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Sample records for achieve unity power

  1. Unity power factor converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wester, Gene W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A unity power factor converter capable of effecting either inversion (dc-to-dc) or rectification (ac-to-dc), and capable of providing bilateral power control from a DC source (or load) through an AC transmission line to a DC load (or source) for power flow in either direction, is comprised of comparators for comparing the AC current i with an AC signal i.sub.ref (or its phase inversion) derived from the AC ports to generate control signals to operate a switch control circuit for high speed switching to shape the AC current waveform to a sine waveform, and synchronize it in phase and frequency with the AC voltage at the AC ports, by selectively switching the connections to a series inductor as required to increase or decrease the current i.

  2. Unity power factor switching regulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  3. Method and apparatus for lead-unity-lag electric power generation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganev, Evgeni (Inventor); Warr, William (Inventor); Salam, Mohamed (Arif) (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method employing a lead-unity-lag adjustment on a power generation system is disclosed. The method may include calculating a unity power factor point and adjusting system parameters to shift a power factor angle to substantially match an operating power angle creating a new unity power factor point. The method may then define operation parameters for a high reactance permanent magnet machine based on the adjusted power level.

  4. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Ping; Hsieh, Mei-Li; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ˜95% for λ = 400-620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°-60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400-870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO2 nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θCB ˜ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  5. Unity power factor converter based on a fuzzy controller and predictive input current.

    PubMed

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Babes, Badreddine

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes analysis and control of a single-phase power factor corrector (PFC). The proposed control is capable of achieving a unity power factor for each DC link voltage or load fluctuation. The method under study is composed of two intelligent approaches, a fuzzy logic controller to ensure an output voltage at a suitable value and predictive current control. The fuzzy controller is used with minimum rules to attain a low cost. The method is verified and discussed through simulation on the MATLAB/Simulink platform. It presents high dynamic performance under various parameter changes. Moreover, in order to examine and evaluate the method in real-time, a test bench is built using dSPACE 1104. The implantation of the proposed method is very easy and flexible and allows for operation under parameter variations. Additionally, the obtained results are very significant.

  6. Integrated three-dimensional photonic nanostructures for achieving near-unity solar absorption and superhydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kuang, Ping; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Hsieh, Mei-Li

    2015-06-07

    In this paper, we proposed and realized 3D photonic nanostructures consisting of ultra-thin graded index antireflective coatings (ARCs) and woodpile photonic crystals. The use of the integrated ARC and photonic crystal structure can achieve broadband, broad-angle near unity solar absorption. The amorphous silicon based photonic nanostructure experimentally shows an average absorption of ∼95% for λ = 400–620 nm over a wide angular acceptance of θ = 0°–60°. Theoretical studies show that a Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based structure can achieve an average absorption of >95% for λ = 400–870 nm. Furthermore, the use of the slanted SiO{sub 2} nanorod ARC surface layer by glancing angle deposition exhibits Cassie-Baxter state wetting, and superhydrophobic surface is obtained with highest water contact angle θ{sub CB} ∼ 153°. These properties are fundamentally important for achieving maximum solar absorption and surface self-cleaning in thin film solar cell applications.

  7. Control circuit maintains unity power factor of reactive load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, M.; Martinage, L. H.

    1966-01-01

    Circuit including feedback control elements automatically corrects the power factor of a reactive load. It maintains power supply efficiency where negative load reactance changes and varies by providing corrective error signals to the control windings of a power supply transformer.

  8. Fast algorithm for computing a primitive /2 to power p + 1/p-th root of unity in GF/q squared/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Miller, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A quick method is described for finding the primitive (2 to power p + 1)p-th root of unity in the Galois field GF(q squared), where q = (2 to power p) - 1 and is known as a Mersenne prime. Determination of this root is necessary to implement complex integer transforms of length (2 to power k) times p over the Galois field, with k varying between 3 and p + 1.

  9. Improvement of Input Current Waveform for Soft-Switching Boost DCM Converter with Unity Power Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Katsunori; Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki

    In this paper, a soft-switching discontinuous mode (DCM) power factor corrected (PFC) converter is analyzed by applying the double Fourier series expansion. It is found that the fundamental component and higher-order harmonics included in the input current waveform are obtained by the Fourier series expansion of the mean value of the inductor current. From the theoretical analysis, a new method removing the distortion of the input current waveform is proposed. In spite of an open loop system, the proposed method makes a great improvement of the total harmonic distortion even if the ratio of output voltage to input voltage is very low.

  10. Achieving Maximum Power in Thermoelectric Generation with Simple Power Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Nari; Lee, Hohyun; Wee, Daehyun; Gomez, Miguel; Reid, Rachel; Ohara, Brandon

    2014-06-01

    A thermoelectric generator typically delivers a relatively low power output, and hence it is of great practical importance to determine a design and operating condition close to those which can provide the maximum attainable power. To maintain a favorable condition for the maximum power output, power electronics circuits are usually applied. One of the simplest methods is to control the operating voltage at half the open-circuit voltage, assuming that the typical impedance-matching condition, in which the load and internal resistances are matched, yields the maximum power output. However, recent investigations have shown that, when external thermal resistances exist between the thermoelectric modules and thermal reservoirs, the impedance-matching condition is not identical to the condition for the maximum power output. In this article, it is argued that, although the impedance-matching condition is not the condition for maximum power output, the maximum power is still achievable when the operating voltage is kept at half the open-circuit voltage. More precisely, it is shown that the typical V- I curve for thermoelectric generators must show approximately linear behavior, which justifies the use of a simple strategy in thermoelectric power generation applications. The conditions for the validity of the approximation are mathematically discussed, supported by a few examples. Experimental evidence at room temperature is also provided.

  11. Effectiveness of High Schools in Australia: Holding Power and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, John; Sheret, Michael

    High schools in Australia are increasingly expected to be effective in holding students at school to year 12 as well as in promoting achievement. Analysis of quantitative data gathered as part of a longitudinal study of 22 New South Wales (Australia) schools shows that schools differ in their holding power as well as in the achievement levels of…

  12. Achieving an Accurate Surface Profile of a Photonic Crystal for Near-Unity Solar Absorption in a Super Thin-Film Architecture.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ping; Eyderman, Sergey; Hsieh, Mei-Li; Post, Anthony; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2016-06-28

    In this work, a teepee-like photonic crystal (PC) structure on crystalline silicon (c-Si) is experimentally demonstrated, which fulfills two critical criteria in solar energy harvesting by (i) its Gaussian-type gradient-index profile for excellent antireflection and (ii) near-orthogonal energy flow and vortex-like field concentration via the parallel-to-interface refraction effect inside the structure for enhanced light trapping. For the PC structure on 500-μm-thick c-Si, the average reflection is only ∼0.7% for λ = 400-1000 nm. For the same structure on a much thinner c-Si ( t = 10 μm), the absorption is near unity (A ∼ 99%) for visible wavelengths, while the absorption in the weakly absorbing range (λ ∼ 1000 nm) is significantly increased to 79%, comparing to only 6% absorption for a 10-μm-thick planar c-Si. In addition, the average absorption (∼94.7%) of the PC structure on 10 μm c-Si for λ = 400-1000 nm is only ∼3.8% less than the average absorption (∼98.5%) of the PC structure on 500 μm c-Si, while the equivalent silicon solid content is reduced by 50 times. Furthermore, the angular dependence measurements show that the high absorption is sustained over a wide angle range (θinc = 0-60°) for teepee-like PC structure on both 500 and 10-μm-thick c-Si.

  13. Achievable flatness in a large microwave power antenna study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Achievable flatness for the microwave power transmission system antenna array was determined. Two configurations were analyzed in detail and evaluated as to their net potential misalignment. Manufacturing, joint slack, assembly, alignment and environmental aspects were considered. Approaches to each aspect were analyzed to minimize their contributions to distortions.

  14. Multicultural Education: The Key to Global Unity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Dorothy Lee

    This paper describes multiculturalism courses in teacher education at Bethany College (California) and at the University of Southern Mississippi and argues that an increasingly global society creates the need for unity that can be achieved through multicultural education, which if effectively designed and implemented enlightens individuals to the…

  15. Theodor Waitz on psychic unity.

    PubMed

    Jahoda, Gustav

    2014-06-01

    The tolerant stance on 'race' by prominent Enlightenment figures was followed in the 19th century by a powerful wave of biological racism. Many of its proponents took the view that human 'races' constitute separate species, and that most non-white ones are of inferior mentality. An early opponent of this claim was James Cowles Prichard, who used mainly missionary reports in seeking to refute it. Far more extensive work was undertaken by the Herbartian psychologist Theodor Waitz, who collected ethnographic material from all over the world. It was published in six volumes - the last two after his death by his former student Georg Gerland. Waitz aim was to demonstrate the 'psychic unity' of mankind. Initially extracts from the volume on African peoples are presented in order to show how he dealt with his material. The main focus is on his first volume entitled Introduction to Anthropology, in which he elaborates his general thesis. In it Waitz maintains, against the biological racists, that mankind is a single species. Furthermore he discusses the changes from savagery to civilization, attributing them to a combination of geography and history. He was followed by Adolf Bastian who, unlike Waitz, was a great traveller with personal experience of peoples all over the globe. Both firmly believed in the psychic unity of mankind, but Bastian's approach to psychology was very different.

  16. Unity connecting module in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is shown with Pressurized Mating Adapters 1 (left) and 2 (right) attached. Unity is scheduled to undergo testing of the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is the primary payload on mission STS-88, targeted to launch Dec. 3, 1998. Other testing includes the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  17. Station Tour: Harmony, Tranquility, Unity

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams starts off her tour of the International Space Station with a look at its nodes -- Harmony, Tranquility and Unity -- which include the crew's sleeping quarters...

  18. Muscle function in avian flight: achieving power and control

    PubMed Central

    Biewener, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Flapping flight places strenuous requirements on the physiological performance of an animal. Bird flight muscles, particularly at smaller body sizes, generally contract at high frequencies and do substantial work in order to produce the aerodynamic power needed to support the animal's weight in the air and to overcome drag. This is in contrast to terrestrial locomotion, which offers mechanisms for minimizing energy losses associated with body movement combined with elastic energy savings to reduce the skeletal muscles' work requirements. Muscles also produce substantial power during swimming, but this is mainly to overcome body drag rather than to support the animal's weight. Here, I review the function and architecture of key flight muscles related to how these muscles contribute to producing the power required for flapping flight, how the muscles are recruited to control wing motion and how they are used in manoeuvring. An emergent property of the primary flight muscles, consistent with their need to produce considerable work by moving the wings through large excursions during each wing stroke, is that the pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles shorten over a large fraction of their resting fibre length (33–42%). Both muscles are activated while being lengthened or undergoing nearly isometric force development, enhancing the work they perform during subsequent shortening. Two smaller muscles, the triceps and biceps, operate over a smaller range of contractile strains (12–23%), reflecting their role in controlling wing shape through elbow flexion and extension. Remarkably, pigeons adjust their wing stroke plane mainly via changes in whole-body pitch during take-off and landing, relative to level flight, allowing their wing muscles to operate with little change in activation timing, strain magnitude and pattern. PMID:21502121

  19. Assessing achievement, affiliation, and power motives all at once: the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG).

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, K; Schmalt, H D; Langens, T A; Puca, R M

    2000-02-01

    In this article, we introduce the Multi-Motive Grid (MMG), a new diagnostic tool to measure motives with respect to their hope and fear components. The MMG combines features of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) with features of self-report questionnaires. Similar to the TAT, a set of 14 pictures representing a balanced set of achievement-arousing, affiliation-arousing, and power-arousing situations is presented together with a set of statements representing important motivational states. Six motive scores can be calculated: hope of success (HS) and fear of failure (FF) for the achievement motive, hope of affiliation (HA) and fear of rejection (FR) for the affiliation motive, and hope of power (HP) and fear of power (FP) for the power motive. Results of factor analyses suggest a 3-factor solution, with a general fear factor (FF, FR, FP), a factor combining the hope components of achievement and power (HS and HP), and a third factor representing HA, but the 6 a priori factors also reflect a sound structural model. Reliability data show that the internal consistency and retest reliability of the MMG scales satisfy traditional standards. External validity of the MMG has been established in all 3 motive domains. Three separate studies document that (a) individuals high in resultant achievement motivation perform better and report more flow experience, (b) individuals high in resultant power motivation profit more from a leadership training program, and (c) individuals high in resultant affiliation motivation recollect more highly memorable affiliative themes.

  20. The Power of Caring to Help Kids Adjust and Achieve Is Now Documented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Teacher warmth and support, say University of Virginia researchers Bridget Hamre and Robert Pianta, have unparalleled power to help children adjust and achieve. Their 2005 study of 910 first-grade students included 5- and 6-year-olds whose mothers had low-level education and children identified with "significant behavior, social, and/or academic…

  1. Cognitive Holding Power, Fluid Intelligence, and Mathematical Achievement as Predictors of Children's Realistic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Ziqiang; Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored whether first and second order cognitive holding power perceived by children in mathematical classrooms, fluid intelligence, and mathematical achievement predicted their performance on standard problems, and especially realistic problems. A sample of 119 Chinese 4-6th graders were administered the word problem test, the…

  2. Motivation and social contexts: a crossnational pilot study of achievement, power, and affiliation motives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yangang; Mellor, David; Duan, Liqiong

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is a relationship between social contexts (e.g., economic growth, engagement in wars) and motives within populations. In particular, high achievement motive is associated with subsequent economic growth, which in turn increases power motive. Increased national achievement and power motives have been argued to precede social changes that lead to decreased affiliation motives, and engagement in wars. The present study aimed to examine differences in achievement, power, and affiliation motives between 266 college students in China (a nation with sustained high economic growth) and 255 college students in the USA (a nation with previously strong but now slowing economic growth, and engaged in war). Analysis of personal strivings suggested that Chinese college students showed significantly higher levels of achievement motive than the American college students, but American college students showed significantly higher levels of affiliation motive than Chinese college students. Overall, males exhibited higher achievement motivation than females. No significant interaction effects were found for gender by location for any of the three motives. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research.

  3. Superfluorescent fiber source achieving multisignal power equalization in distributed fiber Bragg grating sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying-Gang; Jia, Zhen-An; Qiao, Xue-Guang; Wang, Hong-Liang; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Shi-Chao

    2011-12-01

    In order to achieve multisignal power equalization in a quasidistributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing system, an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) superfluorescent source with high flatness and broadband spectrum is presented using a three-stage double-pump configuration. The spectral protrusions in the vicinity of 1532 and 1570 nm are flattened, which is achieved by designing a gain flattening filter with a long-period grating. The result shows that the flatness of the output spectrum covering the C and L band, from 1526.52 to 1607.87 nm, is less than 0.76 dBm. The 3 dB bandwidth is 75.68 nm, and the output power of 13.11 mW is achieved in the C and L band. By using the fiber amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source in FBG sensing system for decreasing multisignals peak power variation, the standard deviation of multisignals peak power is decreased to 1.00 dBm. In a multiplexed FBG sensing system, the high flattening fiber ASE source is beneficial to long-distance transmission, amplification, recognition, and demodulation of FBG sensing signals.

  4. Thermoelectrically pumped light-emitting diodes operating above unity efficiency.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Parthiban; Gray, Dodd Joseph; Ram, Rajeev J

    2012-03-01

    A heated semiconductor light-emitting diode at low forward bias voltage Vpower conversion) efficiency is inversely proportional to its output power and diverges as V approaches zero. Experiments directly confirm for the first time that this behavior continues beyond the conventional limit of unity electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiency.

  5. Unity and diversity in human language

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2011-01-01

    Human language is both highly diverse—different languages have different ways of achieving the same functional goals—and easily learnable. Any language allows its users to express virtually any thought they can conceptualize. These traits render human language unique in the biological world. Understanding the biological basis of language is thus both extremely challenging and fundamentally interesting. I review the literature on linguistic diversity and language universals, suggesting that an adequate notion of ‘formal universals’ provides a promising way to understand the facts of language acquisition, offering order in the face of the diversity of human languages. Formal universals are cross-linguistic generalizations, often of an abstract or implicational nature. They derive from cognitive capacities to perceive and process particular types of structures and biological constraints upon integration of the multiple systems involved in language. Such formal universals can be understood on the model of a general solution to a set of differential equations; each language is one particular solution. An explicit formal conception of human language that embraces both considerable diversity and underlying biological unity is possible, and fully compatible with modern evolutionary theory. PMID:21199842

  6. Unity and diversity in human language.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2011-02-12

    Human language is both highly diverse-different languages have different ways of achieving the same functional goals-and easily learnable. Any language allows its users to express virtually any thought they can conceptualize. These traits render human language unique in the biological world. Understanding the biological basis of language is thus both extremely challenging and fundamentally interesting. I review the literature on linguistic diversity and language universals, suggesting that an adequate notion of 'formal universals' provides a promising way to understand the facts of language acquisition, offering order in the face of the diversity of human languages. Formal universals are cross-linguistic generalizations, often of an abstract or implicational nature. They derive from cognitive capacities to perceive and process particular types of structures and biological constraints upon integration of the multiple systems involved in language. Such formal universals can be understood on the model of a general solution to a set of differential equations; each language is one particular solution. An explicit formal conception of human language that embraces both considerable diversity and underlying biological unity is possible, and fully compatible with modern evolutionary theory.

  7. Power-gated 32 bit microprocessor with a power controller circuit activated by deep-sleep-mode instruction achieving ultra-low power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Hiroki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    A spintronic-based power-gated micro-processing unit (MPU) is proposed. It includes a power control circuit activated by the newly supported power-off instruction for the deep-sleep mode. These means enable the power-off procedure for the MPU to be executed appropriately. A test chip was designed and fabricated using 90 nm CMOS and an additional 100 nm MTJ process; it was successfully operated. The guideline of the energy reduction effects for this MPU was presented, using the estimation based on the measurement results of the test chip. The result shows that a large operation energy reduction of 1/28 can be achieved when the operation duty is 10%, under the condition of a sufficient number of idle clock cycles.

  8. Concentrating solar power in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: achieving its potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz-Paal, R.; Amin, A.; Bettzüge, M.; Eames, P.; Fabrizi, F.; Flamant, G.; Garcia Novo, F.; Holmes, J.; Kribus, A.; van der Laan, H.; Lopez, C.; Papagiannakopoulos, P.; Pihl, E.; Smith, P.; Wagner, H.-J.

    2012-10-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is a commercially available renewable energy technology capable of harnessing the immense solar resource in Southern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (the MENA region), and elsewhere. This paper summarises the findings of a study by the European Academies Science Advisory Council which has examined the current status and development challenges of CSP, and consequently has evaluated the potential contribution of CSP in Europe and the MENA region to 2050. It identifies the actions that will be required by scientists, engineers, policy makers, politicians, business and investors alike, to enable this vast solar resource to make a major contribution to establishing a sustainable energy system. The study concludes that cost reductions of 50-60% in CSP electricity may reasonably be expected in the next 10-15 years, enabling the technology to be cost competitive with fossil-fired power generation at some point between 2020 and 2030. Incorporation of storage delivers added value in enabling CSP to deliver dispatchable power. Incentive schemes will be needed in Europe and MENA countries to enable this point to be achieved. Such schemes should reflect the true value of electricity to the grid, effectively drive R&D, and ensure transparency of performance and cost data.

  9. Julius Sachs (1832-1897) and the Unity of Life.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Baluška, František

    2015-01-01

    In 1865, the German botanist Julius Sachs published a seminal monograph entitled Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) and hence became the founder of a new scientific discipline that originated 150 y ago. Here, we outline the significance of the achievements of Sachs. In addition, we document, with reference to his Vorlesungen über Pflanzen-Physiologie (Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, 1882), that Sachs was one of the first experimentalists who proposed the functional unity of all organisms alive today (humans, animals, plants and other "vegetable" organisms, such as algae, cyanophyceae, fungi, myxomycetes, and bacteria). PMID:26359706

  10. Julius Sachs (1832-1897) and the Unity of Life.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Baluška, František

    2015-01-01

    In 1865, the German botanist Julius Sachs published a seminal monograph entitled Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) and hence became the founder of a new scientific discipline that originated 150 y ago. Here, we outline the significance of the achievements of Sachs. In addition, we document, with reference to his Vorlesungen über Pflanzen-Physiologie (Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, 1882), that Sachs was one of the first experimentalists who proposed the functional unity of all organisms alive today (humans, animals, plants and other "vegetable" organisms, such as algae, cyanophyceae, fungi, myxomycetes, and bacteria).

  11. Julius Sachs (1832–1897) and the Unity of Life

    PubMed Central

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Baluška, František

    2015-01-01

    In 1865, the German botanist Julius Sachs published a seminal monograph entitled Experimental-Physiologie der Pflanzen (Experimental Physiology of Plants) and hence became the founder of a new scientific discipline that originated 150 y ago. Here, we outline the significance of the achievements of Sachs. In addition, we document, with reference to his Vorlesungen über Pflanzen-Physiologie (Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, 1882), that Sachs was one of the first experimentalists who proposed the functional unity of all organisms alive today (humans, animals, plants and other “vegetable” organisms, such as algae, cyanophyceae, fungi, myxomycetes, and bacteria). PMID:26359706

  12. Near-unity broadband absorption designs for semiconducting nanowire arrays via localized radial mode excitation.

    PubMed

    Fountaine, Katherine T; Kendall, Christian G; Atwater, Harry A

    2014-05-01

    We report design methods for achieving near-unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays, illustrated by results for visible absorption in GaAs nanowires on Si substrates. Sparse (<5% fill fraction) nanowire arrays achieve near unity absorption at wire resonant wavelengths due to coupling into 'leaky' radial waveguide modes of individual wires and wire-wire scattering processes. From a detailed conceptual development of radial mode resonant absorption, we demonstrate two specific geometric design approaches to achieve near unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays: (i) introducing multiple wire radii within a small unit cell array to increase the number of resonant wavelengths, yielding a 15% absorption enhancement relative to a uniform nanowire array and (ii) tapering of nanowires to introduce a continuum of diameters and thus resonant wavelengths excited within a single wire, yielding an 18% absorption enhancement over a uniform nanowire array.

  13. A New American Ideal: Unity through Pluralism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Philip

    Racial pluralism can serve as the basis on which ethnic diversity and the concept of an American unity can come together. Pluralism can take into consideration the present revival of ethnic identity in all ethnic communities including the Asian American. It can also deal with the issue of American identity in the midst of burgeoning ethnic…

  14. The Chilver Report: Unity and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, Richard; Phoenix, Eamon

    2005-01-01

    This is a study of the abortive attempt by the direct rule Conservative government in the early 1980s to impose unity on the diversity of initial teacher education (ITE) provision in Northern Ireland (NI) through the work of the NI Higher Education Review Group, chaired by Sir Henry Chilver. Harnessing hitherto untapped archives, it shows how…

  15. Religious Education in Syria: Unity and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Monique C.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the almost identical syllabuses of the Christian and Muslim religious education programmes of the Syrian Arab Republic. Content analysis of the students' textbooks and teachers' guides (in Arabic) reveals common themes of citizenship education and national unity. Classroom observations in Damascus also highlight how…

  16. Marietta Celebration of Unity Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbin, Meg; Phillips, Rebecca

    This case study concerns the forming of a Marietta, Ohio unity committee, entitled Citizens for Social and Racial Justice, in response to the local Ku Klux Klan's (KKK) request for a parade permit in order to demonstrate against blacks in this city. Marietta, the county seat of Washington County, Ohio, has a population composed of both white and…

  17. Technology, the Potomac Canal, and National Unity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Clair W.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the relationship between the technology of canal building and the development of national unity prior to the Revolutionary War. Examines George Washington's efforts to build the Potomac canal. Encourages students to consider the interrelationships among technology, resources, politics, and leadership. Includes two student handouts and…

  18. Unity of forces at the preon level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, K. S.; Pati, Jogesh C.

    1993-09-01

    In the context of a viable preon model which serves to provide a unified origin of the diverse scales and an explanation for family replication, it is shown that the unity of forces may well occur at the level of preons near the Planck scale in a manner that is novel compared to the conventional approach of elementary quarks and leptons.

  19. Access to and Characterization of Ohmic H-mode Plasmas at Near-Unity Aspect Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonck, R. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Thome, K. E.; Burke, M. G.; Peguero, L. M.; Perry, J. M.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Shriwise, P. C.; Thompson, D. S.

    2013-10-01

    The low H-mode transition power threshold at near-unity aspect ratio allows access to H-mode in the PEGASUS experiment with only Ohmic heating. Ohmic H-mode plasmas are achieved in both a limited and a new separatrix-limited magnetic configuration. H-mode is attained with high-field-side centerstack fueling, with densities from 1 to > 3 × 1019 m-3 and Greenwald fractions ~ 0.2-0.7 for Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA. Compared to L-mode plasmas, H-modes show: a doubling of the stored energy; reduced D- α emission; edge current pedestal with characteristic width of ~ 2 cm, with 6 cm for L-mode; reversal of the edge toroidal flow from counter-current to co-current; reduced V-sec consumption due to increased temperatures; and ELM excitation. Operation at A ~1.15 results in strong particle trapping, fT ~ 0.7 - 0.9, and associated neoclassical effects even at modest plasma temperatures so that POH ~ 0.4 MW, which readily surpasses the estimated threshold power of <0.1 MW. Low-field-side fueling appears to degrade access to and quality of the H-mode plasma. Characterization of H-mode access in PEGASUS will provide unique data at near-unity A and guide detailed studies of ELM dynamics, as well as provide a critical tool for exploring the extremely high-βT regime at A ~ 1. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  20. H-mode Characteristics and ELM Dynamics at Near-Unity Aspect Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. E.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2014-10-01

    Ohmic H-mode is achieved at near-unity aspect ratio in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment through the use of high-field-side fueling in both limited and diverted geometries. This regime is characterized by: increased edge rotation shear; increased central heating; and measured energy confinement consistent with the ITER98pb(y,2) scaling. In limited plasmas the power threshold is ~ 10 × higher than predicted by the high- A empirical tokamak scaling for nG = 0 . 1- 0 . 6 . No significant reduction in the power threshold has been observed in favorable ∇B SN plasma when compared to limited plasmas. Two classes of ELMs have been identified to date by their proximity to the power threshold and measured n spectra. Small, Type III-like ELMs are present at input power POH ~Pth and have n <= 4 . At POH >>Pth , they transition to large, Type-I-like ELMs with intermediate 5 < n < 15. These general mode numbers are opposite those seen at large A and reflect the increased peeling drive present at low A . The unique operating characteristics available at A ~ 1 in Pegasus allow long-sought measurements of the time evolution of the Jedge (R) pedestal collapse during an ELM event. They show a complex, multimodal pedestal collapse and the subsequent ejection of a current-carrying filament. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  1. Achieving Maximum Power from Thermoelectric Generators with Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking Circuits Composed of a Boost-Cascaded-with-Buck Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunbin; Sim, Minseob; Kim, Shiho

    2015-06-01

    We propose a way of achieving maximum power and power-transfer efficiency from thermoelectric generators by optimized selection of maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) circuits composed of a boost-cascaded-with-buck converter. We investigated the effect of switch resistance on the MPPT performance of thermoelectric generators. The on-resistances of the switches affect the decrease in the conversion gain and reduce the maximum output power obtainable. Although the incremental values of the switch resistances are small, the resulting difference in the maximum duty ratio between the input and output powers is significant. For an MPPT controller composed of a boost converter with a practical nonideal switch, we need to monitor the output power instead of the input power to track the maximum power point of the thermoelectric generator. We provide a design strategy for MPPT controllers by considering the compromise in which a decrease in switch resistance causes an increase in the parasitic capacitance of the switch.

  2. The Role of Nuclear Power in Achieving the World We Want

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, M. J.

    1970-01-01

    Supports the development of nuclear power plants and considers some problems and possible solutions: future power needs, power costs, thermal pollution, radionuclide discharge. Describes advantages and applications of dual purpose power plants for purifying water, producing phosphorus and ammonia, and serving as fast breeder reactors for Pu 239.…

  3. Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined fusion implosion.

    PubMed

    Hurricane, O A; Callahan, D A; Casey, D T; Celliers, P M; Cerjan, C; Dewald, E L; Dittrich, T R; Döppner, T; Hinkel, D E; Berzak Hopkins, L F; Kline, J L; Le Pape, S; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; Milovich, J L; Pak, A; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Remington, B A; Salmonson, J D; Springer, P T; Tommasini, R

    2014-02-20

    Ignition is needed to make fusion energy a viable alternative energy source, but has yet to be achieved. A key step on the way to ignition is to have the energy generated through fusion reactions in an inertially confined fusion plasma exceed the amount of energy deposited into the deuterium-tritium fusion fuel and hotspot during the implosion process, resulting in a fuel gain greater than unity. Here we report the achievement of fusion fuel gains exceeding unity on the US National Ignition Facility using a 'high-foot' implosion method, which is a manipulation of the laser pulse shape in a way that reduces instability in the implosion. These experiments show an order-of-magnitude improvement in yield performance over past deuterium-tritium implosion experiments. We also see a significant contribution to the yield from α-particle self-heating and evidence for the 'bootstrapping' required to accelerate the deuterium-tritium fusion burn to eventually 'run away' and ignite.

  4. 3. OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF EASTERN FACADE OF UNITY PLANT SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF EASTERN FACADE OF UNITY PLANT SHOWING LANDSCAPING AND HILL. NOTE THE CORBELED BRICK SUPPORT FOR THE FIRE WALL BETWEEN SECTIONS OF THE MILL. - Unity Spinning Mill, 1402 Austin Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  5. Achieving Peace through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    While it is generally agreed that peace is desirable, there are barriers to achieving a peaceful world. These barriers are classified into three major areas: (1) an erroneous view of human nature; (2) injustice; and (3) fear of world unity. In a discussion of these barriers, it is noted that although the consciousness and conscience of the world…

  6. STS-96 Astronauts Adjust Unity Hatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts Rick D. Husband and Tamara E. Jernigan adjust the hatch for the U.S. built Unity node. The task was part of an overall effort of seven crew members to prepare the existing portion of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched on May 27, 1999, aboard the Orbiter Discovery, the STS-96 mission was the second ISS assembly flight and the first shuttle mission to dock with the station.

  7. A Comparative Study on the Practice of Continuous Assessment between Addis Ababa and Unity Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleke, Aytaged Sisay

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the practice of continuous assessment at Unity University College and Addis Ababa University. It has also investigated constraints instructors say they have been facing in implementing continuous assessment. Students' attitudes about the practice of this assessment mode towards their course achievements were…

  8. Energy transmission and power sources for mechanical circulatory support devices to achieve total implantability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jake X; Smith, Joshua R; Bonde, Pramod

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular assist device therapy has radically improved congestive heart failure survival with smaller rotary pumps. The driveline used to power today's left ventricular assist devices, however, continues to be a source of infection, traumatic damage, and rehospitalization. Previous attempts to wirelessly power left ventricular assist devices using transcutaneous energy transfer systems have been limited by restrictions on separation distance and alignment between the transmit and receive coils. Resonant electrical energy transfer allows power delivery at larger distances without compromising safety and efficiency. This review covers the efforts to wirelessly power mechanical circulatory assist devices and the progress made in enhancing their energy sources.

  9. The Power of Perception: Mediating the Impact of Poverty on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell'Angelo, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Race and class often marginalize students in impoverished urban neighborhoods, and this reality is evident in consistently low student achievement in many of the schools in these neighborhoods. This study examines how a teacher's sense of agency can help mediate the detrimental impact of poverty on student achievement. Teachers in a large…

  10. Near-Unity Absorption in van der Waals Semiconductors for Ultrathin Optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Deep; Davoyan, Artur R; Tagliabue, Giulia; Sherrott, Michelle C; Wong, Joeson; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-09-14

    We demonstrate near-unity, broadband absorbing optoelectronic devices using sub-15 nm thick transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) of molybdenum and tungsten as van der Waals semiconductor active layers. Specifically, we report that near-unity light absorption is possible in extremely thin (<15 nm) van der Waals semiconductor structures by coupling to strongly damped optical modes of semiconductor/metal heterostructures. We further fabricate Schottky junction devices using these highly absorbing heterostructures and characterize their optoelectronic performance. Our work addresses one of the key criteria to enable TMDCs as potential candidates to achieve high optoelectronic efficiency. PMID:27563733

  11. Near-Unity Absorption in van der Waals Semiconductors for Ultrathin Optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Deep; Davoyan, Artur R; Tagliabue, Giulia; Sherrott, Michelle C; Wong, Joeson; Atwater, Harry A

    2016-09-14

    We demonstrate near-unity, broadband absorbing optoelectronic devices using sub-15 nm thick transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) of molybdenum and tungsten as van der Waals semiconductor active layers. Specifically, we report that near-unity light absorption is possible in extremely thin (<15 nm) van der Waals semiconductor structures by coupling to strongly damped optical modes of semiconductor/metal heterostructures. We further fabricate Schottky junction devices using these highly absorbing heterostructures and characterize their optoelectronic performance. Our work addresses one of the key criteria to enable TMDCs as potential candidates to achieve high optoelectronic efficiency.

  12. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers attach the overhead crane that will lift the Unity connecting module from its workstand to move the module to the payload canister. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  13. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers at the side and on the floor of the payload canister guide the Unity connecting module into position for transfer to the launch pad. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  14. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, a closeup view shows the overhead crane holding the Unity connecting module as it moves it to the payload canister for transfer to the launch pad. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  15. The Unity connecting module is moved to payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, an overhead crane moves the Unity connecting module to the payload canister for transfer to the launch pad. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  16. Achievement and Climate Outcomes for the Knowledge Is Power Program in an Inner-City Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron J.; Alberg, Marty; McSparrin-Gallagher, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of a whole school reform, the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP), specifically designed to raise academic achievement of at-risk urban middle school students by establishing an extended school day and year, a rigorous curriculum, after-school access to teachers, and increased family-school connections.…

  17. Examining the Predictive Power of Autonomy and Self-Evaluation on High School Students' Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Ismail; Toker, Yalcin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine language learners' autonomy, self-evaluation levels and to examine the predictive power of these two variables on language achievement. The study was designed as mixed method design and was conducted with 108 high school students. Data were collected through an autonomy scale, a self-evaluation scale, schools…

  18. A Design for Cross-Cultural Unity: A Partnership of Church and Community College. Perspectives on the Church and the Community College, Paper Number Seventeen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinto, William

    Although the integration movement of the 1960's and the demands for cultural pluralism in the 1970's addressed the issues of racial unity and minority civil rights, a new consciousness of cross-cultural unity among all ethnic groups must be achieved if racial tension is ever to be abated. Accordingly, cultural differences must not be viewed as the…

  19. Effectiveness of PowerPoint Presentation on Students' Cognitive Achievement in Technical Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Amosa Isiaka; Yusuf, Hamdalat Taiwo; Balogun, Sherifat Adepeju

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses importance of technology education and evidence of declining performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology subject. Benefits of PowerPoint presentation in classroom instruction as a means to improve classroom teaching in the developing countries are also discussed. The effectiveness of PowerPoint…

  20. The Use of Nanomaterials to Achieve NASA's Exploration Program Power Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, J.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the power requirements for the space exploration and the lunar surface mobility programs. It includes information about the specifications for high energy batteries and the power requirements for lunar rovers, lunar outposts, lunar ascent module, and the lunar EVA suit.

  1. Project UNITY: Cross Domain Visualization Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J.; Havig, P.

    UNITY is an International Cooperative Research and Development (ICR&D) project between the United States and Great Britain under the Research and Development Projects (RDP) Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). UNITYs objectives are to develop and evaluate the operational concepts and requirements for undertaking combined operations: a) pursuant to the interests of mission partners, b) develop, experiment, and demonstrate, transitionable emergent technologies, capabilities, or concepts, which facilitate the sharing of information and products between mission partners, and c) identify and define additional emerging technologies that may need to be developed to support current and future military information sharing. Collaboration between coalition partners is essentially for accurate and timely decision making in the ever increasing nature and tempo of global security. The purpose for this project is to develop engineering solutions in order to further investigate the human factors issues that arise while sharing information in a collaborative environment where security is an issue. The biggest difference between existing available solutions are in the presentation and interaction with the interface on both ends of the collaboration in order to preserve the expressed intent of shared situation awareness while also enabling markups and content on one screen that the other collaborator does not see and vice versa. The UNITY project stresses collaboration differently than all known realtime collaboration software in production, aka groupware, on the market today. The tradition of What You See Is What I See (WYSIWIS) as in typical implementations of shared whiteboards simply do not address the need for local and private information to be displayed in context with shareable data. This paper addresses the concerns, problems, and some solutions for shared 3D visualization and 2D tabular visualizations which are explored and presented within the space situation awareness problem

  2. Effect of Date and Location on Maximum Achievable Altitude for a Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1997-01-01

    The maximum altitude attainable for a solar powered aircraft without any energy storage capability is examined. Mission profiles for a solar powered aircraft were generated over a range of latitudes and dates. These profiles were used to determine which latitude-date combinations produced the highest achieavable altitude. Based on the presented analysis the results have shown that for a given time of year lower latitudes produced higher maximum altitudes. For all the cases examined the time and date which produced the highest altitude was around March at the equator.

  3. Civil Rights Acts: The Use of Presidential Power to Achieve Equality in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Presents an activity for senior high government courses about how President Johnson used his powers of persuasion to obtain civil rights legislation. Students analyze the effectiveness of arguments and persuasive techniques in two letters from President Johnson to the Speaker of the House of Representatives. (RM)

  4. Combined Heat and Power System Achieves Millions in Cost Savings at Large University - Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-29

    Texas A&M University is operating a high-efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) system at its district energy campus in College Station, Texas. Texas A&M received $10 million in U.S. Department of Energy funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for this project. Private-sector cost share totaled $40 million.

  5. How Archer Fish Achieve a Powerful Impact: Hydrodynamic Instability of a Pulsed Jet in Toxotes jaculatrix

    PubMed Central

    Vailati, Alberto; Zinnato, Luca; Cerbino, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Archer fish knock down insects anchored to vegetation by hitting them with a precisely aimed jet of water. The striking force of the jet at the impact is such to overcome the strong anchoring forces of insects. The origin of the effectiveness of such hunting mechanism has been long searched for inside of the fish, in the unsuccessful attempt to identify internal structures dedicated to the amplification of muscular power. Here we perform a kinematic analysis of the jet emitted by two specimens of Toxotes jaculatrix. We estimate that at the impact the jet conveys a typical specific power of about 3000 W/kg, which is well above the maximum specific power of the order of 500 W/kg deliverable by a vertebrate muscle. Unexpectedly, we find that the amplification of muscular power occurs outside of the fish, and is due to a hydrodynamic instability of the jet akin to those occurring in Drop-on-Demand inkjet printing. The investigated fish are found to modulate the velocity of the jet at the orifice to favor the formation of a single, large, water drop that hits the prey abruptly with a large momentum. The observed mechanism represents a remarkable example of use of an external hydrodynamic lever that does possibly not entail the high evolutionary cost needed for the development of highly specialized internal structures dedicated to the storing of mechanical energy. PMID:23112861

  6. High intensity focused ultrasound sonothrombolysis: the use of perfluorocarbon droplets to achieve clot lysis at reduced acoustic powers

    PubMed Central

    Pajek, Daniel; Burgess, Alison; Huang, Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate use of intravascular perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets to reduce the sonication powers required to achieve clot lysis using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). HIFU with droplets was initially applied to blood clots in an in vitro flow apparatus and inertial cavitation thresholds were determined. An embolic model for ischemic stroke was used to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique in vivo. Recanalization with intravascular droplets was achieved in vivo at 24±5% of the sonication power without droplets. Rabbits receiving 1 ms pulsed sonication during continuous intravascular droplet infusion recanalized in 71% of cases (p=0.041 vs controls). Preliminary experiments showed that damage was contained to the ultrasonic focus, suggesting that safe treatments would be possible with a more tightly focused hemispherical array that allows the whole focus to be placed inside of the main arteries in the human brain. PMID:25023095

  7. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF KEX PLANT, FORMER CALLAWAY MILLS UNITY COTTON MILL (A. FRANCIS WALKER, 1900-01) FROM DUNSON STREET. UNITY COTTON MILL WAS THE FIRST OF SEVERAL TEXTILE MILLS BUILT BY THE CALLAWAY MILLS GROUP IN SOUTHWEST LAGRANGE DURING THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY. NOTE REMAINING PORTION OF ORIGINAL WATER TANK TOWER IN MIDDLE OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Unity Cotton Mill, 815 Leeman Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  8. The Unity connecting module moves into payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Viewed from below, the Unity connecting module is moved into the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  9. The Unity connecting module moves into payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Looking like a painting, this wide-angle view shows the Unity connecting module being moved toward the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  10. The Unity connecting module moves into payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module is moved toward the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. Part of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88 . The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  11. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  12. 'To preserve unity while almost allowing for chaos': Testing the aesthetic principle of unity-in-variety in product design.

    PubMed

    Post, R A G; Blijlevens, J; Hekkert, P

    2016-01-01

    Unity-in-variety is considered to be one of the oldest-known universal principles of beauty. However, little empirical research exists on how unity and variety together influence aesthetic appreciation. In three studies we investigated how unity and variety predict the aesthetic appreciation of a range of product designs, and further assessed whether perceived visual complexity and individual differences in regulatory focus influence this relationship. Our findings reveal that both unity and variety, while suppressing each other's effect, positively affect aesthetic appreciation. Hence, product designs that exhibit an optimum balance between unity and variety are aesthetically preferred. Furthermore, the research reveals that unity is the dominant factor in this relationship and facilitates the appreciation of variety. We discuss several theoretical and practical implications resulting from these studies. PMID:26687018

  13. 'To preserve unity while almost allowing for chaos': Testing the aesthetic principle of unity-in-variety in product design.

    PubMed

    Post, R A G; Blijlevens, J; Hekkert, P

    2016-01-01

    Unity-in-variety is considered to be one of the oldest-known universal principles of beauty. However, little empirical research exists on how unity and variety together influence aesthetic appreciation. In three studies we investigated how unity and variety predict the aesthetic appreciation of a range of product designs, and further assessed whether perceived visual complexity and individual differences in regulatory focus influence this relationship. Our findings reveal that both unity and variety, while suppressing each other's effect, positively affect aesthetic appreciation. Hence, product designs that exhibit an optimum balance between unity and variety are aesthetically preferred. Furthermore, the research reveals that unity is the dominant factor in this relationship and facilitates the appreciation of variety. We discuss several theoretical and practical implications resulting from these studies.

  14. Progress toward achieving high power and high efficiency semipolar LEDs and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong

    Performance of current commercially available wurtzite nitride based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown along the polar (0001) c-plane orientation, is limited by the presence of polarization-related electric fields inside multi-quantum wells (MQWs). The discontinuities in both spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization at the heterointerfaces result in internal electric fields in the quantum wells. These electric fields cause carrier separation [quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE)] and reduce the radiative recombination rate within the quantum wells. One approach to reduce and possibly eliminate the polarization-related effects is to grow III-nitride devices on crystal planes that are inclined with respect to the c-axis, i.e., on semipolar planes. In this dissertation, metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been employed for the homoepitaxial growth of GaN based LEDs on semipolar orientations. As a consequence of growing on high-quality bulk GaN substrates, the LEDs have significantly reduced threading dislocation and stacking fault densities, resulting in remarkable improvements in EQE and output power. High efficiency semipolar (1011) violet-blue and blue LEDs have been demonstrated without any intentional effort to enhance the light extraction from those devices. Optimizations of epitaxial structures have led to increased output power and external quantum efficiency. A silicone encapsulated single quantum well blue LED with peak wavelength of 444 nm with output power of 24.3 mW, external quantum efficiency of 43% and luminous efficacy of 75 lm/W (with phosphorescent coating) at 20 mA has been demonstrated. Polarization fields in strained (1011) and (112¯2) InGaN quantum wells have been experimentally determined through bias-dependent optical studies. Our results show that the polarization field flips its direction in semipolar InGaN quantum wells with large inclination angles (i.e. around 60°). This suggests that there exists a polarization

  15. Mode-converters for rectangular-core fiber amplifiers to achieve diffraction-limited power scaling.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Arun Kumar; Pax, Paul H; Heebner, John E; Drachenberg, Derrek R; Armstrong, J Paul; Dawson, Jay W

    2012-12-17

    A rectangular-core (ribbon) fiber that guides and amplifies a single higher-order-mode (HOM) can potentially scale to much higher average powers than what is possible in traditional circular-core large-mode-area fibers. Such an amplifier would require mode-conversion at the input to enable interfacing with seed sources that typically output TEM(00) mode radiation and at the output to generate diffraction-limited radiation for end-user applications. We present the first simulation and experimental results of a mode conversion technique that uses two diffractive-optic-elements in conjugate Fourier planes to convert a diffraction limited TEM(00) mode to the HOM of a ribbon fiber. Mode-conversion-efficiency is approximately 84% and can theoretically approach 100%. We also demonstrate a mode-converter system that converts a single HOM of a ribbon fiber back to a diffraction-limited TEM(00) mode. Conversion efficiency is a record 80.5%.

  16. Honoring Religion as a Source of Diversity and Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsma, Stephen V.

    2005-01-01

    Unity without diversity is, at best, boring, and at worse, totalitarian. Diversity without unity constantly threatens to degenerate, at best, into tensions and failures at cooperation and, at worst, into genocide. The sources of diversity in the United States are many. Racial and ethnic differences as well as differences based on national origins,…

  17. Aspects of the unity of consciousness and everyday memory failures.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Rocco J; Herrmann, Douglas J; Sarapata, Michael

    2006-06-01

    We argue that analyzing everyday memory failures in terms of the "unity of consciousness" can elucidate the bases of such failures. A perfect unity amongst one's mental states is rare. In extreme cases the unity of consciousness can breakdown in dramatic fashion (e.g., in Dissociative Identity Disorder), but such breakdowns also occur in less dramatic ways that affect us in everyday life. For example, disruptions in the unity of consciousness can result in everyday memory failures, such as forgetting to put on a tie for an important formal meeting. After providing some philosophical background into the notions of "unity of consciousness" and "functionalism," we offer preliminary analyses of three examples of everyday memory failure. We then introduce and develop what we call the "unity model" of memory failure and show how it explains the examples. We also describe different ways that unity can break down which, in turn, can lead to memory failure and inappropriate behavior. We then show how slips of action and other kinds of cognitive failures (e.g., memory blocks) differ from everyday memory failures. Finally, we examine alternative models (e.g., Absentmindedness and Multimodal) arguing that the unity model is preferable, and then show how our model is consistent with some experimental results.

  18. Using an active temporal compensating system to achieve the super-Gaussian pulses in high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Rui; Yuan, Hang; Li, Sensen; Liu, Zhaohong; Zhu, Xuehua; He, Weiming; Lv, Zhiwei

    2015-08-01

    In high-power solid-state laser, initiative pulse shaping can help improve the output laser's performance. The evaluation for output laser pulse is also incomplete. In this paper, we propose a method of initiative pulse shaping by using arbitrary waveform generator (AWG), and establish a relatively complete evaluation system for the output pulses shape simultaneously. It achieves the super-Gaussian pulse output with high SNR (signal-to-noise ratio). As a consequence, a square laser pulse with pulse adjustable width ~5ns, rising time 197ps is obtained. The power imbalance of the output square pulse is 3.72%. The similarity between the eight-order super-Gaussian pulse and the one we get from experiment reached 99%.

  19. Unity connecting module moving to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), workers guide the suspended Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, as they move it to another location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  20. Unity connecting module moving to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, hangs suspended during its move to another location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  1. Unity connecting module moving to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) Unity is suspended in air as it is moved to a now location in the SSPF. At right, visitors watch through a viewing window, part of the visitors tour at the Center. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  2. Unity connecting module lowered to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is lowered to its new location in the SSPF. In the background, visitors watch through a viewing window, part of the visitors tour at the Center. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  3. Unity connecting module placed in new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, is placed in a work station in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  4. Achieving High-Energy-High-Power Density in a Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Sodium Ion Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongsen; Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-14

    Simultaneous integration of high-energy output with high-power delivery is a major challenge for electrochemical energy storage systems, limiting dual fine attributes on a device. We introduce a quasi-solid-state sodium ion capacitor (NIC) based on a battery type urchin-like Na2Ti3O7 anode and a capacitor type peanut shell derived carbon cathode, using a sodium ion conducting gel polymer as electrolyte, achieving high-energy-high-power characteristics in solid state. Energy densities can reach 111.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 33.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 11200 W kg(-1), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art NICs. The designed device also exhibits long-term cycling stability over 3000 cycles with capacity retention ∼86%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the assembly of a highly flexible quasi-solid-state NIC and it shows no obvious capacity loss under different bending conditions. PMID:27500429

  5. Achieving High-Energy-High-Power Density in a Flexible Quasi-Solid-State Sodium Ion Capacitor.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongsen; Peng, Lele; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yu, Guihua

    2016-09-14

    Simultaneous integration of high-energy output with high-power delivery is a major challenge for electrochemical energy storage systems, limiting dual fine attributes on a device. We introduce a quasi-solid-state sodium ion capacitor (NIC) based on a battery type urchin-like Na2Ti3O7 anode and a capacitor type peanut shell derived carbon cathode, using a sodium ion conducting gel polymer as electrolyte, achieving high-energy-high-power characteristics in solid state. Energy densities can reach 111.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 800 W kg(-1), and 33.2 Wh kg(-1) at power density of 11200 W kg(-1), which are among the best reported state-of-the-art NICs. The designed device also exhibits long-term cycling stability over 3000 cycles with capacity retention ∼86%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the assembly of a highly flexible quasi-solid-state NIC and it shows no obvious capacity loss under different bending conditions.

  6. SETI, Consilience and the Unity of Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Ben

    Consilience In and Through SETI Edward O. Wilson has recently bemoaned the separation of the natural sciences, social sciences and humanities, and made an eloquent plea for ``consilience,'' which he defines as ``literally a 'jumping together' of knowledge by the linking of facts and fact-based theory across disciplines to create a common groundwork of explanation.'' This is, of course, the old Enlightenment dream of the unity of knowledge updated by a distinguished biologist. In particular, Wilson thinks that now the time is ripe for a coming together of biological and social sciences. I argue that the search for life, particularly ``intelligent'' life, elsewhere in the Galaxy may offer a unique opportunity for moving toward a consilience between these branches of learning. To be sure, there have been major disagreements between SETI scientists and social scientists on assumptions about the nature of extraterrestrial life, strategies for detection and the like, which each side has been tempted to attribute to the intellectual shortcomings of the other. Nonetheless, SETI scientists continue to consult with social scientists and the latter are becoming even more fascinated by the prospects of discovering the ultimate ``others.'' However, the real challenge and opportunity for consilience would come if and when we make contact with one or more ETI. Then the task of not simply deciphering a message but ultimately of understanding alien forms of intelligence would strain our own, demanding an unprecedented consilience if we are to succeed in this enterprise.

  7. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's design of a unity of physics].

    PubMed

    Görnitz, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As I learned in many conversations with Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, he saw his place in the history of science deriving from his "Theory of Urs". This theory will establish the unity of science on the basis of quantum bits. Any attempts to find some "fundamental bricks"--of whatever kind--must fail because of the antinomies of atomism. An abstract quantum bit is a structure quantum that cannot be conceived as a particle in space and time. However, it is clear, solely for logical reasons, that a quantum bit is an ultimate and indecomposable entity. Weizsäcker's revolutionary goal was--already 50 years ago--to unite quantum theory with cosmology and, on these grounds, proceed to a theory of elementary particles. The article gives a short overview of Weizsäcker's approach to the unity of physics, ending with a brief summary of what has been achieved in that endeavour up to now.

  8. STS-88 Onboard Photograph - Unity and Zarya Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph, taken during the STS-88 mission, shows the cornected Unity Module or Node 1 and Zarya or the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) after having been released from the Orbiter Endeavour's cargo bay. The Unity (also called Node 1), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS), is a six-sided connector to which all future U.S. Station modules will attach. It was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity Module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  9. STS-88 Onboard Photograph - The Unity Module and the Zarya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph taken during the STS-88 mission, shows the cornected Zarya (top with solar wings) and the Unity Module after having been released from the Orbiter Endeavour's cargo bay. The Unity (also called Node 1), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS), is a six-sided connector to which all future U.S. Station modules will attach and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  10. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  11. Unity Module in the Payload Bay for STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity module inside the shuttle payload bay of Space Shuttle Endeavour. Endeavour is scheduled to fly on mission STS-88, the first Space Shuttle flight for the assembly of the International Space Station, on December 3, 1998. The primary payload on the mission is the Unity connecting module, which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya Control Module already in orbit at that time.

  12. Unity connecting module in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the end at the right can be seen the Pressurized Mating Adapter 2, which provides entry into the module. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  13. Achievement of Low Recycling and High Power Density Handling in CDX-U with Lithium Plasma-Facing Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaita, Robert

    2006-10-01

    The CDX-U spherical tokamak research program has focused on lithium as a large area plasma-facing component (PFC). The CDX-U experiments have used a toroidal lithium limiter and evaporated lithium wall coatings up to 100 nm thick. Under these conditions, a particle pumping rate of 1 - 2 x 10^21 particles/second was achieved from an active wall area of 0.4 m^2. The energy confinement times deduced from plasma equilibrium reconstructions showed a nearly six-fold improvement over discharges without lithium PFC's. This was an increase of up to a factor three over ITER98P(y,1) scaling, and reflect the largest enhancement in confinement ever seen in Ohmic plasmas. Recycling coefficients (R) of 0.3 or below were deduced from spectroscopic measurements. These are the lowest values of R observed to date in magnetically-confined plasmas, and for the first time, the wall was not the dominant source of fueling. The process of generating lithium evaporative coatings also showed the effectiveness of liquid lithium in redistributing heat loads at extremely high power densities. An electron beam was used to deposit about 1.5 kW of power on a 6 mm spot on the toroidal lithium limiter. Lithium evaporation was not localized to this spot, but occurred only after the entire volume of lithium was raised to the evaporation temperature. Infrared camera images showed that even with a lithium depth of 3 mm, convection due to the Marangoni effect was able to distribute a heat load of about 50 MW/m^2 for the 240 second duration of the electron beam pulse. This could have significant consequences for PFC's in burning plasma devices, where high power densities are a concern.

  14. A new unity for angular measurements in strabismus.

    PubMed

    Bicas, Harley E A

    2014-10-01

    The practical advantages of quantifying an angle by a ratio of linear lengths instead of arcs of circles has led to the definition of the prism-diopter, a conventional unity for numbering prisms and measuring strabismic deviations. However, a major inconvenience of using prism-diopter unities to express angular measurements is the non-linearity of the scale, which reaches an infinite value for the angle of 90º, then becomes negative, with decreasing magnitudes for increasing angles between 90º and 180º. As a consequence, arithmetical operations and comparisons of angles measured by such unities present errors of very great magnitudes. In order to retain the advantages of defining an angle by straight line dimensions but to diminish the severe inconveniences of this method, a new definition of the prism-diopter is proposed. Here, instead of defining the prism-diopter by the asymmetrical condition, the conception of this new unity is based on a geometrically symmetrical condition; that of the relationship of an isosceles triangle (where the leg is perpendicular to the bisector of the angle and the bisector itself ). The condition of symmetry for the definition of the new unity represents a conceptual advance because it reproduces the already well accepted, conventional criteria for quantifying the value of a prism, that of its minimum deviation. Furthermore, it corresponds to the most commonly observed clinical conditions of binocular balance. The absolute differences between the unitary values of the prism-diopter and that of the new unity are negligible (0.0025%), but the scale of values expressed by the new unity is closer to the ideal scale of angular measurements. (With the new unity, the infinite value is only reached for an angle of 180º and the errors due to arithmetical operations are much smaller.) Numerical examples showing the advantages of using the new unity of angular measurements instead of the prism-diopter are presented. A mathematical

  15. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236.18 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service may terminate benefits under the Family Unity Program whenever the necessity for...

  16. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program... REMOVED Family Unity Program § 236.18 Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. (a) Grounds for termination. The Service may terminate benefits under the Family Unity Program whenever the necessity for...

  17. Study of a Simulation Tool to Determine Achievable Control Dynamics and Control Power Requirements with Perfect Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper contains a study of two methods for use in a generic nonlinear simulation tool that could be used to determine achievable control dynamics and control power requirements while performing perfect tracking maneuvers over the entire flight envelope. The two methods are NDI (nonlinear dynamic inversion) and the SOFFT(Stochastic Optimal Feedforward and Feedback Technology) feedforward control structure. Equivalent discrete and continuous SOFFT feedforward controllers have been developed. These equivalent forms clearly show that the closed-loop plant model loop is a plant inversion and is the same as the NDI formulation. The main difference is that the NDI formulation has a closed-loop controller structure whereas SOFFT uses an open-loop command model. Continuous, discrete, and hybrid controller structures have been developed and integrated into the formulation. Linear simulation results show that seven different configurations all give essentially the same response, with the NDI hybrid being slightly different. The SOFFT controller gave better tracking performance compared to the NDI controller when a nonlinear saturation element was added. Future plans include evaluation using a nonlinear simulation.

  18. Meta-analytic evidence of low convergence between implicit and explicit measures of the needs for achievement, affiliation, and power

    PubMed Central

    Köllner, Martin G.; Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2014-01-01

    The correlation between implicit and explicit motive measures and potential moderators of this relationship were examined meta-analytically, using Hunter and Schmidt's (2004) approach. Studies from a comprehensive search in PsycINFO, data sets of our research group, a literature list compiled by an expert, and the results of a request for gray literature were examined for relevance and coded. Analyses were based on 49 papers, 56 independent samples, 6151 subjects, and 167 correlations. The correlations (ρ) between implicit and explicit measures were 0.130 (CI: 0.077–0.183) for the overall relationship, 0.116 (CI: 0.050–0.182) for affiliation, 0.139 (CI: 0.080–0.198) for achievement, and 0.038 (CI: −0.055–0.131) for power. Participant age did not moderate the size of these relationships. However, a greater proportion of males in the samples and an earlier publication year were associated with larger effect sizes. PMID:25152741

  19. Using Media to Inspire Unity and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Despite the call to come together as community to instill citizenship in youth, there is a powerful educator and community member who does not attend school conferences or sit on community building teams--the mass media. The dynamics of daily living have been transformed by the increasing presence of mass media in daily life. This article…

  20. Unity connecting module moving to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), Unity (top) is suspended in air as it is moved to a new location (bottom left)in the SSPF. To its left is Leonardo, the Italian-built Multi- Purpose Logistics Module to be launched on STS-100. Above Leonardo, visitors watch through a viewing window, part of the visitors tour at the Center. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  1. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility make final preparations for closing the access hatch to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  2. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility close the access hatch to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  3. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare the hatch of the Unity connecting module for closure before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  4. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility hold part of the equipment to close the hatch to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  5. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare the Unity connecting module for closure before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  6. Unity hatch closed in preparation for launch on STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility work in the doorway of the Unity connecting module preparing it for closure before its launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in December. Unity will now undergo a series of leak checks before a final purge of clean, dry air inside the module to ready it for initial operations in space. Other testing includes the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock and the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter. The next time the hatch will be opened it will be by astronauts on orbit. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27. The Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time.

  7. High confinement mode and edge localized mode characteristics in a near-unity aspect ratio tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Thome, Kathreen E.; Bongard, Michael W.; Barr, Jayson L.; Bodner, Grant M.; Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Kriete, David M.; Perry, Justin M.; Schlossberg, David J.

    2016-04-27

    Tokamak experiments at near-unity aspect ratio A ≲ 1.2 offer new insights into the self-organized H-mode plasma confinement regime. In contrast to conventional A ~ 3 plasmas, the L–H power threshold PLH is ~15× higher than scaling predictions, and it is insensitive to magnetic topology, consistent with modeling. Edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities shift to lower toroidal mode numbers as A decreases. Furthermore, these ultralow-A operations enable heretofore inaccessible Jedge(R,t) measurements through an ELM that show a complex multimodal collapse and the ejection of a current-carrying filament.

  8. High Confinement Mode and Edge Localized Mode Characteristics in a Near-Unity Aspect Ratio Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Thome, K E; Bongard, M W; Barr, J L; Bodner, G M; Burke, M G; Fonck, R J; Kriete, D M; Perry, J M; Schlossberg, D J

    2016-04-29

    Tokamak experiments at near-unity aspect ratio A≲1.2 offer new insights into the self-organized H-mode plasma confinement regime. In contrast to conventional A∼3 plasmas, the L-H power threshold P_{LH} is ∼15× higher than scaling predictions, and it is insensitive to magnetic topology, consistent with modeling. Edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities shift to lower toroidal mode numbers as A decreases. These ultralow-A operations enable heretofore inaccessible J_{edge}(R,t) measurements through an ELM that show a complex multimodal collapse and the ejection of a current-carrying filament.

  9. High Confinement Mode and Edge Localized Mode Characteristics in a Near-Unity Aspect Ratio Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. E.; Bongard, M. W.; Barr, J. L.; Bodner, G. M.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Kriete, D. M.; Perry, J. M.; Schlossberg, D. J.

    2016-04-01

    Tokamak experiments at near-unity aspect ratio A ≲1.2 offer new insights into the self-organized H -mode plasma confinement regime. In contrast to conventional A ˜3 plasmas, the L -H power threshold PL H is ˜15 × higher than scaling predictions, and it is insensitive to magnetic topology, consistent with modeling. Edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities shift to lower toroidal mode numbers as A decreases. These ultralow-A operations enable heretofore inaccessible Jedge(R ,t ) measurements through an ELM that show a complex multimodal collapse and the ejection of a current-carrying filament.

  10. Appreciating Unity in Diversity: An Interview with Andrew Solomon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Dane L.

    2014-01-01

    The theme of the AMS 2014 Annual Conference is "Unity in Diversity," a concept that also describes the work of conference keynote speaker Andrew Solomon. Solomon is a writer and lecturer on psychology and politics; winner of the National Book Award; and an activist for LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender] rights, mental health,…

  11. Psychological Aspects of Cultural Pluralism: Unity and Identity Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    This paper is a plea for the recognition of the psychological and cultural value of pluralism in a nation. Government policies often discourage cultural pluralism in an attempt to promote national unity, but these policies suppress the individual's need for identity. Group interaction in complex societies may be divided into eight categories: (1)…

  12. An Umbrella for Three: The Unity of SCA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Wallace A.

    This paper discusses the unity of the Speech Communication Association (SCA). To keep the SCA from fragmenting further into isolated factions, the paper urges SCA members to maintain an awareness of their common goals within the broad context of the term "communication," to interact with one another in the research and study of not only…

  13. Motion and Edge Sensitivity in Perception of Object Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, W. Carter; Johnson, Scott P.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2003-01-01

    Although much evidence indicates that young infants perceive unitary objects by analyzing patterns of motion, infants' abilities to perceive object unity by analyzing Gestalt properties and by integrating distinct views of an object over time are in dispute. To address these controversies, four experiments investigated adults' and infants'…

  14. Infant Perception of Object Unity in Static Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavsek, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined infants' capability of extracting object unity in a stationary two-dimensional rod-and-box display. The infants were habituated to a centre-occluded rod and were afterwards tested with both a broken rod and a complete rod. The looking pattern of both female and male participants aged 8 months did not reveal the ability…

  15. Ethnic Diversity, National Unity and Multicultural Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review ethnic diversity, national unity and multicultural education in China with graduate students in a multicultural education course and pose some questions for discussion. China is a rapidly developing multiethnic country facing several challenges, including pollution, growing income inequality and low political…

  16. Unity in Diversity: The View from the (UAE) Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    This talk is about finding "unity in diversity". I ask how we can best focus our research efforts and then design our teaching for those of us involved with teaching language for specific business purposes in the Asia Pacific region and the Middle East. In parts 1 and 2 of the presentation I discuss how we need to (i) refer to empirical…

  17. 77 FR 65703 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Family Unity Benefits, Form I-817...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... for Family Unity Benefits, Form I-817, Revision of a Currently Approved Collection ACTION: 60-Day...) Title of the Form/Collection: Application for Family Unity Benefits. (3) Agency form number, if any,...

  18. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  19. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard. PMID:27610382

  20. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.

  1. Device-Training for Individuals with Thoracic and Lumbar Spinal Cord Injury Using a Powered Exoskeleton for Technically Assisted Mobility: Achievements and User Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.

  2. Effects of non-unity Lewis numbers in diffusion flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linan, A.; Orlandi, P.; Verzicco, R.; Higuera, F. J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to carry out direct numerical simulations of diffusion controlled combustion with non-unity Lewis numbers for the reactants and products, thus accounting for the differential diffusion effects of the temperature and concentration fields. We use a formulation based on combining the conservation equations in a way to eliminate the reaction terms similar to the method used by Burke and Schumann (1928) for unity Lewis numbers. We present calculations for an axisymmetric fuel jet and for a planar, time evolving mixing layer, leaving out the effects of thermal expansion and variations of the transport coefficients due to the heat release. Our results show that the front of the flame shifts toward the fuel or oxygen sides owing to the effect of the differential diffusion and that the location of maximum temperature may not coincide with the flame. The dependence of the distribution of the reaction products on their Lewis number has been investigated.

  3. Constructing an Online Professional Learning Network for School Unity and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robin; Kitchie, Laurie; Gagnon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    What if your professional learning community was available 24 hours a day, every day of the year? Would you like to have a place to share lesson plans, student work, a new curriculum, and to provide a discussion forum for all stakeholders? You can, even with only a basic understanding of technology. The authors explain how they created an online…

  4. Charging a Battery-Powered Device with a Fiber-Optically Connected Photonic Power System for Achieving High-Voltage Isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Lizon, David C; Gioria, Jack G; Dale, Gregory E; Snyder, Hans R

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a system to provide isolated power to the cathode-subsystem electronics of an x-ray tube. These components are located at the cathode potential of several hundred kilovolts, requiring a supply of power isolated from this high voltage. In this design a fiber-optically connected photonic power system (PPS) is used to recharge a lithium-ion battery pack, which will subsequently supply power to the cathode-subsystem electronics. The suitability of the commercially available JDSU PPS for this application is evaluated. The output of the ppe converter is characterized. The technical aspects of its use for charging a variety of Li-Ion batteries are discussed. Battery charge protection requirements and safety concerns are also addressed.

  5. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office...

  6. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Determination of unity of... Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) Before... requirement of unity of invention as set forth in § 1.475. (b) If the International Preliminary...

  7. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of unity of... Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) Before... requirement of unity of invention as set forth in § 1.475. (b) If the International Preliminary...

  8. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Determination of unity of... Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) Before... requirement of unity of invention as set forth in § 1.475. (b) If the International Preliminary...

  9. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office...

  10. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office...

  11. 8 CFR 245a.37 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) The alien, upon whose status Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act were based, fails to apply for... Unity benefits under the LIFE Act Amendments shall render the alien amenable to removal under any ground... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity...

  12. 8 CFR 245a.37 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) The alien, upon whose status Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act were based, fails to apply for... Unity benefits under the LIFE Act Amendments shall render the alien amenable to removal under any ground... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity...

  13. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office...

  14. 37 CFR 1.499 - Unity of invention during the national stage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unity of invention during the... Provisions National Stage § 1.499 Unity of invention during the national stage. If the examiner finds that a national stage application lacks unity of invention under § 1.475, the examiner may in an Office...

  15. The Power of Graphic Organizers: Effects on Students' Word-Learning and Achievement Emotions in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilter, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three graphic organizers for teaching vocabulary and the development of the emotions-related to achievement. The study focused on the effects of different types of graphic organizers on word-learning and various emotions in social studies. This study was designed as a…

  16. The Power of Community: How Foster Parents, Teachers, and Community Members Support Academic Achievement for Foster Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Foster children have been identified as one of the most high-risk groups for academic failure in schools today. However, a small number of foster youth are beating the odds by achieving academically. How are they able to overcome tremendous barriers and succeed? This phenomenological study reports the findings of former foster youth and their P-12…

  17. Cosmonaut Gidzenko Near Hatch Between Unity and Destiny

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cosmonaut Yuri P. Gidzenko, Expedition One Soyuz commander, stands near the hatch leading from the Unity node into the newly-attached Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules. The U.S.-built Unity module was launched aboard the Orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998, and connected to Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Cargo Block (FGB). The U.S. Laboratory (Destiny) module is the centerpiece of the ISS, where science experiments will be performed in the near-zero gravity in space. The Destiny Module was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (STS-98 mission) on February 7, 2001. The aluminum module is 8.5 meters (28 feet) long and 4.3 meters (14 feet) in diameter. The laboratory consists of three cylindrical sections and two endcones with hatches that will be mated to other station components. A 50.9-centimeter- (20-inch-) diameter window is located on one side of the center module segment. This pressurized module is designed to accommodate pressurized payloads. It has a capacity of 24 rack locations, and payload racks will occupy 13 locations especially designed to support experiments.

  18. Many small consumers, one growing problem: Achieving energy savings for electronic equipment operating in low power modes

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher T.; Meier, Alan K.

    2004-08-24

    An increasing amount of electricity is used by equipment that is neither fully ''on'' nor fully ''off.'' We call these equipment states low power modes, or ''lopomos.'' ''Standby'' and ''sleep'' are the most familiar lopomos, but some new products already have many modes. Lopomos are becoming common in household appliances, safety equipment, and miscellaneous products. Ross and Meier (2000) reports that several international studies have found standby power to be as much as 10 percent of residential energy consumption. Lopomo energy consumption is likely to continue growing rapidly as products with lopomos that use significant amounts of energy penetrate the market. Other sectors such as commercial buildings and industry also have lopomo energy use, perhaps totaling more in aggregate than that of households, but no comprehensive measurements have been made. In this paper, we propose a research agenda for study of lopomo energy consumption. This agenda has been developed with input from over 200 interested parties. Overall, there is consensus that lopomo energy consumption is an important area for research. Many see this as a critical time for addressing lopomo issues. As equipment designs move from the binary ''on/off'' paradigm to one that encompasses multiple power modes, there is a unique opportunity to address the issue of low power mode energy consumption while technology development paths are still flexible.

  19. Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ping; Deinega, Alexei; Hsieh, Mei-Li; John, Sajeev; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2013-10-15

    We report what is to our knowledge the first observation of the effect of parallel-to-interface-refraction (PIR) in a three-dimensional, simple-cubic photonic-crystal. PIR is an acutely negative refraction of light inside a photonic-crystal, leading to light-bending by nearly 90 deg over broad wavelengths (λ). The consequence is a longer path length of light in the medium and an improved light absorption beyond the Lambertian limit. As an illustration of the effect, we show near-unity total absorption (≥98%) in λ=520-620 nm and an average absorption of ~94% over λ=400-700 nm for our α-Si:H photonic-crystal sample of an equivalent bulk thickness of t˜=450 nm. Furthermore, we have achieved an ultra-wide angular acceptance of light over θ=0°-80°. This demonstration opens up a new door for light trapping and near-unity solar absorption over broad λs and wide angles.

  20. Unity nameplate examined after being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, Joan Higgenbotham, with KSC's Astronaut Office Computer Support, checks placement of the nameplate for the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  1. Unity nameplate examined after being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker checks placement of the nameplate for the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  2. Unity nameplate is attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    - In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker checks placement of the nameplate to be attached to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  3. Unity nameplate gets final check before being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    - In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers make a final check of the nameplate to be attached to the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  4. Unity nameplate is attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    - In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker places the nameplate on the side of the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  5. Unity nameplate examined before being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, holding the nameplate for the Unity connecting module are (left) Joan Higginbotham, with the Astronaut Office Computer Support Branch, and (right) Nancy Tolliver, with Boeing-Huntsville. Part of the International Space Station, Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  6. Unity nameplate added to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers look over the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, after attaching the nameplate. Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  7. Estimation on Achievable Parameter Regime of Warm Dense Matter Generated by Isochoric Heating Discharge using Intense Pulsed Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Ryota; Kashine, Kenji; Tokuchi, Akira; Tamura, Fumihiro; Watabe, Arata; Kudo, Takahiro; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aso, Tsukasa; Harada, Nob.; Jiang, Weihua

    2016-03-01

    An evaluation method for warm dense matter (WDM) with similar timescale in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by isochoric heating using intense pulsed power generator ETIGO-II is considered for evaluating target behavior. The temperature increase of the sample is estimated from the numerical calculation using the measured current. As a result, in the case that the shape of sample is ϕ2 mm x 10 mm and the density is 0.01 times solid density of copper, the temperature of sample increases up to 30000 K. It is expected that the WDM is generated using the proposed method with ICF implosion timescale.

  8. The Quest for Unity - The Adventure of Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Etienne; Lachièze-Rey, Marc

    1999-05-01

    What could quantum mechanics have in common with the philosophical musings of the ancient Greeks? In our age of multimillion-dollar supercolliders, it's hard to imagine that modern physics owes anything to thinkers who predate Descartes. But French physicists Etienne Klein and March Lachieze-Rey see an unbroken thread running from antiquity to the present--an ongoing search, throughout the history of science, for unity. In The Search for Unity the authors reveal how the quest for the One has driven all the great breakthroughs in science. They show how the Greeks searched for the fundamental element in all things; how Galileo unified the earth with the heavens, by discovering valleys and mountains on the moon; and how Newton created a single theory to describe the motion of the celestial bodies. With unequaled clarity, they explore the work of the most famous unifier of all, Albert Einstein, who melded space and time into a combined space-time concept, and then embarked on an unsuccessful search for a single theory to explain all the physical laws of the universe. Throughout the book, the authors stress the esthetic motives of scientists, how they recognize truth through apprehension of mathematical beauty. And in tracing the quest for unity up to the present day, they illuminate the bizarre workings of quantum mechanics and the sticky definition of reality itself at the subatomic level. A grand unification of all interactions still awaits discovery--but as Klein and Lachieze-Rey show, the search itself is as fascinating as the end result may ever be.

  9. [The problems of guaranteeing the unity of measurements in medicine].

    PubMed

    Tarbeev, Iu V

    1998-01-01

    The paper discussed its today's status in medicine in terms of its requirements for accurate measurements and their metrological provision, as well as the possibilities of metrology to meet the requirements. The fact that in medicine there is a wide spectrum of urgent measuring tasks requiring priority metrological provision is illustrated by specific examples. The role and potentialities of the D. I. Mendeleev All-Russian Research Institute of Metrology as the chief center of state standards in solving some of these tasks. Particular attention is given to the provision of unity of measurements of physical values which are most widely medically used in diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Astronaut Susan Helms in the ISS Unity Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut Susan Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, is positioned near a large amount of water temporarily stored in the Unity Node aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Helms accompanied the STS-105 crew back to Earth after having spent five months with two crewmates aboard the ISS. The 11th ISS assembly flight, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission was launched on August 10, 2001, and landed on August 22, 2001 at the Kennedy Space Center after the completion of the successful 12-day mission.

  11. [World Health Organization strategies "Towards Unity for Health" and the social responsibility of medical schools].

    PubMed

    Boelen, C

    2003-04-01

    One may wonder why multiple endeavours conducted worldwide over the last five decades to reform health systems have not achieved their expected outcomes. In light of increasing fragmentation, the current health system must be substituted by a true systems vision along with political will to create a unity of action between the five main stakeholders, namely: policy-makers, health care service managers, professionals and professional associations, academic institutions including medical schools, and civil society. Such synergy can only be established if the partners share the same commitment to core values such as quality, equity, relevance and cost-effectiveness in the health care field. Through its functions of providing education, training, research, and services, the medical school has the potential to induce reflection and stimulate action leading to a more coherent, effective, and equitable health system and policies.

  12. Near-Unity Reaction Probability in Olefin Hydrogenation Promoted by Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Maryam; Simonovis, Juan Pablo; Zaera, Francisco

    2014-06-19

    The kinetics of the hydrogenation of ethylene on platinum surfaces was studied by using high-flux effusive molecular beams and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). It was determined that steady-state ethylene conversion with probabilities close to unity could be achieved by using beams with ethylene fluxes equivalent to pressures in the mTorr range and high (≥100) H2:C2H4 ratios. The RAIRS data suggest that the high reaction probability is possible because such conditions lead to the removal of most of the ethylidyne layer known to form during catalysis. The observations from this study are contrasted with those under vacuum, where catalytic behavior is not sustainable, and with catalysis under more realistic atmospheric pressures, where reaction probabilities are estimated to be much lower (≤1 × 10(-5)).

  13. Unity quantum yield of photogenerated charges and band-like transport in quantum-dot solids.

    PubMed

    Talgorn, Elise; Gao, Yunan; Aerts, Michiel; Kunneman, Lucas T; Schins, Juleon M; Savenije, T J; van Huis, Marijn A; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2011-09-25

    Solid films of colloidal quantum dots show promise in the manufacture of photodetectors and solar cells. These devices require high yields of photogenerated charges and high carrier mobilities, which are difficult to achieve in quantum-dot films owing to a strong electron-hole interaction and quantum confinement. Here, we show that the quantum yield of photogenerated charges in strongly coupled PbSe quantum-dot films is unity over a large temperature range. At high photoexcitation density, a transition takes place from hopping between localized states to band-like transport. These strongly coupled quantum-dot films have electrical properties that approach those of crystalline bulk semiconductors, while retaining the size tunability and cheap processing properties of colloidal quantum dots.

  14. High power laser beam melting of Ti6Al4V on formed sheet metal to achieve hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Schaub, Adam; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Roman; Merklein, Marion; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Motivated by the desire to combine the advantages of two manufacturing concepts, namely Additive Manufacturing and sheet metal forming, the concept of hybrid processes emerged. Laser Beam Melting process with its characteristic layer by layer fabrication methodology has already been proved to be successful in fabricating fully dense 3D structures with micro sized Ti6Al4V powder. The presented research focuses on direct fabrication of Ti6 Al4V Additive Structures on a thin pre-formed Ti6 Al4V sheet metal substrate. In the state of the art Laser Beam Melting process, fabrication of solid structures is done on a support structure attached to a thick conventionally manufactured base plate. The state of the art process also uses a 200°C pre-heating of the fabrication platform in order to reduce the effect of heat induced stresses on the fabricated structures. Within the hybrid fabrication concept, 3D structures are directly fabricated on a thin sheet metal and the thermodynamic conditions are significantly different in comparison to the conventional process. The research aims at understanding the fundamental aspects of the interaction between the formed sheet metal and additive structure determines the corresponding mechanical characteristics. The interaction process during the fabrication exposes the alloy locally to non-optimum thermal cycles and the research therefore aims to understand the various influencing factors involved during the fabrication process. The system technology modifications required to achieve the aimed fabrication are also discussed in the presented research.

  15. The Unity connecting module rests inside the payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module rests inside the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. The first U.S. element of the International Space Station (ISS), Unity is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time. The mission is expected to last nearly 12 days, landing back at the Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 14.

  16. Non-unity molecular heritability demonstrated by continuous evolution in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, T.; Lehman, N.

    1999-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When catalytic RNA is evolved in vitro, the molecule's chemical reactivity is usually the desired selection target. Sometimes the phenotype of a particular RNA molecule cannot be unambiguously determined from its genotype, however. This can occur if a nucleotide sequence can adopt multiple folded states, an example of non-unity heritability (i.e. one genotype gives rise to more than one phenotype). In these cases, more rounds of selection are required to achieve a phenotypic shift. We tested the influence of non-unity heritability at the molecular level by selecting for variants of a ligase ribozyme via continuous evolution. RESULTS: During 20 bursts of continuous evolution of a 152-nucleotide ligase ribozyme in which the Mg2+ concentration was periodically lowered, a nine-error variant of the starting 'wild-type' molecule became dominant in the last eight bursts. This variant appears to be more active than the wild type. Kinetic analyses of the mutant suggest that it may not possess a higher first-order catalytic rate constant, however. Examination of the multiple RNA conformations present under the continuous evolution conditions suggests that the mutant is superior to the wild type because it is less likely to misfold into inactive conformers. CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of genotypes that are more likely to exhibit a particular phenotype is an epiphenomenon usually ascribed only to complex living systems. We show that this can occur at the molecular level, demonstrating that in vitro systems may have more life-like characteristics than previously thought, and providing additional support for an RNA world.

  17. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary Examining Authority and during the national... Invention § 1.475 Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the...

  18. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary Examining Authority and during the national... Invention § 1.475 Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the...

  19. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary Examining Authority and during the national... Invention § 1.475 Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the...

  20. 8 CFR 245a.37 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or her ineligible for Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act Amendments; (3) The alien, upon whose...) A qualifying relationship to the alien, upon whose status Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act... grounds thereof shall be served pursuant to the provisions of 8 CFR 103.8. The alien shall be given...

  1. 8 CFR 245a.37 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or her ineligible for Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act Amendments; (3) The alien, upon whose...) A qualifying relationship to the alien, upon whose status Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act... grounds thereof shall be served pursuant to the provisions of 8 CFR 103.8. The alien shall be given...

  2. 8 CFR 245a.37 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or her ineligible for Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act Amendments; (3) The alien, upon whose...) A qualifying relationship to the alien, upon whose status Family Unity benefits under the LIFE Act... grounds thereof shall be served pursuant to the provisions of 8 CFR 103.8. The alien shall be given...

  3. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. 1.488 Section 1.488 Patents, Trademarks... Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) Before... requirement of unity of invention as set forth in § 1.475. (b) If the International Preliminary...

  4. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unity of invention before the... Invention § 1.475 Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International... application shall relate to one invention only or to a group of inventions so linked as to form a...

  5. 37 CFR 1.488 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. 1.488 Section 1.488 Patents, Trademarks... Determination of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) Before... requirement of unity of invention as set forth in § 1.475. (b) If the International Preliminary...

  6. 37 CFR 1.476 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Searching Authority. 1.476 Section 1.476 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.476 Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority. (a) Before establishing the international...

  7. 37 CFR 1.475 - Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International Preliminary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unity of invention before the... Invention § 1.475 Unity of invention before the International Searching Authority, the International... application shall relate to one invention only or to a group of inventions so linked as to form a...

  8. 37 CFR 1.476 - Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... invention before the International Searching Authority. 1.476 Section 1.476 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.476 Determination of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority. (a) Before establishing the international...

  9. The Unity connecting module rests inside the payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This fish-eye view of the Unity connecting module reveals its immense size relative to the workers (below right). Unity rests inside the open payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour on Launch Pad 39A. At the top of bay is the docking mechanism first used with launches to Mir, the Russian space station. Unity is the first U.S. element of the International Space Station (ISS) and is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time. The mission is expected to last nearly 12 days, landing back at the Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 14.

  10. Unity connecting module before being moved to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, sits on a workstand before its move to a new location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  11. Unity nameplate examined before being attached to module for ISS and Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Examining the nameplate for the Unity connecting module, in the Space Station Processing Facility, are (left to right) Joe Schweiger and Tommy Annis, of Boeing-KSC, and Nancy Tolliver, of Boeing-Huntsville. An unidentified worker behind them looks on. Part of the International Space Station, Unity was expected to be transported to Launch Pad 39A on Oct. 26 for launch aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour on Mission STS-88 in December. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach Unity to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time.

  12. Unity connecting module prepared for move to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) attach a frame to lift the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, for its move to another location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  13. Unity connecting module lifted from workstand before move to new site in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) oversee the lifting of the Unity connecting module, part of the International Space Station, for its move to another location in the SSPF. As the primary payload on mission STS-88, scheduled to launch Dec. 3, 1998, Unity will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which should already be in orbit at that time. In the SSPF, Unity is undergoing testing such as the Pad Demonstration Test to verify the compatibility of the module with the Space Shuttle, as well as the ability of the astronauts to send and receive commands to Unity from the flight deck of the orbiter, and the common berthing mechanism to which other space station elements will dock. Unity is expected to be ready for installation into the Shuttle's payload canister on Oct. 25, and transported to Launch Pad 39-A on Oct. 27.

  14. Activities on Realization of High-Power and Steady-State ECRH System and Achievement of High Performance Plasmas in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ikeda, R.; Tamura, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Takita, Y.; Mutoh, T.; Minami, R.; Kariya, T.; Imai, T.; Idei, H.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.

    2009-11-26

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) has contributed to the achievement of high performance plasma production, high electron temperature plasmas and sustainment of steady-state plasmas in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Our immediate targets of upgrading the ECRH system are 5 MW several seconds and 1 MW longer than one hour power injection into LHD. The improvement will greatly extend the plasma parameter regime. For that purpose, we have been promoting the development and installation of 77 GHz/1-1.5 MW/several seconds and 0.3 MW/CW gyrotrons in collaboration with University of Tsukuba. The transmission lines are re-examined and improved for high and CW power transmission. In the recent experimental campaign, two 77 GHz gyrotrons were operated. One more gyrotron, which was designed for 1.5 MW/2 s output, was constructed and is tested. We have been promoting to improve total ECRH efficiency for efficient gyrotron-power use and efficient plasma heating, e.g. a new waveguide alignment method and mode-content analysis and the feedback control of the injection polarization. In the last experimental campaign, the 77 GHz gyrotrons were used in combination with the existing 84 GHz range and 168 GHz gyrotrons. Multi-frequency ECRH system is more flexible in plasma heating experiments and diagnostics. A lot of experiments have been performed in relation to high electron temperature plasmas by realization of the core electron-root confinement (CERC), electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), Electron Bernstein Wave heating, and steady-state plasma sustainment. Some of the experimental results are briefly described.

  15. Factorization of colored knot polynomials at roots of unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononov, Ya.; Morozov, A.

    2015-07-01

    HOMFLY polynomials are the Wilson-loop averages in Chern-Simons theory and depend on four variables: the closed line (knot) in 3d space-time, representation R of the gauge group SU (N) and exponentiated coupling constant q. From analysis of a big variety of different knots we conclude that at q, which is a 2m-th root of unity, q2m = 1, HOMFLY polynomials in symmetric representations [ r ] satisfy recursion identity: Hr+m =Hr ṡHm for any A =qN, which is a generalization of the property Hr = H1r for special polynomials at m = 1. We conjecture a further generalization to arbitrary representation R, which, however, is checked only for torus knots. Next, Kashaev polynomial, which arises from HR at q2 = e 2 πi / | R |, turns equal to the special polynomial with A substituted by A| R |, provided R is a single-hook representations (including arbitrary symmetric) - what provides a q - A dual to the similar property of Alexander polynomial. All this implies non-trivial relations for the coefficients of the differential expansions, which are believed to provide reasonable coordinates in the space of knots - existence of such universal relations means that these variables are still not unconstrained.

  16. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  17. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  18. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protest to lack of unity of... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  19. Center of the universal Askey-Wilson algebra at roots of unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hau-Wen

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by a profound observation on the Racah-Wigner coefficients of Uq (sl2), the Askey-Wilson algebras were introduced in the early 1990s. A universal analog △q of the Askey-Wilson algebras was recently studied. For q not a root of unity, it is known that Z (△q) is isomorphic to the polynomial ring of four variables. A presentation for Z (△q) at q a root of unity is displayed in this paper. As an application, a presentation for the center of the double affine Hecke algebra of type (C1∨ ,C1) at roots of unity is obtained.

  20. Implementation of transformed lenses in bed of nails reducing refractive index maximum value and sub-unity regions.

    PubMed

    Prado, Daniel R; Osipov, Andrey V; Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar

    2015-03-15

    Transformation optics with quasi-conformal mapping is applied to design a Generalized Maxwell Fish-eye Lens (GMFEL) which can be used as a power splitter. The flattened focal line obtained as a result of the transformation allows the lens to adapt to planar antenna feeding systems. Moreover, sub-unity refraction index regions are reduced because of the space compression effect of the transformation, reducing the negative impact of removing those regions when implementing the lens. A technique to reduce the maximum value of the refractive index is presented to compensate for its increase because of the transformation. Finally, the lens is implemented with the bed of nails technology, employing a commercial dielectric slab to improve the range of the effective refractive index. The lens was simulated with a 3D full-wave simulator to validate the design, obtaining an original and feasible power splitter based on a dielectric lens.

  1. The Node 1 (or Unity) Module for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph, taken by the Boeing Company, shows Node 1 (also called Unity), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS), with its hatch door installed. The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  2. The Unity connecting module rests inside the payload bay of Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module rests inside the open payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. At the top of bay is the docking mechanism first used with launches to Mir, the Russian space station. Unity is the first U.S. element of the International Space Station (ISS) and is scheduled for launch Dec. 3, 1998, on Mission STS-88. The Unity is a connecting passageway to the living and working areas of ISS. While on orbit, the flight crew will deploy Unity from the payload bay and attach it to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will be in orbit at that time. The mission is expected to last nearly 12 days, landing back at the Kennedy Space Center on Dec. 14.

  3. The Node 1 (or Unity) Module for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph, taken by the Boeing Company,shows Boeing technicians preparing to install one of six hatches or doors to the Node 1 (also called Unity), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  4. The Node 1 (or Unity) Module for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph, taken by the Boeing Company, shows Boeing technicians preparing to install one of six hatches or doors to the Node 1 (also called Unity), the first U.S. Module for the International Space Station (ISS). The Node 1, or Unity, serves as a cornecting passageway to Space Station modules and was manufactured by the Boeing Company at the Marshall Space Flight Center from 1994 to 1997. The U.S. built Unity module was launched aboard the orbiter Endeavour (STS-88 mission) on December 4, 1998 and connected to the Zarya, the Russian-built Functional Energy Block (FGB). The Zarya was launched on a Russian proton rocket prior to the launch of the Unity. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  5. Multicultural Education in Spain: The Autonomous Communities Face the Challenge of European Unity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteve, Jose M.

    1992-01-01

    As the mobility of Europeans increase, multicultural education, especially the issue of the language of instruction, becomes a great challenge. Spanish examples demonstrate that of the models of management for cultural diversity, unity through pluralism is the most desirable. (SK)

  6. Regression Equations for the Latent Roots of Random Data Correlation Matrices with Unities on the Diagonal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Stuart J.; Hubbard, Raymond

    1986-01-01

    In order to make parallel analysis more accessible to researchers employing principal component techniques, regression equations are presented for the logarithms of the latent roots of random data correlation matrices with unities on the diagonal. (Author/LMO)

  7. Unity connecting module viewed from above in the Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Unity connecting module is viewed from above while it awaits processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). On the side can be seen the connecting hatch. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station.

  8. Assessment of the constant non-unity Lewis number assumption in chemically-reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burali, Nicholas; Lapointe, Simon; Bobbitt, Brock; Blanquart, Guillaume; Xuan, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Accurate computation of molecular diffusion coefficients in chemically reacting flows can be an expensive procedure, and the use of constant non-unity Lewis numbers has been adopted often as a cheaper alternative. The goal of the current work is to explore the validity and the limitations of the constant non-unity Lewis number approach in the description of molecular mixing in laminar and turbulent flames. To carry out this analysis, three test cases have been selected, including a lean, highly unstable, premixed hydrogen/air flame, a lean turbulent premixed n-heptane/air flame, and a laminar ethylene/air coflow diffusion flame. For the hydrogen flame, both a laminar and a turbulent configuration have been considered. The three flames are characterised by Lewis numbers which are less than unity, greater than unity, and close to unity, respectively. For each flame, mixture-averaged transport simulations are carried out and used as reference data. The current analysis suggests that, for numerous combustion configurations, the constant non-unity Lewis number approximation leads to small errors when the set of Lewis numbers is chosen properly. For the selected test cases and our numerical framework, the reduction of computational cost is found to be minimal.

  9. Library Development and Legislation: A Call for Unity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochell, Carlton

    1979-01-01

    Advocates library organization and support on a national level. Federal legislation and creation of a national library authority are means considered to achieve the goals of library standardization, bibliographic control, and database development. (SW)

  10. Len Barton, Critical Education and the Problem of "Decentered Unities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    In the process of discussing the significant contributions that Len Barton has made to the sociology of education and to disability studies, I argue that a good deal of critical analyses of power and inequality in education are impoverished by some of their essentialist and reductive tendencies. I use an example taken from disability rights to…

  11. New hybrid active power filter for harmonic current suppression and reactive power compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biricik, Samet; Cemal Ozerdem, Ozgur; Redif, Soydan; Sezai Dincer, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    In the case of undistorted and balanced grid voltages, low ratio shunt active power filters (APFs) can give unity power factors and achieve current harmonic cancellation. However, this is not possible when source voltages are distorted and unbalanced. In this study, the cost-effective hybrid active power filter (HAPF) topology for satisfying the requirements of harmonic current suppression and non-active power compensation for industry is presented. An effective strategy is developed to observe the effect of the placement of power capacitors and LC filters with the shunt APF. A new method for alleviating the negative effects of a nonideal grid voltage is proposed that uses a self-tuning filter algorithm with instantaneous reactive power theory. The real-time control of the studied system was achieved with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture, which was developed using the OPAL-RT system. The performance result of the proposed HAPF system is tested and presented under nonideal supply voltage conditions.

  12. The Unity Council at 40: a pioneering community development and service organization (1967-2007).

    PubMed

    Orozco, Gabriel; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish Speaking Unity Council (Unity Council) is a community development nonprofit organization that was established in 1964, during the civil rights movement, by a group of community members who wanted to ensure the political representation of the Latino community. Over its 45-year history, the Unity Council has grown into a $12 million community development organization that delivers a range of programming, including social services and employment training as well as facilitating the development and support of local businesses, low-income housing, and neighborhood improvement activities. The history of the agency presents the multiple challenges and rewards associated with development in an underserved community and an example of the important role that leadership plays in the growth of a nonprofit. PMID:21416430

  13. The Unity Council at 40: a pioneering community development and service organization (1967-2007).

    PubMed

    Orozco, Gabriel; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish Speaking Unity Council (Unity Council) is a community development nonprofit organization that was established in 1964, during the civil rights movement, by a group of community members who wanted to ensure the political representation of the Latino community. Over its 45-year history, the Unity Council has grown into a $12 million community development organization that delivers a range of programming, including social services and employment training as well as facilitating the development and support of local businesses, low-income housing, and neighborhood improvement activities. The history of the agency presents the multiple challenges and rewards associated with development in an underserved community and an example of the important role that leadership plays in the growth of a nonprofit.

  14. On the scaling of probability density functions with apparent power-law exponents less than unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, K.; Farid, N.; Pruessner, G.; Stapleton, M.

    2008-04-01

    We derive general properties of the finite-size scaling of probability density functions and show that when the apparent exponent tilde{tau} of a probability density is less than 1, the associated finite-size scaling ansatz has a scaling exponent τ equal to 1, provided that the fraction of events in the universal scaling part of the probability density function is non-vanishing in the thermodynamic limit. We find the general result that τ≥1 and tau ge tilde{tau}. Moreover, we show that if the scaling function mathcal{G}(x) approaches a non-zero constant for small arguments, lim_{x to 0} mathcal{G}(x) > 0, then tau = tilde{tau}. However, if the scaling function vanishes for small arguments, lim_{x to 0} mathcal{G}(x) = 0, then τ= 1, again assuming a non-vanishing fraction of universal events. Finally, we apply the formalism developed to examples from the literature, including some where misunderstandings of the theory of scaling have led to erroneous conclusions.

  15. The need for unity in the biomedical research community.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, M

    1991-10-01

    The author provides a perspective on how basic scientists view contemporary issues of biomedical research funding by discussing five topics of concern to the biomedical research community and the need for that community to form a new consensus as the basis for new approaches to legislative efforts in Congress and communication with the public. The topics are (1) the reasons scientific societies became active in legislative efforts in Congress, (2) the reasons there was initial friction between these societies and other institutions in the biomedical research community, (3) the history of the founding of a biomedical research community, (3) the history of the founding of a biomedical research caucus in the House of Representatives, (4) the effects of the Institute of Medicine's recent report on funding health sciences research, and (5) the weakness of the present institutional coalition. The author proposes specific steps to develop a more unified approach to achieve a common biomedical research agenda.

  16. Theoretical explanation of the polarization-converting system achieved by beam shaping and combination technique and its performance under high power conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Shang, YaPing; Xu, XiaoJun

    2015-10-01

    The fiber laser has very obvious advantages and broad applications in remote welding, 3D cutting and national defense compared with the traditional solid laser. But influenced by heat effect of gain medium, nonlinear effect, stress birefringence effect and other negative factors, it's very difficult to get high power linearly polarized laser just using a single laser. For these limitations a polarization-converting system is designed using beam shaping and combination technique which is able to transform naturally polarized laser to linearly polarized laser at real time to resolve difficulties of generating high-power linearly polarized laser from fiber lasers in this paper. The principle of the Gaussian beam changing into the hollow beam passing through two axicons and the combination of the Gaussian beam and the hollow beam is discussed. In the experimental verification the energy conversion efficiency reached 93.1% with a remarkable enhancement of the extinction ratio from 3% to 98% benefited from the high conversion efficiency of axicons and the system worked fine under high power conditions. The system also kept excellent far field divergence. The experiment phenomenon also agreed with the simulation quite well. The experiment proves that this polarization-converting system will not affect laser structure which controls easily and needs no feedback and controlling system with stable and reliable properties at the same time. It can absolutely be applied to the polarization-conversion of high power laser.

  17. Alexander Bain's CUE in the Post-Modern World: Unity Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden, Phyllis

    In 1866, Alexander Bain proposed that by evaluating unity, coherence, and emphasis (which he brought together under the acronym "CUE"), students could judge the effectiveness of their written paragraphs. One hundred twenty-five years later, the proposition is still central to composition instruction. A review of modern writing textbooks reveals…

  18. Concepts of Unity and Sentence Structure in Arabic, Spanish, and Malay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick-Mescua, Maria; Gmuca, Jacqueline L.

    A university writing faculty conducted a study of the concepts of unity in expository prose and of sentence structure as understood by Arabic, Malay, and Spanish speakers to discover why some students grasp some concepts more readily than others. Interviews, surveys, and analysis of written compositions revealed that the reason lies in ways these…

  19. The Meaning of Meaning: The Life-Worlds of Some Unity School Truth Drama Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Augusta M.

    Religious symbol systems have the capacity to bring into place superordinate constructions of reality. One interesting construction of reality has been developed by the Unity School of Christianity, organized in the second half of the nineteenth century and perhaps the most successful of organized groups within the American New…

  20. An Age Longing for Unity: Thoughts about the Role of Modern Literature in Our Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Carl

    Literature's intellectual and spiritual independence and great public appeal afford it great potential as a moving force in today's increasingly secular, unphilosophical, and nonliterary world, which nonetheless longs for harmony, unity of purpose, and spiritual oneness. Although political oppression and literary commercialism threaten literature…

  1. Adding Some Perspective to de Moivre's Theorem: Visualising the "n"-th Roots of Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardell, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, "z" is assumed to be a complex number and the roots are usually determined by using de Moivre's theorem adapted for fractional indices. The roots are represented in the Argand plane by points that lie equally pitched around a circle of unit radius. The "n"-th roots of unity always include the real number 1, and…

  2. Unity with PMA-2 attached awaits further processing in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station's (ISS) Unity node, with Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA)-2 attached, awaits further processing by Boeing technicians in its workstand in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). The Unity node is the first element of the ISS to be manufactured in the United States and is currently scheduled to lift off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 later this year. Unity has two PMAs attached to it now that this mate is completed. PMAs are conical docking adapters which will allow the docking systems used by the Space Shuttle and by Russian modules to attach to the node's hatches and berthing mechanisms. Once in orbit, Unity, which has six hatches, will be mated with the already orbiting Control Module and will eventually provide attachment points for the U.S. laboratory module; Node 3; an early exterior framework or truss for the station; an airlock; and a multi-windowed cupola. The Control Module, or Functional Cargo Block, is a U.S.-funded and Russian-built component that will be launched aboard a Russian rocket from Kazakstan.

  3. Unity with PMA-2 attached awaits further processing in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station's (ISS) Unity node, with Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA)-2 attached, awaits further processing in the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). The Unity node is the first element of the ISS to be manufactured in the United States and is currently scheduled to lift off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 later this year. Unity has two PMAs attached to it now that this mate is completed. PMAs are conical docking adapters which will allow the docking systems used by the Space Shuttle and by Russian modules to attach to the node's hatches and berthing mechanisms. Once in orbit, Unity, which has six hatches, will be mated with the already orbiting Control Module and will eventually provide attachment points for the U.S. laboratory module; Node 3; an early exterior framework or truss for the station; an airlock; and a multi-windowed cupola. The Control Module, or Functional Cargo Block, is a U.S.- funded and Russian-built component that will be launched aboard a Russian rocket from Kazakstan.

  4. STS-88 Mission Commander Cabana looks at the mission payload Unity at pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-88 Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana gets a close look at the Unity connecting module that is in the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour. Cabana and the STS-88 crew arrived at KSC in the early morning hours of Nov. 30 for pre- launch preparations. The other crew members are Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow, Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist James H. Newman and Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut. The scheduled lift-off is at 3:56 a.m. on Dec. 3. Unity is the primary payload of the mission, which is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. The crew will be mating Unity with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.

  5. STS-88 Pilot Sturckow and Commander Cabana look over the payload Unity at pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, STS-88 Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow and Mission Commander Robert D. Cabana look over the Unity connecting module that is in the payload bay of the orbiter Endeavour. Cabana, Sturckow and the STS-88 crew arrived at KSC in the early morning hours of Nov. 30 for pre-launch preparations. The other crew members are Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie, Mission Specialist James H. Newman and Mission Specialist Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev, a Russian cosmonaut. The scheduled lift-off is at 3:56 a.m. on Dec. 3. Unity is the primary payload of the mission, which is the first U.S. launch for the International Space Station. The crew will be mating Unity with the Russian-built Zarya control module already in orbit. In addition to Unity, two small replacement electronics boxes are on board for possible repairs to Zarya batteries. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC at 10:17 p.m. on Monday, Dec. 14.

  6. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... served pursuant to the provisions of 8 CFR 103.8(a)(2). The alien shall be given 30 days to respond to... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. 236.18 Section 236.18 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  7. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... served pursuant to the provisions of 8 CFR 103.8(a)(2). The alien shall be given 30 days to respond to... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. 236.18 Section 236.18 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  8. 8 CFR 236.18 - Termination of Family Unity Program benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... served pursuant to the provisions of 8 CFR 103.8(a)(2). The alien shall be given 30 days to respond to... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Termination of Family Unity Program benefits. 236.18 Section 236.18 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  9. 77 FR 5865 - American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda... current and accurate information concerning the securities of China Wind Energy, Inc. because it has...

  10. Band-Limited Wavefront Reconstruction with Unity Frequency Response from Shack-Hartmann Slopes Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bahk, S.-W.

    2008-06-17

    The analytic frequency responses of the traditional wavefront reconstructors of Hudgin, Fried, and Southwell are presented, which exhibit amplification or attenuation of the original signal at high spatial frequencies. To overcome this problem, a reconstructor with unity frequency response is developed based on a band-limited derivative calculation. The algorithm is both numerically and experimentally confirmed.

  11. Kiswahili as Vehicle of Unity and Development in the Great Lakes Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishe, Anna M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the potentiality of Kiswahili in accelerating social, political, economic and cultural integration within the Great Lakes Region. Presently, Kiswahili is a "de facto" lingua franca spoken by almost 100 million people in the world (Ntakirutimana, 2000). This is an indication of its viability in promoting unity among people with…

  12. Unity through Diversity. TESOL Arabia '98 4th International Conference. Conference Proceedings, Vol. III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troudi, Salah, Ed.; Coombe, Christine, Ed.; Riley, Susan, Ed.

    Papers from the 1998 international conference on the teaching of English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) include: "The Future of English: Where Unity and Diversity Meet" (David Crystal); "Maximizing Student Writing and Minimizing Teacher Correction" (Phil Quirke); "How the Camel Got Its Hump: Bringing Literature Back into the ESL Classroom"…

  13. Spatiotemporal Integration and Object Perception in Infancy: Perceiving Unity versus Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Walle, Gretchen A.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    1996-01-01

    Investigated 5-month-olds' perception of an object whose center was occluded and whose ends were visible only in succession. Found that infants perceived the object as one connected whole when the ends underwent common motion but not when the ends were stationary. Results suggest that infants perceive object unity but not object form. (Author/BC)

  14. q-Virasoro/W algebra at root of unity and parafermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoyama, H.; Oota, T.; Yoshioka, R.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate that the parafermions appear in the r-th root of unity limit of q-Virasoro/Wn algebra. The proper value of the central charge of the coset model sl ˆ (n)r ⊕ sl ˆ (n) m - n/sl ˆ (n) m - n + r is given from the parafermion construction of the block in the limit.

  15. Bloom, Frye, and the Academic Aspiration after the Unity of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Examines the dark analyses of modern higher education presented in Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind" and Northrop Frye's "On Education." The University of Toronto proposes an Integrated Studies (Unity of Knowledge) program which would involve students in interdisciplinary studies in humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences.…

  16. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. 1.489 Section 1.489 Patents, Trademarks... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  17. 37 CFR 1.477 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... invention before the International Searching Authority. 1.477 Section 1.477 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.477 Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding...

  18. 37 CFR 1.477 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Searching Authority. 1.477 Section 1.477 Patents, Trademarks, and... PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions Unity of Invention § 1.477 Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding...

  19. 37 CFR 1.489 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. 1.489 Section 1.489 Patents, Trademarks... Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Preliminary Examining Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International...

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells employing a single film of mesoporous TiO2 beads achieve power conversion efficiencies over 10%.

    PubMed

    Sauvage, Frédéric; Chen, Dehong; Comte, Pascal; Huang, Fuzhi; Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Caruso, Rachel A; Graetzel, Michael

    2010-08-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells employing mesoporous TiO(2) beads have demonstrated longer electron diffusion lengths and extended electron lifetimes over Degussa P25 titania electrodes due to the well interconnected, densely packed nanocrystalline TiO(2) particles inside the beads. Careful selection of the dye to match the dye photon absorption characteristics with the light scattering properties of the beads have improved the light harvesting and conversion efficiency of the bead electrode in the dye-sensitized solar cell. This has resulted in a solar to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of greater than 10% (10.6% for Ru(II)-based dye C101 and 10.7% using C106) for the first time using a single screen-printed titania layer cell construction (that is, without an additional scattering layer).

  1. Achieving quasi-adiabatic thermal environment to maximize resolution power in very high-pressure liquid chromatography: Theory, models, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Gilar, Martin; Jarrell, Joseph A

    2016-04-29

    A cylindrical vacuum chamber (inner diameter 5 cm) housing a narrow-bore 2.1 mm×100 mm column packed with 1.8 μm HSS-T3 fully porous particles was built in order to isolate thermally the chromatographic column from the external air environment. Consistent with statistical physics and the mean free path of air molecules, the experimental results show that natural air convection and conduction are fully eliminated for housing air pressures smaller than 10(-4) Torr. Heat radiation is minimized by wrapping up the column with low-emissivity aluminum-tape (emissivity coefficient ϵ=0.03 vs. 0.28 for polished stainless steel 316). Overall, the heat flux at the column wall is reduced by 96% with respect to standard still-air ovens. From a practical viewpoint, the efficiency of the column run at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min at a constant 13,000 psi pressure drop (the viscous heat power is around 9 W/m) is improved by up to 35% irrespective of the analyte retention. Models of heat and mass transfer reveal that (1) the amplitude of the radial temperature gradient is significantly reduced from 0.30 to 0.01 K and (2) the observed improvement in resolution power stems from a more uniform distribution of the flow velocity across the column diameter. The eddy dispersion term in the van Deemter equation is reduced by 0.8±0.1 reduced plate height unit, a significant gain in column performance.

  2. Achieving quasi-adiabatic thermal environment to maximize resolution power in very high-pressure liquid chromatography: Theory, models, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Fabrice; Gilar, Martin; Jarrell, Joseph A

    2016-04-29

    A cylindrical vacuum chamber (inner diameter 5 cm) housing a narrow-bore 2.1 mm×100 mm column packed with 1.8 μm HSS-T3 fully porous particles was built in order to isolate thermally the chromatographic column from the external air environment. Consistent with statistical physics and the mean free path of air molecules, the experimental results show that natural air convection and conduction are fully eliminated for housing air pressures smaller than 10(-4) Torr. Heat radiation is minimized by wrapping up the column with low-emissivity aluminum-tape (emissivity coefficient ϵ=0.03 vs. 0.28 for polished stainless steel 316). Overall, the heat flux at the column wall is reduced by 96% with respect to standard still-air ovens. From a practical viewpoint, the efficiency of the column run at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min at a constant 13,000 psi pressure drop (the viscous heat power is around 9 W/m) is improved by up to 35% irrespective of the analyte retention. Models of heat and mass transfer reveal that (1) the amplitude of the radial temperature gradient is significantly reduced from 0.30 to 0.01 K and (2) the observed improvement in resolution power stems from a more uniform distribution of the flow velocity across the column diameter. The eddy dispersion term in the van Deemter equation is reduced by 0.8±0.1 reduced plate height unit, a significant gain in column performance. PMID:27040511

  3. A panoramic view of the Space Station Processing Facility with Unity connecting module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In this panoramic view of the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) can be seen (left to right) Unity connecting module, the Rack Insertion Device and the first Multi-Purpose Launch Module, the Leonardo. Windows at the right above Leonardo allow visitors on tour to watch the activities in the SSPF. The Unity, scheduled to be launched on STS-88 in December 1998, will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module which will already be in orbit. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for the International Space Station. The Italian-built MPLM, scheduled to be launched on STS-100 on Dec. 2, 1999, will be carried in the payload bay of the Shuttle orbiter, and will provide storage and additional work space for up to two astronauts when docked to the International Space Station.

  4. The one and the many: the search for unity in nature.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    The essence of physical reality-what the world consists of-has been a heated focus of contention for millennia. First with philosophers and then with physicists, the debate has been polarized since the beginning: while those loosely known as Platonists search for an underlying unity in nature, others caution that such unity is unachievable in practice and in principle. In this essay, we review both positions, arguing strongly for the latter in anticipation of experimental results from the Large Hadron Collider, the particle accelerator from the European Center for Nuclear Research. We further argue that, for the first time in history, the material essence of reality could be determined from an empirical standpoint as opposed to a purely dialectic one, settling the age-old debate.

  5. The one and the many: the search for unity in nature.

    PubMed

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    The essence of physical reality-what the world consists of-has been a heated focus of contention for millennia. First with philosophers and then with physicists, the debate has been polarized since the beginning: while those loosely known as Platonists search for an underlying unity in nature, others caution that such unity is unachievable in practice and in principle. In this essay, we review both positions, arguing strongly for the latter in anticipation of experimental results from the Large Hadron Collider, the particle accelerator from the European Center for Nuclear Research. We further argue that, for the first time in history, the material essence of reality could be determined from an empirical standpoint as opposed to a purely dialectic one, settling the age-old debate. PMID:26556013

  6. Functional unity of the thymus and pineal gland and study of the mechanisms of aging.

    PubMed

    Polyakova, V O; Linkova, N S; Kvetnoy, I M; Khavinson, V Kh

    2011-09-01

    The data on the morphology and functions of the thymus and pineal gland in individuals of different age are analyzed and common mechanisms of involution of these organs during aging and the consequencies of this process are discussed. Based on the data on the molecular changes in the thymus and pineal gland during aging, the authors hypothesize the functional unity of these organs and their mutual complementarity in the maintenance of normal immune and endocrine status during aging.

  7. Body-self unity and self-esteem in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Bode, Christina; van der Heij, Anouk; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2010-12-01

    Perceptions and evaluations of the own body are important sources of self-esteem. Having a rheumatic disease challenges maintenance of positive self-esteem due to consequences of the disease such as unfavorable sensations as pain and limited (physical) functioning. We expect that a positive experience of the own body in spite of a rheumatic disease (body-self harmony) will be associated with higher levels of self-esteem and that experiencing the body as unworthy part of the own person or as disabler for own strivings (body-self alienation) will result in lower levels of self-esteem. For this explorative study, the body experience questionnaire (BEQ) measuring body-self unity was developed and piloted. One hundred sixty-eight patients visiting the outpatient rheumatology clinic of the Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, completed a questionnaire on touchscreen computers to measure body-self unity (BEQ), illness cognitions (illness cognition questionnaire), pain intensity, functional limitations (health assessment questionnaire disability index), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) and demographics. To analyze predictors of self-esteem, hierarchical regression analyses were employed. The BEQ revealed a two-factor structure with good reliability (subscale harmony, four items, Cronbach's α = 0.76; subscale alienation, six items, Cronbach's α = 0.84). The final model of the hierarchical regression analyses showed that self-esteem can be predicted by the illness cognitions helplessness and acceptance, by harmony and most strongly by alienation from the body. R(2) of the final model was 0.50. The relationship between functional limitations and self-esteem was totally mediated by the psychological constructs body-self unity and illness cognitions. This explorative study showed the importance of the unity of body and self for self-esteem in patients with a rheumatic disease.

  8. Defining and Detecting Complex Peak Relationships in Mass Spectral Data: The Mz.unity Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Nathaniel G; Spalding, Jonathan L; Gelman, Susan J; Patti, Gary J

    2016-09-20

    Analysis of a single analyte by mass spectrometry can result in the detection of more than 100 degenerate peaks. These degenerate peaks complicate spectral interpretation and are challenging to annotate. In mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, this degeneracy leads to inflated false discovery rates, data sets containing an order of magnitude more features than analytes, and an inefficient use of resources during data analysis. Although software has been introduced to annotate spectral degeneracy, current approaches are unable to represent several important classes of peak relationships. These include heterodimers and higher complex adducts, distal fragments, relationships between peaks in different polarities, and complex adducts between features and background peaks. Here we outline sources of peak degeneracy in mass spectra that are not annotated by current approaches and introduce a software package called mz.unity to detect these relationships in accurate mass data. Using mz.unity, we find that data sets contain many more complex relationships than we anticipated. Examples include the adduct of glutamate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), fragments of NAD detected in the same or opposite polarities, and the adduct of glutamate and a background peak. Further, the complex relationships we identify show that several assumptions commonly made when interpreting mass spectral degeneracy do not hold in general. These contributions provide new tools and insight to aid in the annotation of complex spectral relationships and provide a foundation for improved data set identification. Mz.unity is an R package and is freely available at https://github.com/nathaniel-mahieu/mz.unity as well as our laboratory Web site http://pattilab.wustl.edu/software/ .

  9. Quantum groups, roots of unity and particles on quantized Anti-de Sitter space

    SciTech Connect

    Steinacker, H

    1997-05-23

    Quantum groups in general and the quantum Anti-de Sitter group U{sub q}(so(2,3)) in particular are studied from the point of view of quantum field theory. The author shows that if q is a suitable root of unity, there exist finite-dimensional, unitary representations corresponding to essentially all the classical one-particle representations with (half) integer spin, with the same structure at low energies as in the classical case. In the massless case for spin {ge} 1, {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} representations are unitarizable only after factoring out a subspace of {open_quotes}pure gauges{close_quotes}, as classically. Unitary many-particle representations are defined, with the correct classical limit. Furthermore, the author identifies a remarkable element Q in the center of U{sub q}(g), which plays the role of a BRST operator in the case of U{sub q}(so(2,3)) at roots of unity, for any spin {ge} 1. The associated ghosts are an intrinsic part of the indecomposable representations. The author shows how to define an involution on algebras of creation and anihilation operators at roots of unity, in an example corresponding to non-identical particles. It is shown how nonabelian gauge fields appear naturally in this framework, without having to define connections on fiber bundles. Integration on Quantum Euclidean space and sphere and on Anti-de Sitter space is studied as well. The author gives a conjecture how Q can be used in general to analyze the structure of indecomposable representations, and to define a new, completely reducible associative (tensor) product of representations at roots of unity, which generalizes the standard {open_quotes}truncated{close_quotes} tensor product as well as many-particle representations.

  10. 77 FR 74265 - In the Matter of the Designation of Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Matter of the Designation of Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as Unity Movement for Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as... Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa, also known as Movement ] for Oneness and Jihad in West...

  11. A self-biased PLL with low power and compact area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailong, Jia; Xianmin, Chen; Qi, Liu; Guangtao, Feng

    2015-10-01

    A new low power, low phase jitter, compact realization, and self-biased PLL, which is fabricated on SMIC 40 nm CMOS technology is introduced. The proposed self-biased PLL eliminates extra band gap biasing circuits, and internally generates all the biasing voltages and currents. Meanwhile, all of the PLL dynamic loop parameters, such as loop bandwidth, natural frequency, damping factors are kept constant adaptively. By optimizing the circuit structures, the perfect unity of chip estate, power dissipation, phase jitter, and loop stability is achieved. The PLL consumes 4.2 mW of power under 1.1 V/2.5 V voltage supply at 2.4 GHz VCO frequency, while occupying a die area of less than 0.02 mm2 (180 × 110 μm2), and the typical period jitter (RMS) is around 2.8 ps.

  12. The development of systematic quality control method using laboratory information system and unity program.

    PubMed

    Min, Won-Ki; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyosoon

    2002-01-01

    Quality control (QC) process is performed to detect and correct errors in the laboratory, of which systematic errors are repeated and affect all the laboratory process thereafter. This makes it necessary for all the laboratories to detect and correct errors effectively and efficiently. We developed an on-line quality assurance system for detection and correction of systematic error, and linked it to the Unity Plus/Pro (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Irvine, USA), a commercially available quality management system. The laboratory information system based on the client-server paradigm was developed using NCR3600 (NCR, West Columbia, USA) as the server and database for server was Oracle 7.2 (Oracle, Belmont, USA) and development tool was Powerbuilder (Powersoft Burlignton, UK). Each QC material is registered and gets its own identification number and tested the same way as patient sample. The resulting QC data is entered into the Unity Plus/Pro program by in-house data entering program or by manual input. With the implementation of in-house laboratory information system (LIS) and linking it to Unity Plus/Pro, we could apply Westgard's multi-rule for higher error detection rate, resulting in more systematic and precise quality assurance for laboratory product, as well as complementary to conventional external quality assessment.

  13. The development of systematic quality control method using laboratory information system and unity program.

    PubMed

    Min, Won-Ki; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyosoon

    2002-01-01

    Quality control (QC) process is performed to detect and correct errors in the laboratory, of which systematic errors are repeated and affect all the laboratory process thereafter. This makes it necessary for all the laboratories to detect and correct errors effectively and efficiently. We developed an on-line quality assurance system for detection and correction of systematic error, and linked it to the Unity Plus/Pro (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Irvine, USA), a commercially available quality management system. The laboratory information system based on the client-server paradigm was developed using NCR3600 (NCR, West Columbia, USA) as the server and database for server was Oracle 7.2 (Oracle, Belmont, USA) and development tool was Powerbuilder (Powersoft Burlignton, UK). Each QC material is registered and gets its own identification number and tested the same way as patient sample. The resulting QC data is entered into the Unity Plus/Pro program by in-house data entering program or by manual input. With the implementation of in-house laboratory information system (LIS) and linking it to Unity Plus/Pro, we could apply Westgard's multi-rule for higher error detection rate, resulting in more systematic and precise quality assurance for laboratory product, as well as complementary to conventional external quality assessment. PMID:12755272

  14. Relief unity emulator and slope stability simulator applied to mass movement occurrence analysis in slope evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangelo, Antonio C.

    2010-05-01

    This work refers to a part of my "Fellow" thesis "Geomorphosynthesis and Geomorphocinematic applied to slope stability and evolution" (Colangelo, 2007). Relief unity emulator (rue) is a device that permits to synthesize a slope unity by means of a single generatrix profile that determine the initial conditions for application of a set of a geotechnical, hydrological and morphological models. This initial profile is considered in equilibrium with original environmental conditions, and operates in an integrated manner with these models. The aim is to induce a boundary condition on initial profile and produce a new profile: a threshold profile. For this manner and by iterations we generate a set of new profiles that represents, each one, a meta-stable profile, or a descending profile. The evolution of these profiles is in according with the central geomorphologycal concepts of slope retreat, base level change and head retreat. This set of "descending profiles" will be now sliced at topographic equivalent points, that will linked for describe a "topographic equivalence line". The crossing of this kind of isolines with descending profiles composes a 3D slope unity. This descending slope unity is represented by a mesh built for the crossing of these new slope profiles with the topographic equivalence lines and, the result is a four-dimensional meta-stable object integrated to the slope stability simulator (sss). This composite "rue-sss" device operates with 10 main models and 16 variables. The models describe effective stress, shearing resistance, soil saturation level behavior, potential rupture surface depth, critical depth, potential rupture surface critical gradient, critical soil saturation level, top of percolation flow gradient and unit weight of soil. Of this manner, is possible to evaluate effective friction angles and cohesion, critical soil saturation levels, critical gradients for potential rupture surfaces, neutral stress, shear strength, shear stress

  15. Out-Of Out-Of Abnormal Unity of Body and Self in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzy, Shahar; Landis, Theodor; Blanke, Olaf

    2005-10-01

    Under normal conditions, human subjects experience the self within the limits of the physical body and the limits of the present time. This unified experience of the self in space and time has been challenged by philosophers and physicists. The spatial unity between self and body has also been challenged by a well defined group of experiences called "autoscopic phenomena" (AP), during which subjects have the impression of seeing a second own body in extrapersonal space. Yet, with respect to the three main forms of AP -- autoscopic hallucination, heautoscopy, and out-of-body experience -- previous studies have concentrated on describing the spatial unity between self and body while neglecting to analyze the temporal unity of self and body. Here we describe several AP-cases with an altered experience of age or time for one's own body or self. In some AP-cases the second own body was seen as being younger or older than the subject's actual body. We show that the second own body is experienced as if "coming from another time" although the observing self is experienced in the present time. Other AP-subjects reported a feeling of timelessness of the observing self without any age difference between the subjects' actual and illusory body. We argue that these differences in age or time suggest that the temporal experience of one's own body and self is altered in these subjects. Collectively, these data suggest that AP may be associated not only with abnormal sensations with respect to spatial unity, but also with respect to temporal unity. Moreover, we found that out-of-body experiences were associated with feelings of timelessness and no age differences between self and body and that autoscopic hallucinations and heautoscopy were associated with age differences between self and body but not with feelings of timelessness. We conjecture that out-of-body experiences are characterized by disembodiment not only in space but also in time. For autoscopic hallucinations and

  16. Photogenerated excitons in plain core CdSe nanocrystals with unity radiative decay in single channel: the effects of surface and ligands.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Peng, Xiaogang

    2015-04-01

    A systematic and reproducible method was developed to study the decay dynamics of an exciton, a photogenerated electron-hole pair, in semiconductor nanocrystals in solution. Results revealed that the excitons in plain core CdSe nanocrystals in either zinc-blende or wurtzite or mixed lattice structures could be reproducibly prepared to decay radiatively in unity quantum yield and in single channel. The single-channel lifetime was found to increase monotonically by increasing size of the CdSe nanocrystals, with zinc-blende ones increasing in a relatively slow pace. Surface inorganic stoichiometry was found to be a sensitive parameter to affect the exciton decay dynamics for all crystal structures with different sizes. Excess Se (Cd) sites on the surface were found to induce short (long) lifetime channels for the excitons. Both types of traps reduced the quantum yield of the radiative decay of the excitons, and the hole traps associated with Se sites were nearly not emissive. With optimal surface inorganic stoichiometry, primary amines were identified as "ideal" organic ligands for CdSe core nanocrystals to achieve unity radiative decay of excitons in single channel in comparison to other types of neutral ligands commonly applied in the field.

  17. [Manpower migrations and Arab unity: the challenges of the Iraqi model].

    PubMed

    Roussillon, A

    1985-01-01

    the presence of large numbers of foreign workers not only to the countries employing them but to the Arab nation as a whole allows Iraq to criticize the migration policies of the Gulf oil exporters, which are increasingly favoring more productive labor from Asian countries and which cede much of the authority to select and admit workers to private concerns. The evolution of Iraq's policy demonstrates the concern of its governing party with reconciling its Arab identity and its analysis of international power relations with consolidation of its own position internally and in the Arab world as a whole. The labor policy of the oil exporters exposes their countries and thus the Arab world to the possibility of sabotage and to demographic overpowering of ethnic and cultural identity. Interpretations differ as to whether the Iraqi model has led to a better deployment of labor and as to its theoretical contribution to pan-Arab unity, given the diverging interests of the individual states concerned. PMID:12280380

  18. [Manpower migrations and Arab unity: the challenges of the Iraqi model].

    PubMed

    Roussillon, A

    1985-01-01

    the presence of large numbers of foreign workers not only to the countries employing them but to the Arab nation as a whole allows Iraq to criticize the migration policies of the Gulf oil exporters, which are increasingly favoring more productive labor from Asian countries and which cede much of the authority to select and admit workers to private concerns. The evolution of Iraq's policy demonstrates the concern of its governing party with reconciling its Arab identity and its analysis of international power relations with consolidation of its own position internally and in the Arab world as a whole. The labor policy of the oil exporters exposes their countries and thus the Arab world to the possibility of sabotage and to demographic overpowering of ethnic and cultural identity. Interpretations differ as to whether the Iraqi model has led to a better deployment of labor and as to its theoretical contribution to pan-Arab unity, given the diverging interests of the individual states concerned.

  19. q-Virasoro algebra at root of unity limit and 2d-4d connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoyama, H.; Oota, T.; Yoshioka, R.

    2013-11-01

    We propose a limiting procedure in which, starting from the q-lifted version (or K-theoretic five dimensional version) of the (W)AGT conjecture to be assumed, the Virasoro/W block is generated in the r-th root of unity limit in q in the 2d side, while the same limit automatically generates the projection of the five dimensional instanton partition function onto that on the ALE space Bbb R4/Bbb Zr. This proceeding is based on arXiv:1308.2068

  20. Stabilization and robustness of non-linear unity-feedback system - Factorization approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Kabuli, M. G.

    1988-01-01

    The paper is a self-contained discussion of a right factorization approach in the stability analysis of the nonlinear continuous-time or discrete-time, time-invariant or time-varying, well-posed unity-feedback system S1(P, C). It is shown that a well-posed stable feedback system S1(P, C) implies that P and C have right factorizations. In the case where C is stable, P has a normalized right-coprime factorization. The factorization approach is used in stabilization and simultaneous stabilization results.

  1. Implementation of Headtracking and 3D Stereo with Unity and VRPN for Computer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores low-cost hardware and software methods to provide depth cues traditionally absent in monocular displays. The use of a VRPN server in conjunction with a Microsoft Kinect and/or Nintendo Wiimote to provide head tracking information to a Unity application, and NVIDIA 3D Vision for retinal disparity support, is discussed. Methods are suggested to implement this technology with NASA's EDGE simulation graphics package, along with potential caveats. Finally, future applications of this technology to astronaut crew training, particularly when combined with an omnidirectional treadmill for virtual locomotion and NASA's ARGOS system for reduced gravity simulation, are discussed.

  2. (0,m) Pal-type interpolation on the Mobius transform of roots of unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, Marcel G.

    2005-06-01

    Define for integer m[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and [alpha] a complex number with [alpha]2,[alpha]m[not equal to]1, the polynomial of degree mwm([alpha];z)=(z+[alpha])m-(1+[alpha]z)m,whose (simple) zeros can be seen as the Mobius transforms of the mth roots of unity.In this paper it will be shown that (0,m) Pal-type interpolation on the zeros of {wn+m([alpha];z),wn([alpha];z)} is regular for all integers and complex numbers [alpha] with [alpha]2,[alpha]m,[alpha]n,[alpha]n+m[not equal to]1.

  3. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded…

  4. [Changes and establishment of the principle of "Unity of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine"].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian

    2014-11-01

    "Unity of traditional Chinese and western medicine" was one of the three major health work principles at the early founding of the People's Republic of China. It was not only a choice of political strategy in line with the lack of contemporary health-care resources, but also a part of the revolutionary heritage for more than 20 years in the process of the Chinese Communist Party from the preliminary "application of both traditional and western medicine" to the making of the principles of both "cooperation of traditional Chinese and western medicine" and "unity of traditional Chinese and western medicine". All this was closely related to the concrete environment of the Chinese health work of various stages of Yan'an period with strong revolutionary atmosphere and was not the professional demand of the health workers, rather, this principle set up in 1950 was the result of the careful consideration of Mao Zedong and an adjustment guided under the revolutionary framework of Neo-democracy set up under the guidance of the Common Principle which was a bettered adaptation to the contemporary national condition.

  5. Self-assembly formation of Bi-functional Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs hybrid catalysts for achieving both high energy/power density and cyclic ability of rechargeable zinc-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Nengneng; Liu, Yuyu; Zhang, Xia; Li, Xuemei; Li, Aijun; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2016-09-01

    α-MnO2 nanotubes-supported Co3O4 (Co3O4/MnO2) and its carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-hybrids (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been successfully developed through a facile two-pot precipitation reaction and hydrothermal process, which exhibit the superior bi-functional catalytic activity for both ORR and OER. The high performance is believed to be induced by the hybrid effect among MnO2 nanotubes, hollow Co3O4 and CNTs, which can produce a synergetic enhancement. When integrated into the practical primary and electrochemically rechargeable Zn-air batteries, such a hybrid catalyst can give a discharge peak power density as high as 450 mW cm‑2. At 1.0 V of cell voltage, a current density of 324 mA cm‑2 is achieved. This performance is superior to all reported non-precious metal catalysts in literature for zinc-air batteries and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art platinum-based catalyst. Particularly, the rechargeable Zn-air battery can be fabricated into all-solid-state one through a simple solid-state approach, which exhibits an excellent peak power density of 62 mW cm‑2, and the charge and discharge potentials remain virtually unchanged during the overall cycles, which is comparable to the one with liquid electrolyte.

  6. Self-assembly formation of Bi-functional Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs hybrid catalysts for achieving both high energy/power density and cyclic ability of rechargeable zinc-air battery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nengneng; Liu, Yuyu; Zhang, Xia; Li, Xuemei; Li, Aijun; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2016-09-20

    α-MnO2 nanotubes-supported Co3O4 (Co3O4/MnO2) and its carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-hybrids (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been successfully developed through a facile two-pot precipitation reaction and hydrothermal process, which exhibit the superior bi-functional catalytic activity for both ORR and OER. The high performance is believed to be induced by the hybrid effect among MnO2 nanotubes, hollow Co3O4 and CNTs, which can produce a synergetic enhancement. When integrated into the practical primary and electrochemically rechargeable Zn-air batteries, such a hybrid catalyst can give a discharge peak power density as high as 450 mW cm(-2). At 1.0 V of cell voltage, a current density of 324 mA cm(-2) is achieved. This performance is superior to all reported non-precious metal catalysts in literature for zinc-air batteries and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art platinum-based catalyst. Particularly, the rechargeable Zn-air battery can be fabricated into all-solid-state one through a simple solid-state approach, which exhibits an excellent peak power density of 62 mW cm(-2), and the charge and discharge potentials remain virtually unchanged during the overall cycles, which is comparable to the one with liquid electrolyte.

  7. Self-assembly formation of Bi-functional Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs hybrid catalysts for achieving both high energy/power density and cyclic ability of rechargeable zinc-air battery

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nengneng; Liu, Yuyu; Zhang, Xia; Li, Xuemei; Li, Aijun; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2016-01-01

    α-MnO2 nanotubes-supported Co3O4 (Co3O4/MnO2) and its carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-hybrids (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been successfully developed through a facile two-pot precipitation reaction and hydrothermal process, which exhibit the superior bi-functional catalytic activity for both ORR and OER. The high performance is believed to be induced by the hybrid effect among MnO2 nanotubes, hollow Co3O4 and CNTs, which can produce a synergetic enhancement. When integrated into the practical primary and electrochemically rechargeable Zn-air batteries, such a hybrid catalyst can give a discharge peak power density as high as 450 mW cm−2. At 1.0 V of cell voltage, a current density of 324 mA cm−2 is achieved. This performance is superior to all reported non-precious metal catalysts in literature for zinc-air batteries and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art platinum-based catalyst. Particularly, the rechargeable Zn-air battery can be fabricated into all-solid-state one through a simple solid-state approach, which exhibits an excellent peak power density of 62 mW cm−2, and the charge and discharge potentials remain virtually unchanged during the overall cycles, which is comparable to the one with liquid electrolyte. PMID:27646032

  8. Self-assembly formation of Bi-functional Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs hybrid catalysts for achieving both high energy/power density and cyclic ability of rechargeable zinc-air battery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nengneng; Liu, Yuyu; Zhang, Xia; Li, Xuemei; Li, Aijun; Qiao, Jinli; Zhang, Jiujun

    2016-01-01

    α-MnO2 nanotubes-supported Co3O4 (Co3O4/MnO2) and its carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-hybrids (Co3O4/MnO2-CNTs) have been successfully developed through a facile two-pot precipitation reaction and hydrothermal process, which exhibit the superior bi-functional catalytic activity for both ORR and OER. The high performance is believed to be induced by the hybrid effect among MnO2 nanotubes, hollow Co3O4 and CNTs, which can produce a synergetic enhancement. When integrated into the practical primary and electrochemically rechargeable Zn-air batteries, such a hybrid catalyst can give a discharge peak power density as high as 450 mW cm(-2). At 1.0 V of cell voltage, a current density of 324 mA cm(-2) is achieved. This performance is superior to all reported non-precious metal catalysts in literature for zinc-air batteries and significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art platinum-based catalyst. Particularly, the rechargeable Zn-air battery can be fabricated into all-solid-state one through a simple solid-state approach, which exhibits an excellent peak power density of 62 mW cm(-2), and the charge and discharge potentials remain virtually unchanged during the overall cycles, which is comparable to the one with liquid electrolyte. PMID:27646032

  9. Attribution theory in science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Martin

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by examining potential malleable factors that may predict science achievement in twelfth graders using 2009 data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Principle component factor analysis was conducted to determine the specific items that contribute to each overall factor. A series of multiple regressions were then analyzed and formed the predictive value of each of these factors for science achievement. All significant factors were ultimately examined together (also using multiple regression) to determine the most powerful predictors of science achievement, identifying factors that predict science achievement, the results of which suggested interventions to strengthen students' science achievement scores and encourage persistence in the sciences at the college level and beyond. Although there is a variety of research highlighting how students in the US are falling behind other developing nations in science and math achievement, as yet, little research has addressed ways of intervening to address this gap. The current research is a starting point, seeking to identify malleable factors that contribute to science achievement. More specifically, this research examined the types of attributions that predict science achievement in twelfth grade students.

  10. Integrated But Not Whole? Applying an Ontological Account of Human Organismal Unity to the Brain Death Debate.

    PubMed

    Moschella, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    As is clear in the 2008 report of the President's Council on Bioethics, the brain death debate is plagued by ambiguity in the use of such key terms as 'integration' and 'wholeness'. Addressing this problem, I offer a plausible ontological account of organismal unity drawing on the work of Hoffman and Rosenkrantz, and then apply that account to the case of brain death, concluding that a brain dead body lacks the unity proper to a human organism, and has therefore undergone a substantial change. I also show how my view can explain hard cases better than one in which biological integration (as understood by Alan Shewmon and the President's Council) is taken to imply ontological wholeness or unity.

  11. Ultrafast helicity control of surface currents in topological insulators with near-unity fidelity.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Christoph; Karnetzky, Christoph; Karl, Helmut; Holleitner, Alexander W

    2015-03-26

    In recent years, a class of solid-state materials, called three-dimensional topological insulators, has emerged. In the bulk, a topological insulator behaves like an ordinary insulator with a band gap. At the surface, conducting gapless states exist showing remarkable properties such as helical Dirac dispersion and suppression of backscattering of spin-polarized charge carriers. The characterization and control of the surface states via transport experiments is often hindered by residual bulk contributions. Here we show that surface currents in Bi2Se3 can be controlled by circularly polarized light on a picosecond timescale with a fidelity near unity even at room temperature. We reveal the temporal separation of such ultrafast helicity-dependent surface currents from photo-induced thermoelectric and drift currents in the bulk. Our results uncover the functionality of ultrafast optoelectronic devices based on surface currents in topological insulators.

  12. The Total Synthesis Problem of linear multivariable control. II - Unity feedback and the design morphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sain, M. K.; Antsaklis, P. J.; Gejji, R. R.; Wyman, B. F.; Peczkowski, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Zames (1981) has observed that there is, in general, no 'separation principle' to guarantee optimality of a division between control law design and filtering of plant uncertainty. Peczkowski and Sain (1978) have solved a model matching problem using transfer functions. Taking into consideration this investigation, Peczkowski et al. (1979) proposed the Total Synthesis Problem (TSP), wherein both the command/output-response and command/control-response are to be synthesized, subject to the plant constraint. The TSP concept can be subdivided into a Nominal Design Problem (NDP), which is not dependent upon specific controller structures, and a Feedback Synthesis Problem (FSP), which is. Gejji (1980) found that NDP was characterized in terms of the plant structural matrices and a single, 'good' transfer function matrix. Sain et al. (1981) have extended this NDP work. The present investigation is concerned with a study of FSP for the unity feedback case. NDP, together with feedback synthesis, is understood as a Total Synthesis Problem.

  13. THE LOGIC OF SCIENTIFIC UNITY? MEDAWAR, THE ROYAL SOCIETY AND THE ROTHSCHILD CONTROVERSY 1971-72.

    PubMed

    Calver, Neil; Parker, Miles

    2016-03-20

    In 1971 Lord (Victor) Rothschild published his report for the government, The organisation and management of government R&D, and Sir Peter Medawar launched a campaign for the election of Sir Karl Popper to Fellowship of the Royal Society. We explore these two developments in the contexts of the then current views of the role and purpose of science, and their underpinning philosophy. Although the political battle was won by Rothschild, resulting in major changes to the funding and management of applied R&D, we argue that, despite this, Medawar's campaign for Popper provided an embattled science community with a philosophical basis for defending pure research and the unity of basic and applied science.

  14. Linear stable unity-feedback system - Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability under nonlinear plant perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Kabuli, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors consider a linear (not necessarily time-invariant) stable unity-feedback system, where the plant and the compensator have normalized right-coprime factorizations. They study two cases of nonlinear plant perturbations (additive and feedback), with four subcases resulting from: (1) allowing exogenous input to Delta P or not; 2) allowing the observation of the output of Delta P or not. The plant perturbation Delta P is not required to be stable. Using the factorization approach, the authors obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for all cases in terms of two pairs of nonlinear pseudostate maps. Simple physical considerations explain the form of these necessary and sufficient conditions. Finally, the authors obtain the characterization of all perturbations Delta P for which the perturbed system remains stable.

  15. Ultrafast helicity control of surface currents in topological insulators with near-unity fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastl, Christoph; Karnetzky, Christoph; Karl, Helmut; Holleitner, Alexander W.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, a class of solid-state materials, called three-dimensional topological insulators, has emerged. In the bulk, a topological insulator behaves like an ordinary insulator with a band gap. At the surface, conducting gapless states exist showing remarkable properties such as helical Dirac dispersion and suppression of backscattering of spin-polarized charge carriers. The characterization and control of the surface states via transport experiments is often hindered by residual bulk contributions. Here we show that surface currents in Bi2Se3 can be controlled by circularly polarized light on a picosecond timescale with a fidelity near unity even at room temperature. We reveal the temporal separation of such ultrafast helicity-dependent surface currents from photo-induced thermoelectric and drift currents in the bulk. Our results uncover the functionality of ultrafast optoelectronic devices based on surface currents in topological insulators.

  16. Representations of U ¯ q s ℓ ( 2 | 1 ) at even roots of unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semikhatov, A. M.; Tipunin, I. Yu.

    2016-02-01

    We construct all projective modules of the restricted quantum group U ¯ q s ℓ ( 2 | 1 ) at an even, 2p th, root of unity. This 64p4-dimensional Hopf algebra is a common double bosonization of two rank-2 Nichols algebras 𝔅(X) with fermionic generator(s). We show that the category of U ¯ q s ℓ ( 2 | 1 ) -modules is equivalent to the category of Yetter-Drinfeld 𝔅(X)-modules in C ρ =H H Y for H = ℤ2p ⊗ ℤ2p, where the coaction is defined by a universal R-matrix ρ ∈ H ⊗ H. As an application of the projective module construction, we study the basic algebra of U ¯ q s ℓ ( 2 | 1 ) and find the associative algebra structure and the dimension, 5p2 - p + 4, of its center.

  17. Ultrafast helicity control of surface currents in topological insulators with near-unity fidelity.

    PubMed

    Kastl, Christoph; Karnetzky, Christoph; Karl, Helmut; Holleitner, Alexander W

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a class of solid-state materials, called three-dimensional topological insulators, has emerged. In the bulk, a topological insulator behaves like an ordinary insulator with a band gap. At the surface, conducting gapless states exist showing remarkable properties such as helical Dirac dispersion and suppression of backscattering of spin-polarized charge carriers. The characterization and control of the surface states via transport experiments is often hindered by residual bulk contributions. Here we show that surface currents in Bi2Se3 can be controlled by circularly polarized light on a picosecond timescale with a fidelity near unity even at room temperature. We reveal the temporal separation of such ultrafast helicity-dependent surface currents from photo-induced thermoelectric and drift currents in the bulk. Our results uncover the functionality of ultrafast optoelectronic devices based on surface currents in topological insulators. PMID:25808213

  18. Partition of unity isogeometric analysis of two dimensional elliptic singular perturbation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bongsoo; Kim, Hyunju; Oh, Hae-Soo; Kim, Sinae

    2016-10-01

    The design basis functions on the reference domain in IGA are diversified and enhanced by extra enrichment functions and various local refinements with the use of partition of unity (PU) function with flat-top. These reconditioned and modified basis functions are pushed forward to the physical domain by the original design mapping for analysis. With this method, the corresponding stiffness matrix has a small bandwidth and local refinement is simple. Moreover, we construct the PU functions in the reference domain and then move them to a physical domain through a geometric mapping to be used for the generation of global basis functions on a physical domain. Therefore, we also have several advantages in calculating stiffness matrices and load vectors. Here we apply this method to various boundary layer problems.

  19. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for the quantum group invariant open XXZ chain at roots of unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, Azat M.; Nepomechie, Rafael I.

    2016-08-01

    For generic values of q, all the eigenvectors of the transfer matrix of the Uq sl (2)-invariant open spin-1/2 XXZ chain with finite length N can be constructed using the algebraic Bethe ansatz (ABA) formalism of Sklyanin. However, when q is a root of unity (q =e iπ / p with integer p ≥ 2), the Bethe equations acquire continuous solutions, and the transfer matrix develops Jordan cells. Hence, there appear eigenvectors of two new types: eigenvectors corresponding to continuous solutions (exact complete p-strings), and generalized eigenvectors. We propose general ABA constructions for these two new types of eigenvectors. We present many explicit examples, and we construct complete sets of (generalized) eigenvectors for various values of p and N.

  20. UNITY: Confronting Supernova Cosmology's Statistical and Systematic Uncertainties in a Unified Bayesian Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, D.; Aldering, G.; Barbary, K.; Boone, K.; Chappell, G.; Currie, M.; Deustua, S.; Fagrelius, P.; Fruchter, A.; Hayden, B.; Lidman, C.; Nordin, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Saunders, C.; Sofiatti, C.; Supernova Cosmology Project, The

    2015-11-01

    While recent supernova (SN) cosmology research has benefited from improved measurements, current analysis approaches are not statistically optimal and will prove insufficient for future surveys. This paper discusses the limitations of current SN cosmological analyses in treating outliers, selection effects, shape- and color-standardization relations, unexplained dispersion, and heterogeneous observations. We present a new Bayesian framework, called UNITY (Unified Nonlinear Inference for Type-Ia cosmologY), that incorporates significant improvements in our ability to confront these effects. We apply the framework to real SN observations and demonstrate smaller statistical and systematic uncertainties. We verify earlier results that SNe Ia require nonlinear shape and color standardizations, but we now include these nonlinear relations in a statistically well-justified way. This analysis was primarily performed blinded, in that the basic framework was first validated on simulated data before transitioning to real data. We also discuss possible extensions of the method.

  1. Unity in organisation and regulation of catabolic operons in Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Ulrika; Molenaar, Douwe; Rådström, Peter; de Vos, Willem M

    2005-04-01

    Global regulatory circuits together with more specific local regulators play a notable role when cells are adapting to environmental changes. Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium abundant in nature fermenting most mono- and disaccharides. Comparative genomics analysis of the operons encoding the proteins and enzymes crucial for catabolism of lactose, maltose and threhalose revealed an obvious unity in operon organisation . The local regulator of each operon was located in a divergent transcriptional direction to the rest of the operon including the transport protein-encoding genes. Furthermore, in all three operons a catabolite responsive element (CRE) site was detected inbetween the gene encoding the local regulator and one of the genes encoding a sugar transport protein. It is evident that regardless of type of transport system and catabolic enzymes acting upon lactose, maltose and trehalose, respectively, Lc. lactis shows unity in both operon organisation and regulation of these catabolic operons. This knowledge was further extended to other catabolic operons in Lc. lactis and the two related bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Listeria monocytogenes. Thirty-nine catabolic operons responsible for degradation of sugars and sugar alcohols in Lc. lactis, Lb. plantarum and L. monocytogenes were investigated and the majority of those possessed the same organisation as the lactose, maltose and trehalose operons of Lc. lactis. Though, the frequency of CRE sites and their location varied among the bacteria. Both Lc. lactis and Lb. plantarum showed CRE sites in direct proximity to genes coding for proteins responsible for sugar uptake. However, in L. monocytogenes CRE sites were not frequently found and not in the vicinity of genes encoding transport proteins, suggesting a more local mode of regulation of the catabolic operons found and/or the use of inducer control in this bacterium. PMID:15900965

  2. Explanatory Pluralism and the (Dis)Unity of Science: The Argument from Incompatible Counterfactual Consequences.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Victor

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between different sciences or research approaches that deal with the same phenomena, for instance, with the phenomena of the human mind? Answers to this question range from a monist perspective according to which one of these approaches is privileged over the others, through an integrationist perspective according to which they must strive to form a unity greater than the sum of its parts, to an isolationist perspective according to which each of them has its own autonomous sphere of validity. In order to assess these perspectives in this article, I discuss the debates about the unity of science and about explanatory pluralism. The most pressing issue turns out to be the choice between the integrative and the isolationist perspective: the question is whether the integrative tendencies in science should be fully indulged in or whether they should be held in check by acknowledging that a certain amount of isolation is necessary. I argue that the issue can be further distilled into the question of whether two true explanations of the same fact can ever fail to be combinable into one single explanation. I show that this can indeed be the case, namely, when the explanations have incompatible counterfactual consequences, something that is often the case when we try to combine explanations from different sciences or research approaches. These approaches thus embody perspectives on the world that are to a certain extent autonomous. This leads to the conclusion that although interdisciplinarity may have many advantages, we should not take the project of integration too far. At the end of the day, the different research approaches with their different perspectives and insights must remain precisely that: different and somewhat disunified.

  3. Sustainability Science as a Transdisciplinary Framework for Institutional Transformation at Unity College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkey, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    Interdisciplinary programming in higher education is accepted as necessary for effective instructional delivery of complex environmental problems. Difficulties in sharing resources among disciplinary units and the need for students to sequentially access information from different disciplines limit the effectiveness of this approach. In contrast, transdisciplinary programming requires that the perspectives of various disciplines be simultaneously integrated in problem-focused pedagogy. Unity College, an environmental college in Maine, has recently adopted Sustainability Science (sensu U.S. National Academy of Science) as a framework for transdisciplinary pedagogy throughout all of its degree programs. Sustainability Science is a promising alternative framework that focuses on the dynamics of coupled human-natural systems and is defined by the problems that it addresses rather than by the disciplines it employs. Students are empowered to become brokers of knowledge, while faculty perform a curatorial role to provide students with networked resources generally external to the classroom. Although the transdisciplinary framework is effective for delivery of Sustainability Science in upper division and capstone courses, we propose this approach also for elements of our general education curriculum during the first two years of our baccalaureate programs. Classroom time is liberated for experiential student engagement and recitation. Our experience suggests that transdisciplinary programming can provide students with critical thinking skills and thus enhance the postgraduate value of their baccalaureate degree. We are coordinating the development of this distinctive curriculum delivery with a marketing program that will make Unity College accessible to a wider range of clientele. Our implementation of transdisciplinary programming will occur over a four-year period and requires explicit and fundamental change in essentially all aspects of College administration and

  4. Bioinformatic insight into the unity and diversity of cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Lisitsa, A; Archakov, A; Lewi, P; Janssen, P

    2003-11-01

    For the past few decades, cytochromes P450 (CYPs) have been the subject of extensive research, owing to the ability of these enzymes to serve as drug targets as well as to their active participation in drug metabolism. Other varieties and functions of CYPs have been discovered and this superfamily currently comprises over 2000 different protein species. In the present study, the protein sequences of CYPs were submitted to computer analysis for elucidation of the structural basis of their pronounced functional diversity. The basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) was used to demonstrate that CYP protein sequences share a certain general similarity; at the same time, it was shown that the CYP superfamily may be split into a number of groups of intimately related proteins. These groups, the families, were revealed by means of cluster analysis, which demonstrated a strong hierarchy among the animal, bacterial and fungal P450s, and the lack of such a hierarchy for plant enzymes. Multiple alignment and consensus sequence analysis were the approaches taken to find out which structural peculiarities of P450s are responsible for the deviations from the random picture. Proteins within each family were aligned and collapsed to the corresponding consensus sequences, the alignment of which produced the consensus for the whole superfamily. The latter consensus yielded a number of unity motifs (most of which being related to the heme-fixing assembly), while the cross-family comparison of consensus sequences enabled the retrieval of some diversity motifs. Three consensus sequences (for the CYP51 and CYP2 families and for the superfamily) were compared, to line up the unity and diversity motifs with the appropriate X-ray data. PMID:14685302

  5. Explanatory Pluralism and the (Dis)Unity of Science: The Argument from Incompatible Counterfactual Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Gijsbers, Victor

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between different sciences or research approaches that deal with the same phenomena, for instance, with the phenomena of the human mind? Answers to this question range from a monist perspective according to which one of these approaches is privileged over the others, through an integrationist perspective according to which they must strive to form a unity greater than the sum of its parts, to an isolationist perspective according to which each of them has its own autonomous sphere of validity. In order to assess these perspectives in this article, I discuss the debates about the unity of science and about explanatory pluralism. The most pressing issue turns out to be the choice between the integrative and the isolationist perspective: the question is whether the integrative tendencies in science should be fully indulged in or whether they should be held in check by acknowledging that a certain amount of isolation is necessary. I argue that the issue can be further distilled into the question of whether two true explanations of the same fact can ever fail to be combinable into one single explanation. I show that this can indeed be the case, namely, when the explanations have incompatible counterfactual consequences, something that is often the case when we try to combine explanations from different sciences or research approaches. These approaches thus embody perspectives on the world that are to a certain extent autonomous. This leads to the conclusion that although interdisciplinarity may have many advantages, we should not take the project of integration too far. At the end of the day, the different research approaches with their different perspectives and insights must remain precisely that: different and somewhat disunified. PMID:27014099

  6. Analog time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) optical focusing inside scattering media with high power gain (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-03-01

    Focusing light deep inside scattering media plays a key role in such biomedical applications as high resolution optical imaging, control, and therapy. In recent years, wavefront shaping technologies have come a long way in controlling light propagation in complex media. A prominent example is time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing, which allows noninvasive introduction of "guide stars" inside biological tissue to guide light focusing. By measuring the optical wavefront emanating from an ultrasound focus created at the target location, TRUE determines the desired wavefront non-iteratively, and achieves focusing at the target position via a subsequent optical time reversal. Compared to digital counterparts that employ slow electronic spatial light modulators and cameras, analog TRUE focusing relies on nonlinear photorefractive crystals that inherently accommodate more spatial modes and eliminate the troublesome alignment and data transfer required by digital approaches. However, analog TRUE focusing suffers from its small gain, defined as the energy or power ratio between the focusing and probing beams in the focal volume. Here, by implementing a modified analog TRUE focusing scheme that squeezes the duration of the time-reversed photon packet below the carrier-recombination-limited hologram decay time of the crystal, we demonstrated a photon flux amplification much greater than unity at a preset focal voxel in between two scattering layers. Although the energy gain was still below unity, the unprecedented power gain will nevertheless benefit new biomedical applications.

  7. Analog time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light focusing inside scattering media with a 33,000× optical power gain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Lihong V

    2015-01-01

    Recent breakthrough in wavefront engineering shows great promises in controlling light propagation inside scattering media. At present, the digital approaches enjoy high gain, while their speeds are slow because of high data throughputs. In contrast, the analog approaches are intrinsically fast but suffer from poor efficiencies and small gains. Further improvements in both speed and gain are necessary to advance the existing technologies toward real-world applications. Here, we report analog time-reversal of acousto-optically tagged photons with a flux amplification of over 33,000 times (45 dB) at a target location inside scattering media. Such a substantial power gain enhancement is achieved when the temporal width of the time-reversed photon packet is squeezed below the carrier-recombination-limited hologram decay time in a photorefractive crystal. Despite a focusing energy gain below unity, the unprecedented power gain is expected to enable new optical imaging, sensing, manipulation and treatment applications. PMID:25753905

  8. Analog time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light focusing inside scattering media with a 33,000× optical power gain

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cheng; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Recent breakthrough in wavefront engineering shows great promises in controlling light propagation inside scattering media. At present, the digital approaches enjoy high gain, while their speeds are slow because of high data throughputs. In contrast, the analog approaches are intrinsically fast but suffer from poor efficiencies and small gains. Further improvements in both speed and gain are necessary to advance the existing technologies toward real-world applications. Here, we report analog time-reversal of acousto-optically tagged photons with a flux amplification of over 33,000 times (45 dB) at a target location inside scattering media. Such a substantial power gain enhancement is achieved when the temporal width of the time-reversed photon packet is squeezed below the carrier-recombination-limited hologram decay time in a photorefractive crystal. Despite a focusing energy gain below unity, the unprecedented power gain is expected to enable new optical imaging, sensing, manipulation and treatment applications. PMID:25753905

  9. Public Data Set: High Confinement Mode and Edge Localized Mode Characteristics in a Near-Unity Aspect Ratio Tokamak

    DOE Data Explorer

    Thome, Kathreen E. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000248013922); Bongard, Michael W. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000231609746); Barr, Jayson L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000177685931); Bodner, Grant M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000324979172); Burke, Marcus G. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000176193724); Fonck, Raymond J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000294386762); Kriete, David M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000236572911); Perry, Justin M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000171228609); Schlossberg, David J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison] (ORCID:0000000287139448)

    2016-04-27

    This data set contains openly-documented, machine readable digital research data corresponding to figures published in K.E. Thome et al., 'High Confinement Mode and Edge Localized Mode Characteristics in a Near-Unity Aspect Ratio Tokamak,' Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 175001 (2016).

  10. 37 CFR 1.477 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... invention before the International Searching Authority. 1.477 Section 1.477 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention before the International Searching Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International Searching Authority, additional fees may be paid...

  11. 37 CFR 1.477 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... invention before the International Searching Authority. 1.477 Section 1.477 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention before the International Searching Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International Searching Authority, additional fees may be paid...

  12. 37 CFR 1.477 - Protest to lack of unity of invention before the International Searching Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... invention before the International Searching Authority. 1.477 Section 1.477 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention before the International Searching Authority. (a) If the applicant disagrees with the holding of lack of unity of invention by the International Searching Authority, additional fees may be paid...

  13. Das Einheitsprinzip im DDR-Bildungswesen = The Principle of Unity in the Educational System of the GDR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuner, Gerhart

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the application of the principle of unity in different historical phases of the East German educational system. Argues that East German successes in reducing the number of socially underprivileged were always accompanied by a sharpening of the trade-off between educational equality and excellence, for which no solution was found. (DSK)

  14. Mathematics Teachers' Visualization of Complex Number Multiplication and the Roots of Unity in a Dynamic Geometry Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caglayan, Gunhan

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research, drawing on the theoretical frameworks by Even (1990, 1993) and Sfard (2007), investigated five high school mathematics teachers' geometric interpretations of complex number multiplication along with the roots of unity. The main finding was that mathematics teachers constructed the modulus, the argument, and the conjugate…

  15. The Unity and Diversity of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in ADHD: Evidence for a General Factor with Separable Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Pitch, Ashley; Flora, David B.; Iwenofu, Linda; Ghelani, Karen; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    To examine the unity and diversity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom domains of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of adolescents with ADHD. Parents and adolescents were administered a semi-structured diagnostic interview, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age…

  16. Comparing Science Achievement Constructs: Targeted and Achieved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Steve; Duncan, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates how test specifications based solely on academic content standards, without attention to other cognitive skills and item response demands, can fall short of their targeted constructs. First, the authors inductively describe the science achievement construct represented by a statewide sixth-grade science proficiency test.…

  17. Mobility and Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Theresa Z.

    A study examined the effect of geographic mobility on elementary school students' achievement. Although such mobility, which requires students to make multiple moves among schools, can have a negative impact on academic achievement, the hypothesis for the study was that it was not a determining factor in reading achievement test scores. Subjects…

  18. Pre-mixed flame simulations for non-unity Lewis numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutland, C. J.; Trouve, A.

    1990-01-01

    A principal effect of turbulence on premixed flames in the flamelet region is to wrinkle the flame fronts. For non-unity Lewis numbers (Le), the local flame structure is altered in curved regions. This effect is examined using direct numerical simulations of the three dimensional, constant density, decaying isotropic turbulence with a single step, finite rate chemical reaction. Simulations of Lewis numbers 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 are compared. The turbulent flame speed, S(sub T), increases as Le decreases. The correlation between S(sub T) and u prime found in previous Le = 1 simulations has a strong Lewis number dependency. The variance of the pdf of the flame curvature increases as Le decreases, indicating that the flames become more wrinkled. A strong correlation between local flame speed and curvature was found. For Le greater than 1, the flame speed increases in regions concave towards the products and decreases in convex regions. The opposite correlation was found for Le less than 1. The mean temperature of the products was also found to vary with Lewis number. For Le = 0.8, it is less than the adiabatic flame temperature and for Le = 1.2 it is greater.

  19. 'Rallying around the flag': Can an intergroup contact intervention promote national unity?

    PubMed

    Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2012-06-01

    A longitudinal study evaluated the success of a contact-based nation-building intervention (the Malaysian National Service Programme) in promoting various facets of national unity. The study assessed how post-test measures of quality of intergroup contact, outgroup evaluations, and levels of identification changed compared to their respective pre-test levels, for both National Service and control group participants. The intervention did not lead to a worsening of any of the constructs related to intergroup relations, which is noteworthy given the novelty for many participants of mixing in a multi-ethnic setting. Furthermore, all rater groups (Malays, Chinese, and Indians) maintained their ethnic identity, even in the presence of high levels of national identity, which we discuss with respect to past research on the effects of positive intergroup contact on minority group identification. However, the changes associated with the intervention yielded only small effect sizes, and, on the whole, National Service participants did not show significantly greater improvement than that experienced by control participants. We discuss the value of intergroup contact in this novel setting, considering various features of this programme that may have limited its effectiveness and discuss how such interventions can more successfully meet their goals.

  20. F response and H reflex analysis of physiological unity of gravity and antigravity muscles in man.

    PubMed

    García, H A; Fisher, M A

    1977-01-01

    Observational differences between reflex (H reflex) and antidromic (F response) activation of segmental motoneurons by a peripheral electrical stimulus are described. In contrast to H reflexes, the percentage of F responses found after a series of stimuli is directly related to the pick-up field of the recording electrode consistent with this response being due to the variable activation of a small fraction of the available motoneuron pool. Despite the differing physiological mechanisms, both F responses and H reflexes can be used to demonstrate similar relative "central excitatory states" for antigravity muscles (i.e. extensors in the lower extremity and flexors in the upper extremity) and their antagonist gravity muscles. H reflexes were elicited not only in their usual location in certain antigravity muscles but also in unusual locations by length/tension changes in agonist and antagonist groups as well as by passive stretch. The data argue for the physiological unity of similarly acting gravity and antigravity muscles as well as supporting a meaningful role of group II afferents in normal segmental motoneuron pool excitability.

  1. Moral psychology is relationship regulation: moral motives for unity, hierarchy, equality, and proportionality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Tage Shakti; Fiske, Alan Page

    2011-01-01

    Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral motives. Unity is the motive to care for and support the integrity of in-groups by avoiding or eliminating threats of contamination and providing aid and protection based on need or empathic compassion. Hierarchy is the motive to respect rank in social groups where superiors are entitled to deference and respect but must also lead, guide, direct, and protect subordinates. Equality is the motive for balanced, in-kind reciprocity, equal treatment, equal say, and equal opportunity. Proportionality is the motive for rewards and punishments to be proportionate to merit, benefits to be calibrated to contributions, and judgments to be based on a utilitarian calculus of costs and benefits. The 4 moral motives are universal, but cultures, ideologies, and individuals differ in where they activate these motives and how they implement them. Unlike existing theories (Haidt, 2007; Hauser, 2006; Turiel, 1983), relationship regulation theory predicts that any action, including violence, unequal treatment, and "impure" acts, may be perceived as morally correct depending on the moral motive employed and how the relevant social relationship is construed. This approach facilitates clearer understanding of moral perspectives we disagree with and provides a template for how to influence moral motives and practices in the world. PMID:21244187

  2. Numerical modeling of undersea acoustics using a partition of unity method with plane waves enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospital-Bravo, Raúl; Sarrate, Josep; Díez, Pedro

    2016-05-01

    A new 2D numerical model to predict the underwater acoustic propagation is obtained by exploring the potential of the Partition of Unity Method (PUM) enriched with plane waves. The aim of the work is to obtain sound pressure level distributions when multiple operational noise sources are present, in order to assess the acoustic impact over the marine fauna. The model takes advantage of the suitability of the PUM for solving the Helmholtz equation, especially for the practical case of large domains and medium frequencies. The seawater acoustic absorption and the acoustic reflectance of the sea surface and sea bottom are explicitly considered, and perfectly matched layers (PML) are placed at the lateral artificial boundaries to avoid spurious reflexions. The model includes semi-analytical integration rules which are adapted to highly oscillatory integrands with the aim of reducing the computational cost of the integration step. In addition, we develop a novel strategy to mitigate the ill-conditioning of the elemental and global system matrices. Specifically, we compute a low-rank approximation of the local space of solutions, which in turn reduces the number of degrees of freedom, the CPU time and the memory footprint. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the model and to assess its accuracy.

  3. Unity of forces at the preon level with new gauge symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, M. K.

    1998-12-01

    In the context of a viable, supersymmetric, preon model, it has been shown by Babu and Pati that the unity of forces can well occur at the level of preons near the Planck scale. This preonic approach to unification is explored further in this paper with the inclusion of threshold effects which arise due to the spreading of masses near the scale of supersymmetry (MS=1 TeV) and the metacolor scale (ΛM=1011 GeV). These effects, which were ignored in earlier work, are found to have marked consequences on the running and unification of the relevant couplings, leading to new possibilities for flavor color as well as metacolor gauge symmetries. In particular, allowing for seemingly reasonable threshold effects, it is found that the metacolor gauge symmetry, GM is either SU(6)M or SU(4)M [rather than SU(5)M] and the corresponding flavor-color gauge symmetry is either SU(2)L×U(1)R×SU(4)CL+R [for GM=SU(6)M] or even just the standard model symmetry SU(2)L×U(1)Y×SU(3)C [for GM=SU(6)M or SU(4)M]. The prospects of other preonic gauge symmetries are also investigated.

  4. Moral psychology is relationship regulation: moral motives for unity, hierarchy, equality, and proportionality.

    PubMed

    Rai, Tage Shakti; Fiske, Alan Page

    2011-01-01

    Genuine moral disagreement exists and is widespread. To understand such disagreement, we must examine the basic kinds of social relationships people construct across cultures and the distinct moral obligations and prohibitions these relationships entail. We extend relational models theory (Fiske, 1991) to identify 4 fundamental and distinct moral motives. Unity is the motive to care for and support the integrity of in-groups by avoiding or eliminating threats of contamination and providing aid and protection based on need or empathic compassion. Hierarchy is the motive to respect rank in social groups where superiors are entitled to deference and respect but must also lead, guide, direct, and protect subordinates. Equality is the motive for balanced, in-kind reciprocity, equal treatment, equal say, and equal opportunity. Proportionality is the motive for rewards and punishments to be proportionate to merit, benefits to be calibrated to contributions, and judgments to be based on a utilitarian calculus of costs and benefits. The 4 moral motives are universal, but cultures, ideologies, and individuals differ in where they activate these motives and how they implement them. Unlike existing theories (Haidt, 2007; Hauser, 2006; Turiel, 1983), relationship regulation theory predicts that any action, including violence, unequal treatment, and "impure" acts, may be perceived as morally correct depending on the moral motive employed and how the relevant social relationship is construed. This approach facilitates clearer understanding of moral perspectives we disagree with and provides a template for how to influence moral motives and practices in the world.

  5. Condition for unity absorption in an ultrathin and highly lossy film in a Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Brongersma, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    We present a condition for unity absorption for a Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration constructed from an ultrathin and highly lossy film on top of metallic mirror. From the impedance matching condition in the transmission line theory, we identify a solution space for the required complex refractive index of the lossy film in various film thickness and dielectric constants of the metallic mirror. It is shown that strong absorption requires the imaginary part of the refractive index of the ultrathin lossy film be larger than 0.64, and the physical origin of this condition is elucidated. The proposed method is useful in identifying candidate semiconductor materials that can be used as the lossy film in a unity-absorption Gires-Tournois interferometer configuration and designing the thickness of this film to maximize absorption.

  6. The rule of unity for human intestinal absorption 2: application to pharmaceutical drugs that are marketed as salts.

    PubMed

    Patel, Raj B; Admire, Brittany; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of the human intestinal absorption (HIA) of the 59 drugs which are marketed as salts is predicted using the rule of unity. Intrinsic aqueous solubilities and partition coefficients along with the drug dose are used to calculate modified absorption potential (MAP) values. These values are shown to be related to the fraction of the dose that is absorbed upon oral administration in humans (FA). It is shown that the MAP value can distinguish between drugs that are poorly absorbed (FA <0.5) and those that are well absorbed (FA ≥ 0.5). Inspection of the data as well as a receiver operative characteristic (ROC) plot shows that a single critical MAP value can be used for predicting efficient human absorption of drugs. This forms the basis of a simple rule of unity based solely on in vitro data for predicting whether or not a drug will be well absorbed at a given dose.

  7. High Rayleigh number convection in rectangular enclosures with differentially heated vertical walls and aspect ratios between zero and unity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, Siavash A.

    1988-01-01

    High Rayleigh number convection in a rectangular cavity with insulated horizontal surfaces and differentially heated vertical walls was analyzed for an arbitrary aspect ratio smaller than or equal to unity. Unlike previous analytical studies, a systematic method of solution based on linearization technique and analytical iteration procedure was developed to obtain approximate closed-form solutions for a wide range of aspect ratios. The predicted velocity and temperature fields are shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental and numerical data.

  8. All the Vice Chancellor’s Neuroscientists: Unity to Achieve Success in Solving Malaysia’s Diseases via Upgrading Clinical Services and Neuroscience Research

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2013-01-01

    President Obama of the United States of America announced this April the Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN for short) investment, while Professor Henry Markram’s team based in the European Union will spend over a billion euros on the Human Brain Project, breaking through the unknowns in the fifth science of the decade: Neuroscience. Malaysia's growth in the same field needs to be augmented, and thus the Universiti Sains Malaysia’s vision is to excel in the field of clinical brain sciences, mind sciences and neurosciences. This will naturally bring up the level of research in the country simultaneously. Thus, a center was recently established to coordinate this venture. The four-year Integrated Neuroscience Program established recently will be a sustainable source of neuroscientists for the country. We hope to establish ourselves by 2020 as a global university with neurosciences research as an important flagship. PMID:23966818

  9. Partition-of-unity finite-element method for large scale quantum molecular dynamics on massively parallel computational platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Pask, J E; Sukumar, N; Guney, M; Hu, W

    2011-02-28

    Over the course of the past two decades, quantum mechanical calculations have emerged as a key component of modern materials research. However, the solution of the required quantum mechanical equations is a formidable task and this has severely limited the range of materials systems which can be investigated by such accurate, quantum mechanical means. The current state of the art for large-scale quantum simulations is the planewave (PW) method, as implemented in now ubiquitous VASP, ABINIT, and QBox codes, among many others. However, since the PW method uses a global Fourier basis, with strictly uniform resolution at all points in space, and in which every basis function overlaps every other at every point, it suffers from substantial inefficiencies in calculations involving atoms with localized states, such as first-row and transition-metal atoms, and requires substantial nonlocal communications in parallel implementations, placing critical limits on scalability. In recent years, real-space methods such as finite-differences (FD) and finite-elements (FE) have been developed to address these deficiencies by reformulating the required quantum mechanical equations in a strictly local representation. However, while addressing both resolution and parallel-communications problems, such local real-space approaches have been plagued by one key disadvantage relative to planewaves: excessive degrees of freedom (grid points, basis functions) needed to achieve the required accuracies. And so, despite critical limitations, the PW method remains the standard today. In this work, we show for the first time that this key remaining disadvantage of real-space methods can in fact be overcome: by building known atomic physics into the solution process using modern partition-of-unity (PU) techniques in finite element analysis. Indeed, our results show order-of-magnitude reductions in basis size relative to state-of-the-art planewave based methods. The method developed here is

  10. Analysis of pulsating spray flames propagating in lean two-phase mixtures with unity Lewis number

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, C.; Haldenwang, P.; Suard, S.

    2005-11-01

    Pulsating (or oscillatory) spray flames have recently been observed in experiments on two-phase combustion. Numerical studies have pointed out that such front oscillations can be obtained even with very simple models of homogeneous two-phase mixtures, including elementary vaporization schemes. The paper presents an analytical approach within the simple framework of the thermal-diffusive model, which is complemented by a vaporization rate independent of gas temperature, as soon as the latter reaches a certain thermal threshold ({theta}{sub v} in reduced form). The study involves the Damkoehler number (Da), the ratio of chemical reaction rate to vaporization rate, and the Zeldovich number (Ze) as essential parameters. We use the standard asymptotic method based on matched expansions in terms of 1/Ze. Linear analysis of two-phase flame stability is performed by studying, in the absence of differential diffusive effects (unity Lewis number), the linear growth rate of 2-D perturbations added to steady plane solutions and characterized by wavenumber k in the direction transverse to spreading. A domain of existence is found for the pulsating regime. It corresponds to mixture characteristics often met in air-fuel two-phase systems: low boiling temperature ({theta}{sub v} << 1), reaction rate not higher than vaporization rate (Da < 1, i.e., small droplets), and activation temperature assumed to be high compared with flame temperature (Ze {>=} 10). Satisfactory comparison with numerical simulations confirms the validity of the analytical approach; in particular, positive growth rates have been found for planar perturbations (k = 0) and for wrinkled fronts (k {ne} 0). Finally, comparison between predicted frequencies and experimental measurements is discussed.

  11. The Self-Evolving Cosmos: A Phenomenological Approach to Nature's Unity-in-Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Steven M.

    ch. 1. Introduction: individuation and the quest for unity -- ch. 2. The obstacle to unification in modern physics. 2.1. Introduction. 2.2. Does contemporary mathematical physics actually depart from the classical formulation? -- ch. 3. The phenomenological challenge to the classical formula -- ch. 4. Topological phenomenology. 4.1. Introduction. 4.2. Phenomenological intuition, topology, and the Klein bottle. 4.3. The physical significance of the Klein bottle -- ch. 5. The dimensional family of topological spinors. 5.1. Generalization of intuitive topology. 5.2. Topodimensional spin matrix -- ch. 6. Basic principles of dimensional transformation. 6.1. Synsymmetry and the self-transformation of space. 6.2. From symmetry breaking to dimensional generation. 6.3. The three basic stages of dimensional generation. 6.4. Kleinian topogeny -- ch. 7. Waves carrying waves: the co-evolution of lifeworlds -- ch. 8. The forces of nature. 8.1. The phenomenon of light. 8.2. Phenomenological Kaluza-Klein theory. 8.3. Summary comparison of conventional and topo-phenomenological approaches to Kaluza-Klein theory -- ch. 9. Cosmogony, symmetry, and phenomenological intuition. 9.1. Conventional view of the evolving cosmos. 9.2. The problem of symmetry. 9.3. A new kind of clarity -- ch. 10. The self-evolving cosmos. 10.1. Introduction to the cosmogonic matrix. 10.2. Overview of cosmic evolution. 10.3. The role of the fermions in dimensional generation. 10.4. Projective stages of cosmogony: dimensional divergence. 10.5. Proprioceptive stages of cosmogony: dimensional convergence. 10.6. Conclusion: wider horizons of cosmic evolution -- ch. 11. The psychophysics of cosmogony. 11.1. Psychical aspects of the fundamental particles. 11.2. Toward a reflexive physics. 11.3. Concretization of the self-evolving cosmos.

  12. General Achievement Trends: Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  13. General Achievement Trends: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  14. General Achievement Trends: Nebraska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  15. General Achievement Trends: Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  16. General Achievement Trends: Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  17. General Achievement Trends: Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  18. General Achievement Trends: Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  19. General Achievement Trends: Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  20. General Achievement Trends: Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  1. General Achievement Trends: Kansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  2. General Achievement Trends: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  3. General Achievement Trends: Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  4. General Achievement Trends: Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  5. General Achievement Trends: Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  6. General Achievement Trends: Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  7. General Achievement Trends: Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. General Achievement Trends: Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  9. Inverting the Achievement Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian; Shindel, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Attempting to invert the pyramid to improve student achievement and increase all students' chances for success is not a new endeavor. For decades, educators have strategized, formed think tanks, and developed school improvement teams to find better ways to improve the achievement of all students. Currently, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is…

  10. Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    The Ohio Trade and Industrial Education Achievement Test battery is comprised of seven basic achievement tests: Machine Trades, Automotive Mechanics, Basic Electricity, Basic Electronics, Mechanical Drafting, Printing, and Sheet Metal. The tests were developed by subject matter committees and specialists in testing and research. The Ohio Trade and…

  11. School Effects on Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Robert C.

    The New York State Education Department conducts a Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) in which each year all third, sixth, and ninth grade students in the state are given a series of achievement tests in reading and mathematics. The data accumulated by the department includes achievement test scores, teacher characteristics, building and curriculum…

  12. Heritability of Creative Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piffer, Davide; Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Although creative achievement is a subject of much attention to lay people, the origin of individual differences in creative accomplishments remain poorly understood. This study examined genetic and environmental influences on creative achievement in an adult sample of 338 twins (mean age = 26.3 years; SD = 6.6 years). Twins completed the Creative…

  13. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  14. Achieving Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2011-01-01

    Public schools are functionally provided through structural arrangements such as government funding, but public schools are achieved in substance, in part, through local governance. In this essay, Kathleen Knight Abowitz explains the bifocal nature of achieving public schools; that is, that schools are both subject to the unitary Public compact of…

  15. Near unity ideality factor and Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime in GaN-on-GaN p-n diodes with avalanche breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zongyang; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Qi, Meng; Pan, Ming; Gao, Xiang; Protasenko, Vladimir; Jena, Debdeep; Xing, Huili Grace

    2015-12-01

    Textbook-like device characteristics are demonstrated in vertical GaN p-n diodes grown on bulk GaN substrates. These devices show simultaneously an avalanche breakdown voltage (BV) of >1.4 kV under reverse bias, an ideality factor plateau of ˜2.0 in a forward bias window followed by a near unity ideality factor of 1.1, which are consistently achieved over a temperature range of 300-400 K. At room temperature (RT), the diode with a mesa diameter of 107 μm showed a differential on-resistance Ron of 0.12 mΩcm2, thus resulting in a record figure-of-merit BV2/Ron of ˜16.5 GW/cm2, which is the highest ever demonstrated in any semiconductors. Analytical models are used to fit experimental I-Vs; based on the recombination current with an ideality factor of ˜2.0, a Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime of 12 ns is extracted at RT with an estimated recombination center concentration of 3 × 1015 cm-3.

  16. Gauss Modular-Arithmetic Congruence = Signal X Noise PRODUCT: Clock-model Archimedes HYPERBOLICITY Centrality INEVITABILITY: Definition: Complexity= UTTER-SIMPLICITY: Natural-Philosophy UNITY SIMPLICITY Redux!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummer, E. E.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Clock-model Archimedes [http://linkage.rockeller.edu/ wli/moved.8.04/ 1fnoise/ index. ru.html] HYPERBOLICITY inevitability throughout physics/pure-maths: Newton-law F=ma, Heisenberg and classical uncertainty-principle=Parseval/Plancherel-theorems causes FUZZYICS definition: (so miscalled) "complexity" = UTTER-SIMPLICITY!!! Watkins[www.secamlocal.ex.ac.uk/people/staff/mrwatkin/]-Hubbard[World According to Wavelets (96)-p.14!]-Franklin[1795]-Fourier[1795;1822]-Brillouin[1922] dual/inverse-space(k,w) analysis key to Fourier-unification in Archimedes hyperbolicity inevitability progress up Siegel cognition hierarchy-of-thinking (HoT): data-info.-know.-understand.-meaning-...-unity-simplicity = FUZZYICS!!! Frohlich-Mossbauer-Goldanskii-del Guidice [Nucl.Phys.B:251,375(85);275,185 (86)]-Young [arXiv-0705.4678y2, (5/31/07] theory of health/life=aqueous-electret/ ferroelectric protoplasm BEC = Archimedes-Siegel [Schrodinger Cent.Symp.(87); Symp.Fractals, MRS Fall Mtg.(89)-5-pprs] 1/w-"noise" Zipf-law power-spectrum hyperbolicity INEVITABILITY= Chi; Dirac delta-function limit w=0 concentration= BEC = Chi-Quong.

  17. SnO2-based dye-sensitized hybrid solar cells exhibiting near unity absorbed photon-to-electron conversion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Snaith, Henry J; Ducati, Caterina

    2010-04-14

    Improving the solar light harvesting and photon-to-electron conversion efficiency for hybrid, organic-inorganic photovoltaics are critical challenges. Titania based solid-state hybrid solar cells are moderately efficient at converting visible photons to electrons, but major electrical losses still remain. A material based paradigm shift is required to dramatically enhance the performance of these devices. Here, we present an investigation into solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SDSCs) incorporating a molecular hole-transporter and mesoporous tin oxide electrodes, in place of titania usually employed. We investigate the influence of treating the surface of the SnO(2) with different oxides and find that MgO "passivated" SnO(2) electrodes demonstrate an unprecedented absorbed photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of near unity across a broad spectral range. A dual surface treatment of TiO(2) followed by MgO enables tuning of the solar cell photovoltage, fill factor, and efficiency with visible light absorbing cells delivering 3% solar-to-electrical full sun power conversion efficiency.

  18. Student Achievement and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, Gordon H.; Mecham, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Compares the lecture and self-paced methods of instruction on the basis of student motivation and achieveme nt, comparing motivating and demotivating factors in each, and their potential for motivation and achievement. (Authors/JR)

  19. Representative and misrepresentative associations of birth defects in livebirths. Conditions under which relative risks greater than unity in livebirths necessarily imply relative risks greater than unity in all conceptuses.

    PubMed

    Hook, E B; Regal, R R

    1993-03-15

    One may express the relative risk of defect in all conceptuses, r(def), as a function of the relative risk of defect in livebirths, r(def,lb), and in embryonic and fetal deaths, r(def,efd), as r(def) = C(lb)r(def,lb) + C(efd)r(def,efd), where C(lb) and C(efd) are coefficients defined in terms of conceptus and defect viability and lethality. If the relative risk of birth defect in livebirths, r(def,lb), is greater than unity, but the relative risk of defect in all conceptuses, r(def), is equal to or less than unity (or the reverse pattern holds), then the relative risk of defects in livebirths may be said to be "distorting" or "misrepresentative" because it does not reflect the nature of the association in all conceptuses. The authors define and present an explicit expression for a boundary upon the relative risk of defect in livebirths. If the relative risk of defect in livebirths is (validly) greater than this boundary value, then the relative risk in all conceptuses must be greater than unity and the observed relative risk of defect in births is "representative" and not distorting. The authors show that the boundary value is equal to 1/C(lb), where C(lb) is a simple function of the lethality of all unexposed conceptuses, the lethality of unexposed conceptuses with defect, and the relative risk of any embryonic and fetal death. Tables of the boundary relative risk for various values of these variables are presented. Over a very wide range of reference variables, a (valid) relative risk of defect in livebirths of 3.5 or greater implies a positive association with defect in all (recognized) conceptuses in the population studied.

  20. Quantum efficiencies greater than unity: A computer study of a photogating effect in amorphous silicon p-i-n devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, J. Y.; Fonash, S. J.

    1992-07-01

    We report a new effect, which we call photogating, that can be present in amorphous Si-based p-i-n structures under certain illumination conditions. This phenomenon feeds photogenerated carriers created by a bias light beam of one wavelength into the current response to a second probe light beam of a different wavelength. We demonstrate that this phenomena can lead to measured quantum efficiencies greater than unity. Our computer simulations show that this new effect owes its origins to trapped charge and to the condition that there is a low field region in the front of the structure in the presence of certain bias light.

  1. Iowa Women of Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of the Goldfinch highlights some of Iowa's 20th century women of achievement. These women have devoted their lives to working for human rights, education, equality, and individual rights. They come from the worlds of politics, art, music, education, sports, business, entertainment, and social work. They represent Native Americans,…

  2. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  3. Leadership Issues: Raising Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, Chris, Ed.

    This document contains five papers examining the meaning and operation of leadership as a variable affecting student achievement in further education colleges in the United Kingdom. "Introduction" (Chris Horsfall) discusses school effectiveness studies' findings regarding the relationship between leadership and effective schools, distinguishes…

  4. Achievements or Disasters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, MacArthur

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on policy issues that have affected arts education in the twentieth century, such as: interest in discipline-based arts education, influence of national arts associations, and national standards and coordinated assessment. States that whether the policy decisions are viewed as achievements or disasters are for future determination. (CMK)

  5. Achieving True Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Rod; Sanaghan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Uses the example of Vermont's Middlebury College to explore the challenges and possibilities of achieving consensus about institutional change. Discusses why, unlike in this example, consensus usually fails, and presents four demands of an effective consensus process. Includes a list of "test" questions on successful collaboration. (EV)

  6. School Students' Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shymansky, James; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard; Everett, Susan; Yore, Larry D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a report of the impact of an externally funded, multiyear systemic reform project on students' science achievement on a modified version of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) test in 33 small, rural school districts in two Midwest states. The systemic reform effort utilized a cascading leadership strategy…

  7. Essays on Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaabeng, Samuel Kofi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of student outcomes--achievement, attainment, occupational choices and earnings--in three different contexts. The first two chapters focus on Ghana while the final chapter focuses on the US state of Massachusetts. In the first chapter, I exploit the incidence of famine and malnutrition that resulted to…

  8. Assessing Handwriting Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Teachers in the school setting need to emphasize quality handwriting across the curriculum. Quality handwriting means that the written content is easy to read in either manuscript or cursive form. Handwriting achievement can be assessed, but not compared to the precision of assessing basic addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division facts.…

  9. Intelligence and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Strand, Steve; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres

    2007-01-01

    This 5-year prospective longitudinal study of 70,000+ English children examined the association between psychometric intelligence at age 11 years and educational achievement in national examinations in 25 academic subjects at age 16. The correlation between a latent intelligence trait (Spearman's "g"from CAT2E) and a latent trait of educational…

  10. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  11. NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2008-01-01

    In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood…

  12. Achieving All Our Ambitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    National learning and skills policy aims both to build economic prosperity and to achieve social justice. Participation in higher education (HE) has the potential to contribute substantially to both aims. That is why the Campaign for Learning has supported the ambition to increase the proportion of the working-age population with a Level 4…

  13. INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUIR, R.C.; AND OTHERS

    A LONGITUDINAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY OF A GROUP OF MIDDLE CLASS CHILDREN IS DESCRIBED, WITH EMPHASIS ON A SEGMENT OF THE RESEARCH INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACHIEVEMENT, INTELLIGENCE, AND EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. THE SUBJECTS WERE 105 CHILDREN AGED FIVE TO 6.3 ATTENDING TWO SCHOOLS IN MONTREAL. EACH CHILD WAS ASSESSED IN THE AREAS OF…

  14. SALT and Spelling Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joan

    A study investigated the effects of suggestopedic accelerative learning and teaching (SALT) on the spelling achievement, attitudes toward school, and memory skills of fourth-grade students. Subjects were 20 male and 28 female students from two self-contained classrooms at Kennedy Elementary School in Rexburg, Idaho. The control classroom and the…

  15. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  16. Religious experience. Catholic Health Association's Sister Keehan lands top spot on our annual 100 Most Powerful ranking, underscoring her devotion to achieving a long-elusive goal: access to healthcare for everyone.

    PubMed

    Becker, Cinda

    2007-08-27

    The hunger for reform and transparency in healthcare is palpable in this year's listing of the 100 Most Powerful People in Healthcare. The first six are all people who have helped lead efforts to increase access or protect patient privacy, including No. 3, California. Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, left. Find out who leads the pack.

  17. Gender, power, and intimate partner violence: a study on couples from rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Gender-based power imbalances are perhaps the most compelling underlying explanation for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, an overemphasis on female victimization results in an incomplete understanding of men's experiences as victims and the broader dyadic context in which violence occurs. This study examines the role of three domains of relationship power (power resources, processes, and outcomes) on sexual and physical IPV victimization in a unique sample of 466 young couples from Malawi. Two power resources were studied, namely, income and education level. Power processes were captured with a measure of couple communication and collaboration called unity. Power outcomes included a measure of relationship dominance (male dominated or female-dominated/egalitarian). Multilevel logistic regression using the Actor Partner Interpersonal Model framework was used to test whether respondent and partner data were predictive of IPV. The findings show that unity and male dominance were salient power factors that influenced young people's risk for sexual IPV. Unity had a stronger protective effect on sexual IPV for women than for men. Involvement in a male-dominated relationship increased the risk of sexual IPV for women, but decreased the risk for men. The findings also showed that education level and unity were protective against physical IPV for both men and women. Contrary to what was expected, partner data did not play a role in the respondent's experience of IPV. The consistency of these findings with the literature, theory, and study limitations are discussed.

  18. Time variations of geopotential, gravity and vertical crustul deformations: nature and unity of cyclicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2003-04-01

    TIME VARIATIONS OF GEOPOTENTIAL, GRAVITY AND VERTICAL CRUSTAL DEFORMATIONS: NATURE AND UNITY OF CYCLICITIES Yu.V.Barkin Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow, Russia, barkin@sai.msu.ru Gravitational action of the Moon and the Sun on the Earth generates very big additional mechanical forces and moments of the interaction of its neighboring shells (liquid core, mantle and another layers) and produces cyclic perturbations of the tensional state of the shells, their deformations, small relative translational displacements and small relative rotational oscillations of the shells, redistribution of the plastic and fluid masses and others. These additional forces and moments of the cyclic celestial-mechanical nature produce deformations of the all layers of the Earth and organize and control practically all natural processes. In given report we analyze these forces and moments caused by the Moon attraction. We have shown that they are conditionally periodic functions of time with definite basis of frequencies, which are some combinations of the frequencies of perturbations in the Moon orbital motion. Very important conclusion follows from our approach - natural processes are controlled and dictated by pointed mechanism and are subjected by cyclic variations with general for all processes base of frequencies. The fundamental basis of frequencies was established in result of theoretical study of the gravitational interaction of the Earth’s core and mantle with the Moon and the Sun and in result of analysis of observed variations of the many natural processes [1]. Predicted periods of variations of the natural processes were conformed by last results of the spectral analysis of gravity at Moscow fidicial station and by similar studies of the Earth rotation, vertical crustul deformations [2]. In particular periods, amplitudes (in a few microGal) and phases for about 20 harmonics of gravity variations were discovered in result of spectral analysis of the absolute

  19. Generalized slow roll approximation for large power spectrum features

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorkin, Cora; Hu, Wayne

    2010-01-15

    We develop a variant of the generalized slow roll approach for calculating the curvature power spectrum that is well suited for order unity deviations in power caused by sharp features in the inflaton potential. As an example, we show that predictions for a step function potential, which has been proposed to explain order unity glitches in the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum at multipoles l=20-40, are accurate at the percent level. Our analysis shows that to good approximation there is a single source function that is responsible for observable features and that this function is simply related to the local slope and curvature of the inflaton potential. These properties should make the generalized slow roll approximation useful for inflation-model-independent studies of features, both large and small, in the observable power spectra.

  20. Project ACHIEVE final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-13

    Project ACHIEVE was a math/science academic enhancement program aimed at first year high school Hispanic American students. Four high schools -- two in El Paso, Texas and two in Bakersfield, California -- participated in this Department of Energy-funded program during the spring and summer of 1996. Over 50 students, many of whom felt they were facing a nightmare future, were given the opportunity to work closely with personal computers and software, sophisticated calculators, and computer-based laboratories -- an experience which their regular academic curriculum did not provide. Math and science projects, exercises, and experiments were completed that emphasized independent and creative applications of scientific and mathematical theories to real world problems. The most important outcome was the exposure Project ACHIEVE provided to students concerning the college and technical-field career possibilities available to them.

  1. Does achievement motivation mediate the semantic achievement priming effect?

    PubMed

    Engeser, Stefan; Baumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our research was to understand the processes of the prime-to-behavior effects with semantic achievement primes. We extended existing models with a perspective from achievement motivation theory and additionally used achievement primes embedded in the running text of excerpts of school textbooks to simulate a more natural priming condition. Specifically, we proposed that achievement primes affect implicit achievement motivation and conducted pilot experiments and 3 main experiments to explore this proposition. We found no reliable positive effect of achievement primes on implicit achievement motivation. In light of these findings, we tested whether explicit (instead of implicit) achievement motivation is affected by achievement primes and found this to be the case. In the final experiment, we found support for the assumption that higher explicit achievement motivation implies that achievement priming affects the outcome expectations. The implications of the results are discussed, and we conclude that primes affect achievement behavior by heightening explicit achievement motivation and outcome expectancies. PMID:24820250

  2. Do KIPP Schools Boost Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Philip M.; Tuttle, Christina Clark; Gill, Brian; Nichols-Barrer, Ira; Teh, Bing-ru

    2014-01-01

    The Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) is an influential and rapidly growing nationwide network of charter schools serving primarily disadvantaged minority students. Prominent elements of KIPP's educational model include high expectations for student achievement and behavior, and a substantial increase in time in school. KIPP is being watched…

  3. Addressing Achievement Gaps with Psychological Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, David; Walton, Gregory; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Student psychology--how the classroom looks and feels from the perspective of the student--can powerfully affect motivation and learning, and experiments are increasingly showing that even brief interventions to change psychology can boost achievement over months or years. When paired with other structural reforms, social-psychological…

  4. DPAL: historical perspective and summary of achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, B. V.; Knize, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Alkali vapor lasers are under extensive research and development during the past decade because of their potential for scaling to high powers while maintaining a good beam quality. Also, a possibility of using efficient diode lasers for pumping alkali vapor promises high total wall plug efficiency for a Diode Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL). Since the first DPAL demonstration with output power of 130 mW in 20051, a significant progress in this field was achieved. The output power of about 1 kW in continuous wave (CW) operation with optical efficiency close to 50% was recently demonstrated for a Cs DPAL2. Also, the DPALs based on other alkali metals (Rubidium and Potassium) were demonstrated3,4 . In spite of these significant achievements, there are still several problems in DPAL power scaling exist that must be addressed. Among them are the thermal5 and photoionization6 issues that become important even at power level about several tens of watts. In this paper we present a historical review of the alkali laser research and development, discuss the most important achievements and future perspectives in this field of research.

  5. Design parameters of a resonant infrared photoconductor with unity quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam; Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes a concept of a resonant infrared photoconductor that has characteristics of 100 percent quantum efficiency, high photoconductive gain, and very low noise equivalent power. Central to this concept is an establishment of a high-finesse absorption cavity internal to the detector element. A theoretical analysis is carried out, demonstrating this concept and providing some design guidelines. A Ge:Ga FIR detector is presently being fabricated using this approach.

  6. The unity assumption facilitates cross-modal binding of musical, non-speech stimuli: The role of spectral and amplitude envelope cues.

    PubMed

    Chuen, Lorraine; Schutz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An observer's inference that multimodal signals originate from a common underlying source facilitates cross-modal binding. This 'unity assumption' causes asynchronous auditory and visual speech streams to seem simultaneous (Vatakis & Spence, Perception & Psychophysics, 69(5), 744-756, 2007). Subsequent tests of non-speech stimuli such as musical and impact events found no evidence for the unity assumption, suggesting the effect is speech-specific (Vatakis & Spence, Acta Psychologica, 127(1), 12-23, 2008). However, the role of amplitude envelope (the changes in energy of a sound over time) was not previously appreciated within this paradigm. Here, we explore whether previous findings suggesting speech-specificity of the unity assumption were confounded by similarities in the amplitude envelopes of the contrasted auditory stimuli. Experiment 1 used natural events with clearly differentiated envelopes: single notes played on either a cello (bowing motion) or marimba (striking motion). Participants performed an un-speeded temporal order judgments task; viewing audio-visually matched (e.g., marimba auditory with marimba video) and mismatched (e.g., cello auditory with marimba video) versions of stimuli at various stimulus onset asynchronies, and were required to indicate which modality was presented first. As predicted, participants were less sensitive to temporal order in matched conditions, demonstrating that the unity assumption can facilitate the perception of synchrony outside of speech stimuli. Results from Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that when spectral information was removed from the original auditory stimuli, amplitude envelope alone could not facilitate the influence of audiovisual unity. We propose that both amplitude envelope and spectral acoustic cues affect the percept of audiovisual unity, working in concert to help an observer determine when to integrate across modalities.

  7. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  8. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…

  9. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR THE SHAPE OF A ROTATIONALLY DISTORTED POLYTROPE OF INDEX UNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald; Anderson, John E-mail: K.Zhang@exeter.ac.uk

    2013-02-15

    We present a new three-dimensional numerical method for calculating the non-spherical shape and internal structure of a model of a rapidly rotating gaseous body with a polytropic index of unity. The calculation is based on a finite-element method and accounts for the full effects of rotation. After validating the numerical approach against the asymptotic solution of Chandrasekhar that is valid only for a slowly rotating gaseous body, we apply it to models of Jupiter and a rapidly rotating, highly flattened star ({alpha} Eridani). In the case of Jupiter, the two-dimensional distributions of density and pressure are determined via a hybrid inverse approach by adjusting an a priori unknown coefficient in the equation of state until the model shape matches the observed shape of Jupiter. After obtaining the two-dimensional distribution of density, we then compute the zonal gravity coefficients and the total mass from the non-spherical model that takes full account of rotation-induced shape change. Our non-spherical model with a polytropic index of unity is able to produce the known mass of Jupiter with about 4% accuracy and the zonal gravitational coefficient J {sub 2} of Jupiter with better than 2% accuracy, a reasonable result considering that there is only one parameter in the model. For {alpha} Eridani, we calculate its rotationally distorted shape and internal structure based on the observationally deduced rotation rate and size of the star by using a similar hybrid inverse approach. Our model of the star closely approximates the observed flattening.

  10. Gradient CdSe/CdS Quantum Dots with Room Temperature Biexciton Unity Quantum Yield.

    PubMed

    Nasilowski, Michel; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Patriarche, Gilles; Dubertret, Benoît

    2015-06-10

    Auger recombination is a major limitation for the fluorescent emission of quantum dots (QDs). It is the main source of QDs fluorescence blinking at the single-particle level. At high-power excitation, when several charge carriers are formed inside a QD, Auger becomes more efficient and severely decreases the quantum yield (QY) of multiexcitons. This limits the efficiency and the use of colloidal QDs in applications where intense light output is required. Here, we present a new generation of thick-shell CdSe/CdS QDs with dimensions >40 nm and a composition gradient between the core and the shell that exhibits 100% QY for the emission of both the monoexciton and the biexciton in air and at room temperature for all the QDs we have observed. The fluorescence emission of these QDs is perfectly Poissonian at the single-particle level at different excitation levels and temperatures, from 30 to 300 K. In these QDs, the emission of high-order (>2) multiexcitons is quite efficient, and we observe white light emission at the single-QD level when high excitation power is used. These gradient thick shell QDs confirm the suppression of Auger recombination in gradient core/shell structures and help further establish the colloidal QDs with a gradient shell as a very stable source of light even under high excitation.

  11. Gradient CdSe/CdS Quantum Dots with Room Temperature Biexciton Unity Quantum Yield.

    PubMed

    Nasilowski, Michel; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Patriarche, Gilles; Dubertret, Benoît

    2015-06-10

    Auger recombination is a major limitation for the fluorescent emission of quantum dots (QDs). It is the main source of QDs fluorescence blinking at the single-particle level. At high-power excitation, when several charge carriers are formed inside a QD, Auger becomes more efficient and severely decreases the quantum yield (QY) of multiexcitons. This limits the efficiency and the use of colloidal QDs in applications where intense light output is required. Here, we present a new generation of thick-shell CdSe/CdS QDs with dimensions >40 nm and a composition gradient between the core and the shell that exhibits 100% QY for the emission of both the monoexciton and the biexciton in air and at room temperature for all the QDs we have observed. The fluorescence emission of these QDs is perfectly Poissonian at the single-particle level at different excitation levels and temperatures, from 30 to 300 K. In these QDs, the emission of high-order (>2) multiexcitons is quite efficient, and we observe white light emission at the single-QD level when high excitation power is used. These gradient thick shell QDs confirm the suppression of Auger recombination in gradient core/shell structures and help further establish the colloidal QDs with a gradient shell as a very stable source of light even under high excitation. PMID:25990468

  12. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  13. Near-unity quantum yields from chloride treated CdTe colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Page, Robert C; Espinobarro-Velazquez, Daniel; Leontiadou, Marina A; Smith, Charles; Lewis, Edward A; Haigh, Sarah J; Li, Chen; Radtke, Hanna; Pengpad, Atip; Bondino, Federica; Magnano, Elena; Pis, Igor; Flavell, Wendy R; O'Brien, Paul; Binks, David J

    2015-04-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are promising materials for novel light sources and solar energy conversion. However, trap states associated with the CQD surface can produce non-radiative charge recombination that significantly reduces device performance. Here a facile post-synthetic treatment of CdTe CQDs is demonstrated that uses chloride ions to achieve near-complete suppression of surface trapping, resulting in an increase of photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) from ca. 5% to up to 97.2 ± 2.5%. The effect of the treatment is characterised by absorption and PL spectroscopy, PL decay, scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This process also dramatically improves the air-stability of the CQDs: before treatment the PL is largely quenched after 1 hour of air-exposure, whilst the treated samples showed a PL QY of nearly 50% after more than 12 hours.

  14. HEPEX - achievements and challenges!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thielen, Jutta; Wood, Andy; Wang, Qj; Duan, Qingyun; Collischonn, Walter; Verkade, Jan; Voisin, Nathalie; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Vuillaume, Jean-Francois Emmanuel; Lucatero Villasenor, Diana; Cloke, Hannah L.; Schaake, John; van Andel, Schalk-Jan

    2014-05-01

    HEPEX is an international initiative bringing together hydrologists, meteorologists, researchers and end-users to develop advanced probabilistic hydrological forecast techniques for improved flood, drought and water management. HEPEX was launched in 2004 as an independent, cooperative international scientific activity. During the first meeting, the overarching goal was defined as: "to develop and test procedures to produce reliable hydrological ensemble forecasts, and to demonstrate their utility in decision making related to the water, environmental and emergency management sectors." The applications of hydrological ensemble predictions span across large spatio-temporal scales, ranging from short-term and localized predictions to global climate change and regional modeling. Within the HEPEX community, information is shared through its blog (www.hepex.org), meetings, testbeds and intercompaison experiments, as well as project reportings. Key questions of HEPEX are: * What adaptations are required for meteorological ensemble systems to be coupled with hydrological ensemble systems? * How should the existing hydrological ensemble prediction systems be modified to account for all sources of uncertainty within a forecast? * What is the best way for the user community to take advantage of ensemble forecasts and to make better decisions based on them? This year HEPEX celebrates its 10th year anniversary and this poster will present a review of the main operational and research achievements and challenges prepared by Hepex contributors on data assimilation, post-processing of hydrologic predictions, forecast verification, communication and use of probabilistic forecasts in decision-making. Additionally, we will present the most recent activities implemented by Hepex and illustrate how everyone can join the community and participate to the development of new approaches in hydrologic ensemble prediction.

  15. The Homogeneity of School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel

    Since the measurement of school achievement involves the administration of achievement tests to various grades on various subjects, both grade level and subject matter contribute to within-school achievement variations. To determine whether achievement test scores vary most among different fields within a grade level, or within fields among…

  16. Online 3D terrain visualisation using Unity 3D game engine: A comparison of different contour intervals terrain data draped with UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Mahayudin, Mohd; Che Mat, Ruzinoor

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to discuss on the effectiveness of visualising terrain draped with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) images generated from different contour intervals using Unity 3D game engine in online environment. The study area that was tested in this project was oil palm plantation at Sintok, Kedah. The contour data used for this study are divided into three different intervals which are 1m, 3m and 5m. ArcGIS software were used to clip the contour data and also UAV images data to be similar size for the overlaying process. The Unity 3D game engine was used as the main platform for developing the system due to its capabilities which can be launch in different platform. The clipped contour data and UAV images data were process and exported into the web format using Unity 3D. Then process continue by publishing it into the web server for comparing the effectiveness of different 3D terrain data (contour data) draped with UAV images. The effectiveness is compared based on the data size, loading time (office and out-of-office hours), response time, visualisation quality, and frame per second (fps). The results were suggest which contour interval is better for developing an effective online 3D terrain visualisation draped with UAV images using Unity 3D game engine. It therefore benefits decision maker and planner related to this field decide on which contour is applicable for their task.

  17. Unity in Diversity: Results of a Randomized Clinical Culturally Tailored Pilot HIV Prevention Intervention Trial in Baltimore, Maryland, for African American Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Karin; Kuramoto, Satoko J.; German, Danielle; Fields, Errol; Spikes, Pilgrim S.; Patterson, Jocelyn; Latkin, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Unity in Diversity was a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored HIV prevention intervention for African American men who have sex with men. The intervention condition was six group-based sessions and one individual session. The control condition was a single-session HIV prevention review. Participants were aged 18 years or older,…

  18. Maintaining a Strong Family: What Parents and Children Can Do To Foster Closeness and Unity. Boys Town National Family Home Program Informational Series, Volume No. 106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Thomas P.

    Many parents today struggle to maintain a sense of closeness and to create an environment that is nurturing and supportive. Four family responsibilities can help parents strengthen family unity and help their children build strong relationships and values. First, families should help children see every person as the image of God. Having faith in…

  19. Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Arcari, M; Söllner, I; Javadi, A; Lindskov Hansen, S; Mahmoodian, S; Liu, J; Thyrrestrup, H; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2014-08-29

    A quantum emitter efficiently coupled to a nanophotonic waveguide constitutes a promising system for the realization of single-photon transistors, quantum-logic gates based on giant single-photon nonlinearities, and high bit-rate deterministic single-photon sources. The key figure of merit for such devices is the β factor, which is the probability for an emitted single photon to be channeled into a desired waveguide mode. We report on the experimental achievement of β=98.43%±0.04% for a quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, corresponding to a single-emitter cooperativity of η=62.7±1.5. This constitutes a nearly ideal photon-matter interface where the quantum dot acts effectively as a 1D "artificial" atom, since it interacts almost exclusively with just a single propagating optical mode. The β factor is found to be remarkably robust to variations in position and emission wavelength of the quantum dots. Our work demonstrates the extraordinary potential of photonic crystal waveguides for highly efficient single-photon generation and on-chip photon-photon interaction.

  20. Near-unity coupling efficiency of a quantum emitter to a photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Arcari, M; Söllner, I; Javadi, A; Lindskov Hansen, S; Mahmoodian, S; Liu, J; Thyrrestrup, H; Lee, E H; Song, J D; Stobbe, S; Lodahl, P

    2014-08-29

    A quantum emitter efficiently coupled to a nanophotonic waveguide constitutes a promising system for the realization of single-photon transistors, quantum-logic gates based on giant single-photon nonlinearities, and high bit-rate deterministic single-photon sources. The key figure of merit for such devices is the β factor, which is the probability for an emitted single photon to be channeled into a desired waveguide mode. We report on the experimental achievement of β=98.43%±0.04% for a quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal waveguide, corresponding to a single-emitter cooperativity of η=62.7±1.5. This constitutes a nearly ideal photon-matter interface where the quantum dot acts effectively as a 1D "artificial" atom, since it interacts almost exclusively with just a single propagating optical mode. The β factor is found to be remarkably robust to variations in position and emission wavelength of the quantum dots. Our work demonstrates the extraordinary potential of photonic crystal waveguides for highly efficient single-photon generation and on-chip photon-photon interaction. PMID:25215983

  1. A learnable parallel processing architecture towards unity of memory and computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Gao, B.; Chen, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, P.; Ye, H.; Liu, L.; Liu, X.; Kang, J.

    2015-08-01

    Developing energy-efficient parallel information processing systems beyond von Neumann architecture is a long-standing goal of modern information technologies. The widely used von Neumann computer architecture separates memory and computing units, which leads to energy-hungry data movement when computers work. In order to meet the need of efficient information processing for the data-driven applications such as big data and Internet of Things, an energy-efficient processing architecture beyond von Neumann is critical for the information society. Here we show a non-von Neumann architecture built of resistive switching (RS) devices named “iMemComp”, where memory and logic are unified with single-type devices. Leveraging nonvolatile nature and structural parallelism of crossbar RS arrays, we have equipped “iMemComp” with capabilities of computing in parallel and learning user-defined logic functions for large-scale information processing tasks. Such architecture eliminates the energy-hungry data movement in von Neumann computers. Compared with contemporary silicon technology, adder circuits based on “iMemComp” can improve the speed by 76.8% and the power dissipation by 60.3%, together with a 700 times aggressive reduction in the circuit area.

  2. A learnable parallel processing architecture towards unity of memory and computing.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Gao, B; Chen, Z; Zhao, Y; Huang, P; Ye, H; Liu, L; Liu, X; Kang, J

    2015-08-14

    Developing energy-efficient parallel information processing systems beyond von Neumann architecture is a long-standing goal of modern information technologies. The widely used von Neumann computer architecture separates memory and computing units, which leads to energy-hungry data movement when computers work. In order to meet the need of efficient information processing for the data-driven applications such as big data and Internet of Things, an energy-efficient processing architecture beyond von Neumann is critical for the information society. Here we show a non-von Neumann architecture built of resistive switching (RS) devices named "iMemComp", where memory and logic are unified with single-type devices. Leveraging nonvolatile nature and structural parallelism of crossbar RS arrays, we have equipped "iMemComp" with capabilities of computing in parallel and learning user-defined logic functions for large-scale information processing tasks. Such architecture eliminates the energy-hungry data movement in von Neumann computers. Compared with contemporary silicon technology, adder circuits based on "iMemComp" can improve the speed by 76.8% and the power dissipation by 60.3%, together with a 700 times aggressive reduction in the circuit area.

  3. A learnable parallel processing architecture towards unity of memory and computing.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Gao, B; Chen, Z; Zhao, Y; Huang, P; Ye, H; Liu, L; Liu, X; Kang, J

    2015-01-01

    Developing energy-efficient parallel information processing systems beyond von Neumann architecture is a long-standing goal of modern information technologies. The widely used von Neumann computer architecture separates memory and computing units, which leads to energy-hungry data movement when computers work. In order to meet the need of efficient information processing for the data-driven applications such as big data and Internet of Things, an energy-efficient processing architecture beyond von Neumann is critical for the information society. Here we show a non-von Neumann architecture built of resistive switching (RS) devices named "iMemComp", where memory and logic are unified with single-type devices. Leveraging nonvolatile nature and structural parallelism of crossbar RS arrays, we have equipped "iMemComp" with capabilities of computing in parallel and learning user-defined logic functions for large-scale information processing tasks. Such architecture eliminates the energy-hungry data movement in von Neumann computers. Compared with contemporary silicon technology, adder circuits based on "iMemComp" can improve the speed by 76.8% and the power dissipation by 60.3%, together with a 700 times aggressive reduction in the circuit area. PMID:26271243

  4. A learnable parallel processing architecture towards unity of memory and computing

    PubMed Central

    Li, H.; Gao, B.; Chen, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, P.; Ye, H.; Liu, L.; Liu, X.; Kang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Developing energy-efficient parallel information processing systems beyond von Neumann architecture is a long-standing goal of modern information technologies. The widely used von Neumann computer architecture separates memory and computing units, which leads to energy-hungry data movement when computers work. In order to meet the need of efficient information processing for the data-driven applications such as big data and Internet of Things, an energy-efficient processing architecture beyond von Neumann is critical for the information society. Here we show a non-von Neumann architecture built of resistive switching (RS) devices named “iMemComp”, where memory and logic are unified with single-type devices. Leveraging nonvolatile nature and structural parallelism of crossbar RS arrays, we have equipped “iMemComp” with capabilities of computing in parallel and learning user-defined logic functions for large-scale information processing tasks. Such architecture eliminates the energy-hungry data movement in von Neumann computers. Compared with contemporary silicon technology, adder circuits based on “iMemComp” can improve the speed by 76.8% and the power dissipation by 60.3%, together with a 700 times aggressive reduction in the circuit area. PMID:26271243

  5. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  6. The Impact of Reading Achievement on Overall Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchwell, Dawn Earheart

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading achievement and achievement in other subject areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a correlation between reading scores as measured by the Standardized Test for the Assessment of Reading (STAR) and academic achievement in language arts, math, science, and social studies…

  7. Stigma power.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo

    2014-02-01

    When people have an interest in keeping other people down, in or away, stigma is a resource that allows them to obtain ends they desire. We call this resource "stigma power" and use the term to refer to instances in which stigma processes achieve the aims of stigmatizers with respect to the exploitation, control or exclusion of others. We draw on Bourdieu (1987, 1990) who notes that power is often most effectively deployed when it is hidden or "misrecognized." To explore the utility of the stigma-power concept we examine ways in which the goals of stigmatizers are achieved but hidden in the stigma coping efforts of people with mental illnesses. We developed new self-report measures and administered them to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness to test whether results are consistent with the possibility that, in response to negative societal conceptions, the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of people with psychosis lead them to be concerned with staying in, propelled to stay away and induced to feel downwardly placed - precisely the outcomes stigmatizers might desire. Our introduction of the stigma-power concept carries the possibility of seeing stigmatizing circumstances in a new light.

  8. Stigma power.

    PubMed

    Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo

    2014-02-01

    When people have an interest in keeping other people down, in or away, stigma is a resource that allows them to obtain ends they desire. We call this resource "stigma power" and use the term to refer to instances in which stigma processes achieve the aims of stigmatizers with respect to the exploitation, control or exclusion of others. We draw on Bourdieu (1987, 1990) who notes that power is often most effectively deployed when it is hidden or "misrecognized." To explore the utility of the stigma-power concept we examine ways in which the goals of stigmatizers are achieved but hidden in the stigma coping efforts of people with mental illnesses. We developed new self-report measures and administered them to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness to test whether results are consistent with the possibility that, in response to negative societal conceptions, the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of people with psychosis lead them to be concerned with staying in, propelled to stay away and induced to feel downwardly placed - precisely the outcomes stigmatizers might desire. Our introduction of the stigma-power concept carries the possibility of seeing stigmatizing circumstances in a new light. PMID:24507908

  9. Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes Bearing Fluorinated Aromatic Sulfonyl Group with Nearly Unity Phosphorescent Quantum Yields and Outstanding Electroluminescent Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Yu, Yue; Yang, Xiaolong; Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Huiming; Xu, Xianbin; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin; Ren, Yixia; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2015-11-11

    A series of heteroleptic functional Ir(III) complexes bearing different fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl groups has been synthesized. Their photophysical features, electrochemical behaviors, and electroluminescent (EL) properties have been characterized in detail. These complexes emit intense yellow phosphorescence with exceptionally high quantum yields (ΦP > 0.9) at room temperature, and the emission maxima of these complexes can be finely tuned depending upon the number of the fluorine substituents on the pendant phenyl ring of the sulfonyl group. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties and electron injection/transporting (EI/ET) abilities of these Ir(III) phosphors can also be effectively tuned by the fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl group to furnish some desired characters for enhancing the EL performance. Hence, the maximum luminance efficiency (ηL) of 81.2 cd A(-1), corresponding to power efficiency (ηP) of 64.5 lm W(-1) and external quantum efficiency (ηext) of 19.3%, has been achieved, indicating the great potential of these novel phosphors in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Furthermore, a clear picture has been drawn for the relationship between their optoelectronic properties and chemical structures. These results should provide important information for developing highly efficient phosphors. PMID:26458215

  10. Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes Bearing Fluorinated Aromatic Sulfonyl Group with Nearly Unity Phosphorescent Quantum Yields and Outstanding Electroluminescent Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Yu, Yue; Yang, Xiaolong; Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Huiming; Xu, Xianbin; Zhou, Guijiang; Wu, Zhaoxin; Ren, Yixia; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2015-11-11

    A series of heteroleptic functional Ir(III) complexes bearing different fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl groups has been synthesized. Their photophysical features, electrochemical behaviors, and electroluminescent (EL) properties have been characterized in detail. These complexes emit intense yellow phosphorescence with exceptionally high quantum yields (ΦP > 0.9) at room temperature, and the emission maxima of these complexes can be finely tuned depending upon the number of the fluorine substituents on the pendant phenyl ring of the sulfonyl group. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties and electron injection/transporting (EI/ET) abilities of these Ir(III) phosphors can also be effectively tuned by the fluorinated aromatic sulfonyl group to furnish some desired characters for enhancing the EL performance. Hence, the maximum luminance efficiency (ηL) of 81.2 cd A(-1), corresponding to power efficiency (ηP) of 64.5 lm W(-1) and external quantum efficiency (ηext) of 19.3%, has been achieved, indicating the great potential of these novel phosphors in the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Furthermore, a clear picture has been drawn for the relationship between their optoelectronic properties and chemical structures. These results should provide important information for developing highly efficient phosphors.

  11. High power fast ramping power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Marneris,I.; Bajon, E.; Bonati, R.; Sandberg, J.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    Hundred megawatt level fast ramping power converters to drive proton and heavy ion machines are under research and development at accelerator facilities in the world. This is a leading edge technology. There are several topologies to achieve this power level. Their advantages and related issues will be discussed.

  12. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war, the... power, fuel, and water, or on long-distance communications; with spare replacements for...

  13. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war, the... power, fuel, and water, or on long-distance communications; with spare replacements for...

  14. 44 CFR 321.4 - Achieving production readiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... achieve a capability for maximum production of “urgent” items during the initial phase of war, the... power, fuel, and water, or on long-distance communications; with spare replacements for...

  15. Cherokee Culture and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony D.

    1980-01-01

    Compares the effect of cooperative and competitive behaviors of Cherokee and Anglo American elementary school students on academic achievement. Suggests changes in teaching techniques and lesson organization that might raise academic achievement while taking into consideration tribal traditions that limit scholastic achievement in an…

  16. From diversity to unity. The classification of mental disorders in 21st-century China.

    PubMed

    Lee, S

    2001-09-01

    level of description. The particular additions (e.g., travelling psychosis, culture-related mental disorders), deletions (e.g., depressive neurosis, pathologic gambling, avoidant and borderline personality disorders), retentions (e.g., unipolar mania, neurosis, hysteria, homosexuality), and epistemologic variations (e.g., somatoform disorder, neurasthenia) of diagnostic categories reflect exactly this simultaneous need to globalize and to take account of the changing reality of illness in contemporary China. Stengel advised that "no psychiatric classification can help being partly etiological and partly symptomatological, because these are the criteria by which psychiatrists distinguish mental disorders from each other." To an extent, the CCMD-3 is a critique of certain nosologic assumptions of Western psychiatry, such as the feasibility of a neo-Kraepelinian taxonomy grounded exclusively in symptomatology across all diagnostic categories, and the validity of syndromic architectures based on a firm adherence to the mind-body dichotomy. From this angle of vision, local systems of classification such as the CCMD-3 may offer an opportunity for needed reflections by North American psychiatrists who have simply taken the DSM-IV schema for granted. Sartorius reckoned that a classification is a way of seeing the world at a point in time. A deep study of the CCMD-3 is thus an avenue for achieving an understanding of the contemporary Chinese mind and the social realities in China. The remarkable diversity of China at present, namely, a Communist Party dominated state socialist political structure but the most rapidly growing capitalist economy in the world, guarantees that Chinese people's social and moral experience of illness will continue to change. The study of such culture-specific categories as travelling psychosis, neurasthenia, qigong-induced mental disorder, and dysfunctional homosexuality sheds light on the larger sociomoral processes and destabilizing changes in

  17. Students’ Achievement Goals, Learning-Related Emotions and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Lüftenegger, Marko; Klug, Julia; Harrer, Katharina; Langer, Marie; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, the recently proposed 3 × 2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3 × 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3 × 2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:27199836

  18. Vapor-solid growth of high optical quality MoS₂ monolayers with near-unity valley polarization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sanfeng; Huang, Chunming; Aivazian, Grant; Ross, Jason S; Cobden, David H; Xu, Xiaodong

    2013-03-26

    Monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are atomically thin direct-gap semiconductors with potential applications in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and electrochemical sensing. Recent theoretical and experimental efforts suggest that they are ideal systems for exploiting the valley degrees of freedom of Bloch electrons. For example, Dirac valley polarization has been demonstrated in mechanically exfoliated monolayer MoS2 samples by polarization-resolved photoluminescence, although polarization has rarely been seen at room temperature. Here we report a new method for synthesizing high optical quality monolayer MoS2 single crystals up to 25 μm in size on a variety of standard insulating substrates (SiO2, sapphire, and glass) using a catalyst-free vapor-solid growth mechanism. The technique is simple and reliable, and the optical quality of the crystals is extremely high, as demonstrated by the fact that the valley polarization approaches unity at 30 K and persists at 35% even at room temperature, suggesting a virtual absence of defects. This will allow greatly improved optoelectronic TMDC monolayer devices to be fabricated and studied routinely.

  19. Near-infrared quarter-waveplate with near-unity polarization conversion efficiency based on silicon nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanmeng; Cai, Hongbing; Ding, Huaiyi; Ning, Zhen; Pan, Nan; Zhu, Hong; Shi, Qinwei; Wang, Xiaoping

    2015-04-01

    Metasurfaces made of subwavelength resonators can modify the wave front of light within the thickness much less than free space wavelength, showing great promises in integrated optics. In this paper, we theoretically show that electric and magnetic resonances supported simultaneously by a subwavelength nanowire with high refractive-index can be utilized to design metasurfaces with near-unity transmittance. Taking silicon nanowire for instance, we design numerically a near-infrared quarter-waveplate with high transmittance using a subwavelength nanowire array. The operation bandwidth of the waveplate is 0.14 μm around the center wavelength of 1.71 μm. The waveplate can convert a 45° linearly polarized incident light to circularly polarized light with conversion efficiency ranging from 94% to 98% over the operation band. The performance of quarter waveplate can in principle be tuned and improved through optimizing the parameters of nanowire arrays. Its compatibility to microelectronic technologies opens up a distinct possibility to integrate nanophotonics into the current silicon-based electronic devices.

  20. The Partition of Unity Finite Element Method for the simulation of waves in air and poroelastic media.

    PubMed

    Chazot, Jean-Daniel; Perrey-Debain, Emmanuel; Nennig, Benoit

    2014-02-01

    Recently Chazot et al. [J. Sound Vib. 332, 1918-1929 (2013)] applied the Partition of Unity Finite Element Method for the analysis of interior sound fields with absorbing materials. The method was shown to allow a substantial reduction of the number of degrees of freedom compared to the standard Finite Element Method. The work is however restricted to a certain class of absorbing materials that react like an equivalent fluid. This paper presents an extension of the method to the numerical simulation of Biot's waves in poroelastic materials. The technique relies mainly on expanding the elastic displacement as well as the fluid phase pressure using sets of plane waves which are solutions to the governing partial differential equations. To show the interest of the method for tackling problems of practical interests, poroelastic-acoustic coupling conditions as well as fixed or sliding edge conditions are presented and numerically tested. It is shown that the technique is a good candidate for solving noise control problems at medium and high frequency.

  1. Conversion efficiency limits and bandgap designs for multi-junction solar cells with internal radiative efficiencies below unity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Chen, Shaoqiang; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-16

    We calculated the conversion-efficiency limit ηsc and the optimized subcell bandgap energies of 1 to 5 junction solar cells without and with intermediate reflectors under 1-sun AM1.5G and 1000-sun AM1.5D irradiations, particularly including the impact of internal radiative efficiency (ηint) below unity for realistic subcell materials on the basis of an extended detailed-balance theory. We found that the conversion-efficiency limit ηsc significantly drops when the geometric mean ηint* of all subcell ηint in the stack reduces from 1 to 0.1, and that ηsc degrades linearly to logηint* for ηint* below 0.1. For ηint*<0.1 differences in ηsc due to additional intermediate reflectors became very small if all subcells are optically thick for sun light. We obtained characteristic optimized bandgap energies, which reflect both ηint* decrease and AM1.5 spectral gaps. These results provide realistic efficiency targets and design principles.

  2. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P. S.; Eleftheriades, George V.

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators.

  3. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P. S.; Eleftheriades, George V.

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators. PMID:26790605

  4. Conversion efficiency limits and bandgap designs for multi-junction solar cells with internal radiative efficiencies below unity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Chen, Shaoqiang; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-16

    We calculated the conversion-efficiency limit ηsc and the optimized subcell bandgap energies of 1 to 5 junction solar cells without and with intermediate reflectors under 1-sun AM1.5G and 1000-sun AM1.5D irradiations, particularly including the impact of internal radiative efficiency (ηint) below unity for realistic subcell materials on the basis of an extended detailed-balance theory. We found that the conversion-efficiency limit ηsc significantly drops when the geometric mean ηint* of all subcell ηint in the stack reduces from 1 to 0.1, and that ηsc degrades linearly to logηint* for ηint* below 0.1. For ηint*<0.1 differences in ηsc due to additional intermediate reflectors became very small if all subcells are optically thick for sun light. We obtained characteristic optimized bandgap energies, which reflect both ηint* decrease and AM1.5 spectral gaps. These results provide realistic efficiency targets and design principles. PMID:27409948

  5. Near-infrared quarter-waveplate with near-unity polarization conversion efficiency based on silicon nanowire array.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanmeng; Cai, Hongbing; Ding, Huaiyi; Ning, Zhen; Pan, Nan; Zhu, Hong; Shi, Qinwei; Wang, Xiaoping

    2015-04-01

    Metasurfaces made of subwavelength resonators can modify the wave front of light within the thickness much less than free space wavelength, showing great promises in integrated optics. In this paper, we theoretically show that electric and magnetic resonances supported simultaneously by a subwavelength nanowire with high refractive-index can be utilized to design metasurfaces with near-unity transmittance. Taking silicon nanowire for instance, we design numerically a near-infrared quarter-waveplate with high transmittance using a subwavelength nanowire array. The operation bandwidth of the waveplate is 0.14 μm around the center wavelength of 1.71 μm. The waveplate can convert a 45° linearly polarized incident light to circularly polarized light with conversion efficiency ranging from 94% to 98% over the operation band. The performance of quarter waveplate can in principle be tuned and improved through optimizing the parameters of nanowire arrays. Its compatibility to microelectronic technologies opens up a distinct possibility to integrate nanophotonics into the current silicon-based electronic devices. PMID:25968730

  6. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P S; Eleftheriades, George V

    2016-01-21

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators.

  7. Cavity-excited Huygens' metasurface antennas for near-unity aperture illumination efficiency from arbitrarily large apertures.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Ariel; Wong, Joseph P S; Eleftheriades, George V

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators. PMID:26790605

  8. Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dorinda J.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white,…

  9. Motivation and academic achievement in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Yousefy, Alireza; Ghassemi, Gholamreza; Firouznia, Samaneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students’ academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007–2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. Results: Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. Conclusion: In view of our observations, students’ academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation. PMID:23555107

  10. Studying Cormier's Protagonists: Achieving Power through Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R.

    1994-01-01

    Speculates on what might be gained by using three of Robert Cormier's novels ("I Am the Cheese,""The Chocolate War," and "After the First Death") in the high school classroom. Suggests that the novels can be used not only as compelling literary works but also as a means of helping students understand what is happening to them during the difficult…

  11. Predictive Power of Standard Variables on Postsecondary Achievement in Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Lisa; Gibson, Neal; Carmack, Patrick; Smith, Trequita

    2013-01-01

    Today, as many as 25 to 40 percent of students who attend college qualify for some form of remedial education program provided by postsecondary institutions (Kaye, Lord, Bottoms, Presson, & Cornet, 2006). Many colleges and universities view the inclusion of remediation as an integral part of their educational mission. However, the costs of such…

  12. Instructional Objectives, Learner Personality and Prediction of Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Russell Victor, Jr.

    This study investigated three questions: the relationship between the use of stated instructional objectives and achievement in audio-tutorial (A-T) instruction, the relationship of learner personality and achievement under conditions of A-T, as well as determining the power of selected batteries of intellective and personality variables to…

  13. Teachers as Researchers: Does the DRP Predict Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, R. Harvey; Pennington, Susan C.

    In order to test claims made regarding the Degrees of Reading Power Test (DRP), a study posed two research questions: (1) How well does the DRP correlate with the more venerable Stanford Achievement Test (SAT)? and (2) How well do these instruments predict students' academic classroom achievement? Three hundred sixty-nine students from two middle…

  14. Stigma Power

    PubMed Central

    Link, Bruce G.; Phelan, Jo

    2015-01-01

    When people have an interest in keeping other people down, in or away, stigma is a resource that allows them to obtain ends they desire. We call this resource “stigma power” and use the term to refer to instances in which stigma processes achieve the aims of stigmatizers with respect to the exploitation, control or exclusion of others. We draw on Bourdieu (1987; 1990) who notes that power is often most effectively deployed when it is hidden or “misrecognized.” To explore the utility of the stigma power concept we examine ways in which the goals of stigmatizers are achieved but hidden in the stigma coping efforts of people with mental illnesses. We developed new self-report measures and administered them to a sample of individuals who have experienced mental illness to test whether results are consistent with the possibility that, in response to negative societal conceptions, the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of people with psychosis lead them to be concerned with staying in, propelled to stay away and induced to feel downwardly placed –precisely the outcomes stigmatizers might desire. Our introduction of the stigma power concept carries the possibility of seeing stigmatizing circumstances in a new light. PMID:24507908

  15. Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Susan Preston

    1999-01-01

    Compared the impact of robotics (computer-powered manipulative) to a battery-powered manipulative (novelty control) and traditionally taught science class on science achievement and problem solving of fourth through sixth graders. Found that the robotics group had higher scores on programming logic-problem solving than did the novelty control…

  16. Measures of Discrimination Among Achievement Levels in Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.; Smith, Douglas U.

    Eight discriminators were identified and data were obtained from the records of 80 graduate students who attained one of four achievement levels at the conclusion of a beginning course in educational statistics. Although the internal discriminatory power of the set of eight measures was very high, estimates of the true power were discouragingly…

  17. The Mechanics of Human Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2015-01-01

    Countless studies have addressed why some individuals achieve more than others. Nevertheless, the psychology of achievement lacks a unifying conceptual framework for synthesizing these empirical insights. We propose organizing achievement-related traits by two possible mechanisms of action: Traits that determine the rate at which an individual learns a skill are talent variables and can be distinguished conceptually from traits that determine the effort an individual puts forth. This approach takes inspiration from Newtonian mechanics: achievement is akin to distance traveled, effort to time, skill to speed, and talent to acceleration. A novel prediction from this model is that individual differences in effort (but not talent) influence achievement (but not skill) more substantially over longer (rather than shorter) time intervals. Conceptualizing skill as the multiplicative product of talent and effort, and achievement as the multiplicative product of skill and effort, advances similar, but less formal, propositions by several important earlier thinkers. PMID:26236393

  18. Mathematics Achievement in High- and Low-Achieving Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Shekarchizadeh, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the amount of variance in mathematics achievement in high- and low-achieving schools that can be explained by school-level factors, while controlling for student-level factors. The data were obtained from 2679 Iranian eighth graders who participated in the 2007 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study. Of the…

  19. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act : Legislative History of the Act to Assist the Electrical Consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal Columbia River Power System to Achieve Cost-Effective Energy Conservation : P.L. 96-501, 94 Stat. 2697.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act became effective when it was signed into law by President Carter on December 5, 1980. This ended a four-year debate over legislation designed to plan and coordinate the region's energy future. This legislative history is an abbreviated version taken from the larger historical file maintained by the BPA Law Library. It is intended to assist BPA personnel and others who are studying the Northwest Power Act and working on its implementation. The documents included were selected for their value in determining what Congress meant in enacting the statute and to provide the researcher with a starting point for further investigation. These documents include: a history of the Act, a chronology of the legislative action leading to passage of the law; a section-by-section analysis of the Act; the Congressional Records of Senate and House debates on the bill and its amendments, and a list of Congressional committee hearings.

  20. Inversion of the anomalous diffraction approximation for variable complex index of refraction near unity. [numerical tests for water-haze aerosol model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Fymat analytic inversion method for retrieving a particle-area distribution function from anomalous diffraction multispectral extinction data and total area is generalized to the case of a variable complex refractive index m(lambda) near unity depending on spectral wavelength lambda. Inversion tests are presented for a water-haze aerosol model. An upper-phase shift limit of 5 pi/2 retrieved an accurate peak area distribution profile. Analytical corrections using both the total number and area improved the inversion.

  1. 2d-4d connection between q-Virasoro/W block at root of unity limit and instanton partition function on ALE space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoyama, H.; Oota, T.; Yoshioka, R.

    2013-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a limiting procedure in which, starting from the q-lifted version (or K-theoretic five-dimensional version) of the (W)AGT conjecture to be assumed in this paper, the Virasoro/W block is generated in the r-th root of unity limit in q in the 2d side, while the same limit automatically generates the projection of the five-dimensional instanton partition function onto that on the ALE space R4/Zr. This circumvents case-by-case conjectures to be made in a wealth of examples found so far. In the 2d side, we successfully generate the super-Virasoro algebra and the proper screening charge in the q→-1, t→-1 limit, from the defining relation of the q-Virasoro algebra and the q-deformed Heisenberg algebra. The central charge obtained coincides with that of the minimal series carrying odd integers of the N=1 superconformal algebra. In the r-th root of unity limit in q in the 2d side, we give some evidence of the appearance of the parafermion-like currents. Exploiting the q-analysis literatures, q-deformed su(n) block is readily generated both at generic q,t and the r-th root of unity limit. In the 4d side, we derive the proper normalization function for general (n,r) that accomplishes the automatic projection through the limit.

  2. The power of medicine, the power of ethics.

    PubMed

    Scott, C E

    1987-11-01

    Foucault's genealogies and archeologies provide occasions in which one may come to know the powers, accidents, and influences that have structured a particular knowledge or discipline. The Birth of the Clinic shows the development of modern medicine in a process by which rational inference and emphasis on the history of a disease are replaced by pathological anatomy. In modern anatomy, the corpse, not reason, became the "space" of modern medical knowledge. In this "space" developed a confederation of dead body, knowledge, trained and noninferential gaze, organic unity, and the increased importance of bodily space instead of physical time. The discussion shows how Foucault's genealogy of modern medicine is influenced by and overcomes the knowledge that it describes. In this context, his genealogy is also shown to be self-overcoming and to raise important questions for medical ethics when ethical thought is conceived within the structures of knowledge that have been exposed by the genealogy.

  3. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  4. Poor Results for High Achievers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Sa; Imberman, Scott; Craig, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Three million students in the United States are classified as gifted, yet little is known about the effectiveness of traditional gifted and talented (G&T) programs. In theory, G&T programs might help high-achieving students because they group them with other high achievers and typically offer specially trained teachers and a more advanced…

  5. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  6. Examination Regimes and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia

    2010-01-01

    Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…

  7. General Achievement Trends: New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  8. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  9. Family Status and School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Rhoda N.; Horns, Virginia

    This study tested the hypothesis that there is no significant difference in reading achievement among children in grades 2 through 5 related to family structure. Researchers administered the Stanford Achievement Test to 119 students in an Alabama city suburban school system. Of the sample, 69 children lived in intact families and 50 lived in…

  10. General Achievement Trends: North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This general achievement trends profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance…

  11. Classroom Composition and Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiter, Jeffrey

    1983-01-01

    Third-grade students in high ability groups in mathematics achieved greater gains than students in low ability groups. The opposite results occurred in reading achievement. Possible reasons for this difference include different instructional techniques for reading and math and the effect of home environment on learning. (IS)

  12. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  13. School Size and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a relationship between high school size and student achievement exists in Illinois public high schools in reading and math, as measured by the Prairie State Achievement Exam (PSAE), which is administered to all Illinois 11th-grade students. This study also examined whether the factors of socioeconomic status, English…

  14. Stress Correlates and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Donna Anderson; And Others

    An ongoing concern for educators is the identification of factors that contribute to or are associated with academic achievement; one such group of variables that has received little attention are those involving stress. The relationship between perceived sources of stress and academic achievement was examined to determine if reactions to stress…

  15. Unity in Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.

    The cultural diversities of peoples and dialects in the United States have brought a richness to the English language that has made it one of the most supple of all the languages in the world. In addition to the diversity in the language are the diversities in literature, technology, nationality, politics, and styles of teaching. Teachers of…

  16. Gender, Power, and Intimate Partner Violence: A Study on Couples From Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based power imbalances are perhaps the most compelling underlying explanation for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, an overemphasis on female victimization results in an incomplete understanding of men’s experiences as victims and the broader dyadic context in which violence occurs. This study examines the role of three domains of relationship power (power resources, processes, and outcomes) on sexual and physical IPV victimization in a unique sample of 466 young couples from Malawi. Two power resources were studied, namely, income and education level. Power processes were captured with a measure of couple communication and collaboration called unity. Power outcomes included a measure of relationship dominance (male dominated or female-dominated/egalitarian). Multilevel logistic regression using the Actor Partner Interpersonal Model framework was used to test whether respondent and partner data were predictive of IPV. The findings show that unity and male dominance were salient power factors that influenced young people’s risk for sexual IPV. Unity had a stronger protective effect on sexual IPV for women than for men. Involvement in a male-dominated relationship increased the risk of sexual IPV for women, but decreased the risk for men. The findings also showed that education level and unity were protective against physical IPV for both men and women. Contrary to what was expected, partner data did not play a role in the respondent’s experience of IPV. The consistency of these findings with the literature, theory, and study limitations are discussed. PMID:24227592

  17. The Power of Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John; Timperley, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Its power is frequently mentioned in articles about learning and teaching, but surprisingly few recent studies have systematically investigated its meaning. This article provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and…

  18. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Brian F.; Wither (Post.), David P.

    2003-09-01

    This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes an impairment of mathematics achievement; that lack of mathematics achievement causes mathematics anxiety; or that there is a third underlying cause of the two.

  19. Effects of Violating Screen Design Principles of Balance, Unity, and Focus on Recall Learning, Study Time, and Completion Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Michael; Kanuka, Heather

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated whether achievement, completion rate, and lesson time vary with computer-screen layouts using good design principles compared with poorly designed screens. Results with adult learners using computer-based instruction showed no difference in achievement scores but good design did lead to higher completion rates and less time…

  20. Using Design To Achieve Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is defined as meeting the needs of this generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. This is a conditional statement that places the responsibility for achieving sustainability squarely in hands of designers and planners....

  1. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. PMID:26123250

  2. Mastery Achievement of Intellectual Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trembath, Richard J.; White, Richard T.

    1979-01-01

    Mastery learning techniques were improved through mathematics instruction based on a validated learning hierarchy, presenting tasks in a sequence consistent with the requirements of the hierarchy, and requiring learners to demonstrate achievement before being allowed to proceed. (Author/GDC)

  3. Achieving Standards through Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaspar, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Most states do not have the time or resources to develop environmental education standards from scratch. Highlights the role that environmental education and its interdisciplinary nature can play in helping students achieve. (DDR)

  4. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  5. High-Power-Density 0.25 μm Gate-Length AlGaN/GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistors on Semi-Insulating 6H-SiC Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.-W.; Kumar, V.; Adesida, I.

    2006-01-01

    AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) on 6H-SiC substrates with a 0.25 μm gate length and with different gate-drain spacings, LGD, ranging from 1 to 7 μm have been fabricated for optimization of output power and investigation of trapping effects. A typical device with LGD = 1 μm exhibited a maximum drain current density of 1400 mA/mm, a peak extrinsic transconductance (gm) of 322 mS/mm, a device unity-gain cut-off frequency ( fT) of 40.3 GHz, and a maximum frequency of oscillation ( fMAX) of 85.3 GHz. Examination of small-signal RF and pulsed current-voltage measurements revealed that RF dispersion is closely related to the gate-drain spacing dimensions, indicating that large gate-drain spacing without the control of RF dispersion can adversely affect output power performance. The results were confirmed using load-pull performance measurements with better power and efficiency obtained for devices with shorter gate-drain separation. For a device with LGD = 1 μm and a 0.25 μm gate-length, a state-of-the-art output power density of 6.7 W/mm at 18 GHz was obtained, which indicates the potential of GaN HEMTs achievable by control of RF current dispersion.

  6. Achieving High Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite based solar cell with the characteristics of rather low raw materials cost, great potential for simple process and scalable production, and extreme high power conversion efficiency (PCE), have been highlighted as one of the most competitive technologies for next generation thin film photovoltaic (PV). In UCLA, we have realized an efficient pathway to achieve high performance pervoskite solar cells, where the findings are beneficial to this unique materials/devices system. Our recent progress lies in perovskite film formation, defect passivation, transport materials design, interface engineering with respect to high performance solar cell, as well as the exploration of its applications beyond photovoltaics. These achievements include: 1) development of vapor assisted solution process (VASP) and moisture assisted solution process, which produces perovskite film with improved conformity, high crystallinity, reduced recombination rate, and the resulting high performance; 2) examination of the defects property of perovskite materials, and demonstration of a self-induced passivation approach to reduce carrier recombination; 3) interface engineering based on design of the carrier transport materials and the electrodes, in combination with high quality perovskite film, which delivers 15 ~ 20% PCEs; 4) a novel integration of bulk heterojunction to perovskite solar cell to achieve better light harvest; 5) fabrication of inverted solar cell device with high efficiency and flexibility and 6) exploration the application of perovskite materials to photodetector. Further development in film, device architecture, and interfaces will lead to continuous improved perovskite solar cells and other organic-inorganic hybrid optoelectronics.

  7. Achieving energy efficiency during collective communications

    SciTech Connect

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav; Sosonkina, Masha; Zhang, Zhao

    2012-09-13

    Energy consumption has become a major design constraint in modern computing systems. With the advent of petaflops architectures, power-efficient software stacks have become imperative for scalability. Techniques such as dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (called DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (called throttling) are often used to reduce the power consumption of the compute nodes. To avoid significant performance losses, these techniques should be used judiciously during parallel application execution. For example, its communication phases may be good candidates to apply the DVFS and CPU throttling without incurring a considerable performance loss. They are often considered as indivisible operations although little attention is being devoted to the energy saving potential of their algorithmic steps. In this work, two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather, are investigated as to their augmentation with energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. The experiments prove the viability of such a fine-grain approach. They also validate a theoretical power consumption estimate for multicore nodes proposed here. While keeping the performance loss low, the obtained energy savings were always significantly higher than those achieved when DVFS or throttling were switched on across the entire application run

  8. Power electronics for low power arcjets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.

    1991-01-01

    In anticipation of the needs of future light-weight, low-power spacecraft, arcjet power electronics in the 100 to 400 W operating range were developed. Limited spacecraft power and thermal control capacity of these small spacecraft emphasized the need for high efficiency. Power topologies similar to those in the higher 2 kW and 5 to 30 kW power range were implemented, including a four transistor bridge switching circuit, current mode pulse-width modulated control, and an output current averaging inductor with an integral pulse generation winding. Reduction of switching transients was accomplished using a low inductance power distribution network, and no passive snubber circuits were necessary for power switch protection. Phase shift control of the power bridge was accomplished using an improved pulse width modulation to phase shift converter circuit. These features, along with conservative magnetics designs allowed power conversion efficiencies of greater than 92.5 percent to be achieved into resistive loads over the entire operating range of the converter. Electromagnetic compatibility requirements were not considered in this work, and control power for the converter was derived from AC mains. Addition of input filters and control power converters would result in an efficiency of on the order of 90 percent for a flight unit. Due to the developmental nature of arcjet systems at this power level, the exact nature of the thruster/power processor interface was not quantified. Output regulation and current ripple requirements of 1 and 20 percent respectively, as well as starting techniques, were derived from the characteristics of the 2 kW system but an open circuit voltage in excess of 175 V was specified. Arcjet integration tests were performed, resulting in successful starts and stable arcjet operation at power levels as low as 240 W with simulated hydrazine propellants.

  9. Power beaming providing a space power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P.

    1992-08-01

    This study, based on two levels of technology, applies the power beaming concept to four planned satellite constellations. The analysis shows that with currently available technology, power beaming can provide mass savings to constellations in orbits ranging from low earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Two constellations, space surveillance and tracking system and space based radar, can be supported with current technology. The other two constellations, space-based laser array and boost surveillance and tracking system, will require power and transmission system improvements before their breakeven specific mass is achieved. A doubling of SP-100 conversion efficiency from 10 to 20/% would meet or exceed breakeven for these constellations.

  10. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fee, D.C.; Blackburn, P.E.; Busch, D.E.; Dees, D.W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T.E.; Ellingson, W.A.; Flandermeyer, B.K.; Fousek, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.; Majumdar, S.; McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.; Picciolo, J.J.; Singh, J.P.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The requisite high power, long-duration bursts appear achievable with appropriate development of the concept. A monolithic fuel cell/nuclear reactor system clearly possesses several advantages. Fabrication methods, performance advantages, and applications are discussed in this report.

  11. Florida's Fit to Achieve Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Florida's "Fit to Achieve," a cardiovascular fitness education program for elementary students. Children are taught responsibility for their own cardiovascular fitness through proper exercise, personal exercise habits, and regular aerobic exercise. The program stresses collaborative effort between physical educators and classroom…

  12. Adequacy, Litigation, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William

    2008-01-01

    The court system has been an increasingly important forum in the attempts to remedy the persistent achievement gaps in American education. In the past twenty years, school finance adequacy litigation has replaced desegregation as the most widely used legal strategy in these efforts. Despite the widespread use of adequacy litigation, few…

  13. Scheduling and Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    To use a block schedule or a traditional schedule? Which structure will produce the best and highest achievement rates for students? The research is mixed on this due to numerous variables such as: (1) socioeconomic levels; (2) academic levels; (3) length of time a given schedule has been in operation; (4) strategies being used in the classrooms;…

  14. School Desegregation and Black Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Thomas; And Others

    Seven papers commissioned by the National Institute of Education in order to clarify the state of recent knowledge about the effects of school desegregation on the academic achievement of black students are contained in this report. The papers, which analyze 19 "core" empirical studies on this topic, include: (1) "What Have Black Children Gained…

  15. Mobility and the Achievement Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skandera, Hanna; Sousa, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Research indicates that low achievement scores relate significantly to high school mobility rates. One explanation for this relationship is curricular inconsistency. Some suggest that school choice could contribute to a solution by breaking the link between a child's home address and school address, thus allowing students to remain at one school…

  16. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  17. Can Judges Improve Academic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Trivitt, Julie R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 3 decades student achievement has remained essentially unchanged in the United States, but not for a lack of spending. Over the same period a myriad of education reforms have been suggested and per-pupil spending has more than doubled. Since the 1990s the education reform attempts have frequently included judicial decisions to revise…

  18. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  19. Meeting a Math Achievement Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Lenora; Likis, Lori

    2005-01-01

    An urban community spotlighted declining mathematics achievement and took some measures, in which the students' performance increased substantially. The Benjamin Banneker Charter Public School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, engaged the entire community and launched the campaign called "Math Everywhere", which changed Benjamin Banneker's culture as…

  20. Achieving Results in MBA Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how Rice University's Jones Graduate School of Management achieves their mission for the communication program. Discusses three keys to the success of the program: individual coaching, integrated team instruction, and constant assessment of the students and the program. Presents an overview of the program. (SG)

  1. Attribution Theory in Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent research reveals consistent lags in American students' science achievement scores. Not only are the scores lower in the United States compared to other developed nations, but even within the United States, too many students are well below science proficiency scores for their grade levels. The current research addresses this problem by…

  2. Graders' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, John B.; Ellis, Arthur K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of metacognitive reflective assessment instruction on student achievement in mathematics. The study compared the performance of 141 students who practiced reflective assessment strategies with students who did not. A posttest-only control group design was employed, and results…

  3. Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationship between teacher candidates' epistemological beliefs and academic achievement. The participants of the study were 353 teacher candidates studying their fourth year at the Education Faculty. The Epistemological Belief Scale was used which adapted to Turkish through reliability and validity work by…

  4. Achieving a sustainable service advantage.

    PubMed

    Coyne, K P

    1993-01-01

    Many managers believe that superior service should play little or no role in competitive strategy; they maintain that service innovations are inherently copiable. However, the author states that this view is too narrow. For a company to achieve a lasting service advantage, it must base a new service on a capability gap that competitors cannot or will not copy.

  5. Achievement in Two School Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borth, Audrey M.

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-intellective correlates of achievement in a lower-class, all black, urban elementary school. These students were compared with a University school population which was different in many dimensions. There were residual similarities relative to the general role of the elementary school student. In neither…

  6. Literacy Achievement in Nongraded Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreide, Anita Therese

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal quantitative study compared literacy achievement of students from second through sixth grade based on two organizational systems: graded (traditional) and nongraded (multiage) classrooms. The California Standards Test (CST) scaled and proficiency scores for English-Language Arts (ELA) were used as the study's independent variable…

  7. PREDICTING ACHIEVEMENT FOR DEAF CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BONHAM, S.J., JR.

    THIS STUDY WAS DONE TO DETERMINE THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACHIEVEMENT TESTS WHEN USED TO EVALUATE DEAF CHILDREN. THE 36 CHILDREN SELECTED FOR THIS STUDY WERE IN GRADES 2, 4, AND 6 IN THE KENNEDY SCHOOL IN DAYTON, OHIO. ALL HAD SEVERE AUDITORY HANDICAPS AND WERE 10 TO 16 YEARS OLD. FOUR PSYCHOLOGISTS ADMINISTERED THE FOLLOWING…

  8. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  9. Perlman receives Sustained Achievement Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Charles; Perlman, David

    David Perlman was awarded the Sustained Achievement Award at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on December 10, 1997, in San Francisco, California. The award recognizes a journalist who has made significant, lasting, and consistent contributions to accurate reporting or writing on the geophysical sciences for the general public.

  10. Great achievements by dedicated nurses.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Alison

    2016-04-27

    Like many nurses, those featured here are motivated by a desire to do everything they can to give high quality care to their patients. Nurses are often reluctant to seek recognition for their achievements, but by talking publicly about the difference they have made, Gillian Elwood, Anja Templin and Sandra Wood are helping to share good practice. PMID:27191295

  11. The Widening Income Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.

    2013-01-01

    Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

  12. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  13. Helping Rural Schools Achieve Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Senator Collins of Maine plans to fight for proper federal funding of the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) that allows rural schools to combine federal funding sources. Collins, and Senator Dianne Feinstein, will soon introduce legislation that will eliminate inequities in the current Social Security law that penalize teachers and other…

  14. School Districts and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Whitehurst, Grover J.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    School districts are a focus of education reform efforts in the United States, but there is very little existing research about how important they are to student achievement. We fill this gap in the literature using 10 years of student-level, statewide data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in Florida and North Carolina. A variance decomposition…

  15. Potential-Based Achievement Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew; Murayama, Kou; Kobeisy, Ahmed; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-based achievement goals use one's own intrapersonal trajectory as a standard of evaluation, and this intrapersonal trajectory may be grounded in one's past (past-based goals) or one's future potential (potential-based goals). Potential-based goals have been overlooked in the literature to date. Aims: The primary aim of the present…

  16. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  17. Magnetogasdynamic Power Extraction and Flow Conditioning for a Gas Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovich, Igor V.; Rich, J. William; Schneider, Steven; Blankson, Isaiah

    2003-01-01

    An extension of the Russian AJAX concept to a turbojet is being explored. This magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy bypass engine cycle incorporating conventional gas turbine technology has MHD flow conditioning at the inlet to electromagnetically extract part of the inlet air kinetic energy. The electrical power generated can be used for various on-board vehicle requirements including plasma flow control around the vehicle or it may be used for augmenting the expanding flow in the high speed nozzle by MHD forces to generate more thrust. In order to achieve this interaction, the air needs to be ionized by an external means even up to fairly high flight speeds, and the leading candidates may be classified as electrical discharge devices. The present kinetic modeling calculations suggest that the use of electron beams with characteristics close to the commercially available e-beam systems (electron energy approx. 60 keV, beam current approx. 0.2 mA/sq cm) to sustain ionization in intermediate pressure, low-temperature (P = 0.1 atm, T = 300 K) supersonic air flows allows considerable reduction of the flow kinetic energy (up to 10 to 20 percent in M = 3 flows). The calculations also suggest that this can be achieved at a reasonable electron beam efficiency (eta approx. 5), even if the e-beam window losses are taken into account. At these conditions, the exit NO and O atom concentrations due to e-beam initiated chemical reactions do not exceed 30 ppm. Increasing the beam current up to approx. 2 mA/sq cm, which corresponds to a maximum electrical conductivity of sigma(sub max) approx. 0.8 mho/m at the loading parameter of K = 0.5, would result in a much greater reduction of the flow kinetic energy (up to 30 to 40 percent). The MHD channel efficiency at these conditions would be greatly reduced (to eta approx. 1) due to increased electron recombination losses in the channel. At these conditions, partial energy conversion from kinetic energy to heat would result in a

  18. Architecture for a High-to-Medium-Voltage Power Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorpenian, Vatche

    2008-01-01

    A power converter now undergoing development is required to operate at a DC input potential ranging between 5.5 and 10 kV and a DC output potential of 400 V at a current up to 25 A. This power converter is also required to be sufficiently compact and reliable to fit and operate within the confines of a high-pressure case to be lowered to several miles (approx.5 km) below the surface of the ocean. The architecture chosen to satisfy these requirements calls for a series/ parallel arrangement of 48 high-frequency, pulse-width-modulation (PWM), transformer-isolation DC-to-DC power converter blocks. The input sides of the converter blocks would be connected in series so that the input potential would be divided among them, each of them being exposed to an input potential of no more than 10 kV/48 . 210 V. The series connection of inputs would also enforce a requirement that all the converter blocks operate at the same input current. The outputs of the converter blocks would be connected in a matrix comprising 6 parallel legs, each leg being a cascade of eight outputs wired in series (see figure). All the converter blocks would be identical within the tolerances of the values of their components. A single voltage feedback loop would regulate the output potential. All the converter blocks would be driven by the same PWM waveform generated by this feedback loop. The power transformer of each converter block would have a unity turns ratio and would be capable of withstanding as much as 10 kVDC between its primary and secondary windings. (Although, in general, the turns ratio could be different from unity, the simplest construction for minimizing leakage and maximizing breakdown voltage is attained at a turns ratio of unity.)

  19. Metacognition, Achievement Goals, Study Strategies and Academic Achievement: Pathways to Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugt, Anneke; Oort, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective self-regulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals), metacognition (metacognitive knowledge, regulation and…

  20. Electrodialysis simulation to achieve optimum current density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Cal C.

    1993-01-01

    Electrodialysis is used to remove salts from waste or other water streams, to yield a concentrated brine and a substatially deionized product water. During the electrodialysis process, the boundary layer adjacent to the ion selective membrane can become depleted of ions, resulting in severe pH changes sometimes accompanied by precipitation, and power losses, by a process known as water splitting. In order to optimize the applied electric current density, to achieve maximum deionization without exceeding the limiting current at any point along the path, a simulation program has been created to plot ion concentrations and fluxes, and cell current densities and voltages along the electrodialysis path. A means for tapering the current density along the path is recommended.

  1. Induced Power of the Helicopter Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormiston, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    A simplified rotor model was used to explore fundamental behavior of lifting rotor induced power at moderate and high advance ratios. Several rotor inflow theories, including dynamic inflow theory and prescribed-wake vortex theory, together with idealized notional airfoil stall models were employed. A number of unusual results were encountered at high advance ratios including trim control reversal and multiple trim solutions. Significant increases in rotor induced power (torque) above the ideal minimum were observed for moderately high advance ratio. Very high induced power was observed near and above unity advance ratio. The results were sensitive to the stall characteristics of the airfoil models used. An equivalent wing analysis was developed to determine induced power from Prandtl lifting line theory and help interpret the rotor induced power behavior in terms of the spanwise airload distribution. The equivalent wing approach was successful in capturing the principal variations of induced power for different configurations and operating conditions. The effects blade root cutout were found to have a significant effect on rotor trim and induced power at high advance ratios.

  2. Leadership behaviours that foster nursing group power.

    PubMed

    Sieloff, Christina Leibold

    2004-07-01

    Today's health care environment presents many challenges to nursing groups as they seek to achieve their goals. All resources must be recognized and effectively utilized. Power, defined as the capacity to achieve goals (Sieloff 1995), is a valuable resource that can assist nursing groups in the achievement of their goals. The leader of a nursing group can make a significant difference in a group's ability to actualize their power capacity. The purpose of this article is to identify and discuss the use of a tool (Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Power within Organizations) to identify the nurse leader/group power variables that can be used to improve a nursing group's power as a resource in the achievement of its goals. Using behaviours related to a Nurse Leader's Power Competency and Power Perspective variables, identified in the Theory of Group Power within Organizations (Sieloff 1999), a nurse leader can foster a nursing group's power.

  3. Minding the Achievement Gap One Classroom at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Jane E.; Ford, Sharon; Black, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    Do teachers have the power to close achievement gaps? Here's a book that boldly claims they do and lays out a blueprint for how to do something now to help students who are falling short of standards. Regardless of the student population you need to address--English language learners, special education, or just the unmotivated and hard to…

  4. Achieving urinary continence in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsi-Yang

    2010-07-01

    Achievement of urinary continence is an important developmental step that most children attain with the assistance of their parents and caregivers. Debate continues as to the best time to toilet train; in some Asian and African cultures children are trained as infants, while training at age 2-3 years is more typical in Western cultures. Infant voiding is not merely a spinal reflex, as the sensation of bladder filling is relayed to the brain. However, the ability of the brain to inhibit bladder contractions, and to achieve coordinated bladder contraction with sphincter relaxation, matures over time. While there is a concern that later toilet training may be responsible for an increase in urinary incontinence in children, no controlled studies on early versus late toilet training exist to evaluate this hypothesis. A number of medical conditions such as spina bifida, posterior urethral valves, cerebral palsy and autism can cause incontinence and difficulties in toilet training. The decision to start toilet training a child should take into account both the parents' expectation of how independent the child will be in terms of toileting, and the child's developmental readiness, so that a realistic time course for toilet training can be implemented.

  5. Achieving permanency for LGBTQ youth.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jill; Freundlich, Madelyn

    2006-01-01

    This article brings together two significant efforts in the child welfare field: achieving permanence for youth in out-of-home care and meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. During the past several years, a national movement has taken place to assure all children and youth have a permanent family connection before leaving the child welfare system; however, LGBTQ youth are not routinely included in the permanency discussions. At the same time, efforts in addressing the needs of LGBTQ youth have increased, but permanency is rarely mentioned as a need. This article offers models of permanence and practices to facilitate permanence with LGBTQ youth and their families. It also offers a youth-driven, individualized process, using youth development principles to achieve relational, physical, and legal permanence. Reunification efforts are discussed, including services, supports, and education required for youth to return to their family of origin. For those who cannot return home, other family resources are explored. The article also discusses cultural issues as they affect permanence for LGBTQ youth, and, finally, addresses the need for ongoing support services to sustain and support permanency.

  6. Updates and achievements in virology.

    PubMed

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-07-01

    The 4th European Congress of Virology, hosted by the Italian Society for Virology, attracted approximately 1300 scientists from 46 countries worldwide. It also represented the first conference of the European Society for Virology, which was established in Campidoglio, Rome, Italy in 2009. The main goal of the meeting was to share research activities and results achieved in European virology units/institutes and to strengthen collaboration with colleagues from both western and developing countries. The worldwide representation of participants is a testament to the strength and attraction of European virology. The 5-day conference brought together the best of current virology; topics covered all three living domains (bacteria, archaea and eucarya), with special sessions on plant and veterinary virology as well as human virology, including two oral presentations on mimiviruses. The conference included five plenary sessions, 31 workshops, one hepatitis C virus roundtable, ten special workshops and three poster sessions, as well as 45 keynote lectures, 191 oral presentations and 845 abstracts. Furthermore, the Gesellschaft fur Virologie Loeffler-Frosch medal award was given to Peter Vogt for his long-standing career and achievements; the Gardner Lecture of the European Society for Clinical Virology was presented by Yoshihiro Kawaoka, and the Pioneer in Virology Lecture of the Italian Society for Virology was presented by Ulrich Koszinowski.

  7. A Power Factor Corrected SMPS with Improved Power Quality for Welding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Swati; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Pandey, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design and implementation of a power factor corrected Arc Welding Power Supply (AWPS) with a boost converter at the front end and three full-bridge (FB) converters connected in parallel at the load end. The modular arrangement of the FB converters offers several meritorious features like usage of power devices with comparatively lower voltage and current ratings, ease of power expandability, easy maintenance, etc. The boost converter operates in continuous conduction mode minimizing the input current ripple and leading to the lowest RMS current thereby improving the input power quality. Individual control loops are designed for each power stage. A dual loop control scheme is employed to incorporate over-current limit on the proposed AWPS which ensures excellent weld bead quality. The proposed AWPS is implemented to validate its performance over a wide range of line/load variations. Test results confirm its fast parametrical response to load and source voltage variations and over-current protection leading to improved welding performance and weld bead quality. The system is found to perform extremely well with very low input current THD and unity power factor, adhering to international power quality norms.

  8. Using abstract language signals power.

    PubMed

    Wakslak, Cheryl J; Smith, Pamela K; Han, Albert

    2014-07-01

    Power can be gained through appearances: People who exhibit behavioral signals of power are often treated in a way that allows them to actually achieve such power (Ridgeway, Berger, & Smith, 1985; Smith & Galinsky, 2010). In the current article, we examine power signals within interpersonal communication, exploring whether use of concrete versus abstract language is seen as a signal of power. Because power activates abstraction (e.g., Smith & Trope, 2006), perceivers may expect higher power individuals to speak more abstractly and therefore will infer that speakers who use more abstract language have a higher degree of power. Across a variety of contexts and conversational subjects in 7 experiments, participants perceived respondents as more powerful when they used more abstract language (vs. more concrete language). Abstract language use appears to affect perceived power because it seems to reflect both a willingness to judge and a general style of abstract thinking.

  9. Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) office of Research and Evaluation presents Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82 (BSA). The BSA answers the following questions: (1) How does AISD student achievement compare to student achievement nationwide? (2) How does AISD's 1981-82 student achievement compare to the achievement of students in past…

  10. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOEpatents

    Garrigan, Neil Richard; King, Robert Dean; Schwartz, James Edward

    1999-01-01

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals.

  11. Bi-directional power control system for voltage converter

    DOEpatents

    Garrigan, N.R.; King, R.D.; Schwartz, J.E.

    1999-05-11

    A control system for a voltage converter includes: a power comparator for comparing a power signal on input terminals of the converter with a commanded power signal and producing a power comparison signal; a power regulator for transforming the power comparison signal to a commanded current signal; a current comparator for comparing the commanded current signal with a measured current signal on output terminals of the converter and producing a current comparison signal; a current regulator for transforming the current comparison signal to a pulse width modulator (PWM) duty cycle command signal; and a PWM for using the PWM duty cycle command signal to control electrical switches of the converter. The control system may further include: a command multiplier for converting a voltage signal across the output terminals of the converter to a gain signal having a value between zero (0) and unity (1), and a power multiplier for multiplying the commanded power signal by the gain signal to provide a limited commanded power signal, wherein power comparator compares the limited commanded power signal with the power signal on the input terminals. 10 figs.

  12. On power and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Pratto, Felicia

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a conceptual analysis of social power. The most common theories of power are social-relational, an approach instantiated in a range of contemporary experiments that give participants the chance to control other people's outcomes. The relational approach is also reflected in various analyses of international relations. In comparing and contrasting relational theories of power, I identify logical inconsistencies and shortcomings in their ability to address empowerment and reductions in inequality. In turn, I propose a new ecological conceptualization of empowerment as the state of being able to achieve one's goals and of power as stemming from a combination of the capacity of the party and the affordances of the environment. I explain how this new conceptualization can describe the main kinds of power social relations, avoid logical contradictions, and moreover, distinguish power from agency and from control. This new conceptualization of power as the possibility of meeting goals, coupled with recognizing survival as the fundamental goal of all living things, implies an absolute and not relative or relational standard for power, namely well-being. It also allows us to conceive of power in ways that help address the many social concerns that have motivated research on power. PMID:26690541

  13. Music training and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Cheek, J M; Smith, L R

    1999-01-01

    Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) mathematics scores of eighth graders who had received music instruction were compared according to whether the students were given private lessons. Comparisons also were made between students whose lessons were on the keyboard versus other music lessons. Analyses indicated that students who had private lessons for two or more years performed significantly better on the composite mathematics portion of the ITBS than did students who did not have private lessons. In addition, students who received lessons on the keyboard had significantly higher ITBS mathematics scores than did students whose lessons did not involve the keyboard. These results are discussed in relation to previous research on music training and mathematics achievement.

  14. Achieving Quality in Occupational Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, Michele (Editor); Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The conference convened approximately 100 registered participants of invited guest speakers, NASA presenters, and a broad spectrum of the Occupational Health disciplines representing NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Centers. Centered on the theme, "Achieving Quality in Occupational Health," conferees heard presentations from award winning occupational health program professionals within the Agency and from private industry; updates on ISO 9000 status, quality assurance, and information technologies; workshops on ergonomics and respiratory protection; an overview from the newly commissioned NASA Occupational Health Assessment Team; and a keynote speech on improving women's health. In addition, NASA occupational health specialists presented 24 poster sessions and oral deliveries on various aspects of current practice at their field centers.

  15. Entropy production and thermodynamic power of the squeezed thermal reservoir.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Gonzalo; Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta; Parrondo, Juan M R

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the entropy production and the maximal extractable work from a squeezed thermal reservoir. The nonequilibrium quantum nature of the reservoir induces an entropy transfer with a coherent contribution while modifying its thermal part, allowing work extraction from a single reservoir, as well as great improvements in power and efficiency for quantum heat engines. Introducing a modified quantum Otto cycle, our approach fully characterizes operational regimes forbidden in the standard case, such as refrigeration and work extraction at the same time, accompanied by efficiencies equal to unity. PMID:27300843

  16. Entropy production and thermodynamic power of the squeezed thermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano, Gonzalo; Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the entropy production and the maximal extractable work from a squeezed thermal reservoir. The nonequilibrium quantum nature of the reservoir induces an entropy transfer with a coherent contribution while modifying its thermal part, allowing work extraction from a single reservoir, as well as great improvements in power and efficiency for quantum heat engines. Introducing a modified quantum Otto cycle, our approach fully characterizes operational regimes forbidden in the standard case, such as refrigeration and work extraction at the same time, accompanied by efficiencies equal to unity.

  17. The Effects of Chronic Achievement Motivation and Achievement Primes on the Activation of Achievement and Fun Goals

    PubMed Central

    Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation. PMID:19968423

  18. Solar thermal power towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The solar thermal central receiver technology, known as solar power towers, is rapidly evolving to a state of near-term energy availability for electrical power generation and industrial process heat applications. The systems consist of field arrays of heliostat reflectors, a central receiver boiler, short term thermal storage devices, and either turbine-generators or heat exchangers. Fluid temperatures up to 550 C are currently achievable, and technology developments are underway to reach 1100 C. Six solar power towers are now under construction or in test operation in five countries around the world.

  19. Matching Solid-State to Solution-Phase Photoluminescence for Near-Unity Down-Conversion Efficiency Using Giant Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Christina J; Buck, Matthew R; Acharya, Krishna; Torres, Joseph A; Kundu, Janardan; Ma, Xuedan; Bouquin, Sarah; Hamilton, Christopher E; Htoon, Han; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A

    2015-06-24

    Efficient, stable, and narrowband red-emitting fluorophores are needed as down-conversion materials for next-generation solid-state lighting that is both efficient and of high color quality. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nearly ideal color-shifting phosphors, but solution-phase efficiencies have not traditionally extended to the solid-state, with losses from both intrinsic and environmental effects. Here, we assess the impacts of temperature and flux on QD phosphor performance. By controlling QD core/shell structure, we realize near-unity down-conversion efficiency and enhanced operational stability. Furthermore, we show that a simple modification of the phosphor-coated light-emitting diode device-incorporation of a thin spacer layer-can afford reduced thermal or photon-flux quenching at high driving currents (>200 mA).

  20. Effects of Macroscopic Pattern Density and O2 Addition on Chamber Stability during Silicon Nitride Layer Etching in UNITY II-IEM Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Woon Suck; Kim, Kil Ho; Kim, Jong Il; Lee, Joon Hyun; Won, Yong Sik; Choi, Seon Ho; Hwang, Chung Ho; Lee, Dai Hoon

    2002-04-01

    Effects of the wafer level pattern density on chamber particle generation during silicon nitride (Si3N4) layer etching have been studied in the medium density plasma source, UNITY II-IEM. It was found that the macroscopic pattern density of the etched layer strongly affects the etching environment and subsequently affects the chamber stability. The abrupt change in the macroscopic pattern density of the etched layer, especially when the pattern density is lowered, can sometimes results in the hazardous chamber particle generation. Experiments were performed in order to cope with the chamber particle generation induced by the macroscopic pattern density variation. Controlling the F/C ratio within the plasma by varying the amount of feeding O2 gas was proven to be an efficient way to prevent the occurrence of the chamber particles. Based on our experimental results, the mechanism for the chamber particle generation and that for the reduction will be discussed.

  1. Single foreplane high power rectenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alden, A.; Ohno, T.

    1992-05-01

    A dual polarization rectenna capable of high power handling is described. It consists of contiguous dipoles and rectification units on a single substrate. High efficiencies comparable to previous linear and multiplane dual polarization devices have been achieved.

  2. Tuning magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs.

  3. Industrial power distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrells, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a broad overview of industrial power distribution. Primary focus will be on selection of the various low voltage components to achieve the end product. Emphasis will be on the use of national standards to ensure a safe and well designed installation.

  4. Wireless power transfer to a cardiac implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanghoek; Ho, John S.; Chen, Lisa Y.; Poon, Ada S. Y.

    2012-08-01

    We analyze wireless power transfer between a source and a weakly coupled implant on the heart. Numerical studies show that mid-field wireless powering achieves much higher power transfer efficiency than traditional inductively coupled systems. With proper system design, power sufficient to operate typical cardiac implants can be received by millimeter-sized coils.

  5. Competency-Based Achievement System

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Shelley; Poth, Cheryl N.; Donoff, Michel; Humphries, Paul; Steiner, Ivan; Schipper, Shirley; Janke, Fred; Nichols, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Family medicine residency programs require innovative means to assess residents’ competence in “soft” skills (eg, patient-centred care, communication, and professionalism) and to identify residents who are having difficulty early enough in their residency to provide remedial training. Objective of program To develop a method to assess residents’ competence in various skills and to identify residents who are having difficulty. Program description The Competency-Based Achievement System (CBAS) was designed to measure competence using 3 main principles: formative feedback, guided self-assessment, and regular face-to-face meetings. The CBAS is resident driven and provides a framework for meaningful interactions between residents and advisors. Residents use the CBAS to organize and review their feedback, to guide their own assessment of their progress, and to discern their future learning needs. Advisors use the CBAS to monitor, guide, and verify residents’ knowledge of and competence in important skills. Conclusion By focusing on specific skills and behaviour, the CBAS enables residents and advisors to make formative assessments and to communicate their findings. Feedback indicates that the CBAS is a user-friendly and helpful system to assess competence. PMID:21918129

  6. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks.

  7. Power-constrained supercomputing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Peter E.

    As we approach exascale systems, power is turning from an optimization goal to a critical operating constraint. With power bounds imposed by both stakeholders and the limitations of existing infrastructure, achieving practical exascale computing will therefore rely on optimizing performance subject to a power constraint. However, this requirement should not add to the burden of application developers; optimizing the runtime environment given restricted power will primarily be the job of high-performance system software. In this dissertation, we explore this area and develop new techniques that extract maximum performance subject to a particular power constraint. These techniques include a method to find theoretical optimal performance, a runtime system that shifts power in real time to improve performance, and a node-level prediction model for selecting power-efficient operating points. We use a linear programming (LP) formulation to optimize application schedules under various power constraints, where a schedule consists of a DVFS state and number of OpenMP threads for each section of computation between consecutive message passing events. We also provide a more flexible mixed integer-linear (ILP) formulation and show that the resulting schedules closely match schedules from the LP formulation. Across four applications, we use our LP-derived upper bounds to show that current approaches trail optimal, power-constrained performance by up to 41%. This demonstrates limitations of current systems, and our LP formulation provides future optimization approaches with a quantitative optimization target. We also introduce Conductor, a run-time system that intelligently distributes available power to nodes and cores to improve performance. The key techniques used are configuration space exploration and adaptive power balancing. Configuration exploration dynamically selects the optimal thread concurrency level and DVFS state subject to a hardware-enforced power bound

  8. Achievement of 1020MHz NMR.

    PubMed

    Hashi, Kenjiro; Ohki, Shinobu; Matsumoto, Shinji; Nishijima, Gen; Goto, Atsushi; Deguchi, Kenzo; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Noguchi, Takashi; Sakai, Shuji; Takahashi, Masato; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Iguchi, Seiya; Yamazaki, Toshio; Maeda, Hideaki; Tanaka, Ryoji; Nemoto, Takahiro; Suematsu, Hiroto; Miki, Takashi; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Shimizu, Tadashi

    2015-07-01

    We have successfully developed a 1020MHz (24.0T) NMR magnet, establishing the world's highest magnetic field in high resolution NMR superconducting magnets. The magnet is a series connection of LTS (low-Tc superconductors NbTi and Nb3Sn) outer coils and an HTS (high-Tc superconductor, Bi-2223) innermost coil, being operated at superfluid liquid helium temperature such as around 1.8K and in a driven-mode by an external DC power supply. The drift of the magnetic field was initially ±0.8ppm/10h without the (2)H lock operation; it was then stabilized to be less than 1ppb/10h by using an NMR internal lock operation. The full-width at half maximum of a (1)H spectrum taken for 1% CHCl3 in acetone-d6 was as low as 0.7Hz (0.7ppb), which was sufficient for solution NMR. On the contrary, the temporal field stability under the external lock operation for solid-state NMR was 170ppb/10h, sufficient for NMR measurements for quadrupolar nuclei such as (17)O; a (17)O NMR measurement for labeled tri-peptide clearly demonstrated the effect of high magnetic field on solid-state NMR spectra. PMID:25978708

  9. Achieving and sustaining full employment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, S M

    1995-01-01

    Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy. PMID:7499512

  10. Achieving the Benefits of Safeguards by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Trond Bjornard; Robert Bean; David Hebditch; Jim Morgan; Bruce Meppen; Scott DeMuth; Michael Ehinger; John Hockert

    2008-07-01

    The overarching driver for developing a formalized process to achieve safeguards by design is to support the global growth of nuclear power while reducing ‘nuclear security’ risks. This paper discusses an institutional approach to the design process for a nuclear facility, for designing proliferation resistance, international safeguards and U.S. national safeguards and security into new nuclear facilities. In the United States, the need exists to develop a simple, concise, formalized, and integrated approach for incorporating international safeguards and other non-proliferation considerations into the facility design process. An effective and efficient design process is one which clearly defines the functional requirements at the beginning of the project and provides for the execution of the project to achieve a reasonable balance among competing objectives in a cost effective manner. Safeguards by Design is defined as “the integration of international and national safeguards, physical security and non-proliferation features as full and equal partners in the design process of a nuclear energy system or facility,” with the objective to achieve facilities that are intrinsically more robust while being less expensive to safeguard and protect. This Safeguards by Design process has been developed such that it: • Provides improved safeguards, security, and stronger proliferation barriers, while reducing the life cycle costs to the operator and regulatory agencies, • Can be translated to any international context as a model for nuclear facility design, • Fosters a culture change to ensure the treatment of ‘nuclear security’ considerations as “full and equal” partners in the design process, • Provides a useful tool for the project manager responsible for the design, construction, and start-up of nuclear facilities, and • Addresses the key integration activities necessary to efficiently incorporate International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards into

  11. Low-power communication with a photonic heat pump.

    PubMed

    Huang, Duanni; Santhanam, Parthiban; Ram, Rajeev J

    2014-12-15

    An optical communication channel is constructed using a heated thermo-electrically pumped, high efficiency infrared light-emitting diode (LED). In these devices, electro-luminescent cooling is observed, resulting in greater than unity (> 100%) efficiency in converting electrical power to optical power. The average amount of electrical energy required to generate a photon (4.3 meV) is much less than the optical energy in that photon (520 meV). Such a light source can serve as a test-bed for fundamental studies of energy-efficient bosonic communication channels. In this low energy consumption mode, we demonstrate data transmission at 3 kilobits per second (kbps) with only 120 picowatts of input electric power. Although the channel employs a mid-infrared source with limited quantum efficiency, a binary digit can be communicated using 40 femtojoules with a bit error rate of 3 x 10-3.

  12. Low-power communication with a photonic heat pump.

    PubMed

    Huang, Duanni; Santhanam, Parthiban; Ram, Rajeev J

    2014-12-15

    An optical communication channel is constructed using a heated thermo-electrically pumped, high efficiency infrared light-emitting diode (LED). In these devices, electro-luminescent cooling is observed, resulting in greater than unity (> 100%) efficiency in converting electrical power to optical power. The average amount of electrical energy required to generate a photon (4.3 meV) is much less than the optical energy in that photon (520 meV). Such a light source can serve as a test-bed for fundamental studies of energy-efficient bosonic communication channels. In this low energy consumption mode, we demonstrate data transmission at 3 kilobits per second (kbps) with only 120 picowatts of input electric power. Although the channel employs a mid-infrared source with limited quantum efficiency, a binary digit can be communicated using 40 femtojoules with a bit error rate of 3 x 10-3. PMID:25607478

  13. Achieving intersubjective understanding: examples from an occupational therapy treatment session.

    PubMed

    Crepeau, E B

    1991-11-01

    Occupational therapists, like other health care professionals, must balance their application of treatment techniques with an understanding of their patients' life experiences. This paper reviews the literature from interpretive and medical sociology regarding the interplay between professional power and the achievement of an understanding of another person. It analyzes how an occupational therapist, during a single treatment session, enters into her patient's life-world and simultaneously controls and manages the treatment process. The concepts of knowledge schemata (the expectations and beliefs people bring to a situation) and footings (the shifts in alignment, or focus, that occur during interaction) are central to this analysis. The process of achieving a balance between professional power and an understanding of the patient's experience may be fostered in education and in clinical supervision through increased emphasis on the importance of understanding the values and beliefs of patients and on the development and refinement of interactive skills.

  14. Achieving Higher Energies via Passively Driven X-band Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipahi, Taylan; Sipahi, Nihan; Milton, Stephen; Biedron, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Due to their higher intrinsic shunt impedance X-band accelerating structures significant gradients with relatively modest input powers, and this can lead to more compact particle accelerators. At the Colorado State University Accelerator Laboratory (CSUAL) we would like to adapt this technology to our 1.3 GHz L-band accelerator system using a passively driven 11.7 GHz traveling wave X-band configuration that capitalizes on the high shunt impedances achievable in X-band accelerating structures in order to increase our overall beam energy in a manner that does not require investment in an expensive, custom, high-power X-band klystron system. Here we provide the design details of the X-band structures that will allow us to achieve our goal of reaching the maximum practical net potential across the X-band accelerating structure while driven solely by the beam from the L-band system.

  15. An Analysis of High School Mathematics Achievement and English Language Arts Achievement as Predictors of Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Science assessments require students to read and comprehend questions and to solve mathematical problems. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the following variables can be used to predict science achievement: English language arts achievement, mathematics achievement, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English proficiency (LEP)…

  16. [The Yawanáwa medical system and its specialists: healing, power, and shamanic initiation].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil, L

    2001-01-01

    A wide variety of terms are used in Yawanáwa shamanism to name both healers and the relations between these specialists and techniques of healing and aggression, a characteristic that appears heterogeneous and complex. However, there is unity behind this appearance, because all the techniques are based on the same concepts of power and knowledge. To show how these ideas are conceived by the Yawanáwa, this article explores the process by which power and knowledge are acquired: shamanic initiation.

  17. Hybrid high power femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resan, Bojan

    2016-03-01

    There is a growing demand for ultrafast laser systems with high average power and repetition rate. We present two hybrid master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) architectures employing variety of available technologies to achieve 100 W average power femtosecond pulses. We achieved 120 W 820 fs pulses using solid-state oscillator and fiber amplifiers and chirped pulse amplification (CPA) technique (10 μJ pulse energy at 10 MHz and 100 μJ at 400 kHz). In the second experiment, we achieved 160 W 800 fs pulses in a compact system without the standard CPA using solidstate oscillator and single crystal fiber amplifiers. As currently every component experiences some limitations, it is a challenge to choose the optimal architecture with associated components to achieve a desired combination of laser output parameters.

  18. Power processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

  19. A New Control Method to Mitigate Power Fluctuations for Grid Integrated PV/Wind Hybrid Power System Using Ultracapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayalakshmi, N. S.; Gaonkar, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The output power obtained from solar-wind hybrid system fluctuates with changes in weather conditions. These power fluctuations cause adverse effects on the voltage, frequency and transient stability of the utility grid. In this paper, a control method is presented for power smoothing of grid integrated PV/wind hybrid system using ultracapacitors in a DC coupled structure. The power fluctuations of hybrid system are mitigated and smoothed power is supplied to the utility grid. In this work both photovoltaic (PV) panels and the wind generator are controlled to operate at their maximum power point. The grid side inverter control strategy presented in this paper maintains DC link voltage constant while injecting power to the grid at unity power factor considering different operating conditions. Actual solar irradiation and wind speed data are used in this study to evaluate the performance of the developed system using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that output power fluctuations of solar-wind hybrid system can be significantly mitigated using the ultracapacitor based storage system.

  20. 40 CFR 52.1875 - Attainment dates for achieving the sulfur dioxide secondary standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....; Interlake, Inc.; Austin Power Co.; Diamond Crystal Salt Co.; The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.; The Gulf Oil Co... to achieve the secondary SO2 NAAQS by January 4, 1983: Diamond Crystal Salt; Firestone Tire &...