actual coverage probabilities that are closest to their nominal level. It has also recently…

  4. Effects of cell-phone and text-message distractions on true and false recognition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Theodore S; Isaak, Matthew I; Senette, Christian G; Abadie, Brenton G

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the effects of electronic communication distractions, including cell-phone and texting demands, on true and false recognition, specifically semantically related words presented and not presented on a computer screen. Participants were presented with 24 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists while manipulating the concurrent presence or absence of cell-phone and text-message distractions during study. In the DRM paradigm, participants study lists of semantically related words (e.g., mother, crib, and diaper) linked to a non-presented critical lure (e.g., baby). After studying the lists of words, participants are then requested to recall or recognize previously presented words. Participants often not only demonstrate high remembrance for presented words (true memory: crib), but also recollection for non-presented words (false memory: baby). In the present study, true memory was highest when participants were not presented with any distraction tasks during study of DRM words, but poorer when they were required to complete a cell-phone conversation or text-message task during study. False recognition measures did not statistically vary across distraction conditions. Signal detection analyses showed that participants better discriminated true targets (list items presented during study) from true target controls (items presented during study only) when cell-phone or text-message distractions were absent than when they were present. Response bias did not vary significantly across distraction conditions, as there were no differences in the likelihood that a participant would claim an item as "old" (previously presented) rather than "new" (not previously presented). Results of this study are examined with respect to both activation monitoring and fuzzy trace theories. PMID:21198365

  5. Molecular analysis in true hermaphrodites with different karyotypes and similar phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, L.; Cervantes, A.; Kofman-Alfaro, S.

    1996-05-17

    True hermaphroditism is characterized by the development of ovarian and testicular tissue in the same individual. Muellerian and Wolffian structures are usually present, and external genitalia are often ambiguous. The most frequent karyotype in these patients is 46,XX or various forms of mosaicism, whereas 46,XY is very rarely found. The phenotype in all these subjects is similar. We studied 10 true hermaphrodites. Six of them had a 46,XX chromosomal complement: 3 had been reared as males and 3 as females. The other 4 patients were mosaics: 3 were 46,XX/46,XY and one had a 46,XX/47,XXY karyotype. One of the 46,XX/46,XY mosaics was reared as a female, whereas the other 3 mosaics were reared as males. The sex of assignment in the 10 patients depended only on labio-scrotal differentiation. Molecular studies in 46,XX subjects documented the absence of Y centromeric sequences in all cases, arguing against hidden mosaicism. One patient presented Yp sequences (ZFY+, SRY+), which contrast with South African black 46,XX true hermaphrodites in whom no Y sequences were found. Molecular analysis in the subjects with mosaicism demonstrated the presence of Y centromeric and Yp sequences confirming the presence of a Y chromosome. Gonadal development, endocrine function, and phenotype in the 10 patients did not correlate with the presence of a Y chromosome or Y-derived sequences in the genome, confirming that true hermaphroditism is a heterogeneous condition. Both Mexican and non-South African 46,XX true hermaphrodites may be SRY positive. 51 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. General Achievement Trends: South Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. The Process of Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papanastasiou, Constantinos; Papanastasiou, Elena C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the science achievement of 8th grade students in Cyprus by using a structural equation model with three exogenous constructs--family's educational background, reinforcements, and school climate, and three endogenous constructs--teaching, student attitudes, and achievement. Proposes a model for the effects of family, school, student…

  8. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  9. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  10. Motivational Factors in School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    A summary is presented of the literature on motivation relating to achievement in the classroom. Special attention is given to how values, ideology, and various cultural patterns may serve to enhance motivation to achieve in the classroom. In considering what determines motivation and personal investment in educational pursuits, the following…

  11. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  12. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  15. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  16. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  17. Achievement in Writing Geometry Proofs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senk, Sharon L.

    In 1981 a nationwide assessment of achievement in writing geometry proofs was conducted by the Cognitive Development and Achievement in Secondary School Geometry project. Over 1,500 students in 11 schools in 5 states participated. This paper describes the sample, instruments, grading procedures, and selected results. Results include: (1) at the…

  18. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  19. Predicting Achievement in Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Mary Elizabeth

    A review of research is inconclusive concerning the relationship between intelligence and language proficiency. A study of 10th grade students (n=35) examined scores on a high school entrance exam and achievement in foreign language after 1 year of study. Both math and reading showed a significant correlation with foreign language achievement; the…

  20. Superintendent Tenure and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A correlational research design was used to examine the influence of superintendent tenure on student achievement in rural Appalachian Kentucky school districts. Superintendent tenure was compared to aggregated student achievement scores for 2011 and to changes in students' learning outcomes over the course of the superintendents' tenure. The…